<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 Director's report
 Publications, news, radio
 Safety and fire prevention
 Supervision of county agents
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering and farm...
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry
 Apiculture
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citrus culture
 Dairy husbandry
 Forestry
 Poultry activities
 Soil and water conservation
 Vegetable production and merch...
 State home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Editorial and visual aids
 Food and nutrition
 Food conservation
 Girls' 4-H club work
 Home improvement
 Home industries and marketing
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00012
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1951
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00012
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Director's report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Publications, news, radio
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Safety and fire prevention
        Page 19
    Supervision of county agents
        Page 20
    Agricultural economics
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Agricultural engineering and farm electrification
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Agronomy
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Animal husbandry
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Apiculture
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Citrus culture
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Dairy husbandry
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Forestry
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Poultry activities
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Soil and water conservation
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Vegetable production and merchandising
        Page 55
        Page 56
    State home demonstration work
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Editorial and visual aids
        Page 62
    Food and nutrition
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Food conservation
        Page 65
    Girls' 4-H club work
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Home improvement
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Home industries and marketing
        Page 70
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 71
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Index
        Page 76
        Page 77
Full Text






COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and Jane BS, 1914)
AOmROULTURAL xTnmnorN BanIc UNmy arr or FrlosA
FLmIDA STATS Uvnvawy
AND UNmIr StA&u DpAwuramn ol AdauLTumau
Coopmitmmo, H. G. CLArTON, DImoTon










1951 REPORT


ltWDtA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVI-CE










REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1051
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1951,


.!t.~ r j -


1 lur9L~4~.**~;Pr4~F~~ BIW~m~r-11-11 1 1-1 ".-I.- I-- 1, "


1. 1 ,w .. OW rWWW I I ,


." '









COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING, H. G. CLAYTON, DIRECTOR









1951 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1951
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1951







BOARD OF CONTrOLI.
FRANK M. HARRIS, Chairman, HOLLIS RINEHART, Miami
St. Petersburg N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
ELI H. FINK, Jacksoriville W. F. POWERS, Secretary,
GEORGE J. WHITE, SR., Mt. Dora Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
J. HILLIS MILLER, Ph.D., President of the University
J. WAYNE REITZ, Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director of Extension
MARSHALL O. WATKINS, M. Agr., Assistant Director
F. W. PARVIN, B.S.A., Assistant to the Director
ROGERS L. BARTLEY, B.S., Administrative Manager
Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor
LEON 0. GRIFFITH, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
JASPER N. JOINER, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent
F. S. PERRY, B.S.A., District Agent
H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Soil Conservationist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.'
OLIVER F. GOEN, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman
TONY J. CUNHA, Ph.D., Animal Industrialist'
C. W. REAVES, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. Agr., Poultry Husbandman
J. S. MOORE, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
H. G. HAMILTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management'
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
CLYDE E. MURPHREE, M.S., Asst. Economist, Marketing & Farm Management
JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer '
A. M. PETTIS, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Eng. & Farm Electrification Specialist
FRED P. LAWRENCE, B.S.A., Citriculturist
W. W. BROWN, B.S.A., Boys' Club Agent
JOE N. BUSBY, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent
JOHN D. HAYNIE, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. JOHNSON, Rodent Control Specialist
J. RUSSELL HENDERSON, M.S.A., Agronomist'
F. S. JAMISON, Ph.D., Vegetable Crop Specialist
STANLEY E. ROSENBERGER, M. Agr., Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
FORREST E. MYERS, B.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., State Home Demonstration Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
MRC. EDITH Y. BARRUS, B.S.H.E., District Agent
JOYCE BEVIS, M.S., District Agent
CLEO M. ARNETT, M.S., Nutritionist
ALICE L. CROMARTIE, M.S., Asst. Economist in Food Conservation
KATHERINE SIMPSON, M.S., Clothing Specialist
MRS. BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist
LORENE H. STEVENS, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
RUTH S. LEMMON, B.S.H.E., Asst. State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
MRS. GLADYS KENDALL, A.B., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
ALMA WARREN, M.S., Asst. Editor & Visual Aids Specialist
Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. GRESHAM, B.S.A., Negro District Agent
1 Cooperative other divisions, U. of F.
'In cooperation with U.S.
SOn leave.








CONTENTS
Page
Director's Report ........-............ .................. 7
Statistical Report .............. ..... ..... ... ..... ...... .... ............. 11
Publications, News, Radio ................. .........-...... ....... ............. 15
Safety and Fire Prevention .................................... .............. ..... 19
Supervision of County Agents ................ ... .. .................... 20
Agricultural Economics ................................. ............................... 21
Farm M management .............~.~........................ .... .. ......... 21
Citrus Grove Management ............................ ..................... 22
M marketing ................. ...... ... ... .............. ................ 23
Agricultural Engineering and Farm Electrification ............................... 25
Agricultural Engineering ................... .... .... .... .. ...... 25
Farm Electrification ................................... ................. 28
Agronom y ........................ .... ...... ......... .... .............. ...... 30
Animal Husbandry ...........-- .................... ...-........... 34
Apiculture ................ ..... ... ............ .. ................... 36
Boys' 4-H Club Work ...-......-.......................... .. .........--........ 38
Citrus Culture .............................................. .............. 40
Dairy Husbandry ............................. ............................. 42
Forestry .................... ....... ......... .......- .....-. .. :................. 45
Poultry ....................... .... .....-.. ........... ........................ 48
Soil and Water Conservation........ ...............-.................-- 52
Vegetable Production and Merchandising ........................ ................... 55
Vegetable Production ......................-..- .. ..........-.......... 55
Vegetable Merchandising ................- .... .....~. -...... .. 55
State Home Demonstration Work ................... ..... ................ 57
Clothing and Textiles ................... ....... ... ........... ........................ 60
Editorial and Visual Aids .......... .............................................. 62
Food and Nutrition ................ ..................... ..................... 63
Food Conservation .........- ............ ......................... ........... 65
Girls' 4-H Club Work ........................................................... 66
Home Improvement ............................ ............................-..... 68
Home Industries and Marketing ..................-.......................... 70
Negro Farm Demonstration Work ...........~....... ..................... ..71
Negro Home Demonstration Work .................................. ..................... 72
Negro Statistical Report ............... ................. ................... 73
[3]









COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of November 30, 1951)

HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua ........... Loonis Blitch...........Gainesville-...Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua
(Asst.)..........Lester W. Kalch............Gainesville..Mrs. Frances P. Denington
Baker................G. T. Huggins---.......-Macclenny ...... ................
Bay.................J--. A. Sorenson.............-Panama City.................................
Bradford..........T. K. McClane, Jr.........Starke ..........Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard............J. T. Oxford...................Cocoa...................Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward..........B. E. Lawton..................Ft. Lauderdale......Miss Louise Taylor
Broward
(Asst.)..........Robert S. Pryor.............Ft. Lauderdale........................
Calhoun............Thomas B. Jones............Blountstown..-.Miss Florence L. Gatlin
Calhoun
(Asst.)........ Horace M. Carr............. Blountstown ................................
Charlotte. ....... N. H. McQueen..-...........Punta Gorda........................................
Citrus...............Quentin Medlin..............Inverness..........Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Citrus (Asst.)..Edsel W. Rowan............Inverness ....... .......... .....--
Clay................. Charles C. Below..........Green Cove Springs.......................
Columbia..........James N. Watson..........Lake City............Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia
(Asst.)....--...Aubrey L. Harrell........Lake City.... ........................
Dade.................C. H. Steffani.....-.........Miami ..........-- .. Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.)....J. Lawrence Edwards....Miami....................... Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.)....John D. Campbell..........Miami................Mrs. Ruth T. Penner
Dade (Asst.)....A. E. C. McIntyre_.....Homestead ....:....................
DeSoto...............W L. W oods..................Arcadia ............. ..................
Duval--........A. S. Lawton..................Jacksonville.........Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.)..Wm. E. Kloeppel............Jacksonville..Miss Helen I. Bomgardner
Duval (Asst.) ............................... Jacksonville......Mrs. Lucille B. Colsen
Escambia..........E. N. Stephens.............Pensacola..............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia
(Asst.)..........Ben H. Floyd...............Pensacola......Miss Mary D. Buffington
Gadsden............A. G. Driggers..............Quincy...............Miss Elise Laffitte
Gadsden
(Asst.)..........Bernard H. Clark.........Quincy.............Mrs. Ivan S. Woodbery
Gilchrist............Harry E. George........... Trenton........................
Glades............... A. G. Hutchinson..........Moore Haven....... ............. .....
Gulf...................C. R. Laird..................... W ewahitchka
-Miss Emma L. Stevenson
Hamilton
(Acting) ......D. D. McCloud................Jasper .............. .......................
Hardee..............E. H. Vance..................Wauchula....Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Hendry..............H. L. Johnson..............LaBelle ............. .................... ...
Hernando..........Harry J. Brinkley..........Brooksville ........... .................... .
Highlands........V. T. Oxer --..................Sebring ......Miss Catherine Brabson
Highlands
(Asst.)...-......Bert J. Harris, Jr.........Sebring ......... -.. ............ ...
Hillsborough... Alec White..................Tampa...................Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsborough
(Asst.) ......... Edwin Booth.................Tampa ........................... .....
Hillsborough
(Asst.)-........Jean Beam.................Tampa ........................... .........








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Hillsborough
(Asst.)..........J. O. Armor....................Plant City..................Miss Emily King
Hillsborough
(Asst.)....................... ....... ....... Ruskin..... ..........Miss Ethel Weeks
Holmes ............Stuart C. Bell..-.......... Bo....Bonifay .......... ....... ................
Indian River.....Marcel A. Boudet.........Vero Beach.... ............
Jackson.............Woodrow W. Glenn......Marianna-...........Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson
(Asst.)..........William C. Zorn............Marianna ..............-........-......
Jefferson.......... Albert H. Odom -...M......Monticello ........Mrs. Mary C. McLeod
Lafayette..........S. L. Brothers...............Mayo ............................. .......
Lake..................R. E. Norris.................-Tavares...............Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake (Asst.)...Jack T. McCown............Tavares ........................... ....
Lee-............... C. P. Heuck....--............Fort Myers............................
Leon ..................J. W. Malone (Acting)..Tallahassee..........Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Leon (Asst.)....Donald E. Adams..........Tallahassee ................................
Levy .........._T. D. Rickenbaker..........Bronson............Mrs. Sue P. Murphy
Liberty...............................Bristol.......Mrs. Camilla R. Radney
Madison........Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr...Madison...........Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee...........-Ed L. Ayers....................Palmetto ........ Mrs. Anne D. Davis
Manatee
(Asst.) .....-...Johnnie F. Barco..........Palmetto ............. .............
Manatee
(Asst.).........Johnnie E. Davis..........Palmetto .............................-
Marion.............. A. David Baillie, Jr.....Ocala....................Miss All:e Lee Rush
Marion
(Asst.)..........Carey A. Robbins..........Ocala ............. ....... .. .. ..
Martin...............L. M. Johnson.....-.........Stuart............ Mrs. Lucile I. Clagett
Nassau..............Gordon B. Ellis.............-Hilliard...........Mrs. Julia P. Jernagan
Okaloosa...........Alexander H.
Clemmons..................Crestview ............ -........
Okeechobee...... C. R. Boyles.....-.........Okeechobee .............................
Orange.......F...F E. Baetzman............Orlando... ....Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
Orange
(Asst.).-.......Henry F. Swanson........Orlando .........- ..................
Osceola..............J. R. Gunn................Kissimmee...........Miss Muriel A. Beck
Palm Beach......M. U. Mounts..................West Palm Beach......Miss Sara Horton
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........John H. Causey..............West Palm Beach..........................
Palm Beach
(Asst.)..........H. L. Speer...................Belle Glade........ .................. .
Pasco................J. F. Higgins..................Dade City .........Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
Pasco (Asst.)...James B. Smith...........Dade City-...-- ..................
Pinellas.............J. H. Logan....................Clearwater
-Mrs. Charlotte M. Lattimer
Pinellas
(Asst.)..........L. E. Cunningham........Clearwater.........Miss Muriel Thomas
Polk...................W. P. Hayman............-Bartow...........Mrs. Minnie M. Carlton
Polk (Asst.).....Wilson H. Kendrick......Bartow..............Miss Doris E. Frazier
Polk (Asst.).....Earl M. Kelly..............Bartow ..........................
Polk (Asst.).....Jackson A. Haddox......Bartow ........-......................
Putnam.............H. E. Maltby.................Palatka....Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam
(Asst.)..........Ralph T. Clay...............Palatka ..........--............. ....









COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Saint Johns......P. R. McMullen............St. Augustine........Miss Anna E. Heist
Saint Lucie ......Charles D. Kime ...........Fort Pierce....Miss Sammie J. Kilgore
Santa Rosa.......Emmett D. McCall........Milton....................- Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa
(Asst.)..........Henry P. Davis............Milton ............ ........................
Sarasota ...........Kenneth A. Clark..........Sarasota ...-.......Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Sarasota
(Asst.)..........Donald W. Lander........Sarasota ...........................................
Seminole...........C. R. Dawson................Sanford....................Miss Lila Woodard
Sumter..............0. M. Maines, Jr...........Bushnell...................Miss Tillie Roesel
Sumter
(Asst.)..........W ilburn C. Farrell........Bushnell ........................................
Suwannee ........ Floyd L. Eubanks-.......Live Oak............Miss Edith M. Martin
Suwannee
(Asst.)-.........Leonard C. Cobb..........Live Oak...................................
Taylor............-- S. C. Kierce....................Perry......Mrs. Ruth McKeown Elkins
Union................ William S. Cowen..........Lake Butler.................. .......
Volusia..............William J. Platt, Jr.......DeLand-------......................Mrs. Edna L. Eby
Volusia
(Asst.)..........Thomas R. Townsend....DeLand ............ .................
W akulla............A. S. Laird- ---.....................Crawfordville ......................................
W alton..............Mitchell W ilkins............DeFuniak Springs.................................
Washington......H. 0. Harrison.............Chipley................Mrs. Mary L. Minchin


NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS

Alachua............ English M. Greene........Gainesville...............Leontine Williams
Columbia ..........McKinley Jeffers............Lake City........................ Gladys Wilkins
Dade.....................................................Miami................... Victoria M. Simpson
Duval...... ............ .....----------...---....Jacksonville----....... Ethel M. Powell
Gadsden........... Russell Stephens............Quincy..........................Ursula L. Hicks
Hamilton...........N. H. Bennett-----................White Springs.................................
Hillsboro...............................-....-...--Tampa.....---------..Sudella J. Ford
Jackson.............Virgil Elkins------.................Marianna..............Virginia V. Dickens
Jefferson...........M. E. Groover-.............Monticello ................ ........
Leon..........-----.........Richard A. Hartsfield....Tallahassee................Irie Mae Clark
Madison.............James C. Miller............Madison...............-----Althea F. Ayer
Marion...............Eugene P. Smith..........Ocala ........................................
Marion-.---....-----.... ---...........--.....Reddick....... ..........Idella R. Kelly
Putnam.....................................---- -Palatka........... ........... Mary E. Jones
Sumter............. Richard L. Bradley........Bushnell ..---..........................
Volusia................ .........................DeLand.-.....-........ Ida T. Pemberton









DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR FLORIDA

H. G. Clayton, Director
Marshall O. Watkins, Assistant Director
F. W. Parvin, Assistant to the Director

Decided progress was made during the year in several fields of Extension
activities. For example, the total number of families reached in 1951 was
93,305, as compared with 89,974 in 1950, an increase of 3,331 families.
Non-farm families availed themselves of Extension services and partici-
pated in Extension programs on an expanding scale. In 1951 46,267 such
families called upon the Agricultural Extension Service for assistance in
solving problems in such fields as gardening, poultry, the family cow, and
service to their youth in urban 4-H clubs. This trend is almost certain
to continue as the concerted drive to attract more retired persons and
part-time farmers to Florida gains momentum.
Four-H Club work continued to grow in the State. Total enrollment
of boys and girls in 1951 was 28,695, an increase of 1,858 members over
1950. Four-H Club members enrolled for 72,559 projects during the year,
compared with 66,962 in 1950. Club members completed 50,739 projects,
compared with 45,706 projects in 1950, raising the percentage completions
to almost 70 percent, a decided increase over 1950.
Staff changes in 1951 consisted of filling a few positions provided by
the 1949 Legislature for which suitable personnel had not been previously
located. One county agent was added, bringing the number of county agents
to 63. Two additional assistant county agents and two assistant home
demonstration agents were employed. Vacant positions were filled by the
employment of two men and two women specialists. The position of
Assistant to the Director was filled and the Assistant Director returned
in September from a year's leave of absence spent doing graduate work.
The number of clerks employed in county offices full or part time by
Extension increased from 49 to 56 and the number of clerks in State offices
was increased by two.
Financing of Extension Work.-Economy was a keynote in 1951 as the
State appropriation for the Agricultural Extension Service was reduced by
$12,500 annually for the biennium July 1, 1951, to June 30, 1953. This
brought into sharper focus a problem in effective program development in
the off-campus educational activities of the Agricultural Extension Service
in order to meet the direct and important responsibility to service ade-
quately county Extension agents. During the past several years county
governments have recognized the importance of the Extension program in
their respective counties and have increased appropriations accordingly.
The constantly increasing complexity of agriculture, the application of
technological advances, development of increased amounts of research
work and the addition of some county programs has increased the disparity
between the field staff and an adequate and effective specialist staff to
service them with up-to-the-minute findings in their respective fields.
This disparity between the number of county workers and the number of
specialists to service them adequately is pointed up by the $12,500 decrease
in State appropriations and the $66,900 increase in county appropriations.
Due to an increase in rural population Florida received a small increase
in federal Extension funds which was timely and prevented a reduction in
this field but was insufficient to permit meeting many merited requests
from producers and others for assistance.

[7]








8 Florida Cooperative Extension

SOURCES OF REVENUE 1950-51
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever ...................-..............$ 70,994.31
Bankhead-Jones ................. ...................- 129,651.51
Capper-Ketcham ............-............- --..--......... 27,417.72
Bankhead-Flannagan ..............-..... ..--..-- ........... 121,915.18
Clarke-McNary .............. --.. ....... .... ............ 1,620.00
Research & Marketing ............................. ......... 1,500.00
Farm Housing ....--.....~.-----........ --.....--- ........ 640.00
$ 353,738.72
State Appropriations:
Legislature ......-.. ..........--------------------$ 578,602.44
State Trust Fund: .................. ..... ...... -......... .............. 17,474.72
County Appropriations: --.......................-----.--- ... 390,413.00

Grand Total ...--....... ......................... ........ $1,340,228.88

SOURCES OF REVENUE 1951-52
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever .........----...... -- ...................$ 82,384.75
Bankhead-Jones .................--- ----... ................ 129,651.51
Capper-Ketcham .........-.......-- ...- ........ -------28,802.26
Bankhead-Flannagan -................. .................... 121,915.18
Clark-McNary ..... ........ ........ ............ 1,620.00
Research & Marketing ........ ---.............. ..-......-- ... 906.25
Farm Housing .............. .............. .......... 640.00
Rural Electrification ......-----.......... ................. 2,500.00
$ 368,419.95
State Appropriations:
Legislature .........-..----..-. .-- --... ....-..$461,295.00 $ 461,295.00
State Trust Funds: ...........---.......-- .......-----... 20,000.00 20,000.00
County Appropriations: ...-..................- .......... ...... 457,313.00 457,313.00

Grand Total .............. -- ....-- ............- $1,307,027.95


PERSONNEL

There still exists a shortage of qualified trained workers in the field of
home economics. The State Home Demonstration Agent and district home
demonstration agents have devoted considerable time to the location of
workers trained in home economics to fill .occurring vacancies and demands
for additional agents in the counties. There is a heavy turnover in
personnel due to the demand for home economics teachers and the fact
that many such workers get married and leave the work.
Training Extension Workers.-A three weeks' summer school was held
at' the University of Florida for Florida Agricultural Extension workers
in 1951. Four courses were offered, each carrying 11/2 hours of graduate
credit. The courses offered were: Four-H Club Work, Journalism, Social
Recreation, and Recent Developments in the Field of Animal Industry.
Twenty-nine Extension workers attended the school in 1951. Four
Includes $104,807.44 in carried over and unreleased funds from 1949-50 appropriations.








Annual Report, 1951


were members of the State staff and the remainder were county workers.
This school provides basic training in new fields, as well as refresher
courses.
The annual conferences, one for Negro and one for white workers were
held in the fall. These conferences serve primarily as in-service training
in new research, but also give agents an opportunity to hear outstanding
speakers discuss national and international problems and the responsi-
bilities and opportunities for Extension people to help solve such problems
Specialists and supervisors use a variety of methods to provide further
needed in-service training for county workers and to keep them up to date
on subject matter information. Area schools are held at Experiment
Stations on citrus and vegetable crops. Agents also attend field days and
tours at Experiment Stations. A series of area vegetable conferences
also served to assist county agents.
The district agents provided in-service training in Extension methods,
policies and procedures for agents in their respective districts.
The Extension Service is constantly trying to provide opportunities
and ways for workers to secure additional training to improve work under
way.
DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS
County plans of work for 1951 reflected the policy placed in effect in
1949 of preparing one combined, coordinated plan of work for each county
to cover the work of all Extension agents in the county. This plan of work
is based on programs developed by agents with assistance and guidance
from county committees. Committees are composed of representatives
selected on either a community or a commodity basis or a combination of
the two. Specialists on the State staff submit an outline of problems and
suggested solutions in their field of work to agents prior to the time work
on the county plans is started. By this means county workers and farm
people are acquainted with broader problems in each field before determin-
ing the Extension program needed for the county.
The Extension Citrus Advisory Committee, composed of State and
county workers, assists in developing a State Extension citrus program.
Meetings of the Committee are held throughout the year to determine and
recommend to the Director Extension programs relating to citrus. All
county agents in citrus producing counties are encouraged to have com-
mittees made up of citrus growers and county agents to aid in the develop-
ment of county Extension citrus programs.
An Extension Vegetable Advisory Committee serves a similar function
with respect to the Extension vegetable program.
To encourage cooperative and coordinated activities among counties for
the boys' 4-H Club program the State has been divided into 10 4-H districts,
with men Extension agents in each district meeting once a year to plan
joint activities such as livestock shows, officer training schools and other
phases of work with club members.
The broad objectives set forth in the Smith-Lever Act which established
the Cooperative Extension Service are "To aid in diffusing among the
people of the United States useful and practical information on subjects
relating to agriculture and home economics and to encourage the applica-
tion of same .."
The Extension Service works with individuals, groups and organizations
whose functions relate to agriculture and home economics. It is a co-
operative agency, a part of the United States Land-Grant College system,
engaged in educational work in agriculture and home economics designed
for people of the state who are not on college campuses. It does not conduct







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 1.-Director H. G. Clayton (center) and Director H. C. Sanders of
the Louisiana Agricultural Extension Service (right) examine some treated
cotton hose shown during annual Agents' Conference by James A. Kime
(left) of the USDA Regional Laboratory at New Orleans. Mr. Kime and
Mr. Clayton wear waterproof cotton jackets.

research work or engage in classroom teaching but brings to the people
results of research work and other useful information.
In cooperation with county governing bodies, the Extension Service
operates through county agricultural agents and home demonstration agents
located in 100 offices in 64 counties. It maintains a small administrative
State staff and a limited number of subject matter specialists who service
and assist county workers in handling programs in counties and on a
State-wide basis. The Extension Service is a part of the United States
Department of Agriculture. In Florida headquarters for Extension staff
members are at Florida State University, Florida A. & M. College and the







Annual Report, 1951


University of Florida, the three State institutions of higher learning under
the State Board of Control.

EXTENSION TRAINING FOR FOREIGN VISITORS
During 1951 the Agricultural Extension Service took an active part in
the program of giving technical training to agricultural leaders from
foreign countries. Most of these foreign leaders were brought to this
country under terms of the Point IV phase of the Economic Cooperative
Administration program.
The Extension Service was entirely responsible for training 20 foreign
agricultural teachers while they were in Florida. These 20 men and women
stayed in this State for periods ranging from three to six weeks. They
came from countries around the fringe of the Iron Curtain and elsewhere,
including Indonesia, Pakistan, Burma, Thailand, Germany, Turkey, Portu-
gal, and the Philippines. The Extension Service cooperated in training 10
other foreign visitors. For these 10 the primary interest was in some
field other than Extension.

CHANGES IN STATE STAFF
Appointments and promotions:
Fayette W. Parvin promoted to Assistant to the Director from As-
sociate Economist, Marketing and Farm Management, January 1, 1951.
Tony J. Cunha, Animal Industrialist, July 1, 1951.
Clyde E. Murphree, Assistant Economist, Marketing and Farm Manage-
ment, May 1, 1951.
Miss Cleo M. Arnett, Extension Nutritionist, July 1, 1951.
Miss Alice L. Cromartie, Assistant Economist in Food Conservation,
June 15, 1951.
Miss Katherine Simpson, Extension Clothing Specialist, July 1, 1951.
Miss Alma Warren, Assistant Editor and Visual Aids Specialist, Home
Demonstration Work, February 4, 1951.
Returned from Leave:
Jasper N. Joiner, Assistant Editor, September 15, 1951.
Marshall O. Watkins, Assistant Director, September 15, 1951.
Resignation:
J. A. McGregor, Assistant Animal Industrialist, June 16, 1951.
Grace I. Neely, Associate Economist, Food Conservation, December 31,
1950.
Granted Leave:
Toe N. Busby, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent, July 20, 1951.
Doyal E. Timmons, October 4, 1951.


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from White County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Months of service (agents and assistants) .................... ............. 1,8121/2
Days of service: In office-20,046; In field--23,146 ........................ 43,192
Farm or home visits made ........... ................. ................. 68,485








12 Florida Cooperative Extension

Different farms or homes visited ...................-..................................... 39,603
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-245,518; Telephone ........ 235,494
Days devoted to work with 4-H Clubs and older youths .................. 14,613
News articles or stories published ............................. .................... 11,373
Bulletins distributed ................................--- ...- ................... 364,655
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ...............-.......-----........................ 2,913
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber ....................... .. .... -..... -......................... ----1,136
Total attendance of men and women ..........--.........................- .. 16,447
Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber .......................---- ..................... .................... 12,231
Total attendance ........................................................ ..................... 267,329
T ours .................................................. ........ ...... ..... ............ ................. 701
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth, and adult work ........ 819
4-H camps
Boys attending ........................................................ 2,213
Girls attending .............~................... ........................ 2,289

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farm s ................................... .................................. 56,921
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agri-
cultural program .-......................-.... .- ...................... .................... 30,461
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year ............................................ 5,454
Non-farm families making changes in practices as result of the
agricultural program ..................................................... ............... 22,785
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from
demonstration program ...........-.........--- ..--- .......... .........-.... 18,301
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration programs for the first time this year .................. 3,756
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of
home demonstration program .........................................---......... ---21,736
Non-farm families making' changes in practices as a result of
home demonstration program for the first time this year ........ 6,031
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled .................................. 10,708
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ...................... 7,706
Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension
program .......-.........- ...-.....--.......-----..... ---..... ---------........---.... 42,485
Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program .... 44,335

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of communities in counties ........................................... 959
Number of communities in which the extension program has been
planned cooperatively ................... ..- ..... --............ .... 714

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-7,218; non-farm-2,621; total ............................... 9,839
Girls: Farm-6,242; non-farm-6,364; total .................. .............. 12,606
N um ber clubs ............-------... ........ ................... .......................... 1,025
Number enrolled .........- ----------....--......... ..................... 22,445
Number completing .-........--.................... .........---.....-- 14,392
Projects completed by boys ..............~~....-......----------... 8,997
Projects completed by girls ....................... .. ... .........-........ 24,846
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ..............-....--.....-...... 987








Annual Report, 1951


Boys completing fruit projects .................. ............ ................
Boys completing garden projects .....................................................
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ..........
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ..................................
Boys completing poultry projects ..................................... ........
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects .........................
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ................................
Girls completing fruit projects ........................... ...............-
Girls completing garden projects ............... .... ..... .......---............
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ..........
Girls completing dairy projects ....................... ....- ............-....
Girls completing poultry projects ........................................ .........
Girls. completing food selection and preparation projects ..............
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid projects ..........
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings
and room improvement projects ................................................
Girls completing food preservation projects ..............................
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs ....................................

DAYS DEVOTED TO SUBJECT MATTER FIELDS BY
EXTENSION AGENTS


CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to:


Corn ..................................
Other cereals ....................
Legumes ...........................
Pastures ............................
Cotton ...............................
Tobacco ..............................
Potatoes and other vege-
tables ........................
Fruits .......................
Other crops ...................


662
180
1,147
2,884
210
444

1,878
1,709
533


CONSERVATION
OF NATURAL RESOURCES


Days devoted to:
Soil and water ................
Forestry ...........................
W wildlife ............................


1,2081/
503
212


GENERAL ECONOMIC
PROBLEMS RELATED TO
AGRICULTURE
Days devoted to:


Price and trade policies ..
Land policy and
programs ......................
Public finance and
service .....--.....----.......-
Rural welfare ................


72

53%

56
222


LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING,
POULTRY
Days devoted to:
Dairy cattle ....----........-..... 1,710
Beef cattle ........................ 2,425
Sheep ................................ 6
Sw ine ................................. 1,584
Horses and Mules ............ 110
Poultry (including
turkeys) .............-........ 1,229
Other livestock ...--....-...~.. 1501/

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to:
Farm accounts, etc. ....... 502 1/
Individual farm
planning, etc. .--........... 599
Farm credit ........-............ 311
Outlook information ...... 2121/

MARKETING AND
DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to:
General ..-.....-.................. -257
Grain and Hay ............... 112
Livestock .......................... 432
Dairy products ............... 207
Poultry and eggs ............ 359
Fruits and vegetables .... 604
Cotton ............................... 42
Forest products ............. 89


143
1,819
233
133
1,266
132
1,777
261
2,188
28
148
864
4,836
1,433

8,848
1,316

544


I








Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Days devoted to:
House plans, construc-
tion, water systems,
heating, etc. ............ 245
Rural electrification ...... 305
Farm buildings ............... 265
Farm mechanical
equipment ........--....... 384


HOME MANAGEMENT AND
IMPROVEMENT, FAMILY
ECONOMICS, NUTRITION
& HEALTH
Days devoted to:
House, furnishings and
surroundings ............. 1,510


Home management ........
Clothing and textiles ......
Family relationships ......
Recreation and com-
munity life .............
Home production of
family food supply ....
Food preservation
and storage ...............
Food selection and prepa-
ration ....................
Other health and safety
work ............................
Other commodities ........
Home products and
crafts ...........................
Purchasing of farm &
home supplies and
equipment ...................


454
2,361/2
4801/2

1,203

1,700

1,633

2,120

865
141

386


467








Annual Report, 1951


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Associate Editor
L. Odell Griffith, Assistant Editor
Jasper N. Joiner, Assistant Editor

The editorial staff was expanded during the year to serve better the
home demonstration program which has headquarters in Tallahassee and
to more nearly meet the increasing needs of the entire Extension Service.
All staff members except Miss Warren devote approximately half of their
time to duties for the Agricultural Experiment Station under cooperative
appointments.
Bulletins, record books and miscellaneous supplies are distributed from
the Mailing Room on request of county and home demonstration agents
and others. Copies of all new bulletins and circulars are sent to a library
and specialist mailing list and to agents. After that they are distributed
on request only. It has been difficult to maintain supplies of some of the
more popular bulletins, so heavy has been demand.
The Editor also serves as publication distribution control officer for the
U. S. Department of Agriculture and distributes copies of USDA publica-
tions in Florida.
BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS
Five new bulletins and 10 new circulars were printed and four bulletins
were reprinted to give the largest number of publications ever issued in a
single year by this Service. The new bulletins totaled 152 pages and
97,500 copies; the new circulars 52 pages and 87,500 copies; the reprinted
bulletins 180 pages and 90,000 copies. A circular series of production
guides for various vegetable crops was inaugurated.
Additional printing done during the fiscal year included 2,000 copies of
the final report of the Florida National Egg-Laying Test, 32 pages, 2,500
copies of the biennial report to the State Soil Conservation Board, 16
pages, six record books totaling 56 pages and 60,000 copies, 400,000 franked
mailing cards, 25,000 4-H membership cards, and 1,000 copies of a 4-H
club calendar of events, 1 page.
Following is a list of principal items published during the year:
Pages Edition
Bul. 144 Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits .......................... 48 20,000
Bul. 145 Gardenias in Florida ................... .... .......... .. 16 30,000
Bul. 146 Herbaceous Perennials ..................... ............. ....... 32 25,000
Bul. 147 Canning, Salting, Smoking, Cooking Florida Fish 24 10,000
Bul. 148 Strawberries in Florida-Culture, Diseases and


Insects ........... .................... .......... ..
Pickles and Relishes from Florida Fruits and
Vegetables (reprint) ............................
Annual Flowers (reprint) .................................
Citrus Propagation (reprint) ...............................
Dooryard Citrus Plantings in Florida (reprint) ....
Garden Chrysanthemums for Florida ..................-
A Cow-and-Calf Plan for Florida ...........................
Watermelon Production Guide ......... ..............
Sweet Potato Production Guide .......................
Tomato Production Guide .................... .............


32 12,500

64 15,000
48 40,000
48 25,000
20 10,000
6 20,000
5 7,500
4 7,500
4 7,500
4 7,500


Bul. 108

Bul. 133
Bul. 139
Bul. 140
Circ. 94
Circ. 95
Circ. 96
Circ. 97
Circ. 98







Florida Cooperative Extension


Pages Edition
Cire. 99 Sweet Corn Production Guide .................................... 4 7,500
Circ. 100 Snap Bean Production Guide ............................. 6 7,500
Circ. 101 Cucumber Production Guide ..................... ........ 6 7,500
Circ. 102 Pepper Production Guide ................... .............. 6 7,500
Circ. 103 Squash Production Guide ................................... 6 7,500
Final Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Test.. 32 2,000

N E\WS AND JOURNAL RELEASES
The Agricultural News Service clil.0i ,t was printed and distributed
weekly, as in the past. It carried from 8 to 15 separate items each week
and served the Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture
and related state and federal agencies as well as the Extension Service.
It is sent primarily to weekly newspapers, county and home demonstration
agents, vocational agriculture teachers and others working with groups of
farm people.
The Editors furnished an average of nearly one story daily to one or
more newspapers direct or to the Associated Press wire service. Around
25 to 30 special stories were prepared and sent to county and home
demonstration agents for release in their counties.
County and home demonstration agents report having 5,397 news stories
published in their local newspapers.
Two Southern farm journals printed three items from the Florida
Extension Editors for a total of 30 inches of space. Three Florida journals
carried nine items for 236 column inches of space.

BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
During 1951 the Agricultural Extension Service staged its first tele-
vision broadcast, although some home demonstration and some county
agents had appeared previously. The 30-minute show was staged in
November, one of a weekly series inaugurated by the University of Florida.
The Florida Farm Hour was continued over WRUF, the University
radio station in Gainesville, 30 minutes Monday through Friday and 15
minutes on Saturday. Farm news highlights, prepared by one of the
Editors, was a daily feature. From December 1, 1950, through November
30, 1951, the Farm Hour presented 93 talks by Extension workers, 103 by
Experiment Station staff members, 108 farm flashes mostly from USDA,
9 talks by Production and Marketing Administration workers, 52 home
economics notes by the secretary in the editorial office, 48 farm question
box periods, 17 talks by members of the College of Agriculture faculty
and 1 from another college, 12 by a representative of the Clay Electric
Cooperative, and 11 by workers of the State Plant Board. The provost
for agriculture made two talks, the editors nine. Other speakers repre-
sented vocational agriculture veterans' training programs, the State Mar-
keting Bureau, State Home Demonstration Council, agricultural workers
in a foreign field, the State Livestock Sanitary Board, county health
department, 4-H club members, Federal Security Agency and others.
Remote programs were staged from the Agricultural Fair in the University
of Florida gymnasium, the Florida State Fair in Tampa, the Lake County
Fair, and the feeder calf sale at the Gainesville Livestock Market. The
Farm Hour broadcast some taped programs from the Central Florida
Exposition in Orlando.
Thus it is seen that the program covered a wide field of activities and
interests relating to farming and rural home life.







Annual Report, 1951 17

A new feature added in September as coverage for other stations was
a 700-word monthly round-up of flower gardening suggestions distributed
through the Associated Press radio teletype service. The same service
continued to distribute the weekly Florida Farm Review and the monthly
Home Demonstration Review to its member stations. A fortnightly review
of farm information was supplied direct to 26 stations not receiving AP
service.
Farm flashes for five days each week were sent direct to 22 stations
and through 17 county agents, in cooperation with the U. S. Department
of Agriculture. Of these, 72 were by Extension workers, 94 by Experiment
Station staff members, 46 from USDA and 45 from State Plant Board,
College of Agriculture, State Livestock Sanitary Board and other agency
workers.
The Editors cut seven 30-minute tapes, most of them containing four

Fig. 2.-Representatives of the State Home Demonstration Council
stage a radio program on the Florida Farm Hour during the group's annual
session in Gainesville, being interviewed by Extension Editor J. Francis
Cooper.







Florida Cooperative Extension


separate talks, for three radio stations. They also cut one 30-minute tape
for Florida Citrus Mutual, which used it on 12 stations.
County and home demonstration agents report broadcasting or prepar-
ing for broadcast 1,203 radio talks.
Improvement of broadcasting by county and home demonstration agents
was discussed by the Editor at the annual conference of agents. He pre-
sented taped parts of some of their actual programs for criticism and
suggestions.
MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
Accessions from the U. S. Department of Agriculture were added to the
filmstrip library during the year and additions were made to the slide
library also. Agents were assisted in obtaining motion picture films from
various agencies and plans were made to produce a motion picture on negro
farming and homemaking activities. The Editor made hundreds of black
and white pictures relating to various projects.
The Editors assisted in preparing 4-H club and poultry exhibits for the
Florida State Fair in Tampa, the Central Florida Exposition in Orlando,
and at other county and district shows.
The Editors spoke before five different groups, including classes in Ex-
tension methods, home demonstration councils and county and home demon-
stration agents, with 373 people in attendance.
Public address systems, motion picture and slide projectors, still and
motion picture cameras and other equipment are maintained.








Annual Report, 1951


SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION

Bonnie J. Carter and L. T. Nieland

The safety and fire prevention program is guided by the Extension
Forester and the Home Improvement Specialist on part-time basis.
During weeks set aside for special fire and safety campaigns, the at-
tention of club members and the general public was focused on the necessity
for concerted effort by individuals to eliminate safety and fire hazards.
Home demonstration and county agents, local leaders, 4-H Club girls,
home demonstration women, and others presented programs and spot an-
nouncements over radios, showed motion pictures and film strips, sent
circular letters, used envelope stickers and stuffers, provided news articles
for publication, placed exhibits in downtown show windows, schools, club
houses, and other public buildings, held special meetings, gave demonstra-
tions and conducted clean-up campaigns to draw attention to the importance
of safety and fire prevention.
During the year 452 safety and 352 fire prevention meetings were held,
410 demonstrations were given and 559 volunteer leaders assisted with the
programs. Three thousand seven hundred and eighty women and 4,824
girls were enrolled for result demonstrations in safety and fire prevention.
County agents were assisted in planning and executing the 4-H Farm
Safety Awards Contest for boys. The Extension Forester and the Home
Improvement Specialist served as two of the judges in deciding the State
winner in this contest. A total of 3,833 farm boys were enrolled in farm
safety project work in 47 of Florida's 67 counties.
National Safety and Fire Prevention Weeks were observed by the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service. County Extension Agents used
summer 4-H camps to teach environmental safety. Surveys were made
and 4-H campers conducted clean-up and repair campaigns to eliminate
such hazards as trash and broken glass from camp premises and to rid
the bottoms of swimming areas of foreign objects. During daily clean-up
periods girls and boys were assisted with the proper disposal of garbage
and trash.
During the Annual Short Course for 4-H Club girls special emphasis
was placed on water safety. Approximately 300 girls, volunteer leaders,
and home demonstration agents attended water safety classes conducted
by physical education majors under direction of members of the physical
education staff of Florida State University. In addition, handbooks were
supplied to approximately 600 4-H Club girls, leaders, and agents attend-
ing Short Course.
Qualified swimming instructors and life guards are provided by the
Florida Extension Service for water-front duty in each of the five district
4-H Club camps. Several county camps also employed qualified people in
this capacity. The 4,600 or more girls and boys attending camp are taught
the rudiments of water safety. In addition, many learn to swim or improve
their swimming ability while others receive training in life-saving. The
Lake County Red Cross Chapter's chairman of safety services directed
water-front activities and gave training in life-saving and swimming at
Camp McQuarrie.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SUPERVISION OF COUNTY AGENTS
H. G. Clayton, Director
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, District Agent
F. S. Perry, District Agent

Field supervision of Extension work and selection, training and place-
ment of county agents and assistants are done by the district agents.
They have worked with county boards in planning for long-time needs, as
well as for current requirements. They clear all appointments and transfers
with the Director and with the county boards concerned. That relation-
ship between Extension and county boards was exceptionally good is
evidenced by the fact that commissioners increased appropriations for
Extension work in a number of counties during the year.
On October 1, 1951, an agent was placed in Clay County, bringing to
63 the number of county agents in the State. Two assistant agents were
added in Polk County, bringing to 37 the number of men assistant agents
in Florida. The new assistants permitted an expansion of Extension
activities in Polk, with special emphasis on 4-H Club work and citrus.
During 1951 two county agents were granted military leaves of absence
and six county agents and assistants resigned. To fill these and other
vacancies 10 new appointments were made and 10 transfers effected.
District agents met with all county agents in the fall to assist them
in determining plans of work for 1952, using the new procedures instituted
in 1949. The plan calls for the use of community and/or commodity
committees to help determine Extension programs. Plans prepared by
agents in the county are then coordinated and combined into one county
Extension plan of work. Planning meetings of all Extension agents within
the county were held in most instances to discuss techniques and responsi-
bilities.
In addition to supervisory responsibilities, district agents assisted in
coordinating the work of the specialists in their respective districts. Such
coordination included assistance in planning and carrying out livestock
shows, county fairs, citrus, poultry, and farm and home institutes and
the holding of area meetings. District agents were responsible also for
scheduling attendance of counties at 4-H club camps and assisting with
the schedule for assistance from the specialists at the camps. A district
agent is chairman of the finance committee responsible for raising funds
for construction of a new 4-H Club camp.
District agents assist county agents in strengthening and maintaining
good working relations with other agencies. This effort extends to com-
modity groups and organizations in furtherance of the Extension policy
of working in harmony with all agencies and organizations in the field.








Annual Report, 1951


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management
Clyde E. Murphree, Assistant Economist

About half of the time of the Economist in Farm Management was
given to regular Extension work and about half to teaching methods in
Agricultural Extension. The Assistant Economist began work May 1 and
devoted full time to marketing and farm management work.
Farm and Home Planning.-This project of planning with individual
farm families was carried through its eleventh year. As a result, about
270 low-income families in nine counties made about 1,100 adjustments in
their farm and home plans that resulted in additional incomes averaging
about $220 per farm, or an increase of about 10 percent over their 1950
incomes.
Assistance to Beginning Farmers.-The Economist answered numerous
requests for information concerning acquiring land in Florida either by
purchase or through homesteading. He acted as consultant for the Veterans
Agricultural Education Program and assisted this group with their state
annual and various district meetings. He also conducted discussions with
local classes.
Teaching Methods in Agricultural Extension.-Two regularly scheduled
and two problems courses were offered by the Economist in the fall semester,
tWo problems courses in the spring semester, and two during the summer
term. In addition, the Economist planned and supervised a three-week
summer, school for Extension workers. Eighty-six enrolled for the Ex-
tension methods courses, including 25 county workers and four state staff
members.
Florida Agricultural Outlook Committee.-The Assistant Economist
served as secretary for this committee, which prepared a complete report
making suggestions for adjusting acreages and production of Florida's
principal crops and livestock products. He also jointly edited two annual
releases and prepared the national Economic analysis for the reports of
the committee.
Florida Agricultural Outlook.-The National Outlook Conference held
in Washington, D. C., October 29 through November 3, 1951, was attended
by the Assistant Economist. A summary of the material presented at this
conference was prepared and distributed to county agents and other inter-
ested persons.
The outlook for specific agricultural enterprises was the subject of
three radio talks. In addition, the Negro Extension Agents' Aininil
Conference and a cattlemens' association meeting were addressed on the
subject of outlook.
Analysis of the Price-Weight Relationship of Feeder Pigs.-A mimeo-
graphed paper was prepared by the Assistant Economist and released to
county agents which attempted to explain the importance of the price-
weight relationship in buying feeder pigs. With good quality feeders
costing more than expected prices for finished hogs, many farmers penalize
themselves by paying high prices for large feeder pigs.








22 Florida Cooperative Extension

Agricultural Production Capacity Committee for Florida.-The As-
sistant Economist served as a member of this committee and devoted
considerable time to the assignment. Man-hour requirements for Florida's
major agricultural enterprises were worked out and included in the report.
Marketing Agreements.-Meetings were held with two groups interested
in marketing agreements. One group was interested in a marketing agree-
ment for limes. After addressing the group, the Economist assembled
pertinent material and sent to them for study.
Another group, interested in watermelons, was aided in drafting a
proposed marketing agreement for this crop.
Miscellaneous Activities.-Assistance was given in conducting meetings
for 14 different agricultural and home economics organizations, five fairs
and achievement days, three college classes as visiting instructor, and in
training official visitors from six foreign countries.
The Economist supervised compilation of the Director's annual sta-
tistical report, supplied statistical data to co-workers, cooperated in the
writing of two tenure bulletins, served on the Farm Foundation farm
management committee for the Southeast and the Florida State Resource-
use Education Committee, attended and assisted with weekly sessions of
the agricultural economics seminar, gave individual advice in financing,
appraisal and selection cf farms and assistance in record keeping and pre-
paring income tax returns.
In 4-H Club work assistance was given in planning for and conducting
three rallies, two short courses, six regular meetings, two organization
meetings, two camps, four achievement day programs, and in editing and
revising 11 publications.
An analysis of 17 dairy farm records was made by the Assistant
Economist at the request of the Farmers Home Administration.
Three groups of foreign visitors brought to the United States under
the auspices of the Point IV Program were escorted on visits to seven
fruit and vegetable cooperatives in Florida.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT

Zach Savage, Associate Agricultural Economist, Experiment Station

Detailed cost records were kept on 217 groves of cooperators in 1950-51.
One hundred ninety of these groves were over 10 years of age and the
records on this group showed that citrus production costs per acre in-
creased 27 percent in 1950-51 over the previous season. Operating costs of
$159.75 per acre were the second highest for the 20 seasons of these records
and only 14 cents lower than the highest season of 1946-47.
Total costs in 1950-51 without owner supervision were the highest on
record, reaching $216.99 per acre. This was the first season for which
these costs were as much as $200.00. The 1950-51 costs increased 32
percent over the previous season and were 9 percent higher than the previous
peak in 1946-47. Total costs per box were 65 cents in 1949-50.
Labor, power, equipment and fertilizer materials made up 81 percent
of the operating costs in 1950-51. Fertilizer materials amounted to 31
percent of operating costs.
A financial record will indicate the results of over-all operations in
dollars and cents but will not indicate reasons behind profits or losses. A
complete record is a tool or piece of equipment, the use of which will assist
in determining more efficient operations, better management and more
favorable financial results. Groves must receive individual treatment for


I








Annual Report, 1951


best results. Adequate grove records facilitate this individual treatment
and management of each grove. Some successful growers consider a grove
record the most valuable piece of information they possess and keep it in
use regardless of current fruit prices.
In view of the new citrus plantings that have been made within the
past 10 years and present indications for plantings in the future, all growers
should consider what the increased plantings will do for the volume of
fruit production. No doubt a considerable slackening in this planting
trend would be very beneficial. Along with decreased plantings should go
special endeavors for more efficient production. The accomplishment of
the latter is a task to which this project is dedicated.
One outstanding inefficiency in some groves is an inadequate stand of
trees. This inefficiency could be remedied relatively easily by keeping re-
placements where needed. This often means removing trees that are not
dead, but are not producing sufficient fruit to be profitable. A related
inefficiency is that of having trees in the grove with disease, such as
psorosis and other virus diseases transmissible through budwood, which
make them unprofitable once the disease shows up. A budwood certification
program for the State would help eliminate such trees.
Some growers use irrigation to advantage while others spend more in
irrigating than they benefit by the operation. One-half the groves in this
project were irrigated during the past two seasons. It was found that on the
average irrigation increased yields enough to offset the added cost of irrigat-
ing. Additional research is needed, particularly on amount of water to
apply per irrigation, varieties to irrigate and timing the operation to best
advantage. A report was made of the investment in irrigation equipment
in 1948-49 for those in this project owning their own equipment.
A mimeographed paper to supply information about purchasing citrus
groves was revised and reissued as AE Series No. 51-2, "Should I Buy a
Citrus Grove?" Cost and return data have been assembled by counties
for Orange, Lake, Polk and Highlands. Data for Orange County was re-
leased as AE Series No. 51-6, "Eighteen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns
in Orange County Florida, 1931-49."
At least two radio talks were prepared and given over WRUF during
the year. Other materials were prepared for the Editorial Department
for use over other radio stations and for news releases. Articles were
prepared and published in the 12 issues of Citrus Magazine and in 4 issues
of The Citrus Industry.
Data of the Indian River section were brought up to date and issued
in tabular form. Citrus cost accounts were discussed before college classes
in horticulture and agricultural economics. Published material in this
work was distributed to each member of each class. A total of 900 copies
of publications was used for this purpose.
The tabulation and presentation of this work was expedited by the is-
suance of seven different forms, or a total of 2,250 copies. Three form
letters were written, totaling 425 copies. Seventeen publications were
issued representing a total of 9,325 copies. A total of 27 different publica-
tions, letters and forms were issued, representing 12,000 copies, or a total
of 26,600 pages of material.

MARKETING
D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing
The Economist spent at least 50 percent of his time working with and
through organized agricultural groups and trade associations engaged in
marketing activities. Other efforts were devoted to the marketing prob-







Florida Cooperative Extension


lems of those crop and animal products needing special attention. Some
assistance was given to 4-H Club activities.
Livestock.-The rapid increase in number of beef cattle in Florida has
made necessary the modernizing of existing marketing facilities, as well
as the building of new ones. The Specialist worked closely with the new
livestock cooperative market at Belle Glade. He assisted the State live-
stock markets to organize into a trade organization by preparing the
articles of incorporation and by-laws for them.
Other work with beef cattle included cooperation with the State Live-
stock Loss Prevention Committee by urging livestock handlers to follow the
Committee's recommendations in reducing losses to livestock in transit.
Conferences were held with several groups of dairymen who requested
information on organizing cooperatives for marketing milk.
Citrus.-The Economist worked with Florida Citrus Mutual, the Florida
Citrus Commission and other groups of citrus leaders to stress the im-
portance of avoiding a large carry-over of single strength and concentrate
juice in 1950-51. The industry was urged to adjust prices to supply-demand
conditions. However, prices fell at the close of the marketing season and
much effort was expended during the summer to increase consumption
and decrease carry-over. The Specialist was active in promoting an in-
dustry meeting at the University of Florida in the early fall so that all
segments of the citrus industry might understand the size of the marketing
job in moving the 1951-52 crop.
The Enonomist assisted in holding a number of meetings with lime
growers in the Homestead area to discuss a proposed lime marketing
agreement. He also helped plan a research project designed to determine
a minimum juice content of limes for shipment.
Vegetables.-A large percentage of time was devoted to the marketing
of vegetables in 1951, with special attention given to methods of improving
grades and packs, and ways of utilizing recently improved machinery which
enables packing in the field.
Work with Organizations and Agencies.-The Economist served as
secretary to the Watermelon Growers and Distributors Association, an
organization of growers, shippers and receivers of watermelons concerned
with production, packing, transporting and distributing. He assisted in
arranging for the annual meeting program. Considerable attention was
given at this meeting to changes in the assembling, packing, market news
and distribution of watermelons brought about by a shift from rail to
truck transportation. Other projects of the association include new varie-
ties, disease and insect control and waxing as related to marketing of the
crop.
The Economist also served as secretary to the Florida Council of Farmer
Cooperatives which is affiliated with the American Institute of Cooperation.
During the year a number of conferences were held with vocational agri-
culture groups to aid teachers in securing teaching materials on coopera-
tive marketing and purchasing for use in the classroom.
As chairman of the Southeastern Regional Cooperative Transportation
Committee, which automatically carries membership on the Executive
Transportation Committee of the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives,
the Economist worked closely with the Growers and Shippers League of
Florida on transportation problems of agricultural commodities. Such
problems have included research in better ways of packing to avoid transit
losses, hauling larger loads without incurring additional damage in transit,
the use of containers which minimize damage to the commodity, shortening
the time interval between loading and unloading, and ways to keep cars
rolling with a minimufi "of lay-over.







Annual Report, 1951


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
AND FARM ELECTRIFICATION

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer
Major activities of the Extension agricultural engineering program
include farm housing and building, mechanization, marketing facilities,
irrigation and drainage.
County and home demonstration agents reported assisting 35,365 farmers
or farm families in the engineering program during the year. An esti-
mated 9,000 additional farmers were assisted with problems concerning
the facilities necessary to prepare farm products for marketing and home
use.
Farm Structures.--The farm structures program is designed to improve
the standard of living and income of farm families through properly
planned, better constructed and more efficiently arranged farm homes and
buildings.
The Engineer devoted 88 days to farm structures. Activities in this
phase included farm service building appraisal, design or redesign of
buildings and dwellings, sewage disposal and water and heating systems,
farmstead planning, training county personnel and volunteer leaders,
establishing demonstrations and farm tours. Articles for newspapers and
farm magazines and charts and models for teaching aids were prepared.


23000-AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
_j
22000- HOUSING ACTIVITIES
< Co ALL EXTENSION AGENTS
21000c
Li
-J 20000

S 9000
0 I 8000
U) 18000-



6000

15000 -

14000
14000 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951

Fig. 3.-Chart showing Agricultural Extension Service activities in con-
nection with farm housing for the last five years.

The Engineer made 57 farm visits, established one new farmhouse
demonstration and continued four old ones, participated in eight meetings
attended by 368 farm women, assisted with 75 special building problems







Florida Cooperative Extension


and attended 12 committee planning meetings concerned with farm struc-
tures.
Office work devoted to farm structures was spent answering letters,
preparing articles, and mailing 5,472 sheets of farm building and farmhouse
plans.
Specifications for 12 standard plans and 14 special plans, including
the remodeling of dwellings and farm buildings, were prepared with the
aid of two student assistants.
Other time devoted to farm structures was spent preparing educational
information, answering 237 letters and preparing models and charts used
as teaching aids and exhibit material.
The Extension farm structures program reached a total of 24,733 farm
families. This work was carried out by white and negro agents in 54
counties. They assisted 3,114 farm families with problems in dwelling
construction and remodeling and gave 1,594 families assistance with sanita-
tion problems. Agents helped 4,661 farm families screen against flies and
mosquitoes, 944 families install safe water systems and 11,482 farm families
make general improvements in their homes and buildings.
Agents devoted 2,440 days working in 1,287 rural communities on farm
structures, assisted by 988 volunteer leaders.


2600- AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
.. cn FARM BUILDING ACTIVITIES
< Lu ALL EXTENSION AGENTS
2500 --
-o--
z "


0 4


(1) I::]


m 2200
) cr3
2300





LL. Lt
2100 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951

Fig. 4.-County and home demonstration agents and the Extension
Agricultural Engineer render considerable help to farm families with their
farm building program.

Farm Mechanization.-The farm mechanization program attempts to
show the farmer, his son and hired labor, and the county agent the import-
ance of wise selection, proper use and constant maintenance of machinery
employed in modern farming operations.
This phase of the program required 67 days of office and field work with
4-H Clubs, county maintenance schools, operators' contests and 4-H Short
Course. Many days were spent in the field with adult groups assisting with
land clearing demonstrations, field days, introduction and maintenance of
new machinery and exhibits. Thirty six farms were visited and machinery
dealers and distributors were contacted.







Annual Report, 1951 27

County agents reached 12.8 percent more farmers this year than in
1950, bringing the total farmers assisted with machinery problems to
5,315. This took 433 days in 509 communities and the assistance of 197
volunteer local leaders. In addition, agents assisted 1,861 farmers with
problems in land clearing.
Marketing Facilities.-This program places special emphasis on the
facilities necessary for farmers to prepare commodities for sale and for
home and farm use.
Seventeen crop drying meetings were held, with 1,380 attending, and
crop drying problems were discussed with over 300 individual farmers.
In this phase of the work the Specialist devoted time designing equipment,
answering 145 written inquiries and discussing the problem with farmers.
A panel discussion on crop drying was conducted for county agents during
annual conference.
Irrigation.-Talks were given to five groups, totaling 670 farmers,
interested in the irrigation of tobacco, vegetables, citrus and pasture.
Other time was spent answering mail and making personal service calls.
A lecture on irrigation was given at the Annual Veterans Teachers Confer-
ence. County agents reported assisting 1,481 farmers in irrigation prob-
lems.
Drainage.-The Specialist answered calls by county agents on special
drainage problems, such as the location of ditches and water furrows and
the use of explosives in ditching. County agents assisted 1,975 farmers
with drainage problems this year.

5500 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
ACTIVITIES IN
< r FARM MECHANIZATION
S 5000 ALL EXTENSION AGENTS


4500 1


4000
nz



LLI
< < 3000 1


000 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951
Fig. 5.-Mechanization is increasing on farms and Agricultural Exten-
sion Service agents and staff members help with the development and its
problems.

At the request of the Board of Supervisors of the Seminole Soil Con-
servation District, the Specialist began a study of tile drainage systems
used extensively in that county.
Difficulty has been experienced with clogging in these systems and the
final report of the study will be made available to the State Production
and Marketing Administration Committee for study by that agency also.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM ELECTRIFICATION

A. M. Pettis, Farm Electrification Specialist

Good Wiring.-The Farm Electrification Specialist has placed more
emphasis on good wiring than on any other single activity. A previously
constructed wiring panel was used to teach good wiring. This panel shows
that small, overloaded wiring results in low voltage, causing heating
equipment to take longer to do its work and expensive motors to be burned
out every year. The panel also demonstrates the ease of resetting a
circuit breaker and changing a fuse and the dangers of using a one-cent
piece behind a burned-out fuse.
The Farm Electrification Specialist gave 55 talks and demonstrations
on good wiring to 2,850 farmers, 4-H members, farm leaders and others
during 1951.
Home Electrical Equipment.-Rural people have received help from farm
leaders, trained by this specialist, in the selection and correct operation
of equipment. Proper care of equipment was stressed even more than
usual, since equipment is likely to become more scarce.
Good Lighting.-Statistics show that frequency of eye defects rises
rapidly as students progress in school. Since good lighting helps prevent
eye strain, bulletins have been furnished on how to make a good study
lamp. Advice and assistance have been given farm leaders in promoting
good lighting.
4-H Electric Program.-The Specialist taught 4-H Club boys and girls
simple electricity and good wiring at summer short courses and two of the
summer camps.
The Specialist published an Extension leaflet entitled, "Electricity Made
Easy." Over 2,000 copies were distributed to interested 4-H members and
others. The Specialist also compiled a "Record Book on Electricity" to
help 4-H members taking projects in this subject. Personal assistance was
given to 24 county Extension workers on 4-H electric programs. Material
was sent to 21 additional county workers.
Training Program.-This Specialist cooperated with the Extension Agri-
cultural Engineer, Home Improvement Specialist and Marketing Specialist
to train home demonstration agents. In one county he taught 10 local
leaders about simple electricity and the 4-H Farm and Home Electric Pro-
gram. In cooperation with representatives of the Rural Electrification
Administration, he assisted with regional lighting and freezing schools
for electrification advisers employed by rural electric cooperatives in
Florida, Georgia and South Carolina.
Power Suppliers.-In 1951 45,475 farms, or 80%, were receiving elec-
tricity. The Specialist encouraged power suppliers to inform consumers
about problems connected with using electric power. He worked with all
power suppliers but in more detail with the 15 rural electric cooperatives.
He assisted the six electrification advisers employed by cooperatives by
giving advice and suggestions concerning their programs of teaching
rural electric consumers. He maintained a close working relationship with
the manager of the Florida Association of REA Cooperatives.
The Specialist attended six electric cooperative annual meetings and
gave talks and demonstrations at four of these to 1,450 rural people.
Coordination of County Work.-This Specialist tried to improve work-
ing relations between the Agricultural Extension Service and other groups,
by supplying electric cooperatives with up-to-date lists of Extension







Annual Report, 1951


Fig. 6.-County and home demonstration agents and the Extension
Farm Electrification Specialist assist farm families with electrification
problems.

personnel and urging them to invite these workers to the annual meetings
of the cooperatives.
Rural Telephones.-The Specialist coordinated efforts of county Ex-
tension workers and rural people in organizing the first Florida telephone
cooperative. Other farm groups over the State have been advised and
assisted in their efforts to obtain telephone service.
New Uses for Electricity.-The writer obtained all available information
on infra-red and radiant heat brooding of chicks. In cooperation with the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, plans are underway for ex-
perimental projects using these new tools. In cooperation with the Special-
ist in Animal Husbandry, this Specialist designed an electric pig brooder.
Publicity.-Every available opportunity was used to give publicity to
the farm electrification program. Articles were submitted to the Extension
Editor for use in the clipsheet sent to newspapers and farm magazines
over the State. These articles covered hurricane precautions, good light-
ing, REA freezing school, the electric hired hand, proper wiring, two-way
radios on rural cooperatives and farm water systems. One radio talk on
"Hurricane Precautions" was given. Material on above and additional
subjects was sent to rural electric cooperatives for use in their newsletters.
Additional Help.-The Specialist gave 87 talks and demonstrations to
more than 3,550 rural people. Numerous inquiries were answered, and
bulletins on various phases of farm electrification were distributed. In
1951 county Extension workers assisted farm people with electric problems
as follows:
Number of families assisted: White Negro Total
In obtaining electricity ...................................... 1,043 215 1,258
In use of electrical equipment in home ............ 4,105 213 4,318
In use of electrical equipment on farm .......... 705 31 736








Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY
J. R. Henderson, Extension Agronomist

Major activities of the project leader were directed toward: (1) bring-
ing information on all phases of field crop, pasture and turf production to
the attention of county agents, seed producers, seed, fertilizer and pesti-
cide dealers, golf course superintendents, farmers, city home owners and
other interested persons; (2) assisting county agents in the development
and execution of county programs of work in agronomy; and (3) distribut-
ing foundation seed of major field crops to qualified seed producers.
Meetings.-Meetings and conferences were the major educational de-
vices used for disseminating subject matter information among county
agents, industry groups and farmers.
At the annual county agents' conference in October, the Agronomist
reviewed research information on field crops and pastures, discussed neces-
sary changes in the 1950 mimeographed set of production recommendations
and outlined, particularly from the standpoint of needed result demonstra-
tions, desirable Extension activities in agronomy for the 1951 crop year.
The Extension Agronomist planned and conducted three area meetings
for seed, fertilizer and pesticide dealers in December, assisted in planning
and conducting a seedsmen's school in January, and acted as moderator of
a panel at the annual meeting of the Florida Seedsmen's Association in
June. At these meetings research information and Extension recommenda-
tions regarding varieties, fertilization and pest control were presented and
discussed.
Community meetings were held in January in 20 counties in the general
farming area, at which outlook information, information on price supports,
marketing quotas and conservation payments and recommendations for
production and management of pastures and field crops were presented to
approximately 3,000 farmers.
The project leader initiated an Extension program with turf when he
planned and conducted a subject matter program at the first Central
Florida Lawn and Turf Institute and acted as moderator of a panel at a
meeting of the Florida Golf Course Superintendents Association.
In addition to meetings, publications, circular letters, radio talks and
personal correspondence were used in supplying information on soils, field
crops and pastures to interested groups and individuals.
Projects with pastures and some of the major field crops received
special attention.
Permanent Pastures.-Activities during the year were designed to secure
the establishment of more pastures and the improvement of the carrying
capacities of established pastures. In addition to furnishing agents with
production recommendations and outlines for desirable variety and fertiliza-
tion demonstrations, the Specialist assisted with meetings and tours.
Records show that more than 250,000 acres of pasture were established in
1950 and indications are that this acreage was exceeded in 1951.
Trial plantings of Kenland red clover were made in most of the counties
with suitable soils and a number of demonstration plantings of Hubam
clover were made on many types of soils in all sections of the State.
Thirteen hundred pounds of foundation seed of Floranna, a superior variety
of annual white sweet clover selected at the Main Station at Gainesville,
were placed with 14 seed producers in six counties for the beginning of a
certified seed production program. In cooperation with the Main Station,







Annual Report, 1951


planting material of Pangola grass was again distributed to cattlemen in
the northern portion of the peninsula.
Temporary Grazing Crops.-In the fall of 1950 the Agronomist accepted
applications and otherwise assisted in distributing approximately 10,000
bushels of Station-produced foundation seed of Southland oats. A tag on
which planting and fertilizer recommendations were printed was attached
to each bag of seed distributed. Some proof that these recommendations
were followed and that Southland is a superior oat for Florida came from
answers to a questionnaire sent to 300 growers last spring. The average
yield reported was 40.8 bushels per acre, or two and one-half times the
usual average.
Corn.-Improvement of soil fertility through use of leguminous cover
crops, (particularly lupines), use of seed of adapted hybrids, applying
fertilizers at heavier rates and spacing plants properly were recommended
for improvement of corn yields. Production projects with 4-H Club mem-
bers and contests among adults were used to demonstrate the recommended
practices. In spite of an unfavorable growing season the average yield
obtained by Florida farmers in 1951 was 16 bushels per acre, or five
bushels above average for the preceding 10-year period. Production records
of 4-H Club members in Escambia County were outstanding. Thirty-four
boys produced an average of 74.9 bushels per acre. Hybrid seed, mostly
Dixie 18, was used by all 4-H Club members and for 40 percent of the
737,000 acres planted by Florida farmers.
Activities for the year were climaxed with the State 4-H Corn Show
at Tallahassee in October.
The Agronomist assisted seed producers in securing foundation single
cross seed for planting 600 acres for the production of seed of the hybrids
Dixie 18 and Georgia 281.
Peanuts.-The further development of supplies of certified seed of Dixie

Fig. 7.-Acreage devoted to sweet yellow lupine is increasing rapidly, as
more seed becomes available.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Runner was stressed and approximately 20 tons of foundation seed, pro-
duced at the Experiment Stations, were distributed.
Flue-Cured Tobacco.--Latest information on soil fumigation for con-
trol of nematodes was presented to farmers at meetings in the six major
tobacco producing counties and Extension recommendations for control of
weeds, insects and diseases, and for correlation of soil type, fertilization
and spacing were emphasized at proper times throughout the growing
season.
Records of the Production and Marketing Administration show that the
average yield in 1951 was 1,212 pounds per acre, a new record. Progress
in improvement of yields during the 11-year period 1941-1951 is shown
below.
Tobacco Yields,
Year Pounds per Acre
1941 ...........-.................--........ 721
1942 .................................................. 864
1943 ........ ................................................ 860
1944 ........................... .................... 895
1945 .............. ......................... 884
1946 ........................ .. .. ................. 931
1947 ................................... ..................... 1,039
1948 ........---............. .. .............. 1,014
1949 ................................ ......... 1,079
1950 .................-...... .............. 1,018
1951 -................. ................... 1,212

The Extension Agronomist is employed jointly by the Extension Service
and the Experiment Station. One-third time is devoted to Station duties
and two-thirds to Extension activities. A summary of his Extension
activities for 1951 shows that he spent 100 days in the field, 55 on area or
statewide activities and 45 in assisting county agents.
Reports from the county agents show that they spent 5,522 days on
field crops and pastures. The numbers of farmers assisted with various
problems are shown in the following table.


Other Leg-
Corn Cereals umes


Obtaining improved
varieties or strains
of seed .-............... 4,618 1,542
The use of lime .......... 79 75
The use of fertilizers.. 5,380 2,317
Controlling of
plant diseases .......... 278 876
Controlling noxious
weeds .---................... 254 8
Controlling injurious
insects ...................... 5,169 725
Controlling rodents and
other animals .......... 3,181 391


4,860
2,523
3,483


Pas- Cot- To-
tures ton bacco


5,598
4,487
6,703


1,154 744
5
1,638 2,459


925 727 294 2,711

536 2,512 166 1,984

1,356 1,468 1,090 2,983

120 477 2 227







Annual Report, 1951 33

The figures below summarize 4-H Club projects with field crops.
Number of
Acres In-
Number of Number of volved in
Members Members Completed
Enrolled Completing Projects
Corn ..............-......................... 1,206 831 1,535
Other cereals .......................... 19 14 63
Peanuts ................................... 231 159 524
Soybeans, field peas, al-
falfa, and other legumes.. 78 44 162
Cotton ...............................-..-... 126 84 108
Tobacco .................................... 53 49 48
Other crops (including
pasture) .............................. 326 232 1,216








Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Oliver F. Goen, Animal Husbandman
J. A. McGregor, Assistant Animal Industrialist *
Livestock continued to play an increasingly important role in the agri-
cultural economy of Florida. Beef cattle numbers increased from 1,005,000
head on January 1, 1950, to 1,095,000 head by January 1, 1951. In total
numbers of beef cattle, Florida ranks twelfth.
The quality of Florida hogs improved, although hog numbers and gross
income from them remained rather constant. Average yields of corn per
acre increased and more hard hogs were marketed, even though there is no
price differential between hard and soft hogs.
Sheep numbers were reported at about 3,000 head and the number of
horses and mules was reported at 28,000 horses and colts and 25,000
mules.
4-H Club Activities.-Expansion of the 4-H Club livestock program was
a major project stressed by the Animal Husbandman this year. The second
State 4-H Club Barrow and Breeder Show was held in Tallahassee with a
larger number of 4-H Club members and counties participating. The
quality of hogs exhibited in this show was better than in 1950.
REsigned June 16, 1951.

Fig. 8.-These four boys composed Florida's 1951 winning livestock judging
team. Here they make notes on an Angus.
mag .t a sgg g A







Annual Report, 1951


The Tampa Morning Tribune will sponsor sending the 4-H Club boys'
livestock judging team to Chicago in 1952 to participate in international
competition in livestock judging.
The following statistics give figures on 4-H Club livestock activities
for the year:


Boys En-
rolled
Beef cattle ............. 929
Swine ......-- ................ 1,609
Horses and Mules .. 25
Other livestock ...... 71


Girls En-
rolled
202
176
1
14


Boys Com- Girls Com-
pleted pleted
714 103
1,063 87
19 1
37 10


Units
Involved
1,686
2,542
27
112


Other Activities.-The Animal Husbandman talked to six cattlemen's
associations and 19 other farmer groups, judged 10 livestock shows and at-
tended two livestock loss prevention meetings, three pasture tours, five
judging schools and two farm institutes. In addition, he made six radio
talks, lectured to five college classes, presented a paper to the American
Veterinary Medical Association meeting and instructed 4-H Club boys
in beef production during Short Course. He spent 132 days in the field,
working largely with county agents.
Livestock production goals for Extension assistance which were set by
the Animal Husbandman for 1951 are compared below with results for
1950 and 1951 as reported by Extension agents.

GOALS AND RESULTS


Cattlemen to secure purebred bulls ...........
Cattlemen to secure purebred or high
grade heifers .................-..............
Cattlemen to control parasites, diseases ....
Cattlemen to improve methods of feeding ....
Farmers assisted in securing purebred boars
Farmers assisted in securing purebred or
high grade gilts ................................ ........
Farmers assisted in controlling parasites
and diseases in hogs ...................................
Farmers improving methods of feeding hogs


Results
1950
665

629
6,902
3,093
488

484

9,676
2,600


Goals
1951
700

1,200
7,500
3,000
1,000

1,500


Results
1951
839

786
8,507
2,905
683

648


13,000 10,717
4,000 3,090


Extension agents reported assisting farmers in the production of sheep,
horses, and mules as outlined below.


Number of farmers assisted in obtaining purebred males-
Number of farmers assisted in obtaining purebred or
high grade fem ales .... ........... .. ...... ..... ............
Number of farmers assisted in improving methods of
feeding .......................... ..........
Number of farmers assisted in controlling external para-
sites .................-............ ...........
Number of farmers assisted in controlling diseases and
internal parasites .--.. ..... ..... -..... ..........
Number of farmers assisted in controlling predatory
animals ...................--..........-- .........


Mules,
Sheep Horses
2 5

1 26







Florida Cooperative Extension


APICULTURE
John D. Haynie, Apiculturist

Beekeepers generally produced a good grade and quality of honey and
most nectar sources were larger than in 1950 except citrus, the largest
single source of nectar, which turned out only about half a crop. The
tupelo nectar flow was much better in quantity and quality this year, which
helped to improve the financial status of producers in the section of the
State where tupelo is grown.
Producers generally moved most of their 1951 crop. The tupelo section
is the only one holding sizeable honey inventories. In the rest of the
State better than average prices were received and practically all grades
of honey were marketed. Better marketing conditions in 1951 were due in
part to the activities of the Florida honey cooperative at Umatilla, which
was organized in 1950, and the price support program.
Florida jumped to third place nationally in honey production, led only
by California and Minnesota. The estimated average yield of honey pro-
duction per colony was 82 pounds this year and 78 pounds last year. This
year's crop of honey was produced from an estimated 218,000 colonies.
The Extension Apiculturist's program consisted mainly in giving
recommendations and information on beekeeping under specific field con-
ditions. He worked in close cooperation with research workers in all fields
relating to beekeeping and did a limited amount of research on production
and marketing problems.
The Extension Apiculturist worked with beekeepers in the use of im-
proved methods and practices at monthly and quarterly district beekeeping
association meetings.
Fig. 9.-A team of 4-H club boys gives a beekeeping demonstration at a fair.







Annual Report, 1951 37

Work With 4-H Club Members.-The apiculturist attended 4-H Club
camps during the summer and taught beekeeping courses at Camp Mc-
Quarrie, the new 4-H Camp in Highlands County and Camp Timpoochee.
He used lectures, apiary demonstrations and visual aids.
Florida State Fair.-Beekeepers exhibiting at the Florida State Fair
found this show one of the best ways to advertise honey. Many contacts
were made that resulted in good honey customers. Usually seven or eight
large honey producers exhibit each year and competition is keen. The
Ladies Auxiliary sponsored a booth of foods cooked with honey. There
were over 100 entries of foods made with honey exhibited.
Cooperative Research.-Results of honey bees pollinating clovers in
Florida have been studied over a three-year period by the Apiculturist and
an agronomist with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, a bulletin
on the findings being published.
The Specialist cooperated with the Experiment Station Apiculturist in
charge of the honey plant research gardens by collecting data on plants
in the field and by collecting seeds and plants to be tested in the plant
research gardens.
Cooperative Program.-This Specialist, in cooperation with the Exten-
sion Agricultural Engineer, prepared a circular outlining plans for a "Low
Cost Bee Hive."
In cooperation with the Extension Agronomist, this Specialist did some
detailed checking on Hubam clover as a honey plant. Hubam annual sweet
clover is a promising honey plant that farmers can grow and is considered
a good cover crop.
The Extension Apiculturist and Extension Forester made a survey of
the Lake Talquin basin near Tallahassee to estimate the amount of tupelo
trees established and growing. The survey showed that most of the trees
were around 22 years old, the length of time that a constant water level
had been maintained by the Bloxham power dam. From observations on
length of time and amount of tupelo established, a project to cooperate
further with nature and increase the tupelo planting in this area was
devised. A site suitable for the nursery planting is being planned and
tupelo seeds are scheduled to be planted in January 1952.
Field Teaching Aids.-Ten news letters on beekeeping were sent to
435 beekeepers and Extension workers during the year, three radio talks
were given over the Florida Farm Hour, on timely hints and suggestions
to beekeepers, and a circular on planting Hubam annual sweet clover was
sent to beekeepers.
Several varieties of Florida honey were tested by the Apiculturist in
making jelly this year. Samples of honey jelly were handed out and reports
received on the reactions of consumer.
The honey jelly was shown and demonstrated to five district beekeepers'
meetings in the state.
Making a jell out of honey at low temperature preserves the honey
flavor and appeals to people who do not normally prefer liquid honey.
Honey jelly presents another outlet for honey.
The Apiculturist circulated the 20-minute sound film, "The Story of
the Bees", to schools and 4-H Club camps. The film covers the life history
of the honey bee in action.








Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
W. W. Brown, State Boys' Club Agent
Joe N. Busby, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent
When the Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent was recalled to active
military duty in June 1951, the responsibilities of the State office fell en-
tirely to the State Agent. In addition to this one full-time employee, there
is one county agent who devotes part time assisting with the 4-H Club
program in South Florida.
The system of appointing 10 district 4-H Club chairmen has been con-
tinued. These chairmen have been meeting once a year, during December,
to plan 4-H Club work. Plans have been made to hold two annual district
meetings in the future.
In 1951 participation in judging contests, in livestock and poultry shows,
in giving method demonstrations and in the awards program increased
substantially. Enrollment in 4-H Clubs increased from 8,998 members to
9,839 and the numbers of members completing projects jumped from
5,961 to 6,733. This represented 68.4 percent completions for Florida-a
definite increase over 1950.
An over-all total of 13,246 projects were carried; of this number 8,997
were completed. Even with this big increase in project activity there has
been a definite improvement in quality of commodities produced.
A few of the activities that are helping to build the 4-H Club program
include 15 leader training meetings, 1,809 demonstration teams, 31 4-H
judging contests, 1 short course, 2,500 boys at summer camp, 60 achieve-
ment days, 269 4-H tours, 30 educational trips, 1,832 recreation and social
meetings and 197 local 4-H Clubs organized on a community basis.
An increase in the number cf acres under cultivation and the number
of animals raised by 4-H Club members was made during the year.
Camps.-Five 4-H Club camps are now in operation in the State. Dur-
ing 1951 a total of 35 weeks of camps were held at the white 4-H camps
and seven weeks at Negro camps. Approximately 4,600 4-H members at-
Fig. 10.-This district rally drew a large number of 4-H club girls and boys.







Annual Report, 1951 39

tended camps during the summer. The new Highlands Camp was opened
for nine weeks this year. In addition to these 42 weeks of camping, four
institutes, citrus and poultry institutes at McQuarrie and Farm and Home
Institutes at Timpoochee and Cherry Lake, were held. These institutes
were attended by parents, farmers and others throughout the state.
Short Course.-Enrollment at the 1951 Short Course totaled 342, exactly
the same as in 1950. At the 1951 Short Course the second tractor driving
contest was held and drivers from 15 counties participated. This event
adds great stimulus to 4-H Club work throughout the State because most
boys are interested in the operation of farm machinery.
The State 4-H dairy judging contest and the State 4-H public speaking
contest were held at the 1951 Short Course for the first time. The State
dairy team won the 1951 national 4-H dairy contest in Waterloo, Iowa.
There were 10 contestants in the finals for the public speaking contest.
There are 25 State awards for Florida 4-H youngsters. They include free
trips to National 4-H Club Congress, gold watches, scholarships, cash
awards, trophies and county medals. The trip to the National 4-H Club
Camp in Washington is considered the outstanding 4-H award and two out-
standing boys and two girls make this trip. A third boy is selected to
attend the Danforth Leadership Camp which is held in Shelby, Michigan,
annually.
An outstanding boy and girl from each county are selected to receive
a certificate at the Florida State Fair annually on 4-H Club Day. A dairy
efficiency contest is held to select the best dairy club boy in each of the
10 4-H Club districts. They receive cash awards and the best State dairy
project winner receives a large plaque. The outstanding county in the
State in dairy 4-H work is selected and given a large plaque. The State
Agent analyzed and summarized the information on awards from all over
the State, in order that each agent and 4-H Club district could check on
progress.
Teaching Methods.-The State Agent encouraged the use of demonstra-
tions at every opportunity. As a result, from 25 to 30 teams representing
various counties presented method demonstrations at the State Fair in
Tampa. Club members performed many result demonstrations under the
supervision of county Extension workers, state specialists and Experiment
Station personnel. The use of exhibits and shows was stressed throughout
the year.
Local Leaders.-Approximately nine leader training camps were held
during the year for the selection and training of local leaders. These
camps were attended by agents and leaders from various counties.
Negro 4-H Work.-The negro 4-H Club program is supervised by negro
Extension personnel. The State 4-H Club Office made subject matter
materials available for negro work and assisted with officer-leader schools
and other phases of the negro 4-H program. Record books, record cards
and information on 4-H Club work were made accessible to negro county
workers. The Agent worked closely with negro groups in staging shows,
judging contests and building exhibits for county and State fairs. The
State Office employed the camp personnel, helped plan camp programs for
the negro groups and assisted Negro District Agents in planning short
course and Extension conferences.
The negro awards program was accepted by Florida for the first time
in 1951. Awards were offered and winners were selected in field crops,
health, garden, meat animal and poultry.
The State 4-H Club Office assisted in soliciting money to provide ex-
penses for the eight negro 4-H members selected for the Regional Camp
award.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS CULTURE
Fred P. Lawrence, Citriculturist
New citrus production records for Florida were set in the 1950-51
season, with a crop totaling 105.3 million boxes of citrus. Production by
kinds was: oranges 67.3 million, grapefruit 33.2 million and tangerines
4.8 million boxes.
Florida's fresh grapefruit shipments were the heaviest in history and
auction averages for oranges and tangerines were the highest of any in
the last five years. However, over 200,000 boxes of tangerines were
economically abandoned and sales at the end of the orange season were
low and disorganized, with many sales bringing less than cost of.produc-
tion.
Training Program.-The Citriculturist stressed the value of and need
for better trained agents and a better organized program to get technical
advice and information to growers.
The second annual two-day agent training school was held at the Citrus
Experiment Station, Lake Alfred. At this school various Experiment
Station workers gave current information on insects and their control
measures, disease control, new machinery and its use and allied information.
Agents visited the experimental grove blocks, noting research programs
and results.
The Citriculturist obtained current research information, analyzed it
and gave it to county agents through five newsletters, personal visits and
group meetings.
Institutes and Clinics.-Three citrus grower institutes were held during
the year. These included the one-day institute at Brooksville with 100 in
attendance, the 18th annual institute at Camp McQuarrie with about 700
present, and the 5th annual Indian River Citrus Seminar which approxi-
mately 300 growers attended.
Ten grower clinics, lasting from two to four hours, were held in 10
counties. Approximately 900 persons attended these clinics.
Citrus Schools.-A 26-week citrus school was held at Vero Beach during
the year. This school met for two hours one night each week. Classes
were formal and were conducted by Extension, research and industry
representatives. Seventy-six adults registered for the course and good
attendance was recorded throughout the sessions.
Demonstrations and Tours.-All citrus-producing counties now have a
program of grower demonstrations. The demonstrations vary from those
showing simple cultural practices to the more complex ones involving
fertilizer and insect control problems. Most of the counties now hold at

Fig. 11.-Citrus production has increased materially during the past
few years and county agents and the Extension Citriculturist have aided
growers through citrus schools, clinics, demonstrations and other methods.






i4-L 'i i 4




I






Annual Report, 1951 41

least one grower tour each year so that interested growers can observe and
appraise the demonstrations.
Budwood Certification Program.-For the first time the Extension Serv-
ice fostered a "disease-free" citrus nursery stock program. Florida is the
only major citrus producing State in the United States that does not have
a certified nursery stock program.
The Citriculturist, together with plant pathologists from USDA and
the State Experiment Stations, organized a program for this work, which
proved popular with growers attending the Citrus Institute at Camp Mc-
Quarrie. A resolution was passed at this institute to form a committee to
draw up a certification program.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRY HUSBANDRY
C. W. Reaves, Extension Dairy Husbandman
In November 1950 a preliminary statement was prepared and sent to
Extension agents setting out major problems and their possible solutions
and suggesting Extension activities in dairying to aid agents prepare
county plans of work.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Program.-The dairy herd im-
provement association work was expanded as a basic dairy project to assist
dairymen to improve feeding and management practices for the herds
enrolled and to provide result demonstrations with records made under
practical farm conditions. The expansion of this program is shown below.
1948 1949 1950 1951
Number of Associations ............... 3 5 6 7
Cows in herds on DHIA Test ...... 2,600 4,887 6,469 8,205
The work was conducted in 23 counties. Results secured on the DHIA
herds were tabulated and supplied to all counties.
The value of a DHIA test program is shown by the operations of the
Orange County DHIA over a two-year period.

ORANGE COUNTY DHIA YEARLY PER COW AVERAGES
Number Pounds Pounds Feed Cost per
Cows Milk Fat 100 Lbs. Milk
1950-51 ................. ................. 1521 7115 320 $ 2.76
1949-50 .................................. 1421 6414 280 2.89

1950-51 compared to 1949-50 .... + 100 + 701 + 40 $-0.13
Approximately one-third of the dairy cows in Orange County were in-
cluded in the program and every herd showed an increase in average
production.
Official Cow Testing.-The extension Dairyman is State Superintendent
of Official Cow Testing, carried out in cooperation with the national breed
associations. The following table shows the herds and cows in this program.
Herd Improvement Registry Advanced Registry
Herds Cows Herds Cows
Ayrshire .................. 2 71
Jersey ..................... 12 503 11 141
Guernsey .............. 2 30 13 326

Total ........................ 16 604 24 467
Better Sire Program.-DHIA records proved 10 bulls in Florida dairy
herds during 1951. Daughter averages were supplied on nine additional
bulls by the Bureau of Dairy Industry's Division of Dairy Herd Improve-
ment Investigations. The DHIA and artificial breeding project supple-
ment each other, since artificial breeding provides better breeding and the
DHIA measures results. Three bulls reproved in Florida in 1951 have
been purchased by the Southeastern Artificial Breeding Association. This
association has purchased the two highest milk-indexed bulls and three of
the four highest butterfat-indexed bulls proved in the DHIA in the state.
Thus, top bulls become available for use by all dairymen and family cow
owners in the areas served by artificial breeding associations.








Annual Report, 1951 43

Started in Florida on an organized basis in November 1948, artificial
breeding associations have been organized with the help of the Agricultural
Extension Service in most of the larger dairy counties. Almost 25,000
cows were bred artificially in 1951.
Farmers were assisted in selecting well-bred bulls for use in natural
service where needed. County agents' reports show 177 farmers were
assisted in buying purebred dairy bulls and 759 farmers assisted in buying
purebred or high grade females. Production tests are an aid in carrying
cut a constructive herd-building program and provide selected breeding stock
for other herds.
Feeding and Herd Management Program.-A series of meetings was
held in West Florida counties on the production of feed crops and feeding
for milk production in the spring of 1951. The efficiency dairy production
contest was carried out in each of the 23 counties with a DHIA program.
The contest stressed the eight points in efficient management set up on
the score card. Assistance was given many individual farmers on feeding
and other problems. Agents' reports showed 228 dairy farmers not in a
DHIA were assisted in keeping records and 1,226 farmers assisted in feed-
ing problems for dairy cattle.
4-H Dairy Club Work.-Six district shows and a State 4-H Dairy Show
were held to provide incentives for good dairy work at home and serve as


Fig. 12.-Florida's 4-H dairy judging team won the national champion-
ship, entitling its members to attend the international judging contest in
England next summer. Left to right: Steve Simmons, Ray Alvarez, Coach
C. W. Reaves, Extension Dairyman, Warren Alvarez and Paul Thornhill.







Florida Cooperative Extension


a climax for the year's work. A total of 1,199 4-H members were enrolled
in dairying, of which 887, or 74 percent, completed their projects.
A statewide efficient dairy contest for club members was carried out.
A North Florida 4-H project was started in the Tallahassee area with five
counties participating. A trailer load of heifers was purchased in Tennes-
see in March and distributed to start the project.
National 4-H Dairy Judging Contest Winners.-Following a series of
district and State contests, a 4-H team was selected to represent Florida
in the national 4-H dairy cattle judging contest at Waterloo, Iowa. The
team won this contest and qualified to represent the United States in the
international dairy judging contest at the Royal Agricultural Show in
England in the summer of 1952.
Home Milk Supply.-Home demonstration agents' reports showed 4,525
families assisted in improving the home milk supply. Extension agents
also helped arrange county-wide tuberculosis and Bang's testing program.
Cooperation with Other Organizations.-Assistance was given State
Jersey and Guernsey Cattle Clubs in their work programs and purebred
sales. These clubs in turn assisted with Extension activities, especially
4-H dairy club projects. The Extension Dairyman served on the milk
production, field day, membership and planning committees of the Florida
Dairy Industry Association and on the Dairy Advisory Committee of the
State Fair.
Cooperation was given and received from the Florida Dairy Industry
Association, the State Department of Agriculture, the State Livestock
Sanitary Board, the State Fair and other organizations and agencies.






Annual Report, 1951


FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Forester

Protecting Florida farm woods from fire continues to be the most im-
portant problem in farm forestry. In spite of difficulties, the Extension
Forester carried on a vigorous educational campaign for fire prevention
on Florida farm woodlands. In this campaign the Forester solicited the
aid of State and Federal Forest Services and many private concerns, such
as chambers of commerce, wood-using industries, garden clubs, the Florida
Forest and Park Association, newspapers and radio stations.
The Forester provided printed matter, news releases, radio talks, films
and other aids to further the fire prevention campaign. He spent con-
siderable time in visits to county agents, particularly with new agents, to
teach them the basic reasons for forest fire prevention and help them plan
and execute effective fire prevention campaigns in the counties.
The Extension Forester cooperated with county agents in influencing
farmers to plant several million pine seedlings during the year. He con-
tinued to promote the Extension Service's combined timber-grazing method
of forest fire protection. It is believed that this program can provide more
successful and complete fire protection with less cost to landowners and
with less use of public funds than any other method recommended.
The Forester served as the Extension Service's representative on the
Florida Forestry Council. In this position he helped to study the problems,
trends, legislation, opportunities, needs and possibilities for coordinating
programs affecting forestry in Florida and ways for promoting good forestry
practices.
Close cooperative relationship was maintained with many public and
private groups which were in position to contribute to the Extension farm
forestry program.
Pine Seedling Plantings.-Development of forest planting programs
occupied much of the Extension Forester's time throughout the year.
Since forestry is still a relatively new idea with most farmers, the emphasis
on forest planting seemed to be justified. Farmers who make a forest
planting are generally well on their way to adopt other good forestry
practices.
Through continued close cooperation with six of Florida's seven pulp
mills, more than 5,000,000 slash pine seedlings were distributed to 600
Florida farmers and other small forest owners during the year, and the
Forester gave advice on proper planting methods to farmers planting trees
for the first time. The Extension Forester assisted county agents, pulp
mill executives and State Forest Service personnel in planning and execut-
ing the cooperative free forest seedling distribution program, both in the
counties and on the State level.
In the case of the two pulp mills making the largest number of free
seedlings available, the Extension Forester, State Foresters and pulp mill
representatives held joint meetings during which each county received an
allotment of free seedlings for the coming forest planting season. In
many cases the number of free seedlings given to a single landowner is
limited by policies jointly adopted by the donors of the trees and the Ex-
tension Forester.
The Extension Forester encouraged pine seedling plantings to provide
ample stocks for small forest landowners and urged county agents to take
advantage of the paid seedling program in counties where free seedlings
are not available.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Compared with other states, Florida's county agents carry on one of
the most extensive forest seedling distribution programs in the nation.
Catalpa Planting Project.-The Extension Forester continued investiga-
tions and demonstrations in the introduction of catalpa as a possible source
of fence posts and other farm uses. He collected more than 100,000
catalpa seeds from Florida trees this year and distributed a part of these
to county agents, 4-H Club members and farmers. The balance were
planted under a cooperative arrangement at the West Florida Experiment
Station in Santa Rosa County. About 4,000 young seedlings resulted from
this nursery planting. The Extension Forester made another nursery
planting of catalpa seeds at the Florida National Egg-Laying Test forest
demonstration plots and about 400 seedlings resulted.
The Extension Forester developed and distributed instructions for es-
tablishing red cedar nurseries on farms to county agents and farmers.
He provided county agents in seven counties with 10,000 red cedar seeds
for 4-H Club members to establish nurseries. On-the-spot instructions
were given to the 4-H boys in making cedar nursery beds.
In cooperation with personnel at the West Florida Experiment Station,
the Forester planted about 60,000 red cedar seeds to nursery beds to pro-
vide seedlings for future plantings. He urged county agents and 4-H
members to collect their own red cedar seeds for individual plantings.
The idea of producing red cedar for Christmas trees as a profitable
sideline to farming was introduced by the Extension Forester. Publicity
on this project was obtained through news and feature stories and edi-
torials.
Tupelo Gum Project.-Beekeepers of Florida have long been interested
in extending the range of two important native honey trees, Nyssa aquatic
and Nyssa ogeche. These two species of tupelo produce the nectar from
which the non-granulating tupelo honey is made. The Extension Forester
suggested ways and means for test plantings of these trees in Florida.
Forest Plantings.-Work was continued with small plantings of forest
trees on the two demonstration forests, one at Chipley and one at Gaines-
ville, on which the Extension Forester has planned and executed all work
since 1942. Six conifers and 25 hardwood species were planted in these
two plots during the 10 year period. Eight acres on the Experiment Station
farm at Gainesville were given the Extension Forester for forest demon-
stration plantings to be planted in 1952.
The Extension Forester urged county agents to establish demonstrations
in windbreak plantings of native forest trees (three rows of slash pine
with an under planting of two rows of red cedar for north Florida and
Casuarina and cajeput in three rows of trees for windbreaks in certain
south Florida counties). There has been no research in Florida by the
Forest Service or Experiment Stations in the development of suitable trees
or combinations of trees for farm windbreaks. Therefore, the Extension
Forester suggested trial plantings which offered promise of solving the
problem.
Since an estimated 5,000 head of cattle died of exposure on open range
lands during the winter of 1951, a substantial interest was shown in shade
and shelter plantings, particularly in south Florida, where most of the
cattle died. The Extension Forester developed plans and procedures for
shade and shelter plantings in all areas of the state. These plans, prepared
with the advice of county agents, were mimeographed and sent to all
county agents in the State.
Forest Products for Home Use.-The development of farm woodlands,
so as to supply all possible wood products needed on the farm, is considered







Annual Report, 1951 47

an important feature of the Extension farm forestry program in Florida
and was actively promoted. Almost all Florida farmers need forest pro-
ducts for fence posts, lumber, fuel wood, sills, stack poles and handle
material each year.
4-H Forestry Club Work.-The Extension Forester assisted county
agents in planning and developing 4-H project work, preparing project
outlines and instructions for 4-H Club members and in procuring forest
tree seeds and seedlings from pulp mills and State Forest Service personnel
for 4-H nurseries.
He taught forestry classes at 4-H Club summer camps and short courses
and assisted in the preparation of demonstration outlines to be used by
4-H members in giving public demonstrations in forest planting and fire
protection.
Extra time, this year, was devoted to making personal visits to 4-H
Club members enrolled in the State 4-H forestry awards contest. Eleven
counties produced winners under the awards program in 1951.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY ACTIVITIES
N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman
J. S. Moore, Extension Poultryman
A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test

During 1951 an upward trend in Florida's poultry industry has been
noticeable. The trend is toward larger flocks of layers, larger units of
birds for broilers and more commercial flocks of turkeys.
Florida farmers had 2,293,000 hens and pullets on hand January 1, 1951,
the hatchery industry had an egg capacity of 4,727,657 and produced more
than 17,000,000 chicks, and there were 20,000 more turkeys raised in Florida
in 1951 than in 1950.
Even though the poultry industry has made substantial growth in the
last few years it hasn't kept pace with the State's population growth.
Consequently, Florida is still a deficit poultry producing area.
Growing Healthy Pullets.-The production of quality pullets is one of
the most important programs on the commercial poultry farm. Six factors
have been found important in the raising of quality pullets. These include:
early hatching or purchasing, obtaining quality chicks, proper brooding,
growing chicks on clean land with sod, feeding a balanced ration, and
growing pullets separate from cockerels. During the year more commercial
poultrymen than ever before started pullet chicks rather than straight-run
chicks.

Fig. 13.-Florida still imports both eggs and poultry meat, but poultry
production here is increasing. Poultry is a popular project with 4-H club
members.


a,







Annual Report, 1951


Efficient Management of the Laying Flock.-During 1951 the following
layer efficiency program was stressed: 2,500 layers per man, 200 eggs per
bird per year, 60 winter eggs per bird, 10% or less mortality, 210 eggs
per 100 pounds feed, and a 100% pullet flock.
Commercial egg producers found the following management practices
helpful in securing larger returns from their flocks: (1) Keep all pullet
flocks, or at least 60 to 100% pullets; (2) use artificial lights during fall
and winter; (3) use special feeding methods to stimulate feed consump-
tion and help maintain the bird's body weight during heavy production;
(4) remove unprofitable birds by culling; (5) maintain good program for
disease and parasite prevention and (6) keep good records.
Broiler Management.-In numbers raised and in gross income the value
of the broiler industry in Florida has doubled within the past few years.
Indications are that the number of broilers grown in Florida in 1951 will
exceed 10,000,000. In 1950 9,036,000 broilers were produced.
Small producers with high overhead costs have gone entirely out of
broiler production or have enlarged operations to produce more broilers,
depending on volume for profit.
Extension poultry workers have set up the following as a guide for
efficient broiler production: 40,000 broilers per man per year, 4 lots per
year (10,000 each lot), 34 pounds meat per 100 pounds feed, less than 5%
mortality, and market before 11 weeks of age.
Farm and Home Flocks.-There is still room for the backyard or farm
flock in Florida. It was suggested by the poultry Extension workers that
these non-commercial flocks consist of either 30 to 50 birds or a flock of
300 or more. The 30 to 50 bird flock will supply sufficient eggs and poultry
meat for the average family. Purebred dual-purpose breeds are recom-
mended.
Marketing.-The Extension poultrymen have urged poultrymen to care
for their flocks of layers to produce high quality eggs. Quality eggs must
be produced to compete with the high quality inspected eggs shipped into
the State. As a result, refrigeration facilities have been installed by many
commercial poultrymen and grocery stores are beginning to hold their eggs
under refrigeration until sold.
Grow More and Make Better Use of Home-Grown Feeds and Green
Feeds.-Feed cost makes up 50 to 60% of the cost of producing poultry
meat and eggs. Extension workers urged producers to utilize home grown
feeds, especially green feed. This program was stressed with small farm
flocks used primarily for poultry and eggs for home consumption.
With the commercial flocks for layers, a system of rotation of yards
to provide green feed for the growing pullets and for the laying birds
was recommended.
4-H Poultry Work.-4-H Poultry Club work was one of the major pro-
jects given consideration. These club members were assisted and en-
couraged in their program of supplying eggs and poultry meat for home
consumption.
A district 4-H livestock and poultry show and judging contest was
held at the 4-H show grounds in Jacksonville on January 11 and 12. Over
100 pens of poultry and 55 dozen eggs were on exhibit. The Extension
Poultryman judged 4-H poultry shows in 12 counties.
Sears, Roebuck Foundation made funds available to sponsor special
poultry projects for both girls and boys in 20 counties. This year 15
counties carried the project through with 15,000 dual-purpose purebred
baby chicks started by 4-H Club members. Funds will be available for 10
additional counties in 1952, bringing the total number of counties to 30.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The annual State 4-H Club Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest
was held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition at Orlando,
February 19-24, 1951. One hundred and eighty club members from 13
counties and 51 judges participated in the show. The high individual
judge from this contest received the $100 State Department of Agriculture
Scholarship.
Classes were held for 75 4-H boys and girls from 11 counties at the
Poultry Laboratory in Gainesville to train 4-H Club members in selecting,
fitting, exhibiting and judging poultry and eggs.
The Extension Poultryman devoted time to poultry work with 4-H
Club girls and boys at their annual short courses, at Camp Cherry Lake
and at the new camp at Lake Placid. At these short courses and camps
subject matter and demonstrations were given to the 4-H Club members on
breeds and varieties of poultry, candling, grading and judging eggs, care
of the home poultry flock, culling and judging poultry, caponizing and
vaccinating.
Turkey Management.-Turkey production for the United States is ex-
pected to reach a total of 52.8 million birds in 1951-16% more than the
previous record crop of 45.7 million birds in 1950. Florida's production
in 1951 is expected to reach a total of 151,000 birds, which is an increase
of about 8% over last year's crop of 131,000 birds.
During 1951 the Florida Turkey Association was organized and State-
wide turkey meetings were held.
Florida National Egg-Laying Test.-The 25th Egg-Laying Test was
concluded September 15, 1951, with the 1,248 pullets entered averaging 209
eggs per bird (60% rate of lay) during the 350-day period. These eggs
averaged over 24 ounces to the dozen.
Average feed consumption per bird was 97.2 pounds (mash and grain)
for the 350-day period. Five and one-third pounds of feed were required
for each dozen eggs produced. One part of grain to 1.60 parts of mash
were fed during this test. Two hundred and twenty-six eggs were produced
from one sack of feed.
Mortality during the 25th test was 14.4 percent.
A high pen of S. C. White Leghorns entered by the Capital Breeding
Farm, St. Paul, Minn., produced 3,665 eggs averaging over 24 ounces to the
dozen. This is an average rate of lay of 80.6 percent.
The high pullet during this test was a S. C. Rhode Island Red also
entered by the Capital Breeding Farm. This pullet produced 329 eggs
averaging over 2 ounces each for a rate of lay of 94 percent.
The high Florida entry was a pen of S. C. White Leghorns by Pinebreeze
Farm, Callahan.. These 13 pullets produced 3,329 eggs averaging over 24
ounces to the dozen. The rate of lay for these pullets was 73.2 percent.
The high heavy breed entry from Florida was a pen of New Hampshires
entered by the Feather Hill Farm, Dade City. These pullets laid 2,904
eggs averaging over 24 ounces to the dozen for a rate of lay of 63.8
percent.
National Chicken of Tomorrow Contest.-The 1951 National Chicken of
Tomorrow Contest was held at Fayetteville, Arkansas, June 11-16, 1951.
Two Florida breeders, Brooks Herman, Oakcrest Farm, Inc., Jacksonville,
and J. D. Tindall, St. Augustine, were selected as finalist and one of the
five alternates to participate in this program.
Annual Breeders' Conference.-The annual Poultry Breeders' Conference
was held in Gainesville, December 6 and 7. The program included topics
on progeny testing, use of records in selecting breeders, breeding for meat
production, disease control for hatcheries, and other genetic subjects vital






Annual Report, 1951


to breeders and hatcheries who are improving the quality of chicks offered
to Florida's poultry industry.
About 40 hatcherymen and breeders attended.
Annual Poultry Institute.-A bigger and better poultry industry in
Florida was the theme of the Tenth Annual Poultry Institute held at Camp
McQuarrie, August 20-25. More than 375 people registered for this annual
institute.
Broiler production, problems affecting the hatcheryman, care of grow-
ing stock, management of the laying flock, marketing of eggs and the
successful management of the turkey flock were subjects discussed at the
event.
Annual meetings of the Hatchery and Breeder Association and the
Florida State Poultry Producers' Association were held during the week.
The Florida Poultry and Egg Council was reactivated, the constitution
and by-laws amended and a strong program for all phases of the poultry
industry was developed.
Organizations.-The several county and state poultry associations and
the allied industry associations of Florida have assisted the poultry Ex-
tension workers in the development of the State program.
The State associations are the Florida Poultry and Egg Council, Florida
State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders' As-
sociation, Florida R. O. P. Federation, Florida Turkey Association, Florida
Feed Dealers Association and Poultry and Egg Processors of Florida, with
membership in the Southeastern Poultry and Egg Association.







52 Florida Cooperative Extension



SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

H. S. McLendon, Extension Soil Conservationist

Activities in Districts.-Information given is prepared from Soil Con-
servation Service records, which are compiled at six-month periods of the
calendar year. The last report for 1951 will not be available until January
1952 and is not included. This statistical report covers information
on 49 districts. However, several of these districts are new and work is
just getting started or soon will be under way.

REPORT OF SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS-COMBINED
ACTIVITIES FROM THE DATE OF ORGANIZATION TO JUNE 30, 1951.


Practice
Contour farming ................................
Cover cropping ...................................
Crop residue management ................
Strip cropping ..................................
Range improvement ..........................
Pasture improvement ......................
Seeding of range ..............................
Seeding of pastures ....---...................
Wildlife area improvement ...........
Woodland management ....................
Tree planting ......................................
Farm and ranch ponds ......................
Terraces ..........-- .... ..... ............------
Field diversions ...........................--
Farm drainage ....................................
Closed drains ..............................---.........
Open drains ........................................
Irrigation land preparation ..............
Improved water applications ..........
Field wind breaks .........................
Water disposal areas .......................
Kudzu ............................ ........
Sericea ..................... ...............
Alfalfa and permanent grass ..........
Woodland protection .......................
Fish ponds ...................................
Crop rotation .....................................


Planned
291,612 acres
485,627 acres
444,965 acres
20,666 acres
621,490 acres
1,427,087 acres
14,720 acres
1,273,902 acres
118,824 acres
1,170,914 acres
55,253 acres
701 number
23,484.8 miles
283.9 miles
1,361,793 acres
1,635,115 L. feet
9,421.0 miles
94,565 acres
175,843 acres
217.4 miles
7,334 acres
22,221 acres
4,936 acres
45,154 acres
586,488 acres
1,011 number
634,192 acres


Established
220,026 acres
367,037 acres
340,636 acres
10,723 acres
197,493 acres
510,143 acres
6,277 acres
378,608 acres
102,709 acres
977,190 acres
25,292 acres
488 number
13,082.9 miles
202.5 miles
544,517 acres
1,424,785 L. feet
6,951.4 miles
47,607 acres
110,609 acres
97.9 miles
3,169 acres
9,005 acres
1,858 acres
16,852 acres
406,313 acres
543 number
542,367 acres


FARM AND RANCH CONSERVATION PLANS
Number
Applications received this period ......................... .... 2,124
Applications received to date .................................... 18,828
Active applications to date ......................---...............---... 2,354
Plans prepared and signed this period .................. 1,796
Plans prepared and signed to date ............................ 14,051
Active conservation plans to date .............................. 12,549
Combined treatment this period ..................................
Combined treatment to date .................... .............


Acres
1,009,600
8,504,543
2,459,614
738,131
4,982,588
4,456,620
438,898
2,369,555






Annual Report, 1951 53

Annual elections of supervisors were held in 46 districts in 1951. There
is a total of 24,087,311 acres covered by the 49 soil conservation districts
shown in this report, of which 8,331,732 were covered by soil conservation
surveys as of June 30, 1951. There were 4,992,318 acres covered by 14,064
farm plans for the same period.
Organization of Districts.-The Director of the Florida Agricultural
Extension Service is Administrator for the State Soil Conservation Board
and is responsible for administering the Soil Conservation Districts Act.
The Extension Soil Conservationist is responsible for organizational work
in forming new districts in the State and the county agent assumes similar
responsibility in the county.
Charters were issued to three new districts during 1951, St. Lucie Soil
Conservation District, Okeechobee Soil Conservation District and Osceola
Soil Conservation District. These new districts include all lands in the
three counties.
Petitions were received requesting the organization of districts in
Flagler and St. Johns counties and for the inclusion of all Liberty County
within the Chipola River Soil Conservation District. All of these have gone
before the State Soil Conservation Board and most of the field work was
completed on these petitions.
The Extension Soil Conservationist met with a number of district
boards of supervisors at their regular meetings. He counseled with the
secretary-treasurers concerning the keeping of records for individual dis-
tricts. A number of pasture and field tours were attended. These tours
were jointly sponsored by district supervisors county agents and technicians
of the Soil Conservation Service.
The Extension Soil Conservationist met with groups of boys at 4-H
Club camps and discussed soil and water problems. He worked with county
agents, their assistants and the technicians assigned to districts in carrying
on 4-H Club soil and water conservation projects.
An exhibit showing soil and water conservation practices applied to
farms in organized soil conservation districts was shown at three county
fairs during the year.

SUMMARY OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES
BY WHITE COUNTY AGENTS IN FLORIDA, 1951

Days devoted to work in soil and water ...................... 1,175 in 62 counties
Days devoted to work with wildlife ............................ 205 in 47 counties
Number of communities in which
work was conducted
(a) Soil and water ............................................ 607 in 62 counties
(b) Wildlife ..................................... 223 in 48 counties
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen
(a) Soil and water ........................................ 360 in 39 counties
(b) W wildlife ....................................... ....... .... 203 in 20 counties
Number of farmers assisted
(a) With problems of land use .............................. 11,463 in 61 counties
(b) In the use of crop rotations ............................ 4,384 in 59 counties
(c) With strip cropping ..................................... 231 in 16 counties
(d) In constructing terraces ................................ 239 in 15 counties
(e) In grassing waterways or otherwise prevent-
ing or controlling gullies .................................. 536 in 31 counties







Florida Cooperative Extension


(f) With contour farming of cropland ................
(g) In contouring pasture or range ...................
(h) In the use of cover or green-manure crops ....
(i) In otherwise controlling wind or water erosion
(j) In summer-fallowing ................... .... ......
(k) In making depth-of-moisture tests ............
(1) With drainage ......... ............ .........
(m ) W ith irrigation ........-- ... ------------.
(n) With land clearing .................. ..........
Number of farmers
(a) In soil conservation districts which were as-
sisted with education for organization or
operation ............... ..- ......-- ......-- -- ........
(b) Assisted in arranging for farm conservation
plans ..................--......--- ---- --------------
(c) Assisted in doing work based on definite farm
conservation plans ................ .............
Number of farmers assisted
(a) In construction or management of ponds
for fish ............ .... ... .. -------- ---- ----- -.
(b) In protection of wildlife areas, such as
stream banks, odd areas, field borders,
marshes and ponds from fire or livestock ...
(c) In planting of edible wild fruits and nuts in
hedges, stream banks, odd areas and field
borders ............. ....... ... ... ........... ...........
(d) With other plantings for food and protection
in wildlife areas ...............- ...-..........
4-H Club projects in soil and water conservation
(a) Number of boys enrolled .......................-..-
(b) Number of boys completing ............ ...........
Wildlife and nature study (game and fur animals)
(a) Number of boys enrolled ...............................
(b) Number of boys completing ..........................
Number of different 4-H Club members, including
those in corresponding projects, who received definite
training in
(a) Wildlife conservation .....---- .. ---....
(b) Soil and water conservation ...............


218 in
50 in
13,458 in
992 in
198 in
162 in
1,936 in
1,459 in
1,788 in


17 counties
7 counties
59 counties
36 counties
6 counties
5 counties
49 counties
44 counties
55 counties


7,037 in 45 counties

2,367 in 46 counties

1,907 in 44 counties


220 in 41 counties


373 in 29 counties


240 in 28 counties

373 in 36 counties

115 in 19 counties
72 in 17 counties

101 in 13 counties
68 in 13 counties




2,664 in 34 counties
2,479 in 40 counties







Annual Report, 1951


VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MERCHANDISING
F. S. Jamison, Truck Horticulturist

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
F. E. Myers, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Vegetables for shipment to heavily populated areas of the nation were,
next to citrus, the most important source of Florida farm income in 1951.
Rising production costs with little change in farmer prices resulted in a
constant demand for information and guidance on how to produce high
yields of superior quality products at lower or the same cost. Higher
cost of vegetables to the housewife and increased importance given home
gardens by national workers resulted in increased inquiries in this activity.
Information and guidance were provided in 36 counties each having
over 1,000 acres of commercial vegetables and 19 counties having over 100
acres each for a combined total of 325,000 acres. This acreage does not
include such miscellaneous crops as collards, Southern peas, okra or sweet
potatoes, estimated at 25,000 to 30,000 acres, nor does it contain home
gardens in city or rural areas. The 1950 preliminary census report esti-
mates over 30,000 farms harvesting vegetables for home use. Nearly 4,300
boys and girls completed 4-H home and market garden projects in over
60 counties.
The specialists arranged and held meetings for growers in nine areas
encompassing 30 important vegetable-producing counties, three field days,
two county meetings, two state-wide seedsmen short courses, three area
commodity meetings and one county agent training school. Five circulars
on specific crops and five newsletters for county agents were published,
10 radio talks were presented and more than 1,000 subject-matter inquiries
were answered by letter. The specialists also helped prepare the annual
outlook report for the 1951-52 season and served on the State Advisory
Committee of Seed Certification.
Specialists presented vegetable information at the annual conferences
for negro and white county and home demonstration agents, boy's and
girl's annual 4-H short courses, two boy's 4-H summer camps and at the
annual meetings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Florida
State Horticultural Society, Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, Flor-
ida Agricultural Research Institute, Georgia Seedsmen's Association, Flor-
ida Seedsmen's Association, Southeastern Vegetable Breeding Laboratory
Cooperators, Florida Veterans' Agriculture Teachers and Florida Icemen's
Association.
County Extension workers reported assisting 24,484 farmers in vege-
table production by obtaining improved varieties or strains, by recommend-
ing proper amounts of lime and fertilizers and controlling diseases, insects,
weeds and rodents. They conducted work in vegetable production in 495
communities this year. Their activities in the home production of family
food supplies were conducted in 709 communities in 55 counties and assisted
11,751 families in improving the food supply by making changes in the
home production of vegetables.

VEGETABLE MERCHANDISING
S. E. Rosenberger, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Continued effort was made to reach as many retail fresh fruit and
vegetable handlers as possible, and to encourage them to be more quality-







56 Florida Cooperative Extension

conscious and merchandise-wise. With a slogan of "Sell more and waste
less," produce merchandising schools were conducted for retail food clerks
in various parts of the State. Enthusiasm on the part of retailers to improve
produce operation was demonstrated by their willingness to attend night
meetings lasting two or three hours after a hard day's work. Many retailers
attended these schools from neighboring towns and some traveled as much
as 120 miles, round trip, for four different nights to attend a school.
Follow-up work was accomplished by individual store visitations at
which merchandising problems were solved and retailers encouraged to
use improved practices.
In order to reach many retailers it was often necessary to work through
and with other types of organizations, such as wholesalers, cooperatives,
trade and service associations and other educational agencies.
Activities other than training retailers were limited, but such activities
consisted of judging fresh fruit and vegetable exhibits at 4-H Club fairs,
teaching a course at the 4-H Club girls' short course on buying quality
fruits and vegetables, taking part in the Florida Seedsmen's Short Course
and others.
During the year 12 produce merchandising schools in six counties were
conducted for 733 clerks from 104 different stores. Produce sales in many
of the stores cooperating began to rise as soon as improved merchandising
techniques were used.







Annual Report, 1951


STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Anna Mae Sikes, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent
Joyce Bevis, District Agent (Beginning May 1, 1951)

Home demonstration workers in Florida are responsible for the develop-
ment and supervision of coordinated programs of work for both white and
negro home demonstration women and 4-H girls. They also share the
responsibility for the overall Agricultural Extension Service program.
Home demonstration workers are responsible for a statewide program for
both adults and girls.
During the year 12,896 women were enrolled in 503 white and negrn
organized home demonstration clubs; 16,391 white and negro girls were
enrolled in 722 4-H clubs; and 7,055 individual demonstrators were enrolled
in home demonstration work.
Community club houses were owned and maintained by 91 home demon-
stration clubs; 54 of these were built or improved this year. Fourteen rally
days and 1,281 social programs were held and 22 canning centers were
operated by home demonstration workers during the year.
Organization and Supervision.-The State Home Demonstration Agent
had the responsibility for coordinating the home demonstration program
for women and girls, white and negro, and for administering the program
under the guidance of the Director of the Agricultural Extension Service.
The 83 home demonstration workers, exclusive of clerical assistants,
employed in the State and county offices during 1951 included 46 county
home demonstration agents, 14 assistants, 12 negro home demonstration

Fig. 14.-These were blue ribbon winners at the state dress revue,
which was a feature of the annual meeting of the State Home Demonstra-
tion Council.







Florida Cooperative Extension


agents, 8 specialists and 3 district agents. Four specialists were added
during 1951. One was a new position and three were unfilled positions.
Home demonstration work was established in two counties, Bay and Clay,
and three additional counties appropriated funds for assistant agents' posi-
tions. A home demonstration trainee is serving as specialist in fields of
recreation and health.
Two state councils of home demonstration work, composed of women
and girls, aided in developing a statewide program based on the needs and
interest of the people.
Funds for home demonstration work came from two sources: The regular
Agricultural Extension Service budget at the University of Florida and
from a budget at Florida State University. Housing for the State Home
Demonstration Office is provided by the Florida State University. Addi-
tional personnel and work was possible because of increased funds from
cooperating boards of county commissioners and school boards.
Personnel Training.-The State Home Demonstration Agent advised
with the FSU School of Home Economics as to suitable courses needed by
students in preparation for home demonstration work. The State Agent
met seniors of the School of Home Economics in a seminar and discussed
opportunities in and training needed for home demonstration work.
During the year valuable assistance in training of State and county
home demonstration personnel was given by personnel from Florida State
University, University of Florida and USDA. Area conferences and work-
shops were held for home demonstration agents, with district agents and
specialists participating. Two in-service meetings were held in each district
with every home demonstration agent, white and negro, receiving training
in subject matter fields of work.
Leadership-Developing a system of trained volunteer local leaders
continued as an important objective during 1951, with 7,300 volunteer local
leaders assisting with home demonstration programs. This was an increase
of 1,231 trained leaders. During 4-H camps and short courses 2,540 girls
were trained in leadership, an increase of 392 from 1950. Twelve thousand
eight hundred and ninety-one leaders helped sponsor and conduct 2,882
adult meetings.
Thirty-eight county councils of Senior home demonstration work, rep-
resenting 387 community clubs, were active in sponsoring leadership training
meetings for officers and chairmen. Councils cooperated actively with Red
Cross, garden clubs, women's clubs, school lunch programs, health clinics,
parent-teacher associations, tuberculosis associations, American Cancer
Society and other civic groups. Senior councils improved 35 community
buildings and 8 club rooms, constructed 7 new community buildings, as-
sisted 22 libraries in 12 counties, sponsored 174 county-wide achievement
days, set up 79 store window exhibits, and held 592 social and 197 money-
making functions.
Activities and Accomplishments.-Some evidences of the accomplish-
ment of program objectives were found in the 20,002 farm homes and
22,771 non-farm homes in which changes in practice have resulted from
home demonstration work; the 68,526 calls made in home demonstration
agents' offices; the 74,777 requests handled by telephone; the 21,247 home
and farm visits made; and the 214,638 bulletins distributed upon request.
Other evidences were found in the 21,808 home gardens grown by women
and girls; the 1,903,683 pints of fruits, vegetables and meats canned or
stored; the 479,091 pounds of beef cured; the 2,895 women and 11,050 girls
enrolled in clothing demonstrations in which 208,540 garments were made;
and the 45,519 garments remodeled.







Annual Report, 1951 59

Fifty-seven county home demonstration agents, white and negro, spent
a combined total of 10,057 days working with adults and 9,415 days working
with 4-H Club and older youth. Home demonstration agents held 202
adult achievement days, attended by 41,739 persons, and 585 4-H Club
achievement days attended by 60,766 girls. Sixty-six 4-H camps were held,
with 2,556 girls attending. Result demonstrations were held at 1,328 meet-
ings attended by 17,737 persons.
The county home demonstration agents wrote 5,397 news articles, and
30 county home demonstration agents held 1,203 radio broadcasts in 29
counties.
Community Work.-Three hundred fifty-nine clubs cooperated with'the
March of Dimes Campaign, 1,138 clubs cooperated with the tuberculosis
stamps sales, 344 clubs worked on the cancer drive and 247 clubs cooperated
with other health sales and campaigns. Forty white and 11 negro clubs
made health surveys and 34 white and 14 negro clubs planned programs
based on situations shown by health surveys.
4-H Club Activities and Awards.-The 4-H committee of 10 county home,
demonstration agents met in March to discuss 4-H problems and to make
recommendations for strengthening the Florida 4-H program for girls.
The University 4-H Club girls were contacted and encouraged to work
with the State Home Demonstration Office in order to interest them in home
demonstration work.
The Annual 4-H Club short course for Girls was held at Florida State
University and the Annual Agents' Conference was held at the University
of Florida. The Negro 4-H Club Short Course and Agents' Conference were
held at Florida A & M College.
The 4-H camp program emphasized the development of leadership.
District groups, including 16 counties with about three counties to the
group, held pre-camp planning meetings that included 4-H Club girls,
adult 4-H leaders and county home demonstration agents.
The second camping program for negro 4-H Club boys and girls was
held at Doe Lake, with 321 4-H Club girls from 12 counties and adult 4-H
leaders attending. A planned program, including subject matter informa-
tion, was followed.
Approximately 700 outstanding 4-H Club girls, adult leaders and home
demonstration agents attended the State Girls' 4-H Short Course. The
week's program was planned by the entire state home demonstration staff
to give 4-H girls leadership opportunities in every possible way.
Special Activities.-White agents in 45 counties and seven negro agents
reported special activities in observance of National Home Demonstration
Week. 'Special activities were also observed by the FSU School of Home
Economics.
Home demonstration agents cooperated with local civil defense commit-
tees and 27 civil defense chairmen in senior councils and clubs cooperated
with others in the educational plan under way. Films on civilian defense
and talks by civil defense leaders highlighted many club and council meet-
ings. The Junior Council accepted the 4-H mobilization program in co-
operation with the civil defense program as the outstanding work of 1952.
Home demonstration agents arranged 250 home improvement tours at-
tended by 7,270 persons. Agents participated in 322 county fairs and
festivals, cooperating with local officials and civic groups.
The State Office cooperated in the Point 4 project by giving assistance
to foreign visitors.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles (to May 1, 1951)
Katherine Simpson, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
(beginning July 1, 1951)

During 1951 128 days were spent with county home demonstration
agents and 4-H Club and home demonstration club members throughout the
State helping with the clothing and textiles program.
The Specialist spent considerable time working with home demonstration
agents in the counties, helping to train leaders for the clothing program,
giving method demonstrations, attending county achievement days, county
council meetings, 4-H Club meetings and 4-H camps. She also prepared
and helped agents prepare illustrative materials for both groups.
During field activities the Specialist helped, contacted or served an
estimated 3,000 farm and urban people.
One hundred and forty days were spent in the office devoted to planning
work, keeping records and studying programs and plans of work.
Eighty-four home demonstration agents and assistants, 72 white and
12 negro, reported spending 2,705/2 days developing and working on cloth-
ing programs throughout the state and giving 2,835 method demonstrations
on clothing. Reports also show that 16,275 garments were remodeled in
1951 by club women and 4-H Club girls; compared with 14,620 garments
renovated in 1950.

Fig. 15.-These 4-H club girls learn dressmaking with the help of their
home demonstration agent.




aP







Annual Report, 1951


Eighty-four white and negro county home demonstration agents re-
ported 986 clothing leaders trained for the clothing program, 16,251 families
helped with clothing construction and 13,539 families receiving help on the
selection of clothing and textiles. Another part of the clothing program
included the study of fabrics and materials currently available on the
market.
In 1950 2,286 families kept clothing accounts and budgets; in 1951 3,010
families received help in this phase of work.
A total of 11,121 girls enrolled in the clothing program with 7,409 girls
competing. This was an increase of 287 completions over the previous
year.
Various methods of reaching people were used in this year's clothing
program by presenting various phases of the program to varied groups and
the general public.
Probably the most helpful assistance given to any group of home
demonstration agents or women while in the field was the training of
leaders, bringing them up-to-date on fabrics as well as construction tech-
niques in sewing-easy and quicker methods of sewing, tailoring and care,
repair and renovation of clothes.
A tailoring course was held in Duval County where 12 garments were
made, ranging in cost from $8.00 to $20.00 and averaging about $10.00.
The same all-wool suits or coats on the market would retail for $60.00 to
$80.00. It is estimated that $50.00 was saved per garment, or a total of
$400.00 or more was saved during this four-day training school.
Two style dress revues were presented at the State level. In the white
4-H Club girls' dress revue, 126 girls modeled garments made by themselves
while 22 adults participated in the dress revue held in Gainesville during
the State Senior Council meeting.







Florida Cooperative Extension


EDITORIAL AND VISUAL AIDS

Alma Warren, Asst. Editor and Visual Aids Specialist

The Assistant Editor assumed her duties on February 14, 1951. This
was the first time such a position had been filled to give complete news
coverage for home demonstration work. In October the Assistant Editor
assumed the additional duties of Visual Aids Specialist.
As Assistant Editor she promoted a program of disseminating home
demonstration information by every means possible to the largest number
of people in the State. Through the medium of newspapers, radio and
other agencies, she attempted to inform the public about the importance of
home demonstration work.
The major agency used to emphasize the home demonstration program
was the newspaper. News and feature articles were published on the
Central Florida Exposition, National 4-H Club week, National Home Demon-
stration Week, the annual Short Course and Council of Senior Home Demon-
stration Women, 4-H camps and farm and home institutes, fairs, recogni-
tions and awards. Articles were published also in the subject-matter
fields of nutrition, marketing and home industries, food conservation, clothing
and textiles, and home improvement.
Some na-.onal and international publicity was secured by articles in-
terpreting the home demonstration and 4-H programs for a university
pictorial and for a Turkish newspaper.
Visual Aids.-The Assistant Editor tied in the visual aids program with
the information program by making use of such educational stimuli as
circular letters, charts, graphs, diagrams, demonstrations, discussion
groups, exhibits, field trips, filmstrips, film slides, flat pictures, illustrated
talks, kodachrome slides, maps, posters, recordings, tableaux and terreria'.
She encouraged home demonstration agents and specialists to use all types
of audio-visual tools.
Since home demonstration agents reach several thousand people they
should be taught to make optimum use of news letters, circulars, bulletins,
color slides, movies, posters, newspapers, radio, and other media of deliver-
ing information.







Annual Report, 1951


FOOD AND NUTRITION
Cleo M. Arnett, Extension Nutritionist

The food and nutrition program was planned, developed and evaluated
with other specialists, district agents, the State Home Demonstration
Agent and other individuals and groups interested in the dissemination of
knowledge and improved practices of food and nutrition.
Assistance was given to farm, rural non-farm and urban families,
including all cultural and economic levels. Many methods and teaching
devices were used to accomplish objectives of the program. Emphasis was
placed on development of local leadership and establishment of individual
and family result demonstrations.
The work was organized around adult and 4-H Club programs. Work
with the two groups was interrelated and subjects stressed were nutrition
and health, food selection, preparation and meal planning, home produc-
tion of the family food supply and wise use of the food dollar.
Nutrition and Health.-The three main factors contributing to good
nutrition and health stressed were an appreciation of the contribution of
good nutrition to health and happiness, a working knowledge of what
constitutes a healthful diet and economic ability to provide a nutritional
diet.
Reports by home demonstration agents showed that 7,753 families were
trained to recognize good nutrition, 1,891 food and nutrition exhibits were
arranged by agents, 681 food and nutrition exhibits were arranged by
women, 15 health exhibits were made by women, 3,137 families cooperated
in a program of testing cows for Bang's disease and tuberculosis, 449
Fig. 16.-A demonstration on food values features a food and nutrition
class at the 1951 Girls' 4-H Club Short Course.







Florida Cooperative Extension


women served as leaders or chairmen in food and nutrition and 340 women
served as health chairmen or leaders.
Home Food Production and Preparation.-As a result of the food selec-
tion, preparation and meal planning program, home demonstration agents
reported that 26,493 families adopted improved methods of food preparation
-4,318 in dairy products, 6,606 in meat cookery, 1,092 in poultry products,
7,964 in vegetable and fruit cookery and 6,513 in bakery products. In
addition, 7,385 families prepared food by methods to conserve more food
value; 5,973 families budgeted and bought food wisely; and 7,668 families
served daily balanced meals that included the basic food groups.
Other evidence of a better family food supply was shown by 21,808
home gardens grown by women and girls, purchase of 1,602 family cows,
and 721,339 chickens in home poultry flocks.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club program emphasized development of
interest and ability in planning, producing, buying, preparing and serving
simple, well-balanced meals, using, if possible, home or locally produced
foods, and stressed principles of management, safety and health and the
development of satisfactory family relationships. Club members were
urged to have personal health check-ups and take remedial action when
indicated, and to learn and follow food habits essential to optimum growth
and development.
Three hundred sixty-three leaders or chairmen assisted in developing
the 4-H Club food and nutrition program. Four-H Club girls presented
2,820 food preparation demonstrations and 7,964 girls were enrolled in food
selection and preparation demonstrations and 4,836 completed the work.
Home demonstration agents gave 2,532 food preparation demonstrations
for girls.
Four-H Club girls showed increasing interest and made outstanding
records in the home food production program. Eight hundred sixty-four
poultry, 148 dairy cattle, 103 beef cattle, 87 swine, 92 rabbit and 19 bee
demonstrations were completed by 4-H Club girls during the year.






Annual Report, 1951


FOOD CONSERVATION
Alice L. Cromartie, Assistant Specialist, Food Conservation
Home demonstration agents assisted families to increase and improve
family food supplies through the food production and conservation program.
As a result, 3,200 more gardens were reported in 1951 than in 1950 and more
fruit trees and berries were planted. The agents gave 749 method demon-
strations on home gardens and 272 demonstrations on orchard and fruit
planting.
Conservation.-With the increase in gardening there was an increase in
vegetables canned and frozen. Canning centers throughout the State re-
ported more canning activity than at any time in the past two years.
However, less fruits were canned and frozen and smaller quantities of meats
were cured, canned and frozen than in 1950.
The family food supply budget was used by 4,244 families as a pro-
duction and conservation guide. This increase over 1950 may be attributed
to the high cost of foods, lack of variety on the market, preparation for
emergency meals, better quality of home canned food, and the introduction
of vegetable and fruit varieties that conserve well.
Two thousand additional families obtained home freezers, 1,828 more
families reported using locker-storage facilities and 1,071 more homes were
equipped with adequate storage facilities during the year.
Other Activities.-The specialist prepared exhibits and gave demonstra-
tions at the two farm and home institutes and held six area training
meetings in September and October.

Fig. 17.-An Extension specialist (left) and older 4-H girls demonstrate
the many ways in which foods may be conserved to best advantage for
family use.

r; yr-= I i,:







66 Florida Cooperative Extension


GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK
Lorene Stevens, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Ruth Lemmon, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent

During 1951 16,391 girls were enrolled in 730 4-H clubs. The girls
learned improved skills and techniques in the subject-matter fields, passed
their information on to others through method demonstrations, helped to
plan and set-up exhibits, appeared on programs of other organizations and
served as junior leaders in specific phases of the program.
Organization and Leadership.-Five thousand and fifty-four 4-H Club
girls served as officers in their 4-H clubs in 1951. These officers, with the
guidance of the county home demonstration agents and adult 4-H leaders,
were responsible for the development of a well-planned and progressive
4-H club program in the homes and communities represented by the mem-
bership.

Fig. 18.-Winners to the National 4-H Camp receive checks for their
trips from James E. German (left), representing the Florida Chain Store
Council, and T. J. Brooks (right), representing the Commissioner of Agri-
culture. Barbara Jean Dame (left) and Agnes Jasa (right) were ac-
companied to Washington by Mrs. Lucie K. Miller (center), home demon-
stration agent in Lake County.






Annual Report, 1951


County home demonstration agents trained and directed 987 adult 4-H
leaders, guided 4-H Club girls in the development of their demonstrations,
attended and assisted with 4-H Club meetings, visited in the homes of 4-H
Club girls, helped the public obtain a better understanding of the 4-H Club
program, and gave encouragement and inspiration to the girls and their
families.
The State Senior Council of Home Demonstration Work gave assistance
to senior home demonstration councils in the integration of 4-H Club work.
The 4-H problems given emphasis in the senior home demonstration pro-
gram were:
1. Low percentage completion of project requirements.
2. Need for additional trained adult and junior leaders.
3. Need for the development and use of result demonstrations.
4. Need for the improvement of the quality of work.
5. Need for additional recognition of individuals and groups for achieve-
ments in the 4-H club program.
6. Need for more 4-H meetings, longer time for 4-H club meetings and
more suitable meeting places.
The State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work planned a pro-
gram of work intended to strengthen the county junior home demonstration
councils, promote more joint activities between the 4-H Club boys and girls,
work for better cooperation between the junior and senior home demonstra-
tion clubs and councils, and help 4-H Club girls to take more responsibilities
in the development of the 4-H Club program. Plans were also made to
encourage 4-H Clubs and county councils to take a more active part in the
national 4-H defense mobilization program.
During 1951 all the factors mentioned above contributed to a definite
growth in the girls' 4-H club program. There was an increase in enroll-
ment, in number of active and trained junior and adult 4-H leaders, in
number of community service projects sponsored by 4-H clubs, and in the
number of 4-H Club girls and adult 4-H leaders participating in 4-H
planning meetings.






Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist
The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 46
counties with the help of the Home Improvement Specialist, county home
demonstration agents and volunteer leaders. The Specialist worked with
negro agents and families also.
Housing.-Florida farm families are in need of more rural homes built
for comfort, convenience, health and beauty.
Improved housing is a major phase of county home demonstration
programs and the home demonstration agents reported 3,114 families re-
ceived Extension help with problems relating to building and remodeling
homes and 2,895 with kitchen improvement.
House furnishings also were given attention. Thirteen thousand nine
hundred and twenty-nine pieces of new furniture and equipment were added
to homes, 9,000 pieces of furniture were repaired, refinished and remodeled
and 6,572 families practiced better ways of using and caring for their
possessions.
Agents helped 10,403 families improve home grounds; of these, 999
started new lawns, 6,782 maintained or improved established lawns, 923
maintained propagating beds for ornamentals and 1,305 for fruit producing
plants and 11,167 made foundation plantings. In 387 communities of 29
counties home demonstration and 4-H Club members carried out organized
clean-up campaigns.
Family Living.-Family living becomes more complicated daily and
families find it difficult to make income, ability and time meet the needs
and wants of family members. Through the Extension program 7,596 home-
makers were helped to become better housekeepers; 2,772 to make better
use of their time; 264 with home accounts; 1,739 with financial planning;
and 233 to make better use of credit for family living. In addition, 2,223

Fig. 19.-These girls learn exterior home improvement at the 1951 Girls'
4-H Club Short Course.








(;--- 6i.,






Annual Report, 1951


4-H Club members received help in learning to keep personal accounts.
To prepare themselves to be better parents and guides for young people,
507 men and 2,678 women participated in child-development and parent-
education programs and 3,844 families sought and received help with child-
development and guidance problems and 4,919 in improving family relation-
ships.
Home demonstration agents, volunteer local leaders and home demonstra-
tion and 4-H Club members assumed responsibility for helping with
recreation in their respective communities. Four hundred and fifty-three
communities were assisted with improving recreational facilities. Seventy-
nine club houses and club rooms owned or controlled by home demonstration
groups in 28 counties were used for regular club and work meetings and
health and recreation activities for both adults and youth. In 28 counties
1,113 entertainments were held for social purposes and 369 to make money
for worthy ventures undertaken by the club members.
To offer encouragement for reading, 22 communities in 12 counties were
assisted in providing library facilities.
Additional community services were provided in several counties where
home demonstration and 4-H Club groups helped improve church buildings
and grounds, cemeteries, courthouses and school grounds. They cooperated
with health units by providing places for and sponsoring health clinics
and helped with mobile X-ray units, hookworm drives and diabetic clinics.
They took active parts in tuberculosis seal sales, polio drives and other
county-wide activities through their councils of home demonstration and
4-H Club work.
Consumer Education.-Home demonstration agents reported that 5,985
families were assisted with problems relating to the purchase of food,
13,539 with clothing and household textiles; 4,469 with household furnish-
ings and equipment; 4,761 with household supplies; and 4,886 with repair-
ing, refinishing and remodeling household furnishings. A total of 11,011
families were assisted with consumer buying; 6,787 with "making versus
buying" decisions; and 7,529 in using timely economic information to make
adjustments in family living. Volunteer local leaders numbering 693 gave
1,245 demonstrations in various phases of the program to women and girls
and attended 275 training meetings.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club home improvement program is designed
to stimulate the girls' interest in learning to do simple home tasks well, to
make her home more beautiful, comfortable and convenient both inside and
out and to become a well-adjusted member of her family and her community.
Records of home demonstration agents showed that 2,606 girls enrolled
for homemaking with 1,955 completing; 4,018 enrolled for home improve-
ment and home furnishings with 2,766 completing, thereby improving 2,586
rooms and making 7,971 articles to adorn their homes. Of the 3,505
enrolled for home grounds beautification 2,291 completed their work.
Special training in several phases of 4-H Club home improvement was
given to approximately 700 4-H girls, volunteer local leaders and home
demonstration agents at Short Courses. Others were helped through
leader-training meetings, 4-H Club meetings, camps and home visits. Neces-
sary subject-matter was prepared for use in this program.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING

Gladys Kendall, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist

Definite progress in the development of the home industries and market-
ing project was made during 1951. The program was planned and carried
out in 45 counties through the cooperative efforts of the Home Industries
and Marketing Specialist, other members of the Agricultural Extension
Service, volunteer leaders, home demonstration and 4-H clubs, junior and
senior councils and others.
The work was planned to assist individuals and families to increase
family income and to use wisely all available resources.
The Specialist provided consumer information on all types of fresh,
frozen and processed foods and distributed information to assist with
marketing and consumer education problems. To develop this program
the Specialist used method and result demonstrations, illustrated talks,
training meetings and workshops, home and office visits, exhibits, posters,
tours, motion pictures, slides, films, news articles, letters and other publica-
tions.
The Specialist spent 152 days in the field, reaching 4,800 persons in
addition to Extension Service personnel. She helped train 468 local leaders
in 17 counties, visited 80 result demonstration and participated in 36
club and 11 council meetings, two 4-H camps and two radio programs. In
addition, she judged exhibits at two county fairs and three achievement
programs and helped plan two television programs.
White and Negro agents in 40 counties spent 1,272 days developing the
home industries and marketing program. With the help of 1,291 local
leaders they assisted 7,951 families in 1,707 communities. The use of
native materials in making craft articles was demonstrated at 339 meetings.
Standardizing Products.-In 37 counties 2,021 club members standardized
products for market. These women and girls received $394,364.19 cash for
farm and home products sold. In addition to the cash sales of their pro-
ducts, many families donated home-made products to charity and community
drives as contributions in place of cash.
4-H Club Program.-There were 2,493 4-H club boys and girls enrolled
in home industries, arts and crafts and 1,294 completed work on 7,571
articles.
An outline for a money management demonstration for 4-H girls was
prepared by the Specialist and a record form for the demonstration pro-
posed. Instruction on the managing of money was given during the Girls'
Short Course.
Workshops and training meetings also were held at the annual Girls'
Short Course and special information was given on the production and
marketing of quality fruit, vegetable and poultry products.
Other Activities.-The Specialist helped plan, organize and conduct
State and county activities and special events in line with the home
industries and marketing program. She conducted four two-day training
meetings attended by 37 home demonstration agents from 28 counties and
solicited cooperation from other agricultural agencies.







Annual Report, 1951


NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK
Joseph A. Gresham, Negro District Agent
Ten negro county agents and one District Agent promoted the 1951
farm program for negro farmers in Florida. As in the past, most of the
work was concentrated in Northern Florida where seven counties main-
tained negro county agents; the other three are located in Central Florida
counties.
Local organizations and individuals and specialists from the Director's
office in Gainesville also gave considerable assistance to make the negro
farm program successful.
All negro agents attended the annual conference for negro Extension
workers at A. and M. College, October 15-19, 1951. The latest develop-
ments in agriculture were presented by specialists and officials of the
Extension Service and other branches of agriculture.
Negro Agents.-Negro county agents spent 1,768 days working with
adults and 1,162 days with 4-H Club members and older youth. They
made 5,352 visits to 2,498 different farms and homes and spent 1,060 days
in the office and 1,870 days in the field last year.
Negro extension agents prepared 182 news stories, distributed 5,822
bulletins, gave 80 radio talks, had 8,520 office and 2,938 telephone calls in
carrying on the farm program. The year's activities included 77 training
meetings with adult local leaders and committeemen and 68 training meet-
ings with- 4-H and older youth members. Agents presented 106 adult
method demonstrations before 1,122 persons and 108 4-H Club and older
youth demonstrations with 1,609 in attendance. During the year 70 result
demonstrations were completed and 69 meetings were held at these demon-
strations, with 1,298 attending. Nineteen adult tours were conducted, with
810 attending, 8 adult achievement days drew 7,946 attendance, and 38
other meetings of an Extension nature participated in by county workers
were held, with an attendance of 1,310. Meetings held by local leaders
or committeemen not participated in by county or State workers numbered
59, with 941 adults attending, and 68 meetings for 4-H Club and older
youth, with 1,286 attending.
State 4-H Short Course.-The Annual State Negro 4-H Club Short
Course was held at Florida A. and M. College May 28 through June 2, with
321 4-H Club boys and girls and 21 leaders attending. Delegations were
in attendance from all counties served by Extension agents.
State 4-H Club Camp.-The camping season was divided into three
periods for 4-H boys with 281 boys, 10 agents and 4 local leaders attending.
Each group spent one week at Camp Doe Lake.
A total of 724 persons attended 23 4-H tours and 5,814 attended the
eight 4-H achievement days.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Floy Britt, District Home Demonstration Agent

The goal of Negro home demonstration agents has been to guide farm
families toward a better and healthier way of life. Agents in the 12
counties where negro Extension work was supported made big strides for-
ward in accomplishing this goal.
In furthering the Extension program negro agents made 4.085 home
visits and 3,535 telephone calls, received 4,816 office calls, published 182
news articles and distributed 14,718 bulletins.
As a result of Extension influence 2,736 families changed home practices
and 3,795 families made improvement in food production, conservation
and preparation.
One additional home demonstration agent was added and more help
from specialists was available during the year, making it possible to expand
the negro Extension program. The District Agent encouraged two agents
to take study courses during the summer to increase their efficiency.
Other agents improved themselves professionally by attending Extension
sessions during the summer and the agents' annual conference, by reading
Extension literature and magazines, and by obtaining more local data.

Fig. 20.-These 4-H Club girls demonstrate how to mix cookies at the
1951 Florida State Fair.
mmm ma m q .-W






Annual Report, 1951


Offices and equipment used by negro agents were generally improved
to meet increasing demands and improve the effectiveness of the program.
Adult Programs.-The negro Extension program was designed to in-
crease and conserve food supplies, make more convenient and attractive
homes and clothing, improve health practices and family recreational
facilities and teach families to spend their incomes more wisely.
Agents reported that 116 clubs were organized with an enrollment of
2,168. Forty adult training meetings, 443 method demonstration meetings
and 28 achievement days were held, with 938, 5,427 and 10,160 attending,
respectively.
4-H Activities.-Negro agents organized 129 Girls' 4-H Clubs, with 3,785
enrolled. Four-H girls enlisted for 15,319 projects and completed 12,956.
In addition, agents held 59 training meetings, 571 method demonstration
meetings, 18 tours and 27 achievement days, with a total attendance of
23,226.
Four summer camps were held with 305 girls and 16 leaders from 12
counties attending. At the Short Course in Tallahassee 212 attended and
four girls were selected to attend Regional Camp.


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from Negro County Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Months of Service (agents and assistants) ............---........... ........... 250
Days of Service: In office-2,218; In field-3,906 ..-----------..................... 6,124
Farm or home visits made ......--...-----.... --- -----............... ........ 9,437
Different farms or homes visited .---...........-- .......................... ..... ............. 4,798
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-13,336; Telephone ............ 6,473
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youths ........................ 2,850
News articles or stories published ................. ----.... .................... 364
Bulletins distributed ----- ----------...................................... 20,540
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ......... .............................................. 83
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
Number .. -----...........................................-.....-............... 117
Total attendance of men and women ..........------ --.......... ................. 1,811
Method demonstration meetings:
Number .--------------------...........................-............. 549
Total attendance .... ---.......-.----..-----............................ 6,549
Tours conducted -----...................... ....-----.......... ..... 36
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth, and adult work .............. 35
4-H camps
Boys attending -------- --.......................................... 287
Girls attending .................- ......--- ......................... 305

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms .....---.......-......... .................-..--........................ 7,506
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program ................................................................ 2,501
Farms in which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year ..----..................................... ...... 561
Non-farm families making changes in practices as result of home
Demonstrations and the agricultural programs ................................ 1,435







Florida Cooperative Extension


Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from
dem onstration program ....................-.... ... ...... .............................. 1,701
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration and agricultural program this year .......................... 928
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
dem onstration program ..................................................................... 1,035
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration program for the first time this year ........................ 657
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ........................................ 2,662
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ............................ 1,241
Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension pro-
gram ..........................................................................----------........ 4,553
Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program ........ 1,932

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Total number of communities in counties .............................................. 293
Number of communities in which the Extension program has been
planned cooperatively ...................................... ............. ............... 193

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-2,169; non-farm-296; total ........................................ 2,465
Girls: Farm-2,608; non-farm-1,177; total ...................................... 3,785
N um ber clubs ..................................................... .... 248
N um ber enrolled ................................................................... ...................... 6,250
N um ber com pleting .............. .. ..... .............................. .................. 4,591
Projects completed by boys ...................................................... 3,940
Projects com pleted by girls ................................ ...... .. ..................... 12,956
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ............................................ 747
Boys completing fruit projects ..................--- --........... ........ .. ........... 90
Boys completing garden projects ...............................................-.............. 586
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ................ 134
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ........................................ 316
Boys completing poultry projects ...................................... ................ 371
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects .............................. 133
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ..................................... 635
Girls completing fruit projects ............................................. ................. 318
Girls completing garden projects .....................................................- .... 893
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops .................. 213
Girls completing dairy projects ..................................... ............. .... 328
Girls completing poultry projects ............................................................. 632
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects .................... 1,566
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid projects ............ 496
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and
room improvement projects ................................................. 3,282
Girls completing food preservation projects ............................................ 1,393
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs .-----.................................--.. 127







Annual Report, 1951


DAYS DEVOTED TO SUBJECT MATTER FIELDS BY
EXTENSION AGENTS


CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to:
Corn .................... ...........
Other cereals ................-
Legumes .........................
Pastures ................ ...
Cotton ................... .. ..
Tobacco ..............................
Potatoes and other vege-
tables ......................
Fruits .......................
Other crops ........... .......

CONSERVATION OF
NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to:
Soil and water ......-......
Forestry ........................
W wildlife ....-- .....................-

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING,
POULTRY
Days devoted to:
Dairy cattle ........ .........
Beef cattle .................--....--
Swine ..............................
Horses and Mules ............
Poultry (including tur-
keys) ...........................
Other livestock ............

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to:
Farm accounts, etc............
Individual farm planning,
etc. ............................
Farm credit .....................
Outlook information ..........

GENERAL ECONOMICS
PROBLEMS RELATED TO
AGRICULTURE
Days devoted to:
Price and trade policies ....
Land policy and programs
Public finance and service
Rural welfare ..............


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Days devoted to:
House plans, construction
water systems, heat-
ing, etc. ................. ...... 33
Rural electrification ........ 130
Farm buildings ................. 64
Farm mechanical equip-
m ent ................................ 49

HOME MANAGEMENT AND
IMPROVEMENT, FAMILY
ECONOMICS, NUTRITION AND
HEALTH
Days devoted to:
House, furnishings and
surroundings ................ 323
Home management ............ 152
Clothing and textiles ........ 369
Family relationships ........ 147
Recreation and community
life ................................ 161
Home production of family
food supply ............... 410
Food preservation and
storage ........................ 400
Food selection and prepa-
ration .......................... 277
Other health and safety
work .............................. 197

MARKETING AND
DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to:
General ................................ 76
Grain and Hay ................ 72
Livestock ................................. 85
Dairy products .................. 76
Poultry and eggs .......... 172
Fruits and vegetables .... 114
Cotton ............................... 46
Forest products ............... 26
Other commodities ............ 82
Home products and crafts 49
Purchasing of farm and
home supplies and
equipment ................. 71







Florida Cooperative Extension


INDEX


Agents, list of, 4
Agricultural economics, 21, 75
Agricultural engineering, 14, 25, 75
Agricultural outlook, 21
Agronomy, 30
Animal husbandry, 34
Apiculture, 36
Arnett, Cleo M., 63

Barrus, Edith Y., 57
Beale, Clyde, 15
Beekeeping, 36
Bevis, Joyce, 57, 60
Britt, Floy, 72
Broadcasting activities, 16
Broilers, 49
Brown, W. W., 38
Bulletins, 15
Busby, Joe N., 38

Carter, Bonnie J., 19, 68
Catalpa project, 46
Chicken-of-tomorrow contest, 50
Citrus, 24
budwood certification program, 41
clinics, 40
culture, 40
demonstrations, 40
grove management, 22
institutes, 40
schools, 40
tours, 40
Clayton, H. G., 7, 20
Clothing, 60
Conservation, 13
districts, 52
natural resources, 75
Consumer education, 69
Cooper, J. Francis, 15
Corn, 31
County agent, supervision, 20
County work, coordination, 28
Cromartie, Alice L., 65
Crop production, 13, 75

Dairy husbandry, 42
Dairying, 13, 75
feeding and herd management, 43
sire program, 42
DHIA, 42
Director's report, 7
Drainage, 27


Economic problems, 13
Editorial report, 15, 62
Egg-laying test, 50
Electrical equipment, 28
Electricity, uses, 29
Extension financing, 7
teaching methods, 21

Family living, 68
Farm and home planning, 21
Farm electrification, 28
management, 13, 21, 75
mechanization, 26
poultry flocks, 49
structures, 25
Feeder pigs, price-weight re-
lationship, 21
Field crops, 32
Fire prevention, 19
Food and nutrition, 63
Food conservation, 65
preparation, 64
production, 64
Foreign visitors, training, 11
Forest plantings, 46
Forestry, 45
4-H club activities, 34, 59, 73
awards, 59
beekeeping, 37
camps, 38, 71
dairying, 43
electric program, 28
field crops, 33
food production, 64
forestry, 47
livestock activities, 35
local leaders, 39
national judging contest, 44
poultry work, 49
short courses, 39, 71
work, 38, 69, 70
work, girls, 66

Goen, Oliver F., 34
Grazing crops, 31
Gresham, Joseph A., 71
Griffith, L. Odell, 15
Grove management, 22

Hamilton, H. G., 21
Hampson, C. M., 21
Haynie, John D., 36







Annual Report, 1951


Health, 63
Henderson, J. R., 30
Herd management, 43
Holloway, Ethyl, 57
Home demonstration work, 14, 57, 58
Home electrical equipment, 28
forest products, 46
improvement, 68
industries and marketing, 70
management and improvement, 75
poultry flocks, 49
Horses and mules, 35
Housing, 68

Irrigation, 27

Jamison, F. S., 55
Johnson, John M., 25
Joiner, Jasper N., 15
Journal articles, 16

Kendall, Gladys, 7

Lawrence, Fred P., 40
Laying flock, 49
Lemmon, Ruth, 66
Lighting, 28
Livestock, 13, 24, 75
production, 35

Marketing, 13, 23, 70, 75
agreements, 22
facilities, 27
McGregor, J. A., 34
McLendon, H. S., 52
McMullen, K. S., 20
Mehrhof, N. R., 48
Moore, J. S., 48
Murphree, Clyde E., 21
Myers, F. E., 55

Negro agents, 6
farm demonstration work, 71
4-H club work, 39
home demonstration work, 72
News releases, 16
Nieland, L. T., 19, 45
Nutrition, 63

O'Steen, A. W., 48
Outlook, 21

Parvin, F. W., 7
Pastures, 30


Peanuts, 31
Perry, F. S., 20
Personnel, 8
Pettis, A. M., 28
Pine seedlings, 45
Poultry, 13, 48, 75
breeders' conference, 50
home-grown feeds, 49
institute, 51
marketing, 49
organizations, 51
Power suppliers, 28
Production capacity, 22
Publications, 15
Publicity, 29
Pullets, 48

Radio, 16
Reaves, C. W., 42
Rosenberger, S. E., 55

Safety, 19
Savage, Zach, 22
Sheep, 35
Sikes, Anna Mae, 57
Simpson, Katherine, 60
Smith, J. Lee, 20
Soil conservation, 13, 52
Staff changes, 11
Standardizing products, 70
State programs, 9
Statistical reports, 11, 73
Stevens, Lorene, 66

Teaching aids, 37
methods, 39
Telephones, rural, 29
Textiles, 60
Timmons, D. E., 23
Tobacco, flue-cured, 32
Training, 8, 11, 28, 40, 58
Tupelo gum project, 46
Turkey management, 50

Vegetables, 24
merchandising, 55
production, 55
Visual aids, 62

Warren, Alma, 62
Water conservation, 52
Watkins, Marshall 0., 7
Wiring, 28