<%BANNER%>
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 Director's report for Florida
 Publications, news, radio
 Safety and fire prevention
 Supervision of county agents
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering and farm...
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry
 Apiculture
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citrus culture
 Animal husbandry
 Forestry
 Poultry activities
 Soil and water conservation
 Vegetable production and merch...
 Home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Editorial and visual aids
 Food and nutrition
 Food conservation
 Food production
 Girls' 4-H club work
 Health education
 Home improvement
 Home industries and marketing
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00013
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1952
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00013
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Director's report for Florida
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Publications, news, radio
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Safety and fire prevention
        Page 19
    Supervision of county agents
        Page 20
    Agricultural economics
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Agricultural engineering and farm electrification
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Agronomy
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Animal husbandry
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Apiculture
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Citrus culture
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Animal husbandry
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Forestry
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Poultry activities
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Soil and water conservation
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Vegetable production and merchandising
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Home demonstration work
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 60
    Editorial and visual aids
        Page 61
    Food and nutrition
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Food conservation
        Page 64
    Food production
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Girls' 4-H club work
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Health education
        Page 69
    Home improvement
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Home industries and marketing
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Index
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
Full Text








COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
H. G. CLAYTON, DIRECTOR









1952 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1952
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1952







BOARD OF CONTROL
Frank M. Harris, Chairman Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
St. Petersburg W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
Hollis Rinehart, Miami Geo. W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
George J. White, Sr., Mt. Dora Mrs. Jessie B. duPont, Jacksonville
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President of the University
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture 1
H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension
Marshall O. Watkins, M. Agr., Assistant Director
F. W. Parvin, M.S.A., Assistant to the Director 2
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative Assistant1
Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor 1
L. O. Griffith, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor'
J. Lee Smith. District Agent
K. S. McMullen, M.Agr., District Agent
F. S. Perry, B.S.A., District Agent
H. S. McLendon, B.A.. Soil Conservationist
R. S. Dennis, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.'
C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. Mehrhof, M. Agr., Poultry Husbandman 1
J. S. Moore, M.S.A., Poultryman"
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist1
O. F. Goen, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman
J. E. Pace, M.S.A., Assistant Animal Industrialist
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist'
Charles M. Hampson, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. Timmons, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing 2
E. W. Cake, Ph.D., Marketing Economist
Clyde E. Murphree, M.S., Assistant Economist2
Fred P. Lawrence, B.S.A., Citriculturist
W. W. Brown, B.S.A., Boys' 4-H Club Agent
John M. Johnson, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist'
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist1
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D.. Vegetable Crops Specialist1 2
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Acting Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M. Agr., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Forrest E. Myers, M. Agr., Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist
Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Agent
Ethyl Holloway, B.S., District Agent
Mrs. Edyth Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., District Agent
Joyce Bevis, A.M., District Agent
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
Lorene Stevens, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, B.S.H.E., Assistant Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Cleo M. Arnett, M.S., Extension Nutritionist
Helen D. Holstein, M.S., Food Conservation Specialist
Alice L. Cromartie, M.S., Assistant Economist in Food Conservation
Katherine Simpson, M.S., Extension Clothing Specialist
Alma Warren, M.S., Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist
Frances C. Cannon, M.S., Health Education Specialist
Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent
1 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F. 2 On leave. In cooperation with U. S.










CONTENTS
Page
Director's Report for Florida ................................ ................. 7
Statistical Report ...................-..... .. ........-.... ..... ...... ...... 11
Publications, News, Radio ............................. .. ......... ......... ....... 15
Safety and Fire Prevention ....................................... ............ 19
Supervision of County Agents .................. ................. ............ ....... ... 20
Agricultural Econom ics ............................................................. 21
Farm Management Activities --.......................... ........ ...... 21
Citrus Grove Management ....................................................... 22
M marketing ................................. ........................................ ........................ 23
Agricultural Engineering and Farm Electrification .................................... 25
Agricultural Engineering ............................. .......... ............. 25
Farm Electrification ...................... ----.----- -- ....---- .....-- .. 29
Agronomy ........................... --.....-.-...... ..................... 32
A nim al H usbandry .............................................................................. 34
A piculture ............................................................ ...... 36
Boys' 4-H Club Work ................. ..... ---. --- .................... 38
Citrus Culture ......;.................... .. ... ... ....................... 41
Dairy Husbandry ........................................................... 43
Forestry ................---------------- ............-...--... .... ....- -...--- 47
Poultry A activities ........................................ .......................... ........................ 49
Soil and W after Conservation ................................------.....---.... 52
Vegetable Production and Merchandising .............-......-- .........----- ..-- ... 54
Vegetable Production ......................... .. ................. ........ 54
Vegetable Merchandising ........-..............--------.. -------. 56
Home Demonstration Work .....................----------------..... 57
Clothing and Textiles ........................--.....- ------ ---------------- 60
Editorial and Visual Aids .............................. ----- ------ ....----- 61
Food and Nutrition ............................----- .---........ .. --- 62
Food Conservation .............-.............-- .-----------..---- 64
Food Production .............................------ ---....---------- 65
Girls' 4-H Club Work ..............--- ..---.... ....- --- ----..-----.. 67
Health Education ....................-- ..............--- -----....-------- 69
Home Improvement .................... ------------------------ 70
Home Industries and Marketing ...............--...........-------.... ----.... 73
Negro Farm Demonstration Work ....................-...--..---.---------. 76
Negro Home Demonstration W ork ............................. ............-...--- 78
Negro Statistical Report, Men and W omen ............................................... 79



[3]







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of November 30, 1952)

COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT
Alachua...........Loonis Blitch...................Gainesville..-Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua
(Asst.)..........Lester W. Kalch............Gainesville..................Miss Zena Cox
Baker.................G. T. Huggins........-----........Macclenny .............------- ------
Bay ................... .A. Sorenson................ Panama City-
Miss Emma L. Stevenson
Bradford.......... .....................-. ------------ Starke................Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard............J. T. Oxford...................Cocoa...................---Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward............B. E. Lawton.................---Ft. Lauderdale........Miss Louise Taylor
Broward
(Asst.)..........Robert S. Pryor..............Ft. Lauderdale.......................-------
Calhoun............Thomas B. Jones............Blountstown........Miss Nancy E. White
Calhoun
(Asst.)..........Horace M. Carr.............Blountstown ..---- ------..................
Charlotte..........N. H. McQueen.............--Punta Gorda.........------......... -----
Citrus---..............Quentin Medlin...............Inverness.........Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Citrus (Asst.).Edsel W. Rowan.............Inverness ........................................
Clay...................Charles C. Below.....-.....Green Cove Springs-
Mrs. Sue P. Murphy
Columbia................................ ....-----......Lake City............Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia
(Asst.)..........Neal M. Dukes-...............Lake City ....-......................
Dade --..............C. H. Steffani.................Miami.---.......... Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.)...J. Lawrence Edwards...Miami............-------................Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.)..John D. Campbell..........Homestead -------........................
Dade (Asst.)...Rayburn K. Price.......... Miami....................Mrs. Ruth T. Penner
DeSoto..............W. L. Woods--- --....................Arcadia .. ..................
Dixie.................. 0. Harrison..-----..........Cross City.......- ................. ...
Duval................James N. Watson......... Jacksonville............Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.).Wm. E. Kloeppel...........Jacksonville....Miss Betty Lou Nuttle
Duval (Asst.).............-------------------- Jacksonville...Miss Louise M. Spaeth
Escambia..........E. N. Stephens..............Pensacola............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia
(Asst.)..........Henry P. Davis...............Pensacola----......... Mrs. Lucy M. Gray
Gadsden............A. G. Driggers.......----....... Quincy................Miss Elise Laffitte
Gadsden
(Asst.)..........Bernard H. Clark..........Quincy........Mrs. Marjorie B. Gregory
Gilchrist............Harry E. George...........Trenton ....................................
Glades...............A. G. Hutchinson...........Moore Haven............................
Gulf...................C. R. Laird..-------...................Wewahitchka .....Miss Ruth L. Milton
Hamilton..........A. E. Nesmith.................Jasper ..-- ----------------
Hardee.............E. H. Vance....................Wauchula....Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Hendry.............,H. L. Johnson.................LaBelle ............ .......................
Hernando..........Harry J. Brinkley..........Brooksville .........................................
Highlands.......V. T. Oxer--..................... Sebring............Miss Catherine Brabson
Highlands
(Asst.).........Bert J. Harris, Jr.........Sebring ....................................
Hillsborough....Alec White.......................Tampa............................Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsborough
(Asst.).........Edwin Booth..................Tam pa ........................................ ..







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)

COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT
Hillsborough
(Asst.)......... Jean Beem..................... Tampa ............. .-------------
Hillsborough
(Asst.).........Neal B. Witmer--..........Tampa ................................
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........J. 0. Armor.....................Plant City....................--- -- Miss Emily King
Hillsborough
(Asst.)...................................................Ruskin-- ---- Miss Ethel Weeks
Holmes
(Acting).......John C. Russell...............Bonifay----..................Mrs. Anita B. Davis
Indian River...Marcel A. Boudet..........Vero Beach........................
Jackson.............Woodrow W. Glenn-.......Marianna............Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson
(Asst.) .........William C. Zorn.............Marianna ....... ........................
Jefferson...........Albert H. Odom..............Monticello..........Mrs. Mary C. McLeod
Lafayette..........S. L. Brothers---...............Mayo ....................--.............
Lake .................R. E. Norris-...................Travares-..... Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake (Asst.)..Jack T. McCown.............Tavares..........Miss Martha C. Burdine
Lee...................C. P. Heuck.....................Fort Myers ...............--------------...
Leon..................James L. Rhoden...........Tallahassee............Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Leon (Asst.)...Donald E. Adams..........Tallahassee .......
Levy.................T. D. Rickenbaker ........Bronson...Miss Margaret M. Godfrey
Liberty..............Horace M. Carr..............Bristol........Mrs. Camilla R. Alexander
Madison............Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr..-Madison............Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee............Wilson H. Kendrick.......Palmetto................Mrs. Anne D. Davis
Manatee
(Asst.).........Johnnie F. Barco............Palmetto ...............................
Manatee
(Asst.)..........Robert G. Curtis............Palmetto ...........................
Marion..............A. David Baillie, Jr.......Ocala....................Miss Allie Lee Rush
Marion
(Asst.)..........Carey A. Robbins...........Ocala........Miss Catherine S. Prevedel
Martin...............L. M. Johnson----................ Stuart..................Mrs. Lucile I. Clagett
Nassau-.............Gordon B. Ellis----...............Hilliard............Mrs. Julia P. Jernagan
Okaloosa...........Alexander H.
Clemmons.....................Crestview ...... --......................
Okeechobee......C. R. Boyles.....................Okeechobee ....... ....................
Orange.............. E. Baetzman.............. Orlando....Miss Marjorie K. Ludeman
Orange(Asst.) Henry F. Swanson.........Orlando....Miss Nancy R. Watlington
Osceola............ R. Gunn-------........................Kissimmee........Miss Muriel A. Beck
Palm Beach....M. U. Mounts................West Palm Beach....Miss Sara Horton
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........John H. Causey.-.............est Palm Beach--
Miss Elizabeth Hudson
Palm Beach......
(Asst.)..........H. L. Speer-----....................Belle Glade...... -....... ............
Pasco...............J. F. Higgins..................Dade City............Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
Pasco (Asst.).James B. Smith.............Dade City ............ .....................
Pinellas............J. H. Logan....................-----Clearwater-
Mrs. Charlotte M. Lattimer
Pinellas
(Asst.)..........L. E. Cunningham.........Clearwater........Mrs. Ruth Ann Ferris







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)

COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT
Polk ..................W. P. Hayman................Bartow............Mrs. Minnie M. Carlton
Polk (Asst.)....Thomas W. Sparks........Bartow................Miss Doris E. Frazier
Polk (Asst.)....Earl M. Kelly---....---.... Bartow ...............---------------
Polk (Asst.)...Jackson A. Haddox.......Bartow ....-----.........
Putnam.............H. E. Maltby-...-...........--Palatka....Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam (Asst.)Ralph T. Clay...............Palatka ..............................................
Saint Johns....P. R. McMullen...........-..-St. Augustine........Miss Anna E. Heist
Saint Lucie......Charles D. Kime.............Fort Pierce....Miss Sammie J. Kilgore
Santa Rosa......Emmett D. McCall-.......Milton-...... .....--- Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa
(Asst.)..........Grant M. Godwin-........ Milton .............
Sarasota...........Kenneth A. Clark-.........Sarasota............Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Sarasota
(Asst.)..........Frank L. Polhill..........Sarasota ....................................... ...
Seminole...........C. R. Dawson................Sanford-..........---Miss Lila Woodard
Sumter..............O. M. Maines, Jr...........Bushnell.Miss Magdalene M. Downey
Sumter(Asst.)W ilburn C. Farrell........Bushnell ......................................---- ...
Suwannee.........Floyd L. Eubanks..........Live Oak............Miss Esther B. Foster
Suwannee
(Asst.)..........Leonard C. Cobb.............Live Oak .................................... ....
Taylor...............S. C. Kierce....................-Perry......Mrs. Ruth McKeown Elkins
Union................ W illiam J. Cowen.........Lake Butler........................... ......
Volusia..............William J. Platt, Jr ..... DeLand....................-----Mrs. Edna L. Eby
Volusia
(Asst.)..........Thomas R. Townsend..DeLand ..................................
Wakulla...........A. S. Laird--....-.. ------.Crawfordville ....................................
Walton..............Mitchell Wilkins.............DeFuniak Springs-
Mrs. Florence M. Gatlin
Washington......Johnnie E. Davis...........Chipley..............Mrs. Mary L. Minchin



NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS

COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT
Alachua.............English M. Greene.........Gainesville..............Leontine Williams
Columbia.........McKinley Jeffers............Lake City.....................Gladys Wilkins
Dade..................-----.. --------.............. Miami----........ Victoria M. Simpson
Duval................. --........................................ Jacksonville..................Ethel M. Powell
Gadsden............Russell Stephens ...........Quincy....................Ursula H. Williams
Hamilton...........Isaac Chandler, Jr.......- White Springs.............................
Hillsboro-....------............--------a-----Tampa.--------... Sudella J. Ford
Jackson.............Virgil Elkins.................. Marianna..............Virginia V. Dickens
Jefferson...........M. E. Groover-..-............Monticello .------.............. ---------
Leon..................Richard A. Hartsfield....Tallahassee......................Irie Mae Clark
Madison............James C. Miller.............. Madison........................Lola E. Preston
Marion..............Eugene P. Smith............Ocala .................................----- ..
Marion............................--...........................Reddick-.. ..-- ......---- Idella R. Kelly
Putnam.......................................................Palatka-------- Mary E. Jones
Sumter..............Richard L. Bradley.......Bushnell ............................... ............
Volusia .....................------............. DeLand....-------.. Ida T. Pemberton









DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR FLORIDA

H. G. Clayton, Director
Marshall O. Watkins, Assistant Director
F. W. Parvin, Assistant to the Director 1

This report contains in briefed form an outline of various phases of
Extension work carried on in 1952. Additional and more complete infor-
mation is available but has not been included, due to the need for keeping
the length of this report within reasonable limits.
Florida is making rapid advancements in such agricultural fields as
mechanization, pesticides, improved varieties of crops and higher pro-
ducing livestock. As a result, the entire field of agriculture is becoming
more specialized and managing the farm business is a highly complicated
operation. It is more necessary than ever that Extension personnel be
well qualified professionally so they may keep abreast of progress in
research and carry out effective Extension programs.
Sixty-four counties are now served by county agents and 47 by county
home demonstration agents. There are 40 assistant county agents and
15 assistant home demonstration agents.
During the year three additional assistant county agents, one assistant
home demonstration agent and two county clerks were added to county
staffs. Most of the necessary additional funds for these increases were
provided from county sources. A number of other counties requested
additional county Extension agents to provide needed educational pro-
grams in fields not now adequately covered. Such requests included
home demonstration agents in some of the 20 counties not now having
this work and assistant agents in counties where the present county
Extension staff is unable to carry out needed programs in certain fields
due to the existing heavy work load per worker. These counties agreed
to provide the usual county portion of the cost of employing such additional
workers. However, necessary state and federal funds were not available
to match county appropriations and supply the needed workers.
The specialist staff is responsible for providing county workers with
new research information in various subject-matter fields. Men specialists
are housed at the University of Florida and women specialists at Florida
State University. At present one specialist covers the entire state in
most fields and in others, such as entomology, no specialist is employed.
This creates a serious gap in the effective passage of information to the
field. It was not possible to add any additional men specialists during
1952. Two specialists were added to the state home demonstration staff
to fill positions previously created but not filled.
By more efficient planning of Extension activities and by insuring
that all educational programs started were sound, it was possible to
increase the amount and effectiveness of educational work performed
by each worker. This permitted some progress during the year in meeting
agricultural and home economics needs. For example, the agents made
5,835 more farm or home visits in 1952 than in 1951, the number of
office calls increased by 17,562 and 679 more news articles or stories
were published. The number of farms on which changes resulted from
the agricultural program increased by 1,169 in 1952 and 6,386 more
non-farm families made changes as a result of the agricultural program.
1 On Leave effective May 15, 1952.








8 Florida Cooperative Extension

In 4-H Club work there was a slight increase in membership during
the year, but reports show that more members received definite training
in specific fields. The number of 4-H members receiving training in
judging rose from 4,546 in 1951 to 6,293 in 1952, or an increase of 1,747.
The number of 4-H members giving demonstrations increased from 8,732
in 1951 to 10,004 in 1952. More club members received training in
recreational leadership, fire and accident prevention and wildlife con-
servation.


SOURCES OF REVENUE 1951-52
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever .................-..-....-----........- -$ 82,384.75
Bankhead-Jones .............. ............................. .. 129,651.51
Capper-Ketcham ............................ ................... 28,802.26
Bankhead-Flannagan ....................................... 121,915.18
Clarke-M cNary ............................................. ...... 1,620.00
Research & Marketing ............................................ 906.25
Farm Housing .................................... ............. 640.00
Rural Electrification ......................- ................. 2,500.00
$ 368,419.95
State Appropriations:
Legislature ............--........................ ............... $461,295.00 $ 461,295.00
State Trust Funds: .................... ............................ 18,086.84 18,086.84
County Appropriations: ............................................... 457,313.00 457,313.00

Grand Total .........---- --... .....- -.....------............... $1,305,114.79


SOURCES OF REVENUE 1952-53
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever .----...................... -----...............-- 82,384.75
Bankhead-Jones ...............--... ----................-- .. 129,651.51
Capper-Ketcham ........................................ ........ 28,802.26
Bankhead-Flannagan ......................................-- 121,915.18
Clarke-McNary ........................... ............--- 1,620.00
Research & Marketing .....................----............. 906.25
Farm Housing ................................ .... ......... ..... 640.00
Rural Electrification ...................... .................. 2,500.00
$ 368,419.95
State Appropriations:
Legislature .-................... ..--... ..---.-- $498,640.97 $ 498,640.97*
State Trust Funds: ....................... ............. ........ 17,822.13 17,822.13
County Appropriations: ............................................. 490,392.00 490,392.00

Grand Total ...............-.........---- ....---.--$1,375,275.05

Includes $37,345.97 in carried-over funds from 1951-52 appropriation.







Annual Report, 1952


t -











Fig. 1.-Director Clayton, on behalf of the National Fertilizer Asso-
ciation, awards a cup for 1951 pasture improvement to Bradley Munroe
of Gadsden County.


PERSONNEL
The need for Extension workers to be informed regarding new subject
matter and methods in order to best serve the state is recognized. A
constant effort is made to encourage and provide ways for workers to
become more proficient.
The continuous process of training workers is carried on in many
different ways. Among the most important is the professional improve-
ment goal each worker sets for himself and achieves by reading professional
magazines, study of books and bulletins and by attending professional
meetings.
The state staff aids in the training process. District supervisors con-
duct on-the-job training in office management, program planning and
program execution. Specialists help the county staff keep current in
subject matter by sending new research information through letters and
in area training meetings, usually held at Experiment Stations.
An Annual Conference, held in October each year, serves to bring to
all county workers subject-matter and methods information. It also
brings them outstanding speakers who discuss national and international
problems relating to agriculture and homemaking.







Florida Cooperative Extension


A three weeks' summer school for Extension workers was continued in
1952. The four courses offered were Advanced Agricultural Extension
Service Youth Programs, Soils, Ornamental Horticulture and Agricul-
tural Extension Work Through Group Action. Eighteen Extension workers
attended this school.
An Extension Training Committee functions to determine the courses
to be offered and assists with other details of the schools. Five state and
county staff members attended Regional Extension summer schools in 1952.
One state staff member is on leave for graduate study.
In July 1952 a special three weeks' graduate course in citrus grove
management was offered at the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred,
to county agents and assistants. Eleven agents completed this course,
which carried three hours graduate credit.

DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS

Following the policy of program development established in Florida
in the fall of 1949, progress continued in the development of agriculture
and homemaking programs in the counties. The process of developing
these county programs involved the use of community and county planning
or commodity committees. Many counties have programs which were
developed cooperatively with people in the counties. Other counties are
making progress in this direction. Emphasis has been placed on having
one overall Extension program for each county to cover the work of all
county Extension agents.
Efforts are being made to have annual plans of work reflect activities
to be carried on during a single year which will contribute to the long-
time program.
Specialists supply county workers a brief summary of situations,
problems and suggested solutions in each subject-matter field before
county plans are made.
A State Citrus Advisory Committee, composed of state and county
staff members, serves to develop the Extension citrus program. This
program includes suggestions and recommendations on demonstrations,
tours, Extension marketing activities and aids in developing the county
program.
A Vegetable Advisory Committee helps to develop the Extension
vegetable program in much the same way as described for citrus.
Four-H Club work for boys includes all subject-matter fields and re-
quires coordination with most programs. This is accomplished through
state and county committees. The state is divided into 10 4-H Club dis-
tricts. County agents and assistants in each district elect a chairman
each year and meet as a group at least once a year to plan the year's
program. State staff members attend these meetings. Out of this plan-
ning conference emerge plans for 4-H shows, training meetings for 4-H
club officers and other events.
Home demonstration programs are developed largely by county home
demonstration councils, working with county home demonstration agents
and state staff members. These councils elect representatives to the state
council, which meets annually at the University of Florida, to plan and
develop a state program. This annual meeting provides an opportunity
to recognize publicly leadership achievements of the county and state
council members and also brings home demonstration work to the attention
of the University and the state.







Annual Report, 1952


EXTENSION TRAINING FOR FOREIGN VISITORS
During May 19-30, 1952, the Agricultural Extension Service, working
with the Experiment Station and the Teaching Division of the College
of Agriculture, conducted a fruit and vegetable short course for 12 Euro-
pean visitors.
Detailed Exension training programs were planned and arranged for
14 foreign visitors from the Netherlands, Philippines, Burma, Brazil, For-
mosa, Egypt, Pakistan, Peru and Nepal.
In addition, Extension assisted with training 12 other visitors from
the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Raos, Pakistan, Egypt
and Greece.
Interviews and assistance were given to numerous other foreign visitors
whose primary interests were other than agriculture. Twenty-five Turkish
educators have been in residence at the University as guests of the Col-
lege of Education. The county agent of Alachua County and his assistant
assisted with this group's training.

CHANGES IN STATE STAFF
Appointments:
James E. Pace, Assistant Animal Industrialist, February 1, 1952.
Edwin W. Cake, Acting Economist in Marketing, March 1, 1952.
James Montelaro, Acting Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist, Sep-
tember 1, 1952.
Miss Bronna Mae Elkins, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent,
September 1, 1952.
Miss Helen D. Holstein, Assistant Economist in Food Conservation,
April 1, 1952.
Miss Frances C. Cannon, Assistant Health Education Specialist, June
1, 1952.
Resignations:
Miss Ruth S. Lemmon, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent, June
30, 1952.
Joe N. Busby, Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent, October 14, 1952.
Granted Leave:
Frank S. Jamison, Vegetable Crop Specialist, July 20, 1952.
Fayette W. Parvin, Assistant to the Director, May 13, 1952.
Clyde E. Murphree, Assistant Economist, Marketing & Farm Man-
agement, September 22, 1952.


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from White County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Months of service (agents and assistants) ................................... 1,867.7
Days of service: In office-20,952; In field-24,679 ...................... 45,631
Farm or home visits made ............................ .................... ..... 74,480
Different farms or homes visited ............................................. 40,756
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-262,828; Telephone .......... 234,674
Days devoted to work with 4-H Clubs and older youths .............. 15,292
News articles or stories published ......................... ......... ........... 12,009







12 Florida Cooperative Extension

Bulletins distributed ---............................... .............. 325,096
Radio talks broadcast or prepared .......................................................... 2,589
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber ............................................................---------- -............. 1,700
Total attendance of men and women ........................................... 21,582
Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber ............................ .......................................... 13,058
Total attendance .......................................... ................................ 275,255
T ours ........................................................................................ ......... ....... 657
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth, and adult work .... 770
4-H camps
Boys attending ..................................................... ......................... 2,008
G irls attending ........................................................................................ 1,818

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE

Total num ber of farm s .............................. ....................................... .... 56,921
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program .......... ----------..............-........ ................-................ ................... 32,069
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year ............................................... 5,475
Non-farm families making changes in practices as result of the
agricultural program ........................................--.... ..............-- ........ 29,167
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from
dem onstration program .............-....-....-.....-..--- ......... ..-............-....... 17,500
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration programs for the first time this year ............ 3,978
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration programs .............-.......-............ ..................... .. 17,761
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration program for the first time this year .................... 4,978
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ................................... 11,396
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ........................ 8,195
Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension
program ................................. .....--...-........--...........--- .............------....... 40,925
Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program ...... 45,451

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING

Total number of communities in counties .....-...-----................................ 922
Number of communities in which the extension program has been
planned cooperatively ............... .. .. ..... ............ ...... .. ... 683

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS

4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-6,846; non-farm-3,056; total .................................. 9,902
Girls: Farm-6,406; non-farm-6,393; total ................................. 12,799
Number clubs ......--------........... ... ...-- ..-- ..-- ......--..... 1,061
Number enrolled .....--............--- ---------- ..-..- .......... 22,701
Number completing ............----.................-...-----.................... 15,351
Projects completed by boys .......... ----....................---- ... 9,802
Projects completed by girls ..................-......... ...--...-- ...-- ..... 25,725
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ....................................... 1,036
Boys completing fruit projects ...---............... .......... ..--.... 134






Annual Report, 1952


Boys completing garden projects ............... .............. ..................
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ...................................
Boys completing poultry projects ..............--................... .........
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ..........................
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .................................
Girls completing fruit projects ..................................................
Girls completing garden projects ....................................................
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............
Girls completing dairy projects ................................. .............
Girls completing poultry projects .................................... ..........
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ................
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid projects ............
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings
and room improvement projects .................................. ...........
Girls completing food preservation projects ........................................
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs ...................-- ............


DAYS DEVOTED TO SUBJECT MATTER FIELDS BY
EXTENSION AGENTS


CROP PRODUCTION

Days devoted to:


Corn ........................
Other Cereals ..................
Legumes ............................
Pastures .........................
Cotton .............................
Tobacco .......... ..........
Potatoes and other vege-
tables .........................
Fruits ........... .........
Other crops ...................-


732
229
1,303
2,968
210
422

1,789
1,863
476


CONSERVATION
OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to:
Soil and water .............. 1,172
Forestry ........-............ 531
W wildlife ........................ .. 210

GENERAL ECONOMIC
PROBLEMS RELATED TO
AGRICULTURE
Days devoted to:
Price and trade policies 67
Land policy and
programs ........ ....... 60
Public finance and
service ........................ 63
Rural welfare ................ 256


LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING
POULTRY


Days devoted to:
Dairy cattle ..... ................. 1,
Beef cattle ........................ 2,
Sheep ................................
Swine ......... ................... 1,
Horses and Mules ............
Poultry (including
turkeys) ............... 1,2
Other livestock ............. 1

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to:
Farm accounts, etc ........
Individual farm
planning, etc. ............. .
Farm credit ......................
Outlook information ...... 2

MARKETING AND
DISTRIBUTION


Days devoted to:
General -- .....................
Grain and Hay ................
Livestock .........................
Dairy products ................
Poultry and eggs ............
Fruits and vegetables ....
Cotton ..............................
Forest products ...............


)54
555
13
539
68

271
L34


i95

6071/2
14
67%


288
133
603
227
484
572
441/2
96


1,985
133
119
1,397
150
1,805
247
1,975
84
169
826
5,333
1,034

8,995
1,354

559







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Days devoted to:
House plans, construc-
tion, water systems,
heating, etc. ................ 298
Rural electrification ........ 304
Farm buildings ................ 275
Farm mechanical
equipment .................... 369

HOME MANAGEMENT AND
IMPROVEMENT, FAMILY
ECONOMICS, NUTRITION
& HEALTH

Days devoted to:
House, furnishings and
surroundings .............. 1,747


Home management ........
Clothing and textiles ......
Family relationships ......
Recreation and com-
munity life ...............
Home production of
family food supply ..
Food preservation
and storage ..............
Food selection and prepa-
ration ........................
Other health and safety
w ork .............. ... ....
Other commodities .--...
Home products and
crafts ....................
Purchasing of farm &
home supplies and
equipment .............


462
2,575 1
445

1,137

1,692

1,510

2,110

840
130

475


400







Annual Report, 1952


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO
J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Associate Editor
L. Odell Griffith, Assistant Editor
Jasper N. Joiner, Assistant Editor

While the number of bulletins and circulars printed during the fiscal
year was smaller than for the preceding 12 months, other editorial serv-
ices were expanded. The department is making a special effort to develop
visual aids services and acquire equipment.
The Editor continued to serve as distribution officer for USDA publica-
tions, and sent hundreds of them to county and home demonstration
agents.
Demand continued heavy for the more popular Extension bulletins
and circulars. These, along with record books and miscellaneous sup-
plies, are distributed from the mailing room. Copies of all new bulletins
and circulars are sent to county and home demonstration agents, libraries,
and some professional workers. Subsequently, the publications are dis-
tributed on request only.

PUBLISHED MATERIALS
A 4-H club song book with music, needed for some years, was published
during this fiscal year and is being put to widespread use. Five new
bulletins and two new circulars were issued and one bulletin and one
circular were reprinted. The new bulletins totaled 180 pages, the new
circulars 16 pages. Copies printed totaled 74,000 of the new bulletins,
42,000 of the new circulars.
Additional materials printed included record books for junior 4-H club
members raising gardens, breeding livestock, young livestock, forests,
poultry and rabbits, and girls doing clothing work, 4-H record book,
clothing record, 4-H electricity record, window cards for the Poultry
Institute and two Farm and Home Institutes, blanks for egg records and
agents' monthly reports, and a program for the Boys' 4-H Short Course.
Principal items published during the year included the following:
Pages Edition
Bul. 149 Selecting and Culling Poultry ................................ 20 20,000
Bul. 150 Propagation of Ornamental Plants ........................ 56 30,000
Bul. 151 Beekeeping in Florida ................................................ 32 12,000
Bul. 152 Native and Exotic Palms of Florida .................... 72 12,000
Bul. 140 Dooryard Citrus Plantings in Florida (reprint) .. 24 30,000
Circ. 104 Vegetable Garden Production Guide .................... 12 30,000
Circ. 105 Suggested Pecan Spray Schedule for Florida .... 4 12,000
Circ. 95 A Cow and Calf Plan for Florida (revised) ........ 6 12,000
Songs for Florida 4-H Clubs ............................ 36 15,000
County and home demonstration agents in 64 counties reported dis-
tributing 339,782 bulletins during the year.

SERVICE TO NEWSPAPERS AND FARM JOURNALS
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, containing 8 to 15
separate articles each time, was printed and distributed for its 29th year.
It continued to serve the Agricultural Experiment Stations, College of







Florida Cooperative Extension


Agriculture, State Plant Board and related state and federal agencies, as
well as the Extension Service. Distributed primarily to weekly news-
papers, it went also to county and home demonstration agents, vocational
agriculture teachers, farm journals, some radio stations, and others
working with groups of farm people.
The Associated Press wire service continued to take from one to
several stories each week, as supplied by the Extension Editors. Special
stories, often accompanied by pictures, were supplied one or more daily
newspapers direct at frequent intervals. Newspaper farm page editors
and farm journal editors were assisted in gathering materials of their
own on campus.
County and home demonstration agents in 64 counties reported having
12,416 articles and stories published in their local newspapers. A mat
for a county agent column heading was supplied several agents and at
least one story for them to release went to 30 agents.
Of material prepared by the Florida Extension Editors, two national
publications printed two articles occupying 51 column inches, two Southern
journals carried four stories in 58 column inches, and six Florida farm
periodicals printed 15 articles for a total of 479 column inches of space.

RADIO AND TELEVISION

Early in 1952 the Extension Service staged one 30-minute television
show over a Jacksonville station, giving information about poultry pro-
duction and marketing. The Extension Editor also sent one slide and
two spot motion pictures to television stations in Jacksonville and Miami.
The Extension Dairyman was taped for the Mutual Newsreel and for
two minutes told listeners to over 500 stations throughout the United

Fig. 2.-This show, presenting pointers from baby chicks to ready-to-eat
poultry meat, was one of the television programs presented during the year.







Annual Report, 1952


States about the 4-H dairy judging team from Florida which had won
national honors and was going to England hoping-to participate in an
international judging contest.
For eight Florida radio stations the Editors cut 24 tapes which con-
tained 42 talks by Extension Service staff members, as well as Experiment
Station workers and others. County and home demonstration agents in
41 counties reported preparing and making 2,686 radio talks.
The Florida Farm Hour over University Radio Station WRUF from
12:15 to 12:45 five days a week and from 12:30 to 12:45 Saturdays con-
tinued to be a means of disseminating a large amount of information.
Farm news highlights were a daily feature for 308 times, home eco-
nomics notes, the farm question box and the farm editorial were presented
weekly, and farm flashes from the USDA were given frequently.
A summary for the year shows that there were 97 talks by Extension
workers, 116 by staff members of the Experiment Station, 24 from the
College of Agriculture, and 30 others, with farm news highlights presented
308 times, home economics notes 50 times, the question box 50, the editorial
51 and Farm Flashes 115 times.
Indicative of the widespread cooperation extended by the Farm Hour,
the year's features included eight talks by State Plant Board worker-
10 by the state executive officer of the Production and Marketing Ad-
ministration, 11 by a home economist for an electric cooperative association,
one by the state director of the Farmers' Home Administration, one by the
state veterinarian, two by representatives of the USDA, and two by
farmers. Interviews included representatives of the State Home Dem-
onstration Council, an Italian prince and princess, poultry producers,
officials of a feeder calf sale, and 4-H club members. Taped features
were obtained at the Florida State Fair, a land clearing demonstration
in Clay County, a watermelon packing school in Gilchrist County and
the Central Florida Exposition. Direct broadcasts by remote control
came from the Florida State Fair, Lake County Fair, the Agricultural
College Fair and the Gainesville feeder calf sale.
The Associate Editor continued distribution through the Associated
Press teletype service of a weekly Florida farm review and monthly home
demonstration review and monthly round-up of flower gardening sug-
gestions. He supplied a fortnightly review of farm information direct
to 35 stations not receiving AP service.
Farm flashes for five days a week were sent to 39 stations, in co-
operation with USDA. USDA flashes adapted to the state were distributed
as received, and seven minutes of material from Extension Service, Ex-
periment Station and other workers were duplicated and sent for more
than half of the 235 days.

VISUAL AIDS AND MISCELLANEOUS
Some small additions were made to the slide library and also the
filmstrip library. Additional filing equipment was obtained for slides.
Additional shots were made for the motion picture on negro extension
work. Agents were assisted in obtaining motion picture films from the
depository, and this office maintained a small number of films for loans.
Public address systems, motion picture projectors, slide throwers and
cameras are maintained.
The Editors spoke to nine separate groups, attended by 142 people.
The groups included classes in forestry and Extension methods, home
demonstration and 4-H club organizations.







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

The Editor continued to serve as a member of the University's public
relations advisory committee and the agricultural and publications com-
mittee of the local Chamber of Commerce.
The work of the Extension Editorial Office was explained to several
representatives of the agricultural agencies of foreign countries.
As in the past, the Editors devoted approximately one-half of their
time to work for the Agricultural Experiment Stations, by whom they
are cooperatively employed.







Annual Report, 1952


SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION
Bonnie J. Carter and L. T. Nieland

The Home Improvement Specialist and Extension Forester promoted
the Farm Safety program during 1952 through assistance to county and
home demonstration agents.
During weeks especially set aside to emphasize safety and fire pre-
vention, every available medium of communications was used by specialists
and county Extension workers to alert the public to the vital need of
eliminating fire and safety hazards. To aid this program the Specialists,
in cooperation with the National Safety Council, sent county agricultural
and home demonstration agents farm safety packets. These contained
complete instructions on launching and conducting county-wide safety
campaigns, envelope stickers, posters, pamphlets on safe driving and
other leaflets on how to prevent farm and home accidents.
Special emphasis was placed on preparing families to take care of
themselves and others under the Civil Defense Program.
Qualified swimming instructors and lifeguards were provided by the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service for waterfront duty at each of the
five district 4-H club camps during the camping season.
During the year 10,818 families were assisted in eliminating fire and
safety hazards and 10,571 4-H club members received training in this field.
To encourage 4-H interest, a statewide 4-H Safety Contest for boys
and girls was held. The prize-a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress
in Chicago and a gold medal-was won by a 4-H boy.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SUPERVISION OF COUNTY AGENTS
H. G. Clayton, Director
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, District Agent
F. S. Perry, District Agent

Among the responsibilities assigned to district agents is the job of
recruiting, selecting and placing county agents and assistants. Placing
county workers involves clearing recommendations with the Director of
Extension, who then recommends appointments to the President of the
University of Florida and the USDA Extension Service. Placing agents
also involve clearing appointments with cooperating county boards of
county commissioners.
During 1952 one county agent was granted leave of absence to accept
a foreign assignment with the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations.
Two county agents retired, one died and three resigned to accept other
employment. Two assistant agents resigned to do other work. To fill
these vacancies and three new positions, district agents arranged new
appointments for one county agent and five assistant county agents.
Transfers involving promotions were arranged for five assistant agents.
One county agent was promoted to a larger and higher paying county.
Two assistant agents, formerly employed on a half-time basis, were given
promotions to full-time status. Two county agents returned from military
leaves of absence.
District agents assumed a large share of the responsibility for planning
and carrying out the 4-H Club program in their respective districts. This
involved assistance with county, district and state 4-H livestock and poultry
shows, meetings with county agents by districts to plan 4-H district ac-
tivities, planning and arranging programs for summer 4-H camps and
short courses and other 4-H events.
Since in-service training and indoctrination of new agents is a re-
sponsibility of the district agents, much time and planning was spent
on this activity. District agents served on committees and otherwise
assisted with the annual Extension conference, summer school for Ex-
tension workers and area training meetings for agents at Experiment
Stations. They kept county workers informed on Extension programs
and policies and provided on-the-job indoctrination and training. They
assisted agents to organize office and field work and maintain good working
relations with other agricultural agencies and organizations and related
industry groups.
A most important function of the district agents was that of co-
ordinating activities of Extension specialists in their respective districts.
This involved keeping specialists informed on developments in subject-
matter fields throughout the district, calling attention to and relaying
requests for assistance needed, coordinating activities of specialists in-
volved in a single program and eliminating unnecessary travel.
District agents assisted with arrangements for farm and home in-
stitutes, citrus and poultry institutes and various other Extension activities.
They worked closely with district home demonstration agents in assisting
all agents in each county to prepare a coordinated county plan of work,
based on a long-time program developed with the people in the county.






Annual Report, 1952


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management
Clyde E. Murphree, Assistant Economist

About one-third of the time of the Economist was given to Extension
Farm Management and two-thirds to teaching Extension Service methods.
The Assistant Economist devoted full time to Marketing and Farm Man-
agement until September 22, at which time he began a year's leave of
absence for professional improvement.
Farm and Home Planning.-This project of planning with individuals
continued through its twelfth year. Six county agents conducted most
of the work, after training and annual coaching by the Economist. Ex-
tension Agents are planning with about 270 families. Some 1,200 recom-
mended practices have been completed annually as a result of this
planning, resulting in an added income of about $170,000.
Teaching Extension Service Methods.-During the fall term of college
the Economist offered two regularly scheduled courses and, throughout
the year, conducted two problems courses. He planned and supervised a
three-week summer school for Extension workers at the University of
Florida, taught one of the four courses offered and assisted in planning
a three-week citrus production course. There was a total of 140 enrollees
in all courses, including 24 county and six state staff Extension workers,
or an increase of 63 percent over 1951.
Applied Extension Methods Teaching.-School room teaching was fol-
lowed by assistance in the field. The Economist helped six agents revise
their 4-H Club programs and two their over-all programs and assisted
in conducting six training meetings for 4-H officers and leaders.
Florida Agricultural Outlook Work.-The Assistant Economist served
as secretary for the Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee, which ap-
praised the agricultural outlook for Florida for 1952-53, and prepared
the annual release. He delivered various outlook talks, participated in
panel discussions before various farmer groups and a meeting of Florida
bankers and supplied outlook data to specialists and a large number of
correspondents.
Land Clearing Demonstration.-The Assistant Economist assisted in
carrying out a land-clearing demonstration (working with the Clay County
Agent and two private implement companies). A report of results was
issued in mimeographed form. Flatwoods land, having an average of 62
trees and stumps per acre, required an average of about two hours to clear,
pile brush and prepare. High hammock land, averaging 106 trees and
stumps per acre, required about three hours and heavy hammock, averaging
100 trees per acre, required about four hours and 20 minutes.
Marketing Activities.-The Assisant Economist conducted discussion
meetings with various groups in regard to marketing problems, including
a curb market, general agricultural cooperative, poultry and eggs and
vegetables. He compiled and distributed to county agents a summary of
both federal and state legislation pertaining to agricultural marketing.
2 Granted year's leave of absence to do graduate work, September 22, 1952.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Miscellaneous Activities.-The two specialists gave assistance in the
developmnet of manuscripts dealing with laws of descent and distribution,
rental agreements, income tax and 4-H officer training. Assistance was
given also in conducting studies of swine production practices, retirement
farming and farming practices in Alachua County.
The Economists conferred and traveled with 35 representatives of 22
different countries, judged at eight fairs and three contests, assisted with
three 4-H camp programs, three radio programs and two tape recordings
on economic problems, distributed income tax bulletins, tenure bulletins
and farm record books and supervised compilation of the Director's an-
nual statistical report.
They participated in meetings of Production and Marketing Adminis-
tration, Farmers' Home Administration, College of Agriculture clubs,
Florida Resource-Use Education Committee, vocational agriculture, vet-
erans' classes, Farm Bureau, civic clubs and 11 agricultural economics
seminars and were consultants to the agricultural division of the State
Welfare Board and Veterans' Vocational Agriculture Training. Both
were members of various committees, including the Southern Extension
Farm Management Committee of Farm Foundation.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
Zach Savage, Associate Agricultural Economist, Experiment Station

In an effort to assist growers with records and grove management,
an average of 249 records were completed over the 19 seasons of 1931-50.
For the 1949-50 season 223 groves were summarized.
Cash receipts from oranges, grapefruit and tangerines were 37 percent
of all cash receipts from farm marketing in Florida for the period 1924-50.
Oranges and tangerines made up 27 percent of these receipts and grape-
fruit 10 percent. Cash receipts annually from citrus for this period averaged
$72,347,000. These receipts varied from $26,387,000 in 1924 to $221,681,000
in 1950.
There were two seasons, 1947 and 1948, when cash receipts from live-
stock and livestock products exceeded receipts from citrus and one season,
1948, when receipts from truck crops exceeded those from citrus. In no
season did combined receipts from other fruits, nuts and field crops equal
citrus receipts.
Citrus receipts varied from 22 percent of all receipts in 1948 to 49
percent in 1944, and averaged 37 percent. Receipts from citrus were
one-third or more of the total in 23 of the 27 seasons. None of the other
three groupings was as much as one-third of the total in any season.
In view of the uncertainty of fruit prices in the future and prospects
of continued high costs of labor, power, equipment, fertilizer, spray and
dust, production practices should be studied to increase grove efficiency and
hold down production costs consistent with high yields, good fruit quality,
maintenance of trees in good condition and prospective income from fruit.
In putting this into effect, groves must receive individual consideration
and treatment for highest efficiency.
Citrus irrigation practices materially increased in recent seasons. Irri-
gation is a costly operation and should be used to best advantage. Some
groves seldom if ever respond sufficiently to irrigation for it to pay. This
is a grove operation that needs to be timed and applied according to the
needs of the individual grove. The 1949-50 season was the second in the
past nine seasons when irrigated groves failed to produce higher yields







Annual Report, 1952


than non-irrigated. The average for these seasons was 22 boxes higher
in irrigated groves. Costs on irrigated groves were higher and returns
above operating costs averaged $15, or 4 percent, more per acre on the
non-irrigated groves over the nine seasons of 1941-50. The 22 extra boxes
of fruit did not pay irrigation costs and other expenses on irrigated groves.
Florida citrus production is increasing rapidly and nursery stock move-
ment indicates continued increases. This production increase has affected
the form of the product placed on the market, reducing the proportion
marketed fresh. World production of oranges, tangerines and grapefruit
reached an all-time high in 1950. Exports of these three kinds of citrus
in fresh form exceeded pre-war for the first time in 1950.
Successful growers consider the grove record as one of the most valuable
pieces of equipment they possess and keep it in use regardless of current
prices. Record books, like other equipment, should be used consistently
for highest grove efficiency.
Printed citrus grove record books, accompanied by a form letter, were
sent cooperating growers in September. Record books sent to new coop-
erators during the year were accompanied by additional instructions in
mimeograph form.
Individual grove reports were typed. Prepared forms were used, on
which data of the individual grove were typed.
Eight different publications, form letters and blank forms were issued,
representing 5,675 copies, or a total of 38,675 pages of material.


MARKETING
E. W. Cake, Acting Extension Economist in Marketing '

The new Extension Marketing Specialist began work on March 1. Con-
siderable time was devoted in the first few months to getting acquainted
with people, and problems and developing plans. Due to absence of an-
other Economist, the Specialist worked on some projects outside the field
of marketing.
Citrus.-The Economist assisted other Specialists in conducting the
Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie, with discussions on citrus marketing
problems.
The Specialist helped two county agents arrange meetings of citrus
packinghouse men by giving lectures on proper handling of citrus at
shipping point. He visited packinghouses to demonstrate proper handling
of fruit and drew up charter and by-laws for one new citrus marketing
cooperative. Members were helped to plan a marketing program. He
prepared and gave several talks at meetings and radio talks on marketing
of Florida citrus and the outlook for citrus and served on Extension Citrus
Advisory Committee.
Truck Crops.-The Economists helped conduct a brief study of vegetable
marketing problems in various sections of the state. Considerable in-
formation was gathered and recommendations for improvements are being
drawn up as a result.
Help was given to county agents in solving specific vegetable marketing
problems in their counties.
County Agents and railroad representatives helped the Economist
plan and conduct a Watermelon Loading School at Trenton and Bell,
Florida.
Appointed March 1, 1952.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Specialist conducted a survey of vegetable marketing cooperatives
in the state to find out names, locations, products and volume handled,
spoke at several vegetable grower meetings on outlook and marketing of
vegetables and as a member of Extension Vegetable Advisory Committee,
helped that group plan and conduct a two-day vegetable marketing con-
ference at University.
Poultry and Eggs.-County agents were helped in making a brief study
of poultry and egg marketing problems in the west coast area of Florida
around Tampa. Preliminary reports on findings and recommendations
were prepared.
The Economist attended one statewide and three local poultry pro-
ducers meetings and gave talks on outlook and marketing of poultry and
eggs. He also visited and worked with three egg marketing cooperatives.
Beef Cattle.-An investigation of livestock management and marketing
problems was made and a set of recommendations for use at a school for
cattlemen in Orange and Lake counties was developed.
The Specialist gave three talks at meetings of local cattlemen's asso-
ciations and one radio talk on beef cattle outlook, management and
marketing.
Dairy.-As Secretary of the State Federation of Dairy Herd Improve-
ment Associations, the Economist attended several meetings to assist in
working up a set of by-laws and a set of recommendations for local asso-
ciations.
He worked with two county agents in trying to secure better milk
outlets for their dairymen, attended several meetings of dairymen and
gave talks on outlook, management and marketing of dairy products.
Other Marketing Activities.-The Economist worked with the County
Agent in Gulf County on a honey marketing project and proposed packing
plant, and taught principles of cooperation to 4-H boys at summer camps.
He served as Secretary of the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives,
which involved attendance at numerous meetings, writing letters, drawing
up proceedings of annual meeting and assisting the member cooperatives
of the Council.
He worked up details, regulations and score cards for a 4-H Club
Cooperative Activity Contest being sponsored by Florida Council of Farmer
Cooperatives and drew up charters and by-laws for a lychee growers
association and a local fair association.






Annual Report, 1952


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
AND FARM ELECTRIFICATION
The Extension agricultural engineering program emphasizes farm
buildings, farm housing, electrification, farm machinery, supplemental
irrigation and farm drainage. County and home demonstration agents
reported assisting 40,067 farmers and farm families in various phases
of the engineering program during the year. An estimated 9,500 farmers
were assisted by agents with farm processing facilities necessary to
mechanically dry hay, feed and seed, cure tobacco and treat fence posts
and lumber.

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer
Farm Structures.-The Engineering Specialist, assisted by two part-time
student draftsmen, conducted the three-phase farm structures program,
which includes farm service buildings, farm housing and the Florida Farm
Building Plan Service. This program reached 10 percent more farm families
this year than last. County and home demonstration agents spent 2,753
days assisting 27,095 farm families in all phases of farm structures. One
thousand and twenty-eight volunteer local leaders working in 1,225 com-
munities assisted in the program.

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION FARM BUILDING ACTIVITIES
ALL EXTENSION AGENTS
I I I I I I


1947195


i


2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600
FARMERS ASSISTED IN ALL
FARM BUILDING PROBLEMS

Visual aids were stressed in training agents and local leaders and
in promotional work designed to interest farmers in making needed
changes. The Specalist continued to improve and increase the number
and type of visual aids. Visual aids now on hand include five large colored







Florida Cooperative Extension


charts, four large blueprints, six posters and 19 scale models of farm
buildings. The models, built to a /4" = 1'-0" scale, are constructed from
plans made available to farmers through the Plan Service. These aids
were used in seven training schools attended by 350 agents and local
leaders. In addition the models and charts are excellent for displays
and exhibits. The models were viewed by an estimated 201,050 rural
people while exhibited at four major county fairs and two Extension farm
institutes. Models added this year include a pole-type construction cattle
feeding barn, creep feeder for calves, automatic grain feeder, portable
feed trough, portable three-compartment mineral box and tobacco barn.
In addition a full scale foot trimming stock was designed and constructed
by the Specialist for use in class and field day activities by the Animal
Husbandry Department.
The number of farmers and farm families assisted by all county
agents with various problems are shown in the following table:


Farm Housing and Related Subjects White
Dwelling construction .................. .......... ...... 862
Dwelling remodeling ...........----. ......... ................ 1,946
Improving kitchens, storage space and
laundry rooms and room arrangement ........ 9,093
Installing water systems ................ ............ 747
Installing heating systems ............................. 502
Installing sewage systems .................. ...... 673
Installing sanitary privies ............................ 368
Installing screening .................... .... .............. 4,676
Farm Buildings White
Construction of new farm buildings ............. 736
Remodeling or repairing farm buildings .......... 708
Selection or construction of farm-
building equipment ...................................... 549


Ne



1,





Ne


egro Total
210 1,072
425 2,371

388 10,481
227 974
169 671
90 763
122 490
601 5,277
gro Total
93 829
129 837

63 612


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HOUSING ACTIVITIES

ALL EXTENSION AGENTS
















5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000
NUMBER OF FARM FAMILIES ASSISTED
IN ALL HOUSING PROBLEMS







Annual Report, 1952


The Florida Farm Building Plan Service, conducted in cooperation with
the USDA Regional Plan Service Exchange, is an important function of
the structures program. The Specialist met with 15 groups interested in
special buildings, including livestock show buildings, exhibit buildings for
county fairs, county 4-H Club buildings and rural community club houses.
Special plans for buildings which will cost over $96,000 were furnished for
11 of these groups. In addition to 12 special plans prepared for individual
farmers, 16 new plans with working drawings were developed for in-
clusion as standard plans in the Plan Service.
This year 5,681 sheets of dwelling and farm building plans were
mailed in answer to written requests. Two one-page leaflets, one featuring
plans for a pig farrowing pen and the other a creep feeder for calves,
were prepared. Three thousand six hundred of these circulars were dis-
tributed from bulletin racks in county offices.
The Specialist served on the Southern States Plan Service Committee,
the Farm Structures Steering Committee, Southeastern Section of the
American Society of Agricultural Engineers, as chairman of the new
4-H Camp Building Committee, and Secretary of the Agricultural College
Building Committee.
Farm Machinery.-Farmers add more and more mechanical equipment
annually to reduce labor costs, increase production through increased
acrage and reduce drudgery often associated with farm work. Agents
spent 415 days assisting 4,901 farmers in 438 communities with farm
machinery problems. They were helped by 171 volunteer local leaders.
The Specialist spent 42 days making farm visits, holding demonstrations
and training schools and conducting the 4-H tractor maintenance project.
There were 226 4-H Club boys from 11 counties enrolled in tractor
maintenance projects. Seventy-eight percent completed their projects and
sumbitted records for county awards. The 4-H boys conducted 76 demon-
strations at fairs and farmer meetings.

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION ACTIVITIES IN
FARM MECHANIZATION
ALL EXTENSION AGENTS















3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000

FARMERS ASSISTED IN ALL
MECHANIZATION PROBLEMS






Florida Cooperative Extension


The Specialist cooperated with farm equipment dealers in conducting
87 machinery demonstrations for field days, youth fairs, achievement days,
farmer gatherings, farm and home institutes and foreign visitors. An
estimated 315,000 people inspected, observed or operated machinery used
in demonstrations this year. Hay making, land clearing and vegetable
harvesting machinery were the most used types of equipment in demon-
strations.
The Agricultural Engineer cooperated in the Clay County Land Clearing
Demonstration. Through the cooperation of two machinery manufacturers
the Clay County Agent conducted a demonstration covering three phases
of pasture preparation-clearing, seedbed preparation and fertilizing and
seeding.
County agents assisted 2,018 farmers with land clearing problems
this year.
.The Extension Engineer assisted farmers in making new developments
in machinery. Possibly the most noteworthy was a tractor-mounted device
transporting four persons through a tobacco field for cropping leaves.
This machine may be a major step in mechanization of tobacco farming.
The Specialist served on the National Committee on 4-H Tractor Mainte-
nance Literature.
The numbers of farmers assisted by agents with farm machinery prob-
lems and activities are shown in the following table:
White Negro Total
Selection of mechanical equipment ................ 1,170 51 1,221
Better use of mechanical equipment ................ 1,872 74 1,946
Maintenance and repair of mechanical
equipment ...........---..................-.........-.. -- 1,610 119 1,729
Volunteer local leaders trained in
4-H tractor maintenance .............................---. 29 0 29

Farm Processing Facilities.-With rapid development of the cattle
industry, artificial drying of hay, grain and seed has become extremely
important to farmers and ranchers of Florida.
The standard plan developed by the Specialist for a hay drier is called
the Florida Combination Crop Drier because it will satisfactorily dry grain
and seed as well as hay. This plan is recommended for farm use only and
over 20 were constructed this year. The slanted floor seed drier developed
by the Specialist is recommended for commercial or large seed producers.
Six of these were completed this year and two are under construction.
A scale model of the hay drier was used at nine group meetings attended
by 750 farmers. Twenty-three days were spent providing on-the-spot
assistance for 37 farmers in drying problems. Four driers were handled
as special problems and special building plans were provided. The largest
of these, a hay drier with two 40' x 40' drying floors, was built at the State
Prison Farm. Eight hundred tons of hay were dried on this installation
the first year.
Irrigation and Drainage.-These two phases of farming are limited to
personal service work. The Specialist spent 12 days in the field on irriga-
tion problems and nine days on drainage problems. Irrigation was discussed
at five meetings attended by 350 farmers.
Two irrigation systems were designed as result demonstrations. The
agents assisted 2,241 farmers with drainage problems and 1,426 farmers
with irrigation problems.






Annual Report, 1952


FARM ELECTRIFICATION
A. M. Pettis, Assistant Agricultural Engineer
and Farm Electrification Specialist

The farm electrification program is carried out through county Extension
workers, in cooperation with power suppliers.
Proper Wiring.-Promotion of proper wiring is the basis of a sound,
effective farm electrification program and this Specialist devoted con-
siderable effort to this activity. A wiring panel containing two coils of
different size wire was used to show ill effects of over-loaded wiring.
Toasters, fans and lights of identical sizes were used on the two coils
simultaneously to show differences in operation with poor and with good
wiring. This panel was also used to show the safe, proper use of fuses
and circuit breakers.
Extension circular 93, Planning Farm Wiring, previously prepared by
this Specialist, was used, along with USDA bulletins and commercial bul-
letins in the promotion of this activity.
Proper Lighting.-Promotion of proper lighting has been accomplished
by the Farm Electrification Specialist through use of news articles, radio
talks, training meetings, 4-H demonstrations, personal help and printed
material. The Specialist helped county Extension workers assist and
encourage many rural people to improve their lighting.


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION ACTIVITIES IN
FARM ELECTRIFICATION
ALL EXTENSION AGENTS















1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
TOTAL NUMBER OF FARM FAMILIES ASSISTED IN
FARM ELECTRIFICATION


Farm Electrical Equipment.-Electric irrigation was investigated and
promoted through all informational channels. Extension Circular 110,
Electric Pig Brooders, was prepared in cooperation with the Animal Hus-
bandry Specialist. Electric pig brooders were constructed and used to
teach farm leaders and farmers. USDA bulletins about other farm equip-







Florida Cooperative Extension


ment, such as water systems, home-made equipment, motors and motor
tables, have been distributed to farm leaders.
Home Electrical Equipment.-Training meetings with Extension agents
and representatives of home demonstration clubs were held to teach them
about the selection, care and proper use of home electrical equipment.
4-H Electric Program.-The Specialist prepared book No. 2 on "Elec-
tricity Made Easy" to supplement previously prepared Book No. 1. He also
loaned demonstration equipment to county Extension workers and 4-H mem-
bers. These teaching aids have been used to inform adults and encourage
and assist 4-H members enrolled in electric projects.
The Farm Electrification Specialist instructed 405 4-H members at Boys'
Short Course, two 4-H camps and a school on honey and electricity.
Assistance was given to 59 county Extension workers in promoting the 4-H
electric program. The Florida REA Cooperatives Association aided this
4-H program with publicity, personal assistance and $100 for four supple-
mentary awards. In 1952 183 4-H members enrolled in and 128 completed
electric projects. In addition to five major awards, 40 gold medals were
awarded for outstanding work.
Power Supplier Cooperation.-At present 45,107 Florida farms, or about
79.2 percent of the farms in the state, receive electric service. These
farms are served by 15 rural electric co-ops, four major power companies
and several minor power companies and municipalities. The Specialist
assisted in informing consumers about safe, economical use of electricity.
Through his efforts 4-H members gave electric demonstrations at about
half of the electric co-op annual meetings this year.
Rural Telephones.-This Specialist advised and counseled with farm
groups desiring telephone service. Whenever outside assistance was needed
he obtained the cooperation of field representatives of the Rural Electri-
fication Administration. That organization has made five telephone loans
in Florida to increase rural telephones.
Coordination of County Work.-The writer tried to improve public
relations and helped coordinate the work of the Extension Service with
other farm groups, particularly electric cooperatives. He encouraged
Extension personnel to attend and participate in electric co-op annual
meetings and urged electric co-ops to send these farm leaders copies of
their monthly publications.
Training Program.-The Farm Electrification Specialist assisted in
training local leaders, co-op electrification advisers, county Extension
workers, junior leaders and home demonstration council representatives.
In cooperation with Rural Electrification Administration representatives
and rural electric co-ops, he assisted with planning and teaching schools
for electrification advisers on laundry equipment, small appliances and
irrigation. In cooperation with the Extension Apiculturist, a school was
held at one of the 4-H Camps to give 4-H boys practical experience in the
fundamentals of electricity and beekeeping.
Publicity.-The Specialist prepared monthly articles on electric sub-
jects for the Extension Editor, who channeled them to publications over
the state. He sent articles regularly to electric co-ops for use in their
news publications.
Feature articles by the Specialist were carried by a national rural
electrification magazine, a manufacturer's monthly bulletin and Florida
farm magazines. In addition, radio talks and tape recordings were made
for use over the state.







Annual Report, 1952 31

Additional Help.-The Farm Electrification Specialist gave 97 talks and
demonstrations to about 6,000 farmers, 4-H members, farm leaders and
others. Numerous inquiries were answered and many USDA, state and
commercial bulletins were distributed. In 1952 county Extension workers
assisted farm people as follows:
Number of families assisted: White Negro Total
To obtain electricity ............................................ 776 197 973
In using electrical equipment in home ......... 3,894 208 4,102
In using electrical equipment on farm .....:...... 967 36 1,003
In obtaining telephones ...................................... 980 80 1,060







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY
J. R. Henderson, Extension Agronomist

Major activities of the Agronomist were directed toward: (1) bring-
ing information on all phases of field crop, pasture and turf production
to the attention of county agents, seed producers, seed, fertilizer and
pesticide dealers, farmers and other interested persons; (2) assisting county
agents in the development and execution of county programs of work in
agronomy; and (3) distributing foundation seed of major field crops as
released by Experiment Stations to qualified seed producers.
Meetings.-Meetings and conferences were the major educational de-
vices used for disseminating information among county agents, industry
groups and farmers.
At the annual conference for Extension workers the Agronomist re-
viewed research information on field crops and pastures, discussed desirable
changes in production recommendations and outlined desirable activities
for the 1953 crop year, particularly from the standpoint of needed result
demonstrations.
The Agronomist planned and conducted two area meetings for seed,
fertilizer and pesticide dealers, assisted in planning and conducting a seeds-
men's school, acted as moderator of a panel at the annual meeting of the
Florida Seed Producers Association and was a panel member at the
Florida Seedsmen's Association meeting in June. At these meetings research
information and Extension recommendations on varieties, fertilization
and pest control were presented and discussed.
Farmer meetings were held in 22 counties in the general farming area
at which information on outlook, price supports, marketing quotas and
conservation payments and recommendations for production and manage-
ment of pasture and field crops were presented.
The Agronomist planned and conducted the program for the second
annual Central Florida Lawn and Turf Institute.
In addition, publications, circular letters, radio talks and personal
correspondence were used in supplying information on soils, field crops and
pastures to interested groups and individuals.
Projects with pastures and some of the major field crops received
special attention.
Permanent Pastures.-Activities during the year were designed to secure
establishments of more pastures and improvement of the carrying capacities
of established pastures. In addition to furnishing county agents with pro-
duction recommendations and outlines for desirable variety, fertilization
and irrigation demonstrations, the Agronomist assisted with meetings and
tours. Records show that more than 200,000 acres of pasture were es-
tablished in 1951 and indications are that almost as many acres were
planted in 1952.
Temporary Grazing Crops.-The Agronomist accepted applications and
otherwise assisted with distribution of foundation seed of Floriland and
Southland oats. Approximately 2,100 bushels of Floriland and 1,300 bushels
of Southland were distributed among 75 seed producers.
Corn.-Improvement of corn yields through use of seed of adapted hy-
brids, application of fertilizers at heavier than usual rates and proper spacing
of plants was emphasized. Production projects with 4-H Club members
and contests among adults were used to demonstrate the soundness of
recommended practices. Hybrid seed, mostly Dixie 18, was used by








Annual Report, 1952


all 4-H Club members and for slightly more than half of the acreage
planted to field corn in Florida in 1952. In spite of unusually dry weather
during the growing season, several 4-H Club members produced more
than 75 bushels per acre and the average yield for the state was only 1/
bushel below the 1951 record of 16 bushels per acre.
Corn activities for the year were climaxed with the State 4-H Corn
Show at Tallahassee in October.
The Agronomist assisted seed producers in securing foundation single-
cross seed for planting more than 600 acres of yellow hybrid Dixie 18 for
seed production.
Peanuts.-The further development of supplies of certified Dixie Runner
seed was stressed. Approximately 12 tons of shelled foundation seed,
produced at the Experiment Stations, were distributed among 18 growers
in eight counties.
Flue-Cured Tobacco.-Extension recommendations for control of weeds,
nematodes, insects and diseases and for correlation of soil type, fertilization
and spacing were emphasized at proper times during the growing season.
Records of the Production and Marketing Administration show that the
average yield in 1952 was 1,147 pounds per acre-the second highest yield
on record.
Reports from county agents show that they spent 5,857 days on field
crops and pastures. A breakdown of this activity follows:


Obtaining improved
varieties or strains
of seed ................. 5,550
The use of lime ......... 100
The use of fertilizers .. 7,364
Controlling of
plant diseases .......... 626
Controlling injurious
insects .................. 4,727
Controlling noxious
weeds ................. .600
Controlling rodents
and other animals .... 2,619


Other Leg-
Corn Cereals umes


2,386
162
2,365


4,964
2,604
4,075


Pas- Cot- To-
tures ton bacco


5,812
5,585
8,388


1,036
76
1,191


1,741
150
2,592


639 1,199 559 138 3,388


612 1,455 2,180


739 3,504


22 926 2,863 186 2,009

185 245 407 5 151


County agents' reports on 4-H Cl
following:


Number of
Members
Enrolled
Corn .................................. 1,751
Other cereals ................... 69
Peanuts ......................... .. 580
Soybeans, field peas, al-
falfa and other legumes.. 354
Cotton .................................. 334
Tobacco ........................ ... 110
Other crops (including
pasture) ..................... 421


ub projects with field crops show the


Number of
Members
Completing
1,304
57
460


Number of
Acres In-
volved in
Completed
Projects
3,015
174
1,232


2,064







34 Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Oliver F. Goen, Animal Industrialist
James E. Pace, Assistant Animal Industrialist"

Beef cattle and swine continued to serve as important sources of
farm income in Florida. From January 1, 1951, to January 1, 1952, beef
cattle numbers increased from 1,095,000 to 1,250,000 head and there
was increased interest in marketing concentrate feeds through beef
cattle. This was due to increased corn production, availability of citrus
by-product feeds, plus increased demand for fed beef. However, primary
emphasis in the field of beef production in Florida was still grass-pro-
duced beef.
The numbers of swine and gross income from swine on Florida farms
remained rather constant. The quality of market hogs improved, since
more farmers used corn rather than peanuts in swine fattening rations
and followed proper feeding and sanitation practices. Florida is still
a deficit pork-producing area, producing approximately 60 percent of the
pork consumed within the state.
Beginning February 1, 1952.

Fig. 3.-Feeder calf sales are now important Florida livestock events.







Annual Report, 1952


4-H Club Activities.-Encouraging increased interest in livestock projects
among 4-H Club members was one of the principal interests of the Animal
Husbandmen. During the year a commercial calf project was initiated.
More than 300 grass-fed steers will be sold in a feeder steer sale in the
fall of 1953.
The third annual 4-H Fat Barrow Show and Sale was held in Tallahassee
and the quality of barrows exhibited showed a definite improvement over
those exhibited in previous years.
The Tampa Morning Tribune sponsored the state champion 4-H live-
stock judging team's trip to the National Junior Livestock Judging Con-
test in Chicago. The team tied for sixth place with 29 teams competing.
The following table summarizes the 4-H livestock program for the year:


Boys En-
rolled
Beef Cattle ................ 1,016
Swine .......................... 1,406
Horses & mules .......... 24
Sheep .......................... 62
Other Livestock .......... 86


Girls En- No. Boys
rolled Completing
221 763
73 1,042
'2 19
2 45
24 52


No. Girl
Complete
170
50
2
2
13


Other Activities.-The Animal Husbandmen spent 216 days
working primarily with county agents. They talked to 15
associations, 12 other farmer groups, judged 15 livestock
attended 10 fairs and nine pasture tours and field days.


GOAL AND RESULTS

Results Goals
1951 1952
Cattlemen to secure purebred bulls ........ 839 800
Cattlemen to secure purebred or high
grade heifers ........................................ 786 1,200
Cattlemen to control external parasites.. 5,102 5,000
Cattlemen to control internal parasites
and diseases ........................................... 3,405 3,500
Cattlemen to improve methods of
feeding ......... -........................................ 2,905 3,000
Farmers assisted in securing purebred
boars ........................................................ 683 1,000
Farmers assisted in securing purebred
or high grade gilts ................................ 648 1,500
Farmers assisted in controlling external
parasites in hogs .................................... 4,212 6,500
Farmers assisted in controlling internal
parasites and diseases .......................... 6,505 6,500
Farmers improving methods of feeding
hogs ....................................................... 3,090 4,000
Controlling predatory animals .................. 52
Number of families assisted this year
in improving food supply by making
changes in home food production:
(1) of m eats ..................................
(2) home butchering, meat
cutting or curing ............ -


Results
1952
677


4

3

3


3

5

3


Is Units
ng Involved
1,925
3,238
47
47
115

in the field
cattlemen's
shows and


Goals
1953
800


951 1,100
,572 5,000

,346 3,500

,215 3,500

578 1,000

821 1,500

,983 6,500

,446 6,500

,224 4,000
94


4,101

2,005







Florida Cooperative Extension


APICULTURE

John D. Haynie, Extension Apiculturist

Beekeeping netted apiary operators good returns in 1952. Some honey
crops were carried over from 1951 to 1952, but it is expected that there
will be very little of the 1952 crop on hand after January 1, 1953.
Honey production was generally good, except in some palmetto and
gallberry locations, with the tupelo section producing about half a normal
crop. Citrus produced a bumper crop of unusually good, heavy-bodied
honey.
The Apiculturist's program is conducted in cooperation with the Flor-
ida State Beekeepers Association, the Florida State Fair and district
beekeepers associations. He assisted presidents of district beekeepers'
associations with programs for monthly meetings.
The Apiculturist served as chairman of the program committee for
the annual two-day beekeepers' meeting and helped bring specialists in
beekeeping, marketing, botany, nutrition and other research workers in
related fields before honey producers.
The Apiculturist used state and county meetings to give beekeepers
new recommendations in beekeeping and provide them with information
on programs in production and marketing.

Fig. 4.-The Apiculturist demonstrates honey jelly to a meeting
of beekeepers.







Annual Report, 1952


Florida State Fair.-Eight beekeepers' exhibits were shown at the Flor-
ida State Fair and eight 4-H Club members exhibited small lots of honey.
The Ladies Auxiliary of the Tampa Bay Beekeepers' Association exhibited
over 100 entries of foods cooked with honey.
Cooperation with Staff Members.-The Apiculturist cooperated with the
Extension Agronomist and the State Road Department Maintenance Di-
vision in establishing experimental plots of Hubam clover as a safeguard
against roadbed erosion. Bees were established in the experimental plots
to assure proper re-seeding of Hubam for further trials. About 180 pounds
of honey were produced on these roadside strips.
A tupelo nursery was established in cooperation with a county agent
and the Extension Forester, to replace trees that have been cut for lumber.
A two-day short course on beekeeping and electrical wiring was con-
ducted with the Farm Electrification Specialist, the Assistant Lake County
Agents and 15 4-H Club boys.
4-H Club Work.-Beekeeping was taught at three 4-H club camps
and the third camp apiary was established. One course on beekeeping was
taught to 500 4-H Club boys attending summer short course.
Talks and visual aids were presented at 23 4-H Club meetings and 15
4-H club apiary demonstrations were conducted. The Specialist lectured
to 170 children in elementary schools on beekeeping.
Further Work on Honey Jelly.-The Apiculturist carried out further
investigations on effects of different pectins and acids in making jellies
from different varieties of Florida honey. The honey jelly process was
demonstrated at district bee meetings and to jelly manufacturers. (Fig. 4).
Field Program Testing Hives.-Four different groups of colonies each
containing five hives are being studied in the tupelo section of Gulf County.
Yields from each group will be tabulated and results evaluated at the
end of three years.
Field Teaching Aids.-The "Low Cost Beehive" circular was distributed
at district bee and 4-H club meetings, 10 newsletters were sent 470 bee-
keepers and Extension workers on seasonal management, improved practices
and value of honey in the daily diet and beekeeping and pollination exhibits
were presented at six county fairs. Demonstration 4-H club apiaries are
located in 16 counties.
The Apiculturist visited 98 county agents and assistant county agents
and seven home demonstration agents. Personal service letters were
written to 597 Extension agents and beekeepers.







38 Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
W. W. Brown, State Boys' 4-H Club Agent

One county Extension agent gave part-time assistance to the 4-H Club
program in the southern part of the state.
The organizational plan of 10 4-H Club districts throughout Florida
was continued. Following the annual statewide meeting an agents' meet-
ing was held in each of the 10 districts. These meetings were held during
December and several new programs were placed in operation as a
result.
In 1952 participation in judging contests, livestock and poultry shows,
in giving method demonstrations and in the awards program increased
substantially. Enrollment in boys' 4-H Clubs increased from 12,304 mem-
bers to 12,409 and the number of members completing projects jumped
from 8,560 to 9,102. This represents 73.3 percent completions for Florida
4-H boys in 1952, a substantial increase over 1951. In 1951 Florida boys
carried 18,258 projects and completed 12,937. In 1952 they carried 18,044
projects and completed 13,425.

Fig. 5.-The State Council assists Extension workers in planning and
directing boys' 4-H Club work. Officers shown here, left to right, are
Julian Webb, secretary; Roy Heathcoe, treasurer; George Montague, pres-
ident; Steve Hudson, vice-president; and Steve Simmons, reporter.


WWW *'BaE1^3i^J








Annual Report, 1952 39

A few of the activities helping to build the 4-H program include
285 leader training meetings, 171 demonstration teams, 216 judging
contests, two short courses, 2,219 boys at summer camps, 76 achievement
days, 244 4-H tours and 2,100 recreational and social meetings. An increase
in the number of acres under cultivation and number of animals raised
by 4-H Club members was registered during 1952.
4-H Camps.-Five 4-H Club camps are now in operation in the state.
During 1952 36 weeks of camps were held at white 4-H camps and seven
weeks at negro camps. Approximately 3,500 4-H members attended camps
during the summer. In addition, four institutes-citrus and poultry in-
stitutes at McQuarrie and farm and home institutes at Timpoochee and
Cherry Lake-were held. These institutes were attended by parents,
farmers and others throughout the state.
Short Course.-Annual 4-H Short Course was held for the 33rd time
with 339 members in attendance from 52 counties. The Short Course brings
outstanding 4-H Club members from many counties to the University of
Florida for one week of training and inspiration.
The State Council of Boys' 4-H Club Work held its annual meeting and
elected officers (Fig. 5) during Short Course. This group, composed of
representatives of all counties having county councils, materially assists
in setting policies for boys' 4-H Club work.
During the 1952 Short Course three statewide 4-H Club events were
staged, including the State 4-H Dairy Judging Contest, 4-H Tractor Op-
erators Contest and 4-H Public Speaking Contest. The winning state
dairy judging team and high scoring state tractor driver operator repre-
sented Florida at regional and national events during the fall of the year.
Special Events.-There were 26 state awards available for 4-H members
during 1952. They included free trips to the National 4-H Club Congress,
gold watches, scholarships, cash awards, trophies and county medals.
The trip to the National 4-H Camp in Washington is considered the
outstanding 4-H award and two boys and two girls make this trip annually.
A third boy is selected to attend the Danforth Leadership Camp in Shelby,
Michigan, each year.
An outstanding boy and girl from each county are selected annually
to receive a certificate at the Florida State Fair on 4-H Club Day. A Dairy
Efficiency Contest is held to select the best dairy club boy in each of the 10
4-H Club districts. Each district winner receives a cash award and the best
state dairy project winner receives a large plaque. The outstanding
county in the state in dairy 4-H work is selected and given a large plaque.
The State Agent analyzed and summarized information on awards from
all over the state in order that each agent and each 4-H Club district could
measure progress.
Teaching Methods.-The use of exhibits and shows was stressed through-
out the year. Club members performed many result demonstrations under
supervision of county Extension workers and state specialists.
The use of method demonstrations was encouraged at every opportunity
and more than 20 teams, representing various counties, presented method
demonstrations at the State Fair in Tampa.
Negro 4-H Work.-The State Agent exerted more effort and time during
1952 toward stimulating and assisting negro county Extension personnel
to more effectively carry forward their 4-H program.
The negro 4-H Club program is carried on by negro Extension agents.
Negro district agents supervise the county workers. The State 4-H Club
Office made subject matter materials available for negro work and assisted








40 Florida Cooperative Extension

with officers-leaders schools and other phases of the negro 4-H program.
This office also made record books, record cards and information on 4-H
Club work available to negro county workers and worked with negro groups
in staging shows, judging contests and building exhibits for county and
state fairs. The State Office hired camp personnel, helped plan camp pro-
grams, and worked with Negro District Agents in planning short course
and Extension conferences.
The negro awards program was established and accepted by Florida for
the first time in 1952. Awards were offered and winners were selected
in field crops, health, garden, meat animal, poultry, achievement and
farm and home safety.
The State 4-H Club Office assisted in soliciting expense money for
eight negro 4-H members selected for the Regional Camp award.








Annual Report, 1952


CITRUS CULTURE

Fred P. Lawrence, Citriculturist

Florida now has 529,200 acres of citrus groves, 62,000 of which are
classed as young, non-bearing trees that are coming into production at
the rate of 12,000 to 15,000 acres per year. The 1951-52 season broke
all previous production records with 119,100,000 boxes of citrus produced.
In the last 15 years total production has increased by 78,000,000 boxes.
Pricewise, the 1951-52 season was one of the poorest in recent years.
An estimated net profit of only $31,290,000, or 27C per box after all
production and marketing costs were deducted, was received. This com-
pares very unfavorably with the $86,129,000, or 82 per box, for the
1950-51 season. The average net return from the 10-year period 1941-51
was $75,420,000, or 93C per box. Production costs have gone up an
average of 100 and picking, packing, hauling and selling 39e per box in
the last 10 years. Increased volume per tree and per acre has kept
the average cost of production per box from advancing higher. By
better production methods, production in this period has risen from
316 to 370 boxes per acre. This increase has kept many growers' heads
above water.
Training Program.-The Citriculturist stressed the value of and need
for better trained agents and a better organized program to get technical
advise and information to growers.
The third annual two-day citrus training school for county agents
was held at the USDA Horticultural Station, Orlando, Florida, this year.
During the school various research workers gave current information on
diseases, nutrition, soil pH and general grove management. At the eve-
ning session agents heard a discussion on the fertilization program being
used by a large cooperative organization. The following day agents
visited demonstration and research plots in two counties.

Fig. 6.-A 4-H Club boy shows a Burmese visitor how to bud citrus.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Citriculturist took the initiative in arranging for a three-week
summer course in citrus culture. This course, a special one which carried
graduate credit, was open only to county agents and other qualified Uni-
versity personnel with a citrus background.
The Citriculturist obtained current research information, analyzed it
and gave it to county agents through four news letters, five mimeographed
releases, personal visits and group meetings.
Citrus Clinics.-At 10 clinics 3,700 growers were advised on individual
citrus problems. These clinics were usually of one day's duration and
growers came at their convenience, bringing specimens for diagnosis
and for consultation and advice.
Citrus Schools.-Two 18-week grower short courses on citrus were
offered during the year, with 333 growers registered. The schools met
for two hours one night each week. Each session was taught by either
a member of the Extension Service, Experiment Station, College of Agri-
culture or a qualified industry person. The schools were very successful
and others are being planned.
Institutes.-Through four well planned institutes, 1,250 additional
growers were contacted and given the latest research information in pro-
duction and marketing. These institutes varied in length from one to
four days.
Demonstrations and Tours.-All citrus producing counties now have a
program of grower demonstrations. The demonstrations vary from those
showing simple cultural practices to more complex ones involving fer-
tilizers, insect control and cultivation. Most citrus counties now hold
at least one grower tour each year so those interested can observe and
appraise the various demonstrations.
Budwood Certification Program.-On November 12, 1952, an emergency
state appropriation of $12,000 was approved which set in motion a citrus
budwood certification program. The Agricultural Extension Service, other
agencies and men from all branches of the citrus industry had been
working for more than a year to form and activate a workable program
to control bud-transmitted diseases of citrus trees. It will be some time
yet before the program is in full operation, due to the time lag involved
in registering nursery trees, which must be grown from budwood taken
from a registered parent tree.







Annual Report, 1952


DAIRY HUSBANDRY

C. W. Reaves, Extension Dairy Husbandman
The state dairy Extension program for 1952 included the dairy herd
improvement association and official testing, breeding program for higher
producing replacements, feeding and management, the home milk supply,
4-H dairy club work and cooperation with breed associations, dairy groups
and other organizations.
Dairy Herd Improvement.-The dairy herd improvement association
program was carried out in 22 counties to assist members in feeding and
management of their herds. Results secured provided demonstrations
of improved methods for other dairymen. Eight DHIA supervisors, trained
in dairying, made monthly tests of herds, kept records, and advised
with farmers in the use of records as guides in feeding, breeding, culling
and herd management.
Results secured by DHIA associations with state totals are given below:

YEARLY PER COW AVERAGES OF COWS IN DAIRY HERD
IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATIONS IN 1952


ASSOCIATIONS




Orange County ..............
Duval ...............................
West Coast ......................
Pioneer ............................
South Forida ....................
Manasota ......................
North Florida ................
Jackson County ............
State ............................


U)
C
u

u ~k
c 40
o r~)

cC C) C
-< < 1 ^ 3 I

o a
a ~~ '^ J s *"


1,714
1,520
720
987
1,389
340
101
270
7,041


7,310
6,719
6,474
6,379
6,215
5,730
5,407
4,894
6,554


$508 $237
467 213
496 231
433 207
407 184
411 191
384 139
299 162
453 210


$3.06
2.88
3.31
3.00
2.82
3.12
2.43
2.97
3.00


Comparison of average production of DHIA herds
cows in the state shows results of improved practices.
Pounds F
Milk
Average of cows in DHIA herds ................ 6,554
Average of all Florida milk cows ............ 4,350
Increase of DHIA Cows ............................ 2,204
Percent increase of DHIA cows-............. 51


with that of all milk


percentt
Test
4.5
4.25
0.25


Pounds
Butterfat
295
185
107
58


A State DHIA was organized at the DHIA meeting held during the
Dairy Field Day at the University on May 2, 1952. Purpose of the organ-
ization is to make recommendations to local dairy herd improvement asso-







Florida Cooperative Extension


ciations on business operations and to promote coordination of the work
of local DHIA's. All members of local DHIA's are members of the State
DHIA.
Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is the state superin-
tendent of official cow testing, a program carried out in cooperation with
national dairy breed associations. Twenty herds are under Herd Improve-
ment Registry testing and 18 under Advanced Registry testing.
Breeding Program for Higher Producing Dairy Cows.-Dairy herd im-
provement association herds with records of production serve as sources
of breeding stock for other herds. Data on the production of 24 Florida
bulls were tabulated during 1952.
The Chipola Artificial Breeding association was organized during 1952,
with headquarters at Marianna. It will serve Jackson County and parts
of adjoining counties.
Sixteen artificial breeding groups, serving dairymen in 25 counties, bred
24,308 cows during 1952.
County agents assisted 230 farmers in buying dairy bulls and 773 in
obtaining purebred or high grade females.
Increase in Number and Care of Calves.-Approximately 70,000 heifer
calves have been raised in Florida during each of the last two years. The
Extension Service made available calf barn plans and information on use
of portable calf pens for parasite control. Many farmers and club boys
built individual pens and are following a good calf raising program.
Feeding and Management.-Improved feeding and management methods
were presented in dairy barn meetings, tours, regular meetings, radio talks,
news items, personal contacts and replies to letters. The efficient dairy
production project was carried out in 22 counties with DHIA work. Agents
helped 244 farmers not in a DHIA in keeping records and 1,454 farmers with
feeding problems for dairy cattle.
A study was made to show the source of feed nutrients consumed by
Florida dairy cows. An analysis of the feeding program of DHIA herds
showed that 22 percent of the feed supply was provided by pasture and that
DHIA herds secure a slightly higher percentage of feeds from pasture than
the average Florida herd. It also indicated that a much larger percentage
of the feed supply should be provided by pasture and home-grown feeds
if Florida is to produce milk on a comparable basis with other states.
County agents assisted 2,711 dairymen and family cow owners to control
external parasites and 2,747 farmers to control diseases and internal para-
sites of dairy cattle. Assistance was given through the Experiment Station
animal parasitologist to a number of farmers in the control of liver flukes.
Cooperation was given the State Livestock Sanitary Board in tuberculosis,
brucellosis and mastitis control programs.
Home Milk Supply.-Aid was given farm families in providing and using
adequate amounts of milk and dairy products for good nutrition by helping
secure dairy animals, having health tests made and giving training in the
use of milk. Agents assisted 4,468 families improve their food supply by
the production or use of milk.
4-H Dairy Club Work.-A total of 1,384 boys and girls were enrolled in
4-H dairy projects. Of these, 1,126 completed their projects involving 1,692
animals. Two state-wide 4-H contests, based on the member's record of
accomplishments, were conducted. Six district and one state 4-H shows
and judging contests were held. Many demonstrations were prepared and
presented by 4-H girls in the 4-H dairy foods demonstration project.








t '



,, 11.
:"4.


AW*

r~Al


Fig. 7.-County and district 4-H dairy shows, preliminary to a state 4-H dairy show at the Central Florida Exposition,
increased interest in dairying.







46 Florida Cooperative Extension

Florida's National Champion 4-H Dairy Team Visits Europe.-Florida's
1951 national champion 4-H dairy cattle judging team made a trip to Europe
as official representatives of the United States. The International Judging
Contest at the British Royal Show was called off, however, due to outbreak
of foot and mouth disease in England. The team was guest of the British
National Federation of Young Farmers Club and of the British Ministry
of Agriculture. Dairy herds and breed association headquarters were visited
in Scotland, Holland and Jersey and Guernsey Islands. Ireland, Germany
and France also were visited. Expenses for the trip were provided by
contributions from the State of Florida, dairy cattle breed associations,
milk-producer associations, individual firms and breeders and other friends
of 4-H Club work. The Florida Dairy Industry Association conducted the
campaign to raise funds.
Cooperation with Other Organizations.-Close cooperation was main-
tained with the dairy cattle breed associations, Florida Dairy Industry
Association, State Department of Agriculture, State Livestock Sanitary
Board and other groups and agencies.

COMPARISON OF 1951 AND 1952 RESULTS IN SPECIFIC PROJECTS
1951 1952
Number dairy herd improvement associations ............. 7 8
Cows included in DHIA Annual Summary ...................... 6,134 7,042
Number bulls proved by DHIA records .............................. 10 14
Cows on Official test .............................. ......... .......... 1,071 1,319
Cows bred in Artificial breeding units .............................. 23,946 24,308
Number farmers assisted by agents in securing pure bred
dairy bulls ............................................. .......................... 214 230
In securing purebred or high grade females .......... 807 773
Farmers receiving aid with feeding problems .........--......... 1,335 1,454
Farmers receiving aid on controlling external parasites .... 2,520 2,711
Farmers receiving aid on controlling diseases and internal
parasites ................... ... .. .................. 2,960 2,747







Annual Report, 1952


FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester
Fire Protection.-The Extension Forester has continued to devote much
time and effort towards a solution of the state's forest fire problem. County
agents, farmers, school teachers, 4-H Club members, garden clubs and
others were furnished with bulletins and other printed materials, radio talks,
pictures, films and other teaching aids helpful in teaching and understanding
the damage caused by woods fires. County agents were assisted in organ-
izing educational programs in forest protection. The Extension Forester
has continued to promote the establishment of improved pasture fire barriers
around forested acres. In this way fire protection can be made to yield
extra income through grazing while, at the same time, the woods are safe-
guarded.
This approach offers three distinct advantages. It provides successful
fire protection, requires no annual protection expenditures by landowner or
public agencies and eliminates one of the principal reasons for woods burn-
ing, namely, burning off coarse wiregrass to improve early spring grazing.
Plans were developed and promoted for closer coordination in forest
fire prevention between the Extension Service and the State Forest Service,
Soil Conservation Service, wood-using industries, forest experiment stations,
State Chamber of Commerce and other public and private agencies. Other
educational work in forest fire prevention consisted of preparing radio talks,
news releases and circular letters and distributing bulletins, charts, pictures
and films on forest protection.
During 1952 county agents reported assisting 10,382 farmers in 48
counties in protecting woodlands from fire.
Forest Planting.-Planning, coordinating and executing forest tree plant-
ing programs on farms occupied a large part of the Extension Forester's
time during 1952. Close cooperation was given county agents, State Forest
Service personnel, five Florida pulp mills and two lumber companies in
distributing forest seedlings.
During the year county agents distributed 7,286,330 slash pine seedlings
to 1,476 farmers and other small forest landowners in 49 of Florida's
67 counties. This exceeds, by more than 2,000,000, the number of pine
seedlings distributed to farmers during any previous year.
Red Cedar Plantings.-Red cedar seedlings have not been available from
Forest Service nurseries. To meet growing demand by Florida farmers for
cedar seedlings the Extension Forester developed a new method for ob-
taining quick germination of cedar seeds. Instructions for collecting,
treating and planting the seeds were prepared and furnished to county
agents and farmers.
The Extension Forester collected 600,000 red cedar seeds which were
distributed to farmers, 4-H club members, county agents, vocational agri-
culture teachers and the University of Florida School of Forestry. In-
structions were provided with the seeds on growing cedar nursery stock
and transplanting the seedlings. Some very successful cedar nurseries
resulted from this effort. With assistance from the West Florida Experi-
ment Station at Jay, the Forester produced 3,000 red cedar seedlings for
additional demonstration plantings on farms and 4-H projects.
Catalpa Plantings.-Continuing his attempt to meet growing shortages
of naturally durable fence post material on farms and ranches, the Ex-
tension Forester promoted further demonstration plantings of catalpa.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The 5,000 seedlings grown with the assistance from West Florida Ex-
periment Station personnel during 1951 were used in making four demon-
stration plantings of one-half acre each on Experiment Station lands at
Ona, Gainesville, Quincy and Jay. A half acre planting was made on a
cattle ranch and the other 2,000 seedlings were used in making four 4-H
Club plantings.
In addition to these plantings, 100,000 seeds collected in 1951 and dis-
tributed to county agents, 4-H club members and farmers in 1952 produced
7,000 seedlings.- These will be used for new fence post demonstration plant-
ings during 1953.
The Forester, with the assistance of several county agents, collected
150,000 catalpa seeds during 1952 for production of more seedlings in 1954.
Some of these seeds will be planted in the State Forest Service nursery and
by Agricultural Experiment Stations. The rest will be distributed to county
agents, 4-H Club members and farmers. All seeds are distributed free.
Tupelo Gum Planting.-The Extension Forester, assisted by the Ex-
tension Apiculturist and one county agent, established the first tupelo gum
nursery in Florida. This planting was made to provide seedlings for dem-
onstration plantings of both Nyssa ogeche and Nyssa aquatic, the two
most important tupelo gums for honey production. The Forester collected
seeds, determined nursery site, time and method of planting and assisted
in the actual planting operation. Several hundred seedlings were produced.
Other Demonstration Forest Plantings.-The Extension Forester con-
tinued demonstration plantings and other work on two small forest plantings
he established 10 years ago. Seven species of conifers and 27 species of
native hardwoods were planted. Most of the hardwoods were planted as
forest plantings in Florida for the first time. Interesting and important
information on soils adapted to the several tree species and spacing and
growth rates was developed from these 10-year-old forest plantings.
The Forester planned, supervised and executed the planting of forest
trees on an eight-acre tract of land provided for forest planting on the
Experiment Station Farm at Gainesville during 1952.
Forest Products for Home Use.-In Florida the farm provides the best
market for farm-grown timber. Lumber, fence posts, fuel wood, stakes,
stack poles and sills are always needed on the farm. Since these wood
products can be grown without disturbing timber produced for sale, the
Forester initiated and constantly promoted this idea. County agents were
assisted in promoting such a program.
4-H Forestry Club Work.-The Extension Forester prepared plans,
programs, project work outlines and instructions for 4-H forestry club
activities and supervised the execution of project work in the field. He
taught forestry to 235 4-H Club boys during two weeks of 4-H short courses
and two weeks of 4-H summer camps.
The 4-H forestry awards program, sponsored by two Florida pulp mills,
produced seven county winners and one state winner, who also won National
honors and a $300.00 scholarship given by the American Forest Products
Industries.








Annual Report, 1952


POULTRY ACTIVITIES

N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman
J. S. Moore, Extension Poultryman
A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test

The trend toward larger laying flocks, larger-sized broiler units and
more commercial turkey farms continued in 1952.
There were 3,157,000 hens and pullets on Florida farms on January
1, 1952. Approximately 12,000,000 broilers, 163,000 turkeys and over 20,-
000,000 chicks were produced during the year. Even with increases in
production, Florida is still a deficit poultry producing state.
Production of Quality Pullets.-One of the most important phases of
commercial egg farming is the production of quality replacement pullets.
Its success is determined by quality of pullets placed in the laying house
each fall. Factors found to influence this quality include starting early with
quality chicks, proper brooding conditions, use of clean, well-sodded land
and feeding a well-balanced ration.
Layer Management.-The laying efficiency program emphasized during
1952 included: 2,500 layers per man, 200 eggs per bird per year, 60 winter
eggs per bird, 10% or less mortality, 210 eggs per 100 pounds of feed and
a 100% pullet flock.
Producers of eggs found the following management practices important
in obtaining higher returns: Keeping all-pullet flocks, use of artificial
lights during fall and winter months, use of special feeding programs to
stimulate feed consumption, removal of unprofitable birds by culling, de-
velopment of a sanitation program to reduce losses from parasites and
diseases and adoption of a record keeping program to study and analyze
the business.
Broiler Management.-Gross value of the broiler industry in Florida
in 1951 was slightly in excess of 8 million dollars. The 1952 crop of broilers
will approximate 12,000,000 birds with an estimated value of between 10 and
12 million dollars.


Fig. 8.-Broiler houses of this type, having a capacity of 6,000 to 10,000
birds, are widely used.















S 1 :


.-it Am
-'I 2< -'6U3~








Florida Cooperative Extension


The broiler efficiency program continued to guide producers in the devel-
opment of their farming operations. This program calls for a 10,000 broiler-
capacity plant, four lots per year (a total of 40,000 birds per man) 34
pounds of meat per 100 pounds of feed, less than 5% mortality and market
all birds before 11 weeks of age.
During the year the broiler industry expanded in total numbers, size
of buildings, number of chicks per man and use of labor-saving devices.
Marketing Eggs and Poultry.-Production, handling and merchandizing
phases of producing quality eggs were stressed during the year. Items
stressed included sufficient nests, clean nesting material, gathering eggs
often, cooling quickly, grading and packaging. Cooling systems were con-
structed on farms to hold eggs until marketed, more refrigerated trucks are
being used to haul eggs to market and many retail stores are holding eggs
under refrigeration until sold. More eggs were placed in cartons in 1952
than ever before.
Processing plants for poultry meat have been developed and are now
offering quality products to the consumer.
Home-Grown Feed and Green Feed.-Feed represents approximately
60% of the total cost of producing poultry meat and eggs. Commercial
egg producers have found that succulent green feed is one way to help reduce
feed costs and develop quality pullets. Rotation of yards to provide green
feed for layers and the development of pasture for growing pullets were
recommended for commercial egg producers.
4-H Poultry Work.-Four-H Club members were encouraged to take an
active part in poultry production, exhibition, judging and marketing. Four-
H poultry work was conducted in most counties of the state.
Twenty-three counties participated in a special poultry project spon-
sored by Sears-Roebuck Foundation, with 230 club members starting 23,000
purebred day-old chicks.
A district 4-H livestock and poultry show was held in Jacksonville, with
five counties participating. Club members entered 300 birds.
The second annual Ocala Area Junior Livestock and Poultry Show was
held, with four counties participating. Club members entered over 300
birds and 40 dozen eggs.
The Exension Poultryman judged 4-H poultry shows in nine counties.
The Annual State 4-H Club Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest
was held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition in Orlando,
February 23-March 1, 1952. Club members exhibited more than 1,500 birds
and 179 dozen eggs and 15 judging teams participated.
Training classes were held at the University for 100 4-H boys and girls
and poultry instruction also was presented to club members attending the
annual short course.
Turkey Management.-Florida's turkey production for 1952 is expected
to total 163,000, compared with 151,000 in 1951.
During the year larger units were established, quality poults made
available and marketing facilities developed. The Turkey Association held
two meetings to promote improved efficiency in production and mer-
chandising.
Florida National Egg-Laying Test.-The 26th Egg-Laying Test was con-
cluded September 15, 1952, with 86 pens of pullets from 47 breeders in 21
states and Canada and seven breeds of poultry competing for honors.
Average egg production for this 350-day period was 220.7 eggs av-
eraging over 24 ounces per dozen. Feed (mash and grain) consumed per
bird totaled 91.17 pounds. One part of grain to 1 parts of mash were







Annual Report, 1952 51

used. Five pounds of feed were required to produce one dozen eggs. Mor-
tality totaled 14.7 percent.
The high pen of 13 pullets entered by Blanton Smith, Nashville, Tenn.,
laid a total of 3,699 eggs for a score of 3,792 points.
The high individual bird was a S. C. White Leghorn pullet entered by
N. H. Meriwether, Townsend, Tenn., which produced 325 eggs (missing
only 25 days) for a value of 352.05 points.
Random Sample Test.-This test was started at the request of Florida
breeders and hatcherymen and differs from the standard egg-laying test
in that 50 day-old pullet chicks are selected at random by a disinterested
person, boxed and shipped to Chipley, where they are brooded and reared.
All pullets raised are placed in laying houses, fed and managed alike. Com-
plete records are kept on each entry. In preliminary random sample tests
there was considerable difference noted in value of eggs over feed costs,
based on the original number of chicks started.
The first official random sample test began in April, 1952, with seven
entries. The average cash cost (feed, chicks and vaccinations) per pullet
housed was $2.11, varying from $1.99 to $2.39. Three hundred and nine-
teen pullets were housed from the original 350 pullet chicks started.
Annual Breeders' Conference.-The Annual Breeders Conference was held
in Gainesville at the Poultry Laboratory, December 5 and 6, 1952. The
program included topics on selection, inheritance, breeding for broiler pro-
duction, sanitation in-hatcheries, the National Poultry Improvement Plan
and other topics relating to breeding and hatchery enterprises. Forty-five
hatcherymen and breeders attended.
Annual Poultry Institute.-A united poultry industry in Florida was
the theme of the Eleventh Annual Poultry Institute held at Camp Mc-
Quarrie, August 25-30, 1952. Over 400 poultrymen from 31 counties reg-
istered this year.
Feeding, housing and management of broilers, layers and turkeys,
hatchery topics, sanitation and disease prevention, marketing poultry prod-
ucts and national poultry subjects were discussed.
The following associations held their annual or summer meetings during
this Institute: Florida Poultry and Egg Council, Florida State Poultry
Producers' Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Association and
Florida Turkey Association.
Organizations.-Several county and state poultry associations and the
Allied Industry Associations have rendered great service in developing
the poultry Extension program.
State associations include the Florida Poultry and Egg Council, Florida
State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Asso-
ciation, Florida Turkey Association, Florida Feed Dealers' Association and
Poultry and Egg Processors of Florida, with membership in the South-
eastern Poultry and Egg Association.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
H. S. McLendon, Extension Soil Conservationist

Activities in Organized Districts.-Information given is prepared from
Soil Conservation Service records, which are compiled at six-month periods
of the calendar year. The last report for 1952 will not be available until
in January 1953. This statistical report covers information on 50 districts.
There are now 54 organized districts in Florida. However, four of these
are so new that no work has been reported for them during the period
covered by this report.

COMBINED REPORT OF SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS
ACTIVITIES FROM THE DATE OF ORGANIZATION TO JUNE 30, 1952


Practice
Contour farming ...................-
Cover cropping ......................
Crop residue management ..
Strip cropping .-......-...--.........
Range improvement ..............
Pasture improvement ...........
Seeding of range ..................
Seeding of pastures ............
Wildlife area improvement ..
Woodland management ........
Tree planting ........................
Farm and ranch ponds ......
Terraces .........----------.....
Field diversions ...-...........-......
Farm drainage .......... ........
Closed drains ..----...............--.......
Open drains ..........---............-
Irrigation land preparation..
Improved water applications
Field wind breaks ..................
Water disposal areas ...........
Kudzu .......... ..-- ........
Sericea .-...................- ---
Alfalfa and permanent grass
Woodland protection ............
Fish ponds ......--------.......................
Crop rotation .........................


Planned


306,152
550,711
482,019
21,815
657,385
1,693,889
20,416
1,532,231
119,793
1,298,795
61,457
946
24,943.0
349.0
1,530,755
1,817,075
13,449.8
132.814
217,709
286.9
7,652
20,401
5,130
45,560
828,200
1,131
673,185


acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
number
miles
miles
miles
acres
L. feet
acres
acres
miles
acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
number
acres


Established
234,012 acres
436,622 acres
392,223 acres
12,468 acres
328,843 acres
715,382 acres
7,210 acres
552,689 acres
103,860 acres
1,118,543 acres
32,870 acres
670 number
9,396.6 miles
13,790.06 miles
249.0 acres
650,235 L. feet
1,496,495 miles
65,958 acres
132,797 acres
151.6 miles
3,451 acres
9,171 acres
2,021 acres
18,848 acres
619,802 acres
714 number
588,797 acres


FARM AND RANCH CONSERVATION PLANS


Applications received this period .......................---.........
Applications received to date ............................--.........--
Active applications to date ....................--.....-.....--..---
Plans prepared and signed this period ..........................
Plans prepared and signed to date ...............................
Active conservation plans to date .............................
Combined treatment this period ...............................
Combined treatment to date .................. ....-


Number
2,291
21,169
2,272
2,272
15,757
13,773


Acres
1,368,472
9,835,015
2,490,122
760,939
5,738,326
5,036,434
624,227
2,882,043







Annual Report, 1952


Annual elections of supervisors were held in 48 districts in 1952. There
are 26,069,951 acres covered by the 50 soil conservation districts shown in
this report, of which 8,553,377 were covered by soil conservation surveys
as of June 30, 1952. There were 5,804,280 acres covered by 15,952 farm
plans for the same period.
Organization of Soil Conservation Districts.-The Director of the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service is Administrator for the State Soil Con-
servation Board and is responsible for administering the Soil Conservation
Districts Act. Based on this authority, the Extension Soil Conservationist
is responsible for organizational work in forming new districts in the state
and the county agent assumes similar responsibility in the county. The
same is true when there is a request for change of boundary of an or-
ganized district. All such matters are presented to the State Soil Con-
servation Board for final approval.
The Extension Soil Conservationist, assisted by county agents in the
districts, is responsible for holding elections to elect supervisors for new
districts and annual elections to fill vacancies of supervisors whose terms
have expired.
Charters were issued to two new districts in 1952, Flagler and Bay.
Each new district has the same boundaries as the counties of the same
name. Boundaries of both Chipola River and Orange Hill Soil Conservation
Districts were changed during 1952. Chipola River District was changed to
include all lands lying within the boundary of Liberty County, Florida.
Orange Hill District was changed by excluding all lands lying within Bay
County, Florida.
Petitions were filed from Franklin and Baker counties for the organ-
ization of districts to serve all lands in each county in separate districts.
In each case a referendum has been held and the landowners have voted
in favor of creating districts. Final organization work is now being com-
pleted.
The Extension Soil Conservationist attended regular meetings and some
called meetings of boards of supervisors. He discussed district record keep-
ing with secretary-treasurers.
The Extension Soil Conservationist attended two 4-H Club camps and
instructed boys on soil and water conservation problems. He worked with
county agents, their assistants and their club members on soil and water
conservation projects. A number of pasture, clover and lupine tours were
attended during the year.
The Soil Conservationist worked with county agents and farmers in
an effort to provide soil protection from both water and wind erosion, to
get more legumes grown in general rotation and to turn under for soil
improvement and to encourage the planting of more land to permanent
pastures, especially where the land was showing erotion. He also encour-
aged the growing of more legumes in pastures, including both winter and
summer legume crops. During the year there was a large increase in
acreage planted to clovers in Florida.







Florida Cooperative Extension


VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MERCHANDISING

F. S. Jamison, Vegetable Crop Specialist

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

Forrest E. Myers, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
James Montelaro, Acting Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist'

Florida vegetables reached record highs in gross value of more than
$177,000,000, with a volume of about 141,000 carloads for the 1951-52 season.
State value, carload volume and value per carload have about doubled in the
past 10 years. Production costs were up, with narrow margin of return on
many specific crops and with individual growers.
Major Extension efforts were directed toward incorporating methods of
producing good yields of high quality at minimum costs. Established
growers demanded sound advice on new developments and standard prac-
tices in all phases of production. New growers, and growers in-and-out of
vegetable production, also called for information on this fast moving, yet
intensive type of agriculture. Garden-type inquiries were numerous and
constant.
Florida census figures indicated about 4,000 vegetable farms, 10,000
farms from which some vegetables were sold and 30,000 farms on which
vegetables were grown for home use.
County Workers.-County Extension workers devoted 1,789 days to com-
mercial vegetable crops in 62 counties. Farmers were assisted with vege-
table crops in 527 communities. Number of commercial farmers assisted
with various phases of vegetable work included:
Varieties, 3,463, use of lime 2,012, use of fertilizers 5,158, disease con-
trol 5,811, insect control, 7,439, weed control 1,360 and rodent control 908.
Other activities by county Extension workers included assisting over
11,000 families in 56 counties to improve home food production and guiding
over 4,000 garden projects to completion.
Grower Meetings.-Timely discussions on current recommendations and
research were used to answer on-the-spot problems for growers and other
industry members in major vegetable producing areas over the state. Meet-
ings involved several counties in some instances, including programs at
Plant City, Wauchula, Fort Myers, Oxford, Trenton, Webster, Pompano,
Boynton, Canal Point, Hastings, Homestead, Palmetto, Turkey Creek and
Worthington Springs. Meetings were in cooperation with county agricul-
tural agents in 35 counties and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
vegetable workers in local areas.
Marketing Conference.-County agricultural agents from selected coun-
ties, accompanied by key growers, attended a two-day vegetable marketing
conference sponsored by the Vegetable Advisory Committee. Specialists
assisted in planning the program, arrangements and by presenting subject
matter on production-marketing relationships.
Grower Field Days.-Specialists actively assisted in presenting grower
field days held at the Main Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville,
and at branch stations in Hastings, Fort Pierce, Boynton and Bradenton.

5 Granted leave of absence for foreign assignment under Point IV program July 1, 1952.
Appointed September 1. 1952.







Annual Report, 1952


Local Leader Training.-Instruction on small-scale vegetable grow-
ing was presented to local leaders in home demonstration work through
the annual State Council Conference. Local grower leaders participated in
the vegetable marketing conference and in area grower meetings.
Florida State Horticultural Society.-Active assistance was given the
vegetable section chairman in selecting topics and speakers and in pre-
senting the annual program.
Vegetable Outlook Committee.-A production Specialist served as chair-
man of the special state sub-committee responsible for preparation of
advance vegetable outlook material in "Looking Ahead for Florida Agri-
culture."
"Vegetarian" Newsletter.-Area research reviews were presented
through county agent newsletters on up-to-date results from six Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations in the producing areas over the state.
Production Guides.-Specialists prepared and published revisions of the
watermelon and sweet potato production guides and expanded the group to
include eggplants (Extension Circulars 96A, 97A, and 109).
Boys' Short Courses.-Outstanding 4-H boys with vegetable projects
attended six short course sessions presented by a Specialist. Other boys
with special vegetable interests from Hillsborough and Collier counties
received Specialist instruction over a three-day period in summer camp.
Radio-Ten radio talks were presented for the Florida Farm Hour over
WRUF. Twelve additional tape recordings were prepared at county agent
request for use in radio programs in Central and West Coast areas of
the state.
County Agent Training.-A concise review of basic and timely vegetable
information was presented for key Central and North Florida county and
assistant county agents. This one-day training session was held at the
University of Florida, acquainting agents with facilities, personnel and
subject matter in the field. Agents from all parts of the state attended
a vegetable discussion section during Annual Agents Conference.
Letter and Office Inquiries.-Over 1,000 inquiries for vegetable infor-
mation were answered by correspondence or office visits, including all phases
from gardens to commercial production.
Visual and Training Aids.-A collection of 300 colored slides suitable
for educational purposes was assembled. Arrangements were made with
research workers, county agricultural agents and others for material ex-
changes in line with project needs. A survey was made to determine avail-
ability of similar material in state and federal bulletin cuts.
Special Vegetable Short Course.An intensive study of Florida vege-
table production was presented for 12 agriculturists from Norway, United
Kingdom, Germany, Yugoslavia, Italy and The Netherlands. This activity
was a trial short course for the Point IV Program, consisting of daily field
tours and classroom discussions over a period of three weeks. Considerably
more time was consumed in preparation and servicing the program.
Grower Contact Study.-A preliminary survey was conducted, in co-
operation with county agricultural agents, using as samples growers and
industry representatives attending nine vegetable meetings. Data indicated
possible usefulness in planning future activities along the lines of meetings
and other methods of grower contact.
Florida Seedsmen's Association.-Local store and field representatives
from several sections of the state received basic and timely instruction at
the annual state-wide Seedsmen's Short Course. A vegetable production






Florida Cooperative Extension


specialist arranged and moderated the panel discussion of current recom-
mendations at the annual Florida seedsmen's convention.

VEGETABLE MERCHANDISING

S. E. Rosenberger, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

Farmers' share of the consumer's fresh fruit and vegetable dollar is
falling. At retail and wholesale levels handlers of fresh produce receive
a larger share of the consumer's fresh fruit and vegetable dollar than the
producer receives.
Waste and spoilage in distribution a-e considered excessive, even though
the distribution process is considered the most thorough and efficient
known.
Depressed or sluggish sales of fresh fruit and vegetables in retail stores
increase spoilage. Rough handling and other ill-advised practices bring
about waste. It is here that the efforts of the vegetable merchandising
program are concentrated in an endeavor to decrease marketing costs and
increase returns to producers and handlers. Retailers are encouraged and
taught to become more skillful and effective in handling and displaying fresh
produce. Retail handlers who are quality conscious and display produce
attractively enjoy high sales and low losses.
Throughout the year 59 food stores in six counties cooperated in a better
produce merchandising program. Such a program consisted of a produce
school conducted for retailers and later working with them individually to
improve produce departments.
Other activities entered into by the Specialist included such things as
lectures, committee meetings and assisting with tours and short courses,
as well as field days at the Agricultural Experiment Station.







Annual Report, 1952


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Anna Mae Sikes, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Home Demonstration Agent
Joyce Bevis, District Home Demonstration Agent

Home demonstration workers in Florida are responsible for the devel-
opment and supervision of coordinated programs for both white and negro
home demonstration women and 4-H girls. They also shared responsibility
for the overall Agricultural Extension Service program. Home demon-
stration agents in state and county offices assisted with programs, plans
and activities for the improvement of home and family life.
Organization and Supervision.-The State Home Demonstration Agent's
responsibilities were largely in the fields of personnel, relationships, ad-
ministration, supervision, coordination and administration of the program,
headed by the Agricultural Extension Service Director.
Counties are divided into three districts, with district home demon-
stration agents supervising the work in each district and helping with the
development of a statewide program of home demonstration work.
Two State Councils of Home Demonstration Work, one for women and
another for girls, aided in developing a statewide program which was based
on needs and interests of the people.
Community home demonstration clubs were composed of women in-
terested in planning and carrying through a program directed to family
and community life. All community clubs were eligible for representation
in county home demonstration councils and through them in the State
Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work. Purposes of adult and
junior counsils were to unify home demonstration club work, make and carry
out plans of work and provide leadership training necessary to assist in
developing a program of improved family and community life.
During 1952 12,828 women were enrolled in 495 white and negro home
demonstration clubs and 16,286 white and negro girls were enrolled in 740
4-H clubs. There were 29,114 girls and women participating in a program
planned with the advice and aid of home demonstration agents. Consid-
erable time was spent working with individuals who were not members
of organized club groups. There was an enrollment of 5,614 individual
demonstrators and 7,159 cooperators who were not members of community
clubs. Agents reported helping 22,682 individuals not in organized clubs.
Financing Home Demonstration Work.-The state budget for mainte-
nance of home demonstration work came from the Agricultural Extension
Service and Florida State University. Florida State University provided
housing for the state home demonstration staff and a budget which per-
mitted additional personnel and a pre-service training program.
Boards of county commissioners and county school boards cooperated
in maintaining home demonstration work in the counties. Contributions
by both boards included funds for 4-H Short Courses, camp scholarships,
demonstration and office supplies, repairs in workrooms, equipment and
community and work centers.
County appropriating boards authorized $24,515.00 more for white home
demonstration work and $13,945.00 more for negro work in 1952. This
included salary increases, funds for clerical assistants and other expenses.
Personnel.-The State Agent directed the work of 47 white home dem-
onstration agents, 15 assistant home demonstration agents, 12 negro agents,







Florida Cooperative Extension


10 specialists and three white and one negro district home demonstration
agents.
Two specialists were added to the staff in 1952. The health education
position, a new one, was filled by appointment of a home demonstration
trainee. The food conservation position, an established one, was filled by
appointment of an experienced staff member. The Assistant State Girls'
4-H Club Agent resigned in June and this position was filled by a qualified
home economist with 4-H Club experience.
Personnel Training.-More time and thought was expended during the
year than ever before on pre-service training, due to scarcity of suitable
personnel and the expanded scope of the home demonstration program. The
State Agent employed two home economics graduates as trainees with
plans for eventual appointments as assistants or county home demonstra-
tion agents.


I


TO USE FOOD MSEC

BY PLANNING HEALS
for Dall 4

fil' ~


Fig. 9.-These two home demonstration agents from Germany studied
home demonstration methods and practices in Florida.

As many trainees as the budget permitted were employed to prevent in-
terruption of the home demonstration program caused by personnel turn-
over. In-service training was given county home demonstration agents by
district agents, specialists, Federal Extension Service workers and faculty
members of Florida State University and the University of Florida through
staff conferences and inter-office committee work. Training included con-
ferences, short courses, workshops, farm and home institutes, leader and
in-service training meetings, the Annual Extension Service Agents' Con-







Annual Report, 1952


ference, and regional training meetings. Home demonstration agents
were polled for program suggestions for training meetings, workshops
and conferences.
Activities and Accomplishments.-During 1952 home demonstration
agents trained 8,250 local leaders for home demonstration work. These
leaders held 1,586 meetings and gave information to 21,441 homemakers.
Agents trained 6,783 leaders in 4-H Club work and they conducted 1,529
meetings at which 35,658 youths attended.
Forty-four county councils of senior home demonstration work, white
and negro, representing 495 community clubs sponsored leadership train-
ing meetings for officers and chairmen. Senior councils improved 39 and
constructed 18 new community buildings, assisted 29 libraries in 14 coun-
ties, sponsored 723 county achievement days and held 1,418 social and 371
money-making functions.
Program Development.-The Home Demonstration Program is designed
to meet needs, desires and interests of people of different economic, social
and cultural backgrounds.
There were 31,466 rural and farm families and 34,394 non-farm families
given direct service by home demonstration workers. Agents made 73,463
business calls, handled 80,326 requests by telephone, made 22,956 home
and farm visits and distributed 169,018 bulletins.
Seventy-three county home demonstration agents, white and negro,
spent 10,388 days working with adults and 10,031 days with 4-H Club and
older youth. Agents held 191 adult achievement days attended by 52,675
persons and 532 4-H Club achievement days attended by 53,380 girls.
Seventy 4-H camps were held with 2,144 girls attending and result dem-
onstrations were held at 1,053 meetings attended by 16,145 persons.
County home demonstration agents wrote 5,334 news articles, made
1,054 radio broadcasts in 34 counties and appeared on three television
shows.
White agents in 30 counties and 10 negro agents reported special ac-
tivities in observnce of National Home Demonstration Week. Home dem-
onstration agents cooperated with Civil Defense in 12 meetings, arranged
163 home improvement tours attended by 1,840 persons, participated in 220
county fairs and assisted with 30 flower and garden shows.






60 Florida Cooperative Extension

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Katherine Simpson, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
The major objective of the Florida clothing program of the Agricultural
Extension Service was to develop standards in clothing to improve the health
and appearance of family members and give comfort, poise and satisfaction
for better living within the clothing budget.
The specialist worked with the State Home Demonstration Staff, county
home demonstration agents and other interested groups to build a program
to meet the needs and interests of as many people as possible.
Reports show home demonstration agents devoted 2,931% days to cloth-
ing work throughout the State. Clothing leaders, as a result of leader
training meetings in 21 counties, held 192 meetings and taught 1,001 white
and 261 negro women to sew. Leaders and agents devoted time to con-
struction, selection, care, repair, renovation, planning family wardrobes,
budgeting, and consumer education. A report from 4-H Club girls shows
the following:
Counties Counties
Reporting White Reporting Negro
Girls enrolled ........................ 47 9,552 12 1,851
Girls completing projects .... 47 6,232 12 1,431
Number garments made .... 47 25,850 11 3,095
Number garments remodeled 47 6,761 11 1,704
Other accomplishments of the program include:
CLOTHING AND HOUSEHOLD TEXTILES
(Reported by 47 white and 12 negro home demonstration agents)
Families assisted this year with care and repair of machines .......... 2,043
Families receiving help on home laundry problems ................................ 5,463
Clothing demonstrators in county:
W omen ..... ..--------...............-.......-...-........ ....... ....... 4,602
Girls ....................------------------------- ---------........ ............. 7,006
Training meetings held for clothing leaders:
W omen .........................------ --...-..-- -------. ...............--.. 114
Girls .................................. ...........-..----- ..... 132
Exhibits on clothing programs ....................-- ----......-....... .................-. 1,047
Method demonstrations given on clothing and textiles before:
W om en ........................................ .. ..... ..... .................. .. 1,002
Girls ...................................... ........ .......... ..- ..--....-- .....----- ..-.....---- 2,395
Method demonstrations given on clothing and textiles by:
W omen .. .......--------------- ......---- ............... 945
Girls ...........................--..........---------------...... ---.. ........ .........-- .. 1,649
Home demonstration women entering county dress revues or shows .... 1,128
4-H Club girls entering county dress revues or shows ............................ 2,392
Various methods were used to interest and meet the needs of both 4-H
and adult groups, such as leader training meetings, use of illustrative mate-
rials, home visits, fair exhibits, county and state dress revues, radio pro-
grams, newspaper articles and individual assistance on special clothing
problems. The Specialist reorganized the 4-H clothing program for first
and second years and prepared mimeographed material for this.
From the reports of 1950, 1951 and 1952 the clothing program shows
definite annual increases. This interest should be held by continuing the
work started and encouraging others to do more home sewing for better,
more comfortable and happier clothed families.







Annual Report, 1952


EDITORIAL AND VISUAL AIDS

Alma Warren, Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist

New Releases.-The Assistant Editor distributed 236 individual stories
to daily and weekly newspapers and radio stations. Of these, 50 were for
home demonstration agents' local use, 35 were about county home demon-
stration agents and 37 about specialists' findings. Forty features, with
pictures, were arranged, 10 for magazines, 42 for special campaigns and
13 to meet special requests. More than 200 photographs were distributed
to newspapers, magazines and bulletins. A newsletter, designed as an
exchange of ideas among home demonstration agents, was prepared. Flor-
ida's 62 home demonstration agents and assistant home demonstration
agents wrote 5,334 articles for newspapers.
Radio.-The Florida State University radio program used 12 home dem-
onstration programs during the year. These included home economics,
foreign agriculturists, 4-H human interest stories, senior council meetings,
public affairs and 4-H Club song features.
The State Home Demnstration Office furnished other radio stations 55
programs during the year. Home demonstration agents prepared and de-
livered 1,054 radio programs. (Transcriptions made with delegates to the
National Home Demonstration Council in Raleigh, North Carolina, were
used by 23 radio stations.)
The state home demonstration staff transcribed a program for world-
wide broadcast over the Department of State's Voice of America.
Visual Aids.-Distribution of audio-v'sual aids was important to the
educational program of home demonstration and 4-H Clubs. These mate-
rials were viewed by more than 100,000 people.
Home demonstration agents and specialists made more use of educational
filmstrips. Agents used 215 filmstrips and 352 movie films in their work.
Six pictures of 4-H Club girls modeling dresses were furnished for film-
strip production. Transcriptions of home demonstration club and council
programs have been made on a limited scale.
Twenty-five home demonstration agents were given individual instruction
in the mechanism and operation of opaque projectors, tape recorders, mo-
tion picture projectors, slide and filmstrip projectors. Twelve agents bought
filmstrip projectors and are using them frequently.
Cultural and Educational Programs.-Home demonstration agents
planned 75 meetings based on art, 64 on music, 47 on literature and 67 on
allied fields. Tours conducted for education and cultural interests totaled
181. Six hundred seventy-seven books and magazines were exchanged at
home demonstration club meetings, 450 new books were contributed and 103
magazines and newspapers were subscribed to for libraries by home dem-
onstration clubs.
Reference material for many of these cultural and educational programs
was furnished by the Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD AND NUTRITION

Cleo M. Arnett, Extension Nutritionist

An integrated family food program, including nutrition and health and
the production, conservation, utilization and marketing of foods, was begun
to unify and strengthen the total foods program. The objectives are to
teach the value of good nutrition as a basic factor in acquiring and main-
taining optimum health and happiness and to motivate the adoption of
good food habits as a part of daily living.
Work carried on by the Extension Nutritionist was organized around
adult and junior home demonstration programs. Work with the two groups
was interrelated and subjects stressed were nutrition and health, food
selection and preparation, and planning and servicing meals.
Families were reached through radio, television, news articles, pam-
phlets, bulletins, exhibits, method demonstrations, meetings, institutes, short
courses and home and office visits. Emphasis was placed on the devel-
opment of local leadership and upon established demonstrations by indi-
viduals and families.
The Nutritionist spent 126 days working in 30 counties, where she
assisted with 32 leader training meetings, visited 24 demonstrators and
participated in 19 meetings and conferences, including two 4-H Club camps
and six short courses and institutes.
White and negro home demonstration agents reported spending 2,378
days developing the food and nutrition program in 755 communities.
Nutrition and Health.-The main factors stressed which contributed to
good nutrition and health were the value of the right kinds and amounts
of foods for good health, value of having a family food plan, food require-
ments for different age levels, ways of providing good nutrition at different
economic levels and good nutrition in weight control.
Reports of white and negro home demonstration agents indicate the
interest of individuals and families in improving their nutritional status.
During the year 22,038 families were assisted in improving diets, 15,994
families studied nutrition, 3,057 received help with child feeding problems,
3,692 were given information on food for older people and 11,654 served
daily balanced meals including the basic seven food groups.
Agents helped 4,377 families pack well-balanced lunches for school
children and 3,982 for adult lunches and 5,777 families established demon-
strations in food and nutrition. Assistance was given by 5,454 leaders.
In addition 938 women and girls served as leaders in food and nutrition,
1,228 food and nutrition exhibits were arranged by agents and leaders,
1,626 method demonstrations and programs in food and nutrition were given
by agents and 2,463 method demonstrations and programs were given by
leaders and club members.
Food Selection, Preparation and Meal Planning.-The food selection,
preparation, meal planning and service phase emphasized food selection
based on the basic seven food groups, wise selection for quality and spe-
cific use, proper storage to prevent waste and retain nutrients, recommended
methods of preparation, meal planning to consider management, simplicity,
sanitation, attractiveness and appetizing combinations, and gracious serving
of meals.
A total of 23,108 families were assisted with food preparation. Im-
provement in methods of food preparation have shown an upward trend in
the past three years, as shown below.
Recommended method of food preparation used for:







Annual Report, 1952 63

Number of Families in
1950 1951 1952
Dairy products ............................................. 7,714 8,638 11,177
Meat and fish ............................................... 10,540 10,745 11,097
Poultry and eggs ............................................ 9,352 9,960 11,658
Vegetables:
Cooked .............................. ................ 14,019 14,789 15,669
Raw ...................................... ............. 14,562
Baked products ............................................. 10,396 10,486 12,132

Also 5,960 families budgeted money spent for food, 8,186 families selected
foods for quality and specific use and 12,009 families used local and seasonal
foods to best advantage.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club program emphasized development of in-
terest and ability in planning, preparing and serving simple well-balanced
meals, using home or locally produced foods when possible. Club members
were urged to learn and follow good food habits essential to optimum growth
and development. Acceptance of the 4-H Club dairy foods awards program
encouraged many girls to use more milk. During the year 9,742 girls en-
rolled in and 6,591 girls completed food preparation projects, while 113
teams and 518 individuals gave dairy foods demonstrations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD CONSERVATION

Alice L. Cromartie, Assistant Specialist, Food Conservation

Food conservation continues to be an important phase of the home dem-
onstration program. A survey indicated that 65% of the home demonstra-
tion agents worked with families on the family food supply in 1952. As a
result, 2,218 women and 441 4-H Club girls reported canning and/or freezing
by a budget suited to family needs. Adequate storage of home canned
products received the attention of home demonstration agents and con-
servation leaders. The effect of this is shown by the 2,435 families who
constructed adequate facilities in 1952.
Better use and care of equipment was emphasized, 1,357 gauges on
pressure cookers were tested and 8,125 families reported using pressure
cookers for canning.
Reports indicate that canning of vegetables, fruits, meats and juices
dropped in 1952, as did the number of families using canning centers, but
the total remains higher than in 1950. This decrease can be attributed, in
part, to increased use of home freezers and locker plants for conserving
foods. Approximately 1,000,000 pounds of meat were frozen in 1952. Vege-
tables increased slightly and fruits continued a slight decline.
Home freezer owners continue to increase in number. As a result use
of locker plants has slightly decreased.
Home-cured meats increased in 1952 by approximately 25,000 pounds.
Four hundred and thirty-nine food conservation leaders gave assistance
with food conservation programs. Sixteen county-wide leader training meet-
ings were held by the Specialist in 14 counties. About 2,270 4-H Club girls
completed food conservation projects in 1952, conserving 87,235 quarts
of canned focds, 59,924 pounds of frozen foods and 21,269 quarts of frozen
foods.
Fig. 10-The Extension Foods Specialist demonstrates an emergency
pantry to county civil defense group.







Annual Report, 1952


FOOD PRODUCTION
Helen D. Holstein, Food Conservation Specialist

The food production phase of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service
program is a part of the general agricultural production program for the
state. The program was planned and carried out through cooperative
efforts of the Nutritionist, Assistant Food Conservation Specialist, Food
Conservation Specialist, other members of the state staff of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, county home demonstration agents, volunteer
leaders, home demonstration and 4-H Clubs, junior and senior councils of
home demonstration work, individuals and others.
Program emphasis was placed on planning the production of the family
food supply according to family food needs, facilities for producing foods,
climatic and soil conditions, economic factors involved and suitability of
certain sections of the state for certain crops. The relationship between
a well-balanced supply of food produced at home and the principles of a
good diet for the family was stressed at every opportunity. This included
growing a garden to furnish vegetables for home use, producing fruits
adapted to the region as a part of yard beautification plan, keeping at
least one or two cows to provide milk, butter and cheese, keeping a poultry
flock for meat and eggs and raising meat animals for a home supply of
meat. Where practical, urban families were encouraged to grow small

Fig. 11.-Girls at the 1952 4-H Club Short Course learn what they can
grow in their own gardens.







Florida Cooperative Extension


gardens, to have some fruit plantings in the yard, to have backyard poultry
flocks and to have other meat supplies, such as rabbits.
Many different methods were used to assist families in this program,
such as method demonstrations, direct contacts, audio-visual aids, tours to
established demonstrations to stimulate interest and special training meet-
ings for leaders.
The home production of fruits and vegetables for family use was ap-
proached from the standpoint of exterior home beautification as well as
good nutrition, health and economy. Many families participated in this
program, as shown by statistical reports of white and negro home dem-
onstration agents.
Work Done Women Girls
Planted home gardens ................. ......... 10,680 3,834
Planted home orchards ....................... 6,068 683
Garden demonstrators ..----......................... 3,333 2,324
Orchard demonstrators ........................... 1,249 304
Enrolled garden projects ......... .......... 3,234

Poultry production continued to be a popular phase of the 4-H Club
program. Statistical reports of white and negro home demonstration
agents show that 1,474 4-H Club girls were poultry demonstrators, 4-H
girls raised 70,713 chickens and 1,004 girls kept poultry records.
Home demonstration club members in 47 counties bought 1,140 family
milk cows during the year, bringing to 10,766 the number family milk cows
on members' farms. Two hundred forty-five girls entered dairy projects
in the state and 10,115 families reported using a quart of milk daily for
each child and a pint for each adult.
More rural families bought home freezers or had access to freezer-locker
plants. As a result, 9,292 hogs, 3,520 cattle and 5,113 other animals were
grown and used at home.
The food production chairmen and leaders in home demonstration and
4-H Clubs were influential in assisting with the promotion of this program
during the year. There were 373 women and 335 girls acting as garden
and orchard chairmen and leaders, 268 women and 268 girls as poultry
chairmen and leaders, 197 women and 151 girls as home dairying chair-
men and leaders and 51 women and 51 girls as meat production chairmen
and leaders.
There was a downward trend in the production of family food supplies
in Florida, which parallels the national trend. According to reports of
county home demonstration agents, this was due, in part, to more women
being employed outside the home, erratic climatic conditions, poor soil in
certain sections of the state, fewer farm families, transient population,
more specialized farms with large acreage and large farm equipment which
is now being used on the farms and which is unsuitable for cultivating
small garden plots.







Annual Report, 1952


GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK

Lorene Stevens, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Bronna Mae Elkins, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent

During 1952 16,286 girls were enrolled in 740 4-H Clubs. Learning im-
proved skills in subject-matter fields, assuming 4-H Club responsibilities
and passing on 4-H information helped 4-H Club girls to be better citizens
in their home, club, community and county.
The 31 county girls' 4-H councils served as advisory committees to
county home demonstration agents. The council, composed of two girls
from each 4-H Club, met regularly, helped to plan and direct county 4-H
events, interpreted to the agent and leaders the needs of the girls in the
local clubs and helped local groups to fit into the over-all county and state
4-H Club program.
The State Girls' 4-H Council, composed of county representatives,
worked during 1952 on the following four areas of emphasis: Publicized
4-H work, helped develop leadership abilities, encouraged 4-H community
and family projects and promoted the National 4-H Youth Center by plan-


Fig. 12.-Four-H Club girls learn to spend their clothing dollar
for a teen-age girl's wardrobe.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ning and sponsoring drives in each county to reach the goal of 10 cents
a member.
Requirements necessary to complete specific projects were met by 68.2
percent of the girls enrolled in 4-H Club work. Requirements included
making an exhibit representative of the project and submitting a record
and story of achievements. County home demonstration agents, adult 4-H
leaders and others provided information and encouragement to 4-H Club
girls completing their projects through method demonstrations, training
meetings, exhibits, news stories, bulletins, achievement days and tours,
camps, rallies and individual assistance.
Organization and Leadership.-The 1,298 junior leaders gave assistance
to local and county 4-H Club groups and worked closely with adult 4-H
Club work. In addition, 814 women worked as volunteer leaders under the
direction of agents. A total of 6,783 attended 626 training meetings, planned
and directed by the state and county Extension staff members. These meet-
ings provided training in organization and subject-matter leadership.
County home demonstration agents and adult and junior 4-H leaders
helped plan and direct 95 tours attended by 2,532 persons, 532 achievement
days attended by 53,380 persons, 6,368 method demonstrations attended by
129,703 persons, 70 camps attended by 2,144 girls, 1,210 other 4-H meetings
attended by 51,563 persons, 1,529 meetings held by adult 4-H Club leaders
attended by 23,987 persons and 369 4-H girls' clubs having community
service projects.
Observance of National 4-H Achievement Day, National 4-H Club
Week and Rural Life Sunday and participation in local, district and state
fairs, short courses, camps, rallies and other 4-H events helped keep others
informed on the program and provided opportunities for the development
of individual abilities.
Evidences of the growth, strength and expansion of 4-H girls' work
were indicated by increased number of 4-H Club meetings, amount of
training given to adult 4-H Club leaders, responsibilities given to adult and
junior 4-H Club leaders, number of planned 4-H Club meetings, number of
4-H Club members participating in the program, number of adult and
junior 4-H Club leaders, interest and assistance from home demonstration
club members, number of method demonstrations given, number of records
submitted to the State Home Demonstration Office, interest of 4-H Club
girls and their parents in 4-H and number of training meetings.
Short Course.-Annual Short Course for 4-H Club Girls at Florida State
University in June was attended by 400 club girls and approximately 100
agents and volunteer leaders. General assemblies, classes and recreation
periods provided girls and their leaders an opportunity to participate and
to develop skills and techniques.






Annual Report, 1952


HEALTH EDUCATION

Frances C. Cannon, Assistant Health Education Specialist

Health and Safety Work was carried out in 818 communities this year.
Home demonstration agents devoted 830 and county agents 208 days to
this work.
Health and safety activities fell into three categories, improved health,
use of available health facilities and cooperation with health agencies.
Improved Health.-Some advances were made which indicate improve-
ment of health. In 1952 9,269 family members had health examinations,
compared to 7,171 in 1951. There were 1,136 flush toilets installed, 490
sanitary closets either built or bought and 7,241 families received instruction
in the prevention of communicable diseases.
Encouraged Use of Available Health Facilities.-Educational emphasis
was placed on knowing about and using existing health facilities. Five
county council groups had programs on the work of their local health
units, information was given to 3,370 families on first aid, 7,185 families
cooperated with the immunization program and 2,291 families had water
supplies checked.
To create better understanding on administering medical care a private
physician spoke at two Farm and Home Institutes.
Cooperation With Health Agencies.-Home demonstration clubs were
represented on 64 county health boards. Two hundred seventy-seven home
demonstration clubs cooperated with tuberculosis X-ray units, 328 worked
with the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, 114 assisted with pre-
school clinics and 313 participated in the Cancer Crusade.
All county councils of home demonstration work in Florida contributed
to the Mary E. Keown Memorial Fund. This fund, which totaled $1,240,
was given to cancer research at the University of Florida.
4-H Club Work.-During the year 24 4-H boys and 2,391 girls enrolled
in health projects. Records show that 154 4-H Clubs cooperated with
tuberculosis drives, 337 with the March of Dimes, 53 with pre-school clinics
and 106 with Cancer Crusade.
Leadership Training.-A total 375 home demonstration clubs and 203
girls' 4-H Clubs have health chairmen. Forty-seven training meetings were
held on health, with 1,643 attending.
Recreation.-To stress the importance of a balanced day of work, rest
and play, 1,418 social activities were planned and directed by home dem-
onstration agents and club members. Two hundred ten women and 616
4-H girls received training in recreation and they held 224 and 585 meetings,
respectively.
7 Appointed June 1, 1952.







70 Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT

Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist

The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 47
counties. Information was presented through 4-H and women's club meet-
ings, workshops, tours, achievement days, home visits, work with other
organizations and persons, press and radio.
Agents spent 3,808 days working on home improvement activities in
2,629 communities. They were assisted by 2,143 volunteer local leaders.
Ninety-one training meetings were held for adult leaders and 561 for girls.
Housing.-The housing program helped rural families improve housing
conditions and otherwise raise their standard of living. Promotion of better
housing and other factors to create more satisfying home and family life
was an important part of the housing program. Results for 1952 are shown
in the following table:

Fig. 13.-These 4-H Club girls know that simple things can make material
differences when they are improving the interiors of their homes.







Annual Report, 1952 71

Families assisted with-
Building, remodeling and repairing dwellings ............................ 3,443
Storage ........... ..... ........................ ................ ....................... ... 2,154
Kitchens ----..... ..... ..... .... ........ ........ .................. 2,468
Other room s ..............----....... ........................ ............. 4,444
Floors ................................................. .... ................. 2,086
Selecting furnishings ........--..-........ -............. ................... 4,898
Laundry facilities ..... ........ ... .......... ............................ 1,415
Electric lighting and home equipment ........................................ 4,102
Sewage, water supply, sanitary toilets ........................................ 2,227
Pest control ................................... .. ...... ............----........ 5,277
Handling and disposing of garbage ............-........................- 16,722
Number pieces equipment purchased .......................................... 15,903
(electric, gas, and other)
Number pieces furniture added ..--................ .....--........- ... 18,589
Improving home grounds ...............---... -- --...: ......... .. .......... 10,980

Family Living.-More efficient use of available human and material
resources to improve the family's economic and social status was the key-
note of the family living programs. The Specialist and agents assisted
with the following family problems:

Number families assisted with-
Home accounts -----..----......... .................................. 1,369
Tim e m anagem ent .........-......................... ...... ............ 3,527
Financial plans -----.............................. -.......... .... 1,815
Using credit for family living ................................. .......... 364
Using timely economic information for making
adjustments in family living ..................---..................... .. 7,165
Improving family relationships ............-.....-- ... .................... 4,926
Child development and guidance ....................... .................. ..... 3,230
Improving home recreation ....... -----.......... ..... .................. 9,812
Providing furnishings, clothing, and play
equipment for children ........................... .... ................. 2,932

Consumer Education.-Getting the most for consumer dollars was the
goal of the consumer education program. Wise-buying information was
given to rural families and many were taught how to repair and remodel
homes and furniture, thereby saving expensive labor bills. The following
assistance was given by the Specialist and agents:

Families assisted with-
Buying equipment and furnishings .......................................... 4,700
Buying household supplies .......................... --. -................... 4,303
Buying food and clothing .-----.................. --................. 14,640
Consumer buying (different families) ................------....................... 12,332
Deciding "making vs. buying" .--............................. ..... ........--.... 7,972
Remodeling, remaking, and refinishing furniture ........................ 4,343

4-H Club Work.-A program was planned to stimulate girls' interest
in learning to do simple home tasks well and in making their homes more
comfortable, convenient and beautiful. Results of the program for 1952
follow:







72 Florida Cooperative Extension

4-H Club girls assisted with-
Keeping personal accounts ...................... ........ ....-.. ..........-..... 1,790
Beautification of home grounds-enrolled ................................... 3,176
Child Care- enrolled ............................. ... .. ......................... 2,310
Home management (Good housekeeping)-enrolled .................... 2,826
Units involved ..................... ..---........ ..--------- ............. 2,792
Home furnishings and room improvement-enrolled ................ 3,230
Units involved-
Rooms ...................-----------.-------....... 2,561
Articles ....................-...--...........--.----- ------...... 6,202
Exhibits made by 4-H Club members .......................................... 571
Communities assisted by 4-H Club engaging in-community
activities, such as improving school grounds, local fairs, etc..... 369

Special training in 4-H Club home improvement was given to approxi-
mately 760 4-H girls, volunteer local leaders and home demonstration agents
at short courses. Others were assisted through leader training meetings,
4-H Club and junior council meetings, camps and home visits.







Annual Report, 1952


HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING

Gladys Kendall, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist

The objective of the home industries and marketing program was to
help individuals and families increase or extend income by producing and
marketing quality products at home, by using consumer information and by
better management of resources.
Consumer Information and Management of Resources.-Consumer infor-
mation and management of resources were integrated with all home eco-
nomics programs. Major emphasis of the home industries and marketing
program in consumer information was on buying foods, furnishings and
equipment. In management, emphasis was on time, energy and money
management. Families were assisted with problems concerning selection,
purchasing and "making versus buying" decisions.
Home demonstration agents spent 611 days in 1952 working on con-
sumer information, home management and family economics. The agents
and volunteer leaders assisted families as follows:

Fig. 14.-Florida 4-H Club girls learn to study labels when shopping
for their clothing and household textiles in a class during Short Course.
They thus learn money management as well as textile qualities.





















'E- ,
i -^ *^* -w;a







74 Florida Cooperative Extension

Number of families assisted with-
Time-management problems ................................ .................. 3,527
Home accounts ..................................-- ...... .. .......-- .. 1,369
Financial planning ..................................-----..................-................... 1,815
Improving use of credit for family living expenses .................... 364
Developing home industries as a means of
supplementing income ..............--.... ------............... 2,751
"Making versus buying" decisions .................................----....... 7,972
Using timely economic information to make buying
decisions or other adjustments in family living .................... 7,165
Number of families assisted this year through cooperative asso-
ciations or individually with the buying of-
Food ......--- ......-.............................. .......................-7,210
Clothing ........... -.......-......---- .....--.... ........ .. .... 7,430
House furnishings and equipment .......................................... 4,700
General household supplies ..-......-----................. --............... 4,303
Total number of different families assisted this year with con-
sumer-buying problems .............................- .......------- ..--- 12,332
Number 4-H girls keeping personal accounts ................................... 1,790
Number 4-H girls using economic information ................................ 1,177
Home Industries and Marketing.-The development of home industries,
using native materials, food products and other resources of the farm and
home, was another area of major emphasis. Training in methods and
skills and information needed to produce, package and market quality
products was given agents, volunteer leaders and others at training meet-
ings, in printed and mimeographed leaflets and through individual assis-
tance by the Home Industries and Marketing and other specialists.
Home demonstration and 4-H Club members reported marketing the
following:
Food Products Value of Products
Eggs .........-............. .........----- -- -- .-... ....--$246,711.65
Poultry ..-...--------.............. ----- -------.. 76,369.07
Fresh vegetables ......................----- .----..--. 29,513.60
Dairy products .................-.....--.------ ..---. ... 27,297.38
Fresh fruits ...................... --- ---................... 26,396.16
Baked foods ......----........-- ..-- -------... ........... 5,962.35
Canned foods .........-----..---............ ---------- 7,611.96

Total food products ........................ .....-- .....-- $419,862.27
Other products .............-...........----- ---------- 43,221.53

Total of all products .....--------............ ---................$463,083.70

Families reported receiving more cash from the sale of home-produced
products in 1952 than in 1951. Of the cash received, approximately 90%
was from the sale of food products, the other 10% from flowers, plants,
handicraft articles and services. About 50% of the total cash received
was from the sale of eggs. In addition to cash sales, many families con-
tributed home-made products to charity and community drives.
Demand for quality handicraft articles, made of native materials con-
tinued strong. The development of profitable hobbies and leisure-time
activities was encouraged and training was given in production and mar-
keting skills.







Annual Report, 1952 75

Agents in 37 counties reported the following activities:

Number of families assisted with-
Developing home industries ......................................... 2,751
Standardizing products .................. ... ........................... 1,298
Selling through
Roadside stands ........................ .............. .. 229
Curb markets ......----........ .......................... 115
Farmers' markets .........- ....... ............. .. ............... 1,559
Stores .......--......... ....................... .................. 1,173
Others ..... ................ ............................... .................. 417

Program Development.-The program was planned and developed by
the Specialist in 47 counties, working cooperatively with other staff mem-
bers, volunteer leaders, home demonstration and 4-H clubs, junior and senior
councils and others.
The Specialist helped agents train 1,157 different leaders and visited 43
established demonstrations. She judged and evaluated exhibits at seven
county fairs, participated in eight club and six council meetings and five
radio programs and assisted with other problems relating to the home
industries and marketing program. A total 6,083 persons, other than
Extension Service personnel, were contacted.
Home demonstration agents in 36 counties were assisted with 102 train-
ing meetings attended by 2,149 leaders.
Instruction was given in making quality products of palmetto, bamboo,
coconut fronds and pine needles and in using native greenery for decora-
tions, improving consumer buying practices when selecting foods, furnish-
ings and equipment, making toys and games from scraps and gifts from
inexpensive materials, improving lighting by making lamps and lamp shades,
improving standards, packaging and labeling of home products and learning
laws and regulations concerning marketing of such products and how to
plan, prepare and arrange educational exhibits about home demonstration
work for use at county fairs, achievement days and other special events.
The agents reported training leaders as follows:

Number of training meetings in
Hanicrafts-
By agents .................................... 438
By leaders .................................. .............. 480
By others ...................... ................. 322
Marketing-by agents .......................................... ........... 31
Total attendance at leader training meetings .............. 24,307

Assistance was given to agents, leaders, club members and others at
three training meetings for agents, state-wide conferences, short courses,
institutes and other special events.
4-H Club Program.-There were 2,212 4-H Club boys and girls enrolled
in home industries, arts and crafts and 1,863 completed work on 6,382
articles.
A money management demonstration and 4-H handicraft demonstration
were developed and carried on in trial counties.
Special training in better buying practices and making handicraft ar-
ticles was given to approximately 800 4-H Club girls, volunteer leaders
and home demonstration agents at short courses and 4-H Club camps.






Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK

Joseph A. Gresham, Negro District Agent

The Agricultural Extension Service program for negro farmers in
Florida was conducted by 10 negro agents in Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden,
Jackson, Jefferson, Hamilton, Leon, Madison, Marion and Sumter counties
under the supervision of the Negro District Agent. Community leaders,
church and school groups and business, fraternal and civic organizations
cooperated to make the program a success.
Negro Extension programs resulted from meetings and discussions
with farm people. Extension specialists and other agency representatives
contributed technical information. Programs were designed to show the
importance of families working as units in solving farm and home problems.
Specialists assisted negro county agents with outlook meetings, live-
stock shows, corn improvement shows, fairs, tours, field meetings, agents'
conferences, 4-H Short Courses, 4-H judging and demonstration teams and
camps. They provided bulletins, pamphlets and other information on
new developments in their respective fields.
Negro agents attended the Agents' Conference for negro Extension
workers at A. and M. College and two district conferences. The latest
developments in agriculture were presented by specialists and officials of
the Extension Service and other branches of agriculture.

Fig. 15.-This group studies tractor maintenance at the annual 4-H short
course at Florida A. & M. College.







Annual Report, 1952


Negro Agents.-Negro county agents spent 1,761 days working with
adults and 1,086 days with 4-H Club members and older youths. They
spent 1,840 days in the field visiting 4,602 farms and homes.
The agents prepared 215 news stories, distributed 5,146 bulletins, had
7,805 office and 2,385 telephone calls in carrying on the farm program.
The year's activities included 79 training meetings with adult local leaders,
108 method demonstrations and 42 result demonstrations with a total at-
tendance of 3,405. Thirteen tours were conducted by agents, with 587
attending, and 20 achievement days were held, with 4,827 present.
One agent attended a short course for Extension workers at Cornell
University during the summer. Two other agents attended classes at A.
and M. College on Saturdays and nights, with permission of the Director.
Five agents placed county exhibits at the Florida State Fair in Tampa and
eight agents made exhibits for four county fairs during the year.
4-H Club Work.-Nine 4-H encampments were held, with 211 boys
attending. Two 4-H fat hog shows were promoted in Jackson and Sumter
counties for the second year and a 4-H beef cattle show was held in Gads-
den County.
The State 4-H Corn Improvement Show was held at the North Florida
Fair, with boys from seven counties participating. Prizes amounting to
$300.00 were made available by the fair association and State Department
of Agriculture. Four boys won trips and represented Florida at the Re-
gional Negro 4-H Club Camp at Tuskegee, Alabama.
Florida accepted eight awards for negro 4-H Club boys from the national
awards program in 1952. This was the second year that awards were
accepted for negro 4-H boys and indicates the increased activity in 4-H
work.






Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Floy Britt, District Home Demonstration Agent

The objective of negro home demonstration agents has been to improve
living conditions of Florida negro farm families. Through the guidance
of negro home demonstration agents in 12 counties where negro work was
supported, outstanding achievements were made toward this objective.
In promoting the Extension program, negro home demonstration agents
made 4,475 home visits, had 3,283 telephone calls, received 5,783 office calls,
published 192 news articles and distributed 9,540 bulletins.
As a result of Extension influence, 3,048 families changed home prac-
tices and 3,955 families made improvement in food production, conservation
and preparation.
More assistance from Extension specialists was available during the
year, which helped agents do a better Extension teaching job. The District
Agent took Extension courses during the summer to increase her efficiency
as a supervisor. Home demonstration agents were urged to improve them-
selves professionally by studying Extension literature and educational maga-
zines and by obtaining more local data.
Through the cooperation of the Madison County School Board, a perma-
nent office has been provided for the negro home demonstration agent in
Madison County.
Dade County's Board of Commissioners provided a complete office space
for the Negro Home Demonstration Agent, including an office, work room,
storage room, reception room and lavatory. These facilities will enable
the agent to improve the work generally, meet growing demands and in-
crease the effectiveness of the program.
Adult Programs.-The negro Extension program was designed to in-
crease and conserve food supplies, provide more convenient and attractive
homes knd clothing, improve health practices and family recreational facili-
ties and teach families to spend their incomes more wisely.
Agents reported that 78 adult clubs were organized in 1952, with an
enrollment of 1,434 members. Seventy-three adult training meetings, 444
method demonstration meetings and 16 achievement days were held, with
1,050, 4,360, 11,124 attending, respectively.
Twelve home-makers through the guidance of the home demonstration
agents set up a creditable exhibit at the Florida State Fair, and 11 agents
displayed creditable achievement exhibits in their various counties.
4-H Activities.-Negro agents organized 131 girls' 4-H Clubs, with 3,487
enrolled. Four-H girls enlisted for 13,016 projects and completed 10,363, or
over 79%. In addition, agents held 64 training meetings, 601 method dem-
onstration meetings, 13 tours and 16 achievement days. The total attendance
at achievement days was 9,507.
Four summer camps were held, with 354 girls and 29 leaders from 12
counties attending. At the Short Course in Tallahassee 219 girls attended.
Four girls were selected to attend Regional Camp and one girl won the
Chicago Defender Scholarship.
Seven 4-H Club girls won honors in the 1952 State Awards Program.
This activity is creating more interest in 4-H Club work in general. For
the last two years this has been a means of getting girls to keep better
records of their projects.
4-H girls demonstration teams from 11 counties gave creditable team
demonstrations at the Florida State Fair.







Annual Report, 1952


NEGRO STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from Negro County Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Months of Service (agents and assistants) ...................--..-.............. 256
Days of Service: In office-2,262; In field-3,964 .-......-........................... 6,226
Farm or home visits made ....................- ---- ..... ..... ............... 9,077
Different farms or homes visited ...............................................-....... --- 4,469
Calls relating to Extension work; Office-13,588; Telephone ............ 5,668
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youths ........................ 2,920
News articles or stories published .......................... ............ ........ 407
Bulletins distributed ........................ .. .. ........... .......... 14,686
Radio talks broadcast or prepared .......................................................... 97
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber .................................. ............. .......................... ............. 303
Total attendance of men and women ........................................... 3,862
Method demonstration meetings:
Number ...........--------------.......... ..... ....---..-........... .. 1,260
Total attendance .............-...--- ..-- ........ --...--- ...-.-- ..-- 20,599
Tours conducted ............................... ...................................................... 55
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth, and adult work ............ 52
4-H camps
Boys attending ......................----............. ------.... ...... .... 211
Girls attending ................- -....-....... -- --... --..--- ....-- 354

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE

Total num ber of farm s .................................................................... ............. 7,506
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program ...................................................... .............. ........... ................ 2,062
Farms in which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year .................................................... 786
Non-farm families making changes in practices as result of home
demonstrations and the agricultural programs ................................ 1,842
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from dem-
onstration program ................................................................................ 1,610
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home dem-
onstration and agricultural program this year ................----................ 1,203
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
dem onstration program .......................................................... ............ 1,438
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration program for the first time this year ........................ 346
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ........................................ 2,230
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ................................ 1,246
Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension
program ................................................................ ............................... 3,224
Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program ........ 1,963

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING

Total number of communities in counties ..............................-- -----.......... 274
Number of communities in which the Extension program has been
planned cooperatively .................-........... ...-................-- -----.. 176






Florida Cooperative Extension


SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-2,156; non-farm-351; total ........................................
Girls: Farm-2,190; non-farm-1,297; total ...................................
Number clubs ...................... ...... .... ..- ...... ........... ...
N um ber enrolled ....................... ....................
N um ber com pleting .............................................................. ................ ...
Projects completed by boys ....................- ............ ...
Projects com pleted by girls .................................. ............................
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ......................... ...............
Boys completing fruit projects .................. ..... .................
Boys completing garden projects .............................. .... ..........- ......
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ................
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ..................................
Boys completing poultry projects ............................... ...................
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ...........................
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .....................-.............
Girls completing fruit projects -........-...... .- .....- .......
Girls completing garden projects ................................................
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............
Girls completing dairy projects ................. ....... ......................
Girls completing poultry projects .................... ..... .................
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ..................
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid projects ............
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvement projects ..................... -........... ...
Girls completing food preservation projects ...................................
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs ................................................

DAYS DEVOTED TO SUBJECT MATTER FIELDS BY
EXTENSION AGENTS


CROP PRODUCTION

Days devoted to:
Corn ................................--
Other cereals .................
Legumes ......-....--...-..-...--
Pastures ...................-..
Cotton .............. .. ... .
Tobacco ..................----.........--
Potatoes and other vege-
tables ............................
Fruits .... ... ... .......
Other crops ........................


CONSERVATION OF
NATURAL RESOURCES

Days devoted to:
Soil and water ..................
Forestry ..........................
W wildlife .......... ...........


LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING,
POULTRY

Days devoted to:
Dairy cattle ........................ 116
Beef cattle ......................... 96
Sw ine .................................... 141
Horses and Mules ............ 23
Poultry (including tur-
keys) .............................. 181
Other livestock ................. 12

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Days devoted to:
House plans, construction
water systems, heating,
etc. .................................. 23
Rural electrification .......... 122
Farm buildings .................. 64
Farm mechanical equip-
m ent ............................... 46


2,507
3,487
233
5,994
4,801
3,623
10,363
677
98
621
67
275
313
228
443
182
726
128
116
513
1,258
725

3,173
916

131







Annual Report, 1952


HOME MANAGEMENT AND
IMPROVEMENT, FAMILY
ECONOMICS, NUTRITION
AND HEALTH


Days devoted to:
House, furnishings and
surroundings ...............
Home management ..........
Clothing and textiles ....
Family relationships .......
Recreation and community
life .......... .........
Home production of family
food supply ....................
Food preservation and
storage .-........................
Food selection and prepa-
ration ............................
Other health and safety
w ork ..............................

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to:
Farm accounts, etc...........
Individual farm planning,
etc ................................
Farm credit ......................
Outlook information .........


GENERAL ECONOMIC
PROBLEMS RELATED TO
AGRICULTURE

Days devoted to:
Price and trade policies ....
Land policy and programs
Public finance and service
Rural welfare .............


MARKETING AND
DISTRIBUTION


4 Days devoted to:
379 General ..........................
Grain and Hay ..............
280 Livestock .-............
Dairy products ..................
198 Poultry and eggs ............
Fruits and vegetables ....
Cotton .... .........................
Forest products ..................
Other commodities ...........
75 Home products and
crafts .............................
109 Purchasing of farm and
40 home supplies and
60 equipment ......................







Florida Cooperative Extension


INDEX


Agricultural economics, 13, 21
Agricultural engineering, 14, 25, 80
Agricultural outlook work, 21
Agronomy, 32
Animal husbandry, 34
Apiculture, 36
Arnett, Cleo M., 62

Barrus, Edith Y., 57
Beale, Clyde, 15
Beef cattle marketing, 24
Beekeeping, 36
Bevis, Joyce, 57
Breeders conference, poultry, 51
Britt, Floy, 78
Broiler management, 49
Brown, W. W., 38
Budwood certification, 42
Buildings, farm, 25
Bulletins, 15
Busby, Joe N., 11

Cake, E. W., 11, 23
Camps, 39
Cannon, Frances C., 11, 69
Carter, Bonnie J., 19, 70
Catalpa plantings, 47
Cattle, 34
marketing, 24
Cedar plantings, 47
Central Florida Exposition, 45
Cereals, 33
Circulars, 15
Citrus, 23
budwood certification, 42
clinics, 42
culture, 41
demonstrations, 42
4-H work, 41
grove management, 22
institutes, 42
marketing, 23
schools, 42
tours, 42
training programs, 41
Clayton, H. G., 7, 9, 20
Clothing, 60
Conservation, 52
district activities, 52
district organization, 53
farm and ranch plans, 52
food, 64
natural resources, 13, 80
Consumer education, 71, 73
Cooper, J. Francis, 15


Cooperative contest, 24
planning, 12, 79
Corn, 32, 33
Cotton, 33
Council, 4-H boys, 39
4-H girls, 67
County agents, training,
vegetables, 55
supervision, 20
work coordination, 30
Cromartie, Alice L., 64
Crop drier, 28
production, 13, 80
Cultural programs, 61

Dairy breeding program, 44
calf care, increase, 44
cow averages, 43
feeding, management, 44
4-H champion team, 46
herd improvement, 43
home milk supply, 44
husbandry, 43
marketing, 24
official cow testing, 44
organizational cooperation, 46
Dairying, 13, 80
DHIA, 43
Districts agents, 20
Districts, soil, 53
Director's report, 7
Drainage, 28

Economic problems, 13, 81
Editorial, 15, 61
Educational programs, 61
Eggs, marketing, 24
Egg-Laying Test, 50
Electrification, 29
Elkins, Bronna Mae, 11, 67
Engineering, agricultural, 14, 25, 80
Equipment, electrical, 29
farm, 28
Extension influence summary, 12
Extension teaching methods, 21

Fairs, 37, 39
Family economics, 14
living, 71
Farm electrification, 25, 29
buildings, 26
flashes, 17
housing, 26
journals, 15
machinery, 27







Annual Report, 1952


management, 13, 21, 81
planning, 21
processing facilities, 28
structures, 25
Feeding dairy cows, 44
Federal funds, 8
Field days, 54
Fire prevention, 19
protection, 47
Florida National Egg-Laying
Test, 50
Florida Seedsmen's Association, 55
Florida State Fair, 37
Florida State Horticultural
Society, 55
Flue-cured tobacco, 33
Food conservation, 64
nutrition, 62
production, 65
selection, preparation, 62
Foreign visitors, training of, 11
Forest demonstration plantings, 48
home use production, 48
planting, 47
Forestry, 47
4-H club activities, 35, 37, 63, 67
Boys' work, 38
camps, 39
cooperative contest, 24
dairy club work, 44
electrification program, 30
forestry club work, 48
girls, 67
girls' short course, 68
health work, 69
home improvement, 72
nutrition, 63
Negro work, 39, 77
poultry work, 50
projects, summary, 12
short course, boys, 39
short course, girls, 68
special events, 39
teaching methods, 39
vegetable short course, 55

Goen, O. F., 34
Grazing crops, temporary, 32
Gresham, Joseph A., 76
Griffith, L. Odell, 15
Grove management, 22

Hamilton, H. G., 21
Hampson, C. M., 21
Hay drier, 28
Haynie, John D., 36
Health and nutrition, 62


education, 69
agency cooperation, 69
4-H club work, 69
leadership training, 69
Henderson, J. R., 32
Hogs, 34
Holstein, Helen D., 11, 65
Holloway, Ethyl, 57
Home demonstration work, 57
clothing, textiles, 60
consumer information, 71, 73
editorial, visual aids, 61
electrical equipment, 30
family living, 71
financing, 57
food products, 75
4-H work, 67, 71
housing, 70
improvement, 70
industries and marketing, 73
negro, 78
organization and supervision, 57
personnel, 57
personnel training, 58
planning, 21
program development, 59, 75
Home electrical equipment, 30
Home management, 14
milk supply, 44
Honey jelly, 37
marketing, 24
Horticultural Society, 55
Housing, 26, 70
Irrigation, drainage, 28
Jamison, Frank S., 11, 54
Johnson, John M., 25
Joiner, Jasper N., 15
Journal Series, 15
Kendall, Gladys, 73
Land clearing demonstration, 21, 28
Layer management, 49
Lawrence, Fred P., 41
Leadership, 4-H, 68
Legumes, 33
Lemmon, Ruth S., 11
Lighting, 29
Livestock, 13, 80
Machinery, farm, 27
Marketing, 21, 23, 24, 81
home, 73
vegetable, 54, 56
McLendon, H. S., 52
McMullen, K. S., 20
Meal planning, 62







Florida Cooperative Extension


Meetings, agronomy, 32
Mehrhof, N. R., 49
Milk, 44
Montelaro, James, 11, 54
Moore, J. S., 49
Murphree, C. E., 11, 21
Myers, F. E., 54

National Egg-Laying Test, 50
Negro activities, 78
adult programs, 78
agents, 77
extension summary, 79
farm demonstration work, 76
home demonstration work, 78
home management, 81
marketing, distribution, 81
resource conservation, 80
statistical report, 79
subject matter fields, 80
News, 15
Newspaper service, 15
Nieland, L. T., 19, 47
Nutrition and health, 14, 62

Organization, 4-H girls, 68
O'Steen, A. W., 49
Outlook work, 21

Pace, J. E., 11, 34
Parvin, F. W., 7, 11
Pastures, 33
permanent, 32
Peanuts, 33
Perry, F. S., 20
Personnel, 9
Pettis, A. M., 29
Power supplier cooperation, 30
Poultry, 13, 24, 49, 80
breeders' conference, 51
institute, 51
broiler management, 49
feed, 50
4-H work, 50
layer management, 49
marketing, 24, 50
organizations, 51
quality pullets, 49
random selection test, 51
turkey management, 50
Processing facilities, 28
Program developing, 10, 74
Publications, 15
Publicity, 30
Published materials, 15
Pullet production, 49
Radio, 15, 16, 55, 62


Reaves, C. W., 43
Recreation, 69
Red cedar plantings, 47
Resources conservation, 13, 80
Revenue, sources of, 8
Rosenberger, S. E., 56
Rural telephones, 30

Safety, 19
Savage, Zach, 22
Seedsmen's short course, 55
Sikes, Anna Mae, 57
Simpson, Katherine, 60
Smith, J. Lee, 20
Soil and conservation, 52
conservation, district organiza-
tions, 53
district reports, 52
Special Vegetable Short Course, 55
Staff changes, 11
State appropriations, 8
Statistical report, 11, 79
Stevens, Lorene, 67
Structures, farm, 25
Subject matter, time spent, 13
Supervision of county agents, 20
Swine, 34

Tape recordings, 17
Tobacco, flue-cured, 33
Teaching aids, apiculture, 37
Telephones, 30
Television, 16
Textiles, 60
Truck crops, marketing, 23
Tupelo gum planting, 48
Turkey management, 50

Vegetable, grower contact study, 55
grower field days, 54
grower meetings, 54
inquiries, 55
local leader training, 55
marketing conference, 54
merchandising, 56
outlook committee, 55
production, 54
production guides, 55
short course, 55
visual and training aids, 55
"Vegetarian" newsletter, 55
Visual aids, 17, 55, 61

Warren, Alma, 61
Water conservation, 52
Watkins, Marshall 0., 7
Wiring, 29