<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 Director's report
 Editorial department
 Safety and fire prevention
 Supervision of county agents
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering and farm...
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry
 Apiculture
 Boys 4-H club work
 Citrus culture
 Dairy husbandry
 Entomology
 Forestry
 Ornamental horticulture
 Poultry activities
 Soil and water conservation
 Vegetable production and merch...
 Home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Editorial and visual aids
 Food and nutrition
 Food conservation
 Food production
 Girls' 4-H club work
 Health education
 Home improvement
 Home industries and marketing
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00014
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1953
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00014
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Director's report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Editorial department
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Safety and fire prevention
        Page 18
    Supervision of county agents
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Agricultural economics
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Agricultural engineering and farm electrification
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Agronomy
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Animal husbandry
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Apiculture
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Boys 4-H club work
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Citrus culture
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Dairy husbandry
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Entomology
        Page 49
    Forestry
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Ornamental horticulture
        Page 53
    Poultry activities
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Soil and water conservation
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Vegetable production and merchandising
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Home demonstration work
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Editorial and visual aids
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Food and nutrition
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Food conservation
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Food production
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Girls' 4-H club work
        Page 78
    Health education
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Home improvement
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Home industries and marketing
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Index
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
H. G. CLAYTON, DIRECTOR









1953 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1953
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1953












BOARD OF CONTROL


Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami
Wm. H. Dial, Orlando
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville


W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
Geo. W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
Mrs: Jessie B. duPont, Jacksonville
J. Broward Culpepper, Secretary, Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE


J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for
Agriculture 1
H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension
Marshall O. Watkins, M.Agr., Assistant
Director
F. W. Parvin, M.S.A., Assistant to the
Director 2
F. R. Edwards, M.S.A., Interim Asst. to the
Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative
Assistant 1

AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION
WORK, GAINESVILLE
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor 3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor 1
S. L. Burgess, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
5 F. S. Perry, RiA., District Agent
j W. J. Platt, Jr., Bt9A., District Agent
R. S. Dennis, B.S.A., Executive Officer,
ASC Office I
C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
T. W. Sparks, B.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry
Husbandman 1
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor Egg-
Laying Test, Chipley
L. W. Kalch, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husb.
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist
O. F. Goen, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman
J. E. Pace, M.S.A., Asst. An. Industrialist
L T. Nieland, Farm Forester
A. S. Jensen, B.S.A., Asst. Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural
Economist 1
Charles M. Hampson, M.S., Agricultural
Economist, Farm Management 1
E. W. Cake, Ph.D., Marketing Economist
Clyde E. Murphree, M.S., Asst. Economist
E. W. McElwee, Ph.D., Ornamental
Horticulturist
,Fired P. Lawrence, B-BA., Citriculturist
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
W. W. Brown, B.S.A., Boys' 4-H Club Agent
G. M. Godwin, B.S.A, Asst. Boys' Club Agent

1 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.


T. C. Skinner, M.Agr., Agricultural
Engineer
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification
Specialist
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist '
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist1
A. C. Mixon, M.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crops
Specialist 1
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M.Agr., Assistant
Vegetable Crops Specialist
Forrest E. Myers, M.Agr., Assistant
Vegetable Crops Specialist
J. Montelaro, Ph.D., Asst. Veg. Crops Splat.
James E. Brogdon, M.S.A., Entomologist

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
TALLAHASSEE

Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Agent
Eunice Grady, M.S., Asst. to State HDA
Ethyl Holloway, B.S., District Agent
Mrs. Edyth Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., District Agt.
Joyce Bevis, A.M., District Agent
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home
Improvement Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries
and Marketing Specialist
Emily King, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club
Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, B.S.H.E., Assistant
Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Cleo M. Arnett, M.S., Extension Nutritionist
Helen D. Holstein, M.S., Food Conservation
Specialist
Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Assistant
Economist in Food Conservation
Katherine Simpson, M.S., Extension Clothing
Specialist
Alma Warren, M.S., Assistant Editor and
Visual Aids Specialist
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health Education
Specialist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
TALLAHASSEE

Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

2 On leave. 3 In cooperation with U. S.











CONTENTS


Director's Report ...... .............- ........... .....

Statistical Report ............... ----- ...

Editorial Department ................ ....... ..

Safety and Fire Prevention .................................

Supervision of County Agents ..........................

Agricultural Economics ..........................

Farm Management Activities ..............

Citrus Grove Management ...........--....-

M marketing ................. ............... ...-


Agricultural Engineering and Farm Electrificati

Agricultural Engineering ................................

Farm Electrification ....................................

Agronom y ....................................... ..............

Animal Husbandry ......................... ........... -..

A piculture ............. --.. ---- ........ ............

Boys' 4-H Club W ork ................. ...................

Citrus Culture .......................... ..... .......

Dairy Husbandry ...... .......... ............. ...

Entom ology ..... ..................

F forestry .......... ............. -...... ..... ...............

Ornamental Horticulture ......... ............. ...........

Poultry Activities ............ ...... ...

Soil and Water Conservation ...... ....................

Vegetable Production and Merchandising ..........

Vegetable Production ....................................

Merchandising Fresh Fruits and Vegetables .

Home Demonstration Work ........................ .........

Clothing and Textiles ....... ................. .... --

Editorial and Visual Aids .......................................

Food and Nutrition .............. ... ... ........

Food Conservation ............. ......... .........

Food Production ...... .......... ...... ...............

Girls' 4-H Club W ork ....................... ............ -

Health Education ............... -- ......- ...

Home Improvement .... ....................... .... ........

Home Industries and Marketing ........................

Negro Farm Demonstration Work .............

Negro Home Demonstration Work ....................

Negro Statistical Report, Men and Women .....


on .............-...... ............ 27

.....-...-.-... .............- 27

.-.-... ......... 28
.............................. ........... 3 1


...........----.....- ................ 34

.................. .....-............ 36

.-.-..- ..- .-.......... 38

................... ................. 42

...........-- .............. .......... 44

............ ....- .... .... .... 4 9

.................................... 50

........... .............-........... 53

....... ................. ..... 54

...................................... 58

......-....... ..- ..-..-............ 60

.................. ................... 60

.............-...... ............ 62

................. ....... ........ 64

...-...-..I........... ................ 68

............ ................. 70

....................................... 72

-------------- .---....-..- 74

--- ----- --- ..---- .-.-..--- -- 76

.......-............................... 78

...--...... ..-...-........-...........- 79
-..-..-.-... ................ 81


...................................... 84

.................................... 87

...................................... 89

....................................... 91


Page

... ... ................... ---....... ...... 7

....- ...-.................... ......... 11


...........--. .. .......-. .... 15
..... ............ 18

. ......... 1 9

.............................................. 21
.....-...-. .....- .......-. ............. 21

......-........-.......... ..... .... .... 22

......... .. .- .. ............... 24
---.-.-.- .--- - -- ---.. -. --- .--.----- 2 2

--- -.- .--.--- -.----------------.-.. -- 24







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of November 30, 1953)
Home Demonstration
County Ccunty Agent Address Agent
Alachua............Loonis Blitch...................---Gainesville....Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua
(Asst.).........Lester W. Kalch.............Gainesville........Mrs. Mary Z. Philyaw
Baker....--..........A. L. Harrell..................Macclenny ......................................
Bay....................J. A. Sorenson.--.............Panama City..Miss Emma L. Stevenson
Bradford...........G. T. Huggins.................Starke..........-- Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard............. J. T. Oxford.....................Cocoa-- ..... ..... ....Mrs. Sue B. Young
Brevard
(Asst.)-......H. W. Cunningham........Cocoa ...........----... ..........
Broward...........B. E. Lawton...........--......Ft. Lauderdale........Miss Louise Taylor
Broward
(Asst.)..........Robert S. Pryor..............Ft. Lauderdale..Miss Audrey R. McKay
Calhoun............Thomas B. Jones............Blountstown .......................................
Calhoun
(Asst.).........F. M. Shuler ..................Blountstown .................................
Charlotte..........N. H. McQueen...............Punta Gorda ..............................
Citrus..........--...- Quentin Medlin...............Inverness................Miss Sallie S. Koon
Citrus (Asst.)..C. R. Smith.....................Inverness ................-...... .....--- ...
Clay...................Charles C. Below............Green Cove Springs
-Mrs. Sue P. Murphy
Collier...............D. W Lander............... Everglades ...........................
Columbia..........Neal M. Dukes................ Lake City............Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia
(Asst.) --....R. A. Andrews-...............Lake City ...-.......................
Dade.................-C. H. Steffani-----..............Miami------........ -- Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.)...Roy J. Champagne.........Miami............Miss Helen B. MacTavish
Dade (Asst.)...John D. Campbell..........Homestead ............................
Dade (Asst.)...Rayburn K. Price.......... Miami...................Mrs. Ruth T. Penner
Miami..............Mrs. Camille N. Helgren
Dade (Asst.)...Nolan L. Durre...............Homestead .............................
DeSoto-...........- W. L. Woods---...............--Arcadia ..........................
Dixie.................D. E. Adams--..................--Cross City ........-.................
Duval................James N. Watson...........Jacksonville...........Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Duval (Asst.)..Wm. E. Kloeppel.............Jacksonville.... Miss Betty Lou Nuttle
Duval (Asst.)..J. R. Yelvington............Jacksonville.....Miss Louise M. Spaeth
Escambia..........E. N. Stephens ...............Pensacola..............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia
(Asst.) .....-...Henry P. Davis..............Pensacola-.......... Mrs. Lucy M. Gray
Franklin..-....--. W. C. Zorn.......................Appalachicola
-Miss Miriam A. Edwards
Gadsden...........-A. G. Driggers...............Quincy.......Mrs. Marjorie B. Gregory
Gadsden
(Asst.)..........Bernard H. Clark...........Quincy ..............Mrs. Mary E. Bassett
Gilchrist...........L. C. Cobb.......................Trenton ...--......................
Glades-..............A. G. Hutchinson ........ Moore Haven .....................-------
Gulf ................C- R. Laird......................Wewahitchka--... Miss Ruth L. Milton
Hamilton..........A. E. Nesmith----.................Jasper .. ........................ ....
Hardee..............J. F. Barco.......................Wauchula........Miss Josephine Moore
Hendry .............H. L. Johnson---..............LaBelle ......-- ...........------------
Hernando-.........Harry J. Brinkley...........Brooksville .....................................
Highlands.........B. J. Harris, Jr.............Sebring............Miss Catherine Brabson
Highlands
(Asst.)..........J. C. Hayman--.................Sebring .......................................--








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)

Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Hillsborough....Alec White.......... Tampa.... .......Tampa..... ......... Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........Edwin Booth...................Tampa ..................................... ............
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........Jean Beem....................Tampa .......................... .....
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........Neal B. W itmer ...............Tampa ............ .. ...................--
Hillsborough
(Asst.).........J. 0. Armor.................... Plant City.-Mrs. Marguriette F. Reese
Hillsborough
(Asst.) .......................... ... ..... ........... Ruskin............. ......... M iss Ethel W weeks
Holmes..............John C. Russell............... Bonifay..............Mrs. Anita B. Davis
Indian River......... ---..................... .. Vero Beach ............. ..................
Jackson............Woodrow W. Glen .......... Marianna...........Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jefferson...........Albert H. Odom ..............Monticello..........Mrs. Mary C. McLeod
Lefayette..........S. L. Brothers....... .........Mayo --.....-.... --.............
Lake................R. E. Norris.......... .... Tavares................Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake (Asst.)....Jack T. McCown ............Tavares..........Miss Martha C. Burdine
Lee....................C- P. Heuck ........--.........Fort Myers ................... ........
Leon .................James L. Rhoden..........Tallahassee..Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Leon (Asst.)....W. 0. Whittle..............-- Tallahassee ..............................
Levy-........-....T. D. Rickenbaker........ Bronson......Miss Margaret M. Godfrey
Liberty..............Horace M. Carr..............Bristol........Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Madison............Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr....Madison................Miss Shirley V. Carr
Manatee........... Wilson H. Kendrick.......Palmetto..............Mrs. Anne D. Davis
Manatee
(Asst.)..........E. M Kelly................. Palmetto --................ .......--
Manatee
(Asst.) .........Robert G. Curtis.............Palmetto .. .................... ...
Marion..............A. David Vaillie, Jr.......Ocala..................Miss Allie Lee Rush
Marion
(Asst.)..........E. W. Rowam..................Ocala......... Miss Barabara A. Kelly
Martin..............L. M. Johnson................Stuart.......... Mrs. Lucile I. Claggett
Nassau.............-Gordon B. Ellis..............Hilliard...........Mrs. Julia P. Jernagan
Okaloosa...........Alexander H.
Clemmons.....................Crestview ......................................
Okeechobee......C. R. Boyles..................Okeechobee ............ ...............
Orange.............F. E. Baetzman..............Orlando......Miss Marjorie K. Ludeman
Orange
(Asst.) ........ Henry F. Swanson ........Orlando ........-.................-....
Osceola.............J. R. Gunn .................... Kissimmee...........Miss Muriel A. Beck
Palm Beach......M. U. Mounts............... West Palm Beach....Miss Sara Horton
Palm Beach
(Asst.) .........John H. Causey ............. West Palm Beach
-Miss Elizabeth Hudson
Palm Beach
(Act. Asst.) Raleigh S. Griffis..........West Palm Beach .........- ...........
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........H. L. Speer................. Belle Glade ......---.....................
Pasco--...............J. F. Higgins...... ..... Dade City............Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
Pasco (Asst.)..James B. Smith............. Dade City ............................... ..
Pinellas ..........J. H. Logan.. ................ Clearwater
-Mrs. Charlotte M. Lattimer








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Pinellas
(Asst.).........L. E. Cunningham.........Clearwater-.Mrs. Doris E. Beauchamp
Polk...............W. P. Hayman.............Bartow...........Mrs. Ruth M. Elkins
Polk (Asst.).....Thomas W. Sparks........Bartow..............Miss Doris E. Frazier
Polk (Asst.).....F. N. McCullars.............Bartow ...........---......... ...-----
Polk (Asst.)....Jackson A. Haddox......Bartow ...................
Putnam.............H. E. Maltby.... --......-Palatka....Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam
(Asst.) ........Ralph T. Clay..............Palatka ............ .........----
St. Johns......... P. R. McMullen...........St. Augustine .......... ...............-
St. Lucie ..........Charles D. Kime...........Fort Pierce............Mrs. Ray C. Baxter
Santa Rosa .....Emmett D. McCall........Milton..................Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa
(Asst.) .........C. T. Dozier.....--...........Milton.... ....Mrs. Lula D. Smith
Sarasota...........Kenneth A. Clark...........Sarasota .........Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Sarasota
(Asst.)..........Frank L. Polhill............Sarasota ...............................
Seminole...........C. R. Dawson.......... Sanford ..................................
Sumter..............O. M. Maines, Jr............Bushnell...Miss Magdalene M. Downey
Sumter
(Asst.) -......Wilburn C. Farrell........Bushnell .........- ....................
Suwannee ........Floyd L. Eubanks..........Live Oak............Mrs. Esther F. Harper
Suwannee
(Asst.)..........J. P. Crews..................Live Oak ............... ...............---
Taylor...............S. C. Kierce...............Perry ................................ ...
Union.. ............William J. Cowen...........Lake Butler ..............----
Volusia............. ........... DeLand.....................Mrs. Edna L. Eby
Volusia
(Asst.) .........Thomas R. Townsend.....DeLand ...........................
Wakulla ...........A. S. Laird.................Crawfordville .....................---------
Walton..............H. O. Harrison............DeFuniak Springs
-Mrs. Florence M. Gatlin
Washington.....Johnnie E. Davis............Chipley..............Mrs. Mary L. Minchin

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Home Demonstration
County County Agent Address Agent
Alachua ..........English M. Greene ...... Gainesville......... ....-Leontine Williams
Columbia..........McKinley Jeffers...-........Lake City................Gladys Wilkins
Dade.................. -.........--.... ---------Miami ........ ......Victoria M. Simpson
Duval.................-.....-........--------..Jacksonville--- ........Ethel M. Powell
Gadsden............Russell Stephens ...........Quincy....................Ursula H. Williams
Hamilton..........Isaac Chandler, Jr..........White Springs ...............................
Hillsborough ..................-.....-----... Tampa .... -....Sudella J. Ford
Jackson ............Virgil Elkins.................. Marianna... ...Virginia V. Dickens
Jefferson...........M. E. Groover.................Monticello ........-- ...... ...... ......
Leon................Richard A. Hartsfield...Tallahassee .----........ Irie Mae Clark
Madison............James C. Miller..............Madison.......................Lola E. Preston
Marion..............Eugene P. Smith...........Ocala ........................ ........
Marion..................... .... -..----------... Reddick .... ..... ...-..
Putnam......---- ------....-..-- .Palatka ....................... Leala M. Reeves
Sumter.............Richard L. Bradley........Bushnell ..................---.....---
Volusia ..................... -------- ---DeLand ............ Ida T. Pemberton










DIRECTOR'S REPORT

H. G. Clayton, Director
Marshall 0. Watkins, Assistant Director
F. W. Parvin, Assistant to the Director (on leave)
F. R. Edwards, Interim Assistant to the Director

With farm income off somewhat, farm people were much interested in
receiving and using information which would help them cope with this
situation. Extension workers increased their efforts all along the line to
reach additional people with new and timely information which would
prove beneficial on the farms and in the homes of Florida residents.
During the year much progress has been made toward improving the
contribution of the Extension Service to the advancement of Florida's
agriculture. With an ever-changing situation in the State's development,
the Extension Service is constantly seeking better ways and means to
provide for quicker access to and application of research findings. Na-
tionally, the capital investment per worker employed is larger in agri-
culture than in any other major industry. Hence, it is essential to survival
and future improvements that research facts be made available and put
into effect in the shortest possible time. This is a national problem that
must be handled in the states, counties and communities, on farms and in
homes. It is generally recognized that the Cooperative Extension Service
is the most successful approach to this problem developed by any nation.
Total 4-H Club enrollment increased from 28,695 in 1952 to 30,203
in 1953, the highest 4-H enrollment Florida has ever had. Also, 4-H
completions increased from 20,152 in 1952 to 21,681 in 1953, rising per-
centagewise from 70 percent to 72 percent.
Statistical reports show that agents had more telephone calls and
fewer office calls, prepared more news articles, made more radio broad-
casts, distributed more bulletins, and otherwise performed more activities
in the field of mass media in 1953 than in 1952.
The Extension Service received increased support and appropriations
from the Florida Legislature and cooperating boards of county commis-
sioners in 1953.
A county agent and a home demonstration agent were placed in a
county which did not have county Extension agents previously. This
makes a total of 65 county agents and 48 home demonstration agents.
Three assistant home demonstration agents were added during the year.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1952-53
Federal Funds:
Sm ith-Lever ...... .............. ...... .... .............$. 82,884.75
Bankhead-Jones ........................ ............... 129,651.51
Capper-Ketcham ........ ...... ......- ................. ... 28,802.26
Bankhead-Flannagan ............................... ....... 121,915.18
Clark-M cNary ......................... ............ ....... 1,620.00
Research & Marketing ............... ..... ........... 906.25
Farm Housing ...............-................... ........... 640.00
Rural Electrification ...... .........-.. .......... .. 2,500.00

$ 368,419.95








Florida Cooperative Extension


State Appropriations:
Legislature ............ .......-. ...---...- ..-----. -. $498,640.97 $ 498,640.971
State Trust Funds: ...--.............-....----- 17,822.13 17,822.13
County Appropriations: ........ ........ ...............-- 490,392.00 490,392.00

Grand Total ............... ... ......... .........-----$1,375,275.05


FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1953-54


Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever Amended ............ ........
Clark-McNary .............-.... -------....--.
Research & Marketing --............... .....-
Farm Housing .... ........... ...... --. ----...-


....$362,753.70
.. 1,620.00
.. 1,500.00
640.00

$ 366,513.70


State Appropriations:
Legislature ......--........ ---- -. -- ---------- 667,755.00


667,755.00


State Trust Funds:
(Est) ................--- ---- ................. 20,000.00 20,000.00
County Appropriations: ........ .... ................. 520,201.00 520,201.00

Grand Total ...... ..... ....... .... .....................$1,574,469.70

CHANGES IN STATE STAFF
The 1953 Legislature provided for an Assistant to the State Home Dem-
onstration Agent. This position was filled by a former home demonstration
agent, Miss Eunice Grady, who has been assigned responsibility for both
in service and pre-service training of home demonstration agents and
prospective agents, in addition to other routine duties.
An Ornamental Horticulturist, one full-time Assistant and a half-
time Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist were added. The half-time
assistant devotes the remainder of his time to assisting the Extension
Citriculturist. One Extension Entomologist was added, a position here-
tofore not in existence. One Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist, de-
voting half time to Extension and the rest to research, was placed full-
time with Extension. The Vegetable Crops Specialist, who devotes
half-time to Extension and half to research, returned from a year's leave
of absence in Europe. This makes a total of two full-time and one
half-time vegetable crops specialists The following staff positions
were added and filled: Assistant Farm Forester, Assistant Agronomist,
Assistant Dairyman and Assistant Poultryman. The Assistant Farm
Management and Marketing Specialist returned in September from a
year's leave of absence granted for graduate work. The Extension
Engineer resigned in September to take a position in industry. This
vacancy was filled by an agricultural engineer from the teaching division.
During the year two Assistant Editors resigned, one to take a position
with another department of the University and the other to assume the
position of Assistant Ornamental Horticulturist. One of the two va-
cancies was filled but the other is still vacant. A position of garden
specialist has not been filled. The position of Assistant State Boys' 4-H
Club Agent, vacant for some time due to a military leave, was filled by
the appointment of an assistant county agent.
I Includes $37,345.97 in carried-over funds from 1951-52 appropriations.








Annual Report, 1958


PERSONNEL TRAINING
In January 1953 a two-day training conference was held for all As-
sistant County Agents in citrus-producing counties. They received in-
struction concerning the more common citrus insects and diseases and
minor element deficiencies of citrus. They were taken on a field trip
to see citrus result demonstrations carried on by County Agents. Pro-
gram planning was discussed at a night meeting with emphasis on planning
programs with citrus growers. Also in January a two-day training con-
ference featuring new subject matter in field crops and livestock was held
for agents in North and West Florida at the North Florida Experiment
Station.
The annual three weeks' summer school for Florida Extension workers
was held at the University of Florida June 15 to July 3, 1953. Four courses
were offered, each carrying 1 hours credit, with students permitted to
enroll for two. Twenty-eight Extension workers attended.
The annual conference for all Extension workers was held October 4-9,
1953. Morning sessions were for both men and women workers and
featured talks by outstanding speakers on national and international mat-
ters affecting agriculture. Separate sessions for men and women were
held in the afternoons to bring agents new information in subject matter
fields.
District Agents carried on in-service training with county workers
throughout the year in program development, Extension methods and poli-
cies governing Extension work. Conferences for agents were held at
Experiment Stations during the year and workers were encouraged to
attend meetings of professional and scientific groups and the various
Extension institutes to keep informed on new subject matter. Specialists
carried on their usual function of training agents individually and in
small groups in new subject matter.

DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS
Additional progress was made during the year in developing a county
Extension program for each of the 65 counties. All Extension personnel
in each county participate in the building of one county program, work-
ing with the local people through the various community and commodity
organizations.
County programs are reflected in State-wide programs and State pro-
grams in county programs. This is accomplished through committees
composed of both county and State workers who are responsible for
work on State programs and for initiating county action on these pro-
grams.
The Extension Citrus Advisory Committee is composed of five County
Agents and the State staff members who make a contribution to the
citrus program. The County Agents on this committee are elected for a
term of three years by the agents themselves. Terms are staggered.
A Vegetable Advisory Committee has functioned to develop vegetable
programs in much the same manner.
Planning for 4-H Club activities and events is carried out on an
area basis by County Agents and State staff members. The State is
divided into 10 districts. The agents and State staff meet at least once a
year to plan for such activities as recreation training for 4-H leaders,
public speaking contests, livestock shows and judging contests. Winning
teams and individuals in the area contests then participate in State con-
tests.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Community home demonstration programs are developed by local clubs.
These clubs then send representatives to county councils to develop county
programs. The county councils in turn send their representatives to the
State Home Demonstration Council meeting held annually at the Uni-
versity of Florida where plans are developed for the ensuing year.

BROAD EXTENSION ACTIVITIES THAT HELP TO SOLVE
MAJOR PROBLEMS

4-H CLUB WORK

Work with the 30,000 4-H Club boys and girls in Florida involves every
staff member in the Extension Service on both the State and county level.
In addition, these staff members are assisted by over 2,000 adult voluntary
local leaders and over 800 older 4-H Club boys and girls. The 4-H Club
has the active support and cooperation of the various commercial con-
cerns and agencies throughout the State.
There are five State 4-H Club camps located at strategic points, four
for white boys and girls and one for negroes. State and county personnel
cooperate to provide instruction, recreation and supervision for the 5,000
campers each summer.
Specialists assist State and county workers with project work and
State programs in their respective fields. All cooperate in carrying out
the annual 4-H Club short courses.
Major contributions within the State in such fields as poultry, dairy-
ing, beef cattle and hogs can be attributed largely to 4-H project work in
those fields. Higher producing stock and better management practices
have been demonstrated to the State through 4-H. The major objective,
however, is the development of the boys and girls, in which project work
has its part.
CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES

Conservation of resources has been a basic part of Extension programs
for many years. The conservation program includes the following major
projects:
1. Conservation of soils through demonstrations and assisting farmers
with green manure crops, winter legumes, winter feed crops, terracing
lands, and establishing permanent pastures.
2. Planting and protecting farm forests through four 4-H timber-
grazing-game demonstration forests involving over 1,200 acres of land
in four counties; distribution of more than 4,000,000 slash pine seedlings
to farmers in 1953 and demonstration of planting techniques; 4-H forestry
projects; demonstrations in fire protection; growing and distributing
catalpa seedlings for fence posts; and red cedar demonstrations.
3. Wildlife management and protection through the timber-grazing-
game demonstrations; 4-H wildlife projects; the wood duck nesting project;
restocking lakes with fish at 4-H camps; and an annual 4-H wildlife camp.
4. Food conservation through demonstrating correct methods; teach-
ing families to conserve food according to a budget of family needs; advice
and demonstrations on adequate storage for preserved foods; and teaching
and demonstrating care and better use of equipment.

EXTENSION TRAINING FOR FOREIGN VISITORS
During 1953 the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, together with
the Agricultural Experiment Station and other divisions of the University,







Annual Report, 1953


has provided special training in agriculture for 62 foreign visitors from
15 different countries. Of these, 37 were chiefly interested in agriculture
arid 33 received all or most of their training from the Extension staff.
The training periods in Extension for these visitors ranged from 4 to 46
days, averaging over two working weeks for each trainee. Their official
positions ranged from minor officials to those directing the agricultural
organizations for entire countries.
During the year the Extension Service assisted in training professional
agricultural workers from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Egypt, Ger-
many (Western), Indonesia, Israel, Lebanon, Nepal, the Netherlands,
Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Florida's organization
and production is of particular interest to many foreign workers because
of the unique development here in subtropical agriculture.
Many countries have shown clearly that research knowledge in the
hands of research workers or in scientific journals has little effect in im-
proving agriculture unless there is also an effective Extension Service
making research facts available to farm people in their communities
and getting them put into effect on farms in the shortest possible time.
This is one reason why most of the free countries of the world are now
establishing Extension Services and are studying the methods and or-
ganization followed in the United States.
Most of these visitors from other lands were here under the Point
IV program. Some of the benefits received from these foreign visitors,
in addition to what they receive from us, are the exchange of ideas and
learning about successful agricultural practices in other lands that might
prove to be of value here in Florida. The intangible good will built up
by this is evidenced by many letters and words of appreciation from these
visitors after they returned home.

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from White County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
(See page 91 for data on Negro work)
GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm or home visits made ............... -. ..-................. 71,791
Calls relating to Extension work: ........... office 234,374; telephone 239,484
News articles or stories prepared .............. ...................................... 12,656
Broadcasts made or prepared: ......................... television 93; radio 3,083
Bulletins distributed .................. .......... ... ............ ................. 383,122
Adult result demonstrations conducted ................................... 7,226
Training meetings held for local leaders:
N um ber ............. .......... .......... .. ........ ..... .............. ..... 2,195
Total attendance ........................................................... 52,717
All other meetings agents held or participated in:
Number -----.. ......--.......... ...... ... ..... ............... 20,586
Total attendance ............................ ......... ....... .. ....... ................... 708,640
Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
Number .......................- ----- --... ..... ...- ..... ............. 4,432
Total attendance ............-...- ............... ................. 79,034

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting Extension agents
with organization, planning and conducting of Extension work in counties:







Florida Cooperative Extension


M en -. ........... .... .. ... ..........-- .... -------. ---------...- 2,108
W om en ................. -----....;. ...... ..... ............. 5,083
Older club boys ...-.. ...........-...... ..-- .................................. 195
Older club girls .............................................. ... .............................. 528
Individuals assisted to adopt recommended production and marketing
practices in subject matter fields:


Crop Production
Individuals assisted with:
Grain crops ............. .........
Hay and other forage,
pasture, range ..................
Cotton and other fibre crops
Tobacco ........ ......................
Oil and sugar crops ............
Fruits and nuts .................
Vegetables including pota-
toes ... .... ..................
Flowers, ornamental shrubs


14,112

17,830
5,153
5,936
5,698
26,935

31,522
42,840


Conservation of Natural
Resources
Individuals assisted with:
Soil and water conservation
and management ........... 17,432
Forestry .. ............ .......... 4,560
W wildlife .......................... 1,689
The House and Surroundings,
Furnishings and Equipment
Individuals or families assisted with:
The house and surround-
ings .................................. 24,073
Furnishings and equipment 17,363
Foods and Nutrition, Health,
Family Life and Safety
Families assisted with:
Foods and nutrition ............ 40,599
H health ....... .............. ... .... 16,715
Family life .............. .......... 11,656
Safety ...... ........ ........... 20,840


Livestock
Individuals assisted with:
Dairy animals and
products ...........................
Poultry and products ........
Beef cattle .................. .......
Sheep and goats ................
Swine ....... ...............
Other livestock .................


10,893
13,972
18,234
215
13,096
1,491


Planning and Management
of the Farm Business
Individuals assisted with ..... 16,766


Farm Buildings and
Mechanical Equipment
Individuals assisted with:
Farm buildings .................
Farm mechanical equip-
m ent ..... ......................


2,618

4,297


Home Management, Family
Economics and Clothing
Individuals assisted with:
Home management ......... 14,938
Family economics ............. 6,970
Clothing ............... ........... 25,570

Marketing and Distribution
Individuals assisted with:
Information on agricultural
products ......................... 27,843


ASSISTANCE GIVEN TO FORMALLY ORGANIZED COOPERATIVES
AND TO INFORMALLY ORGANIZED GROUPS

Formally organized groups assisted Informally organized groups assisted
with: with:
Marketing and purchasing: Marketing and purchasing:
Number ......................... 116 Number ................ .......... 66
Members ......................... 14,881 Members ..................... 7,479
Farm and home service: Farm and home service:
Number .......................... 69 Number ............... .......... 76
Members ............................ 25,012 Members ....................... 5,388







Annual Report, 1953


PERSONS PARTICIPATING IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND
PUBLIC AFFAIRS PROJECTS, PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES ON
WHICH AGENTS WORKED


C citizenship activities ................................. .. ....... ........................
Developing and improving county or community organization .........
Local projects of a general public nature:


General community prob-
lem s .......... ............. .....
Improving health facilities
Improving schools ..............
Improving churches ..........
Bettering town-country
relations ....... ............ ......


5,950
9,610
4,256
4,000

8,553


Libraries ..............-..............
Roads ...... .................
Telephones ........ ............
Community centers ..........
Recreation programs and
facilities ......................
Community beautification ..


Regional or area development programs ..................-. ................
National programs .. ......................... .... .. ...... .. ............
W world affairs ... ....... ..... ..................... --....... ...........
Em ergency activities ... ........ .......... ..... ........ ... ............


14,184
14,527


2,372
801
1,661
2,234

11,919
6,582
4,021
6,604
2,811
4,229


SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
Number of 4-11 Clubs ........... ... ~ _........... .. ...... .... ................. 1,098


Number of 4-H members enrolled in and completing projects:
Enrolled: Boys-9,876; girls-13,488; total ........................
Completing: Boys-7,235; girls- 9,028; total ............................
4-H membership:
Boys: Farm-5,838; rural non-farm-2,443; urban ..................
Girls: Farm-6,217; rural non-farm-3,845; urban ......................
4-H projects completions by projects:


23,364
16,263


1,595
3,426


Corn .. .......... ..-.. .... ........
Other cereals ....................
Peanuts ..... ........ ..... .....
Soybeans and other
legumes ......................
Potatoes, Irish and sweet
Cotton .................... ......
Tobacco ............................
Vegetables ..........................
Fruits ............. .......
Range and pasture ...........
Other crops ..........................
Soil and water conservation
and management .............
Forestry .............................
Wildlife and nature study..
Poultry ............... .. ........
Dairy cattle .......................
Beef cattle ...................
Swine ...................................
Rabbits ............ ...........
Other livestock ..................
Bees .................. .. ......-......


907
34
172

20
158
101
40
3,772
321
301
91

93
327
74
2,022
1,030
904
1,073
589
65
169


Entomology .............. .....
Tractor maintenance .......
Electricity .......... ..........
Farm shop ............................
Other engineering projects
Farm management ............
Beautification of home
grounds ........ ......... ....-
Meal planning and prepara-
tion .......................... ....-
Canning and preserving ..._
Freezing of foods ................
Health, nursing, first aid..
Child care .................... ....
Clothing ..............-..............-
Home management ............
Home furnishings and room
improvement ..................
Home industries, arts,
crafts ..............-........
Junior leadership ...........
All other ..............................
Total Projects Completed ..


43
196
265
4
3
29

1,768

5,122
884
360
1,369
1,134
5,958
533

1,595

1,101
853
1,025
34,506







14 Florida Cooperative Extension

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION

Farm families making changes in agricultural practices .....-......-........... 33,999
Rural non-farm families making changes in agricultural practices .... 17,284
Urban families making changes in agricultural practices .................... 55,350
Farm families making changes in homemaking practices .................... 16,811
Rural non-farm families making changes in homemaking practices .... 15,995
Urban families making changes in homemaking practices ................ 42,060
Total different farm families assisted by Extension programs ............ 40,887
Total different rural non-farm families assisted by Extension pro-
grams ..... ...-- ........ ..............----- ....................... 27,782
Total different urban families assisted by Extension programs........ 78,202







Annual Report, 1953


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Associate Editor
J. N. Joiner, Assistant Editor
S. L. Burgess, Assistant Editor

Visual aids equipment in the department was expanded slightly during
the year, but is still far from being adequate. The number of bulletins
printed was about usual, but the number of circulars was increased. De-
mand for publications continued heavy.
Assistant Editor L. Odell Griffith resigned August 31 and was succeeded
on September 16 by Samuel L. Burgess. Assistant Editor Jasper N.
Joiner transferred to ornamentals and citrus work on December 1, imme-
diately following this reporting year.
All of the Extension Editors continued to devote approximately one-
half of their time to duties of the Agricultural Experiment Station, by
whom they are cooperatively employed. The Editor continued also to
serve as distribution officer for USDA publications.

PUBLICATIONS
One new bulletin (153) was printed in two colors and three others in
black and white. The four ranged in size from 12 to 112 pages, totaling
188, and in edition from 10,000 to 30,000, totaling 85,000 copies. Six new
circulars ranging in size from 4 to 16 pages, totaling 48, and in edition
from 10,000 to 20,000, totaling 77,000 copies, also were printed. Revised
editions of four circulars, each six pages and 7,500 in number, were issued.
Thus the bulletin and circular series accounted for 272 pages and 192,000
copies in the year's printing.
Miscellaneous materials printed included the annual report for the
Florida National Egg-Laying Test, the biennial report for the State Soil
Conservation Board, a folder for this Board, Let's Practice Soil and Water
Conservation, a 4-H Club electricity record book and various report forms
and programs.
Following is a list of major items published during the fiscal year ending
June 30:
Pages Edition
Bul. 153 Asparagus Fern Culture, by William J. Platt, Jr. 12 10,000


Bul. 154 Brooding Chicks, Producing Broilers, Raising
Pullets, by N. R. Mehrhof and J. S. Moore .... 40
Bul. 155 Canning Florida Fruits and Vegetables, by Alice
L. Cromartie ........... ........... ... ........ ........ 24
Bul. 156 Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida
Fruits, by Harold Mowry, L. R. Toy, H. S.
Wolfe and George D. Ruehle .............. 112
Circ. 111 Portable All-Purpose Poultry House, by J. S.
Moore and N. R. Mehrhof .......................... 8
Circ. 112 Electricity Made Easy, by A. M. Pettis ......... 16
Circ. 113 An Electric Chick Brooder, by A. M. Pettis and
J. Clyde Driggers .............................. 4
Circ. 114 TV Tips, by A. M. Pettis ..... .............. .................. 12


20,000

30,000


25,000

20,000
10,000

10,000
10,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


Circ. 115 Hedging of Florida Citrus, by R. E. Norris ........ 8 12,000
Circ. 116 Pruning Citrus in Relation to Disease Control,
by James F. L. Childs .................................... 12 15,000
Circ. 100 Snap Bean Production Guide (revised) ............... 6 7,500
Circ. 101 Cucumber Production Guide (revised) ............. 6 7,500
Circ. 102 Pepper Production Guide (revised) .................... 6 7,500
Circ. 103 Squash Production Guide (revised) ................... 6 7,500
These publications, together with others and other materials and sup-
plies, were distributed from the mailing room. County and home dem-
onstration agents in 65 counties reported distributing 400,078 State and
USDA bulletins.

NEWSPAPER AND FARM JOURNAL SERVICE
Service to Florida newspapers was expanded slightly during the re-
porting year (ending November 30). Beginning August 14 two "skeleton"
stories a week were sent to county agents to be filled in and turned over
to their papers. These were used widely and appreciated by the agents.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was printed and dis-
tributed weekly for its 30th year. It was sent to weekly papers, dailies
requesting it, farm magazines, county and home demonstration agents,
vocational agriculture teachers and others working with groups of farm
people. It contained from 8 to 15 stories each week and served the Ex-
tension Service, Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture,
State Plant Board, and some Florida offices of U. S. Department of Agri-
culture agencies.
Spot news stories and current information continued to be released to
the Associated Press wire service at the rate of two to seven stories a week.
Occasional stories were sent direct to one or more daily newspapers and
occasional mats were supplied to both daily and weekly papers.
Material supplied by Extension Editors to farm magazines was used
in much larger quantities this year. Seven Florida journals and one maga-
zine section printed 33 articles amounting to 818 column inches; two South-
ern journals used four stories for 90 column inches; and two national maga-
zines printed two stories in 27 column inches.
County and home demonstration agents in 64 counties reported pre-
paring 13,035 news stories for their local papers.

RADIO AND TELEVISION

More recorded features were sent to Florida radio stations this year
than ever before. Six stations were sent 41 tapes containing 69 talks by
Extension workers and other talks by Experiment Station staff members
and others. One tape supplied by a national organization was sent to one
station.
One television show relating to Extension was staged over a Jackson-
sonville station under supervision of the Extension Editors.
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, the University of Florida station
in Gainesville, continued to be a major radio outlet and celebrated its 25th
year on the air. It went on every week day except two, on which the Farm
Hour was canceled to permit the station to carry inauguration ceremonies
for Governor McCarty and President Eisenhower. The 311 programs
staged presented about 1,000 speaking parts, including talks, interviews
and group features. It carried 83 talks by Extension specialists, 133 by
Experiment Station staff members, 21 by College of Agriculture workers,







Annual Report, 1953


12 by a home economist for an electric cooperative, 11 by state employees
of the Production and Marketing Administration, 3 by State Plant Board
workers, 2 by faculty members of the School of Forestry, 1 by the state
dairy supervisor, 1 by a former provost for agriculture and 3 by the
present provost for agriculture at the University.
Extension Editorial workers, in addition, presented farm news daily for
309 days, 50 weekly editorials, 49 weekly home economics notes, and 50
weekly farm question box programs. Farm flashes from the USDA were
broadcast on 120 seven-minute spots.
Three remote control features were broadcast, two from the Florida
State Fair at Tampa and one from the Lake County Fair and Sportmen's
Exposition. Also, three specially recorded features were aired over the
Florida Farm Hour, two from the Central Florida Exposition in Orlando
and one from the Poultry Institute at Camp McQuarrie. Agricultural
transcriptions broadcast included two from the USDA and two from com-
mercial organizations.
Others appearing on the Farm Hour during the year included two doc-
tors, one priest, one Production Credit Association secretary, one Farmers'
Home Administration employee, two visitors from Nepal, one magazine
editor, at least 10 visiting scientists, 10 or more 4-H Club boys, five or more
4-H Club girls, and 10 or more home demonstration club women, farmers
and cattlemen.
Farm Flashes sent five days a week to 43 other stations or county
agents included 259 features, of which 130 were by Experiment Station
staff members, 73 by Extension, 40 by USDA, and 16 by others.
About five minutes of Florida Farm Review copy was sent weekly to
the Associated Press for distribution to 22 Florida stations on its teletype
circuit and 26 Fortnightly Review of Florida Agriculture scripts were sent
direct to 33 stations not on the AP circuit.
County and home demonstration agents in 42 counties reported 3,141
radio talks and those in six counties reported making 93 television ap-
pearances.
VISUAL AIDS AND MISCELLANEOUS
Equipment for animated exhibits was obtained and used and a special
4-H Club exhibit prepared by the Visual Aids Editor was shown at four
fairs. Public address systems, motion picture projectors and slide throw-
ers were maintained and used.
The filmstrip and slide libraries continue to be expanded slowly. Only
a few motion picture films are maintained in this office, and all were used
frequently. Agents were assisted in obtaining films from the General Ex-
tension Division depository.
The Editors spoke to four groups totaling 239 people. They included
a brief talk, accompanied by a motion picture, on foot and mouth disease
eradication, and classes in Extension methods and forestry.
The .Editor continued to serve as a member of the agriculture and pub-
licatiods committees of the local Chamber of Commerce and the University's
Public Relations Council. Representatives of several foreign countries
were shown the work of the Extension Editorial Office.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION

Frances C. Cannon and L. T. Nieland

The Health Education Specialist and the Extension Forester were
assigned responsibility for the Farm and Home Safety Program in addition
to their other duties. This program was carried on during the year by
working through County Agents and Home Demonstration Agents through-
out the State.
The Extension Editor and his staff rendered close cooperation by
assuming responsibility for sending to all agents the National Safety
Council's Farm Safety packets. This material provided the agents with
excellent display material as well as instructions for carrying out an effec-
tive county-wide farm and home safety campaign.
A number of safety and fire prevention topics were covered in 1,472
home demonstration and girl's 4-H Club programs held on this subject
during the year. Emphasis was placed on safety in the home, on the high-
way and on the farm. While all agents may not have had specific programs
on safety, most reported that their safety program was a part of each
phase of work. For example, safety precautions were taught in connec-
tion with such home duties as preparing food, sewing, using home equip-
ment, etc.
Demonstrations were given by agents and club members on storing
rakes and similar articles, cleaning and caring for oil heaters, making a
civil defense kit, and how to look for fire hazards.
Exhibits and demonstrations on safety and fire prevention were staged
by the girls and women at Florida State Fair, Florida defense meeting
and achievement days. In St. Lucie County safety was used in an interest-
ing manner in 4-H Achievement Day by one of the 4-H Clubs. Two doll
houses were used-one showing safely arranged furniture and the other
unsafe.
Some phase of safety and fire prevention was mentioned by many
county agents and home demonstration agents on their radio programs
and in their newspaper articles. A safety quiz in the form of a game was
used widely over the State. Through these activities 18,708 families re-
ceived assistance in safety and fire prevention, and 5,147 4-H members
received training in farm and home safety.
The Extension Forester assisted in carrying on the state-wide 4-H safety
contest and in judging the work of contestants. The State winner in 1953
was a 4-H Club boy.







Annual Report, 1953


SUPERVISION OF COUNTY AGENTS

H. G. Clayton, Director
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. J. Platt, Jr., District Agent
K. S. McMullen, District Agent
F. S. Perry, District Agent

On September 30, 1953, J. Lee Smith retired as District Agent for West
Florida. He had served over 34 years with the Agricultural Extension
Service. This position was filled on October 1, 1953, by W. J. Platt, Jr.,
former county agent in Volusia.


Fig. 1.-B. E. Lawton, as Florida county agent with longest service, was
awarded a trophy by a well known pharmaceutical firm. The presentation
was made by E. H. Finlayson (right), president of the Florida Farm Bureau,
as Director H. G. Clayton (center) looked on.

A larger than usual number of vacancies occurred in county agent and
assistant agent positions during the year. Marcel Boudet, county agent
of Indian River County, died October 27, 1953, and J. Lawrence Edwards,
2 Retired September 30, 1953.
SAppointed October 1, 1953.







Florida Cooperative Extension


assistant county agent of Dade County, died February 13, 1953. Three
county agents retired and two resigned to take other positions. One as-
sistant agent was granted military leave. One assistant agent was trans-
ferred to the state office as assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent, and, as
mentioned, one county agent was promoted to district agent in the State
office. One new assistant county agent position was opened.
To fill the vacancies created by these changes, two assistant agents
were transferred to other counties as assistants, six assistant agents were
promoted to county agents and four county agents were transferred to
other counties. Twelve new appointments to assistant agent positions were
made. One county agent returned to his position from military leave.
To fill the assistant agent positions, the District Agents interviewed
large numbers of young men interested in Extension work. From those
interested they selected one or more to be recommended to the board of
county commissioners in each county where there was a vacancy.
In filling county agent positions the District Agents reviewed the
records of assistant agents and other county agents. Appointments were
cleared with boards of county commissioners, the State Board of Control
and the U. S. Department of Agricultural Extension Service. Boards of
county commissioners generally expressed approval of County Agent work
by raising county Extension budgets in a number of counties.
During the fall and winter months the supervisors spent time working
with agents in the development of the county programs and annual plans
of work. Throughout the year the supervisors worked closely with the
agents in carrying out these programs.
District Agents carried on a continuous program of in-service training
for both new and old agents. This was done on visits to counties, through
the mails and by telephone. They also helped organize district and area
training meetings for agents and served on committees arranging for the
annual conference program.
The District Agents spent much of their time coordinating the work
of the specialists in their respective districts. This included relaying
requests for specialist help from the agents to the specialists and schedul-
ing specialist work in the counties to the end that the specialists' time
would be used to maximum advantage.
District Agents, with other State and county workers, helped plan and
carry out institutes, short courses, fairs, livestock and citrus schools, semi-
nars and other events.







Annual Report, 1953


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management
Clyde E. Murphree, Assistant Economist *

The Economist in Farm Management is employed one-half time in
teaching Extension Service methods and the Assistant Economist was on
leave of absence the first nine months of the year for professional im-
provement.
Farm and Home Planning.-Farm and home planning with individuals
having low-income farms continued through its thirteenth year in six
counties. The agents in these counties annually are given a refresher in
planning, followed by a one-day field trip visiting farm families and assist-
ing them with farm and home planning. This project reaches about 270
families annually, resulting in added income totaling about $105,000. Be-
cause this project is limited by the amount of time county agents can
devote to it and because of more demands from the farmers for assistance
in farm and home planning, the Economist is experimenting with and pre-
paring for planning with small groups among whom, through selection,
there is considerable similarity in type and size of farm, tenure, educa-
tion, financial rating, etc.
Developments in this project indicate clearly the need for such rule-of-
thumb data as initial investment required for an enterprise, current
expenses, land and equipment needed, feed and labor requirements, cal-
endar showing peak labor loads, economic sizes of enterprises, and reason-
able net returns to be expected from given units. Data are needed also on
local production practices, economic effects from other than usual practices,
the economy of high cost equipment and custom work, methods of assisting
individuals in group meetings with their arithmetic and their decision
making, and training of personnel for farm and home planning.
The Economist also experimented with farm planning among owners of
farms having investments exceeding $50,000, without following the tradi-
tional detailed calculations for every enterprise on the farm. The average
increase of $3,000 in net income per farm indicates favorable possibilities
from such planning.
Farm Management for Retirement Farmers.-During the year a study
was made of 113 retirement farmers by a graduate student, an Experiment
Station research worker, and the Economist. Some conclusions reached
include: retired aged persons have no interest in returns to capital invested,
productive work units, labor income, and other conventional measures of
the efficiency of commercial farmers. Instead, they want to know how to
stretch pennies and how to produce food for the family with their very
limited energy.
Economic Outlook.-The Assistant Economist, after return from leave,
devoted full time to economic outlook work. Much of the time covered
by this report was spent in evaluating past efforts in the economic outlook
field and developing a future program. He attended the agricultural Out-
look Conference in Washington October 26 to 30. Information from this
SOn leave of absence for graduate work until September 1, 1953.






Florida Cooperative Extension


conference and from other sources was prepared for practically every im-
portant crop in Florida. Outlook information was distributed through
county agents in the form of printed matter, tape recordings, addresses
to groups at the request of the County Agents, and through our Editorial
Department.
Teaching Extension Service Methods.-Five different courses in Exten-
sion methods were offered during the year, four by the Economist and one
by Miss Mary L. Collings of the Federal Extension Office. In addition, one
course was offered at the three-week summer school for Extension workers
in each of the following subjects: agricultural policy, soils, and poultry
husbandry. The enrollment for fall and winter terms totaled 72 and for
the summer school 28, including 6 members of the State Extension Staff,
two of whom were awarded the degree of Master of Agriculture.
Miscellaneous Activities.-The two specialists participated in the fol-
lowing miscellaneous activities: assisted in writing Station bulletins on
part-time farming and farm leases; preparing a handbook for Extension
workers; planning and conducting a pasture improvement contest; 4-H
Club camps and short course. Also they served as consultants to Florida
Resources-Use Education Committee and Veterans Training Committee;
supplied information through press and radio regarding income tax returns,
keeping farm records, outlook and farm and home planning; supplied various
statistical and economic data to co-workers; and conducted conferences with
17 men from five foreign countries.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT

Zach Savage, Associate Agricultural Economist, Experiment Station

Production costs per acre on bearing citrus groves increased each season
from 1939-40 to 1946-47, seven successive seasons, and then decreased for
three seasons to 1949-50. Increases followed for the succeeding two seasons,
then there was a slight decrease for 1952-53. The 1951-52 production costs
per acre were the highest of the 22 seasons since these studies were started-
$177 for operating costs and $239 with interest on estimated grove valuation
included. Yields tended to increase during the period, partly due to increas-
ing maturity of groves.
For the five-year period 1945-50 average yields by varieties from highest
to lowest ranged from early oranges (highest), late oranges, Temples, tange-
rines, to midseason oranges (lowest). For the 20-year period, the order
was: early oranges (highest), late oranges, midseason oranges, Temples,
and tangerines (lowest). Yield here is taken as "commercial yield" or
boxes harvested-some fruit is not harvested, particularly tangerines,
during seasons of low prices or small sizes.
During five seasons (1945-50) the growers in this group received prices
varying from Temples (highest), late oranges, early oranges, midseason
oranges, to tangerines (lowest). Also, during this period the net returns
over operating costs were in that same order, with late oranges having
only a slight advantage over early oranges.
Florida's grapefruit trees produce heavily and yields averaged one-fourth
higher than late oranges of comparable ages for the same five seasons. They
also yielded higher than other citrus except early oranges which were about
equal. During this same period all grapefruit prices averaged 81 cents,
about 48 percent of the price received for late oranges. The average price
for seeded grapefruit was 74 cents, as compared with 90 cents for seedless
grapefruit, or 44 and 54 percent, respectively, of late orange prices for the
period. Net returns over operating costs were higher on seedless than







Annual Report, 1953 23

seeded grapefruit and both were exceeded by the three kinds of oranges
and Temples. Tangerines were the least profitable of the seven groups
of citrus mentioned.
World production of oranges, grapefruit and tangerines in 1952-53 was
estimated at 366 million boxes-exceeding the largest yield ever produced
by 15 million boxes or 4 percent. Since 1948-49 Florida has produced more
oranges and tangerines annually than any other state or country. In 1952-
53 Florida produced 44 percent as many oranges and tangerines as all coun-
tries outside North America and 54 percent of the North American yield.
The Florida crop was 63 percent of the U. S. crop. The 1952-53 U. S. grape-
fruit crop at 36 million boxes was 57 percent of peak production in 1945-46
and 89 percent of the 1952-53 world production. Florida produced 75 percent
of the world production that season, which was 85 percent of the U. S.
production.
Growers realize that quality of fruit is of increasing importance in
securing better prices and more profits. At the same time high yields have
not decreased in importance. Poor producing trees should be replaced with
the best nursery stock available and vacancies should never be found in a
grove. For the 11-year period ending 1951, groves of small acreage returned
as much profit per acre and per box as did groves of larger acreage. In no
way were the small acreage groves at an economic disadvantage.
Good management of groves cannot be over-emphasized. Good groves
are usually under-valued and the best buys unless purchased for specula-
tion or capital gain. Florida citrus grove sizes will remain largely matters
of promotion and economics, since groves are usually operated with hired
labor and only a small part of the product is used at home. People con-
templating the purchase of grove property should recognize that citrus
production is a highly competitive enterprise.
In 1952 United States exports of oranges and tangerines were 7.7
million boxes, or 6.2 percent of its production. This was 13.2 percent of
world exports. United States grapefruit exports that season were 1.7
million boxes, or 4.0 percent of its production and 56 percent of world
exports, making this country the world's leading export nation for grape-
fruit.
If irrigation is to be profitable, it should increase yields sufficiently to
more than repay its cost. Each grower should check to determine if irriga-
tion is profitable on his grove.
Yields of less than 200 boxes per acre were obtained in 10 percent of
the 192 account groves over 10 years old in 1950-51, while 9 percent had
yields of more than 550 boxes, the average being 360 boxes. Operating
costs varied from $66.62 to $368.31 per acre and from 20 cents to $6.73 per
box, with 27 percent less than $125 per acre and 22 percent more than $225,
while 12 percent had costs of less than 30 cents per box and 13 percent
over 80 cents. Of these groves 10 percent did not return operating costs
that season and 20 percent returned $400 or more per acre above operating
costs. Over the 20-year period (1931-51) 19 percent of these groves failed
to return operating costs and 15 percent returned $400 or more above
operating costs.
Persons retiring or purchasing groves for a livelihood should consider
all points before purchasing. It is important to purchase ample acreage
if one expects a reasonable return.
During the past year 200,125 pages of material were issued representing
22,425 copies of eight publications, 10 different sheets of data, two form
letters, and two forms for use in compilations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


MARKETING

E. W. Cake, Extension Economist in Marketing

Extension Marketing work for Florida was handled by one man during
the year. The summary of the most important projects handled during
this time is given here.


Fig. 2.-This group of winning 4-H Club members and leaders attended
the annual meeting of the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives. The
Shady Grove Club in Taylor County won the Florida cooperative activities
contest.

4-H Cooperative Activity Contest.-The Specialist worked closely with
the State Boys' 4-H Club Agent in operating a 4-H Cooperative Activity
Contest sponsored by the Extension Service. This was designed to give
4-H boys some elementary farm business training, including marketing.
Awards in the contest were provided by the Florida Council of Farmer
Cooperatives, for which this Specialist served as Executive Secretary. He
prepared all material necessary for the contest, including announcement,
regulations, score sheet, record sheets, report outline, suggested talks
and demonstrations, and numerous letters to all county agents. Participa-
tion by clubs was good. Winning clubs were declared in all 10 Florida
4-H districts and for the State.







Annual Report, 1953


FFA Cooperative Activity Contest.-As Executive Secretary of the Flor-
ida Council of Farmer Cooperatives this Specialist spearheaded the contest,
working closely with those in charge of Florida FFA. This contest also
was designed to give training in farm business, including marketing. The
same materials were prepared by the Specialist as in the 4-H contest.
Participation and results were good and winners were chosen in all six
Florida FFA districts and the State winner went on to be National winner.
Avocado Marketing Agreement.-At the request of the Dade County
Agent, who had been working on the idea many years, the Specialist pre-
pared a suggested Federal Marketing Agreement for avocado growers.
He explained the agreement and other marketing problems at three grower
meetings in Dade County. Growers and handlers are pushing ahead to
get the agreement into operation and success appears probable.
Egg and Poultry Marketing.-The Specialist worked closely with the
County Agent and leading producers in the Masaryktown section to form
a new egg and poultry marketing cooperative. This organization is now
handling over 600 cases of eggs weekly at 2 cents per dozen more than
was previously secured. This cooperative organization also is saving its
members $1.00 per bag on egg mash, or an additional 5 cents per dozen
eggs. Work was continued, as started the previous year, in the Tampa
area on egg and poultry marketing. This involved further investigation
of marketing in the area, reports at meetings to producers, and work with
groups attempting to do something about problems. Similar work in egg
marketing was carried on in Pinellas County, where the cooperative in
operation needs to increase its volume and improve its operating procedure.
Improved Handling of Potatoes.-The Specialist worked with the County
Agent in the Hastings potato area in making results of recent research
on improved handling of potatoes available to growers and shippers. This
was done at meetings and by many personal contacts in the area.
Honey Marketing.-At the request of honey producers, the Specialist
wrote a bill that allows Florida honey producers to have their honey certi-
fied by State Inspectors as pure tupelo, orange, or other variety. The
bill was passed without opposition in the State Legislature. Producers
believe this will help in their marketing program. The Specialist also
worked with the Extension Apiculturist and three County Agents in help-
ing beekeeper organizations and their marketing cooperative.
Farmers Markets.-At the request of either County Agents or grower
groups, work was carried on with committees at five different farmers'
markets, meeting with each committee two or three times during the year.
These five markets were Gainesville, Plant City, Starke, Wauchula, and
Webster. Suggestions were made on improving market operation and
rendering more and better service to growers, thus increasing grower sup-
port and returning better prices to growers.
New Cooperatives.-Six other grower groups and County Agents re-
quested help in forming new cooperatives during the year. These included
two in Collier County and one each in Hernando, Martin, Palm Beach,
and Pinellas counties. Suggested charters, by-laws, and other papers
were prepared for each of these. Five of them are now operating success-
fully.
Other State Organizations.-The Specialist helped the directors of the
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association to draw up a suggested project
for an Extension Vegetable Marketing Specialist they hope Florida may
obtain. Also, he worked with this organization in conducting a poll among
celery and tomato growers to determine whether they would favor market-
ing agreements. He worked with the directors of the Florida Express Ship-








26 Florida Cooperative Extension

pers League to plan a program which the Extension Service will assist
them to start during the coming year.
4-H Summer Short Course and Camping Program.-Assistance was given
the State 4-H Club Agents in their short course and camping program.
At short course the Specialist led singing at assemblies of the 450 boys
twice daily during the week and had charge of the awards presentation
assembly program. He attended a 4-H camp for another week and taught
a class there each morning and led singing at assemblies twice daily.
Outlook Work.-During the first eight months of the year, while the
Economic Outlook Specialist was on leave of absence, the Marketing Spe-
cialist handled as much as possible of the outlook work. This involved
developing material for numerous outlook talks covering a wide range of
products and presenting these at many places.
Extension Service Institute and Schools Program.-This Specialist
worked with other specialists and with district agents in putting on various
grower institutes in Florida. This involved a week's work at the Citrus
Institute at Camp McQuarrie, where he served as song leader at all assem-
blies and panel leader on a marketing discussion. Talks were given at the
Poultry Institute at Camp McQuarrie, at the West Florida Citrus Institute
at Brooksville and the farm and home institutes at Camp Timpoochee and
Camp Cherry Lake. Talks also were given at the Extension Beef Cattle
School held at Orlando and the Poultry School at Belleview. These talks
required the preparation of papers and charts.








Annual Report, 1953


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND FARM

ELECTRIFICATION

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Thomas C. Skinner, Agricultural Engineer
John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer '

The Agricultural Engineering Extension program emphasizes farm build-
ings, housing, electrification, machinery, irrigation and drainage. County
Extension Agents reported assisting 43,649 farmers and farm families in
various phases of the engineering program during the year.
Farm Structures.-This includes farm service buildings and farm hous-
ing. The Florida Farm Building Plan Service is a part of this program
which reached 33,055 families this year, or 10.8 percent more than in 1952.
Visual aids were used in training agents and local leaders, and in promo-
tional work to interest farmers in making needed changes. Visual aids now
on hand include five large colored charts, four large blueprints, six posters
and 25 scale models of farm buildings. These have found extensive use
during the year in training schools and as displays and exhibits at State
and county fairs and shows. The Florida Farm Building Plan Service is
conducted in cooperation with the USDA Regional Plan Service Exchange.
During the year the Specialist met with 10 groups interested in special
buildings.
Farm Machinery.-Florida farmers continue to add more mechanical
equipment each year to reduce labor costs, expand acreage and reduce
drudgery. In 1953 agents assisted 6,269 farmers with farm machinery or
equipment problems. There were 303 4-H boys from 33 counties enrolled
in tractor maintenance projects. They conducted numerous demonstrations
at fairs and farmers' meetings. The Specialist encouraged farm equipment
and machinery dealers and distributors to participate, display, and demon-
strate their equipment at farmers' gatherings. Fifty such demonstrations
were held. Two adult machinery maintenance schools were held during the
year with an attendance of 48 white farmer owners and operators at one
and 14 Negro farmer owners and operators at the other.
Farm Processing Facilities.-It is often important for farmers to go
beyond the production stage in realizing the largest returns possible from
their products. The preparation of farm products for sale or for home use
is an important step in a balanced farm program.
Assistance was given by county Extension agents to farm people in
preparing their products for market and home use. Available information
on curing tobacco, farm drying of hay and seed and treating fence posts
and lumber was disseminated through leaflets, newsletters, and magazine
articles. The mimeographed leaflet "Treating Fence Posts," prepared by
the Specialist in cooperation with the Extension Farm Forester, was widely
used. Hay and seed drying has continued to receive much attention. The
slated floor seed and grain dryer and the Florida combination dryer, both
developed by the Extension Agricultural Engineer, are being used through-
out the State by farmers and commercial seedsmen. Largely due to Exten-
sion activity, there are now approximately 200 dryers on farms in Florida.
SAppointed September 16, 1953.
6 Resigned September 10, 1953.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Irrigation and Drainage.-Activities in these two programs are limited
chiefly to personal service work. The Specialist gave talks and demon-
strations on irrigation at five meetings to over 250 farmers. Three irriga-
tion manufacturers were furnished information on Florida's irrigation
problems, and recommendations were made for needed new equipment.

FARM ELECTRIFICATION

A. M. Pettis, Assistant Agricultural Engineer
and Farm Electrification Specialist

The farm electrification program was designed to assist rural people
with problems concerning electricity. This has been carried out through
the County Extension Agents, the various power suppliers of Florida, and
the State Extension office. The following activities have received attention:
Wiring.-Good wiring is the basis of successful farm electrification. It
must be carefully planned for future needs to avoid overloading, which
results in fire hazard and poor operation of equipment. The promotion of
good wiring was carried out by talks, demonstrations, exhibits, and printed
articles. A voltage drop wiring panel constructed by the Specialist was
used successfully to teach good wiring. It shows vividly that appliances
give better results when used on good wiring. The Specialist trained 4-H
Club members and loaned them this equipment for teaching others.
Lighting.-Good lighting has been promoted extensively during 1953.
A leaflet entitled "A Good Reading Lamp" was prepared and distributed
to farmers, 4-H members, and farm leaders over the State. Advice, as-
sistance, and exhibit materials were furnished County Extension workers
who made lighting exhibits at county fairs. The Specialist planned and
assisted in conducting a good reading lamp contest at the annual 4-H Boys'
Short Course. Twelve counties entered lamps in the State contest, with
awards to first, second and third place winners as follows: a radio to Lake
County; a fan to Volusia; and a soldering iron to Sumter County.

Fig. 3.-These 4-H boys were winners in the lamp making contest.








Annual Report, 1953


Farm Equipment.-Infra-red brooding for chicks was investigated and
extensively promoted. Equipment on infra-red lamps was constructed
to demonstrate the nature of infra-red energy. This gave a striking and
easily comprehended visual demonstration of how this form of energy
acts in practical use with poultry. The Specialist also assisted in the in-
stallation and construction of electric hotbeds for sweet potato plants. Irri-
gation, using electric motors, was promoted and publicized and brooders for
pigs and chicks were loaned to County Agents for use in county fair exhibits.
Home Equipment.-County and State training meetings have been held
to give home demonstration agents and other rural women leaders instruc-
tion on home electric equipment. A two-year correspondence course on
television was completed by the Specialist, enabling him to prepare Ex-
tension Circular 114, "TV Tips." Florida is believed to be the first State
to have such a publication for rural people. During the past year, Florida
farm people have shown more interest in television than in any other home
electric use.
4-H Electric Program.-Considerable emphasis has been placed this year
on the 4-H farm and home electric program. Circular 112, "Electricity Made
Easy," was revised to help 4-H members enrolled in electrical projects.
A record book was prepared especially for negroes, and other literature
was made available which helped them improve the quality of their work
in such projects. A $50 bond and seven gold medals were awarded negro
4-H members for outstanding work.
More than 1,000 4-H members at Boys' short course, Girls' short course,
the negro short course, and four 4-H camps were taught by this Specialist.
One-fourth of the demonstrations given by 4-H members at the 1953 State
Fair were on electricity subjects. Gold medals for outstanding work were
awarded to 63 4-H members as compared to 40 the previous year. Five
major additional awards, consisting of a trip to Chicago and four valuable
appliances, were presented to the 4-H members doing the most outstanding
work in this project. The national sponsor is the Westinghouse Electric
Corporation and the State sponsor is the Florida REA Cooperatives Asso-
ciation.
Power Supplier Cooperation.-As of July 1, 1953, 46,532 Florida farms,
81.7 percent of the total, were receiving electric service from 15 electric
(REA) cooperatives, four major power companies, and several small com-
panies and municipalities. The Specialist cooperated with all power sup-
pliers to increase the effectiveness of the farm electrification program. Each
month articles on electric subjects were sent to electric co-ops for use
in their monthly news publications. Cooperation with electric co-ops
resulted in electric demonstrations being given by 4-H members at half
of the co-op annual meetings.
Coordination of County Work.-The Specialist kept county Extension
workers acquainted with personnel of the rural electric co-ops. He also has
arranged for invitations to interested Extension agents to attend annual
co-op meetings and for them to receive co-op monthly publications.
Teaching and Training.-Training meetings were held in eight counties
for Extension agents and 4-H members, and the 4-H electric program
was discussed at four district training meetings. Training in farm electri-
fication was given to all negro county and home demonstration agents at
the annual negro Extension conference. Adult white women were trained
at the Farm and Home Institute and at the meeting of the State Home
Demonstration Council.
A honey-electric training school was held at Camp McQuarrie in co-
operation with the Extension Apiculturist; practical training in electricity








Florida Cooperative Extension


was given the 20 agents and 4-H members attending. During the past year
electrical materials for demonstrations and exhibits were loaned 28 times
to agents in 17 counties.
New Electrical Uses.-Some of the new electrical appliances investigated
and publicized during the past year by this Specialist have been nut crackers.
dehorners, animal clippers, television sets, farm welders, heat pumps, and
room coolers.
Rural Telephones.-Advice and assistance was given farm leaders rep-
resenting rural people desiring telephone service. Close cooperation was
maintained with representatives of the Rural Electrification Administration,
which lends money to increase and improve rural telephone service. Six
such loans have been 'made in Florida and approximately 12,000 Florida
farms, about 21 percent of the total, now have telephone service.
Publicity.-The Specialist prepared 57 articles on farm electrification
during the past year and articles were sent to publications throughout the
State, through the office of the Extension Editor, as well as to co-op publica-
tions, state and national magazines, and to national bulletins and other
news sources. Six radio talks and tape recordings were made for use over
the State.
Additional Assistance.-It is estimated that more than 8,500 persons,
both white and negro, including rural adults and 4-H members, Extension
agents and other farm leaders, attended a total of 102 talks and demon-
strations by the Farm Electrification Specialist this year. Many Florida
Extension, USDA, and commercial publications have been distributed and
numerous inquiries have been answered.
County Extension workers' records show that they have assisted farm
people with electrification problems in 1953 as follows:
Problems Concerning White Negro Total
Water and sewage systems ................................ 1,164 209 1,373
Electrical systems .......................-- --.....--... ..- 975 182 1,157
Home equipment .-.................-....-- ...- ............ .. 8,630 392 9,022
Irrigation .................................................. ....... 1,163 76 1,239
Electricity for income purposes ...................... 1,034 297 1,331







Annual Report, 1953


AGRONOMY

J. R. Henderson, Extension Agronomist

The Extension Agronomy work during the year was designed to bring
to the attention of county agents, industry groups, and others who work
with farmers information on soil and crop management practices that
would help farmers to maintain or improve soil fertility, increase yields,
and improve the quality of their field crops and pastures.
Major activities included: Preparing and distributing to county agents
field crop production guides; conferences with county agents in state-wide
and area groups for presentation of subject-matter information and dis-
cussion of Extension methods; meetings with industry groups to acquaint
them better with research results and Extension recommendations pertain-
ing to the production and management of field crops and pastures; handling
the distribution of foundation seed of field crops; handling individual letter
and office inquiries.
Field Crop Production Guides.-New mimeographed production guides
for corn, cotton, peanuts and flue-cured tobacco were prepared and dis-
tributed to county agents in early January. A mimeographed soybean
production guide, prepared by Station workers, was distributed to all county
agents.
Conferences with County Agents.-A two-day training school for County
Agents in the field crops was held in Quincy in December. The latest
research results were presented and discussed and county Extension activi-
ties planned. At the annual State-wide conference of county agents held
in October, the Agronomist summarized soil testing information and recom-
mendations and acted as a member of a panel which discussed the economics
of beef cattle production in Florida.
Work with Industry Groups.-The project leader acted as moderator of a
panel which discussed the latest findings on fertilization of pastures at the
annual meeting of the Florida Agricultural Research Institute.
In cooperation with other specialists and officers of the Florida Seeds-
men's Association, the annual State-wide seedsmen's short course was again
held on the campus of the University. The Agronomist also planned and
moderated a discussion of new varieties of field crops at the annual meeting
of the Florida Seedsmen's Association.
Through cooperation with officers of the Central Florida Cattlemen's
Association and the Extension Service, a 13-lecture cattlemen's school, for
which more than 250 cattlemen registered, was held at Orlando and Tavares.
The specialist assisted with planning the program and gave two lectures
on soils and pastures.
The Agronomist gave a general talk on pastures at the annual meeting
of the Florida Dairy Association and authored an article on winter pastures
which was published in the September issue of Florida Dairy News.
The Agronomist assisted the Experiment Station Turf Specialist and
officers of the Florida Turf Association in planning the program for the
first annual University of Florida Turf Conference. He appeared on the
program as a speaker on the major characteristics of soils in relation to
turf management.
Distribution of Foundation Seed of Field Crops.-The specialist solicited
applications and distributed through the county agents' offices, Station-pro-
duced foundation seed of Dixie 18 corn, Florispan Runner and Dixie Runner
peanuts, and Floriland, Sunland, and Seminole oats.







32 Florida Cooperative Extension

Cooperation with Others.-The Extension Agronomist worked closely
with the District Agents in planning meetings, conferences and tours.
Mutual exchange of information on progress of county programs in
agronomy was the rule throughout the year.
The 4-H Club leaders and the Extension Agronomists worked together
in planning corn production projects of 4-H Club boys and in staging
the State 4-H Club Corn Show.
In holding State-wide, area and county meetings, the leaders of the
agronomy project received the wholehearted cooperation of the specialists
in vegetable production, citriculture, ornamentals, animal husbandry,
dairying, agricultural economics, agricultural engineering and entomology.
Working relationships with the research personnel was excellent.
Experiment Station workers gave their time freely, appearing as speakers
on subject-matter programs and going over their work with the project
leaders. Each branch station at which agronomy research projects were
carried was visited at least once during the year for observation of the
work in progress. Production problems for which solutions were needed
were brought to the attention of Station workers and assistance was given
in planning new research projects on both soils and field crops.
Assistance was given the State Department of Agriculture in carry-
ing out its program of seed certification, and the Farmers Home Admin-
istration, by supplying field crop production recommendations.
Most of the State-level activities were designed to assist the County
Agents, either directly or indirectly, in carrying out their programs of
work.
Many county problems were handled by correspondence, but on-the-spot
assistance was given with certain activities, such as local meetings, tours
and field days. The project leaders assisted with 59 county meetings,
at which subject-matter information was presented and discussed.
Activities and Results.-Reports from the county workers show that
they spent a total of 8,566 days on crop production. A breakdown of
this activity, showing the number of farmers assisted with various phases
of field crop production, is given below:

Number of Farmers Assisted by County Workers with Various Field Crop
Production Problems:
Cotton
Hay and Oil and
Problem Grain and Other To- Sugar
Crops Forage Fiber bacco Crops
Crops Crops
Use of improved
varieties and strains 9,055 8,067 2,548 1,788 3,101
Use of fertilizers ........ 10,383 9,662 2,863 3,643 3,596
Control of injurious
insects ............-............. 4,321 4,001 2,987 3,599 3,536
Control of diseases ..... 1,866 1,521 823 3,207 1,395
Harvesting, storing, and
curing ........................ 4,554 4,055 827 3,243 2,837

Crop yields are considered to be good guides to the effectiveness of
Extension programs in crop production. However, yields for a single
year are less reliable indicators than those for longer periods. Comparative
yields of the major field crops for th: last two five-year periods were
as follows:







Annual Report, 1953 33

Average Yields of Principal Field Crops Grown in Florida for the Last Two
Five-Year Periods:
Yield per Acre Increase During
Crops 1944-1948 1949-1953 Last 5-Year Period
Corn, bushels ................ 10.7 15.0 40
Cotton, pounds .........-... 186.6 215.4 15
Peanuts, pounds ........... 637.0 857.0 35
Flue-cured tobacco,
pounds ....... ..... ........ 952.6 1,107.2 16
Oats, bushels ................ 18.9 23.4 24








Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Oliver F. Goen, Extension Animal Husbandman'
James E. Pace, Assistant Animal Industrialist

Beef cattle numbers in Florida increased 10.1 percent, from 1,250,000
as of January 1, 1952, to 1,376,000 as of January 1, 1953. Florida ranks
13th among the states in total numbers of beef cattle, but is relatively
low in total pounds produced and quality of beef. This indicates that
most Florida beef cattle herds still need much improvement.
Swine on Florida farms decreased 8.7 percent, from 610,000 head to
531,000 head, during the year ending January 1, 1953. For the same period
their values decreased from $13,725,000 to $10,567,000. Florida will prob-
ably continue to be a deficit state in pork production in the foreseeable
years.
4-H Club Activities.-One of the continued primary efforts of the Spe-
cialist has been to stress the importance of livestock improvement in Florida.
Expansion in 4-H livestock projects has been encouraged as a means of
achieving this objective. A commercial steer sale was held in August
1953 with the cooperation of the Arcadia Livestock Market. Approximately
150 steers were sold and the results of this first trial were so good that
the project is being expanded.
The Fourth Annual 4-H Fat Barrow Show was held in Tallahassee, but
due to the outbreak of vesicular exanthema in the State, not as many
barrows were exhibited as in recent years. However, there was a decided
improvement in quality.
The State Champion 4-H Livestock Judging Team competed in the
National 4-H Judging Contest in Chicago. The Florida team tied for 11th
place, with 28 teams competing. The trip to Chicago was sponsored by
the Tampa Morning Tribune. Five area livestock judging schools were
conducted over the State for 4-H boys during the year in cooperation with
the State 4-H Club Leader.
The following table summarizes the year's 4-H livestock activities:
Units Involved
Members Members in Completed
Enrolled Completing Projects
Beef cattle .................. 1,351 1,030 2,191
Swine ........................... 1,952 1,473 4,148
Sheep ............... ........ 1 1 7
Other livestock .........- 104 65 257

Other Activities.-A 13-week Cattlemen's School was conducted in
Lake and Orange counties in cooperation with those County Agents, the
Extension Agronomist, and Experiment Station personnel. Classes were
held one night each week and each class was attended by approximately
200 cattlemen.
A two-day refresher school was conducted at the North Florida Ex-
periment Station for the County Agents of West Florida. The Extension
Agronomist and the Extension animal husbandry personnel cooperated
in this. The Animal Husbandmen discussed feeding, breeding, manage-
ment, disease, and parasite problems.
SOn military leave.







Annual Report, 1953


A well-attended Swine Producer's Field Day was held in August at
Quincy. The Assistant Animal Industrialist worked closely with the
Florida Swine Producer's Association and Experiment Station personnel
in making this event a success.
During the past year the Assistant Animal Industrialist gave 12 talks
to cattlemen's associations, five talks to general farmer groups, and attended
three farm tours. Also, he judged six livestock shows and assisted with
the management of many others. He spent 133 days in the field, working
primarily with County Agents.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS 1953


Farmers employing proper se-
lection and breeding practices
Farmers employing proper feed-
ing practices .............................
Farmers employing proper ex-
ternal parasite control meth-
ods .......................................
Farmers employing proper dis-
ease and internal parasite con-
trol methods ............................
Farmers employing efficient
work methods .......................


Beef Sheep and Other
Cattle Swine Goats Livestock

6,790 4,949 70 406

7,897 7,828 92 403


7,602 6,835 93 303


6,339 9,242 106 321


3,327 44 239







Florida Cooperative Extension


APICULTURE

John D. Haynie, Extension Apiculturist

The Extension program in apiculture in Florida includes both production
and marketing. Since the major problems here are in the marketing
field, it has received the most time and attention.
The 1953 Florida honey crop was produced several weeks earlier than
usual. Export orders were received before the crop was extracted and
there was a constant demand as a result of such orders. European orders
were for over 2,000,000 pounds in 1953, about the same as in 1952. Most
of the 1953 orders had to be filled from the Southeastern and South-
western States, since Northern honey was not then available. This elimi-
nated the supply of Florida honey and left packers without any citrus
honey for months, creating a problem for the retail home trade.
Only 104,000 pounds of honey has been placed under the loan program
in Florida this year, according to the Production and Marketing Administra-
tion. The 1953 honey crop is believed to have broken all records for earli-
ness in moving from producer's hands and for the small amounts of stock
carried over in packer's hands.
Tupelo Honey Certification.-The Florida producers of tupelo honey have
for years desired some method of certification so that they could assure
their customers as to grade and kind. A dozen samples of tupelo honey were
collected from producers three years aao by the Extension Apiculturist

Fig. 4.-Preparing honey jelly in the laboratory in an effort to expand the
market for this Florida sweet.
























41







Annual Report, 1953


and sent to the USDA Eastern Regional Research Laboratory, Philadelphia,
for analysis. This has been repeated each year. The data from this, in-
cluding dextrose-levulose ratio and moisture content, have made it possible
for the Food Inspection Department of the State Department of Agriculture
to initiate a program for inspecting and grading the 1954 honey crop. The
Extension Marketing Specialist and the Gulf County agent assisted the bee-
keepers to start this certification program of tupelo honey. A bill has
passed the Florida Legislature authorizing the inspection of tupelo honey.
Citrus honey producers now want a similar program for inspection and
certification. Citrus honey samples were collected in the spring of 1953
in order to study factors affecting the color of honey and to start analysis
work for a certification program.
Florida Honey Co-operative.-This organization has packed over
5,000,000 pounds of honey since it was organized in 1949, mostly in barrels
and 60-pound containers. It handles most of the honey produced by its
members, although some members pack a part of their crop.
The Cooperative asked that a label be prepared to be used on five-pound
pails for marketing Florida orange blossom honey for its members or for
any beekeeper interested in packing a "number one grade" of citrus honey.
The Apiculturist designed the label for this and a final order for these
labels was delivered after the 1953 citrus honey season was over. Contents
of these cans will be inspected for grade ana quality and beekeepers
not maintaining number one grade standards will be required to remove
container and honey from the market and will not be furnished more cans.
State and County Fairs.-Prior to 1953 the Apiculturist has done more
work at the State Fair than in district and county fairs. The beekeepers'
exhibits at the Florida State Fair in Tampa have been excellent and have
stimulated the initiation and expansion of more and better beekeeping
exhibits at local fairs. In 1953 eight such individual county exhibits
were promoted and one group of beekeepers exhibited at a district fair
in addition to eight beekeepers exhibiting at the State Fair. These local
exhibits are seen by many people who do not have an opportunity to see
the State Fair exhibits. Two beekeepers promoted apiary exhibits in
their county fairs for the first time this past year.
Florida Forest Service.-Most of Florida's honey is from natural plants.
For this the apiaries are operated in natural wooded areas protected from
fire. The Florida Forest Service is depended upon to keep fires from de-
stroying gallberry (Ilex), titi, saw palmetto and many other low, bush-type
nectar plants. Since these and certain gum trees need cooperative manage-
ment, the Forest Service has established a nursery to propagate and dis-
tribute tupelo, black gum, and tulip poplar seedlings to beekeepers, land-
owners and timber-growing firms.
4-H Apiary Awards.-Each year a large seed company contributes
apiary equipment and supplies for prizes to 4-H Club members in apiary
projects on a State-wide basis. The 1953 winners were: Allen Jones,
Baker County; Arthur Brady, Orange; and Lee Howell, Alachua County.
Cooperative Hive Project with Beekeepers.-The Extension Apiculturist
set up a cooperative hive project in 1952 to compare the efficiencies of
four distinct sizes of hives. This project is located in the tupelo section
and its purpose is to determine if a single unit, a one-story hive, is better
to winter a colony and supply sufficient room for brood rearing in the
spring, than the methods now being used generally. The cost of producing
honey in the tupelo section is higher than in other parts of the State
and any method of decreasing equipment expense will result in lower
production costs. Data will be assembled and analyzed late in 1954.







38 Florida Cooperative Extension



BOYS 4-H CLUB WORK

W. W. Brown, State Boys' 4-H Club Agent
Grant M. Godwin, Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent'

Boys' 4-H Club work in Florida in 1953 had a banner year. This has
been manifested through increased 4-H1 participation in club meetings, more
community activities, productive projects, and method and result demon-
strations; and a host of special 4-H Club events, including short course,
summer camps, special State-wide encampments, and many high quality
4-H shows and fairs. Certainly, this "parade of progress" on the part
of Florida's 4-H'ers can be attributed directly to discreet planning and
close adherence to plans developed through the coordinated efforts of
both State and county Extension workers.
The work at the State level was implemented by the State Boys' 4-H
Club Agent and two Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club agents, one of whom
was appointed on June 1, 1.953, to devote full time to 4-H Club work while
the other, a County Extension Agent, continued to devote part time work
to the camping program in the southern areas of the State.
Continued emphasis on and better use of the plan dividing the State into
10 4-H Club districts has helped to improve the work this year and
greatly aided the State 4-H staff. The 10 district meetings, attended
by almost 100 percent of the county Extension agents, provided the proper
setting for developing 4-H programs based on the mutual thinking of
the administrative staff, specialists staff and county personnel. Through
this device, programs more nearly met the varying agricultural needs
and interests State-wide.
An increase of 65 percent in the State and national 4-H Awards Pro-
grams was noted over the preceding year. While the 9,876 white 4-H Club
boys enrolled during 1953 was almost the same as the enrollments for
1952, there was a marked increase in percentage of completions. Records
show that 73.3 percent completed in 1953, as compared to 70.3 percent in
1952.
4-H ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS
The major 4-H Club activities and projects in which 4-H boys and girls
received training and experience under the direction of county Extension
workers throughout the State are summarized below.


A. Participation in 4-H Activities


No.


1. Judging ...........................------ --.- ---... ----- ........
2. Giving demonstrations ....................... .............-....
3. Group recreation leadership ............................
4. Music appreciation .................. ......... ...........
5. Money management (thrift) ..............................-.
6. Farm and home safety .............. ............... ...
7. Citizenship ....... ...-- ..... ..-...........-........-
8. Personality improvement ............. ................
9. Soil and water conservation ........................ .......
10. Forestry ............. .......... ... ...... ..........
11. Health, nursing, first aid .........:...... ............
12. Camping .................... ...................... .. .... ...- ..
13. Community activities (improving school grounds
conducting achievement programs and fairs)
s Appointed June 1, 1953.


4-H Members
6,255
10,000
5,394
5,579
6,731
11,070
9,782
7,200
4,524
3,656
6,759
4,360

1,058







Annual Report, 1953


B. Participation in 1-H Projects Scope
1. Corn ........ .... .... ..................................... .. .... ......... 3,288 acres
2. Peanuts .................................................. ....... .......... 1,314 acres
3. Soybeans, field peas, alfalfa, and other legumes 458 acres
4. Potatoes, Irish and sweet ................................ 675 acres
5. Cotton .......... .. ...... ..................................... ........... 598 acres
6. Tobacco ....................................... ...................... ....... 96 acres
7. Vegetable growing ..----.............-- ...---- ..-.. ........ 2,932 acres
8. Range and pasture .........................-.....--..........--...... 2,524 acres
9. Soil and water conservation and management .... 2,703 acres
10. Forestry ...................................... ... ....... ......... 2,021 acres
11. Wildlife and nature study -... ......... .................. 169 members
12. Poultry (including turkeys) .................................. 162,539 birds
13. Dairy cattle ... .................... ......... ................... 1,938 anim als
14. Beef cattle ................................ .................. ........ 2,191 anim als
15. Swine .. ....... ................. ....... .. ... ..-..- ..... ....... 4,148 anim als
16. B ees ................ .. ............................... ... ................ 725 colonies
17. Entomology ........................ ............... ...................... 55 members
18. Tractor maintenance ... --.......--------............ ....... 329 members
19. Electricity .............................-- .... ........ .......... 601 m embers
20. Beautification of home grounds ........................... 4,536 members
21. Health, nursing, first aid .. ......... ..................... 2,647 members
22. Junior leadership ............................... .. .... ......... 1,298 members

4-H CAMPS
There were 3,956 4-H Club boys and girls who attended the five State
4-H Club camps in the summer of 1953. Members arrived in camp on
Monday and left on Saturday each week. The geographic location of
these five State 4-H camps makes for easy accessibility. Heretofore, sites
of permanent State 4-H camps have been in Okaloosa, Madison, Marion,
and Lake counties; however, through the combined efforts of Extension
workers and friends of 4-H throughout the State, a new State 4-H camp
in Highlands County is almost completed. In addition to 4-H use, adults
attended Citrus, Poultry, and Farm and Home Institutes at three of
these State 4-H camps.
SHORT COURSE
Thirty-four annual boys' 4-H short courses have been held on the
campus of the University of Florida. The purpose of these is to provide
outstanding 4-H Club boys from counties throughout the State with one
week of training and inspiration at their land grant college each summer.
The 1953 short course was attended by 361 4-H boys from 52 counties
selected on the basis of their 4-H Club work. In addition to courses, four
State-wide special 4-H events were held in conjunction with this short
course. They were (1) the State Dairy Judging Contest, (2) the State
Tractor Operator's Contest, (3) the State Public Speaking Contest, and
(4) the State Reading Lamp Building Contest. All of these contests in-
dicated good work was being done back in the counties.

4-H AWARDS PROGRAM
During 1953 all records submitted to the State 4-H Club office in State-
wide competition were summarized and a complete report was given to
each county Extension agent. This summarization was made in an effort
to show each county its comparative rating with other counties partici-







Florida Cooperative Extension


pating, and to point out the type of reports necessary to qualify the
State in the various awards programs. The reports were evaluated and
returned to the respective agents so that they would serve as a stimulus
to the awards programs and create more enthusiasm among 4-H Club
members.
There were 29 State and National awards programs available for Florida
4-H members during 1953. These awards include free trips to the National
4-H Club Camp and Congress, gold watches, cash awards, trophies, county
medals and scholarships.
The trip to the National 4-H Camp in Washington, D. C., is considered
to be the culminating award for outstanding leadership and achievement
in 4-H Club work. Annually, two 4-H boys are given this trip, while
the runner-up receives a trip to the Danforth Leadership Camp in Shelby,
Michigan.
An outstanding 4-H Club boy from each county has been selected an-
nually to receive a certificate at the Florida State Fair on 4-H Club Day.
A Dairy Efficiency Contest has been held to select the best dairy club boy
in each of the 10 4-H Club districts. District winners received cash awards,
and the top dairy project winner in the State received a large plaque.
In addition, the outstanding county in 4-H dairy project work was pre-
sented a large plaque.

SPECIAL STATE-WIDE SCHOOLS
The State 4-H Club staff promoted a series of five area livestock judging
schools throughout the State for the purpose of providing timely instruction

Fig. 5.-These five 4-H boys received $100 scholarships from the Florida
Bankers' Association, presented by Executive Secretary Floyd Call.








Annual Report, 1953


on basic and current livestock judging techniques. County agents reported
that these schools were very effective in providing needed training for
their 4-H livestock judging teams which were held prior to the State
contest at the Florida State Fair in Tampa.
The annual 4-H wildlife camp was held at Camp McQuarrie during the
week of July 13-18, with 19 counties represented by 89 4-H Club members,
adult leaders, and Extension agents. The purpose of this camp was to
create an understanding on the part of our rural youth for wildlife and its
importance and to instill in them a strong desire for its conservation and
preservation. Those in attendance received organized instruction in the
fields of game, forestry, and fresh water fish management from com-
petent men in these fields.
For the past eight years the State 4-H staff has been holding a special
State clinic for the purpose of providing adequate training for older 4-H
Club members, interested adult 4-H Club leaders, and Extension agents
in 4-H tractor maintenance. This state-wide clinic functions to provide
training for those who want first-hand experience in tractor maintenance
and how to conduct 4-H tractor maintenance programs in their local 4-H
Clubs. The instructional offerings at Camp McQuarrie during the week
of September 1-4 were shared by 38 junior 4-H Club leaders and Extension
agents from 12 counties.

PROMOTIONAL TECHNIQUES
Each month the State 4-H staff prepares and submits a 4-H newsletter
to all county offices. The purpose of this newsletter is to keep agents
abreast of current 4-H Club activities throughout the State, to provide
timely tips on 4-H programs and project work, and to recognize agents
for outstanding 4-H Club work. Response by county agents indicates
that these newsletters have been most helpful in expediting and correlating
4-H Club work between the State 4-H Club office and the county Extension
offices.
County 4-H officers' and leaders' training schools have been promoted
and supported through the State 4-H Club office. County Agents have
been encouraged and assisted to provide increased opportunities for 4-H
participation in method and result demonstrations. As a result, more than
55 county 4-H demonstration teams performed effectively at the Florida
State Fair. The use of 4-H exhibits, achievement days, rally days, county
fairs, shows and contests has been stressed throughout the year.

NEGRO 4-H WORK
The negro 4-H Club program is supervised by negro Extension per-
sonnel. The State 4-H Club staff made subject matter materials available
for negro work and assisted with officer-leader schools and other phases
of the negro 4-H program. Record books, record cards and information
on 4-H Club work were made accessible to negro county workers. The
agents worked closely with negro groups in staging shows, judging contests
and building exhibits for county and State fairs. The State Boys' 4-H
Club Agent employed the camp personnel, helped plan camp programs for
the negro groups, and assisted negro district agents in planning short
course and Extension conferences.
The State assisted in soliciting money to provide expenses for the eight
negro 4-H members selected for the Regional Camp Award. Negro 4-H
members participate in national awards in field crops, health, garden, meat
animals and poultry.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS CULTURE

Fred P. Lawrence, Citriculturist

Florida has 550,100 acres of citrus groves, 69,800 of which are classed
as young, non-bearing trees that are coming into production at the rate
of 12,000 to 15,000 acres per year. Florida produced 110,200,000 boxes of
citrus fruits during the 1952-53 season. Total citrus production dropped
about 9,000,000 boxes from the record production peak established during
the 1951-52 season. Adverse weather conditions were the principal cause
of the drop.
The position of the Agricultural Extension Service in the citrus industry
has been tremendously strengthened through the efforts of the Extension
Service's Citrus Advisory Committee formed by the Citriculturist in 1947.
As a result of unified work by this committee, almost all industry elections
and large citrus meetings are arranged and handled through the appro-
priate county agent's office.
Training Program.-Emphasis was placed on program planning and
training agents in citrus culture and methods of disseminating citrus
information. In this field the Citriculturist was assisted by the Citrus
Advisory Committee. Six subject-matter training meetings for Extension
personnel were held-two exclusively for citrus and four joint meetings on
citrus and other fruits.
The Citriculturist, assisted by the Citrus Advisory Committee, held a
two-day training school for county agents in citrus producing counties.
In addition to the class and laboratory work the agents were taken into two
counties to observe Extension citrus demonstrations.
A period during the annual Extension conference was devoted to citrus
instruction.
Citrus Clinics.-At 11 citrus clinics between 3,500 and 4,000 growers
were advised on individual citrus problems. These clinics were usually
of one day duration. The growers came at their convenience during the
day bringing specimens and their problems for diagnosis and help.
Institutes.-Through one lime-avocado and three citrus institutes an
additional 1,500 growers were contacted and given the latest research in-
formation on production and marketing. These institutes varied from one
to five days in length.
Citrus Schools.-One 18-week citrus school was held in Polk County.
Classes met once a week for two hours. Registration for the school was 291.
Demonstrations and Tours.-The Citriculturist assisted with preparing
and conducting 24 county demonstrations and 12 county tours. The tours
were of two types-one being to USDA or State Experiment Stations and
laboratories and the other to farmers' groves where demonstrations based
on research and grower practices were observed.
Citrus 4-H Work.-The Citriculturist outlined a 4-H Club program in
citrus culture in several counties and taught 4-H classes in budding, graft-
ting, and general plant propagation. Plans were made to get two 4-H
citrus nurseries into the budwood certification program-one is now actively
participating.
The Citriculturist served as chairman of the beautification committee for
the new State 4-H Club camp. He assisted in getting Florida Citrus Mu-
tual to sponsor a $20,000 fund raising campaign for a cafeteria building at
the camp.








Annual Report, 1953


Other Activities.-The following tabulation will show the major activi-
ties and accomplishments of the State Extension citrus program for the
year:
Activities Planned Accomplished
Meetings to be held by State Advisory Committee 4 3
Number of meetings to train agents in subject
matter and Extension methods ........................... 2 6
Number of citrus institutes ...................................... 4 4
Number of ornamental and citrus clinics ....-......... 15 11
Number of newsletters ..--...............-..... ............. .-.. 6 4
Number of mimeographed releases ........................... 6 6
Assist in developing State-wide budwood
certification program ........................................ 1 1
Number of citrus schools ....................... ................. 1 1
Formal lectures to farmer groups ... .......................... 0 10
Prepare and conduct demonstrations ........................ 12 24
Prepare for and conduct tours ................ ............... 15 12
Serve county offices with research data and
inform ation .--........... --...... --........ -- ........-- .......--- -.... 25 25
Prepare news articles, radio scripts, and
mimeographed pamphlets ............................... .... 20 30*
Make tape recordings for county use ........................ 0 15*

Estimated.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRY HUSBANDRY

C. W. Reaves, Extension Dairy Husbandman

Major objectives of the dairy Extension program in 1953 were herd
improvement for efficient production, breeding better dairy cattle, produc-
tion of more pasture and forage crops, development of young folks through
successful 4-H dairy projects, and cooperation with other organizations
for the improvement of the dairy industry.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Work.-The DHIA program was
carried out in 22 counties to provide the members with records for use
as a guide in the culling, feeding and management of their dairy herds
and to build up higher producing, more profitable herds. These herds
serve as practical demonstrations of the value of improved practices.
The following is the State DHIA summary for the 1952-53 year and
for the 1947-48 year, the first year after the work was reorganized.

NUMBER COWS ON TEST AND YEARLY PER-COW AVERAGES




YEAR



1952-53 7,143 6,415 4.5 288 $210 $251 $2.20 $3.27
1947-48 1,815 6,440 4.7 302 227 169 1.74 3.52

The number of cows on DHIA test has been quadrupled during the five-
year period, bringing into the herd improvement program a much larger
number of commercial herds, so that a bigger percentage of grade cows
compared to registered cows is represented in the 1952-53 summary. The
average production of the large group on test in 1952-53 is approximately
equal to that of the relatively small group in 1947-48, indicating that
improved practices have been applied with the grade or commercial
herds on test as well as with the registered herds.
The feed cost of producing 100 pounds of milk was reduced 25 cents
during the period by the DHIA members.
The National DHIA summary shows that at the end of 1953 Florida
had 8,834 cows in the DHIA program, representing 6 percent of its dairy
cows. This is equal to the national average and near the top among the
Southern States.
The DHIA project provided excellent demonstrations of efficient dairy
production practices during 1953. Recognition was given to county, district
and state winners in the DHIA efficient dairy production contest to em-
phasize efficient methods of pasture and feed production, feeding, and man-
agement for high production at less cost per 100 pounds milk produced.
The winning herd in this program was that of Walter Schmid of Tallavast,
Manatee County. Its record and the record of the lowest-producing herd
in the same DHIA follow-(see next page).
The records show the top herd had double the butterfat production
per cow, almost triple the income above feed cost, and produced milk at








Annual Report, 1953 45

$2.02 less feed cost per 100 pounds of milk. The higher-producing herd
owner carried out an excellent pasture program, including a supplementary
winter pasture. He fed a medium amount of concentrates according to
each cow's production and practiced good herd management.









E 103 7,966 4.7 375 $565 $168 $397 $3.36 $2.11
C C9 4,217 4.3 181 319 174 145 1.83 4.13


Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is State superintendent
of official cow testing. Sixteen purebred herds had 384 cows on Advanced
Registry test and 20 herds with 1,175 registered cows were on Herd
Improvement Registry test with their breed associations. These, added
to the total of the cows on DHIA test, give a total of 10,393 cows, although
some are on both programs.






Better Sire Program.-The organized artificial breeding program has
been a big factor in the elimination of scrub or interior bulls from Florida
dairy herds. It completed its fifth year in Florida in 1953 with a total
for the year of 24,691 cows bred to high-production bulls. Started as an
a r-2





















to date.
E 103 7,956 4.7 375 $565 $168 $397 $3.36 $2.11
C 69 4,217 4.3 181 319 174 145 1.83 4.13

Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is State superintendent
of official cow testing. Sixteen purebred herds hnd 384 cows on Advanced







Registry tHarvesting gr and 20 herdsegum with 1,175 registered cows were on Herd
blowImprovement Registry test with their brenclosed ssciations. These, addedwagon.
to the total of the cows on DHIU test, give a total of 10,393 cows, although
some are on both programs.
Better Sire Program.-The organized artificial breeding program has
been a big factor in the elimination of scrub or interior bulls from Florida
dairy herds. It completed its fifth year in Florida in 1953 with a total
for the year of 24,691 cows bred to high-production bulls. Started as an
Extension project in late 1948, the Extension Service helped the cooperative
breeding associations to get organized, membership signed up, and tech-
nicians employed, and gave supervision to the young associations. The
program grew rapidly, with around 24,000 cows being bred artificially
each of t.he last three years. The 195.3 number of 24,691 is the highest
to date.

Fig. 6.-Harvesting grass and legume silage with a field chopper, which
blows chopped forage into an enclosed trailer wagon.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The Suwannee Valley Artificial Breeding Association was organized
during 1953 to serve LaFayette, Suwannee and Columbia counties. The
service is now available in 27 counties comprising most of the dairy counties.
The production of the limited number of artificially-sired cows for which
production records have been reported on DHIA lactation reports indicates
a satisfactory improvement for the heifers born as a result of this program.

YEARLY PER-COW AVERAGES
Lbs.
Lbs. Milk % Butterfat

Florida cows sired by bulls in ABA
bull studs and with records re-
ported in DHIA -........................-. 7,431 4.7 349
All Florida DHIA cows ................. 6,415 4.5 288
All Florida milk cows (BAE) ........- 4.370 4.2 184

The average of the cows sired by artificial breeding association bulls
showed 1,016 pounds milk and 61 pounds butterfat more than all Florida
DHIA cows per year's test. The latter showed 2,045 pounds milk and 104
pounds butterfat more per year than all Florida milk cows.
A few herds carrying out a good breeding program with a production
testing and classification program are selling some well-bred bulls for
use in natural service. The DHIA records prove the value of bulls used
in DHIA herds. Production data were reported and tabulated on daughters
of 27 bulls in Florida in 1953.
The summary of the county agents' reports (white and negro) shows a
total of 3,876 persons assisted directly or indirectly in selection and breeding
practices of dairy cattle.

Fig. 7.-Grass silage stored in a large above-ground horizontal silo with
earth-banked walls provided good, economical roughage for periods of
short pasture.







Annual Report, 1953


Feeding, Pasture, and Herd Management.-Better feeding practices and
the production of more home-grown feed were emphasized during the year.
A mimeographed paper on the construction and use of different type trench
silos prepared by the Extension Dairyman and the Extension Agricultural
Engineer has been in large demand. Meetings were held on the construc-
tion of trench silos, built either in the ground, partly in the ground, or with
sides mounded above the ground level according to the water table. In
1953 more trench silos than upright silos were filled, mostly with grass or
legume crops. A survey showed that twice as many dairymen were storing
silage as in 1950.
A Florida dairy pasture contest was started in 1953 with the sponsor-
ship of the Florida Dairy Association. Patterned after the very success-
ful New England green pasture contest, it provided for recognition of
dairymen with top pasture and forage production with the added feature
of recognizing those making the most improvement over the previous
year and of providing certificates to all those scoring 75 percent or above.
Over 70 dairymen enrolled. Awards will be made at the 1954 Dairy Field
day. The project will be continued in 1954.
Assistance was given to dairymen not in a DHIA in keeping breeding
records and yearly milk production records for use as a guide for feed-
ing and culling. Analysis of the feeding and pasture program was made
of a few herds for information and use as demonstrations. Assistance
was given in conducting the Dairy Herdsmen's Short Course and the Dairy
Field Day, which were held at the University of Florida.
4-H Dairy Club Work.-Three State-wide production contests, eight
district shows, climaxed by the State 4-H Dairy Show, and judging, fitting
and showing contests provide opportunities for the 4-H Club members
to secure many educational and other worthwhile experiences. The enroll-
ment in the 4-H dairy project included 1,367 white members and 134 negro
members, making a total of 1,501, of which 76 percent completed their
year's work.
William Schack, winner of the State 4-H dairy production contest, has
bought and paid for nine registered Jerseys, having started with one grade
heifer seven years ago. James Thornhill, the State dairy achievement
winner, also has the nucleus of a herd to go into the dairy business which
he has developed entirely through 4-H Club projects.
Polk County received the plaque for the best over-all county 4-H dairy
program, with 93 percent of the 86 members completing their projects,
comprising 79 registered and 49 grade dairy animals. A total of 62
established or improved a pasture, and all members carried out mineral
feeding, parasite control, and vaccination or testing for brucellosis. Four-H
District III (North Florida) made a cooperative purchase of heifers which
were distributed by "drawing for choice" in a very successful program.
Two truck loads of Florida 4-H Jerseys were exhibited at the Mid-South
National Junior Dairy Show at Memphis. Florida was also represented
in the National 4-H Dairy Cattle Judging Contest at Waterloo, Iowa,
placing 17th in the nation.
Cooperation with Other Organizations.-Cooperative work was done with
the dairy cattle breed associations, Florida Dairy Association, the State
Department of Agriculture, Florida Livestock Board, Florida State Fair,
and other groups interested in the State's dairy industry.
The following tabulation gives recent results from some of the dairy
Extension lines of work:







48 Florida Cooperative Extension

1952 1953
Number of dairy herd improvement associations ...... 8 8
Cows included on DHIA ............................. ............... 7,921 8,834
Cows on official test ...................... ............................ 1,319 1,559
Number bulls proved by DHIA records .................... 14 27
Cows bred in artificial breeding units .................... 24,308 24,691
Number receiving aid with feeding problems .......... 1,454 5,377
Number receiving aid on controlling external
parasites ............... ..... .. ...................... ---- 2,711 3,781
Number receiving aid on controlling diseases and
internal parasites ........ ................................ ..... 2,747 4,479
Number 4-H Club members with dairy projects ....... 1,384 1,501
Number dairymen enrolled in pasture project ......... -- 70

Includes family-cow owners and 4-H Club members as well as dairymen.







Annual Report, 1953


ENTOMOLOGY

James E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist
Appointed September 16, 1953

The Extension Entomologist began work on September 16 and became
the first Entomologist on the Extension staff for more than 25 years. Major
activity consisted of getting acquainted with people, learning about some
of the problems and needs, and developing plans.
The Entomologist went into a few counties and worked with the agents.
Information dealing with insect identification and control was sent to each
county. Insect specimens were sent in from seven counties for identifica-
tion and control measures were recommended.
A survey letter to a number of county agents at random over the state
revealed that approximately 20 to 25 percent of the questions that came
to their offices during the growing season pertained to insects or insect
control and about 10 to 15 percent of the inquiries during the entire year
concerned insects or insect control.
4-H Club Entomology Program.-The 4-H Club Entomology program
was started before an Entomologist was appointed. During the past year
55 boys from 15 counties enrolled in the new project and 43 from 14 counties
completed. Jim Aitken, Orange County, was state winner and Monty
Haight, Volusia County, was second.
County Agents' Handbook.-A handbook for County Agents is being
compiled. The Entomologist devoted considerable time to collecting and
simplifying information concerning insect pests and recommendations for
their control on flowers and ornamental shrubs, field crops and pastures.
Tables to simplify the calculation of percentages or amounts of various
insecticides have been included.
Cooperation With Other Specialists.-The Entomologist is serving on
the Extension Citrus Advisory Committee and the Better Fruit Program
Committee. He made field trips with the Citriculturist and was informed
and shown some of the needs of the citrus industry. Investigations are
under way that will aid in getting pictures and recommended controls of
citrus insects to county agents.
The Entomologist secured and condensed control recommendations for
flowers and ornamentals for use in both the ornamentals program and
the county agents' handbook.
The Entomologist sent to all agents mimeographed material suggesting
timely application of insecticides for livestock parasites. He has assembled
the control recommendations for field crops and pasture insects.
Teaching and Other Materials.-The Entomologist sends out a news-
letter monthly to Experiment Station, College and State Plant Board
entomologists. Contributions from various Experiment Stations concern
insect problems in the different areas and control measures being tested or
recommended.
The 4-H entomology project record book is almost completed.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FORESTRY

L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester
Anthony S. Jensen, Assistant Extension Forester

Fire Protection.-Much time and effort throughout the year has been
given to educational work toward protecting Florida's farm forest lands
from fire. Educational programs have substantially reduced the number
of fires intentionally set to give early spring grazing. However, careless-
ness and inadequate precautionary measures still cause heavy damage to
many farm woodlots.
Farmers have had their attention called to the severe losses they suffer
from woods burning, and they have been assisted in establishing effective
safeguards to prevent accidental forest fires. Complete fire protection,
necessary for obtaining a young stand of forest seedlings, results in a heavy
accumulation of dry wiregrass that is a bad fire hazard. To offset this,
the Extension Foresters have assisted agricultural workers, particularly
county agents, in developing and making available to farmers specific
information and procedures for safeguarding their woods. For this the new
Extension method of surrounding farm woodlands with wide, improved
pasture grass barrier strips was again recommended and promoted. These
pasture grass strips, when closely grazed, keep outside fires from getting
into the woods. They not only safeguard the forest and eliminate the
expense of annual replowing of fire-lines, but produce extra pounds of beef.
o Beginning September 1, 1953.

Fig. 8.-The Extension Forester inspects the State's first commercial
planting of red cedars.

1. C- .' k








Annual Report, 1953 51

Forest fire protection educational procedures included assistance to
county agents in establishing demonstrations, and in providing them with
bulletins, pictures, films, radio talks, and news releases for farmers having
fire problems. County agents report assisting 2,968 farmers and 534 4-H
Club members in protecting farm and forestry projects during the year. A
steady increase is shown in the number of farmers throughout the State
who are successfully protecting their forested acres.
Forest Planting.-More time was given to promoting farm forest plant-
ings than to any other part of the program. The replanting of denuded
farm forest land to suitable species is the shortest road to forest income,
and the farmer who plants a forest usually adopts other improved forestry
practices, including fire protection. County agents' records show that 222
farmers and 403 4-H Club members in 53 counties were given assistance
in forest planting. Incomplete figures show that over 4,000,000 pine seed-
lings were distributed to them during the year by county agents. More
than double this number would have been distributed if seedlings had been
available from nurseries.
The Extension Forester's chief part in this activity included assistance
to county agents in planning, promoting, and coordinating the planting
programs with those of the five Florida pulp mills that contributed 3,000,000
pine seedlings to farmers. Cooperative arrangements also were made with
the State Forest Service, which produced both the free and pay seedlings
that were distributed through the Extension Service. Other functions in
forest planting consisted of assistance to county agents, farmers and 4-H
Club members, in establishing demonstrations in proper forest planting,
advising on adapted soil types, and timely information on availability of
forest planting stock.
Red Cedar Plantings.-For many years seedlings of red cedar have been
unobtainable for farm plantings. The Extension Service has helped solve
this problem by developing a method for quick and dependable germina-
tion of the seeds. Work has continued on perfecting this method so
farmers can now produce their own seedlings. As a result of newspaper
publicity originating from this office, hundreds of farmers have been collect-
ing seeds this winter (1953-54) and calling for further advice on details.
The Extension Forester made six plantings of red cedar on four farms and
two 4-H Club projects, using 4,000 seedlings he produced in cooperation
with the West Florida Experiment Station.
Catalpa Plantings.-Because of Florida's growing shortage of long-
lasting fence post material, educational work in establishing plantings of
catalpa was continued. The Extension Forester, with assistance from
the West Florida Experiment Station, produced and distributed 1,000 seed-
lings to farmers and 4-H Club members during 1953 and collected 100,000
seeds for demonstration plantings in 1954.
Tupelo Gum Plantings.-The interest of beekeepers continues in ex-
tending the natural range of tupelo gum trees. This past year additional
small demonstration plantings of tupelo seedlings have been made, includ-
ing 50 one-year-old seedlings grown in cooperation with the Extension
Apiculturist and planted on the 480-acre timber-grazing-game project in
Escambia County. Smaller plantings have been made at the new 4-H camp
in Highlands County and in Lake, Alachua, and Okeechobee counties.
These include both white and black tupelo varieties. The first experimental
plantings of tupelos were made in Florida by the Extension Forester in 1943.
Other Species for Forest Plantings.-Work continued on the two oldest
demonstration forest plantings made in 1943 by the Extension Forester.
These plantings include 27 native hardwood species and six conifers. Many







52 Florida Cooperative Extension

of these have never previously been tried as forest plantings in Florida.
A detailed report for the 10-year period of these demonstrations has been
prepared, recording important data for each species. Information was
obtained, previously unavailable, on growth rates, adaptabilities, tolerances,
damages by pests, and other important practical factors. This information
helps answer frequent questions of farmers.
Windbreak, Shade and Shelter Plantings.-Assisted by the Forester,
county agents have continued to promote the planting of windbreaks and
trees for shade and shelter on farms for livestock and field crops. These
protect livestock against cold winter winds and the hot summer sun, and
crops against whipping Spring winds.
4-H Forestry Club Work.-Forestry work with 4-H Clubs was again
given a leading place in the Extension Forester's work schedule. Activities
included preparation and distribution to county agents and others of 4-H
forestry plans, instructions and materials, including various seeds and
seedlings for demonstrations and projects. Field trips were made to de-
velop individual projects. The four group club projects total 1,260 acres.
Other 4-II educational activities included farm forestry instruction at four
summer camps and two short courses, to a total of 328 farm boys. The
4-H forestry programs also included game and wildlife projects and wild-
life conservation. A total of 534 members of 4-H Clubs were enrolled in
forestry projects and 169 in wildlife conservation, according to records of
county agents.







Annual Report, 1953


ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE

E. W. McElwee, Ornamental Horticulturist
Appointed October 1, 1953

Before the Ornamental Horticultrist was appointed, the Citriculturist
did a small amount of work along this line, consisting primarily of clinics,
demonstrations and lectures for home owners, gardeners and groups in-
terested in home improvement.
Ornamental horticulture work will be with three groups--the home
owner and gardener, the nursery industry and the floriculture industry.
Often the same firm produces both nursery and floriculture products.

WORK WITH HOME GARDENERS
During the two months of this reporting year in which he was on the
job, the Ornamental Horticulturist attended two ornamental and citrus
clinics and made two lectures to garden clubs and home owners. About
600 home owners and growers attended the two clinics. They received
assistance from Experiment Station and Extension specialists in diagnosing
and prescribing for disease, insect, lawn, gardening and landscape prob-
lems.
The home gardener in Florida is an important factor not only in
assistance required but also as a market for ornamental products. The
average Floridian spends three times as much annually for horticultural
specialties (flowers, shrubs and bulbs) as does the average United States
citizen.
WORK WITH INDUSTRY
Commercial ornamental horticulture in Florida returns an estimated
$40,000,000 annually, 85 percent from cut flowers, flowering and foliage
plants and 15 percent from nursery products. Seventy percent of the cut
flowers, flowering and foliage plants are grown outdoors or under lath or
cloth.
Several factors increase the opportunity and value of Extension work
in this field. These are: (1) the intensive cultural systems used with
most ornamental crops, which increases production problems; (2) the high
investment per acre in labor, equipment and plants, requiring good manage-
ment to show a satisfactory profit; (3) the exact timing of flowering and
maturing of many ornamental plants necessary to permit marketing during
periods of peak demand; and (4) the seriousness of diseases, insect, soil
and fertilizer troubles, occasioned by intensive cropping systems and com-
plicated cultural procedures.
Principal work with the industry for the last two months of the reporting
year consisted of trouble shooting and advising growers on their problems
during visits to nurseries or greenhouses. The Ornamental Horticulturist
visited 10 nurseries, florists and growers and attended two industry meet-
ings. He also served three county offices with specialty data and informa-
tion.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY ACTIVITIES

N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman
J. S. Moore, Extension Poultryman
A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley

Florida is a deficit producing area for poultry and poultry products.
The poultry industry is a $35,000,000 annual business ranking fifth in
importance of agricultural enterprises in the State. Florida poultrymen
had 3,302,000 layers on hand January 1, 1953. These layers produced more
than 430 million eggs. Approximately 11 million broilers and 182,000 tur-
keys were produced in the State in 1953.
The various educational agencies, poultry associations, feed manu-
facturers, and poultry and egg processors have worked closely with the
Extension workers in developing and promoting the poultry program dur-
ing the year.
Growing Healthy Pullets.-The most important factors stressed in pro-
ducing quality pullets were: Hatch or purchase early (February-April);
use only quality chicks; follow proper brooding procedure, including clean
houses and equipment; grow on clean land with soil; feed a balanced ration
from start to finish; and grcw pullets separate from cockerels.
During the past year a larger percentage of the commercial poultrymen
started "pullet chicks" rather than "straight-run chicks". Farmers are
now hatching earlier than in former years to take advantage of better
prices for eggs during the early fall months.
Layer Management.-The program for the laying flock has been divided
into three phases. These are the backyard or small farm flock of less than
30 birds for producing the home supply of eggs and poultry meat, the
flock of 300 or more birds which may be used as a side-line, and the com-
mercial flock with a minimum of 2,500 layers.
The layer efficiency program which has been stressed with commercial
egg producers consists of these items: 2,500 layers per year, 200 eggs per
bird per year, 60 winter eggs, 10 percent mortality, 210 eggs per 100 lbs.
feed, and 100 percent pullet flock.
Broiler Management.-The broiler industry in Florida for the years
1935-1939 average producing 1,370,000 birds. It has grown steadily and
rapidly to a total of 11,000,000 in 1953. For high broiler production effi-
ciency, the following points were stressed: 40,000 broilers per man per year,
4 lots of 10,000 each per year, 34 pounds of meat per 100 pounds of feed,
less than 5 percent mortality, and market before 11 weeks of age.
Marketing Poultry and Eggs.-The marketing of quality products,
both meat and eggs, is of paramount importance to poultry producers of
Florida. Egg marketing methods are: (1) direct to the consumer, (2)
from producer to a retail outlet, (3) from producer to a wholesaler-ir.
many cases the feed supplier, and (4) through cooperatives to chain gro-
cery stores.
Points stressed in producing quality eggs were good birds with good
breeding, proper feeding, good management, and proper care of eggs.
Small farm flock owners were urged to grow more and make better use
of home-grown feeds and green feed. A system of rotation to provide green
feed for growing pullets and laying birds is desirable with commercial
layer flocks.







Annual Report, 1953


Junior Poultry Work.-Poultry club members were assisted in their
program to supply eggs and poultry for home consumption. They carried
out production demonstrations with both broiler and layer projects. They
have exhibited their eggs and birds and participated in poultry judging
contests at county, district, and State levels. A team of 4-H poultry club
members participated in the Invitational Interstate Poultry Judging Con-
test in Chicago.
The fourth annual District V 4-H Livestock and Poultry Show and
Judging Contest was held in Jacksonville with 285 birds and 30 dozen eggs
on display. The third annual Ocala Area Junior Livestock and Poultry
Show was held at the Southeastern Livestock Pavilion in Ocala and 300
chickens and 32 dozen eggs were exhibited.
The special boys' and girls' 4-H Club poultry demonstration project
sponsored by the Sears, Roebuck Foundation was started in 10 Florida
counties in 1945. Since then 33 counties have participated. This project
gives the club members experience in brooding, feeding and managing
baby chicks, marketing broilers, raising pullets, and care and management
of laying flocks. Records are kept of all activities and a pullet show is
held in each county in the fall and an egg show in the spring.
The Boys' and Girls' annual State 4-H Poultry and Egg Show and
Judging Contest was held in connection with the Central Florida Exposi-
tion at Orlando. This is one of the largest such shows held in the entire
country. Four-H Club members from 11 Florida counties exhibited more
than 1,200 birds and 183 dozen eggs. Thirteen teams of four members each
competed in the poultry judging contest.
Roger Williams of Alachua County was awarded the $100.00 State De-
partment of Agriculture scholarship to the University of Florida as the
outstanding 4-H poultry club member. The Alachua County Poultry Judg-
ing team placed seventh in the Invitational Interstate Poultry Judging
Contest at Chicago.

Fig. 9.-Attractive egg exhibit at the Florida 4-H Poultry and Egg Show.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Turkey Management.-The raising of turkeys in Florida has undergone
a change from farm flocks of 25 to 100 birds to commercial flocks of 1,000
up to 12,000 within recent years. Production in Florida can and should
be expanded in line with demands. The Florida Turkey Association held
two educational meetings during the year. Some of the larger feed manu-
facturers are financing turkey growers. Additional local financing is
needed to develop further turkey raising. Most of the poults now needed
in Florida are being furnished locally by eight turkey hatcheries, with a
capacity of 92,000 eggs and operating under the National Poultry Im-
provement Plan.
Florida National Egg-Laying Test.-Eighty-nine pens of pullets were
entered in the 27th egg-laying test which started October 1, 1952, and
ended September 15, 1953, a period of 350 days. Average egg production
per bird was 231.9 eggs, with a value of 239.6 points. This is about 10
eggs and 10 points higher than the 26th test. The high pen in the test
was a group of 13 In-Cross pullets entered by Blanton Smith, Nashville,
Tennessee. These produced 3,756 eggs, valued at 3,948.3 points. The high
pullet was a Single Comb Rhode Island Red entered by J. J. Warren, North
Brookfield, Massachusetts, which produced 334 eggs, with a score of 363.25
points. This pullet missed a perfect record by only 16 days. Average feed
consumption per bird for the test period was 98 pounds of mash and grain.
Grain and mash were fed at the ratio of 1 part of grain to 1.6 parts of
mash. Only 4.8 pounds of feed were required to produce a dozen eggs.
Two hundred thirty-six eggs were obtained from each 100 pounds of feed.
Mortality was 13.3 percent.
Random Sample Poultry Test.-The Florida Random Sample Poultry
Test was started April 4, 1952, and concluded September 15, 1953, cover-
ing 530 days. The pullet chicks entered in this test were selected at
random from poultry farms of seven cooperators and sent to the Florida
National Egg-Laying Test. Fifty chicks from each breeder were wing
banded. All feeding and management practices were kept as uniform as
possible. Records were tabulated for the rearing period (1 180 days),
the laying period (181- 530 days), and the combined rearing-laying period.
Final results were based on returns per pullet housed, taking into con-
sideration cost of the chicks, cost of feed during the rearing and laying
periods, cost of vaccination, and medication and value of eggs produced,
value of cockerels, and meat value of birds at end of the 530 days. During
the rearing period chick mortality varied from none to 16 percent. Feed
consumption per pullet housed for the first six months varied from 22.4
pounds to 30.2 pounds, with White Leghorns averaging 22.7 pounds and
New Hampshires 30.2 pounds. The ''out-of-pocket" cost (chick, feed, and
medication) per pullet housed varied from $1.54 to $1.89. All entries
averaged over 200 eggs per pullet housed, the highest being 236.5 eggs
for the 350-day laying period. Efficiency of housing capacity for the seven
lots of birds averaged 96.4 percent for the year, ranging from 93.6 to
98.9 percent. Total cash receipts over chick, feed, and medication costs
(per pullet housed) for the 530-day period ranged from $3.87 to $6.15.
The second Random Sample Poultry Test was started April 1, 1953,
with nine cooperators entering 50 pullet chicks each. The chick, feed, and
medication costs per pullet housed varied from $1.52 to $1.86 per entry.
Annual Breeders' Cnnference.-The 1952 Breeders' Conference was held
at the Poultry Laboratory, Gainesville, December 3 and 4. About 40
hatcherymen and poultrymen attended to hear the topics discussed and
to attend the winter meeting of the Florida Hatchery and Breeders' As-
sociation. Topics discussed included breeding for egg production, pro-







Annual Report, 1953


duction of hatching eggs in cages, Random Sample Poultry Test, fertility
and hatchability of chicken eggs, breeding for meat production, and New-
castle vaccination. A hatchery panel discussion and a tour of the new
poultry unit also were held.
Annual Poultry Institute.-The theme of the 12th annual Poultry In-
stitute, held at Camp McQuarrie the week of August 25-30, 1953, was
"Extension's Golden Anniversary Marks Poultry Progress and Looks to
the Future." Over 400 people registered from all sections of Florida
and 10 other states, Washington, D. C., and Puerto Rico. The main features
of the week's program included broilers, layers, turkeys, breeders, hatch-
eries, hatchery management, disease control, poultry association meetings
and general poultry management. A special feature of the program was
a discussion of the subject, "Are We Helping the Poultry Leaders of
Tomorrow?" This was designed to bring to the attention of the leaders
in the poultry industry what is being done to encourage young people in
poultry work, and how the members of the industry can aid in this work.
Other segments of the poultry industry, both public and private, cooper-
ated to make this institute a success.
Associations.-The several county and State associations have been most
active during the year and have assisted the Extension workers in further-
ing the poultry program in the State. The different State organizations
which are working very closely with the Extension poultry program in-
clude the Florida Poultry and Egg Council, Florida State Poultry Pro-
ducers' Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Association, Florida
Turkey Association, Florida Feed Dealers' Association, and poultry and
egg processors of Florida with membership in the Southeastern Poultry
and Egg Association.
To increase sales of poultry meat, two-day schools were held in Miami,
Orlando, Tampa, and Jacksonville, at which time a representative from
the Poultry and Egg National Board discussed and demonstrated methods
of cutting up and displaying poultry in show cases. These schools were
attended by retail butchers, poultry processors, and store managers.








Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

H. S. McLendon
Extension Soil Conservationist o

The Extension Soil Conservationist retired on June 30, 1953. The pre-
vious report covered activities in district through June 1952 and this report
brings the information up to December 31, 1952. These data cover the work
in 54 organized districts.

COMBINED REPORT OF SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICT
ACTIVITIES FROM DATE OF ORGANIZATION TO DECEMBER 31, 1952


Practice
Contour farming ......................-
Cover cropping .........................
Stubble mulching ..... .............
Strip cropping ...........................
Range improvement ................
Pasture improvement .--...............
Seeding of range ..................
Seeding of pasture .................... 1
Wildlife area improvement ......
Woodland management ..............
Tree planting ..............................
Irrigation land preparation ......
Farm drainage ..............................
Farm and ranch ponds ................
Terraces .................. ..........
Field diversions ......................
Closed drains ...............................
Open drains ...............................
Improved water applications ....
Water disposal areas ...............
Kudzu .................... ...............
Sericea .......... ..........
Alfalfa and permanent grass ....
Woodland protection ......-............
Contour citrus groves ..................
Crop rotation ...............................
Fish ponds .................................
Field windbreaks ...........................


Planned
311,894 acres
589,977 acres
498,385 acres
22,862 acres
696,395 acres
1,811,449 acres
20,773 acres
1,639,218 acres
119,569 acres
1,355,678 acres
66,633 acres
142,570 acres
1,599,667 acres
1,047 number
25,343.0 miles
382.3 miles
1,819,260 L. Ft.
14,488.5 miles
232,001 acres
7,759 acres
21,867 acres
5,967 acres
27,414 acres
931,926 acres
16,221 acres
689,270 acres
1,244 number
296.6 miles


Established
239,899 acres
474,541 acres
411,467 acres
12,987 acres
354,261 acres
812,160 acres
7,435 acres
652,176 acres
101,211 acres
1,144,797 acres
35,206 acres
76,886 acres
702,647 acres
755 number
13,935.2 miles
271.2 miles
1,508,450 L. Ft.
10,841.3 miles
145,776 acres
3,501 acres
9,214 acres
2,139 acres
13,675 acres
696,359 acres
10,234 acres
607,740 acres
839 number
152.6 miles


FARM AND RANCH CONSERVATION PLANS
Number
Applications received June 1 to Dec. 30, 1952 ......... ---- 1,064
Applications received to date ....................-.. ................ 22,233
Active applications to date .............................-............... 1,999
Plans prepared and signed June 1 to Dec. 30, 1952 .... 770
Plans prepared and signed to date ................................ 16,526
Active conservation plans to date ........................-....... 14,330
Combined treatment June 1 to Dec. 30, 1952 ..............
Combined treatment to date ............................
10 Retired June 30, 1953.


Acres
583,976
10,418,991
2,274,817
265,381
6,004,041
5,242,082
262,104
2,998,471







Annual Report, 1953


Until June 30, 1953, the State Board of Control served as the State
Soil Conservation Board. The Director of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service was designated by this Board to serve as Administrator
of the State Soil Conservation District Act. The 1953 Legislature amended
the original Soil Conservation Districts Act to provide for the establish-
ment of a State Soil Conservation Board composed of five farmers to be
appointed by the Governor.
The new board was appointed by Governor Dan McCarty in July 1953
and the Director of the Agricultural Extension Service was requested to
continue to serve as administrator for the act. Later the board appointed
an executive secretary to assist in carrying out the details concerning the
administration of the program. Elections of supervisors for the districts
were held in July.
Charters were issued to three new districts in 1953, the Franklin, Baker
and Duval districts.
The Extension Soil Conservationist met with various district boards
of supervisors at their regular meetings and discussed with them the need
for getting additional cooperators to apply soil and water conservation
practices on their farms.
There was continued interest in pasture improvement during the year,
and especially in winter and summer legumes. An increase in acreage seeded
to clovers in permanent pastures was noted. Sweet yellow lupine has be-
come very popular as a winter grazing crop. Annual white sweet clover is
receiving more attention, especially on light soils.
There has been a continued interest in irrigation and water control,
especially on the better permanent pastures. A number of pasture tours
were organized during the year.
The Extension Soil Conservationist met with county agents and assist-
ants to help them with the soil and water conservation projects of 4-H
Club members and to encourage and assist them in establishing demon-
strations in growing soil improving crops and better crop rotations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MERCHANDISING

F. S. Jamison," Vegetable Crop Specialist

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

Forrest E. Myers, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
James Montelaro," Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

Major Extension activities in vegetable production as planned by the
State Vegetable Advisory Committee have continued to develop into a very
effective vegetable program. The return of the Specialist from leave of
absence and the addition of another full-time Assistant Specialist have
strengthened this work. Activities satisfactorily expanded included grower
meetings, crop production guides, work with industry organizations, evalu-
ation studies, local leader training, and field days. Although considerable
progress can be reported, there were demands for much additional work
in such activities as the "Vegetarian" newsletter, tape recordings for
agents, review of research, preparation of agents' handbook, developing
training aids, and vegetable training schools for county agricultural agents.
The need was particularly pressing for a State-wide automatic flow of
research results to the Extension Specialists for effective dissemination to
agents, growers, and industry.
Area Grower Meetings.-This popular activity continued to be an effec-
tive means of presenting timely recommendations and research results.
It contributed to county agent training, helped to inform industry repre-
sentatives, and offered a means of measuring the effectiveness of specific
phases of Extension and research programs. Twenty-two meetings were
held.
A definite increase in attendance and agent participation over previous
years was noted. Increased interest was evident in several new areas and
was met in part by four additional meetings over the number held in 1953.
"Vegetarian" Newsletter.-Four newsletters to county agricultural
agents included the latest research results as presented at field days, con-
ferences and industry organization meetings. One newsletter was designed
to help the reader visualize the complex vegetable industry, the various
vegetable areas, acreages, crops, and planting and harvesting seasons. A
State-wide summary of suggestions on herbicides and fumigants was pre-
pared for use in future newsletters. The "Vegetarian" phase of the pro-
gram was not developed as fully as desired. This necessary approach,
however, offered a means of measuring the popularity and effectiveness
of the newsletter. Requests for more active participation were constant.
Production Guides.-New vegetable production guides were published
on cabbage and potatoes. Final manuscripts were prepared for three other
crops. Two were revisions of earlier guides on tomatoes and sweet corn
and the third was a new guide on celery production. Manuscripts were
drafted for similar publications on additional crops for the coming year.
It was evident that production guides were rapidly becoming standard
vegetable equipment for reference and distribution. This was particularly
noticeable in county agent offices, Experiment Station publications, and
industry interests. Reprints of 7,500 were necessary during the past year
for production guides on each of the following: snap beans, cucumbers,
1 Returned from leave of absence September 16, 1953.
12 Half-time January-June, then full time July-December.







Annual Report, 1953


pepper, and squash. Additional copies of the vegetable garden guide
numbered 20,000.
Florida Seedsmen's Association.-In cooperation with other specialists,
the annual State-wide Seedsmen's Short Course was held again at the
University of Florida. Store and field representatives from several sections
of the State received basic and timely instruction on vegetable production.
Seedsmen participating in the short course represented a definite increase
over previous years, and this was attributed in part to Extension efforts
to determine and meet special instructional needs.
At the annual meeting of the Seedmen's Association, a panel-slide dis-
cussion of key developments was presented to State and area representa-
tives. A production specialist planned and moderated this discussion.
Florida Agricultural Research Institute.-In cooperation with the Ex-
tension Agronomist, a series of meetings was held in six major vegetable
areas to discuss current and future Extension-research-industry fertilizer
recommendations. Preliminary results indicate the possibility of standard-
izing and reducing the numbers of recommendations. Over a period of
time this may result in actual savings to many.
At the Institute's annual meeting a panel discussion for area and State
commercial representatives presented latest research developments in
soils and horticulture as related to vegetable production. A production
specialist planned and moderated this discussion.
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association.-Frequent informal contacts
with association representatives resulted in several mutual benefits, such
as members attending grower meetings, better utilization of information,
and analyzing specific production problems. Such contacts also offered
a means of measuring the effectiveness of Extension, research, and in-
dustry programs.
Letter and Office Inquiries.-Annually, some 1,000 inquiries for vege-
table information are answered by the specialists through correspondence,
phone and office visits. These include all phases of production, from gar-
dens to commercial production, and originate from a wide range of in-
dividuals. A portion of this time-consuming activity was analyzed for one
full-time assistant specialist. Records were kept on over 300 letters cover-
ing a period of eight months. Many related items were tabulated. For
example, 75% of the letters were written by Florida people, 44% were
addressed to the Experiment Station, while only 11% were addressed to
Extension, 57% were on commercial production as contrasted with home
garden inquiries, 55% asked a specific question, while only 10% wanted all
vegetable information available. These results offer preliminary data for
further consideration of better ways for meeting the problem.
Grower Contact Study.-A preliminary survey was conducted and re-
ported last year on growers contacted regarding nine area vegetable meet-
ings. Emphasis this year was toward summarizing data into a usable form,
and preparing and releasing comparable county data timed to coincide with
publicizing grower meetings. This contributed in part to the general
increase in participation through more effective grower contact.
Local Leader Training.-Outstanding 4-H boys and girls who produce
vegetables and are considered local leaders attended 14 short course
sessions presented by the Specialists over a two-week period at the Uni-
versity of Florida and Florida State University. Instruction also was
presented to local leaders and agents in home demonstration work at the
Annual State Council Conference. Practically all sections of the State
were represented at these events. Having checked these groups in previous
years, it was noted for the first time this year that the standard Florida







Florida Cooperative Extension


,vegetable garden reference (Extension Circular 104) was being distributed
to these local leaders.
Radio and Tape Recordings.-Six radio talks were presented for the
Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, Gainesville. Fourteen tape recordings
were made in cooperation with county agricultural agents and the Editorial
Department for use in stations at Tampa (6), Bradenton (4), and Lees-
burg (4).
Grower Field Days.-The specialists actively assisted in staging the
annual vegetable field day at the main station, Gainesville. Extension par-
ticipation also was credited with having an important part in the success
of vegetable field days at Hastings, Belle Glade, Ft. Pierce, Bradenton,
and Homestead (2) branch stations.
Preparation of Agents' Handbook Material.-Special efforts were di-
rected toward assembling and revising vegetable material for ready refer-
ence in a proposed county agents' handbook. Considerable time was devoted
to complete revisions of State-wide recommendations on insecticides, fungi-
cides, varieties, fertilizers, and planting charts.
Other Activities.-There are always numerous efforts which, taken
separately, cannot be listed as receiving major emphasis but definitely
accumulate into necessary time-consuming proportions. Among these
were such items as Agents' Annual Conference Committee, County Agents'
Handbook Committee, instigating research on specific problems, develop-
ing training aids, travel, and reviewing in various ways research in Florida
and other states.

MERCHANDISING FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

S. E. Rosenberger, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

In post-harvest handling of fruits and vegetables a great deal of
valuable research information is available. Likewise, we have a fair
understanding of the factors involved in fruit and vegetable distribution.
Until recently, however, much of this information was not available to the
retailer. The merchandise must be presented for consumer acceptance in
an attractive manner that creates the desire to buy. Surplus production
of vegetables is already with us and we have an even greater potential
to produce.
Recognizing the importance of more effective and efficient fresh fruit
and vegetable merchandising, this project is designated to improve the
produce operations of the average retail grocery store. In an effort to
accomplish at least part of this goal, 29 stores were assisted to improve
their merchandising methods this past year. The Produce School held in
food stores for managers and clerks was made up of four two-hour classes
and was completed by 210 persons. The Specialist worked with stores
in seven counties. County agents from 33 counties reported having con-
tacted 432 retailers for help with fresh fruit and vegetable merchandising
problems.
The profit motive is used as incentive for the retailer to become more
interested in better merchandising practices for his produce department.
"Sell More and Waste Less" is used as a slogan to challenge the previous
record established by the retailer.
Definite improvement occurred immediately after merchandising train-
ing was offered at one store where the produce department was looked upon
with disfavor because it lost money. The produce department was run-
down and without proper management. Records available indicated that







Annual Report, 1953


a gross margin of about 12 percent of sales had been made. This rep-
resented about one-half of what is considered a normal and reasonable
gross. Lack of attention and know-how were permitting losses to become
excessive. Within a month after the training period the gross margin
had been corrected (mainly by inventory control and turnover) and the
produce department became the center of attraction for the store. Customer
response and a profitable operation were more than gratifying to the store
owner.
A group of four small country stores under one management had a
very poor showing of produce sales compared to other food items sold.
The main trouble in these stores was that all supplies were bought on a
basis of price. Merchandise received for sale was, for the most part, in
an unusable condition. Customers had to go elsewhere for desirable
fresh produce or do without. In some cases it meant driving many extra
miles to the next store and with no certainty that the produce there would
be any better. This situation was greatly improved with the regular pro-
duce merchandise training plus demonstrations on how the excessive loss
from low-priced goods more than offset the price advantage.
A small retail neighborhood grocer who participated in the merchan-
dising program requested plans for construction of a mirror-back display
case. He had been using an old, level, dump type table to pile his produce
on and had no opportunity for using water for freshness. He had been
carrying small quantities of produce items, but throwing most of them
away. After completion of his new produce mirror-back slanting display
case that provided for sprinkling the merchandise, his produce business
greatly increased. Sales records were not kept, but he says he buys more
than twice the previous amount of goods and has practically no waste.
Other activities to advance better produce. merchandising included close
cooperation with other Extension Specialists so that production-level de-
fects that show up in retailing would not go unnoticed.
Information and assistance were given to and received from the Federal
Extension Service as needed. Close contact was maintained with the
USDA Agricultural Marketing Service office at Orlando. The Specialist
appeared before two separate classes of college students studying the
fruit and vegetable industry. Also, he represented the vegetable industry
at the annual Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee. Work was carried
out with the U. S. Air Force commissaries of Orlando and Patrick Air
Force Bases to better their produce operations and to train their personnel.
The project leader participated in the annual Florida Seedmen's Short
Course program. He attended and took part in the annual State Retail
Grocers' Convention. A closer working relationship with this organization
has been .established and with two different cooperative wholesale houses,
one service wholesaler, and one independent wholesaler. The project leader
presented a paper on produce merchandising before the Florida State Horti-
cultural Society.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Anna Mae Sikes, State Home Demonstration Agent
Eunice Grady, Assistant to State Home Demonstration Agent,
Training Program "
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Home Demonstration Agent
Joyce Bevis, District Home Demonstration Agent

Home demonstration workers in Florida are responsible for the develop-
ment and supervision of integrated and coordinated programs for both
white and negro home demonstration women and 4-H Club girls. They also
share responsibility for the over-all Agricultural Extension Service program
to improve home and family life.

ORGANIZATION AND SUPERVISION

The State Home Demonstration Agent's responsibilities were largely
in the fields of personnel relationships, supervision, coordination, and ad-
ministration of the home demonstration program under the guidance of
the Agricultural Extension Service Director.
Counties were divided into three districts with District Home Demon-
stration Agents supervising the work in each district and assisting with
the development of a State-wide home demonstration program.
Negro home demonstration work was supervised by a Negro District
Home Demonstration Agent who worked under the direction of the State
Home Demonstration Agent. Headquarters were maintained at Florida
A. & M. University.
All home demonstration workers were responsible for a State-wide
educational program which involved both adults and girls. The program
was based on family and community needs and interests and was closely
integrated. Two State Councils of Home Demonstration Work, with women
and girl members, aided in developing the State-wide program.
Community home demonstration clubs were composed of women inter-
ested in planning and carrying through a program directed to the improve-
ment of family and community life. The clubs elected officers and selected
volunteer leaders or chairmen as activities demanded.
The home demonstration agent organized the clubs so as to be well-
distributed throughout the county. All women living within reach of a
community club were eligible for membership. Clubs usually met once a
month. Programs usually included an educational feature related to home-
making, a discussion of community and county needs and activities, and
some type of recreation. Other features were included as interests de-
manded. All community home demonstration clubs were eligible for
membership in county home demonstration councils and county councils
were represented on the State Council of Senior Home Demonstration
Work. The purposes of the councils, both adult and junior, were to make
and carry out a plan of work and to receive leadership training necessary
in developing a program of improved family and community life.
During the year 12,519 women were enrolled in 493 organized home
demonstration clubs and 17,288 girls were enrolled in 750 4-H Clubs.
There were 29,807 girls and women actively participating in programs
which the women and girls planned with the advice and aid of the home
13 Appointed September 1, 1953.







Annual Report, 1953


demonstration agents. There were 4,747 individual demonstrators and
6,772 cooperators who were not members of any community club. Agents
reported that 25,724 individuals not in organized clubs received timely
information through clubs and club members.
Reports indicate that the home demonstration program in Florida is
serving urban as well as rural people. They show that 42,765 urban fam-
ilies were assisted in making some changes in homemaking practices dur-
ing the year, that 56,018 urban families were assisted with agricultural
practices, and that 4-H Club members came from 3,845 urban homes.

FINANCING HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
The budget for home demonstration work came from two sources, the
regular Extension Service budget and a budget at Florida State Univer-
sity. The two budgets were related to each other and were operated under
the same general policies. The State Home Demonstration Agent worked
directly with the President of Florida State University in developing and
operating the budget there and with the Director of the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service in all financial matters.
Florida State University provided housing, part of expense funds for
travel, office equipment, demonstration equipment, and supplies for the
State Office of Home Demonstration Work and a financial budget which
permitted additional personnel and a pre-service training program for
prospective home demonstration agents.
In 1953 there was an increase of $20,681.00 in funds for home demon-
stration work from county appropriating boards. This included salary
increases, clerical assistants, funds for other expenses, and the addition
of one county to the program.

PERSONNEL
There were 94 home demonstration workers, exclusive of clerical as-
sistants, employed in State and county offices. Of these, 48 were county
home demonstration agents, 17 were assistant county home demonstra-
tion agents, 12 were negro home demonstration agents, 10 were specialists
and 4 were District Home Demonstration agents. An assistant to the
State Home Demonstration Agent in training programs was appointed
September 1, 1953. This was a cooperative appointment with the School
of Home Economics at Florida State University.
The State Girls' 4-H Club Agent resigned February 1, 1953. This
position was filled October 1 by an experienced county home demonstra-
tion agent. In the interim the Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
assumed the responsibility for the leadership of the State girls' 4-H Club
program, assisted by other State Home Demonstration Staff members.

PERSONNEL TRAINING

With the scarcity of suitably trained personnel and the expanded scope
of home demonstration work, there continued to be a need for a strong
program to train workers. A lack of adequate pre-service instruction and
in-service training for home demonstration agents further emphasized
this need.
The State Home Demonstration Agent served as adviser to the Uni-
versity Curriculum Committee on suitable courses in preparation for Ex-
tension work.
Recruitment was carried on at several levels. Interested high school
students were guided in choosing home economics as their field of study







Florida Cooperative Extension


at college. County reports showed that 10 home demonstration agents
helped at 59 high school career days by talking on the advantages of a
home economics education and home demonstration work as a career.
The home demonstration trainee program was continued. Funds from
Florida State University provided for two trainees.
Induction Training.-Newly appointed home demonstration agents were
made acquainted with the State staff, county office organization and fa-
cilities, and with the organization and services of the teaching and research
departments of the University of Florida and Florida State University.
The training included background information about the history, philosophy,
policies, regulations, and objectives of the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service.
All staff members were kept informed on new developments, problems,
methods, and equipment. Training included conferences, short courses,
workshops, institutes, and advanced study. All staff members were en-
couraged to keep abreast of new information and have membership and
active participation in professional organizations. All agents were urged
to attend summer school at the University of Florida or the Regional
Extension Summer School, and to avail themselves of scholarships, national
and State.
During 1953, training included individual help to agents given by
District Agents and Specialists, training meetings on food production, a
workshop on home furnishings, workshops in home industries and market-
ing, and help in food conservation.
Area meetings for the county home demonstration agents, led by the
District Agents, were held to give training in defining the job of a home
demonstration agent and in working on county program planning and
leadership development. Extension policies and regulations were also
reviewed. These meetings provided the same interpretation of responsi-
bilities to all agents and gave the large number of new agents some
excellent information on developing and carrying out a sound county pro-
gram.
ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
There were indications that progress is being made in leadership de-
velopment. The data show that during the year there were 4,323 volun-
tary leaders in adult home demonstration work, 1,514 voluntary leaders
in girls' 4-H Club work, and 68 voluntary leaders in young men and
women's work; 986 training meetings were held for voluntary leaders
in girls' 4-H Club work, with an attendance of 31,129, and 23 training
meetings held for voluntary leaders in young men and women's work,
with an attendance of 271; 2,025 meetings were conducted by voluntary
leaders in adult work, with an attendance of 25,862; 1,892 4-H meetings,
with attendance of 28,102, were conducted by local leaders. In each in-
stance this was an increase in participation over 1952.

PROGRESS IN PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
The home demonstration program continued to broaden in scope and
contribute more to better living for all families. Families were assisted
with plans for food production, conservation, and utilization. Data show that
19,024 families were assisted with planning and/or producing the home
food supply, 20,933 in improving diets, and 21,950 with preservation and
storage of food.
Homemakers and others were helped to solve their clothing problems.
Homemakers numbering 14,486 were assisted with the selection and buying







Annual Report, 1953


of clothing, 12,550 with care and mending of clothing, and 20,532 with
clothing construction.
Homemakers and others were assisted in conserving time, labor and
money; agents helped 11,514 to improve housekeeping methods, 3,464 to
use rural family outlook information, 4,756 to do family financial planning,
and 2,071 to keep and analyze home records.
Families, homemakers, and others were assisted to plant, decorate,
and furnish homes that were functional and within incomes. New homes
totaled 777; 4,037 families remodeled or repaired their houses; 1,373
installed water and/or sewage systems; and 1,157 planned electrical sys-
tems. Families totaling 9,022 were assisted with the selection, use, and
care of home equipment (other than sewing equipment); 5,713 in the
selection, use, and construction of home furnishings; 8,259 with repair,
reconditioning, and care of home furnishings.
Homemakers and families numbering 11,870 were assisted with land-
scaping home grounds, 9,787 with sanitation practices and facilities, 17,180
with fire prevention around the farm home, and 12,198 with accident pre-
vention around farm and home.
Groups were assisted to develop and relate the resources of the com-
munity to the needs of the family. There were 294 fact-finding surveys
conducted for Extension program planning purposes, 372 communities or
groups were assisted to improve health facilities, services, and programs,
175 with improving schools, 146 with improving churches, 82 with improv-
ing libraries, and 354 with improving recreation programs and facilities.
In newer areas of the program, families were assisted to develop health
protective skills, facilities and services as follows: first aid and home
nursing, 3,922; dental health education, 6,504; health education leading
to physical examination by physicians, 7,035; communities or groups
assisted in improving health facilities, services and programs, 372.
Consumer education cut across all areas of living as 29,371 persons
were assisted with consumer information on agricultural products.
There was a trend to develop a recreational program that recognized
the needs of individuals of all ages, the family and community, and that
developed a sound philosophy of recreation as an essential part of family
living. Fimilies numbering 8,282 were assisted with home and family
recreation, 354 with community recreation, and 5,394 4-H Club members
received training in group recreation leadership.
Family life programs increased 50 percent in 1953 over 1952.
There was increased assistance given to families on establishing a
long-time farm and home plan based on an integration of facts, research
findings, and successful folk experience applicable to the family situation
and needs of the farm.
Increased assistance was given to communities or groups working on
problems calling for group action, such as improving libraries, choral
programs, recreation and health.
Increased assistance was given to families in the fields of human re-
lationships and adjustments as related to child development and guidance,
individual adjustments and personality development, better understanding
of town-country relations, and program planning around cultural interests.
As a part of citizenship development and public problems, 5,217 4-H
Club members received definite training in citizenship.
Home demonstration members, communities, and groups were given
increased assistance in improving community organizations, study of
community problems, study of national programs, and proposals affecting
agriculture and rural life and world affairs.







68 Florida Cooperative Extension



CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

Katherine Simpson, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles

During 1953 the clothing and textiles program has received major em-
phasis throughout the State. The objective of this program has been
to inform the homemaker of the essentials for a well-planned home
clothing program. Another goal has been to have each family member
clothed so the health, appearance, comfort, poise, and satisfaction are
at a high level and expenditures kept within the family clothing budget.
The program has been made flexible to meet the needs, interests and
desires of as many people as possible. With ready-made garments high
in price, it is recognized that many families must stretch clothing dollars
by sewing at home. It is estimated that eight out of nine women are
doing home sewing.
In 1953 more than 3,000 Florida homemakers sewed for the first time,
constructing garments for themselves and other members of their families.
To reach the additional number of women doing home sewing, some 891
local clothing leaders held workshops under the direction of county home
demonstration agents. This program was imperative because new blends
and new finishes were on the market and new fabrics with qualities never
before known in textile history were available. As interest in home sewing
continues, a number of new sewing machines and equipment have appeared
on the market. Information regarding the purchase of machines and equip-
ment has been emphasized throughout the State.
An analysis of the 1953 statistical report shows home demonstration
agents devoting 2,996 days to clothing and textiles work. As a result of
30 leader training meetings, county clothing leaders have held 478 meetings
in their local communities. The work done in these local workshops has
consisted of selection, construction, use, and care of clothing. To fa-
miliarize the public with the type of work that has been done following
these county workshops, 1,302 white and 71 negro women have reviewed
their garments.
Clothing has played a major part in the over-all program of 4-H Club
girls. The following statistics show what has been accomplished in this
phase of the work in 1953.
Agents Agents
White Reporting Negro Reporting
Girls enrolled ................ 9,620 49 1,731 12
Girls completing projects .. 5,958 49 1,486 12
Number of garments made 16,040 48 4,978 12

CLOTHING AND HOUSEHOLD TEXTILES
A report from 47 white and 12 negro home demonstration agents gives
the following tabulated results of some of the clothing work carried on in
their counties:
White Negro
Women Girls Women Girls
Demonstrations on clothing and textile
subjects by agents to .......................... 706 1,635 121 125
Demonstrations on clothing and textile
subjects by club members .................. 564 1,177 141 157








Annual Report, 1953


Club members entering county dress
revues or shows ................................... 1,302 2,809 71 137
Clothing leaders in the county ............... 962 919 109 132
Training meetings for clothing leaders .. 76 919 13 13
Training meetings by clothing leaders .. 284 195 1V 16
Clothing exhibits, talks, or radio pro-
grams by agents .......................... ....... 713 43
Clothing exhibits, talks, or radio pro-
grams by women members .............. 429 29
Home demonstration women making gar-
ments for first time ................. 3,017 821
New garments made by adults ............. 162,794 11,215
Garments remodeled by adults ............... 42,357 4,763
Household articles made ........................ 98,889 4,850
Families helped on home laundry prob-
lems ....... .............. ..... ............. 5,122 644
Includes sheets, pillow cases, curtains, draperies, slip covers, etc.

The clothing and textiles program for Florida will continue to stress
these points:
Awareness of economy, thoughtful planning and care of clothing.
Importance of acquiring a knowledge of new materials available on
the markets and the use and care of each for better and longer service.
Importance of acquiring skills and knowledge related to the construc-
tion of clothing.
Learning to dress appropriately, becomingly, economically, and beau-
tifully at all times and for all occasions in keeping with a well-planned
clothing budget.







Florida Cooperative Extension


EDITORIAL AND VISUAL AIDS

Alma Warren, Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist

Through news articles, feature stories, radio broadcasts, television
programs, and the distribution of publications, the State Home Demonstra-
tion Office sought to keep people informed on timely, up-to-date home
economics information. The Assistant Editor assisted the home dem-
onstration staff with their information and educational program through
training in how to write news releases, gathering material for magazine
articles and radio and television programs and scripts, and circulating
films, filmstrips, slides, books, and publications. Assistance also was ren-
dered through newsletters, exhibits, workshops, clinics, and conferences.
Approximately 5,712 of 6,043 news and picture stories prepared in 1953
to give home demonstration information were written by home demonstra-


Fig. 10.-An assistant home demonstration agent presenting a weekly
broadcast on 4-H activities.







Annual Report, 1953


tion agents. Also, 1,112 radio programs provided timely information
on various homemaking topics. Television came into wider use as an
educational medium, with home demonstration agents presenting 40 pro-
grams. A series of three television programs on consumer buying and
kitchen planning was presented as a telecourse with 300 viewers com-
pleting the course and receiving certificates. Farm magazines carried
35 stories about Florida's home demonstration programs.
Motion pictures, colored slides, photographs, and exhibits at fairs and
achievement days were used to present information to the public. A total
of 201,955 publications were distributed to persons requesting them from
home demonstration agents. The State Home Demonstration Office had
additional requests for more than 8,300 publications.
Libraries received a big boost from home demonstration clubs in 1953.
The clubs maintained 58 libraries and assisted 37 others. The great in-
terest and increase in rural libraries in Florida is due largely to a coopera-
tive enterprise between the State Home Demonstration Office and the State
Library. The State Library provides collections of carefully selected books
which are changed every three months. The Assistant Editor and Visual
Aids Specialist worked with home demonstration agents who in turn
worked through their home demonstration councils, clubs, and individual
members in securing these circulating libraries and in housing and caring
for them while they were in the community.
Club members exchanged 1,170 books and magazines at meetings and
added 1,212 new books to libraries. They subscribed to 184 magazines
and papers for these libraries.
Home demonstration club women and 4-H Club girls wrote 2,569 news
stories and feature articles this year, as well as 17 magazine articles.
They saw 201 educational motion pictures and 224 filmstrips and appeared
on 232 radio and 40 television programs. They planned 114 meetings in
the field of art, 100 in music, and 38 in literature. Community choruses
made 20 appearances. Four counties sent special talent to the first All-
Florida Folklore Festival at the Stephen Foster Memorial.
Pictorial reporting of home demonstration and 4-H achievements moved
forward steadily, with eight full-page pictorials appearing during National
Home Demonstration Week. One edition of a local paper was devoted to
4-H Club activities during a youth fair. Home demonstration and 4-H Club
members went on 201 tours for educational purposes in 1953.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD AND NUTRITION

Cleo M. Arnett, Extension Nutritionist

This program is designed to teach the value of good nutrition as a
basic factor in health and happiness and to motivate the adoption of good
food habits as a part of daily living. To help accomplish this goal the
program has been developed as an integral part of the total family-centered
home demonstration program. Integration of the work and materials
at the state level helped to solve some of the problems in the counties in
accomplishing this program.
Work by the Extension Nutritionist was organized around adult and
junior home demonstration programs. Work with the two groups was
interrelated and included nutrition and health, food selection and prepa-
ration, and planning and serving meals. Special emphasis was placed on
increasing the use of fruits, vegetables, and milk; on good nutrition in
weight control; and on better breakfasts.
Families were reached through radio, television, news articles, pam-
phlets, bulletins, exhibits, method demonstrations, meetings, institutes, short
courses, and home and office visits. Continued development of local leader-
ship helped to reach many people. There were 1,137 women and girls
serving as voluntary local leaders in this project during the year. They
assisted 5,961 families. White and negro home demonstration agents re-
ported spending 3,539 days developing the food and nutrition program.
They contacted 76,165 persons individually or through meetings.

Fig 11.-Florida 4-H Club girls enjoy milk on the lawn during Short Course.







Annual Report, 1953


FAMILY NUTRITION
During the year families were assisted as follows:
20,933 improving diets.
19,024 planning and/or producing the home food supply.
17,919 food selection for quality, nutritional needs, amount
to buy, variety and form.
11,569 food for children.
4,696 food for older people.
5,670 good nutrition in weight control.
4,885 packed balanced lunches for school children.
2,696 packed balanced lunches for adult workers.

FOOD SELECTION, PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING
A total of 27,983 families were assisted with food selection, meal plan-
ning, and food preparation. In recent years there has been marked im-
provement in methods of food preparation.
Numbers of families using recommended food preparation methods:


1951
Dairy products .................. .......... 8,638
Meat and fish ............. ............ ............ 10,745
Poultry and eggs ........ ............. .....-.. .. 9,960
Vegetables:
Cooked ........................... ....... ..... 14,789
Raw ...................................... -
Baked products ......................... ....... 10,486


1952
11,177
11,079
11,658

15,669
14,562
12,132


1953
15,800
13,979
17,434

16,173
19,075
14,550


4-H CLUB WORK
The 4-H Club food and nutrition program emphasizes development of
interest and ability in planning, preparing, and serving simple well-balanced
meals, using home or locally produced foods when possible. Club members
were urged to learn and follow good food habits essential to optimum
growth and development. Acceptance of the 4-H Club dairy foods awards
program encouraged many girls to use more milk. During the year 9,721
girls enrolled in and 6,275 girls completed food preparation projects. Dairy
foods demonstrations were given by 130 teams of two girls each and 440
individuals.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD CONSERVATION

Alice L. Cromartie, Assistant Economist, Food Conservation

This year has seen the close integration of the programs in food and
nutrition, production, conservation, and consumer buying in order to better
serve Florida families. Specialists concerned with these programs have
worked together to develop a coordinated program that will tie into family
living as a whole. Recognition of the more common dietary deficiencies
in Florida-calcium and vitamins A and C-has given the program added
emphasis.


Fig. 12.-The Assistant Food Conservation Specialist and two judges
discuss the factors that make quality canned goods.

The food conservation program has stressed conservation practices
which would retain as much of the nutritive value of food as possible after
preparation, processing, and storing. Emphasis has been given to increas-
ing the conservation of fruits and vegetables high in calcium and vitamins
A and C.
The number of trained food conservation leaders in 1953 was 501. This
was an increase of 62 over 1952. The Specialist worked directly with 139
leaders and their agents.
One outstanding phase of the conservation program in 1953 has been
the promotion of fruit in the family diet. Fruit production training meet-
ings for agents have been held by the Food Production and Conservation






Annual Report, 1953 75

Specialists and the Home Improvement Specialist, with the assistance of
men specialists and research people. As a part of this program, the
Assistant Food Conservation Specialist endeavored to train and encourage
home demonstration agents and leaders to conserve more fruits for family
use. The Extension Nutritionist, then, as a part of the nutrition program,
stressed using these fruits both fresh and conserved in the diet.
During 1953 there were 6,377 home freezers in use by home demon-
stration families. This increase in home freezer owners and the increase
of 6,525 commercial locker users accounts for the larger increase in meats
frozen during the past year. Reports show that there were 1,054,592
pounds of meat frozen and 1,036,203 pounds cured. This affected the
meat canning program to some extent because of the flavor changes oc-
curring when meat is canned. A total of 366,295 pounds of vegetables
and 97,548 pounds of fruits was frozen during the year. Canning of fruits
and vegetables totalled 794,087 pints. This was approximately the same
as for the previous year.
Home demonstration agents reported this year that 4,238 families had
conserved their family food supply by a planned budget. This type of
planning insured a variety in the diet and a better balanced meal for the
family. Better care of home canning equipment has also been empha-
sized. There were 2,015 gauges checked on pressure cookers and 619
sealers were adjusted during the year.







Florida Cooperative Extension -


FOOD PRODUCTION

Helen D. Holstein, Food Production and Conservation Specialist

Every effort was made to plan and carry out the program on food
production in such a way as to appeal to and inspire all groups of people
to appreciate what food production to meet family needs can mean to the
entire family. In working with this very important phase of the Agri-
cultural Extension program, families were constantly reminded of the
relationship between food production at home and all phases of family
living-financial, physical, and social.
The entire family planned the production of its own food. This plan-
ning included:
1. Growing a garden to furnish vegetables for year-round home use.
2. Producing fruits adapted to the region as a part of a yard beauti-
fication plan and/or growing a small family orchard. Emphasis was
placed on quick-growing fruits.
3. Keeping at least one or two cows to provide milk, butter, and
cheese.
4. Keeping a poultry flock for meat and eggs.
5. Raising meat animals for a home supply of meat.
Special emphasis was placed on the importance of home food produc-
tion as a means of supplementing family income, of providing a more
nutritious diet and of developing opportunities for family recreation. In-
creased emphasis was placed on a "family centered" program adjusted to
changing conditions, so that people might be stimulated to seek and apply
knowledge in food production. This program was integrated with other
subject-matter programs to fit the interests and needs of Florida families.
Program emphasis was placed on growing a variety of foods based on
nutritional needs, developing and using improved practices, and improving
livestock breeds. Sixty-four statistical reports-including white and ne-
gro-showed that 19,024 families were assisted by Extension agents in
planning or producing the home food supply. The program was planned
and carried out through the cooperative efforts of the State Home Dem-
onstration Staff, county home demonstration agents, volunteer leaders,
home demonstration and 4-H Clubs, junior and senior home demonstration
councils, and individuals.

PRODUCTION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
This phase of the program was approached from the standpoint of
home grounds beautification as well as nutrition, health, and economy.
Increasing the varieties planted was stressed, in addition to using recom-
mended varieties, improved practices, and better management. Many
families participated in this program, as shown below by statistical reports
of agents:
Work Done Women Girls
Planted home gardens --......................... 9,708 2,348
Planted fruit trees and berries ...........-......... 79,007 5,163
Served as garden demonstrators .................. 4,387 203
Served as orchard demonstrators ................... 158 337
Enrolled in 4-H garden and orchard projects 4,377
Served as garden chairmen and leaders ........ 420 375
Served as orchard chairmen ......................... 270 181







Annual Report, 1953


PRODUCTION OF LIVESTOCK AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS
The production of livestock was faced from a realistic standpoint and
emphasis placed where production was practical. This program includes
poultry and dairy and meat animals. Four-H Club girls are becoming
increasingly interested in these phases of the program. Statistical reports
of agents show that 1,913 4-H girls were poultry demonstrators, raising
51,805 chickens, and 864 girls kept poultry records. Dairy projects were
carried by 382 girls and 644 were enrolled in other livestock projects. Home
demonstration club members in 47 counties bought 1,074 milk cows, bring-
ing the total up to 10,450 milk cows owned by home demonstration and
4-H Club members. It was reported that 10,175 families used a quart
of milk daily for each child and a pint for each adult. This indicates that
these families appreciate the value of milk and milk products in the diet,
which is one of the most important steps in the promotion of home pro-
duction of milk and milk products. Families were urged to use the off-
spring from the family milk cow to supply additional meat for the family
diet. During 1953 19,406 hogs, 4,834 beeves, and 3,826 other meat animals
were grown and used at home.
The Food Production and Conservation Specialist spent 159 days in the
field working primarily with county home demonstration agents, assistant
agents, and leaders. She assisted with five area in-service training meetings
for home demonstration agents and assistant agents on fruit production.
Increased attendance of county home demonstration personnel and spe-
cialists at Experiment Station field days, poultry and citrus institutes,
vegetable schools, vegetable and fruit clinics, and judging events increased
as they sought more technical information on food production.







Florida Cooperative Extension


GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK

Emily King, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent"
Bronna Mae Elkins, Asst. State Girls' 4-H Club Agent

There were 17,575 girls enrolled in 1,339 4-H Clubs during 1953. The
girls assumed 4-H Club project responsibilities and passed 4-H informa-
tion to others. The program has helped 4-H Club girls to be better citizens
in their homes, clubs, communities, and counties.
The 35 county girls' 4-H Club councils served as advisory committees
to the county home demonstration agents. Each council, composed of two
girls from each 4-H Club, met regularly and helped to plan and direct
county 4-H Club events. The councils also interpreted to the agent and
leaders the needs of the girls in the local clubs and helped local groups
to fit into the over-all county and State 4-H Club program. Two repre-
sentatives from each county 4-H council made up the State Girls' 4-H
Club Council. These representatives worked together on committees during
the State Girls' 4-H Club short course and members presided at all general
sessions.
The officers of the State Girls' 4-H Club Council held three meetings
during the year, at which they helped plan the annual meeting and the 4-H
exhibit at the State Fair.
The necessary requirements to complete specific projects in the subject-
matter phase of the program were met by 12,006 girls. These requirements
included making an exhibit and submitting a project record and story of
achievement. County home demonstration agents, adult 4-H Club leaders,
and others provided information and encouragement to the 4-H Club girls
in completing their projects. The adults helped with training meetings,
exhibits, news stories, bulletins, achievement days, tours, camps, and rallies
and gave individual assistance.
The 542 4-H Club girls who gave leadership assistance in their local
and county 4-H Club groups worked closely with adult 4-H Club leaders
and county home demonstration agents in the development of 4-H Club
work. One thousand five hundred and sixty-two adults served as volunteer
leaders under the direction of home demonstration agents and a total of
19,537 attended 1,019 training meetings.
Group activities helped provide 4-H Club girls with needed information
and aided others to have a better understanding of the place of 4-H in the
Extension Service program. A total of 273 tours were held for 4-H Club
girls and home demonstration agents, 23 weeks of camp were attended by
1,952 girls, and 428 achievement events were held.
The observance of National 4-H Club Achievement Day, National 4-H
Club Week, and Rural Life Sunday, and participation in local and district
and state fairs, short courses, camps, and rallies helped keep others in-
formed about 4-H programs. These events also provided opportunities for
the girls to develop their individual abilities by assuming responsibilities
in the planning and directing of activities.
Girls' 4-H Club work showed growth, strength, and expansion during
the year. The number of 4-H Club girls enrolled increased by 1,289. Some
576 more 4-H Club meetings were held by agents and 363 more meetings
were held by leaders. Attendance at 4-H Club meetings was 144,706 more
than in 1952 and there were 45 more Clubs than in 1952.
1 Appointed October 1, 1953.








Annual Report, 1953


HEALTH EDUCATION

Frances C. Cannon, Assistant Health Education Specialist

The health program has continued to increase in scope. In 1953 there
were more club meetings, news articles, and radio scripts emphasizing
health and safety. The agents devoted 1,119 days to all phases of health
work.
Improved Health.-Health was an important aspect of all phases of
homemaking programs carried on by home agents. However, there are
certain important health needs which merit more emphasis, such as im-
munization, home care of the sick, and the why and how of physical ex-
aminations.
The health education program contributed materially to the results
reported by home demonstration agents on health activities of home
demonstration members as follows: 13,358 family members had medical
examinations; 5,330 families had children immunized and/or continued
immunization; 3,173 families had their water supply checked this year;
16,208 families practiced correct methods of disposing of garbage; 5,631
families have first aid equipment in the home.
Community Health.-As more subdivisions are developed and expanded,
the problem of correct garbage disposal becomes more pressing. Home
demonstration women have been a big factor in having proper garbage
collections instituted and enlarged.
There are 20 representatives of the Senior Council of Home Demonstra-
tion Work serving on county-wide health boards. Home demonstration
women and 4-H Club girls have shared with their communities the health
education information they have gained. A total of 193 exhibits were
made on health this year. Some of the central ideas used were, "Home
Care of the Sick," "Cancer," and "Safety in the Home." Health skits
were presented at both the Timpoochee and Cherry Lake Farm and Home
Institutes.

Fig. 13.-Recreation for both young and old is important in maintaining
good health.







80 Florida Cooperative Extension

Cooperation with Health Agencies.-In the past the majority of the
health work in home demonstration programs has been in such activities
as drives and sewing for hospitals. The women and girls continued these
activities this year. The records show the following:
Cooperating
Activity Adult Clubs 4-H Clubs
March of Dimes (Infantile paralysis) .... 398 273
Cancer Crusade ....................................... 339 106
Christmas TB seal sales ......................... 333 242
Easter stamp sales .......................... 129 110
Pre-School clinics ............................... 146 52
Prenatal and well baby clinics ........... 79 12

While it is felt that these activities are important, emphasis this year
has been placed on the health education program rather than limiting
activities to cooperation with others. The cancer education program has
been very successful. In one county a doctor reported that as a result
of this program, three home demonstration club women who came to
him for examinations were found to have early stages of cancer. There
was close cooperation with the county health departments, the State Board
of Health, local physicians, and the Florida Medical Association.
4-H Health.-The 4-H enrollments and completions in health projects
were the largest ever reported. There were 2,647 4-H members enrolled in
the health projects with 1,952 completing their work. Definite training
in health, nursing, and first aid was given to 6,769 club members. Because
of their participation in the Extension health program 4,001 4-H Club mem-
bers had health examinations.
Health instruction was given to 4-H Club members at the Girls' 4-H
short course, at 4-H camps, and achievement days, and at individual club
meetings. The mimeographed 4-H Health Improvement Record Book was
revised and printed in 1953.
Leadership Training.-A total of 284 adult Home Demonstration clubs
and 234 girls' 4-H Clubs have health chairmen. Fifty-three health training
meetings were held, with 1,324 attending. In addition, a health education
"class" was held as a part of the State Home Demonstration Council Short
Course.
Recreation.-Efforts were made in 1953 to give some type of recreation
at each Home Demonstration meeting which the women and girls could
enjoy and also take home for family recreation purposes.
County home demonstration agents and club members planned and
directed 594 special recreation activities. Training in leading recreation
was received by 245 women and 673 4-H girls.







Annual Report, 1953


HOME IMPROVEMENT

Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist

The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 48
counties by home demonstration agents, with the assistance of the Spe-
cialist, the administrative staff, volunteer local leaders, and senior and junior
councils of home demonstration work. During the year agents spent 5,523
days working on all phases of home improvement. Voluntary local leaders
numbering 2,879 assisted with the program. A total of 151 training meet-
ings were held for these leaders.
The home improvement program in Florida is designed to meet the
needs of the people for comfortable, convenient, beautiful, and well-managed
homes. It enables them to live more satisfying lives and become better
citizens.
The House and Surroundings, Furnishings and Equipment.-This phase
of the program is designed to improve housing conditions, create a desire
for a high standard of living, and promote good health. The program
includes buildings, remodeling and repairing homes, and adding con-
veniences to meet family needs; beautifying the home and surroundings;
furnishing the home for beauty, comfort, and convenience.


Fig. 14.-These 4-H girls learn to select color schemes and accessories
for the home.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Family Living.-The major purposes of this program are to help people
improve family living by making satisfactory adjustments to living con-
ditions; adopting good practices in rearing children; managing income to
meet needs of the family; making wise use of credit; using human and
material resources for bettering family living; adding to the family income;
practicing orderly, systematic, and efficient work habits; practicing good
housekeeping; providing security for old age; medical and dental care.
Consumer Education.-The objectives of this program are to help people
make better use of their resources by learning to make wise decisions
when buying household supplies, equipment, furnishings, and building
materials; to develop skills in building and in repairing and refinishing
floors, walls, work surfaces, furniture, and woodwork; to teach people to
read and understand labels, specifications, guarantees, and directions on
care and use of equipment and materials used at home.
Results of Home Improvement activities promoted through the Ex-
tension program are listed below. These figures represent work of men,
women, girls, and boys, both white and negro.
Days spent by agents in all phases of home improvement .... 5,523
Total persons contacted individually or through meetings .. 128,669
Number voluntary local leaders assisting ................................ 2,879
Estimated number of different families, homemakers or
other individuals assisted ............... .......................... 85,515
Families, Homemakers and Other Individuals Assisted With
H house building ....................................... ........ ......... 777
House remodeling or repairing ............. ....................... 4,037
Kitchen and laundry improvement ................... ............ 3,534
Storage space improvement ......................... ........................... 3,397
Selection, installation and care of:
(a) water and/or sewage system ................ ...... ...... 1,373
(b) cooling systems ... ............ .. ......... .......... .. ....... 641
Planning electrical systems .................. .............. 1,157
Landscaping home grounds ................................................ ... 11,870 .
Home equipment selection, use and care (other than sewing) 9,022
Home furnishings selection, use and construction .................... 5,713
Home furnishings repair, reconditioning and care ................ 8,259
Furniture arrangement and use of accessories ........................ 8,538
Color schemes and wall finishes .---....................-. .. ........ 8,198
Floor finishes ........................................... 2,000
Management decisions ..................... .... .......... 6,697
Improving housekeeping methods .................... ................ 11,514
Family laundering problems ...................... .................... 8,511
Use of rural family outlook information ......................... 3,464
Planning family finances .......... ................- ........... 4,756
Record keeping and analysis ........ ................ .. ............. 2,071
Family legal matters .......... ....-........ ..................... ...... 666
Families Assisted With
Child development and guidance ..... ................... ................ 5,689
Providing play, clothing and equipment suited to age of
children ............ ...... ......... ...... --- ............ 6,082
Strengthening family relationships and understanding roles
of fam ily m em bers ............................................................... 6,798
Individual adjustments and personality development ......... 3,765
Home and family recreation ...................... .. .. ....... ........ 8,282







Annual Report, 1953


4-H Club Work is designed to stimulate the interest of girls in learning
to do simple home tasks well, in making their homes more beautiful, com-
fortable, and convenient, both inside and out, in becoming well adjusted
members of their families and communities.
4-H Club member participation in 1953 home improvement activity
projects:
Enrolled Completing
Child care .................... ...... .... ......... 2,271 1,391
Home management (good housekeeping) .. 1,340 1,000
Beautification of home grounds ................--. 4,536 3,053
Home furnishings and room improvement .. 2,866 1,999
Units involved- rooms ............................ 2,446
articles .......................... 6,144
Money management training ........................ 6,731
Leading training meetings .........-............. 74
Attendance at these ...........................-- 973
Exhibits by club members .----...... ............ 887
Requests for help with the several phases of home improvement 'have
increased during the past few years. Apparently the Home Demonstration
agents, assisted by the Home Improvement and other Extension Specialists,
will need to train more voluntary local leaders and point out opportunities
for them to help in their communities, if the need is to be met.







84 Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING

Gladys Kendall, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist

The objectives of the home industries and marketing program were
to assist families in obtaining and using consumer information so that
they might produce and market quality products at home. This program
also included emphasis on better management of time, energy, money,
and other resources.
Consumer Information and Management of Resources.-In the consumer
information phase of the program, major emphasis was on buying foods,
furnishings and equipment. In management of resources emphasis was
on managing time, energy, and money. Families were assisted with
problems concerning selection, purchasing, and "making versus buying"
decisions. All county Extension agents spent 1,394 days working on
home management and family economics. The agents and volunteer lead-
ers assisted families in the following lines:


Assistance With Fami
Management decisions ......-...--..---.. ................
Family laundering problems ...........--- ......... ....... ....... .
Use of rural family outlook information ........................
Family financial planning ...... .......... ..... ............
Keeping and analyzing home records ................................
Fam ily legal m matters ..........------....................
Selection and buying food ...... .....--- -. ....................
Selection and buying
C clothing ................ ....... ... ... ..........................
Home equipment other than sewing equipment ........
H om e furnishings ...- ....... ....... ..............................


ilies Assisted
6,697
8,511
3,464
4,756
2,071
666
17,919


14,486
9,022
5,713


Home Industries, Arts, and Crafts.-Home industries were developed to
supplement family income. Use was made of native materials, food
products and other resources of the farm and home. Home demonstration
families received approximately 60 percent more cash from the sale of
home-produced products in 1953 than in 1952. Approximately 90 percent
of cash received was from the sale of food products and the other 10 per-
cent from the sale of flowers, plants, handicraft articles, and services such
as nursing, baby sitting, catering, and sewing. About 57 percent of the
total cash received was from the sale of eggs. In addition to the cash
received for their products, many families contributed home-made products
to charity and community drives in place of cash.
Home demonstration and 4-H Club members reported marketing the
following:


Food Products
Eggs -- ----...........
Poultry ................. ................... ..................
Fresh vegetables ......... ............... ............ .......
Dairy products .............. ................ ... .... ......
Fresh fruits .......... .......................
Baked foods .-... ....... .......................
Canned foods ..-----.... --.. -- ....- ... .....-.......
Total food products ...................... ........... ..........
Other products ............................ ...... .........


Total of all products .............. .....


Value
... $436,185.80
... 76,316.58
30,416.12
... 98,946.67
... 38,649.86
8,819.81
6,489.32
... $695,824.16
. 74,333.35
... $770,157.51


...... ......







Annual Report, 1953


The demand for teaching craft skills was met by helping people to learn
and apply art principles to homemaking and to create and produce in-
expensive gifts and articles for family use and sale. All craft activities
were a definite part of a basic family living program. Volunteer leaders
actively assisted with this part of the program. There was a ready market
for quality handicraft articles that were suitable for gifts and souvenirs
and that sold at a reasonable price. The development of profitable hobbies
and leisure time activities was encouraged.
Families were helped with the following:

Assistance With Families Assisted
Developing home industries ................. ......................... 2,252
Standardizing products .. -----......... .. ........................ 930
Improving quality of products ...................... ............... 1,417
Practices incident to home arts and crafts ....... ............ 7,117

Marketing Activities.-The program in marketing and distribution of
agricultural products was conducted by Extension Specialists in Agricul-
tural Economics, Marketing and other agricultural subject-matter. How-
ever, people who worked closely with the home demonstration agents
looked to them for guidance and assistance in marketing farm products.
Home demonstration agents devoted 300 days to assisting with market-
ing agricultural products. They assisted with organizing 13 cooperatives
with 1,102 members. In addition, 107 groups with 437 members were
organized informally to market cooperatively. A total of 3,602 persons
were assisted by agents with some phase of marketing. Also, 1,824 others
were assisted, including buyers, sellers, and handlers.
Program Development.-The home industries and marketing program
was integrated with related subject-matter. It was planned and developed
in 48 counties by the Specialist, working cooperatively with other mem-
bers of the Agricultural Extension Service, volunteer leaders, home dem-
onstration and 4-H Club members, junior and senior councils, and others.
Instruction was given in (1) improving consumer buying practices when
selecting foods, furnishings, and equipment; (2) making quality products
of palmetto, bamboo, coconut fronds, pine needles, and other semi-tropical
plants; (3) improving standards, packaging, and labeling of home products;
(4) interpreting laws and regulations concerning the marketing of products;
(5) making accessories for the home, such as rugs, flower containers,
stools, lamps, and lamp-shades; (6) making toys and games from scrap
and gifts from inexpensive materials; (7) recognizing and using art prin-
ciples; and (8) how to plan, prepare, and arrange educational exhibits
for use at fairs, achievement days, and other events. Volunteer leaders
assisting with this program included 542 in home management, 457 in
family economics, 163 in marketing of home products, and 703 in home
arts and crafts.
In 56 training meetings the Specialist assisted with training a total
of 1,288 leaders. Agents conducted 20 training meetings in marketing
and 252 in home arts and crafts for leaders. Leaders and others held
1,416 meetings attended by approximately 28,000 adults and 4-H Club girls.
Assistance was given to agents, leaders, club members and others at three
training meetings for agents, at state-wide conferences, short courses,
institutes, and other special events. In 13 counties 297 leaders were trained
to plan, prepare, arrange, and judge or evaluate exhibits. The Specialist
also worked with three county fair committees, judged at five fairs and,
through personal conferences, assisted 11 white and three negro home
demonstration agents with planning exhibits. A total of 4,618 exhibits







86 Florida Cooperative Extension

were used to inform the public of home demonstration work. Also, the
Specialist visited 48 established demonstrations, participated in 40 meet-
ings, and four radio and three television programs; and assisted in 35
counties with other problems relating to home industries and marketing.
Approximately 6,500 persons other than Extension Service personnel were
contacted by the Specialist.
4-H Club Work,-The 4-H Club program emphasized management of
resources, using consumer information when selecting foods, using im-
proved practices and methods when producing articles for sale or for
gifts, and keeping more accurate and complete records. There were 1;340
club members enrolled in management projects, with 1,000 completing,
and a total of 6,731 members who received some training in management.
A total of 2,038 members were enrolled in home industries, art and crafts,
with 1,681 completing 5,698 articles.
Special training in better buying practices and in using art principles
was given to approximately 800 4-H Club girls, leaders, and home demon-
stration agents at short courses and 4-H Club camps.







Annual Report, 1953


NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK

Joseph A. Gresham, Negro District Agent

Negro county agents served 10 counties in Florida in 1953, including
Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Madison,
Marion, and Sumter. These counties are located for the most part in the
northern part of the State, where a large negro rural population is found.
Five of these agents received salary increases from their counties in
1953 and all were given increases from the State. Four have part-time
clerical help. Office space is provided for all agents by the counties. Help
was given by Specialists with outlook meetings, livestock and corn shows,
tours, field meetings, 4-H short courses, judging and team demonstrations,
camps and achievement days.
Two negro agents from nearby counties attended night and Saturday
classes at Florida A. and M. University. All agents were in attendance
during the annual conference for negro county and home agents, October
12-16. Two groups of agents visited experiment stations at Gainesville
and Quincy.

Fig. 15.-A demonstration in power mower operation is staged on a
well-kept lawn of an attractive, comfortable home.







88 Florida Cooperative Extension

County exhibits were displayed by negro agents in Tampa at the Florida
State Fair in February and agents received favorable comments from
thousands of visitors. Seven Extension agents exhibited at county and
area fairs. A state-wide 4-H Club corn show was held in Tallahassee at
the North Florida Fair, a 4-H fat cattle show was conducted in Gadsden
County, and a 4-H fat hog show was held in Sumter County at Webster.
Seven counties held achievement days and farm tours were conducted in
three.
Agents devoted 1,592 days to work with adults, 1,116 with 4-H Club
work, and 257 with young men-a total of 2,965 days. By subjects, their
work with crops took 21.7% of their time; livestock 15.6%; marketing, dis-
tribution, and service organizations 8.5%; community development and
public affairs 6.9%; planning and management of farm business 5.8%; Ex-
tension organization and planning 5.5%; soil and water conservation and
management 5.1%; farm building and mechanical equipment 4.6%; wild-
life 3.6%; and forestry 3.5%. Meetings were held as follows:

No. Meetings Attendance
By Extension workers:
For local leaders
A dults ........ .... ... ... ....................... 66 1,899
Young men ....................................... 26 560
4-H Club ......... ........ .. .....-........ 73 1,233
All other meetings
Adults ...................... .. ..... ....... .. 101 3,409
Young men .................... ............. 20 729
By Local Leaders:
A dults ..... ........~.. .. ....... ..-......... 60 1,365
Young men ....................... ................. 23 670
4-H Club ........................ .. ............ .... 68 1,576
Camps ................ ............................. 3 257

4-H Clubs.-Florida was represented at the Regional 4-H Club Camp
held at State College, Frankfort, Kentucky, the second week in June. For
the third year Florida's 4-H Club work for negro youths received an award
for outstanding achievement. This has helped to stimulate interest in 4-H
Club work. Teams from four counties conducted eight 4-H Club method
demonstrations at the Florida State Fair. A total of 2,752 boys were
enrolled in 4-H Clubs, of which 2,153 boys completed their projects-or
78.3%. Of the boys enrolled, 94.3% were from rural homes.







Annual Report, 1953


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Floy Britt, District Home Demonstration Agent

Home demonstration work for negro women and girls is established
in 12 counties in Florida. These include Alachua, Columbia, Dade, Duval,
Hillsborough, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Madison, Marion, Putnam, and
Volusia. With the exception of Dade, these counties are located in the
general farming area of the northern and central parts of the State.
The State program for negro home demonstration work is directed by
the State Home Demonstration Agent, with one of the District Agents
serving as a consultant to the Negro District Agent. In carrying on the
Extension program for negroes, negro home demonstration agents made
4,300 home visits, had 3,606 telephone calls, received 6,910 office calls,
published 206 news articles, and distributed 9,699 bulletins. As a result
of Extension influence, 2,526 negro families changed their practices to
provide for better family nutrition and 4,093 families made improvements
in food production, conservation, and preparation.
More assistance from Extension specialists was available during the
year, which helped agents to do better work. Two home demonstration
agents took Extension courses during the summer to increase their effi-
ciency as Agents.
Adult Programs.--The negro Extension program was designed to in-
crease and conserve food needs for Florida negro families, provide more
convenient and attractive homes and clothing, improve health practices
and family recreational facilities, and teach families to spend their incomes
more wisely.


Fig. 16.-Negro agents are trained to demonstrate reupholstering furniture
and other home improvement accomplishments.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Agents reported that 84 adult clubs were organized in 1953, with an
enrollment of 1,551 members. Also held were 102 adult training meet-
ings, with 1,169 attending; 682 method demonstration meetings, with
10,156 attending; 12 achievement days, with 12,000 attending; and 14 home
improvement tours, with an attendance of 360.
Homemakers from 12 counties set up a creditable negro exhibit at the
Florida State Fair, and 12 agents, working with home demonstration
leaders, displayed creditable achievement exhibits in their various counties.
4-H Activities.-Negro home demonstration agents organized 126 girls'
4-H Clubs, with an enrollment of 4,087 girls. Four-H girls enrolled for
11,474 projects and completed 9,436. In addition, agents held 166 4-H
training meetings, with 1,994 attending, 836 method demonstration meet-
ings, with 18,859 in attendance, and 12 4-H achievement days, with 5,000
attending.
Eleven 4-H Club girls won honors in the 1953 awards program. This
activity is creating more interest in 4-H Club work. For the last three
years this has been a means of getting girls to keep better project
records. Four outstanding 4-H Club girls won free trips to the 1953
Regional 4-H Club Camp which was held at Kentucky State College,
Frankfort, Kentucky. Twelve county-wide vegetable garden tours were
held and 294 homes were made more sanitary, comfortable, convenient, and
attractive for Florida negro farm families.
The negro county workers make joint plans of work with the other Ex-
tension workers in the county and, in turn, receive cooperation from the
county agricultural agents, home demonstration agents and specialists in
carrying out the plan. The specialists worked closely with the Negro Dis-
trict Agent and negro county home demonstration agents at the annual
negro Extension conference and State short course to bring them new
information and keep them up-to-date on Extension program planning
and development.
The negro home demonstration workers also were given help with
ways and means of developing leadership at the annual negro conference
and 4-H short course, as well as at other times throughout the year.
Annual Agents' Conference.-The theme of the annual conference this
year was: "Effective Program Planning to Improve Extension Work." To
develop this theme, interesting and well-qualified speakers were secured
at joint morning assemblies. These speakers developed such topics as:
Looking Ahead in Extension; Extension's Responsibilities in Strengthening
Home and Family Life; Involving People in the Planning Process; and
Organizing and Managing County Extension Offices.
Each day during the week after the morning sessions, the Agents di-
vided into four smaller mixed groups and discussed how to: Involve
people in the planning process; locate, train and recognize local leaders
in adult work; promote interest through effective teaching aids; and how
do we know when our program is effective?
After the week's discussions, each group made recommendations that
were compiled and sent to each agent in attendance. Each group had a
consultant from the State Home Demonstration Office present at these
workshop sessions. The agents were most appreciative of this program,
which was planned by the two Negro District Agents.
State 4-H Short Course for Negroes.-The theme of the annual short
course this year was "Working Together for World Understanding." This
annual meeting is a joint one for boys and girls. The morning programs
included joint assemblies with good speakers who inspired the boys and







Annual Report, 1953


girls to want to do a better job in 4-H Club work and encouraged them
to want to be better leaders in their own counties and communities.
Following the assemblies, the boys and girls were divided into groups
for instruction. The afternoon sessions were devoted to tours, recreation,
camp planning, leadership training, and council organization for agents,
leaders, and girls. Special programs on recreation, State dress revue, and
candle lighting service were planned for the evening programs.
State Fair.-Negro Extension workers take a very active part in the
State Fair at Tampa. They plan and display an educational exhibit to
show what their home demonstration program includes. Also, during the
fair, the negro 4-H Club girls give method demonstrations at intervals
during each day. These are on different phases of 4-H Club work. This
has been a highly successful means of developing more and better quality
leadership among the older negro 4-H Club girls.
4-H Camps.-The camp provided for negroes has been a means of
strengthening the negro 4-H Club program over the State. The summer
camp program has improved greatly during the past two years. This
year at the annual negro 4-H short course the District Agents worked
with the county and home demonstration agents for better pre-planning of
summer camps.


NEGRO STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from Negro County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Farm or home visits made ........................... ............. 9,501
Calls relating to Extension work: office 14,489; telephone .............. 6,311
News articles or stories prepared ............ .............. ............... 379
Broadcasts made or prepared: .................... ................. ... radio 58
Bulletins distributed ......... .... -- ......-------- --. .. .. .......... ........ 16,956
Adult result demonstrations conducted .....................................-----......... 467
Training meetings held for local leaders:
Number .......... ....... ................................... ............ ..... ..... 439
Total attendance ....... ......... .... ....... ...... ...................... ............ 6,921
All other meetings agents held or participated in:
Number .................. ............................ 1,878
Total attendance .................................. ............... 38,318
Meetings held or conducted by local leaders:
Number ..................... ..... .... ........... 418
Total attendance ..........-....... .................. ...... 8,319

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of different voluntary leaders assisting Extension agents
with organization, planning and conduct of Extension work in counties:
Men ..................................................... 491
W om en .........- ..-- ................... ............ ..... ................ ... 392
Older club boys .................. ...... ..................... 102
Older club girls ........ ....................- ........................ 14
Individuals assisted to adopt recommended production and marketing
practices in subject matter fields:








Florida Cooperative Extension


Crop Production
Individuals assisted with:
Grain crops ...............---- 1,585
Hay and other forage,
pasture, range .--...-----.. 1,223
Cotton and other fiber
crops .....-..... --- ......--- .... -647
Tobacco ... ....................--- 880
Oil and sugar crops ......... 1,030
Fruits and nuts ................... 1,074
Vegetables including
potatoes .....................---..... 2,421
Flowers, ornamental
shrubs .......................... ---- 1,280
Conservation of Natural
Resources
Individuals assisted with:
Soil and water conservation
and management ............ 1,837
Forestry ............................... 701
W wildlife ............................... 566
The House and Surroundings,
Furnishings and Equipment
Individuals or families assisted
with:
The house and sur-
roundings ......................... 3,110
Furnishings and equipment 2,077
Foods and Nutrition, Health
Family Life and Safety
Families assisted with:
Foods and nutrition ........-... 2,526
Health .......... .................---- 2,921


Fam ily life ................... ...... 1,689
Safety .. ................................ 2,867

Livestock
Individuals assisted with:
Dairy animals and
products ........... ............... 1,076
Poultry and products ........ 1,929
Beef cattle ............................ 709
Sheep and goats ....--.......... 71
Sw ine ........-.....-- ....... .......... 1,857
Other livestock .........-.......... 120

Planning and Management
of the Farm Business
Individuals assisted with .. 2,037

Farm Buildings and
Mechanical Equipment
Individuals assisted with:
Farm buildings ................... 464
Farm mechanical
equipment ..........-....... 589

Home Management, Family
Economics and Clothing


Individuals assisted with:
Home management ............
Family economics ..............
Clothing ....----.---------..........--....-..........


2,126
1,519
2,613


Marketing and Distribution
Individuals assisted with:
Information on agricultural
products ........................... 1,528


ASSISTANCE GIVEN TO FORMALLY ORGANIZED COOPERATIVES
AND TO INFORMALLY ORGANIZED GROUPS


Formally organized groups
assisted with:
Marketing and purchasing:
N um ber ......................
M em bers ...........................


Informally organized groups
assisted with:
Marketing and purchasing:
1 Number ....... .....
38 Members .--....-.
Farm and home service:
Number --...
M em bers ......... ..................


PERSONS PARTICIPATING IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND
PUBLIC AFFAIRS PROJECTS, PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES
WHICH AGENTS WORKED ON
Citizenship activities .............--...... ...... --------- ---- ------------------ ........ ..... .. 1,392
Developing and improving county or community organization ............ 1,725
Local projects of a general public nature:








Annual Report, 1953


General community prob-
lems ...................... ....... 1,202
Improving health facilities 1,782
Improving schools .......... 2,205
Improving churches .......... 2,014
Bettering town-country
relations ................ ........ 1,935


Libraries ....... .......... ... ....
R oads ............. .. ..............
Telephones ...................
Community centers ............
Recreation programs and
facilities .... ........
Community beautification ..


195
255
616
769

2,965
1,417


National programs ... .... ............................ ................... 1,1.73
Emergency activities ...---- ..... ............--.............. ........ .... ................ 998

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB WORK
Number of 4-H Clubs ................... ....... ........................... ............ 241
Number of 4-H members enrolled in and completing projects:
Enrolled: Boys-2,752; girls-4,087; total-6,839
Completing: Boys-2,153; girls-3,265; total-5,418


4-H membership:
Boys: Farm-2,286;
Girls: Farm-2,361;
4-H project completions by
projects:
Corn ... .................
Other cereals ...................
Peanuts ............. ............
Soybeans and other
legum es ......................
Potatoes, Irish and sweet
Tobacco ............... ............
Cotton ................... ..........
Vegetables ......................
Fruits .................................
Range and pasture ............
Other crops .......................
Soil and water conserva-
tion and management ..
Forestry ...........................
Wildlife and nature study
Poultry ....... ......................
Dairy cattle .......................
Beef cattle .........................
Sw ine ................... .........
Rabbits ... .... ....................


rural non-farm- 310;
rural non farm-1,307;


370
57
338

153
219
66
200
1,403
234
81
24

49
49
49
1,058
105
126
400
34


urban-156
urban-419


B ees ....................................
Tractor maintenance ......
Electricity .........................
Farm shop ......................
Farm management ...........
Beautification of home
grounds .....................
Meal planning and prepa-
ration .... ...................
Canning and preserving .
Freezing of foods .............
Health, nursing, first aid
Child care ....................
Clothing ........ ..............
Home management .........
Home furnishings and
room improvement ........
Home industries, arts,
crafts .... .....................
Junior leadership ..............
A ll other ....... ..............
Total Projects Com-
pleted ..........................


15
62
139
77
16

1,285

1,153
866
42
583
257
1,486
467

404

580
301
123

12,871


SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Farm families making changes in agricultural practices ........... 2,130
Rural non-farm families making changes in agricultural practices 987
Urban families making changes in agricultural practices ................. 668
Farm families making changes in homemaking practices ...... ......... 1,584
Rural non-farm families making changes in homemaking practices 1,346
Urban families making changes in homemaking practices ................. 705
Total different farm families assisted by Extension programs ........... 2,947
Total different rural non-farm families assisted by Extension
programs ... ........................... .... ................... 2,208
Total different urban families assisted by Extension programs .......... 1,293








Florida Cooperative Ext6nsion


INDEX


Agents, County, 4,5,6
District, 19
Home Demonstration, 4,5,6
Agricultural Economics, 21
Agricultural Engineering, 27
Agricultural planning, 11
Agricultural research, 61
Agronomy, 31
activities, 32
Aitken, Jim, 49
Animal Husbandry, 34
summary, 35
4-H, 34
Apiary, 4-H, 37
Apiculture, 36
Arnett, Cleo M., 72
Arts, 84
Assistance to cooperatives, 12
Avocado, 25

Barrus, Edith Y., 64
Beale, Clyde, 15
Bevis, Joyce, 64
Britt, Floy, 89
Brogdon, J. E., 49
Broiler management, 54
Brown, W. W., 38
Bulletins, Extension, 15
Burgess, S. L., 15

Cake, E. W., 24
Cannon, Frances C., 18,79
Carter, Bonnie J., 81
Catalpa, 51
Cedars, 51
Changes in State staff, 8
Circulars, Extension, 15
Citrus activities, 43
advisory committee, 9
clinics, 49
culture, 42
demonstration, 42
grove management, 22
Institute, 42
schools, 42
tours, 42
training program, 42
4-H, 42
Clayton, H. G., 7,19
Clothing and textiles, 68
Community health, 79
Conservation of resources, 10
Consumer education, 82
information, 84


Cooper, J. Francis, 15
Cooperative agriculture planning, 11
Cooperatives, assistance to, 12,25
County agents handbook, 49
Cow testing, 45
Crafts, 84
Cromartie, Alice L., 74

Dairy cooperation, 47
Dairy Husbandry, 44
DHIA, 44
Dairy 4-H, 47
Director's report, 7
District agents, 19
Drainage, 28

Editorial, 15
and visual aids, 70
Edwards, F. R., 7
Egg and poultry marketing, 25,54
Electricity, teaching, 29
uses, 30
Elkins, Bronna Mae, 78
Entomology, 49
cooperation, 49
teaching materials, 49
Equipment, 29

Family living, 82
nutrition, 72
Farm and home planning, 21
Farm, electrification, 27
equipment, 29
Flashes, 17
journal service, 16
machinery, 27
magazines, 16
management, 21
news, 17
processing, 27
safety program, 18
structures, 27
Farmers markets, 25
Federal Marketing Agreement, 25
FFA activity, 25
Field crop seed, 31
production guide, 31
yields, 33
Field day, grower, 62
Financing, home demonstration, 65
Financial statement, 7,8
Finlayson, E. H., 19
Fire prevention, 18
protection, 50







Annual Report, 1953


Florida Agricultural Research
Institute, 61
Farm Hour, 16
Forest Service, 37
National Egg-Laying Test, 56
Seedsmen's Association, 61
Floriculture, 53
Food conservation, 10, 74
nutrition, 72
planning, 72
preparation, 72
production, 76
products, 84
selection, 72
Forest planting, 51
Forestry, 50
4-H, 52,18
Forests, farm, 10
Foreign visitors, training, 10
4-H Club activities, 38
agronomy, 32
animal husbandry, 34
apiary, 37
awards program, 39
boys, 38
camps, 39
citrus, 42
dairy, 47
electric program, 29
enrollment, 7
entomology, 49
forestry, 52
girls, 78
health, 80
home furnishing, 83
home industries, 86
marketing, 24
negro, 88
promotional techniques, 41
short courses, 39,90
state-wide schools, 40
work, 10,41
summary, 13
Fruit and vegetable association, 61
Fruit production, 76
Furnishing, house, 81

Girls' 4-H, 78
Godwin, G. M., 38
Goen, O. F., 34
Grady, Eunice, 8,64
Gresham, J. A., 87
Grove management, 22
Grower contact study, 61
Grower field days, 62
meetings, 60


Growing pullets, 54
Hamilton, H. G., 21
Hampson, C. M., 21.
Haynie, J. D., 36
Health cooperation, 80
education, 79
leadership, 80
recreation, 80
Henderson, J. R., 31
Herd management, 47
Holstein, Helen D., 76
Holloway, Ethyl, 64
Home demonstration accomplish-
ments, 66
activities, 66
financing, 65
organization, 64
personnel, 65
program development, 66
progress, 66
supervision, 64
training, 66
Home equipment, 29
furnishings, 82
gardener, 53
improvement, 81
industries, 84
marketing, 84
planning, 21
program development, 85
Honey cooperative, 37
jelly, 36
marketing, 25
production, 36
state and county fairs, 37
Tupelo, 37
House equipment, 81
furnishings, 81
Household textiles, 68

Irrigation, 28

Jamison, F. S., 60
Jensen, A. S., 50
Johnson, J. M., 27
Joiner, J. N., 15

King, Emily, 78

Lawrence, Fred P., 42
Layer management, 54
Lighting, 28
Livestock production, 77

McElwee, E. W., 53
McLendon, H. S., 58
McMullen, K. S., 19







96 Florida Coop

Machinery, farm, 27
Management, citrus grove, 22
resources, 84
Marketing, 24
activities, 85
agreements, 25
avocado, 25
eggs and poultry, 25
home, 84
honey, 25
outlook, 26
potatoes, 25
poultry and eggs, 54
Markets, farmers, 25
Materials, teaching, 49
Meal planning, 72
Mehrhof, N. R., 54
Merchandising, 62
Methods, teaching, 22
Montelaro, James, 60
Moore, J. S., 54
Murphree, Clyde E., 21
Myers, F. E., 60

Negro adult programs, 89
agents' conference, 90
farm demonstration work, 87
4-H activities, 41,90
4-H Camps, 91
4-H Clubs, 88
home demonstration work, 89
statistical report, 91
Newspaper service, 16
Nieland, L. T., 18,50
Nursery industry, 53
Nutrition, 72

Organization, home demon-
stration, 64
Ornamental Horticulture, 53
O'Steen, A. W., 54
Outlook, 21

Pace, J. E., 34
Parvin, F. W., 7
Pasture management, 47
Perry, F. S., 19
Personnel training, 9
Pettis, A. M., 28
Planning, cooperatively, 11
Planting forests, 10
Platt, W. J., Jr., 19
Point IV Program, 11
Potato marketing, 25
Poultry, 54,56
association, 57
Institute, 57


erative Extension


Power supplier cooperation, 29
Processing facilities, 27
Production guides, 60,31
Production, honey, 36
Programs, development, 9
Publications, list, 15
Pullets, growing, 54

Radio, 16,62
Reaves, C. W., 44
Recordings, tape, 16
Resource management, 84
Retired farmers, 21
Rosenberger, S. E., 62

Safety, 18
Savage, Zach, 22
Seed, crop, 31
Shelter plantings, 52
Sikes, Anna Mae, 64
Simpson, Katherine, 68
Skinner, T. C., 27
Smith, J. Lee, 19
Soil and water conservation, 10,58
State fair, 91
State organizations, 25
State programs, development, 9
Statistical report, 11
Structures, farm, 27
Supervision, home demonstration, 64

Tape recordings, 16,62
Teaching methods, 22
Telephones, rural, 30
Testing cow, 45
Textiles, 68
Training of foreign visitors, 10
Training personnel, 9
Training programs, electricity, 29
Tupelo gum, 51
honey, 37
Turkey management, 56
TV, 16

Vegetable activities, 62
Advisory Committee, 9
field days, 62
merchandising, 60
production, 60,76
training, 61
Visual aid equipment, 15

Warren, Alma, 70
Watkins, M. O., 7
Wildlife management, 10
Windbreaks, 52
Wiring, 28