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|Table of Contents|
Board of control
Table of Contents
Editorial and mailing department
Safety and fire prevention
Agricultural engineering and electrification
Boys' 4-H club work
Soil and water conservation
Vegetable production and merchandising
Home demonstration work
Clothing and textiles
Girls' 4-H club work
Home industries and marketing
Nutrition and foods
Negro farm demonstration work
Negro home demonstration work
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WOBK IN
AGBICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture
H. G. Clayton, Director
REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1950
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1950
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture
H. G. Clayton, Director
REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1950
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1950
BOARD OF CONTROL
Frank M. Harris, Chairman,
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
George J. White, Sr., Mt. Dora
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
W. F. Powers, Secretary,
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President of the University'
J. Wayne Reitz, P.H.D., Provost for Agriculture'
H. G. Clayton, M.S.A., Director of Extension
Marshall O. Watkins, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director3
Roger L. Bartley, B.S., Administrative Manager'
Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor'
Leon O. Griffith, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, B.S.A., District Agent
F. S. Perry, B.S.A., District Agent
H. S. McLendon, B.A., Soil Conservationist
R. S. Dennis, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.2
Oliver F. Goen, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist
J. A. McGregor, B.S., Assistant Animal Industrialist
C. W. Reaves, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. Mehrhof, M. Agr., Poultry Husbandmanl
A. W. O'Steen, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist'
Charles M. Hampson, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management'
D. E. Timmons, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
F. W. Parvin, B.S.A., Assistant Economist
John M. Johnson, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer1
Fred P. Lawrence, B.S.A., Citriculturist
W. W. Brown, B.S.A., Boys' Club Agent
Joe N. Busby, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist2
John D. Haynie, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. Johnson, Rodent Control Specialist2
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Agronomist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Vegetable Crop Specialist'
Stanley E. Rosenberger, M. Agr., Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Forrest E. Myers, B.S.A., Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
Anna Mae Sikes, M.S., State Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, B.S., District Agent
Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus, B.S.H.E., District Agent
Joyce Bevis, M.A., Clothing Specialist
Bonnie J. Carter, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist
Grace I. Neely, M.S., Asso. Economist in Food Conservation
Lorene H. Stevens, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Ruth S. Lemmon, B.S.H.E., Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Mrs. Gladys Kendall, A.B., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
Floy Britt, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. Gresham, B.S.A., Negro District Agent
'Cooperative other divisions, U. of F.
ZIn cooperation with U. S.
Director's Report --.....--...-- --.... -- ----
Statistical Report ---- .... ----.------------
Publications, News, Radio, Films .-----------------------...
Safety and Fire Prevention --.--.--------- -..-------
Work of County, District Agents ......----- __..._....--
Farm Management------------ --......----
Marketing -------------------. ..-..._ ------
Citrus Grove Management -.......------------.
Farm Electrification ...--------.----.....--
Agronomy -------------------. _---------
Animal Husbandry ..----------------..-----
Boys' 4-H Club Work .-------........_ ----------.
Citrus Culture ------------..--------
Dairy Husbandry ------ -----......--
Forestry -........... ...
Poultry Activities ---. ----.....---- -------
Soil and Water Conservation-----. --------... --.-
Vegetable Production and Merchandising-- _..............-
Home Demonstration Work -..---- ----
Clothing and Textiles .-----..-..-----------..
Girls' 4-H Club Work --------- ----------
Home Improvement ------------- --- --------
Home Industries and Marketing .---------------------
Nutrition and Foods-........-- ..-----------.-----...
Negro Farm Demonstration Work ......----- --------------..
Negro Home Demonstration Work .------ --------- ---....---
Negro Statistical Report -------..----- --------
-.-..-.. --. _----------__ 19
.-------.. .........---.. 20
.-.--.--.. .. ... ........- 21
-...--.......------ -_ 22
--..--. ----- 26
.--...---_-. ----- .. 29
....--------..... -...... 32
. ..... _._ _. 38
......--------. -........ 41
-.-.------- ----.. -.-...- 43
....-----.-------- -.. 53
--------------------- -- 62
--..---- ---...-...--.... 74
..........----------- .. 80
----............. .----- 86
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of November 30, 1950)
--..Loonis Blitch ------..... Gainesville .......-..- Mrs. Josephine
Alachua (Asst.) ...--.- Charles C. Below -----
Baker G. T. Huggins ----
Bay -------- J. A. Sorenson ----.---
Bradford ---------T. K. McClane, Jr.----
Brevard ---------J. T. Oxford ---
Brevard (Asst.) J--.. James Nesmith --------
Broward ----- B. E. Lawton .-----...
Robert S. Pryor -....-
Thomas B. Jones -----
..Fred J. Green
--Gainesville -...... ---------------..--
SMacclenny ....-----.. --...-----...
-Panama City ---.. -------
_Starke -.......- Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Cocoa ---------- Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Ft. Lauderdale ....--- Miss Louise
Ft. Lauderdale --------
Blountstown ------ Miss Florence L.
Charlotte --- ----N. H. McQueen -.--_-. Punta Gorda--- ------------
Citrus ___ -------Quentin Medlin ....--- Inverness _.... Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Citrus (Asst.).-----...-- Edsel W. Rowan -.---- Inverness ..--........- ..----- --- ----
Collier ------------- Herbert L. Miller --.Everglades ----------------------
Columbia __----__- James N. Watson ...-.. Lake City --- Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia (Asst.) --Aubrey L. Harrell.-- Lake City- -------------
Dade -__-C. H. Steffani .----.. Miami ..------.. Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.) ---------- J. Lawrence Edwards Miami ----------.... Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.) ----....... John D. Campbell ....... Miami --- Miss Ruth Taylor
Dade (Asst.) -----..... A. E. C. McIntyre --_... Homestead ------.....................
DeSoto ---..---.. ----.. W. L. Woods _.___.. ... Arcadia --
Dixie -------------Clarence L. Dickinson-Cross City ---
Duval .--- -------A. S. Lawton .......... --- Jacksonville ---- Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) .-__.. --.Ralph F. Jones _...-... Jacksonville --- Mrs. Lucille Colsen
Duval (Asst.) ..-...-.- ------- .....- -------- Jacksonville ----. Miss Emma Sue
Escambia _..-- E. N. Stephens ----..... Pensacola ...-. Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia (Asst.) ---.. Albert H. Odom ---...-Pensacola ....----.... Miss Mary D.
Gadsden ._----.. A. G. Driggers Q------.. Quincy __----...- Miss Elise Laffitte
Gadsden (Asst.) --.... Bernard H. Clark---.. Quincy .---- Mrs. Ivan S. Woodbery
Gilchrist -------- Harry E. George ......- Trenton ------
Glades -------- A. G. Hutchinson ..-... Moore Haven ------
Gulf --- ------C. R. Laird ..------- Wewahitchka Miss Emma L.
----------A. E. Nesmith --
-----E. H. Vance ..---
Hendry --- H. L. Johnson ----
Hernando H--- arry J. Brinkley-
Highlands --- V. T. Oxer ....-__..
Highlands (Asst.) --..- Bert J. Harris, Jr.
Hillsboro ----_-----Alec White --
Hillsboro (Asst.) ........-Edwin Booth -----
Hillsboro (Asst.) .........Jean Beam ..-...
Hillsboro (Asst.) ._-- J. 0. Armor --__--
.......... Jasper ..
...__ Wauchula --------- Mrs. Frances P.
--.-- LaBelle -----------............ .
-...- Brooksville- --_--
...-- Sebring ---- Miss Catherine Brabson
--..- Sebring ------__ __ ._
Tampa .--- Miss Lora Kiser
Tampa ....... ..-----------------------...- ...
Tampa .. ___..------------------ .
--..-- Plant City --.... ...- Miss Emily King
H;llsboro (Asst.) ..--. Seton N. Edson-- ..--_ Ruskin -..-----------------------.
Holmes -.. --_7 Stuart C. Bell .--------Bonifay ------- Mrs. Laurena Croom
Indian River ...----- Marcel A. Boudet ---Vero Beach ..------ ..........----...--..
Jackson ---- --- Woodrow W. Glenn .. Marianna -.-.. Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson (Asst.) ..- --William C. Zorn-..... Marianna .--...- -----------......-
Jefferson _---_ --- J. W. Malone ..-------- Monticello .... Miss Mary A. Curtis
Lafayette -- -- S. L. Brothers ------.. Mayo -- -----
Lake ---------------- R. E. Norris ---_.----_. Tavares --- Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake (Asst.) --- Oliver R. Hamrick, Jr. Tavares
Lee .....__C. P. Heuck -__--.. Fort Myers ------
Leon ---- --- James L. Rhoden -__.- Tallahassee ----- Mrs. Nellie D. Mills
Leon (Asst.) ...- -----Alexander H. Clemons Tallahassee -----------.-----
Levy _T-- -T, D. Rickenbaker --.- Bronson ...- Mrs. Sue P. Murphy
Tibertv -- Bristol ..--. Mrs. Camilla R. Radnev
11 --- -- - -- -
Madison .----- Fred C. Sumners
Manatee ----. ----Ed L. Ayers -_
Manatee (Asst.) _--- Johnnie E. Davis --
Manatee (Asst.) --___Johnnie F. Barco --
Marion ---- -----A. David Baillie, Jr.
Marion (Asst.) ---.. Carey A. Robbins --.
Martin -- -- L. M. Johnson -----
Nassau ...-....------- Gordon B. Ellis ----
Okaloosa _------- Fred W. Barber -..-
Okeechobee __----_ C. R. Boyles ._..
Orange --- ------F. E. Baetzman ..-.
Orange (Asst.) _-....Henry F. Swanson --
Osceola .------ J. R. Gunn ----
Palm Beach .---.... -- M. U. Mounts --...
Palm Beach (Asst.) __John H. Causey ..
Palm Beach (Asst.)
Pasco (Asst.) ----..__
-H. L. Speer _
J. F. Higgins _-
_James B. Smith
_.J. H. Logan -..
- Madison -- Miss Bennie F. Wilder
--Palmetto .----- Mrs. Anne D. Davis
--- Palmetto ------------........... ..-._.
.- Palmetto ------
.-Ocala ---_----. Miss Allie Lee Rush
-- Ocala --- Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
-- Stuart ---..----- Miss Lucile Inscoe
-- Hilliard -.... Mrs. Julia P. Jernagan
..- Orlando -Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
--Kissimmee ._--- Miss Muriel A. Beck
.-West Palm Beach ___-_---- Miss Sara
-- West Palm Beach __- Mrs. Mildred J.
- --------Belle Glade
...----- Dade City --
----... Dade City
Pinellas (Asst.) -..... L. E. Cunningham -Clearwater
-_ Mrs. Mary R. Stearns
---.. Mrs. Charlotte M.
---...- Miss Muriel G.
Polk ------------. P. Hayman -..---- Bartow -.... Mrs. Minnie M. Carlton
Polk (Asst.) ------- Wilson H. Kendrick --- Bartow v----- Miss Doris E. Frazier
Putnam -----__-- H. E. Maltby ---..... Palatka -Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam (Asst.) ---.. Ralph T. Clay ----_-- Palatka --------
Saint Johns --.---- P. R. McMullen ...-- St. Augustine -- Miss Anna E. Heist
Saint Lucie _.._...- Charles D. Kime _---- Fort Pierce _Miss Sammie J. Kilgore
Santa Rosa ___ -- Emmett D. McCall ---- Milton -..._.---- Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa (Asst.) _--- Henry P. Davis .---_ Milton ----_ __--
Sarasota ------ Kenneth A. Clark _-..- Sarasota ----- Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Sarasota (Asst.) ---... Donald W. Lander -.._Sarasota ------
Seminole ---------C. R. Dawson -...--....Sanford ----..... Miss Lila Woodard
Sumter -_ O0. M. Maines, Jr. Busl--.Bushnell --... .. Miss Tillie Roesel
Sumter (Asst.) __......Earl M. Kelly ._-----_. Bushnell -------
Taylor --- .
NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Alachua _--- ...English M. Greene .. Gainesville .--. Leontine Williams
Columbia -..- --...-.. McKinley Jeffers ---... Lake City -------_
Dade -----------..- .------------ Miami .....- Victoria M. Simpson
Duval .._..--------------..--- --- -.. __ Jacksonville .... .... Ethel M. Powell
Gadsden .....--- ------- Russell Stephens _.--- Quincy ------------ Gladys Wilkins
Hamilton -_---_. -----.. N. H. Bennett ------...-White Springs ---- ---...--.... --
Hillsboro ......--------.. ----- .._____ Tampa ---- Sudella J. Ford
Jackson -..-----__Virgil Elkins --...------- Marianna ---_-- Annie Doris Preston
Jefferson -----.. ...-..M. E. Groover ..--.---. Monticello --------... --------------
Leon ......---- --..---_ Richard A. Hartsfield _Tallahassee Irie Mae Clark
Madison _..---..........James C. Miller -- Madison .-...----.-----. Althea Ayer
Marion ..__._. Eugene P. Smith- .....-- Ocala .--------.... ------ -.
Marion .--.----- ..--. --- .........Reddick __.-- Idella R. Kelly
Sumter _......._._ .Richard L. Bradley ..Bushnell -....-----------------.....
Volusia ----..-..--_--_ __---_____ --__ DeLand -..-__-- Ida T. Pemberton
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS DEMONSTRATION
-----... Floyd L. Eubanks --. Live Oak -.--- Miss Edith.M. Martin
.---- S. C. Kierce ------..-. Perry Mrs. Ruth McKeown Elkins
- .-.William J. Cowen ...-- Lake Butler ----------
----... William J. Platt, Jr. -.. DeLand -..._... Mrs. Edna L. Eby
-..._---_. Thomas R. Townsend DeLand ------
------ A. S. Laird ----------Crawfordville ---------- -
---...___Mitchell Wilkins ..--- DeFuniak Springs -.Mrs. Marguerite
.----... H. 0. Harrison --..--.. Chipley --.- Mrs. Mary L. Minchin
Part I General
H. G. CLAYTON, Director
MARSHALL O. WATKINS, Assistant Director'
Florida Agricultural Extension Service staff members in 1950 continued to
work-together to serve Florida farm families effectively. Working together in a
coordinated program, they reached a total of 89,974 families.
Extension served more farm youth in Florida in 1950. Enrollment in 4-H Clubs
in the state increased from 26,095 in 1949 to 26,837 in 1950. Not only.did enroll-
ment increase, but active participation by more farm youth in a wider variety .of
activities was apparent.
It was possible to make more additions to the staff during 1950 as a result of
the additional funds allocated by the 1949 Florida Legislature. One county agent,
5 assistant county agents, one home demonstration agent, two specialists for
men's work, one specialist for women's work, and one negro home demonstration
agent were added to the staff in 1950.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1949-50
Smith-Lever -..-.....-.... .------------------ $ 70,994.81
Bankhead-Jones ....------ -.. ...... 129,651.51
Capper-Ketcham ------ -------... --..---........------ 27J417.72
Bankhead-Flannagan ....-------- ---- ---.-.......... 121,915.18
Clark-McNary _.___.------ ...... ..-...-...- 1,620.00
Research & Marketing .---..-........----.---_------ 1,500.00
Farm Housing _--- ----... --------------------. 2,000.00
Legislature _.---......... ------------..... $473,795.00
State Trust Funds: -------. -------- $ 16,157.08
County Appropriations: --.-----.. ---- ---. --- $363,396.00
Grand Total .......-.-. .------------------------
FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1950-51
Smith-Lever ......----.. ..---------- --
Bankhead-Jones -..----- ------------.
Bankhead-Flannagan .... -------.....
Research & Marketing -----. _-....-....
Farm Housing --........------------..
.------ $ 70,994.31
----. --- 121,915.18
Legislature _.----- .......------- $578,602.44 $578,602.44
State Trust Funds: ..... ----------------------- $ 20,000.00 $ 20,000.00
County Appropriations: ............ --------- ------ $390,412.60 $390,412.60
Grand Total .....--- --------------- --- $1,342,753.76
'On leave September 1, 1950, to pursue graduate work at Harvard University.
Florida Cooperative Extension
During 1950 the Extension Service had 62 county agents, 35 assistant county
agents, 46 home demonstration agents and 12 assistant home demonstration agents.
Men on the state staff included 2 administrators, 3 supervisors and 28 specialists.
Women included 1 administrator, 3 supervisors and 6 specialists. The negro staff
was composed of 2 supervisors, 10 county agents and 12 home demonstration agents.
Some difficulty is still encountered in locating qualified persons for home
demonstration positions, in both white and negro work.
TRAINING EXTENSION WORKERS
A three weeks' training course for Extension agents was held in the summer
of 1950 for the fifth consecutive year. Four courses were offered, each carrying
1 hours of graduate credit. Extension workers were enrolled for one or two
courses. Courses offered were advanced rural leadership, advanced agricultural
Extension Service youth programs, advanced public speaking and social recreation.
Extension workers are kept abreast of new research work by occasional train-
ing meetings at the Experiment Stations. One two-day school was held at the
Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred for all agents working in citrus produc-
ing counties. A one-day vegetable school was held for agents in Central and South
Florida at the Everglades Station, Belle Glade.
The annual conference for Extension workers was held at the University of
Florida October 16-20 and provided in-service training for agents as well as in-
spiration for the job ahead. Morning sessions were devoted largely to discussions
by outstanding speakers on topics of national and international importance. Both
men and women attended morning sessions, while most afternoon sessions were
separate and were devoted to new research information and methods.
The annual conference for negro Extension agents was held at Florida A & M
College, Tallahassee, during the week November 6-10. A committee composed of
the Negro District Agents, the Assistant Director, and a white District Home
Demonstration Agent planned this conference.
DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS
Beginning in 1949 Extension workers in Florida have spent considerable time
and effort developing improved methods for evolving Extension programs and
plans. During 1950 all district supervisors acted as a continuing committee to
attempt to revise and improve the framework set up in 1949. The revised and
improved plan.makes provision for obtaining information, analyzing situations,
determining problems, developing objectives and accomplishing solutions.
This revised procedure was presented to agents at the Extension Agents' Annual
Conference. In addition, the district supervisors met jointly in conference in each
county with the entire county staff. The plan has met with approval in every
quarter and it is believed that the quality of plans and programs for 1951 will
reflect the concerted efforts expended in this direction.
The State Rural Housing Committee, with the Assistant Director as coordinator,
continued to function in 1950 as it has each year since its organization in 1946.
The following agencies are represented on the committee: Agricultural Extension
Service; State Department of Education-Vocational Agriculture, Home Economics
and Supervision; State Board of Health; Project of Applied Economics, College of
Education, University of Florida; School of Home Economics, Florida State Uni-
versity; Farmers Home Administration; and Rural Electrification Administration.
The aims and purposes of the State Rural Housing Committee are:
Annual Report, 1950 9
1. To encourage cooperative action between educational agencies in the State
concerned with housing, for the purpose of improving health, home sanitation and
beautification through better housing.
2. To compile factual information on housing conditions in Florida and dis-
tribute it to state and county committee members.
3. To encourage studies on rural housing in Florida.
4. To secure cooperation and support of agencies and individuals concerned
with the various phases of housing for rural families, and in position to assist
with this program, or prepared to act as advisers of the State Committee.
5. To develop a practical action program for the execution of these programs.
6. To encourage and assist in establishing training courses on rural housing for
professional workers, for interested volunteer leaders, and for persons interested in
improving their own homes and housing facilities.
The Extension citrus and vegetable advisory committees, composed of state and
county workers, serve a very worthwhile purpose. These committees determine
overall Extension programs for these two major commodities at periodic meetings.
All agents from citrus counties and all agents from vegetable counties met for
separate two-day refresher and conference schools during the year to become
acquainted with the latest research information and methods in these fields.
Club work among boys is advanced by the functioning of 10 4-H Club districts.
One agent in each district is elected chairman. Activities for club members and
training schools for 4-H Club officers are planned by the districts and carried out
with the assistance of the state staff.
In practically all counties the county agent serves as secretary to the County
PMA Committee and the soil conservation district supervisors, in addition to various
crop, poultry and livestock organizations. This keeps the Extension worker
informed and also permits him to participate in the work of these groups. The
specialists work very closely with these organized agricultural groups.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
The State USDA Council holds regular monthly meetings and attendance and
interest are good. The Council serves as a medium for promoting understanding of
the current programs and activities of the various agencies. The Extension Director
is chairman of the State Council and the State Coordinator of the Soil Conservation
Service is secretary. During the past year every other monthly meeting has been
held at some point where some of the work of one of the agricultural agencies
could be seen. These meetings have enabled Council members to become better
acquainted with specific work being done by various agencies and this has been
County councils in some instances hold regular meetings with good programs.
In other cases they meet at irregular intervals.
It is a policy for Extension workers in Florida to work harmoniously with the
various agricultural committees and organizations in the state. Some of the com-
mittee assignments and Extension responsibilities are as follows:
The Director is active in the following organizations: Chairman of the State
Seed Certification Technical Advisory Committee; chairman of the State P&MA
Technical Committee; chairman of the State USDA Council; Administrator of the
State Soil Conservation Board; vice-chairman of the Agricultural Division, and the
chairman of the sub-committee on general agricultural research of the State
Chamber of Commerce; ex-officio member of the State Production and Marketing
Administrative Committee; member of the Farmers Home Administration State
Florida Cooperative Extension
The Assistant Director was coordinator of the State Rural Housing Committee
and a member of the State Pesticide Special Committee. The Extension Forester is
a member of the Florida Forestry Council. The Apiculturist is chairman of the
program committee of the State Beekeepers Association.
The Economist in Marketing is secretary of the Florida Council of Farmer
Cooperatives and chairman of the Southeastern Regional Transportation Committee
of the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives. He is also secretary of the
Watermelon Growers' and Distributors' Association.
The Dairyman was chairman of the Extension Section of the American Dairy
Science Association. He continues as a member of three committees of the Florida
Dairy Industry Association and secretary of the Florida State Long-Range Dairy
Committee. He was asked to judge two shows in Cuba for the Cuban National
The Poultry Husbandman is secretary of the Florida Poultry Council and the
Extension Poultryman is secretary of the Florida Turkey Federation. These two
staff members also serve as consultants to the Florida State Poultry Producers'
Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Association, Record of Performance
Association, and Florida Feed Dealers' Association.
The Animal Husbandman is chairman of the State Livestock Loss Prevention
Committee; and the Assistant Animal Industrialist is superintendent of the Beef
Cattle Section of the Florida State Fair.
A District Agent serves as consultant to the State Crop Improvement Association.
The Florida Agricultural Council consists of representatives of 14 statewide
organizations which are agricultural in nature. The organizations included are
the State Horticultural Society, Florida Poultry Producers Association, Florida
Beekeepers Association, State Cattlemen's Association, Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association, Florida Agricultural Research Institute, Florida Seedsmen's Association,
Florida Dairy Industry Association, Florida Farm Bureau Federation, Florida Turf
and Lawn Conference, Florida Feed Dealers Association, Florida Citrus Research
Liaison Committee, Florida Association of Soil Conservation District Supervisors,
and Florida and Georgia Cigar Tobacco Growers Association. The Council takes
a keen interest in the agricultural development of the state.
CHANGES IN STAFF
Appointments and promotions:
Joe N. Busby promoted to Assistant State Boys' 4-H Club Agent from Assistant
County Agent, December 16, 1949.
J. S. Moore promoted to Extension Poultryman from Assistant, January 1, 1950.
Oliver F. Goen promoted to Animal Husbandman from Assistant Animal Indus-
trialist, February 1, 1950.
James A. McGregor, Assistant Animal Industrialist, February 1, 1950.
Forrest E. Myers, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist, February 1, 1950.
Marshall O. Watkins promoted to Assistant Director from Assistant to the
Director, July 1, 1950.
W. W. Brown promoted to State Boys' 4-H Club Agent from Assistant, July
H. G. Hamilton, Agricultural Economist, July 1, 1950.
Ruth S. Lemmon, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent, July 1, 1950.
Jasper N. Joiner, Assistant Editor, July 1, 1950.
Miss Anna Mae Sikes promoted to State Home Demonstration Agent from
District Agent, October 1, 1950.
Leon Odell Griffith, Assistant Editor, November 14, 1950.
Annual Report, 1950 11
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent, August 11, 1950.
Marshall O. Watkins, September 16, 1950.
Jasper N. Joiner, November 1, 1950.
STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from White County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
Months of service (agents and assistants) .------.. -----...-... .---------- --- 1,734
Days of Service: In office-19,866; In field-21,981 .-..-....-------------- 41,847
Farm or home visits made ..-.......-.......--------------------. -- 67,356
Different farms or homes visited ------------- 37,176
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-244,481; Telephone .---- 207,920
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youths _1......------------. 13,883
News articles or stories published _........ -------------------..----- 10,924
Bulletins distributed --- ------------------------------- 300,857
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ...................---------------- --------- 2,454
Training meetings held for local'leaders or committeemen:
Number ----_-_.....-------------..._..-.- 995
Total attendance of men and women .__...._...... .........------ 13,784
Method demonstration meetings:
Number --------------------------- 11,033
Total attendance --.. --.---...--------....---------------------- -245,905
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
Number ----------------------------------- 1,458
Attendance ---.-.. --...... ------ --------------------- 29,136
Tours ...---...--.............------------------------------------------------ 640
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work __------ ------ 653
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ..---------------......- 9,800
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms .-- .---------.. ------....----...---------------------------- 64,235
Farms on which changes ir practices have resulted from agricultural
program .. ------------------------------------ 32,390
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home
demonstration program ---- -------- ---------------- 17,231
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural program
for the first time this year --------------------------- 4,756
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home demonstra-
tion programs for first time this year ------------------ --------- 38,448
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled -._.-.---------- ----------- 10,906
Non-farm families making changes in practices as result of the agricultural
program ------------------- 21,785
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration program -.---------.------------------------ 19,293
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ......----.-..-------------.. 7,382
Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension program .. 43,876
Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program ......-----.... 39,395
12 Florida Cooperative Extension
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group .--.. -----..... ------------- 828
Unpaid .....------.. ---------------..----- 6 565
Paid ---------------------------------- ............................................ 263
Communities in agricultural planning --~... --------...- 102
Members in community agricultural planning ..... -------.......------ 431
Planning meetings held ---......---... ------.......--..-----...... ------.. 1,564
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
workers -- ---...._.....--------------------- 3,017
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ....------- ------......... ------ 3,292
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen ------- 7,607
Days devoted to work ---......-..-.--------- -. ----------.- 9,088
Communities in which work was conducted .....-------------------.... 3,233
Voluntary leaders and committeemen _---_ --............--- ----- 1,282
LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work _..-- -_____-_ ..- ...... ---- 6,756
Communities in which work was conducted -- ..---- 2,383
Voluntary committeemen and leaders ...... --------_...--...- 824
Breeding and improvement organizations --------- 130
Farmers assisted .--......................-..-......-----------------------.---. 45,904
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work ............ .-------- ----------------- 1,944
Communities in which work was conducted ..--------.-----. ------ 1,160
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen _. -----------------. 606
Farmers assisted in soil management ........------------...----. 47,225
'Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation.------------------ 13,594
Days devoted to work -- -------......-..--..-... ---......... ------ 1,640
Farmers assisted .... ----------------------------- 14,012
GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE
Days devoted to work ......--------------------------------------- 391
Communities in which work was conducted .--..---.............. --------- 470
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ......... ..----.------------------ 313
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted .....- .......------------ 778
MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work .........-.---- ------- -------....- 2,960
Communities in which work was conducted ....--- ----------.---------- 3,171
Established cooperatives assisted ........ .......... --------- ----------- 111
New cooperatives assisted in organizing .-------...-... ----------- --- 15
Annual Report, 1950 13
HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work ..-.------ ------------- 2,751
Communities in which work was conducted -..-----... _--.---------------- 1,724
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ._-------- ---- -----_------- 1,112
Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification and farm buildings ------- 44,613
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work -.-.. ._ ....----------------. ........... .......... 6,057
Communities in which work was done -----.... -----.--....-------- 2,529
Families assisted: In improving diets-17,751; food preparation-
19,195; Total _---------........--------..----------- 36,946
Families assisted with food preservation problems ------ 18,839
HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ---------.------------- 573
Communities in which work was done .......... -------------------- 417
Voluntary leaders assisting ..._----------------------...--- 343
Families assisted ......_------....----....... ------------------ 3,878
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies ----- 349
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 15,342
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems __------- 8,038
CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work ___..---------..... ----------- --- 2,341
Communities in which work was done ---....... ---------------------- --- 602
Voluntary leaders assisting ---.---.----.... ------------.------ 861
Families assisted ._.... ..........-------------------------------- 36,972
FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work ---.-------------- 457
Communities in which work was done --............-------------------- 357
Voluntary leaders assisting -....-....- ---------------------- .......- 355
RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work ........----- ------------ ---------------. 1,121
Communities in which work was done ---...._-.-...--- ----------- 594
Voluntary leaders assisting --..._. ------------------------- -------- 1,036
Families assisted in improving home recreation ...........-------------------. 6,225
Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities ..... 320
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs of
activities or meeting programs __........-------.------------------- 467
Communities assisted in providing library facilities ........-------------------- .54
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ........... --------------------------.. 8,426
Projects completed by girls ............--------------------------. 25,285
Boys completing corn and peanut projects --. ..--------.......-.............------. ..---- 960
Boys completing fruit projects ...----.......- ------------------- 182
Florida Cooperative Extension
Boys completing garden projects ..............- ----------.----------. 1,651
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops -- 202
Boys completing dairy projects --..--------.. 672
Boys completing poultry projects -------_~.......----------- 1,355
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ---..- -----.... 90
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ------ 142
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .----.... --------_-------- 1,663
Girls completing fruit projects __......... --------------- ---- 243
Girls completing garden projects ------- ------------------- 2,159
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ......-------- 2
Girls completing dairy projects .....---------..------------- ---- 127
Girls completing poultry projects ....... ----------------------- .767
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects -- 4,565
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid projects -- ------ 2,384
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and room
improvement projects .--- ----- 89... ... 8,931
Girls completing food preservation projects ...-------------------.----. 1,165
Boys: Farm-6,580; non-farm-2,418; total ------.. ~ -----....--- 8,998
Girls: Farm-6,503; non-farm-6,156; total ....--....-....---------- --- 12,659
4-H club members having examinations because of participation in
Extension program ....-------......-..-----...-....- 1,842
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs ---------- 538
Annual Report, 1950
EDITORIAL AND MAILING DEPARTMENT
J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor
CLYDE BEALE, Associate Editor
JASPER N. JOINER, Assistant Editor2
L. ODELL GRIFFITH, Assistant Editor3
The amount of information being disseminated by the Editorial Office increased
materially near the end of 1950, with the appointment of an additional Assistant
Editor. Principal emphasis will be placed on enlarging the output of news and
visual aids material, since the bulletin publication and radio fields are more
adequately covered already.
As in the past, Editorial and Mailing Department staff members devote ap-
proximately half of their time to work for the Agricultural Experiment Station.
Four new bulletins, about the average number for many years, and four cir-
culars were printed. One bulletin was reprinted. The new bulletins amounted to
200 pages all told, ranging from 20 to 124 pages. Editions varied from 10,000
to 25,000, totaling 65,000 copies.
The circulars ranged in size from four to six pages, in edition from 5,000
to 10,000 copies, and totaled 20 pages and 30,000 copies. A large number of
record books and other miscellaneous materials were printed also.
Publications and other materials printed during the year ending June 30
Dooryard Citrus Plantings in Florida ...-----.------.... ..._.. 24 15,000
Avocado Production in Florida --......--.. ......-...._ ....... 124 10,000
Camellia Growing -----------~.-... -____ ...- ...... 20 15,000
Household Insects and Their Control ....-----......_... 32 25,000
Papaya Culture in Florida (revised) ---...-..----..--------- 32 15,000
Five-Deep Brood Frame Hive ---_.....-------............_. 4 5,000
Brucellosis ---------------------------........ .... 4 5,000
Portable Farrow House ----------------...... ...-- --.....--- 6 10,000
Planning Farm Wiring ------------------------- ... 6 10,000
Florida Farm Record Book B (reprint) ------_-_ 28 6,000
Final Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Test ---.. 28 2,000
4-H Club Apiary Record Book --..----..-------. .....- ....... 16 2,500
4-H Club Record Book -----------.--- ------- ........... .... 16 25,000
4-H Club Poultry Record for Junior Members ........ 4 15,000
4-H Club Garden Record for Junior Members .......--. 4 15,000
4-H Club Livestock Record for Junior Members ....- 4 12 000
4-H Crops Record for Junior Members __..-... ..---- 4 10,000
4-H Club Nursery Record for Junior Members ----.---. 4 3.000
4-H Club Rabbit Record for Junior Members ---..-.. 4 2,000
4-H Club Forestry Record for Junior Members .......... 4 3,000
Florida Clothing Program for Junior 4-H Girls -------. 4 20,000
Florida Food Preparation Record for Junior 4-H Club
Girls, Demonstrations I and II --....--.....- ......... 4 12,000
Individual Club Member's Record Cards ...- -- 2 20,000
'Appointed February 20, 1950; called to active military service October 1, 1950.
"Appointed November 14, 1950.
16 Florida Cooperative Extension
Other miscellaneous materials printed included envelopes, exhibit cards, 4-H
coop cards, enrollment cards, postcards, calendar of 4-H events, monthly egg record,
cards advertising the Poultry Institute, boys' short course programs and certificates
Distribution of the publications is handled from the mailing room, with copies
of each new bulletin and circular going to libraries and specialists as well as to
county and home demonstration agents. About 15,000 people are notified of new
bulletins available. Distribution is largely on request.
As in previous years, the Editor served as Distribution Control Officer for
U. S. Department of Agriculture publications, and sent thousands of copies of
them to county and home demonstration agents and other staff members.
SERVICE TO NEWSPAPERS AND JOURNALS
The printed clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was continued for its 35th
year. Containing from 8 to 15 separate news items each week, it is sent primarily
to weekly newspapers, farm papers, county and home agents, vocational agriculture
teachers, and agricultural research workers. One thousand copies were printed
each week, the State Plant Board paying for 10 issues.
On the average around three stories a week were released through the
Associated Press or direct to one or more daily newspapers. The number materially
increased near the end of the year, with the employment of an additional Assistant
County and home demonstration agents report 10,924 news articles released in
their local newspapers.
Farm journals and periodicals continued generous use of copy supplied by the
Florida Extension Editors, one national, two Southern and two state journals
printing 17 articles, amounting to 377 column inches of space.
ON THE AIR
During 1950 the Florida Agricultural Extension Service was represented on
television for the first time. The home demonstration agents in Duval County
appeared on television shows in Jacksonville near the end of the year.
Radio broadcasting, long an important and effective means of disseminating
information, expanded slightly during the year. Twenty-seven home demonstration
and 35 county agents in 37 counties reported making 2,454 broadcasts. In at least
one county the agents broadcast daily. In a number of others they appear weekly
on the radio.
Radio service from this office blankets the entire state. The Editors supplied
seven 30-minute tapes to one station, each tape containing from four to six recorded
features, and three 15-minute tapes to another station. They also cut two platters
which were used on three stations each.
During the year the Editors sent 268 Farm Flashes to 31 radio stations and
county agents. Each was approximately seven minutes long. Of these, 123 were
based on material by Experiment Station workers, 93 by Extension Service staff
members, 37 from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 7 from the Editors and
8 from others. Separate flashes were prepared for north and south Florida stations
The Associate Editor prepared a weekly Florida Farm Review and a monthly
Home Demonstration Review which were released by the Associated Press to 23
stations. He sent a bi-weekly roundup to 24 stations not receiving the AP service.
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, in its 22nd year of continuous broadcast,
remained an important radio outlet. It was 30 minutes on each of five days a
Annual Report, 1950
week, 15 minutes on Saturday. It included 852 separate talks and interviews
on 312 days, one program being cancelled because of a national broadcast and
four being reduced to 15 minutes each by other national features.
Regular features prepared in this office included farm news highlights for
298 days, the farm question box weekly for 48 weeks, home economics notes
weekly for 50 weeks, and the editorial of the week 50 times. The Editors prepared
and made eight additional talks.
Other features included 130 talks by Experiment Station workers, 85 by other
members of the Extension staff, 124 Farm Flashes from the USDA, 13 talks by
teachers in the College of Agriculture, 11 by members of the State Production and
Marketing Administration staff, and four by State Plant Board workers. Once a
month for 10 months veterans and their trainers in the on-farm training program
were interviewed, 31 veterans and trainers appearing.
Four remote broadcasts were staged from the Florida State Fair in Tampa, one
from the College of Agriculture Fair on the campus and one from the Lake County
Fair at Eustis. Recordings broadcast included features from the State 4-H Dairy
Show in Orlando, the Alachua County 4-H Fair and an interview with a Census
The filmstrip library was maintained and increased, the accessions being from
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Strips were loaned on request to county
and home demonstration agents and others. Agents were assisted in obtaining
motion picture films and those in two counties were aided in purchasing motion
picture projection equipment. Two motion picture projectors, two strip projectors
and four public address systems were maintained.
Food and Home Notes from the USDA were sent weekly to all home demon-
stration agents, many of whom used them in radio broadcasts and in news stories.
Organizations and agencies extended cooperation in the release of news and
radio materials during the year included the College of Agriculture, State Plant
Board, Production and Marketing Administration, Farmers' Home Administration,
Rural Electrification Administration and vocational agriculture department.
The Editors spoke to eight groups on various phases of information work,
with 185 people present.
Florida Cooperative Extension
SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION
BONNIE J. CARTER AND L. T. NIELAND
National Farm Safety Week and National Fire Prevention Week were observed
by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service. Through the Extension Editor's
office packets of material on safety, prepared by the National Safety Council, and
on fire prevention by the USDA Council and the National Fire Protection Associa-
tion were provided to help agents organize and conduct safety and fire prevention
programs. Entomologists from the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station brought
up to date information on precautions to follow when using some of the new and
old pesticides and this information was sent to the agents also.
The Extension editorial staff prepared radio scripts and spot announcements
and helped publicize the program over Station WRUF, Gainesville, through news
articles, feature stories and editorials.
The Home Improvement Specialist, who directs the safety and fire prevention
activities for women and girls, prepared suggested activities, including outlines for
simple demonstrations, used by volunteer local leaders and 4-H Club girls in
developing the 4-H Club safety and fire prevention program.
During the annual Short Course for 4-H Club Girls at Florida State University
in June, two county home demonstration agents and a University 4-H Club girl
assisted with instruction in the two subjects. They used motion pictures, posters,
exhibits, demonstrations, lectures and mimeographed material to present the subject
to 250 girls, volunteer leaders and home demonstration agents from all parts of
Reports from county home demonstration agents show that they carried out
organized programs in safety and fire prevention in each of the 35 counties.
Through the efforts of these agents, 3,566 women and 3,798 girls were enrolled
for demonstrations in safety and fire prevention; 488 volunteer local leaders
assisted with the program and 887 method demonstrations were given at 1,148
meetings. Approximately 8,000 families were assisted and encouraged to remove
fire and safety hazards and 5,610 young people in 31 counties received definite
training along these lines.
Agents, volunteer leaders, 4-H Club girls, home demonstration women and
specialists presented radio programs and spot announcements over radio, showed
motion pictures and filmstrips, placed posters and exhibits, wrote news articles,
held meetings, made surveys and gave method demonstrations, and conducted
clean-up campaigns to focus attention of people on the need for adopting good
practices in safety and fire prevention.
Specialists in Clothing and Textiles, Hcme Improvement, Food Conservation,
and Home Industries and Marketing included safety and fire prevention in their
Again this year, water safety was emphasized in the 4-H Club camp program
at three district camps for white and one for negro boys and girls, as well as in
several county camps. Over 5,000 girls and boys learned the fundamentals of
water safety, some learned to swim, others increased their swimming ability, while
still others prepared themselves for life saving. Camp programs also included
environmental safety. Girls and boys made surveys of camp areas to find and
Annual Report, 1950
Part II --- Men's Work
H. G. CLAYTON, Director
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
F. S. PERRY, District Agent K. S. McMULLEN, District Agent
With the assistance and close cooperation of boards of county commissioners,
the Extension program was strengthened in the counties by additions to the staff
and by some increases in salaries. District Agents continued to work closely with
boards of county commissioners to see that Extension programs in the counties
were designed to fill the specific needs of the particular counties.
There were a large number of changes in county Extension personnel and the
District Agents played an important role in seeing that the new personnel were
placed so as to fill the specific needs of the counties concerned. The county agents
and new assistant agents were given needed assistance and training for their new
positions by the District Agents.
District Agents served on many committees designed to improve and expand the
work of the Extension Service. The more important of these committees were: 4-H
Club Camp Finance Committee, Florida State Fair 4-H Club Exhibit Committee,
Extension Program Planning Committee, Extension Citrus Advisory Committee,
Extension Vegetable Advisory Committee, and Extension Training Committee.
District Agents assisted in every way possible to maintain and promote good
relations between agencies, organizations, commodity groups and county agents,
which are so necessary for good Extension work. The support of these groups has
been very evident during the year and has made it possible to reach additional
District Agents continued their efforts to strengthen the new system of program
development and integration. In county planning meetings, attended by all county
Extension personnel, the District Agents brought a high degree of uniformity into
the county programs.
Much time was spent by District Agents in correlating the work of specialists
within the districts, thus facilitating and making more effective the work of the
specialists. The District Agents spent some time working with the Citrus Institute,
the Poultry Institute and the Farm and Home Institute. They also assisted county
workers with local, district and state shows and fairs.
Four-H club work within the districts and on a state-wide basis was a major
responsibility of the three District Agents. They attended 10 group meetings of
county agents to discuss and plan 4-H activities. The scheduling of counties to
4-H camps was also their responsibility.
Florida Cooperative Extension
H. G. HAMILTON, Agricultural Economist
FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. HAMPSON, Economist in Farm Management
F. W. PARVIN, Associate Economist
The Economist's time was divided about equally between farm management
extension projects and the teaching of methods in Agricultural Extension. The
Associate Economist gave full time to farm management work.
Farm and Home Planning.-The farm and home planning project with indi-
viduals, now in its tenth year, was conducted on the same plan as in past years
with only slight expansion. Plans for 271 farm families were made by the
Economist, the county agent, the farmer and his wife. About 1,600 changes in
practices were agreed upon, about 70 percent of which were carried out in a
creditable manner, resulting in an average increase in net farm income of about
$220, or 10 percent over the previous year. The work is carried on in nine
Assistance to Veterans.-The Economist is consultant to the veterans' supervisor
of vocational agriculture; and as such supplies standards for measuring size of farm
business, assists with the state annual meeting and various district meetings of
veterans' teachers, conducts discussions with local classes, and in answer to written
requests gives much information and some advice.
Assistance to Negroes.-Approximately one half of the work done in farm and
home planning is conducted with negro agents and farmers. Two of the district
meetings for veterans' teachers were with negro teachers and three 4-H leader
training meetings were for negro leaders. Two or more days were given to each
of the following: 4-H camp, 4-H short course, Resources Committee and Annual
Conference of Extension Agents.
Teaching Methods in Agricultural Extension.-Two regularly scheduled under-
graduate courses are offered each fall semester, four courses are offered during a
three-week summer school for in-service workers, and two problems courses are
offered each term of school. Twenty students were enrolled in the summer school,
56 in the fall classes and 12 in problems courses. The classroom teaching is
followed by assistance in the field. Aid was given in conducting training meetings
for 4-H leaders and officers of 21 counties.
Economic Considerations in Florida's Pasture Development Program.-Con-
tinuing the preliminary work started in 1949 the Associate Economist asked county
agents in a large number of Florida's important beef-producing counties to collect
certain information pertaining to the pasture development program.
Preliminary analysis of the data collected by those agents indicates that there
is the widest possible range in methods and types of pasture development. The
cost of development ranged between $10 per acre and $84 per acre. The cost of
maintenance ranged between $0 and $16 per acre in the cases reported.
While no research has yet been initiated in the field of costs and returns in
Florida's vast pasture development program, it is hoped that such will be forth-
coming in the not-too-distant future.
Farm Management for Florida's Agricultural Credit Sources.-During 1950 the
Associate Economist made a concerted drive to impress upon all major sources of
agricultural credit the fact that good farm management principles and practices
Rural bankers, Production Credit Association officers and Farmers' Home Ad-
Annual Report, 1950
ministration officials were told that the adoption of good farm management
principles should be made a part of the loan requirements.
In this connection the Associate Economist addressed the director's conference
of the Production Credit Association, the agricultural short course of the Florida
Bankers' Association, and the annual conference of the Farmers' Home Adminis-
Economic Outlook for Florida Farmers.-A mimeographed sheet summarizing
economic information important to Florida agriculture adapted from reports from
USDA Bureau of Agricultural Economics was prepared monthly for use of county
agents, vocational agriculture teachers, veterans' teachers, rural bankers and Exten-
sion staff members.
Florida Agricultural Outlook.-Following the national outlook conference in
Washington, October 30 to November 3, the Associate Economist prepared a
general report entitled The Outlook for Florida Farmers in 1951. This report was
distributed to 1,200 people who serve Florida farmers.
During the year the Associate Economist appeared before 17 farmer meetings in
11 counties and discussed the general subject of agricultural outlook for Florida
farmers. The combined attendance at these meetings was approximately 1,925
farmers. Thirteen radio talks were prepared and delivered on the subject of out-
look for various commodities and supplies for Florida farmers.
4-H Club Work.-Assistance was given at 35 4-H club events, including short
course and camps and seven district and county fairs, and in the selection of state
prize winners for national contests. Help was given in conducting training
meetings with 4-H leaders from 21 counties and 4-H officers from six counties.
Miscellaneous Activities.-Assistance was given in conducting 4-H camps, short
course, rally days, and achievement days and in judging exhibits and record books.
Cooperation was extended to 10 different farmer and civic organizations and to
college teachers. Assistance was also given in the preparation of manuscripts by
members of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station staff.
D. E. TuNI ONs, Economist, Marketing
There were a number of crop hazards in 1950, including freezes, hurricanes,
droughts, etc., and as has been the case before, some crops brought much better
prices than others. On the whole, prices for vegetables were not considered satis-
factory. Citrus and livestock prices were good. Honey, syrup and some poultry
products were unsatisfactory in price.
Citrus Fruits.-It was not necessary to spend as much time with these products
in 1950 as in 1949 because: Prices were better, the citrus code that required more
time in 1949 is in effect and the lime research project that took a lot of time in
planning in 1949 is in progress. Special effort was made to comply with requests
to attend meetings of trade associations and take part in various educational
meetings. Trade associations worked with include: Florida Citrus Mutual, Pro-
ducers Trade Association, United Growers and Shippers, Florida Canner Associa-
tion, Florida Express Fruit Shippers Association, Canners League of Florida,
Federal Marketing Agreement Committees (lime-avocado-mango); Extension Citrus
Committee and Citrus Institutes.
The Extension Economist cooperated with lime, avocado and mango commit-
tees in an effort to develop better and more practical maturity standards, more
satisfactory containers and improved grade standards.
Florida Cooperative Extension
Vegetables.-The Extension Economist spent more time with vegetables in 1950
than in any other recent year. Vegetable prices were relatively low and it seemed
advisable that he make a special effort to assist growers and marketing agencies in
finding ways to economize. Much emphasis was given to technological improve-
ments, especially those designed to save labor. There is a definite trend, and the
Extension Economist has cooperated in it, to package vegetables more nearly at
the point of growing. It is estimated that machinery has already been developed
that will cut harvesting and packing costs of some vegetable crops as much as 20%.
Quite noticeable are developments in sweet corn and in celery. There are other
efforts being made in such crops as cauliflower and leafy winter vegetables.
Transportation.-Transportation was a major project in 1950. The Extension
Economist in Marketing is Chairman of the Southeastern Cooperative Transporta-
tion Committee. This committee has concerned itself with cooperating with the
railroads in improving equipment, increasing certain types of equipment, better use
of equipment, and doing educational work all along the line in conserving as well
as making better use of available equipment. In connection with this project,
stress has been given to the importance of simplifying freight tariffs and to stand-
ardize motor-truck weight and equipment regulations.
Cooperative Marketing.-A long-time project of the Extension Marketing Spe-
cialist is encouraging farmers who need to organize themselves to take advantage
of the provisions of the cooperative laws. Small farmers are handicapped in both
selling and buying. By performing these functions collectively, it has been
possible to reduce costs and thereby make small growers better able to compete
with larger farmers.
Watermelon Growers and Distributors Association.-The Extension Economist is
secretary of this association. This organization is primarily an educational group
whose purpose is to assist in production, packing, transportation and distribution of
watermelons. One meeting is held annually. The Marketing Specialist is pri-
marily responsible for arranging the program for this meeting.
Livestock.-Rapid increase in the production of cattle has necessitated con-
siderable attention to the needs brought about by this increase. Assistance has
been given a number of livestock auctions in improving their facilities to handle
the increased volume and to other groups in determining needs for additional
markets. Possibly the warning against building a market where one could hardly
succeed is as important as to help to build one that is needed.
Miscellaneous.-There are a number of miscellaneous jobs that the Marketing
Specialist is called on to do, such as outlook meetings, which are in cooperation with
Mr. Parvin; attending the Southeast Shippers Advisory Board meetings when practi-
cal (information obtained at these meetings is of value in connection with the trans-
portation projects); livestock shows, which are helpful in working with farmers in
an effort to increase quality; Poultry Institutes; 4-H Club camps; vocational
agriculture teachers' annual meetings; Governor's Safety Council; meetings of the
Citrus Products Research Council; and meetings of civic organizations. It is
estimated that these miscellaneous projects take up about 10 to 15% of the time of
the Extension Economist in Marketing.
CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
ZACH SAVAGE, Associate Agricultural Economist, Experiment Station
Tabulated results of this project began in 1931 and the project has been under
way continually since that time. The number of records included varied from 70
in 1931-82 to 826 in 1936-37 and has averaged 251 per season. The acreage
included varied from 2,036 acres in 1931-32 to 10,479 acres in 1940-41. The
Annual Report, 1950 23
average for the 18 seasons was 8,630 acres per season. In the 1948-49 season
there were 223 records representing 7,883 acres of grove. Data completed to date
for the 1949-50 season do not include returns from fruit on 239 groves of 8,119
Production costs per acre decreased each successive season since the 1946-47
season through 1949-50 on groves over 10 years of age. Labor, power and
equipment, fertilizer materials, and spray and dust materials usually constitute 89
percent of the operating costs. Each of these items decreased during the 1946-50
period on a per-acre basis. Money spent for fertilizer materials decreased most
at 35 percent. Spray and dust material costs per acre decreased 17 percent, and
labor, power and equipment costs 12 percent. Operating costs per acre decreased
19 percent over this period. Operating costs and the three items of labor, power
and equipment, fertilizer materials, and spray and dust materials all were higher
per acre in the 1946-47 season than for any other of the 19 seasons of these cost
records. One of the chief reasons for this was that the 1946-47 season followed
five seasons of good fruit prices-varying from $1.02 per box in 1941-42 to $2.02
in 1944-45 and averaging $1.68. Good fruit prices accompanying rising costs of
production labor and materials seem to accelerate the increase of production costs
with each passing season. Then when fruit prices decline, as was the case in
1946-47 and 1947-48, production costs tend to remain high for some time. Also,
data calculated on a crop-year basis tend to prolong these high costs one year
longer than if on a fiscal-year basis. These data are on the crop-year basis, which
means that the designation for the season was for the season in which the fruit was
marketed and the production costs were incurred the previous season-the season in
which the bloom occurred.
The number of boxes of fruit harvested per acre increased each season since
1944-45, when it was 225 boxes. Hurricane damage in some sections lowered the
average that season. Boxes harvested increased to 342 boxes per acre in 1948-49
and averaged 319 boxes for the three seasons of 1946-49. There was some increase
in age of trees during this period. Also, there were good weather conditions
generally with little damage from low temperatures. Fruit harvested per acre
during the 18-year period, 1931-49, averaged 206 boxes from trees that averaged
21 years of age-four years younger than the age for the 1946-49 period.
The decreases in per-acre costs accompanied by increases in boxes harvested
accelerated the decreases in per-box costs. The season of 1946-47 had the highest
per-box costs for labor, power and equipment, fertilizer materials, spray and dust
materials, and total operating costs of the three seasons, 1946-49. The per-box
costs for the 1946-47 season were highest of the 18 seasons, 1931-49, for labor,
power and equipment, spray and dust materials, and total operating costs. There
were two seasons, 1931-32 and 1944-45, with higher costs per box in fertilizer
materials. The cost of fertilizer materials per box was 12 cents in 1948-49, the
lowest since 1941-42 season, when such was also 12 cents. There were only two
seasons of this 18-year period when fertilizer material costs were less than for the
1948-49 season. These two seasons were 1939-40 and 1940-41, when they were
11 cents per box. Total operating costs per box were 40 cents in 1948-49, the
lowest since the 1943-44 season and 1 cent under the 18-year average. There were
eight seasons when such costs averaged less than 40 cents.
Returns per acre from fruit were $136.41 in 1947-48-the lowest of any season
since 1940-41. The price received for fruit averaged 43 cents in 1947-48, which
was the lowest since 1938-39. There was one other season of this period, 1932-33,
when the fruit price was less than in 1947-48. There were 15 seasons when the
average fruit price was higher than this season and nine seasons when the price was
more than twice the 1947-48 price. The price received for fruit in 1948-49 of
Florida Cooperative Extension
$1.14 was two and two-thirds times the price the preceding season. The returns
from fruit per acre in 1948-49 were almost three times the returns in 1947-48.
Returns from fruit per acre in 1947-48 lacked $21.97 of refunding operating
costs. There was one other season-1932-33-of the 18 when there was an oper-
ating loss, but this loss was less than in 1947-48. The average return above
operating cost for the last three seasons, 1946-49, were $96.14 per acre or 30 cents
per box. There were 12 individual seasons of this period when return above
operating costs per acre were less than the average of these three seasons of 1946-
49, and nine seasons when the per-box figure was less than the 30-cent average. The
1948-49 results greatly improved the averages for the three-year period, 1946-49.
Returns above operating costs in 1948-49 amounted to $254.31 per acre or 74 cents
per box. There were only four seasons of the 18, 1942-46, when more returns
above operating costs were realized.
It is generally considered that good yields and high production lower prices
received for the product. In the case of citrus this was not so much the case
during the five seasons of 1941-46. During this period there were high production
and high prices received for citrus-two favorable factors seldom occurring at the
same time. The results were that the Florida citrus grower enjoyed great pros-
perity when compared to the 10 seasons of 1931-41.
Citrus yields were good during the three seasons of 1946-49. The average
yield of 321. boxes on the groves of these records for 1947-48 was the highest of the
17 seasons up to that time. The following season, 1948-49, the yield averaged 342
boxes-21 boxes higher. The price received for fruit was low for two of these
seasons, 1946-48, but improved to $1.14 in 1948-49. The yield per acre of all
groves in Florida during each of these three seasons was not exceeded in any prior
season, but in each season the state average was lower than the corresponding
average of these records. The price received for all fruit in the state during this
three-year period was 83 cents per box. This was 5 cents per box or 6 percent
higher than the average price received during the same period by the growers of
Total operating costs for the 1949-50 season were $30.87 per acre, or 19 per-
cent, less than in the 1946-47 season. The yield for 1949-50 was good, with a
considerably higher price received for fruit than in 1948-49. When the receipts
are all accounted for in the 1949-50 season, with the help of the decreased
operating costs, it is expected that the returns above operating costs will equal or
exceed any previous season for the groves included in these records.
The individual report for each grove was increased to two pages. For the
first time, labor, power and equipment costs for irrigation were separated from
such costs used for other purposes. It was thought advisable to begin a more
detailed cost analysis of irrigation, as many growers are purchasing rather elaborate
irrigation equipment and are spending liberally otherwise in irrigation.
Six additional items were added to the list, making 13 in all, of items ranked
for the 200 groves over 10 years of age. Comparisons of quantities of available plant
foods added during the season were included. Quantities of each of 10 fertilizer
elements were given on per-box, per-acre, and ratio-to-nitrogen bases for the
individual grove, average of all groves, and average recommendations by produc-
tion authorities. It was hoped that this type of information would stimulate
grower thinking sufficiently for him to correlate the poundage of plant foods added
with anticipated and actual yields for the purpose of lowering fertilizer costs where
feasible. A bound copy of individual grove reports was supplied county agents in
Lake, Orange, Polk, and Highlands counties. These are used by these agents for
reference when advising with the grower concerned for making recommendations
concerning grove management.
Annual Report, 1950 25
A copy of the Citrus Grove Record Book was sent each cooperator using this
book in keeping his record. Assistance was given the Citriculturist by supplying
information for publication in "Citrus Notes for County Agents in Citrus Pro-
ducing Counties." Manuscripts were prepared for two issues of The Citrus Indus-
try and nine for Citrus magazine. The article that appeared in the July issue of
Citrus also appeared in the September issue of The California Citrograph.
Citrus cost accounts were discussed before college classes in horticulture and
agricultural economics. Published material in this work was distributed to each
member of each class. A total of 1,572 copies of publications was used for this
A short statement relative to the rental of citrus groves was prepared for the
Agricultural Experiment Station to be published in a forthcoming bulletin.
The tabulation and presentation of this work was expedited by the issuance of
nine different forms, or a total of 5,100 copies. Four form letters were written
totaling 1,725 copies. Fifteen publications were issued representing a total of
10,925 copies of publications. A total of 28 different publications, letters, and
forms were issued representing 17,750 copies, or a total of 73,800 pages of material.
Florida Cooperative Extension
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND
JOH-N M. Jo:INSON, Agricultural Engineer
The Extension agricultural engineering program includes farm housing, farm
buildings fa-m market ng fac:lit:es, irrigation, farm drainage, and personal service
work. Results anJ method demn -traticns, illustrated lectures at farmer meetings,
work group training, exhibits, news and radio articles were employed.
The Engineer answered 641 letters requesting information on various phases
of the program, participated in 91 farmer meetings and demonstrations and 21
training schools, and visited 111 farmers in answer to requests for on-the-spot
Farm Structures.-The primary aim of the farm structures program is to
improve the standard of living and income through properly planned, better con-
structed, and more efficiently arranged farm buildings.
One of the most valuable contributions to the success of this program is the
Florida Farm Building Plan Service, whereby approved plans for dwellings and
other farm buildings are provided free to Florida farmers. For reproducing prints,
to be mailed in response to requests by farmers, 286 different building plans are on
file. Two mimeographed publications, Farm Building Plans and Plans for Farm
Dwellings and Appurtenances, list several of the most popular plans of each type
and describe each plan. These publications are supplied for' county Extension
office bulletin racks, vocational agriculture and veterans teachers. In addition to
these descriptive bulletins, 2,000 sets of building plans are furnished county
workers for their reference files.
Fig. 1-The state 4-H Club tractor driving contest, staged at Short Course
during 1950 for the first time, showed the skill of the boys and attracted much
: 1 ^
Annual Report, 1950 27
During the year 5,801 plans for various farm buildings were mailed to farmers
in answer to requests. To always have modern, up-to-date plans for distribution,
new plans are constantly being added. The Engineer maintains a drafting office
with two graduate student assistants, from which has come 38 of the most popular
plans which include 6 dwellings, 2 dairy calf barns, a portable farrowing house,
and a multiple outdoor fireplace.
The dairy calf barns and farrowing house were developed in cooperation with
members of the Animal Husbandry Department. Scale models of the low-cost
dwelling house and the calf barn were made and have been used in teaching and in
exhibits. The dairy calf barn has become very popular with dairymen who are
members of an artificial breeding association.
In cooperation with the Extension Home Improvement Specialist and the Farm
Electrification Specialist, nine regional training meetings (two for negro and seven
for white) were conducted for professional workers in the field. The training
classes covered planning, construction, use of materials, and use of electricity, with
special emphasis on methods to be used in presenting housing information to rural
The Agricultural Engineer spent 57 days in the fiel? as isting county and home
demonstration agents in conducting their educational prcg-am; in farm structures.
The agents devoted 2,446 days to this phase of the agricultural engineering
Farm Machinery.-No farm can be considered mechan'zdc to its practical
economic limits so long as any operation that can be acc mplshed through the use
of power equipment is being performed at a higher cost or with loss efficiency
through hand labor or animal power.
The aim of the Extension farm machinery program is to teach the farmer, his
son, his hired labor, and the county agent the im-crtance cf wise selection, proper
use, and constant maintenance of the many useful pieces of machinery employed
in modern farming operations. There are now an estimated 121,200 pieces of
automotive equipment, including 25,000 farm tractors, operating on Florida farms.
The number of tractors has increased 67% since July 1946.
The exhibit-demonstration has been used primarily in the phase of the program
concerned with selection and operation. One hundred farm equipment dealers in
the state have cooperated in providing machinery for 72 exhibit-demonstrations
held at various farmer gatherings this year. An estimated 22,000 farmers in-
spected or operated the machinery at gatherings which included farm machinery
field days, farm tours, county fairs, and county 4-H tractor operators' contests.
Preventive maintenance is an important factor in the efficient operation of
meclhanical equipment. The 4-H tractor maintenance project is based upon this
premise. Two three-day tractor maintenance training schools, for 22 volunteer
local leaders from 16 counties, were held this year for the purpose of giving the
leader subject matter which he in turn uses in conducting his county schools for
1-H boys enrolled in the tractor maintenance project. To coincide with the
maintenance program, a tractor operators' contest has been organized and last
year was conducted in 17 counties for the selection of the champion 4-H tractor
operator to represent the county at the state operators' contest held at annual 4-H
The engineer devoted 51 field days and 22 office days to the machinery
program. This time was spent answering 110 letters requesting information on
machinery, preparing news items, and planning demonstrations and schools.
Sixteen days were spent in personal service visits to 28 farms in answer to requests
for assistance, 18 days were spent conducting schools and contests; and 5 days were
spent with manufacturers in work on new equipment.
Florida Cooperative Extension
County agents devoted 385 days to assisting 4,711 farmers with machinery
problems. This work was conducted with the assistance of 169 volunteer local
leaders in 418 communities in 57 counties.
Marketing Facilities.-It is important for farmers to go beyond the production
stage to obtain the most possible return for their labor and investment in their
product. Preparation of a commodity quite often determines the grade in which
the commodity is sold. Therefore, if proper preparation is lacking the profit will
The aim of the marketing facilities program is to furnish all available informa-
tion to the farmer and packer on preparing his products for both market and home
use in the most efficient manner to obtain quality and sustain price.
The major activities of this program center around crop drying and fence
post treatment. At the beginning of the Extension agricultural engineering
program in 1945, a study revealed that there were no mechanical hay driers in the
state. Also, there was very little hay being produced, for long had the farmer
known that the excessive rains and high humidities that existed during the haying
seasons made this practice a risky one. As a result, millions of dollars were being
spent yearly by farmers and dairymen on inferior imported hays.
The Engineering Specialist designed the first successful mechanical farm hay
drier constructed in the state and last year designed and assisted in the construction
of the largest farm-type seed drier in the state. The seed drier has been operated
two seasons, during which time 527,000 pounds of blue lupine, 140,000 pounds of
Bahia grass, 11,000 pounds of hairy indigo, 1,000 pounds of carpet grass, and small
quantities of various other seeds have been dried.
In the fertile lands of South Florida corn can be grown at a yield many times
larger than in other areas of the South. The difficulty encountered in the
southern area is in high moisture and insect damage. Last year several ranchers
grew corn for finishing beef animals. These progressive ranchers employed
mechanical driers and were able to produce home-grown corn for feed on a large
scale for the first time.
As a result of the successful drying operations of the drier installed during the
past two years, the interest in this activity among farmers and ranchers has risen
greatly. There are now over 50 mechanical driers operating on farms in the state.
Due to the sustained and increased interest in livestock production, the
activity on fence post treatment, in cooperation with the Extension Forester, has
been continued. A farm method, which consists of a shallow tank suitable for
day-to-day operations, has been devised by the two specialists. The treatment
recommended, now used extensively throughout the state for treating posts and
timber, employs a 5% solution of copper naphthenate or pentchlorophenol in the
cold soak method. A two-page mimeographed leaflet describing the operation is
provided for bulletin racks.
A total of 80 days were spent making personal service calls and conducting
demonstrations. Ninety-five letters were answered and nine groups totaling 405
farmers and 250 individual farmers and ranchers were met for the purpose of
discussing various phases of the marketing facilities program, which included crop
drying, fence post and lumber treating, tobacco curing, and washing and pre-
Drainage and Irrigation.-The activity in these phases of agricultural engineer-
ing has been confined to personal service calls and demonstrations.
Twenty-six days were devoted to answering letters requesting information on
drainage or irrigation, planning or conducting demonstrations, and in visiting 11
farms to inspect and make recommendations regarding drainage problems.
Five irrigation demonstrations were conducted, attended by 1,850 farmers and
ranchers. Agents assisted 1,445 farmers with irrigation and 2,274 farmers with
farm drainage problems.
Annual Report, 1959
A. M. PETTIS, Farm Electrification Specialist
Safe, Adequate Wiring.-The farm electrification program in Florida is based
on safe, adequate wiring. Electrical farm and home equipment will not operate
properly and may be a hazard, if the wiring is not adequate for the loal. This
specialist wrote a leaflet entitled, "Planning Farm Wiring." Copies of this leaflet
have been mailed to every county Extension worker for distribution to interested
farmers. In addition many copies have been personally distributed at mineting; by
To demonstrate the effects of poor wiring. the writer built a voltage drop panel
which has been revised and enlarged to give more effective demonstrations.
Demonstrations with this equipment and wiring talks have been given 53 times
this year to 8,500 rural people, including farmers, Extension agents, 4-H members,
Proper Lighting.-The Farm Electrification Specialist planned and equipped a
lighting panel to show Extension workers and rural people the differences in kinds
of lighting and the need for good lighting. This panel is 7 feet high, 8 feet long, and
3 feet deep. It contains pin-up lamps, a fluorescent fixture, a poor drop light and
an improved drop light, a poor ceiling fixture and an improved ceiling fixture, a
night light, and wall outlets. Manv Extension workers and farmers have been
taught facts of good lighting at two farm and home institutes and the Extension
annual conference. In promoting good lighting, this Specialist has had very
close cooperation of the Extension Home Improvement Specialist.
Electrical Equipment.-Throughout the year assistance has been given to
Extension workers, farmers, and 4-H members on the selection, care, and use of
Fig. 2.-This lighting panel helped tell the story of better lights in the home to
11' 1 %1
Florida Cooperative Extension
electrical farm and home equipment. Bulletins on electric water systems, home-
made chick brooders, electric motors, and other electrical equipment have been
supplied to farm leaders and farmers.
4-H Farm and Home Electric Contest.-A survey was conducted by this
Specialist to stimulate interest among county Extension workers and to determine
their need for contest material. Helpful material was obtained for 40 agents
desiring it. Assistance has been given to 40 agents and local leaders. Four dis-
cussions with 230 4-H members have helped to stimulate interest in this contest.
At the summer 4-H camps this specialist supervised 4-H members in practical
wiring work. Outdoor floodlights were installed and permanent wiring was
installed to an exhaust fan. The state winner in the Farm and Home Electric
Contest this year was Roy Heathcoe of Hillsborough County.
Co-ordination of County Work.-On numerous occasions this Specialist has
promoted better relations between county agricultural workers and power suppliers.
Specifically, he has urged rural electric cooperatives to mail Extension workers
copies of newsletters sent regularly to their members. Electrification advisers hired
by the cooperatives have been assisted in their work with county agricultural
workers. The writer has encouraged electric cooperatives to place Extension
workers on the programs of their annual meetings and to publicize the activities of
Extension workers. County Extension workers have been urged to attend annual
meetings of electric cooperatives and have been informed of the organization and
operation of these cooperatives.
Training Program.-This Specialist, in cooperation with the Extension Engineer
and the Home Improvement Specialist, organized a training program for home
demonstration agents in 1949. This year six additional advanced training schools,
attended by 82 home demonstration agents, were held to teach housing informa-
tion. This Specialist taught fundamentals of electricity and planning proper
At the annual Extension conference additional information on farm electrifica-
tion was presented to home demonstration agents. At the negro agents' annual
conference this Specialist instructed 22. negro county and home demonstration
agents in simple electricity and planning proper wiring. Basic things that could
be done to assist their colored farmers in the safe, economical use of electricity
In cooperation with the Rural Electrification Administration and the electric
cooperatives, this Specialist has helped train electrification advisers hired by the
cooperatives. An orientation school, a wiring school, and a range school have
been held this year. This Specialist devoted considerable time to planning these
schools, as well as teaching subjects in the schools.
This Specialist encourages power suppliers to inform their consumers about
proper wiring, good lighting, and the safe, economical use of electrical equipment.
Six electrification advisers have been hired by the electric cooperatives in the
state to assist their members. Eleven electric cooperatives publish newsletters
regularly to bring timely information to their members. This Specialist has assisted
every electrification adviser to organize a program of work with rural people. This
includes acquiring and using demonstration material. The writer helps to
co-ordinate the efforts of these workers with farm leaders, including county
Extension personnel, vocational agriculture teachers, and veterans' teachers. Each
of the electric cooperatives has an annual meeting attended by large crowds of their
members. This specialist has given demonstrations and talks at seven annual
meetings, attended by 7,200 rural people this year.
Rural Telephones.-Work in the field of rural telephones has been done as the
need has arisen. At present about 12% of Florida farms have telephones. This
compares with 40% of the nation's farms. 'The first loan made by the Rural
Annual Report, 1950
Electrification Administration to further telephone service directly affects Florida
farmers. The Florala Telephone Company, Florala, Alabama, received this loan,
and additional lines will be built in Walton and Okaloosa counties in Florida, as
well as a county in Alabama.
Six existing small commercial telephone companies in Florida have applied
for loans. Three groups of rural people, in every case assisted by county
Extension workers, are attempting to obtain rural telephone service for their
areas. This Specialist presented the latest information on rural telephones to
Extension agents at their annual conference. He supervised a rural telephone
survey covering part of four counties for the REA. The writer has contributed
information at four telephone meetings and has co-ordinated the efforts of the
three interested groups in the state so that a maximum effort may be made to
obtain telephone service for rural people in Florida.
Additional Uses of Electricity.-This Specialist is on the alert to learn of more
practical uses of electricity on the farm. At the request of a county agent and an
electric cooperative manager, assistance was given toward preparing a demon-
stration. This demonstration used infra-red heat lamps to limit the effects of blue
mold in a tobacco bed. This Specialist also assisted the Experiment Station
Engineer in preparing a test tobacco bed. This bed used infra-red lamps over
one-half of the bed to determine the extent of blue mold control by the lamps. Re-
sults of this one test have been encouraging. Further experimentation is needed
to determine the cost and effectiveness of this method of control as compared
with other methods.
Fig. 3.-Infra-red lights used on this tobacco plant bed showed a degree of con-
trol of blue mold, but more information is needed about costs and methods of
using the rays.
Florida Cooperative Extension
J. R. HENDERSON, Extension Agronomist
Major activities of the project leader in agronomy Extension included:
1. Preparing and distributing to county agents recommendations for produc-
tion of the major field crops and the various kinds of pasture and specific sugges-
tions for county Extension activities in agronomy.
2. Conferences with county agents, in groups and individually, for presenta-
tion of subject-matter information and discussion of Extension methods.
3. Meetings with seed, fertilizer, and pesticide dealers and with groups of
farmers to better acquaint them with Extension recommendations for the production
and management of field crops and pastures.
4. Assisting county agents with specific Extension projects in soils, field crops
The project leader has continued to assist agents in all sections of the state in
gaining an appreciation of soil conditions in their respective counties and in
determining lime and fertilizer requirements of different soils when used for pro-
duction of various field crop and pasture plants.
As an aid to county workers the project leader developed and distributed to
them a mimeographed set of recommendations for the production of the major
field crops and the various kinds of pastures. These recommendations are developed
in such a way that each agent can lift from them recommendations applicable to
Suggestions for project activities were outlined at the beginning of the crop
year and again, particularly from the standpoint of desirable result demonstrations,
at the annual conference in October.
Meetings.-In cooperation with district supervisors, county agents and other
specialists, and with assistance of personnel of the Experiment Station and the
Production and Marketing Administration, community meetings were held during
January in 20 counties in the general farming area. At these meetings, information
on outlook, price supports, marketing quotas and conservation payments and
recommendations on production and management of livestock, pastures and field
crops were presented. These meetings were attended by approximately 3,500
Two meetings for seed, fertilizer and pesticide dealers were held, one at
DeFuniak Springs and one at Madison, in early December. Research information
on varieties, fertilization and pest control was reviewed and Extension recommen-
dations were outlined. In each case county agents secured attendance of dealers
and accompanied them to the meetings.
In cooperation with the Extension Vegetable Specialist and officers of the
Florida Seedsmen's Association, the Extension Agronomist gave instruction on soils,
fertilizers and field crop varieties at a seedsmen's school held at Gainesville in
January. Also, he was a member of a panel that reviewed research information
and presented Extension recommendations on varieties and fertilization of field
crops and pastures at the annual meeting of the Association in June.
The project leader, in cooperation with other specialists and research workers,
planned and made all arrangements for a meeting of seed producers at Tallahassee
in November. This meeting was well attended and was followed by the organiza-
tion of the Florida Seed Producers' Association.
The project leader assisted with three pasture field days for bankers and
professional agricultural workers.
Annual Report, 1950
Assistance was given agents in planning and conducting farm tours and in
presenting subject-matter information at special farm meetings and at meetings of
farm organizations and civic clubs.
Again this year the Extension Agronomist cooperated with county agents and
4-H Club leaders in carrying out production projects with field crops, with special
emphasis on corn production, using seed of the best hybrid available and heavier
than usual rates of fertilization. An excellent State 4-H Corn Show, described by
many as the best to date, was staged at Tallahassee in October.
In cooperation with the Tobacco Branch of the Production and Marketing
Administration, tobacco sorting and grading demonstrations were held in mid-July
in each of the counties where flue-cured tobacco is produced.
Permanent Pastures.-Activities during the year were designed to secure the
establishment of more pastures and the improvement of the carrying capacities of
those already established.
Recommended practices for pasture establishment and management emphasized
During the year are generally as follows: (1) Choose varieties to fit soil conditions
and grow legumes with grasses wherever possible and profitable; (2) prepare a
firm, fertile seedbed; (3) lime in accordance with soil conditions and the require-
ments of plants to be grown; (4) fertilize adequately, including minor elements
where they are needed, keeping in mind the kind of soil and the nutrient require-
ments of the grasses or grass-legume combinations to be grown; (5) seed or sod
at proper rates and when soil moisture and temperature are favorable for germina-
tion and growth; (6) inoculate legumes at rates above those recommended by the
manufacturers of inoculants, increasing the rates as the size of seed decreases;
(7) cover seed or vegetative material, by appropriate means, immediately after
sowing or scattering and make seedbed firm by rolling with suitable equipment;
(8) when seeding legumes on established grass sod, first remove excess grass by
mowing or close grazing and disk sod lightly; (9) mow or chop as often as necessary
for control of weeds; (10) refertilize grass or grass-summer legume pastures each
spring and grass-winter legume pastures each fall, using a complete fertilizer for
grass pastures on mineral soils and phosphate and potash fertilizers for grass
pastures on organic soils and for grass-legume pastures; (11) relime every four or
five years to bring calcium supply or soil pH values back to desired levels; and (12)
practice rotational grazing or control cattle numbers so that succulence is main-
tained, maximum production of forage is secured, and natural reseeding of legumes
Detailed recommendations, based on these general principles, were furnished
all county agents, who were confronted with the greatest demand ever for this type
of information. Throughout the year the county agents assisted farmers with their
pasture, problems. In addition to furnishing production recommendations, they
held meetings, staged demonstrations, conducted tours, and assisted in locating
supplies of seed, limestone and other materials. The project leader assisted several
agents in holding meetings and conducting tours. These tours and meetings, no
doubt, did much to increase interest in the development of better pastures.
Indications are that more pastures were established on Florida farms this year
than in any other year in history. The increase in acreage of winter pasture
legumes would have been much larger if weather conditions had been more favor-
able. Particularly noteworthy was the increase in pasture acreage on smaller farms.
Research work on pasture varieties and fertilization was reviewed and detailed
recommendations for result demonstrations, involving promising new varieties and
rates, dates, and kind of fertilization, were outlined at the agents' conference in
Temporary Grazing Crops.-In addition to furnishing county agents with
'Florida Cooperative Extension
production recommendations the Agronomist assisted them in locating seed supplies
of recommended varieties of sweet lupines, reseeding Crimson clover, oats and rye.
Due to the prevalence of Victoria blight and a new race of crown rust during
the last four growing seasons, acreage devoted to oats has declined. All Victoria
strains of oats, formerly widely used, are highly susceptible to Victoria blight, and
all Red Rustproof types are moderately susceptible to new races of crown rust.
Camellia oats and Florida Black rye are resistant to both diseases. Again this year
the Extension Agronomist located seed supplies of these varieties, furnished this
information to seed dealers and county agents, and urged them to secure the
widest possible use of these varieties.
Southland, a new variety of oats superior to Camellia in both grain and forage
production, was selected at the North Florida Experiment Station and seed supplies
were increased through Experiment Station plantings at Gainesville, Quincy and
Jay. The project leader accepted applications and otherwise assisted with the
distribution of approximately 10,000 bushels of seed of this new variety.
Corn.-Workers at the Florida Experiment Station have shown that corn yields
can be increased economically by improving the soil fertility with leguminous
crops, using seed of adapted hybrids, applying fertilizers at heavier rates, and
spacing plants properly. Recommendations based on these findings were furnished
to county agents who brought them to the attention of farmers by appropriate
means. Production projects by 4-H Club members were used to demonstrate the
soundness of recommended practices and also to demonstrate that round seed
produce as well as flat seed. Very successful contests among adults were staged
in several counties, under financial sponsorship of local Farm Bureau and local
Particular emphasis was placed on the use of Dixie 18, a hybrid developed at
the Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station from four inbred lines, two of which
were developed at the Florida Station. High yield, good resistance to weevil and
high resistance to lodging are all combined in it. It is estimated that 32 percent
of the corn acreage was planted with hybrid seed.
The Agronomist assisted farmers in securing foundation seed for planting 600
acres of Dixie 18 and other adapted hybrids. Although the use of Dixie 18, a
yellow corn, has become widespread, there is still a demand for a white hybrid
with the superior qualities possessed by Dixie 18. Through cooperation of the
Georgia Coastal Plain Station, a small quantity of seed of Ga. 281, a white hybrid
formerly known as GCP 8100, was distributed among agents in 28 counties for
demonstration plantings. Agents' reports and research data indicate that this
hybrid is equal to Dixie 18 in yield and resistance to weevils and to lodging.
Peanuts.-The Agronomist, cooperating with county agents, and the agents
working alone in their respective counties, continued to emphasize Extension
recommendations as regards varieties, seed treatment, spacing, rates and kind of
fertilization, placement of fertilizers, and dusting for control of disease and insect
Special emphasis was placed on further development of certified seed of Dixie
Runner, a high-yielding variety that is relatively free of concealed damage. At the
suggestion of the Agronomist, the Experiment Station produced approximately
20 tons of foundation seed in 1949, which were distributed to seed producers last
spring. Seventeen farmers produced certified seed on 1,485 acres in 1950. In
contrast, nine farmers produced certified seed on 432 acres in 1949.
Flue-Cured Tobacco.-As a result of widespread adoption of Extension recom-
mendations for control of weeds, insects and diseases, and for correlation of soil
type, fertilization and spacing, the average yield of flue-cured tobacco increased
from 721 pounds per acre in 1941 to 1,079 pounds per acre in 1949.
Annual Report, 1950
Control of insects during 1950 was simplified by adequate supplies of the
newer insecticides and the widespread adoption of the sled-row method of planting,
which permitted the use of tractor-drawn dusters and sprayers.
Dry weather during the early part of the growing season, combined with wide-
spread damage by nematodes and use of excessive rates of fertilization by many
farmers, resulted in lowering of yields and quality on many farms.
Because of the interest in nematode control, latest information on soil fumiga-
tion was brought to the attention of the county agents and seven test demonstra-
tions on the use of soil fumigants for nematode control were conducted in five of
the more important tobacco counties.
Through cooperation of a friend of tobacco farmers, the Extension Service
again sponsored an area-wide contest in which awards to growers were made on
basis of quality. This contest is doing much to increase interest in methods of
producing tobacco of higher quality.
Cotton.-Experimental plantings of Sealand 542, a long staple cotton that
resembles upland cotton in growth habit, have been made for several years. Up
to date information on yields, prices, staple length and cultural practices were
furnished to county agents in central and northern Florida for their guidance in
making recommendations to farmers interested in growing this variety. The project
leader assisted with a Sealand cotton production contest, in which prize money
made available by the Florida Department of Agriculture was awarded to three
growers in each of four different areas.
The Extension Agronomist spent 101 days in the field, of which 46 were spent
on area or statewide activities and 55 were spent in assisting county agents indi-
Reports from the county agents show that they spent a total of 5,218 days on
field crops and pastures.
Florida Cooperative Extension
OLIVER F. GOEN, Animal Husbandman
J. A. McGREGOR, Assistant Animal Industrialist
Many dollars are lost each year to Florida livestock raisers due to lack of proper
regard for herd sanitation and the health of their livestock by livestock raisers.
Through talks to farmer groups, county agents, and cattlemen's association meet-
ings, radio talks, news articles, and exhibits, the importance of good livestock
sanitation practices and their relation to the control and prevention of animal
diseases and parasites have been pointed out.
Loss of many dollars to Florida livestock producers from crippling, bruising,
and killing of livestock due to improper handling from farm to market and at live-
stock markets continues to be a problem. The State Livestock Loss Prevention
Committee endeavors through education to promote prevention of livestock losses.
The Extension Animal Husbandman is chairman of this committee. One meeting
was held in Quincy, attended by more than 200 persons. Through news articles
and talks to various farmer groups and other groups connected with the livestock
industry, the Extension Animal Husbandman has pointed out these losses and
emphasized how they affect all members of the industry.
Beef Cattle.-Beef cattle are playing a more important part in the agricultural
economy of the state. Gross income from beef cattle during 1949 was better than
$21,000,000. The total number of cows and calves reported on Florida farms
January 1, 1950, was 1,392,000, an increase of 127,000 head. The clearing and
planting of unimproved rangeland into pasture has continued at a very rapid rate.
The beefiness and quality of Florida cattle have not kept pace with the improve-
ment in the feed supply.
Since the advent of citrus by-product feeds, the production of Big Joe corn in
the Okeechobee muckland area, and the production of more corn in the west
Florida area, the feeding of concentrated feeds to cattle has become more profitable.
There are approximately 380 purebred herds in the state. Extension specialists
have worked closely with purebred breeders individually and through their associa-
tions in organizing sales and field days. They have promoted the use of purebred
bulls in improving the beefiness and quality of commercial herds and in the pro-
duction of high grade cattle that are of sufficient quality to be suitable for the feed-
lot. County agents have reported assisting 665 cattlemen to secure purebred bulls
and 629 to secure purebred or high grade heifers. Reports also show 3,763 farmers
controlling external parasites affecting beef cattle, while 3,139 farmers used control
measures on internal parasites and diseases of beef cattle. County agents, assisted
by 253 local leaders, spent 2,152 days in 577 communities working on beef cattle
problems. They assisted 3,093 farmers in improving methods of feeding beef cattle.
Hogs.-There were reported 619,000 head of hogs on Florida farms January
1, 1950. There were 524,000 head of hogs marketed in the state during 1949. The
gross income from hogs to farmers of the state during 1949 was $17,514,000. By
talks to farmer groups, consultations with county agents, circular letters, radio
talks, personal contacts, and work with 4-H club members, problems of Florida
hog producers, as recognized by the Extension Animal Husbandry Specialists,
were discussed and their solutions pointed out.
Reports show that county agents helped 488 farmers to secure purebred boars
and 484 to secure purebred or high grade gilts. They assisted 3,979 farmers in
controlling external parasites of hogs and 5,697 in controlling internal parasites
and diseases affecting hogs. County agents assisted 2,600 farmers in improving
Annual Report, 1950 37
methods of feeding hogs. County agents, assisted by 85 local leaders, devoted
1,468 work days on swine production.
4-H Club Activities.-Expansion of 4-H Club livestock work has been a major
project stressed in the animal husbandry program. Three separate beef projects
have been suggested to cover three different phases of the field. First, a commer-
cial calf project was designed to utilize Florida-produced calves and as much
Florida-produced feed as possible, the ultimate product being a calf suitable to go
into the commercial feed lots of Florida or one suitable for marketing as a good
slaughter calf. Second, a cow and calf project to give the club member a complete
education in all phases of cattle production, to produce high quality calves for
feeder calf sales, and to start the 4-H club member in the cow business with a
small herd of commercial cattle. Third, the 4-H club fat steer project to enable
the individual club member to gain experience in handling good cattle and in
producing a superior product at the end of the project. A fat steer project gives
the 4-H club member invaluable experience for use in later work in raising or
handling cattle where purebred or high quality cattle are involved.
A fat barrow project and a sow and pig project are the two swine projects that
have been stressed.
The Extension Animal Husbandry Specialists attended four 4-H club camps at
which various subjects relating to animal husbandry were taught.
Florida Cooperative Extension
JOHN D. HAYNIE, Apiculturist
Honey production in Florida reached its highest record in 1950 with over 15.6
million pounds, in spite of the partial crop failure in the tupelo section, the second
largest honey-producing area. This is the second time-the first was in 1946-
that Florida beekeepers have produced over 15 million pounds of honey.
The citrus bloom extended over a much longer period this year, being somewhat
similar to 1949, but honey production was heavier. Other nectar flows were from
weak to good.
Florida again ranked fifth in honey production, led by Minnesota, California,
Iowa and Texas. This 1950 crop of honey was produced by an estimated 208,000
colonies. The estimated average yield of honey per colony was 75 pounds this
year and 56 pounds last year.
Three new packing plants were established this year, indicating an increased
demand for Florida honey.
There was an unexpected increase in the number of colonies. But with this
increase and the large crop of honey, there proved to be no unusual marketing
problem. So far, only two carloads of honey have been bought by the government
under the support-price program. This honey purchased by the government is to
be distributed to school lunchrooms throughout the state.
The Extension Apiculturist's approach to a program in beekeeping is carried
out through the county and home agents, district beekeepers' associations, the
State Beekeepers' Association, the Florida State Fair, horticultural societies and
any group interested in the activities of the honey bee.
The radio, news letters and special circulars on beekeeping enable the Apicul-
turist to recommend better methods and practices in the field of beekeeping.
Many personal service trips are made to the field to analyze beekeeping prob-
lems in cooperation with county agents.
Pollination.-Demands for legume seed are increasing each year. North Florida
counties are planting more pastures and legumes furnish a large amount of the
forage when grown either separately or with grasses. Since legumes fertilize the
grass and also furnish pasture for grazing, legume seed production is steadily
Honey bees increase the seed yields tremendously when sufficient numbers of
colonies are uniformly distributed in the legume fields.
The County Agent in Jefferson was assisted in the selection of 65 colonies of
honey bees for seed growers in that county. The colonies were moved to the
legume fields to assist the natural insects in the pollination of Crimson clover,
Annual Sweet (Hubam) clover, White Dutch clover and watermelons.
An exhibit of legume pollination, honey bees and bulletin information on polli-
nation was set up at the Jefferson County Fair in October 1950. The legume polli-
nation exhibit was shown at the Jackson County Fair, where the farmers are be-
ginning to increase their legumes for pasture purposes and seed production.
Work With 4-H Club Members.-The main project for 4-H Club beekeeping is
carried on at Camp McQuarrie. This apiary site is proving to be economically
sound in honey production and providing an excellent laboratory for the instruction
of agents and 4-H Club boys and girls. While the boys are usually more interested
in beekeeping projects than the girls, yet a few girls keep bees.
Carey Robbins, Thomas Townsend and Ralph T. Clay assisted the Apiculturist
in moving the bees to the citrus bloom and then back to the honey flow around
Annual Report, 1950
Camp McQuarrie. These assistant agents all have demonstration colonies and boys
with apiary projects. Being located near the 4-H Club apiary at Camp McQuarrie,
the agents have assisted the Apiculturist in all the operations of the apiary, pre-
paring the colony for the spring honey flow, moving colonies, supering, taking off
honey, extracting and preparing colonies for the winter.
The Assistant Agent in Polk County conducts a demonstration apiary and the
4-H Club boys put on a bee and honey exhibit each year at the county fair. The
Assistant Agent in Orange County has used visual aids in connection with Apicul-
turist in developing interest in 4-H Club beekeeping.
The Assistant Home Agent in eastern Hillsborough Count), set up a demonstra-
tion apiary to teach 4-H Club girls who were interested in honey bees. The apiary
has been very productive and gives the girls another opportunity to decide if they
would like bees for a project. Other assistant home agents have bee projects
planned for their 4-H Club girls.
Beekeepers' Associations.-The Apiculturist plans the program of the Florida
State Beekeepers' Association each year. The meeting is a short course or institute
for beekeepers from all over the state. Problems are discussed and plans made to
study such problems with the hope that a solution may be found.
There are nine district beekeepers' associations, but not all of them are active.
Some of these associations meet once a month, some every two months and some
every quarter. The Apiculturist meets with as many of the district beekeepers'
associations as is practical.
Florida State Fair.-The beekeepers display over 2,000 square feet in bee and
honey exhibits at the State Fair in Tampa each year. P. T. Strieder, fair manager,
says this is the largest honey show in the country.
Beekeepers in Florida produce many varieties of honey which are displayed
Fig. 4.-The honey display at the Florida State Fair covered a large area, was of
top quality, and received high praise.
.om., noatOAAOOOOQ n QflOOnQ
mnDwaODUOOaOo0a0AQo ao a o ,,:nzOaDOUEUOli l
nnuaOnWunon on n oi n eognftOfgg
40 Florida Cooperative Extension
each year at the State Fair. Each beekeeper plans his booth so as to tell the story
best, where his honey is produced and from what plant source.
Cooperative Research Programs.-The Extension Apiculturist continued experi-
mental work with Dr. G. K. Parris, Plant Pathologist at the Experiment Station's
Leesburg field laboratory, studying the activities of honey bees in the pollination of
watermelon fields, and with Dr. G. B. Killinger, agronomist at the Main Station,
in the seed set of clovers with and without honey bees.
The setting of melons has been increased by the activities of honey bees and
clover seed yields appear to increase with the increase of colonies up to a certain
point. More work will have to be done before definite recommendation can be
made on the number of colonies per acre necessary for good pollination of clover
and watermelon fields.
The Extension Apiculturist cooperates further with Lillian E. Arnold, assistant
botanist at the Main Station, in collecting and identifying honey plants for publica-
tion and with Frank Robinson, Assistant Apiculturist, in setting up field test plots
and the growing of honey plants that will fit into the beekeepers' program.
Annual Report, 1950
BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
W. W. BROWN, State Boys' Club Agent
JOE N. BUSBY, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent
As usual, the club agents received full cooperation of all Extension staff mem-
bers and many from the Experiment Station in conducting the various phases of
the 4-H program with boys during the year.
Participation in 4-H activities throughout Florida increased substantially during
1950, particularly in judging contests, livestock and poultry shows, method demon-
strations and the awards program.
During the year, 8,998 4-H Club boys were enrolled, with 5,961 of them com-
pleting one or more projects. An over-all total of 12,367 projects were carried; of
this number 8,426 were completed. This is a higher percentage of completions
than in previous years and indicates that efforts by Florida Agricultural Extension
workers to improve basic 4-H Club phases are bearing fruit.
A few of the activities which helped, and are continuing to help, the 4-H Club
program included 11 leaders' training meetings, 15 demonstration teams, 24 4-H
judging contests, attendance by boys at summer camps, 224 4-H tours, 37 educa-
tional trips, 1,938 recreation and social meetings, 52 achievement days and activities
of 83 clubs on a community basis.
An increase in the quality of club projects and activities was noted during the
year by both local and state leaders.
District Programs.-The district program for boys' 4-H Club work was con-
tinued, since apparently it contributes more than any other one thing to 4-H Club
achievements. The counties are divided into 10 districts. County agents and
assistants hold district meetings, generally in December, to formulate sound and
constructive programs for the coming year. Results from these district meetings
have been tremendous. Plans are now being made to hold a second meeting in
each district during the summer in order that goals established for each area may
be pursued more completely.
Camps.-Camping continued to be an integral part of club activities. The new
camp in Highlands County was used for the first time. While it is only partially
completed, it was employed for three weeks of camping by boys. Construction is
continuing and this camp will be used more fully in 1951.
Fig. 5.-The newest 4-H camp, near Lake Placid in Highlands County, was begun
this year and was used for three weeks, although only partially complete.
~I I i I c-: ""iI
Florida Cooperative Extension
This gives a total of five permanent 4-H Club camps in Florida operated by
the Agricultural Extension Service. Three others for white members are at Tim-
poochee, Cherry Lake and McQuarrie. The Negro 4-H camp, Doe Lake, was
operated for its second summer during 1950.
White 4-H members camped for a total of 35 weeks at four camps, Negroes
for seven weeks at Doe Lake. More than 4,500 members attended during the 42
weeks. In addition to providing recreation, the camps gave opportunity for
instruction, leadership training and citizenship development.
Citrus and poultry institutes were held at McQuarrie as usual, and farm and
home institutes were staged at Timpoochee and Cherry Lake. These were attended
by several hundred farm men and women and members of their families.
Because of the growing interest in these institutes, attendance has made
handling difficult with presently available camp facilities.
Short Course.-The largest short course in the history of Florida boys' 4-H Club
work was held during the summer of 1950 with a total of 342 members in attend-
ance. Held for the first time, a tractor driving contest provided competitive par-
ticipation for champion drivers of 17 counties. Operation of farm machinery adds
stimulus to boys' club work.
Demonstrations.-Encouraged during the year was the giving of demonstra-
tions, such as the 25 to 30 teams representing various counties at the Florida State
Fair in Tampa. The demonstration is a prime asset in individual development,
since it acquaints the general public with current information on agricultural prac-
tices and provides training for the participants.
Several commercial concerns cooperated in helping to stage the demonstrations
given throughout Florida upon various occasions.
Studies.-The Florida part of the Southern region study, sponsored by the
USDA Extension Service, was completed during the year. This is an effort to
learn what makes a 4-H Club program successful in an above-average county. The
study was made in Marion County, with assistance from club and district agents
and county personnel.
The workers interviewed 127 4-H members, parents, leaders, business men,
farmers, bankers and others interested to obtain their views on the things con-
tributing to the success of the 4-H Club program.
The Florida study will be combined with material from other states in the
Southern region to present results which can be used by all states.
Awards.-The 4-H awards program is vital in the administration of effective
club activities; at present, Florida 4-H boys have more than 20 awards contests in
which they may participate. These include free trips to the National Club
Congress, gold watches, scholarships, cash awards, statues and county medals. The
outstanding award each year is the trip to the National 4-H Club Camp in Wash-
ington for two outstanding boys and two girls. A third boy is selected to attend
the Danforth Leadership Camp at Shelby, Mich., annually.
Annual Report, 1950
FRED P. LAWRENCE, Citriculturist
In addition to the Citriculturist, the Extension Marketing Economist and an
Experiment Station economist worked in the field of citrus.
The Citriculturist spent 136 days in the office and 125 days in the field. He
prepared eight pamphlets (mimeographed) giving recommendations in various
phases of citrus production, eight radio talks, seven news stories, four newsletters
and two scientific papers for delivery at citrus institutes, in addition to 13 other
talks. He also planned two training schools for county agents and conducted one
training school for Farmers' Home Administration field personnel. He assisted in
planning the programs for three citrus institutes, four citrus clinics, two orna-
mentals institutes and one transportation school.
He also served on the State Citrus Advisory Committee, Florida Agricultural
Outlook Committee, state committee on arrangements for the Southeastern Regional
Horticultural Society meeting, and the committee that develops and publishes the
Florida Better Fruit Spray and Dust Program.
Profitable Season.-Florida citrus growers reaped one of the richest harvests in
the history of the industry during the 1949-50 season. Following a slow and dismal
beginning, with pre-holiday prices at relatively low levels, growers were soon in the
enviable position of having the fresh, canned and frozen fruit buyers actively
bidding against each other for raw fruit. Prices at all levels (on tree, auction and
f.o.b.) skyrocketed far above the most optimistic pre-season predictions.
This unprecedented prosperity was due to a number of factors: California and
Texas had not recovered from their freezes; the continued phenomenal growth of
frozen concentrate; the stabilizing effect of minimum prices established by Florida
Citrus Mutual; the enactment of the 1949 Florida citrus code, which raised the
maturity standards on all citrus; a hurricane the preceding August which reduced
the Florida crop by some 15 million boxes; the improved advertising program of
the Florida Citrus Commission; and the restrictions of the Federal Marketing
More capital, especially out-of-state capital, was invested in the Florida citrus
industry this season than in any other single season. Many large and well estab-
lished groves, packing and processing plants changed hands. Frequent individual
sales ran well into the millions of dollars. Thousands of acres of new groves were
and are still being planted. Modern concentrating plants, representing investments
of millions of dollars, were constructed, while still other plants are being modern-
ized and expanded.
Florida citrus growers have certainly been on the long end of natural and arti-
ficial conditions this season. They experienced one of the warmest and driest years
in the state's history this year. In fact, last January was the warmest for that
month in 35 years. The rains were so limited the past spring that many groves
bloomed several times before finally setting a crop. Many groves continued to
bloom through July and August. All in all, nature has been extremely kind to
Florida citrus growers this year. With hurricanes screaming around our shores
from mid-August to late October, growers were on the "anxious seat." Only one of
these winds did us damage and, taking the industry as a whole, the rains the storm
brought were worth far more than the damage it did. Following the hurricane
season, the growers relaxed. But then came the sudden threat of a freeze the like
of which has not been known in many years. Here, too, a benevolent dame nature
stepped in, in the form of high, warm, dry winds to drive out the icy blasts that
were being swept in from Canada. This late November cold wave brought tem-
Fig. 6.-Large crowds attended citrus, poultry and farm and home institutes staged at the three 4-H camps. This is the group at the
Annual Report, 1950
peratures over most of the citrus belt that in extreme low locations were down to
from 22 to 25 degrees. Although some scattered fruit was lost, the sudden cold
snap killed many insects and improved the quality (color and solids) of the fruit.
The Citrus Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie as usual.
Citrus Clinics.-In addition to the customary methods and teaching devices,
such as grower demonstrations, actual individual demonstrations, tours, fairs,
flannel board, slides, movies, charts and the like, a new device was used this year
with very gratifying success.
Because practically every home owner in central and southern Florida has citrus
trees planted in his yard, and because citrus must have proper care and attention
to survive, county agents and the Citriculturist are constantly getting requests for
help from these small growers. This year the demand for this type service was ex-
tremely high, especially in urban areas. It was evident that the county agent staff
could not handle these many requests through individual calls. The East Florida
District Agent, the Broward County Agent and the Citriculturist decided that per-
haps if all these people were given an opportunity to bring their problems in for
discussion on a certain day many more growers could be helped and the requests
for service lessened. A time was set and through the use of radio, newspapers and
circular letters, the public was invited to bring specimens and their problems to an
"open house" on a specified day. This met with so much success that other agents
have tried it and all have been successful.
The idea has been improved upon to the extent that now extensive exhibits of
live specimens are prepared before the meeting. Exhibits of insects, diseases and
nutritional deficiencies are properly identified with labels that also carry the
recommended cures or controls. The county agents act as receptionists and direct
the people who come-at their convenience during the day-to the proper person to
identify their specimen and answer their questions. Then they are permitted to
pass among the exhibits, study them and ask any additional questions they would
So far, four of these "clinics" have been held and, although no record of attend-
ance has been kept, it is estimated that up to 400 individuals have been serviced
in a day through this program.
Citrus Advisory Committee.-The Citrus Advisory Committee continued its
policy of meeting with various citrus industry organizations to have their programs
thoroughly discussed in order that this information could be passed on to the grow-
ers through the county agent. Among those to appear before the committee during
the past year were: The chairman of the Florida Citrus Commission, the secretary-
manager and the president of Florida Citrus Mutual, the advertising manager of
the Florida Citrus Commission, the research director of Florida Canners Coopera-
tive, the president and general manager of Waverly Growers Cooperative, the secre-
tary-manager of Florida Express Fruit Shippers and representatives of the Florida
Feed Dealers Association.
The committee has visited the USDA Sub-Tropical Fruits Field Station, Florida
Citrus Experiment Station, Florida Citrus Commission, Florida Canners Coopera-
tive, Waverly Growers Cooperative Association and the Soil Science Foundation.
Through its many contacts with every phase of the citrus industry, the commit-
tee is in a favorable position to develop a long-range citrus program for county
Realizing that the county agent must be able to advise intelligently his growers
on all phases of agriculture and further realizing that the citrus industry is so
highly technical, the Citriculturist, through the Citrus Advisory Committee, has
arranged for an annual two-day training school at the Citrus Experiment Station.
46 Florida Cooperative Extension
Various Experiment Station workers bring the Agents up-to-date on new insects,
insect control, diseases, disease control, new chemicals and their value and all
other current research that has been conducted during the year.
In addition to this intensive training, the agents spend the evening visiting
with the Citrus Commission, Florida Citrus Mutual and any other agency-that has
timely information or new programs that need to be explained to the county agent.
Annual Report, 1950
C. W. REAVES, Extension Dairy Husbandman
The dairy Extension program was carried out through the county agents in
their respective counties. Better dairy herd replacements and improved feeding,
pasture production, and herd health, were the major objectives during 1950.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Program.-The DHIA project provided
basic information and demonstrations for the overall dairy Extension program in
many counties. DHIA herds provide result demonstration of better methods of
feeding, utilization of pasture, culling, breeding, and other phases of herd manage-
ment. Herds developed to high production capacity through a continuous dairy
herd improvement program provide a source of breeding stock for other herds.
Twelve bulls were proved in DHIA herds, some with a high level of production,
by the DHIA records of their daughters. Three Florida-proved bulls are in use in
a regional artificial breeding program providing bull semen to eight states.
The following summary gives the yearly per cow averages of the Duval DHIA
for the 1949-50 year, compared to the previous year:
Value of Feed Cost of
Total Product Above Producing
Year Lbs. Milk Lbs. Fat Feed Cost Feed Cost 100 lbs. Milk
1949-50 7,006 332 $200 $303 $2.85
1948-49 6,786 321 229 269 3.38
to 1948-49 + 220 + 11 29 + 34 0.53
The above results show the improvement attained by those members who are
carrying out DHIA methods of developing higher producing and more profitable
The table below shows the growth of DHIA work in the state:
1948 1949 1950
Number DHIA's --------_ 3 5 6
Number counties carrying on DHIA work --- 9 16 20
Cows on DHIA test -... ..._---- -------------- 2,600 4,887 6,469
The Dairy Herd Improvement Associations are the Jackson County, North
Florida (Quincy), Duval County, Pioneer (DeLand), Orange, and the West Coast
DHIA (Largo). The Jackson County DHIA was organized in March 1950. The
Duval County DHIA was expanded and added the second full-time test supervisor
in March 1950. The Pioneer DHIA with herds along the East Coast is ready to
employ a second test supervisor as soon as a qualified person can be secured.
The cows on dairy herd improvement test represent 4.3 percent of all milk cows
in the state, which is the second highest percentage among the 13 Southern states.
Herd Management, Feed and Pasture Program.-The checking of production
and provision of feed recommendations by the DHIA supervisors give the most
effective help on feeding and other herd management problems. Results of feed-
ing and herd management methods of DHIA herds were carried to other dairymen
by reports, news letters, dairy meetings, radio, and pasture tours. The seven DHIA
supervisors and 13 artificial breeding technicians make up a total of 20 trained
dairy workers in daily contact with dairymen of the state. The summary of county
agents' reports showed 1,863 farmers assisted in improved methods of feeding dairy
herds or family milk cows. Feed and pasture analyses were made on selected herds
Florida Cooperative Extension
on which DHIA records are available to show results secured in increased produc-
tion and decreased feed costs from improved pastures. Pasture establishment and
management have been emphasized on dairy field days and pasture tours. County,
district and state winners in an efficient dairy production contest were selected on
the basis of utilization of efficient dairy practices, and honored at the annual dairy
field day banquet.
Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is superintendent of official
cow testing in the state. Fourteen Guernsey herds are on Advanced Registry test,
nine Jersey herds on Register of Merit and one Ayrshire, one Guernsey and 10
Jersey herds on Herd Improvement Registry test. This work is carried out through
the national breed associations as a part of our state dairy herd improvement pro-
gram and shows the nation that good records are made by Florida dairy cows. Six
Florida herds qualified for the National Herd Honor Roll by achievement of a
yearly per cow production in excess of 350 pounds butterfat on DHIA test.
Better Sire Service for Better Herd Replacements.-The expansion of the arti-
ficial breeding program has been one of the far-reaching developments of the dairy
industry during 1950. The following figures show the expansion:
Number breeding associations -----.----------.. ... 7 18
Cows in artificial breeding units ...----------...-..._ 9,292 16,500
The artificial breeding program provides a method by which dairymen secure
the services of outstanding production proved bulls at a cost comparable to that of
maintaining bulls on their own farms. The local associations secure semen from
regional bull studs which maintain production proved bulls ranking in the top
1% percent of all bulls proved in the United States. Thus, artificial breeding pro-
vides the service of some of the best bulls in the nation to large and small dairymen
and the family cow owners in those areas of the state in which an artificial breeding
association is organized. The Escambia, Duval, Volusia, Orange, Polk, Pinellas
and Palm Beach Artificial Breeding Associations were operating at the beginning of
the year and have continued. The Alachua, Hillsborough, Manasota, Central
Florida, North Florida, and Broward Breeding Associations were organized during
1950. The Broward group maintains its own bull stud. A few large herds are
carrying out artificial breeding by private arrangements.
The average rate of conception on first services of the approved artificial breed-
ing associations was approximately 61 percent during 1950, which compares favor-
ably with that obtained by natural breeding.
Placement of Bulls.-Assistance has been given also in the selection and place-
ment of bulls for natural service where needed. County agents reports show a
total of 288 farmers assisted in locating purebred dairy bulls and 605 farmers
assisted in obtaining purebred or high grade females.
Raising Herd Replacements and Calf Barn Plans.-Emphasis on proper develop-
ment of dairy heifers has been made in each area with an artificial breeding associa-
tion. Because cows in the artificial breeding program are bred to outstanding bulls
there is increased interest in raising dairy heifers.
To assist dairymen in properly caring for the calves, calf barn plans were pre-
pared by the Extension Agricultural Engineer and made available to dairymen.
Many calf barns have been built in Duval, Orange, and Dade counties, especially.
4-H Dairy Club Work.-A total of 1,120-932 boys and 188 girls-enrolled in
the 4-H dairy project with 1,257 animals in'completed projects. Two production
contests provided additional incentives for good work with the animals, the dairy
Annual Report, 1950
achievement contest and the efficient dairy production contest. The former was
sponsored by the National 4-H Club committee, the latter by the National Dairy
Products Corporation. Polk County won the plaque for the outstanding county
4-H dairy program.
A series of county and district shows and a state 4-H show have been estab-
lished. Five district 4-H dairy shows were held during 1950-the West Florida
Dairy Show at Chipley, the 4-H District VII Sears Dairy Show at Orlando, the
Florida West Coast Dairy Show in up-town Tampa, the Southeast Florida Livestock
Show at Belle Glade, and the 4-H District V Livestock Show at Jacksonville. The
State Department of Agriculture contributed to the premiums.
The third annual State 4-H Dairy Show, held in connection with the Central
Florida Exposition, had an even 100 animals exhibited and keen enthusiasm was
shown by the 4-H members in the various 4-H dairy contests. Fifteen counties
exhibited animals and 18 counties participated in the state judging contest.
Home Milk Supply.-The home milk supply for farm families is benefited by
the raising and care of dairy animals in the 4-H program. County agents in many
counties arranged for Bang's and T.B. tests of all family milk cows by the Bureau
of Animal Industry. Artificial breeding organizations have made the service of
good bulls available to family cow owners in 16 counties. Work on the care and
use of milk is carried out by home demonstration agents as a part of their nutrition
program. The summary of their reports show 8,837 families assisted in improving
their food supply by making changes in home milk supply.
Cooperation with Other Organizations.-Assistance was given the Florida
Guernsey Cattle Club and the Florida Jersey Cattle Club in planning and carrying
out constructive programs of work, including two field days, two state sales, and
two promotional sales. Cooperation has been given to and received from the
Florida Dairy Industry Association, the State Department of Agriculture, State
Livestock Sanitary Board and its mastitis division, State Fair, vocational agricul-
tural department, State Bankers' Association, and federal agencies.
Special Activities.-The Extension Dairyman served as a member of the milk
production, field day, and advisory committees of the Florida Dairy Industry
Association, secretary of the State Long-Range Dairy Committee, and on the Dairy
Advisory Committee of the State Fair. He assisted in planning and conducting the
one-week herdsmen's short course at the University in December.
He judged dairy cattle at Sancti Spiritus, Cuba, and at the Cuban National
Livestock Show in Havana in May 1950. He served as chairman of the Extension
Section of the American Dairy Science Association for the 1949-50 fiscal year.
Florida Cooperative Extension
L. T. NIELAND, Forester
The Extension program for farm forestry was actively promoted during the year
in 62 of Florida's 67 counties. The main features in the farm forestry program are
fire prevention, forest planting, marketing forest products, producing forest products
for home use, combining timber growing with grazing, and 4-H forestry club work.
County agents and farmers were assisted in establishing demonstrations in each of
these improved forestry practices. Close cooperative relations in establishing better
forestry practices were also maintained with the State Forest Service, U. S. Forest
Service, Florida Forestry Council, Agricultural Experiment Stations, six Florida
pulp mills, naval stores conservation program, Turpentine Farmers' Association,
Forest Farmers Association and American Forest Products Industries.
Progress was made all along the line in the adoption of good forest management
practices. Farmers showed increasing interest, particularly in forest planting, fire
protection and better harvesting and marketing of farm timber. There were, also,
more farm boys enrolled in 4-H forestry project work than ever before.
Forest Fire Prevention.-Since forest fires continue to be the principal obstacle
to successful and profitable forestry in Florida, this part of the program demanded
a large share of the Extension Forester's time. Most fires are man-caused and are
therefore preventable. Some forest fires are due to carelessness but the majority
are intentionally set, either to "green up the woods" so that early spring grazing may
be improved or just because woods burning is an old custom in Florida.
It is our belief that the woods burning problem can eventually be solved
largely through educational programs. Furthermore, it is believed that the best
way to get rid of a bad practice is to suggest a better one. Since most woods
fires are the result of intentional burning to improve grazing, the combined
timber-grazing-game program has been consistently advocated as a better and
more constructive grazing procedure. This three-point program is also considered
the most effective, economical and acceptable means of solving the woods burning
problem in Florida. The program appears to be gaining steadily in favor but
should be more widely advocated by foresters, conservationists and agricultural
The need for protecting forest lands from fire was included as an important
feature of all educational and demonstrational work with 4-H club members.
County agents in 41 counties reported that 11,146 farmers cooperated in pro-
tecting their timber lands from fire.
Forest Planting.-Forest planting on Florida farms was one of the principal
farm forestry programs promoted during the year. The four,pulp mills which
made free slash pine seedlings available last year cooperated 'again in the free
tree distribution program and two more joined. Six million forest seedlings were
purchased by these six pulp mills for free distribution by county agents to 1,429
farmers and other forest landowners. The forest seedlings were grown by the
State Forest Service in their nurseries and Forest Service personnel cooperated
closely in the distribution program.
The large number of forest trees planted this year by farmers and other small
woodland owners will help materially in making these landowners more conscious
of the importance of their forest holdings and of the need for preventing forest
In addition to the forest plantings on farms, the Extension Forester developed
and distributed to county agents and farmers instructions on the establishment of
Annual Report, 1950 51
fence post plantings, shade and shelter plantings for livestock and windbreak
plantings, using native species of forest trees.
Because nursery planting stock of some of the important tree species needed
for establishing these demonstration plantings is not now obtainable, the Extension
Forester collected forest tree seeds and wilding seedlings from the woods and
hopes, with the help of the Agricultural Experiment Stations, to provide at least
a part of the forest seedlings needed for demonstrations next year.
Timber Marketing.-Through close cooperation with Norris-Doxey woodland
marketing projects, county agents in 25 Florida counties were able to provide
farmers with much needed advice and assistance in proper cutting and marketing
of their timber stands. In other counties where Norris-Doxey foresters were not
available, the Extension Forester provided county agents and farmers with infor-
mation and advice on good marketing practices whenever called upon. However,
because of the magnitude of this job, it was, of course, not possible to prevent
many of our farmers, who did not request assistance, from making unsatisfactory
or destructive timber sales.
It is true, on the other hand, that a large number of farmers were aided in
making a good timber sale and in preventing destructive cutting in their woods by
the distribution of thousands of government bulletins on timber marketing through
county agents' offices.
Since a profitable timber sale, leaving plenty of young trees for future harvests,
is one of the most effective ways of convincing farmers that timber is an important
farm crop, much attention was given to the marketing problem.
Forest Products for Home Use.-Because the farm itself is the best market for
home-grown forest products, such as lumber, fence posts, fuel wood, stack poles,
stakes and handle material, county agents and farmers were again urged to include
this feature in developing farm woodlands. Enough trees should be reserved or,
wherever practical, new species of trees planted to take care of farm needs for wood
products. The Extension Forester also suggested that this important idea be
included in the over-all plans for the "farm forestry 40 acres" demonstration areas
now being developed by the Southern Forest Experiment Stations. It is believed
that this would add considerably to the value of such demonstrations.
This new idea was promoted further through radio talks, personal visits with
county agents, farm foresters and farmers, during instruction periods at 4-H club
camps and by displaying exhibit materials at 4-H club fairs, county fairs, farmers'
institutes and at other meetings.
4-H Forestry Club Work.-The Extension Forester gave instruction in farm
forestry to 215 4-H club members during a week of instruction at 4-H summer
camps and at the annual 4-H short course. In addition, instruction was given to
eight different 4-H clubs in forest planting, fire protection, timber estimating and
According to county agents' reports, 237 boys enrolled in 4-H forestry projects
and planted a total of 966 acres of forest trees.
Project work outlines were prepared and county agents and 4-H club members
given other assistance in carrying on project work under the state and regional 4-H
forestry awards program. Club members in 10 counties won county medals for
carrying out the best 4-H forestry project in their counties. A state medal and
free trip to the National 4-H Club Congress was awarded to Ralph Carter of
Washington County for the best 4-H forestry project for 1950.
Three 4-H club forests are now being developed in three different counties by
4-H club members working as groups. The total acreage in these three forests is
52 Florida Cooperative Extension
1,160 acres. The club boys carry on the planting and most of the other improve-
ment work. Income from the forest will revert to the participating clubs and
will be used in furthering 4-H club work. The boys are "learning by doing" and
are getting valuable experience in forest management. A fourth 4-H club forest
of this type is now being acquired in Orange County. The Extension Forester
serves as consultant in planning and executing all development work.
Work with rural boys in developing both individual and group 4-H forestry
projects is considered one of the most important programs in forestry education
in the state.
Annual Report, 1950
N. R. MEHRHOF, Poultry Husbandman
J. S. MOORE, Extension Poultryman
A. W. O'STEEN, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test
Florida's Poultry Industry has made substantial growth and development dur-
ing recent years, and is now in fifth place of importance of agricultural enterprises
of the state. This development has been accompanied by some changes. The
trend is toward larger flocks of layers and larger units of birds for broilers.
Florida farmers had 2,431,000 layers on hand January 1, 1950.
Broiler growing is rapidly expanding in Putnam, Walton and Hillsborough
Counties. Ten million broilers were grown in Florida in 1950.
The hatchery industry has over 4,000,000 egg capacity and produced approxi-
mately 20,000,000 chicks during the year.
Approximately 131,000 turkeys were raised in 1950. This is a slight increase
over the number raised in 1949.
Efficient Management of the Laying Flock.-Commercial egg producers have
found the following management practices to be helpful in securing higher returns
from their flocks:
1. Keep all-pullet flocks or at least 60 to 100%. Pullets lay more eggs than
hens in the fall and winter, when egg prices are best.
2. Artificial lights. It has been found profitable to use artificial lights during
the shorter days of the fall and winter on hens and pullets to increase the rate of
lay when egg prices are relatively high. Morning and all-night lights are the two
systems used primarily in the state.
3. The use of special feeding methods during fall and winter, such as moist
mash, pellets, grain soaked in milk, to stimulate feed consumption and to help
maintain the bird's body weight during heavy production.
4. Culling unprofitable birds from the flock results in more efficient feed
utilization; reduced depreciation cost on birds, and increased returns per bird.
5. Prevention of diseases and parasites. Mortality is expensive and poultry-
men realize the importance of adopting a program of sanitation to prevent or
reduce losses due to either disease or parasites, while birds are in the laying
house. Extension workers stressed the importance of sanitation, including the
vaccination of birds against such diseases as chicken pox and newcastle, rotation of
land to help prevent internal parasites, and treating birds for lice and poultry
houses for mites each spring and fall to keep these parasites under control.
6. Records. The commercial egg producer was urged to keep a record of
Broiler Management.-The broiler industry continued to expand in 1950, even
with rather low prices prevailing a part of the year. These low prices tended to
force the small producer and the inefficient producer out of broiler production.
The larger producers, by efficient management and volume production, have con-
tinued to expand.
Broiler producers have been urged to purchase and grow quality chicks bred
for meat production; to keep complete records and study these records to deter-
mine methods of improving their operations.
Farm and Home Flocks.-Since poultry meat and eggs are so very important
in the diet for every family, the poultry Extension workers felt that every effort
Florida Cooperative Extension
should be made to promote the growing of small flocks in backyards and on small
farms to supply these products.
Recommendations were made that purebred dual-purpose birds be used; that
the chicks and pullets be raised according to the grow healthy chick program;
that a continuous culling program be carried on; that the flock be replaced each
year; feed some mash to the birds and use at all times as much home-grown feeds
Egg Quality Program.-The egg quality program sponsored jointly by the
Florida Poultry Council and the several educational agencies has resulted in a
better quality egg and poultry meat for the consumer.
In cooperation with the Poultry and Egg Inspection Division of the,Department
of Agriculture, candling and grading demonstrations were given. Information
was furnished the industry concerning the specifications and requirements of
Florida's egg and poultry law.
An exhibit showing the grades and specifications for each grade of eggs was
prepared and used at two farm and home institutes and at the poultry institute.
Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given at each of the places where
the exhibit was used.
Home-Grown Feeds and Green Feed.-Feed cost makes up around 50 to 60%
of the cost of producing poultry. The Extension workers have urged that
wherever possible home-grown feeds be utilized, especially green feed. This
program has been stressed with the small farm flocks that are used primarily for
poultry and eggs for home consumption.
With the commercial flocks for layers, a system of rotation to provide green
feed for the growing pullets and for the laying birds has been recommended.
Junior Poultry Work.-Work with 4-H club members was one of the major
projects of Extension workers in 1950. These club members were assisted and
encouraged in their program of supplying eggs and poultry meat for home
A district 4-H poultry show and judging contest was held in Jacksonville on
January 14. The following counties participated: Bradford, Baker, Duval,
Nassau, St. Johns and Putnam. There were 200 pullets, 17 cockerels, 19 pens of
broilers with six birds to the pen and 60 dozen eggs exhibited.
The Extension Poultryman judged poultry shows made up primarily of exhibits
of 4-H club members in Pinellas, Lake, Dade, Leon, Nassau, Hillsborough and
The annual State 4-H Club Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest was
held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition at Orlando, February 20-25,
1950. One hundred eighty-five club members from 13 counties participated
in the show and 54 judges entered the judging contest. The high point judge
was Phillip Ball of St. Johns County. The Duval County boys had high point
team in the contest. A total of 1,999 birds and 218 dozen eggs were entered in
Poultry classes were taught at 4-H boys' and girls' camps and also at the girls'
short course and the boys' short course. Approximately 300 4-H Club boys and
girls attended these classes.
The special 4-H Club girls' demonstration project, sponsored by Sears Roebuck
Foundation, was continued during the year with the following counties participating
in the program: Alachua, Orange, Marion, Santa Rosa, Hillsborough, Leon,
Washington, Manatee, Escambia and Columbia.
Annual Report, 1950
Turkey Management.-It is estimated that only 131,000 turkeys were raised in
Florida in 1950.
The Extension workers did some survey work to determine why more turkeys
were not being grown in Florida. Some of the disadvantages found were: lack of
financing, shortage of quality local poults, feed prices higher than in grain belt,
lack of dressing facilities and in some cases a lack of knowledge of turkey
The advantages found were excellent: near-by markets, low housing cost, mild
winter for breeders and well drained sandy soils. The fact that we have near-by
excellent markets outweighed most of the disadvantages.
During the annual poultry institute a part of the program was devoted to
turkeys. A temporary state turkey organization was formed.
Egg-Laying Test.-The 24th Florida National Egg-Laying Test was concluded
September 22, 1950, with the 1,352 pullets entered averaging 214 eggs per bird
(60% rate of lay) during the 357 day period. These eggs averaged slightly over
24 ounces to the dozen.
The average feed consumption per bird was 101.1 pounds (mash and grain).
Five and one-half pounds of feed were required for each dozen eggs produced.
Mortality was 12.2 percent during the year.
A pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by the Capital Breeding Farm, St.
Paul, Minn., was high pen, producing 3,667 eggs valued at 3,792.55 points. A
S. C. White Leghorn pullet owned by Rusk Poultry Farm and Hatchery, Windsor,
Missouri, laid 328 eggs for a value of 359.10 points and was high bird.
The high Florida entry was a pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by the
Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan. These 13 pullets produced 3,405 eggs valued at
A pen of New Hampshires entered by Loga Vista, Box 66, Rt. 2, DeLand, was
the high heavy breed entry from Florida. These pullets produced 3,124 eggs for
a value of 3,276.85 points.
In the 24th Test there were five "Golden Egg" birds (birds producing at least
330 eggs averaging 24 or more ounces to the dozen). The birds were all S. C.
White Leghorns and were entered by J. O. Hanson and Sons, Corvallis, Oregon
(337 eggs, 356.45 points); Capital Breeding Farm, St. Paul, Minn. (332 eggs, 355.05
points); Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan, Florida (331 eggs, 340.60 points); Pinebreeze
Farm (331 eggs, 348.50 points); and Capital Breeding Farm (330 eggs, 338.20
Chicken-of-Tomorrow Contest.-The 1950 Florida Chicken-of-Tomorrow Con-
test started March 8, 1950, with 24 entries of chicks. The growing period was for
a period of 12 weeks. The state show and judging of the birds was held in
Jacksonville May 31. Winners were J. D. Tindall, St. Augustine, 1st and 4th
places; Pine-Air Poultry Acres, Jacksonville, 2nd place; and Oak Crest Poultry
Farm, Inc., Jacksonville, 3rd and 5th places.
Brooks Herman, Oak Crest Farm, Jacksonville, was selected as one of the 40
breeders in the United States to enter the National Contest in 1951. J. D. Tindall
was selected as one of the alternates.
Annual Breeders Conference.-The annual Poultry Breeders' Conference was
held in Gainesville, December 7 and 8. The program included discussions on the
following topics: Fundamentals of poultry breeding, breeding for egg production,
pullorum testing, inbreds-hybrids, production of hatching eggs, and hatchery
About 50 poultrymen were in attendance.
56 Florida Cooperative Extension
Poultry Institute.-The ninth annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp Mc-
Quarrie, August 21-26, 1950, with over 400 on hand during the week. All state
agencies cooperated with the Agricultural Extension Service to make the week a
Annual meetings of the Florida State Poultry Producers' Association and the
Hatchery and Breeders' Association were held during the week. Preliminary
steps were taken to form a state turkey organization.
Cooperation with Other Agencies.-Poultry and allied associations which have
assisted in the development of the Extension poultry program include: State Live
Stock Sanitary Board, Department of Agriculture, Florida Poultry Council, Florida
State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Hatchery and Breeders' Association,
Florida R. O. P. Federation, Florida Feed Dealers' Association, poultry and egg
dealers of Florida with membership in the Southeastern Poultry and Egg Associa-
tion, and the Florida Turkey Association.
The State Live Stock Sanitary Board is the officially designated state agency to
administer the National Poultry Improvement Plan in Florida. The plan as carried
out in Florida has resulted in better chicks for the industry. Improvement in
breeding and reduction of pullorum by testing has meant much to Florida's grow-
ing poultry industry.
Some of the results of the pullorum testing program during 1950 are as follows:
90% of all birds tested were pullorum clean; 10% were pullorum passed (one test
without any reactors). The percent of reactors in all flocks tested was .023%.
Ninety-one hatcheries with a total capacity of 3,878,091 eggs are cooperating
in this plan. This is approximately 85% of all hatcherymen in the state.
Fig. 7.-Turkeys are attracting more attention and an organization of producers was
formed on a tentative basis at the Poultry Institute.
.i% .'. *..
SB a BIH
Annual Report, 1950
SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
H. S. McLENDON, Soil Conservationist
Activities in Districts.-Information given is prepared from Soil Conservation
Service records, which are compiled at six-month periods of the calendar year.
The last report for 1950 will not be available until January, 1951. This statistical
report covers information on 49 districts. However, several of these districts are
new and work is just getting started or soon will be under way.
Combined Report of Soil Conservation Districts-Activities
Organization to June 30, 1950.
Crop rotations --- ------- -
Contour farming ....-----
Cover cropping -....----.....-- ------
Crop residue management ----_
Strip cropping ._.__..-.-... .-------.--
Range improvement _..-.....--------
Pasture improvement ---
Seeding of range -... ----......
Seeding of pastures --------.-.. .....
Wildlife area improvement ---------
Woodland management --
Tree planting --__---_.. -----------
Farm and ranch ponds --.---
Terraces ___------ ----_-------------..
Field diversions --- -----
Farm drainage _.....-- -- --.--.... --
Closed drains --. ---------.
Open drains ------------_. ..........
Irrigation land preparation ..--
Improved water applications --
Field wind breaks .-_- ......--------
Water disposal areas -----------.. ..---
Kudzu __.... -------..- -.-- -
Sericea ...--.... ..... ---------
Alfalfa and perennial grass -
Fish ponds ___------... -------.......
.. 356,320 acres
-- 1,299,417 acres
-. 15,903 acres
-- 1,110,541 acres
S 47,426 acres
---- 1,195,340 acres
1,143,260 L. feet
S 124.6 miles
S 7,135 acres
S 24,715 acres
S 4,590 acres
From the Date of
876,960 L. feet
Farm and Ranch Conservation Plans
Applications received this period .---.
Applications received to date -...... .---
Active applications to date.------ -..
Plans prepared and signed this period
Plans prepared and signed to date .----
Active conservation plans to date .--.-.
Combined treatment this period ..----.-
Combined treatment to date ..------...-
Annual elections of supervisors were held in 43 districts in 1950. There is a
total of 24,087,311 acres now covered by soil conservation districts, of which
Florida Cooperative Extension
8,018,079 were covered by soil conservation surveys as of June 30, 1950. There
were 4,244,366 acres covered by 12,255 farm plans for the same period.
Organization of Districts.-The Director of the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service is Administrator for the State Soil Conservation Board and is responsible
for administering the Soil Conservation Districts Act. The Extension Soil Con-
servationist is responsible for organizational work in forming new districts in the
state and the county agent assumes similar responsibility in the county.
Four new districts, Bradford, Nassau, Martin and Wakulla soil conservation
districts, were organized during 1950. Charters have been issued to two others,
Osceola and St. Lucie. However, all the organization work has not been
completed. Okeechobee Soil Conservation District is now ready to apply for a
Area of the Lee and Chipola River soil conservation districts has been in-
creased. Two islands, Captiva and Sanibel, were included within the boundary of
Lee Soil Conservation District, increasing the area by approximately 12,696 acres.
The area of Chipola River Soil Conservation District was changed to include all
land lying within the legal boundaries of Calhoun County, Florida, an increase of
approximately 87,920 acres.
The Extension Soil Conservationist has met with a number of district boards of
supervisors and made suggestions for getting a broader conservation program
applied to farms in their districts. The records of the secretary-treasurer have
been inspected and suggestions given as to how he could keep these up-to-date
and accurate at all times. A number of field and pasture tours were attended,
staged cooperatively by district supervisors, county agents, and technicians of the
Soil Conservation Service.
The Extension Soil Conservationist works with the county agents and their
assistants and the conservationists assigned to individual districts in carrying on 4-H
Club conservation projects. He also met with groups of boys at 4-H Club camp
and discussed soil and water problems with them. At a meeting of local 4-H
leaders from 10 counties he discussed how these leaders might assist the club
members in carrying out their projects.
The Extension Soil Conservationist prepared and showed an exhibit at two
farm and home institutes and three county fairs. -This showed soil conservation
practices applied to farms in organized districts.
SUMMARY OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES
BY WHITE COUNTY AGENTS IN FLORIDA, 1950
Days devoted to work in soil and water --------..---- --___._. .. 1,230 in 61 counties
Days devoted to work with wildlife-------- -------.------------. 193 in 48 counties
Number of communities in which work was conducted
(a) Soil and water --... ---.-------.... ---------..-...--.....- 573 in 61 counties
(b) Wildlife ...... .......---------------- -- 215 in 49 counties
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen
(a) Soil and water-- --...--..------------ ...--- 289 in 61 counties
(b) Wildlife --~..----...---------- --.---- -.....-- 134 in 20 counties
Number of farmers assisted
(a) With problems of land use----.....---.----.-----....--.... 8,406 in 59 counties
(b) In the use of crop rotations.-----........-----.----......- -... 4,716 in 53 counties
(c) With strip cropping --------.--------- -.. ..... 324 in 13 counties
(d) In constructing terraces--.................-------------...- 235 in 18 counties
(e) In grassing waterways or preventing or
controlling gullies ------------------.----..--_--------.. 534 in 32 counties
Annual Report, 1950
(f) With contour farming of cropland ........ ...
(g) In contouring pasture or range_--.----
(h) In the use of cover or green-manure crops .......--
(i) In controlling wind or water erosion ..------
(j) In summer fallowing -------
(k) In making depth-of-moisture tests-----
(1) With drainage
(m) With irrigation ----------
(n) With land-clearing _-----
Number of farmers in soil conservation districts which were
assisted with education for organization or operation -----
Number of farmers assisted in arranging for farm conserva-
tion plans .........--------------------------
Number of farmers assisted in doing work based on definite
farm conservation plans ------~..~..-..... ...------------
Number of farmers assisted in construction or management
of ponds for fish .__--------_.-----------------------
Number of farmers assisted in protection of wildlife areas,
such as stream banks, odd areas, field borders, marshes and
ponds from fire or livestock --...;..... ....-
Number of farmers assisted in planting of edible wild fruits
and nuts in hedges, stream banks, odd areas and field
borders .......-.. ........-.------------- .-----------
Number of farmers assisted with other plantings for food
and protection in wildlife areas -....--.... ---....-------
Number of boys enrolled in 4-H soil and water conservation
projects _..........--------- -- -___-___...... ........----------
Number of boys completing ..------------------------
Number of boys enrolled in wildlife and nature study
(game and fur animals) projects -..------- ....------------
Number of boys completing ---------
Number of different 4-H Club members, including those in
corresponding projects, who received definite training in
(a) Wildlife conservation -.....--- ----
(b) Soil and water conservation ------ -- .-
6,529 in 45 counties
2,204 in 44 counties
1,737 in 42 counties
281 in 42 counties
400 in 35 counties
201 in 22 counties
285 in 35 counties
103 in 13 counties
69 in 11 counties
63 in 9 counties
42 in 9 counties
1,596 in 31 counties
2,104 in 31 counties
Florida Cooperative Extension
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AND MERCHANDISING
F. S. JAMISON, Truck Horticulturist
F. E. MYERS, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Continued efforts were directed toward supplying the subject-matter field with
information and guidance on commercial production of high yields of superior
quality vegetables, better methods of handling the product, and the value and
limitations of the home garden.
This was accomplished in part through seven area grower meetings, four
county grower meetings, three area seed dealer meetings, one county agent training
school, an annual conference of negro and another for white county and home
demonstration agents, one boys' and one girls' 4-H Club short course, one boys' 4-H
Club summer camp, six home demonstration club meetings, participation at four
field days, four radio talks, variety demonstrations at five locations, and answering
1,050 inquiries by letter or personal visits.
Vegetable information also was presented at the annual and two commodity
meetings of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, and papers for publication
were reviewed from the vegetable section of the Florida State Horticultural Society.
Two short courses, the Second Annual Seedsmen's and the Third Annual South-
eastern Short Course on Prevention of Transit Losses in Florida Fruits and
Vegetables, were conducted in cooperation with the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, Florida Seedsmen's Association and the Southeastern Railway
Claims and Development Association, respectively. The Vegetable Specialist
served on the state production adjustments committee and the certified seed
Publications included eight completed manuscripts on production of individual
crops, eight draft manuscripts of proposed publications on additional crops, and
seven county agents' newsletters, including state-wide recommendations on fertili-
zation, insect and disease control, varieties, and current pertinent research results.
S. E. ROSENBERGEB, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Ineffective and inefficient methods of handling and displaying vegetables in
many retail stores prevent maximum sales and use of fresh produce. The purpose
of this project is to encourage increased consumption and prevent excessive losses
of vegetables through proper handling and display methods in retail stores. During
the year the Specialist worked with 16 independent retail stores, 25 chain food
stores, one farmers' retail vegetable market, and one wholesale company. He met
with county agents in one state-wide meeting, three area meetings and eight
private conferences. Production and service people were also assisted in three state-
wide groups, two area meetings and two local gatherings. Altogether the Specialist
held 23 training classes with a total attendance of 243 retailers. Marketing and
merchandising talks were given before five different groups with a total of 348
people. One radio talk was given during the year.
The teaching methods are centered around "learn to do by doing." Actual
practice in proper vegetable handling, preparation, displaying and pricing is given
in class wherever possible. Visual aids and films are used as well. A very effective
teaching aid is a personal visit to each store after completion of the training course.
This visit is to discuss individual problems and to make recommendations.
Work through outside organizations and individuals is an important part of this
Annual Report, 1950 61
activity. They play a large part in establishing contacts with an industry that, until
last year, the Extension Service had hardly touched. For instance, a newspaper
food advertising salesman, a vegetable producer, and a wholesale produce company,
each with good contacts in the food selling industry, played a large part in bringing
retailers into the Extension program. Commercial and industrial associations in
some cases supply subject matter and training materials.
Other Extension activities entered into by this Specialist were such things as
judging 4-H Club fair exhibits, discussing the marketing problems with home
demonstration clubs, presenting the problems of vegetable losses, etc., field day for
producers, serving on the vegetable advisory committee, participating in depart-
mental seminars, helping with horticultural short courses and conferring with home
As a measurement of effectiveness of the vegetable merchandising project,
records have been kept on most of the stores that received the training course. In
well over one-half the stores, dollar volume of sales has increased and the im-
portance of the produce department has increased in percent of total store sales.
Such things as cleaner, neater surroundings and improved displays are hard to
measure except by photographs, but the better quality and more appealing appear-
ance of the produce can be measured, and very often is, by customer acceptance
and retailers' satisfaction.
Florida Cooperative Extension
Part III --- Work With
Women and Girls
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, State Home Demonstration Agent (to August 11)
ANNA MAE SIKEs, State Home Demonstration Agent (beginning October 1)
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, District Agent
EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent
Home demonstration workers in Florida are responsible for the development
and supervision of coordinated programs of work for both white and negro home
demonstration women and 4-H girls and share responsibility for the general Agri-
cultural Extension program.
Miss Mary E. Keown died August 11, 1950. Miss Ethyl Holloway was Acting
State Home Demonstration Agent from August 12 to September 30. The present
State Home Demonstration Agent was named on October 1. The Home Industries
and Marketing Specialist, in addition to her regular responsibilities, served as the
Acting District Agent for Northwest Florida from October 1.
Organization and Personnel.-The 80 home demonstration workers exclusive of
clerical assistants, employed in state and county offices during 1950 included 46
county home demonstration agents, 12 assistants, 11 negro home demonstration
agents, 7 specialists, 4 district home demonstration agents, and the state home
Ten changes were made in county positions during the year. Four home demon-
stration agents resigned; one to teach in college, two because of ill health, and one
to marry. .One white and one negro home demonstration agent were transferred to
counties where they had larger responsibilities and increased salaries, while one
assistant agent resigned. Home demonstration work was re-established in one
county and established in one new county.
Ten home demonstration agents attended the three weeks' short course at the
University of Florida for Extension Service personnel. Six one-day conferences on
home improvement and housing were conducted by the State Home Improvement
Specialist, Agricultural Engineer, and Rural Electrification Specialist. Seven one-
day conferences and work meetings on 4-H Club plans and programs were con-
ducted by the district agents and 4-H Club agents.
Leadership training meetings were held in all counties by all specialists and
district agents. Recreation institutes were held in Northwest Florida for men and
women agents. The annual 4-H Club Short Course for girls was held at Florida
State University, and the Annual Agents' Conference was held at the University of
Florida. The Negro 4-H Club Short Course and Agents' Conference were held at
Florida A & M College.
Two positions were maintained to give pre-service training to prospective home
demonstration agents. Two, both former 4-H Club girls, received this training and
one became a fulltime home demonstration agent.
Separate but coordinated state-wide programs were developed for both women
and 4-H girls in organized clubs and councils.
Home demonstration work was included in the regular Agricultural Extension
Service Budget. Florida State University provided housing for the state office
and a financial budget which permitted additional personnel and a pre-service
training program for prospective home demonstration agents.
Annual Report, 1950
Forty-five boards of county commissioners and eight county school boards co-
operated in employing county home demonstration agents. In a majority of the
counties, contributions were made by both boards for 4-H Short Course and camp
scholarships, demonstration, and office supplies, for repairs and additions to work
rooms, equipment and community and work centers. Increments for salaries and
travel were appropriated in a large majority of the counties.
Negro home demonstration work was supervised by a Negro District Home
Demonstration Agent, who worked under the direction of the State Home Demon-
stration Agent. Headquarters were maintained at Florida A & M College. Negro
county home demonstration agents served in 12 counties.
Leadership.-Two State Councils of Home Demonstration Work, with member-
ships of women and girls, assisted in developing a state-wide program based on the
needs and interests of the people. The 36 county councils of senior work for
women and 31 junior county councils for 4-H Club girls were made up of repre-
sentative women and girls, and provided valuable assistance to the home demon-
stration agents in determining and carrying out county programs. The state council
for women continued to maintain its scholarship fund for 4-H Club girls.
The development of trained volunteer leaders, capable of extending useful in-
formation to their neighbors and applying it to the benefit of the community, con-
tinued to be an important objective of home demonstration work and 6,992 volun-
teer local leaders or chairmen of special activities assisted in community work and
were trained for their duties. Also, 2,077 4-H Club girls were trained in leadership
in 4-H Club camps and at short course. In 46 counties 3,547 women served either
as local leaders or neighborhood leaders, in addition to the 837 women and 1,099
older 4-H Club girls serving as leaders for the work with youth. This did not
include the 267 negro women in 11 counties serving as local and neighborhood
Fig. 8.-The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work assists
materially in formulating programs and cooperates with 4-H Club work. Left to
right: Mrs. Andrew Potter, Pinellas, president; Mrs. Cecil Spencer, Santa Rosa,
first vice-president; Mrs. Frank Wellner, Duval, second vice-president; Mrs. Walter
Duden, Levy, secretary; and Mrs. Cecil Nicholson, Brevard, treasurer.
64 Florida Cooperative Extension
leaders and the 150 negro women and 24 older negro 4-H Club girls serving as
leaders in the development of the negro 4-H Club program.
Objectives.-Objectives of home demonstration work during 1950 included:
1. Development of sound, long-time program in each county and state-wide,
to meet needs and interests of the people, with the people determining specific
goals to be reached during the year.
2. Improvement of organization and better use of facilities to extend services
of home demonstration work to a larger number of people.
3. Emphasis on well-balanced county programs and the establishment of well-
planned result demonstrations in the home, carried on by women and girls who
served as demonstrators.
4. Development of activities for both girls and women which had economic
value in the home.
5. Securing more adequate housing and home improvement, inside the home
and in home surroundings, so that the steadily growing population of Florida could
be cared for in satisfactory homes, conducive to a happy home life for all the family.
6. Improvement of health of Florida people by better use of home resources,
better home health practices, and by acquiring facilities and services for health
and medical care in the home and community.
7. Consumer education among both rural and urban homemakers, with em-
phasis on more intelligent and widespread use of Florida-produced food products
for economy and to insure better nutrition for all family members.
8. Service to girls 10 to 20 years of age through 4-H Club work, with em-
phasis on training the girls in skills and leadership and on receiving cooperation of
adults in meeting the needs of young people. Emphasis was placed also on the
importance of expanded work with girls and boys to keep them busy, learning pro-
ficiency in useful activities, and in good citizenship.
9. Development of trained rural leaders who understand their responsibilities
and opportunities to serve their communities and their state, and who have a clear
understanding of the far-reaching values to all members of the family of a satisfying
10. Understanding by the women and girls of national and international rela-
tions, in order that they may function more usefully as informed American citizens.
Activities and Accomplishments.-Some evidences of the accomplishment of
these objectives were found in the 15,536 girls enrolled in 4-H Club work and
21,988 women who received direct assistance in home demonstration clubs and as
individuals; the 6,922 volunteer local leaders assisting with community work and
receiving training for their duties; the 46.567 rural and farm families and 40,600
non-farm families given direct service by home demonstration work; and the 483
home demonstration clubs and 718 4-H Clubs in Florida.
Other evidences were found in the 15,250 home gardens grown by women and
girls; the 1,833 family cows purchased; the 542,799 pints of fruits, vegetables and
meats, canned or stored; the 573,709 pints of jellies, preserves, marmalades, pickles,
and relishes prepared and stored; the 538,834 pounds of beef cured; the 371,142
chickens in home poultry flocks; the 4,475 women and 11,135 girls enrolled in
clothing demonstrations in which 175,425 garments were made and 44,701 garments
In addition, 2,706 families stored canned foods in cooler storage; 4,070 home
freezers were used; 19,232 families improved their diets; 2,509 beautified their
home grounds; 608 families were assisted in construction of dwellings; and 2,996
were assisted with remodeling or repairing the home; 2,810 kitchens were improved
Annual Report, 1950
and 1,203 homes were supplied with electricity; 638 sanitary privies and bathrooms
were installed; 972 community recreation programs were conducted; and 11,013
families received help on renovation and remodeling of clothes.
Forty-seven home demonstration agents spent a combined total of 8,172 days,
working with adults and 7,648 days working with 4-H Club and older youth, mak-
ing 18,724 home visits, visiting 10,449 different farms. They received 62,970 per-
sonal calls at the office and 64,447 telephone calls for information; they made
12,781 farm and home visits; and they distributed 158,799 bulletins.
Home demonstration agents held 138 adult achievement days, attended by
88,571 persons, and 475 4-H Club achievement days, attended by 38,823 girls.
Fifty-three 4-H camps, each of one-week duration, were held with 2,728 girls at-
tending. Meetings as results of demonstrations numbered 1,189, attended by
The Extension Editorial Department materially assisted home demonstration
workers in making more effective use of the radio and the press. Home demonstra-
tion agents wrote 5,135 news articles, distributed 193,427 bulletins, and 27 county
home demonstration agents made 1,153 radio broadcasts in 42 counties.
Community Work.-There were 1,201 organized community clubs for white and
negro women and girls. There were 15,536 4-H Club girls enrolled in 4-H Clubs
and 21,998 enrolled in adult clubs. They held 13,331 meetings, attended by
Home demonstration clubs cooperated with other organizations in varied com-
munity activities. These included 262 clubs cooperating with the March of Dimes
campaign, 317 clubs cooperating in tuberculosis seal sales, the 279 clubs working
on the cancer drive, and the 450 clubs cooperating with other health sales and cam-
paigns. Sixty-nine white and 13 negro home demonstration clubs made health
surveys and 77 white and 11 negro clubs planned programs based on situations
shown by health surveys.
Similar work on community problems included cooperation in the Rural Housing
Committee. Home demonstration workers devoted approximately 400 days to
cooperation with other federal, state and county groups on various and timely
community problems in 46 counties.
4-H Club Activities and Awards.-Each member of the State Home Demon-
stration Staff assisted with the short course for 4-H Club girls. Members of this
staff assisted with the negro 4-H Club short course for boys and girls.
Fourteen records were considered for the most outstanding award in 4-H Club
work, representing Florida at the National 4-H Club Camp. Girls from Escambia
and Manatee were selected. The Broward County girl who was the third highest
girl was awarded the scholarship to the Danforth Foundation Christian Leadership
Training Camp near Shelby, Michigan. Four negro 4-H Club girls were selected
to attend the negro 4-H Regional Camp at Nashville. They were from Columbia,
Leon, Jackson, and Volusia counties.
Six 4-H Club girls were selected to attend the National 4-H Club Congress from
the 269 completed records submitted from 35 counties. They were from Orange,
Gadsden, Marion, Volusia and Hardee counties. State awards were given to 4-H
Club girls from Brevard, Madison and Santa Rosa counties for work in leadership,
home beautification, and.frozen foods.
Home demonstration workers participated in the 4-H Club case study of a
The College 4-H Club, organized 32 years ago by the State Home Demonstra-
tion Agent, has a club room in the Student Alumni Building at Florida State
University. Members meet regularly with an adviser from the state demonstration
66 Florida Cooperative Extension
staff to plan and develop programs for participation in leadership activities. Among
these activities is assistance at the annual 4-H Club short course.
Other activities of the 4-H Clubs are cooperation and leadership within the
Rural Youth Conference, exhibits at state, and county and district fairs.
National Home Demonstration Week.-In preparation for the celebration of the
fifth National Home Demonstration Week, a packet of timely and useful material
was prepared and distributed to each home demonstration agent. In addition to
the state staff, many outstanding leaders and key people contributed to the material
in this packet. Certificates of recognition for achievement, faithful service and
active participation for 10 years or more in home demonstration work in Florida
have been presented to 615 leaders by 16 county home demonstration agents and
1 negro home demonstration agent. In addition to these certificates, three county
councils presented 25 club members with the official home demonstration pin in
recognition of 25 or more years of active service as home demonstration club
members and leaders.
Farm and Home Institute.-Two farm and home institutes were planned,
arranged for and conducted under the direction of the district agents, men and
Fig. 9.-Home demonstration and 4-H Club members made hundreds of
United Nations flags and presented them to schools and other public institutions as
an evidence of their world patriotism.
Annual Report, 1950 67
women, of northwest Florida at Camps Timpoochee and Cherry Lake. Outstand-
ing speakers at these institutes were made available through the cooperation of the
University of Florida, Florida State University, State Departments of Education
and Health, Florida Children's Commission, the Attorney General's Office and local
churches. Exhibits of timely and up-to-date information and equipment were
planned and arranged by the Extension specialists.
United Nations Project.-Home demonstration agents devoted a total of 982,
days in promoting the idea and helping leaders to reach this goal of having a
United Nations Flag in each county by United Nations Day. Approximately 600
United Nations flags were made in Florida by 4-H Club girls and home demon-
stration club members.
Florida Cooperative Extension
CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
JOYCE BEVIs, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
During 1950, the Specialist spent 175 days doing office work which included
(1) general planning and evaluating in joint staff conference, necessary procedures
for developing the total Extension program; (2) planning for special events and
programs and specific plans for a well rounded, useful clothing program that would
best fit the needs of the homemakers of Florida; (3) planning exhibits, preparing
outlook material, preparing useful instruction leaflets and other teaching aids for
4-H and adult groups; (4) planning for travel, making reports (both monthly and
annual) and keeping up-to-date on the new developments in the field of clothing
She spent 122 days with county home demonstration agents and club members.
She helped with the training of leaders, gave method demonstrations, assisted at
county achievement days and county council meetings, attended and helped with
regularly scheduled 4-H and home demonstration meetings, helped with camp activ-
ities and county fairs. The Specialist contacted and served in some way approxi-
mately 5,000 people in addition to the state and county Extension workers. The
Specialist also helped the agents with training of leaders for 4-H groups and cloth-
ing chairmen for the adult work; judging achievement exhibits in record keeping
and story writing; method demonstrations of various phases of clothing work, such
as selection, construction and care; and encouraged the establishment of more
result demonstrations by adult club members.
The following statements from county reports show to some extent the influence
of the time spent in the counties by the Specialist:
Fifty'-seven home demonstration agents (46 white and 11 negro) report 2,663
days developing the clothing program in the various counties. These agents gave
736 less method demonstrations on clothing this year than last, but volunteer
project leaders were more active in giving demonstrations. There was an increase
of 19 communities this year where clothing work was carried on. A better leader-
ship program may help to account for this increase. Fifty-four agents report a
total increase of 273 leaders or chairmen assisting with the clothing program this
The reports also show an increase of 333 families receiving help with clothing
construction work; 56 more families receiving help with clothing selection prob-
lems; 61 more families receiving help in care, renovation and remodeling of clothes
this year; and 86 less families receiving help with clothing accounts and expendi-
tures. During 1950 there were 33,903 more new garments made by Florida
families than in 1949, 7,892 more articles made for the house, and approximately
900 more families who received help for better laundry practice.
There was a small increase of 34 more white 4-H girls taking clothing as a
demonstration this year, and a decrease of 857 in the number of negro girls carrying
on clothing demonstrations. Although the number taking clothing as a demon-
stration decreased 813 during 1950, the quality of work and percentage of girls
completing their clothing demonstrations increased by 6 percent.
Almost every Extension method of reaching people was used by the Specialist,
agents and leaders in developing a clothing program in the state. Of course, some
were used more than others. Method demonstrations, home visits, office calls, let-
ters, leaflets and the telephone were the ones used to reach individuals.
Annual Report, 1950
To help agents and
leaders to reach the peo-
ple, the Specialist at-
tended various types of
meetings, working with
agents, leaders, club
members, civic groups,
etc. At these meetings
she gave talks, method
demonstrations, and job
instruction training, set
up exhibits, used charts,
posters and bulletins and
helped with the training
of leaders in the use of
the Extension methods.
This year in addition to
the two achievement style
shows put on at the state
short courses for white
and negro girls, the State
Council of Home Demon-
stration Work sponsored
a state style show for
adult home demonstration
club members. This was
the first attempt at this
type activity but was
quite successful and 25 of
the 46 counties had rep-
resentatives in the show.
It was very inspirational
for the club members and
will probably become an
annual affair that will
During the year the
Specialist camped with
eight counties in two dis-
trict camps and gave daily
assistance with the camp
program during the two
Exhibits were planned,
provided and set up at the
two farm and home insti-
tutes held at two of the
district camps during the
summer months by the
Specialist with the help of
the county home demon-
Fig. 10.-State 4-H Dress revue was an important
feature at Short Course. Joyce White, Escambia Coun-
ty, won a blue ribbon on her "school dress."
Florida Cooperative Extension
GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK
LORENE STEVENS, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
RUTH LEMMON, Assistant State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
Florida's 14,865 4-H Club girls conducted 49,619 demonstrations in foods and
nutrition, clothing, interior and exterior home improvement, food conservation,
safety and fire prevention, child care, home dairying, home gardening, poultry, and
livestock this year. They completed 32,221 of the demonstrations, meeting the
requirements of the specific projects, turning in records, including stories on their
accomplishments, and exhibiting as required for completion. In the East Coast
Fig. 11.-Officers of the State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work
direct the Council and cooperate with the state home demonstration staff. Left to
right, first row: Tally Coleman, Sarasota County, vice-president; Sallie Wilson,
Madison, president; Wylene Mayfield, Volusia, historian; second row: Jackie
Cummings, Lake, assistant secretary; Barbara Jean Dame, Broward, secretary; and
Gay Roberts, Hardee, treasurer.
Annual Report, 1950
District, 4-H girls also had to give a method demonstration related to the project
before claiming completion.
Organization and Leadership.-Each girls' 4-H Club has officers and committees
and approximately 75 percent of them had local leaders who met with the clubs
and assisted the county home demonstration agents with the community 4-H pro-
gram. Other adults, many of whom were members of home demonstration clubs,
provided leadership in special activities.such as rallies, camps, achievement events
Four-H clubs met at schools once or twice per month with the county home
demonstration agent and local leader. A few of the organizations had work meet-
ings with the local leader in the homes of the girls. The majority of the girls' 4-H
Clubs did not meet during the summer months but the county home demonstration
agents encouraged and assisted individual girls in the development of result demon-
strations in their homes.
In 26 counties there were county girls' 4-H councils, composed of two represen-
tatives from each of the local clubs. Two county councils met once per month and
24 met three or four times during the year. The major responsibilities of the
county group included planning and directing the county-wide activities, correlating
the 4-H program for girls with adult home demonstration work and to plan, with
the 4-H boys, joint county activities.
The State Girls' 4-H Council was composed of two representatives from each of
the county councils. The annual meeting was held in Tallahassee as a part of the
State Girls' 4-H Short Course. Its function was to strengthen county councils
through a planned state program that met the needs of the county groups. Included
in the program were:
1. That 4-H girls cooperate with State Boys' 4-H Council, adult home demon-
stration clubs, and other community organizations.
2. That 4-H girls give information on 4-H to more communities.
3. That 4-H girls publicize 4-H work in the counties that people may have
a better understanding of 4-H.
4. That 4-H girls sponsor, with the 4-H boys, such county-wide activities as
achievement events, rallies, fairs, community recreation, 4-H Sunday, National 4-H
Week, National 4-H Achievement Week, and local campaigns and drives for the
good of the community.
5. That 4-H girls take more responsibility in leadership activities in the
These 4-H organizations, local, county and state, provided many opportunities
for the growth of individual 4-H Club girls and leaders through leadership respon-
Though 4-H Club work for boys and girls was organized separately, there were
many meetings and activities that were jointly planned and directed by the local
and county groups such as rallies, camps, regular 4-H meetings, fairs, achievement
events, livestock shows, and the observances of National 4-H Week, National 4-H
Achievement Week, and Rural Life Sunday.
The value of leadership development in the 4-H program was emphasized by
state staff members in their respective fields of work throughout the year and
assistance was given by them to county home demonstration agents on securing,
training and recognizing leaders.
A valuable contribution in 4-H leadership was made by local home demonstra-
tion clubs as a result of the recommendations made by the State Senior Council of
72 Florida Cooperative Extension
Home Demonstration Work at its annual meeting. Included were such basic
1. To appoint a 4-H chairman in each home demonstration club to give a 4-H
report at every meeting, to work closely with local leaders of 4-H Clubs, and to
arrange for 4-H girls to appear on home demonstration programs.
2. To encourage more activities for older 4-H girls.
3. To work toward continued improvement of quality of work.
4. To promote and maintain a better understanding of the 4-H program in
5. To help increase the number of trained volunteer leaders.
Fig. 12.-Team demonstrations at fairs gave 4-H Club girls and boys an oppor-
tunity to tell the public about interesting topics and to train themselves.
Annual Report, 1950
The 754 women who served as 4-H leaders gave time, effort and encourage-
ment to the development of the program with the girls.
The training of adults in 4-H leadership was provided by county home demon-
stration agents through individual conference, letters, bulletins and training
Special Activities.-Florida 4-H girls participated in such special activities as
National 4-H Week, National 4-H Achievement Week, Rural Life Sunday, local
and county achievement events, county and state camps, rallies, fairs and livestock
Approximately 600 4-H girls, leaders and county home demonstration agents
attended the annual State Girls' 4-H Short Course in Tallahassee. Ten 4-H girls
received state awards in the national awards program, two girls represented Florida
at the National 4-H Camp in Washington, and one 4-H girl was awarded the
American Youth Foundation Christian Leadership Training Camp Scholarship.
Seventeen 4-H girls' teams gave demonstrations at the Florida State Fair and
19 received the State Fair 4-H Award for outstanding accomplishments in the
county 4-H program.
Eleven teams of negro 4-H girls also gave demonstrations at the State Fair and
participated in the State Fair 4-H award program.
Approximately 150 negro 4-H girls attended the joint boys and girls State
Negro 4-H Short Course held in Tallahassee, and four negro 4-H girls represented
the state's 4-H negro girls membership at the Regional 4-H Camp held in Virginia.
Signs of Progress.-Though they are informal measuring devices and may to a
certain extent be inaccurate, the trends below indicate some of the strengths and
weaknesses in the girls' 4-H program:
1. Increased membership in 4-IH Club.
2. Increased number of demonstration completions in counties with trained
3. Increased interest in the 4-H program by local people.
4. Increased interest of 4-H members in the program.
5. Increased interest and assistance from home demonstration clubs.
6. Increased requests for assistance with development of 4-H leadership
7. Increased number of local leaders.
8. Improved quality and number of exhibits.
9. Increased interest of parents in the 4-H program.
10. Increased number of girls participating in the 4-H program.
Florida Cooperative Extension
BONNIE J. CARTER, Home Improvement Specialist
The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 47 counties
with the help of the Home Improvement Specialist, county home demonstration
agents, volunteer local leaders, senior and junior councils of home demonstration
work, county rural housing committees, 4-H and women's club meetings, tours,
achievement days and home visits and through work with other organizations and
Assistance to negroes was given by the Specialist through the district agent,
conferences, training meetings, bulletins, posters and loan exhibits.
Major home improvement opportunities and problems lie in the fields of
housing, family living and consumer education.
Housing.-Florida needs more rural homes built for comfort, convenience,
health and beauty so that rural people may live more satisfying lives and become
The home demonstration agents' 1950 reports showed that 2,690 families re-
ceived help with problems relating to building and remodeling homes; 2,028 with
kitchen; and 2,796 with other room improvement. Better storage facilities for
food, clothing and household equipment and supplies were provided by 1,408
families and better laundry space and equipment by 990. For comfort, convenience
and better health, families installed 706 sewage disposal units, 571 sanitary toilets,
936 water systems and 263 heating systems; 2,679 families improved screens and
adopted better pest control methods; and 10,317 followed better practices of
handling and disposing of garbage.
The extension of electric lines by rural electric cooperatives made electricity
available to more homes and Extension workers assisted 1,120 families in obtaining
electricity. Help was given with lighting and electrical equipment problems to
4,010 families, with 11,660 pieces of electrical equipment being bought.
Over 7,703 improved their home grounds, with 2,507 of them using plans for
complete improvement. Of these, 885 started new lawns, 5,672 maintained or im-
proved lawns already established; 9,548 made foundation plantings, and 14,396
pruned, fertilized and otherwise cared for foundation and border plantings already
started. Some planted trees, shrubs and flowers; 871 maintained propagating beds
for ornamentals and 752 for fruit producing plants. Others built fences and gates,
while still others removed them and some provided recreation areas with outdoor
living rooms and stoves. Houses and out-buildings numbering 2,747 received
coats of paint to improve their looks and to make them last longer. In 30 counties
257 home demonstration and 4-H clubs carried out organized clean-up campaigns.
Family Living.-Family living becomes more complicated daily and families
find it difficult to make income, ability and time meet the needs and wants of
family members. Some of the problems agents and volunteer local leaders helped
solve related to increasing the income, spending wisely to make the money go
further, producing food and feed when practicable, practicing orderly work habits,
using time and effort to the best advantage; providing medical and dental care;
security in old age; opportunities for religious, civic, educational and recreational
activities for all family members.
Through the Extension program 5,272 homemakers were helped to become
better housekeepers; 1,339 to make better use of their time; 564 with home ac-
counts; 925 with financial planning and 104 with making better use of credit
Annual Report, 1950
for family living. In addition, 5,439 4-H Club members received help with learn-
ing to keep personal accounts.
To prepare themselves to be better parents and guides for young people, 208
men and 2,130 women participated in child-development and parent-education
programs; 3,039 families sought and received help with child development and
guidance problems; and 2,295 in improving family relationships.
Home demonstration agents, volunteer local leaders, and home demonstration
and 4-H Club members assumed responsibility for helping with recreation in their
respective communities. In 40 counties, 320 communities were assisted with im-
proving recreational facilities. The 114 club houses and club rooms owned or
controlled by home demonstration groups in 36 counties were used for regular club
meetings, work meetings and recreation activities for both adult and youth groups.
In 36 counties 912 entertainments were held for social purposes and 454 to make
money for worthy ventures undertaken or supported by the club members.
To offer facilities for reading, 45 communities in 26 counties were assisted in
providing library facilities. In 40 counties 516 groups received help with organi-
zational problems, program activities or meeting programs.
Additional community service was provided in several counties where home
demonstration and 4-H Club groups helped improve church buildings and grounds,
cemeteries, and courthouse and school grounds. They cooperated with health units
. by providing places for and sponsoring health clinics, helped with mobile X-ray
Fig. 13.-Home demonstration club members learned to slip cover chairs at club
meetings throughout the state.
76 Florida Cooperative Extension
units, hookworm drives and diabetic clinics. They took active parts in tuberculosis
seal sales, polio drives and other county-wide activities through their councils of
home demonstration and 4-H Club work.
Consumer Education.-Iome demonstration agents reported that 4,457 families
were assisted with the purchase of food; 4,667 with clothing and household textiles;
3,112 with household furnishings and equipment; and 3,096 with household
supplies. In addition, 2,954 received help with repairing, refinishing and remodel-
ing household furnishings. A total of 7,800 families were assisted with consumer
buying, 6,194 with "making versus buying" decisions, and 5,633 in using timely
economic information to make adjustments in family living.
Volunteer local leaders numbering 750 gave 2,075 demonstrations in the various
phases of the program to women and girls and attended 209 training meetings.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Club home improvement program is designed to
stimulate the girl's interest in learning to do simple home tasks well, to make her
home more beautiful, comfortable and convenient both inside and out, and to be-
come a well adjusted member of her family and her community. Records of home
demonstration agents showed that 1,917 girls enrolled for homemaking, with 822
completing; 2,737 enrolled for room improvement and home furnishings, with 1,475
completing their demonstrations, thereby improving 1,608 rooms and making 5,745
articles to adorn their homes. Of the 1,362 enrolled for home grounds beautifica-
tion, 822 completed their work of starting or maintaining lawns, making foundation
plantings and doing other things to improve their homesites.
Special training in several phases of 4-H Club home improvement was given
to approximately 600 4-H girls, volunteer local leaders and home demonstration
agents at short courses. Others were helped through leader-training meetings, 4-H
Club meetings, camps, and home visits. Necessary subject matter was prepared
for use in this program.
Annual Report, 1950
HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING
GLADYS KENDALL, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
The home industries and marketing project was established on November 16,
1949, because of a long-time and continued increase in demand for assistance
with problems concerning ways and means to increase the family income, to use the
family income wisely, and to use all available resources of the farm and home
to best advantage.
The major problems with which the Specialist was concerned during 1950
were (1) to define and establish the project; and (2) to provide ways and means
of developing it. All objectives for 1950 and work undertaken during the year
were planned to help solve these major problems and to meet the needs of people
who wanted to increase or extend their cash income.
The Specialist determined state-wide needs by studying and appraising the
work in home industries and in marketing of home products already under way in
-the counties. She established a reference file of timely, useful information and
illustrative and source materials, and supplied home demonstration agents and
others with this information; secured equipment and supplies necessary to develop
this phase of work; assisted the agents with training voluntary local leaders and
others in skills and techniques; aided in developing home industries that utilize
materials native to Florida and in securing wider distribution, better production
and marketing practices and wider use of agricultural products such as citrus,
vegetables, poultry and dairy products, and tropical fruits; assisted result
demonstrators in establishing and maintaining high standards of quality in products
offered for sale; studied laws and regulations that govern marketing and interpreted
them to the agents and others; became acquainted with personnel, marketing
programs under way, methods used and accomplishments in such programs of other
agencies, commodity groups and business concerns in Florida and in other states;
and proposed a money-making and money-management demonstration for 4-H
Home demonstration agents, white and negro, in 39 counties reported working
in 1,609 different communities with 6,225 families on problems concerning market-
ing and home industries. They were assisted by 1,148 volunteer local leaders.
The agents, assisted by the Specialist, reported training leaders in 31 counties.
While in the field the Specialist contacted, worked with or served in some
way approximately 3,000 people, in addition to state and county Agricultural Ex-
tension Service personnel.
Standardizing Products.-In 22 counties 1,256 different club members standard-
ized products for market. These women and girls reported receiving a total of
$555,062.59 in cash from farm and home products sold. Of the total cash received,
more than nine-tenths, or $512,792.00, was from the sale of food products which
included eggs, poultry, fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, baked and
canned products, nuts, syrup, honey and meat; the remainder was from the sale of
flowers, plants, handicraft articles and services.
An analysis of the records for 1949 and a study of home demonstration agents'
reports for more than 25 years show that the sale of food products-fresh, canned,
cured and cooked-has been the principal means women and girls have used to
add cash to the family income. The Specialist emphasized this fact in talks given
to clubs, county councils and other groups, in special activities planned for state-
wide groups and when training leaders to give demonstrations related to home
industries and marketing.
Agents reported giving 118 less demonstrations in making handicraft articles.
Florida Cooperative Extension
The demonstrations usually were given by trained leaders and the crafts taught
were useful and marketable.
Most of the 4-H and home demonstration clubs and county councils held
money-making activities during the year. Definite amounts of money earned were
not reported by the agents. However, they reported that community improve-
ments, such as building, remodeling and furnishing club houses or community
centers, maintaining health clinics and libraries, improving church buildings and
grounds around churches and other community buildings, and contributing to
tuberculosis seal sales, March of Dimes and other similar drives were made by
home demonstration groups with money earned by these groups. This type of
marketing added to family incomes indirectly because families were able to make
contributions of home-grown or hand-made products and services rather than cash
to worth-while community projects.
Assistance in planning, organizing and conducting a county program in home
industries and marketing has been given to home demonstration agents, leaders,
adult and 4-H Club members and others at 4-H Short Courses for Girls, annual
Extension Agents' Conferences, farm and home institutes, 4-H camps, annual
meeting of State Senior Council of Home Demonstration Work, subject-matter
training meetings and workshops and other state-wide and county activities and
Results Obtained.-Both tangible and intangible results were evaluated when
measuring the effectiveness of the home industries and marketing program. Intan-
Fig. 14.-Crafts displays and bazaars such as this not only brought cash to
home demonstration club members but also showed the many things these capable
4M ^ .
Annual Report, 1950 79
gible results were evaluated by observing changes in attitude toward the program
of the Extension workers and other individuals, by noting the interest shown by
women in producing better quality products for the market, by tabulating the needs
and desires expressed by home demonstration agents, club members and others
and by observing home products that are offered for sale in markets and stores.
Methods and devices used to measure tangible results were: visits to result
demonstrations; records kept by result demonstrators; number and kind of requests
received by the Specialist for assistance from individuals and from county home
demonstration agents; study of the annual report of the State Council of Senior
Home Demonstration Work; number of people contacted and assisted in the
home industries and marketing program by the Specialist, home demonstration
agents and leaders; conferences with state staff members and others; and observa-
tions made by the Specialist on field trips to counties and at state-wide and county
special events and activities.
Florida Cooperative Extension
NUTRITION AND FOODS
GRACE I. NEELY, Food Conservation Specialist
The home foods program was planned and varied to serve the needs of all
groups. Emphasis was placed on providing an adequate daily food supply for the
family. Improved practices in production, preservation and storage of foods have
been developed, insuring a more nearly optimum nutrition for all groups and at all
Methods used varied. However, extra emphasis was placed on the develop-
ment of local leadership and on the establishment of individual and family result
demonstrations. The work was organized around two programs-adult and 4-H
The world situation today has emphasized the importance of the "live-at-home"
program. Home-produced and conserved foods, wherever possible, are one proven
way to aid in cutting the cost of living. Planned home-conserved foods make
available at a minimum cost food for nutritious, well-balanced meals during ever)
season of the year.
Nutrition and Health.-Emphasis was placed on improvement of health through
an appreciation of what good nutrition can contribute to health, a working knowl-
edge of what constitutes a healthful diet at the different stages of life and
economic ability to provide a nutritional diet.
Reports showed that 12,835 families in 45 counties were trained to recognize
the difference between good and poor nutrition. Also, 4,150 more young home-
makers and mothers were assisted with the study of nutrition.
Principles of a good diet were accepted by 9,359 families and they served
balanced meals to include the seven basic food groups. Also, 12,989 families
reported preparing foods by methods recommended to conserve more of the
nutritive value. Local and seasonal foods were used to best advantage by 14,009
The number of families using better methods in preparing dairy products were
7,714; meat cookery, 10,539; poultry products, 9,352; vegetables and fruits, 15,019;
and baked products, 10,396.
Home Food Production.-The home gardens and orchards program showed
good progress in better preparation of soil, use of compost and fertilizers where
needed, better selection of varieties for the area and better pest control. The 47
counties with home demonstration agents reported 15,250 families with home
gardens and 4,679 families having home orchards. This was a good increase over
The number of families assisted in making changes in home food production
were: Vegetables, 11,263; fruits, 6,785; meats, 5,361; milk, 4,487; and poultry
and eggs, 7,119.
In 36 counties 4,350 were reported producing and preserving the home food
supply according to an annual food budget.
Food Conservation.-A sound program on food conservation has aided in
improving the nutritional status of Florida families. Food conserved at home or
in community centers can be varieties found best for canning or freezing. These
foods can be conserved when at their best to retain the maximum amount of their
vital nutrients and flavor.
The State Home Demonstration Council for the past two years has sponsored
a state-wide 5-jar quality canned exhibit of canned fruits, vegetables and meats.
Each year at their annual conference the exhibit is set up and judged. The women
Annual Report, 1950
enjoy their exhibit and it has helped them to appreciate better quality canned
foods. In the one year much progress was made in better selection of the
maturity of vegetables best to can. They plan to have this exhibit another year.
Summaries from reports show that 2,132,915 pints of food were canned;
982,111 pounds were frozen; 1,538,832 pounds cured meats; and 12,555,888
pounds potatoes, dried peas and beans were stored for the home food supply.
Based on poundage of canned, frozen, cured, and stored fruits, vegetables and
meats conserved by Florida's 12,399 home demonstration club families for 1950,
each family conserved enough fruit to supply a family of four for four months, in
addition to the citrus fruit eaten fresh; enough vegetables for one month and
enough meat for four months.
This would emphasize the need for more year-around home gardens or more
conserved vegetables, if better balanced meals are to be served in many homes.
Storage.-Facilities for cooler storage of canned and fresh foods are needed in
most areas of Florida, as cellars are not advisable due to the water table being so
near the surface. The ventilated pantry has been promoted as one means of
securing cooler temperatures. Home demonstration agents in 30 counties reported
2,706 families storing their canned foods in cooler storage (ventilated pantries),
an increase of 1,577 over last year.
Miscellaneous.-This year 6,973 families were reported using county canning
centers, a 45 percent increase. Most of this increase was in negro home demon-
stration club families, which was encouraging.
The number of home freezer owners has jumped from 1,000 reported in 1949
to 4,070 this year. This increase in freezing foods at home is in line with the
increased number of Florida farmers having access to electric power.
The rural electrification program now enables 82 percent of the farm homes
to use electricity. This was an increase of 6 percent over last year.
Florida Cooperative Extension
Part IV --- Negro Work
NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK
JOSEPH A. GRESHAM, Negro District Agent
Farm demonstration work with negroes was carried on in 10 counties. No
changes in personnel occurred nor was there any increase in staff during the year.
The biggest concentration of negro farmers is found in the northern section of
the state where seven negro county agents are located; the other three are in central
Florida counties. All 10 agents worked for the most part through community and
neighborhood leaders, enabling them to reach maximum number of farm people.
As a result of efforts of the Negro District Agent, five county agents received
financial assistance from their counties and three had salaries increased. County
offices are well located for the convenience of farmers. Four counties provide the
necessary equipment to carry on a sound program and also provide part-time
clerical help for negro county agents.
Two county agents attended the special three weeks' summer school for Exten-
sion workers held at Prairie View State College in Texas during August.
All county agents attended the annual conference for negro Extension workers
at Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, November 6-10. Panel discussions on
county programs and plans were presented by state Extension personnel and repre-
sentatives of the USDA. Representatives of the Soil Conservation Service, Produc-
tion Credit Association and the Farmers' Home Administration explained the func-
tions, provisions and uses of the various services.
Negro county agents reported holding 77 training meetings with adults. Fifty
4-H Club leaders received training.
Supervisory Responsibilities.-For the first time in the history of Florida Exten-
sion work, county programs and plans were made jointly in a few counties by white
and colored workers. County and district Extension Service workers, negro and
white, cooperated to advantage in determining methods of arriving at county pro-
grams and plans.
Negro county agents report working with all agencies in the field of agriculture
which are beneficial to farm people.
The Negro District Agent assisted in making local county plans for adult and
4-H Club work, arranged for the annual 4-H Club short course and summer camps,
and visited county agents to help with livestock, field crop and soil problems, give
demonstrations and talks on Extension work.
Negro Agents.-Negro County agents made 5,203 farm or home visits to 2,661
different farms or homes last year.
They devoted 1,688 days to work with adults and 1,147 days to work with 4-H
Clubs and older youth. The year's activities included 86 method demonstrations to
1,215 farmers and 113 demonstrations to 1,787 4-H Club boys. Fifty-nine result
demonstrations were conducted with farm people to show the value of improved
practices. Also, 62 meetings with 451 adults were held and 22 meetings with 663
4-H Club members were conducted during the year.
Working with voluntary leaders in the counties, the 10 agents assisted negro
farmers in Florida to increase crop and livestock production on their farms, in-
structed them in the conservation of natural resources, assisted in planning farm
activities and improving farms, homes and equipment as well as health conditions.
Annual Report, 1950
They carried on programs of recreation, community life and family relationships
and worked with farmers on general economic problems related to agriculture and
to marketing and distribution.
4-H Club Work.-There were 2,303 negro boys enrolled in 4-H Club work and
they completed 2,844 projects.
With the idea of creating more interest and to give training and recreation to
boys and girls, a State 4-H Short Course was held at Florida A. & M. College,
Tallahassee, early in June. A total of 319 boys and girls, with outstanding records
of project achievement from counties where negro county and home demonstration
agents are employed, attended the short course.
Two hundred sixty-six 4-H Club boys and 10 leaders attended three camping
periods at the Doe Lake 4-H Club camp in the Ocala National Forest. This was
the second year of conducting the state camp. The permanent camp is considered
one of the most beautiful camps for boys and girls in the state.
Four 4-H Club boys who were outstanding in leadership and project work at-
tended the third annual 4-H Club Camp at Virginia State College, Petersburg,
Virginia, August 8-15. Four 4-H Club girls and two state leaders were also in the
group representing Florida.
Ten achievement days were held with an attendance of 6,178 persons.
Fairs.-Three negro county agents assisted with exhibits at county fairs. Other
agents helped with displays at the Florida State Fair, Tampa. The Negro District
Agent assisted the negro agent in Gadsden County in conducting the 4-H fat cattle
show and sale.
Florida Cooperative Extension
NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLOY BRITT, District Home Demonstration Agent
During 1950 negro home demonstration work was expanded to include Dade
County. Twelve negro home demonstration agents were employed. Vacancies
occurred in Columbia and Putnam counties, and the latter vacancy has been filled.
Two home demonstration agents took advantage of an opportunity for further
study last summer by attending a three weeks' course in Extension work held in
Texas during August. Negro home demonstration agents are especially aware of
their responsibilities in informing, inspiring and motivating people through the
"live-at-home program" to help themselves.
All 12 counties where home demonstration work is conducted provide offices
for the agents. Nine counties supplement funds for travel and expenses, while
three counties provide demonstration material. During the year office equipment
was improved in several counties.
Seven negro home demonstration agents shared offices with negro county
agents, while the remaining five agents maintained separate offices. Four offices
had part-time clerical help. One full-time stenographer is shared by the Negro
District Agents. In several counties county staff members, together with the dis-
trict agents, have held successful program-planning meetings which have proved
effective in working out a more unified program.
Assistance in Carrying Out Extension Program.-The Negro District Home
Demonstration Agent has been concerned with better organization of the work in
the offices and in the field, keeping informed of the situations, problems and needs
Fig. 15.-The negro 4-H Club camp, Doe Lake, was used for its second
summer during 1950, and provided a very satisfactory place for the girls and
boys to camp.
^ ., ---- -
Annual Report, 1950
in the district and making suggestions for their improvement or solution, and pro-
moting good relationships with other agencies and organizations. During the year,
the Negro District Home Demonstration Agent made 46 visits to agents, visited
41 result demonstrations and 32 homes and attended 62 club, council and other
meetings, achievement fairs and exhibits, planned for camps, short Course and
annual conference and secured help of Extension home demonstration specialists.
State 4-H Short Course, Camps.-The annual short course for negro 4-H Club
boys and girls was held at Florida A. & M. College in Tallahassee, the first week
in June. A total of 203 4-H Club girls and 11 leaders attended the short course.
Four girls, selected on the basis of outstanding records in 4-H project achieve-
ment and leadership, attended the third regional 4-H camp at Petersburg, Virginia.
The district 4-H Club camp at Doe Lake received many improvements over
last year. Attending camping periods this year were 301 girls, 9 leaders and 11
home demonstration agents. The girls were given training in swimming, nature
study, crafts, group singing and recreation.
Agents' Annual Conference.-The annual conference for Negro Farm and Home
Demonstration Agents was held at Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, November
6-10. The theme for the meeting was "Better Living for a Better World."
Home Demonstration and 4-H Organizations.-A total of 495 women served as
local leaders of home demonstration clubs and girls' 4-H Clubs last year. Negro
home demonstration agents reported 115 training meetings, attended by 1,043
adults and 930 4-H girls.
In all 12 counties where home demonstration work is established, county coun-
cils have been organized. Composed of club officers, council members assist the
agent in planning and determining the needs of the people in the counties and in
promoting programs to meet the needs.
Records show 1,969 women enrolled in 98 home demonstration clubs. A total
of 2,875 girls are members of 137 4-H clubs throughout the state.
Food and Nutrition.-Reports from agents show that 2,705 gardens and 1,012
orchards were started by negro families under the home demonstration program.
A total of 2,112 poultry flocks and 2,264 dairy cows were raised.
In the field of nutrition, 2,676 families improved their food habits, 3,511 families
made improvements in food preparation, 1,646 families increased their planned
food supply and 1,283 families improved their storage facilities and care.
Agents report also that 3,715 Florida negro families participated in conserving
food by canning, 485 by freezing and 193 by drying. One thousand eighty-four
families stored foods thus conserved.
Clothing and Textiles.-Negro home demonstration agents were assisted by local
leaders in conducting clothing and textiles work with farm families. A total of
1,018 families were helped with clothing construction problems, 1,149 with care
and remodeling of clothing, 1,207 with clothing selection and buying and 370 with
Home Improvement.-Negro home demonstration agents reported 1,248 houses
repaired in their counties last year. Chief activities were the repair of furniture
with 1,484 families participating and beautification of home grounds with 1,140
families improving their lawns. Also, 1,207 families improved their kitchens and
371 families were aided with the selection of furniture. A total of 3,273 families
improved home safety conditions.
Health and Recreation.-Negro home demonstration agents reported health
Florida Cooperative Extension
improvement activities in their counties as including 3,167 physical examinations,
3,900 families taking advantage of improved methods of home sanitation, 666
negro women and girls participating in the home nursing program, and 1,471
families in community health programs. Five hundred forty-nine families took
advantage of recreational activities.
Evaluation of Accomplishments.-There is favorable sentiment towards Exten-
sion work and Extension workers in all 12 counties. Home demonstration agents
are highly respected by agencies and people of the counties and this respect is
shown by the progress made by women and girls in the various counties.
Rural people are thinking more about family welfare, proper food, better health,
adequate clothes, better education, improved housing conditions, more sanitation in
the home, and in general they are interested in more wholesome living for their
STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)
Months of service (agents and assistants) __..__......------------..--- 250
Days of service: In office-2,030; in field-3,969 ...................------------ 5,999
Farm or home visits made ......-..-.------------------------- 9,087
Different farms or homes visited ----...........--.........-----.--. .--..--. 4,804
Calls relating to Extension Work: Office-13,394; Telephone .......------ 5,907
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth --..-...--------------. 2,700
News articles or stories published ..-----.. ..--------.. ----.-----.-- 368
Bulletins distributed ....-.. ....- ...------------------.---. 15,566
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ....... ----------------------- .79
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen ..........-------- 242
Total attendance of men and women ........ .----- ------------ 3,356
Method demonstration meetings -_ ----------------- 1,090
Total attendance -.......------------.-------------- 15,957
Meetings held at result demonstrations ---------_----- -----.--.------ 279
Attendance ----...--........----------. -- ------- -- 2,934
Tours conducted -----........ ---.. ------------...--.. ------------ 83
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work .....--- .--------. 64
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ....------------.....- 523
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms in counties worked ........ -------------- 7,435
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year ----- ----------- ----------------. 2,708
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration and
agricultural programs -------------1,240
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the home
demonstration program ------------ 1,701
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration and
agricultural program this year ......... --------------------- 4,409
Different farm families influenced by some phases of the Extension
program -------------------------- 4,894
Other families influenced by some phases of the Extension program --.._.- 1,631
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group -.....-..--.-----------------. 31
Unpaid .........---------------------------------- 19
Annual Report, 1950
Days devoted to planning work by county and home
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ----------
Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen -...--
Days devoted to work _._-..-____------------__.._..........
Communities in which work was conducted --.----------..-------...
Voluntary leaders and committeemen -----.....__ .__.__.____
LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work -----------------------------------... ..... ......
Communities in which work was conducted ---------------.._------._
Voluntary committeemen and leaders ----....-_----------.--_.. _.....
Farmers assisted ...-- -----..._-.. _.--.-..... ............
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOUR
Days devoted to work _...-- -... ..-._-----------.. __-..._.....
Communities in which work was conducted ..--.............
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ......---------
Farmers assisted in soil management -....___.- ._......_____.......... ._
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation .---__-.
Days devoted to work ---....--------------...---... -......
Farmers assisted -- -- -.--......... .. -- ---- .__..._.._...___...__._
GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO
Days devoted to work -------.---------------------------..
Communities in which work was conducted .......----..-........_
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ---...----.._..-.............__
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ...--.............
MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
- -- -
. .. 5,415
--.-.. ---- 92
.-.-. -- ... 73
Days devoted to work --___ __.... _______. _..___.........
Communities in which work was conducted ._ ----.. --....---.... .......
HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work ----------_.......--------------------
Communities in which work was conducted ....................
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ......____-..----...__............
Families assisted in house furnishings, farm buildings, surroundings,
mechanical equipment, rural electrification ....-......---_-- ... ........
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work ---------______...-__...__ ---_....- .........._.......
Communities in which work was done --------------....--....._- ----.............
Families assisted: Improving diets-1,648; food preparation- 1,664
Total --------------- ...................
Families assisted with food-preservation problems ----------------------------..... ..
HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ..........------------------------....................................
Communities in which work was done -..........................
Voluntary leaders assisting ..-... ----- .....-.-... .... ......................
Florida Cooperative Extension
Families assisted __......._ ...... ........... ------------___- 926
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies .--- 130
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 1,3 )7
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems _- --____---- ------ 710
CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work _-- ---.... --.... ----.......-------- 339
Communities in which work was done .... ---------..------ 133
Voluntary leaders assisting _..._....--------------------- --- 146
Families assisted ....... ---------------------------- 3,669
FAMILY RELATIONSHIP-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work .--......- -------------- ----- 157
Communities in which work was done ---..-.... ------... 116
Voluntary leaders assisting .- ---------......--------- 82
RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work .-------------------- -- 182
Communities in which work was done 1------__ ---- 138
Voluntary leaders assisting __. ---- -------- 152
Families assisted in improving home recreation .-------- --. 355
Communities assisted in improving recreation facilities -----98
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs of
activities or meeting programs .----...------- ----------- 121
Communities assisted in providing library facilities .------------..- ... 29
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys .._...----.-------------.. ------------------- 2,844
Projects completed by girls ------------- 9,151
Boys completing corn and peanut projects -.... --------- 539
Boys completing fruit projects --------------57
Boys completing garden projects .....--------------------- 612
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops --- 23
Boys completing dairy projects .---- ---..--....._...---------..----- 51
Boys completing poultry projects ........------------------- --- 343
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ---------172
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ----- 165
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects -- ------ 373
Girls completing dairy projects ----------- 28
Girls completing poultry projects --------------- -- 525
Girls completing home gardens --_-------- 686
Girls completing fruit projects __.. -------- ---- 154
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ------------------ 12
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects --.------------------ 1,033
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid ------ 430
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and room
improvement projects ----------------- -- 2,682
Girls completing food preservation projects .....--.......--------------- 982
Boys: Farm-2,031; non-farm-272; total ___----.._.----- ......-----------. 2,303
Girls: Farm-2,105; non-farm-772; total _____...- ---------------- 2,877
4-H members having health examinations because of participation in
Extension program --------------1,720
4-H clubs engaged in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs .......-............... ---- ------------ 136
Annual Report, 1950
Agents, list of, 4
Agricultural economics, 20
Agricultural engineering, 26
Agricultural outlook, 21
Animal husbandry, 36
Annual conference, 8
Barrus, Edith Y., 62
Beale, Clyde, 15
Beef cattle, 36
Bevis, Joyce, 68
Boys' club work, 41
Britt, Floy, 84
Broadcasting activities, 16
Broiler management, 53
Brown, W. W., 41
Buildings, farm, 26
Busby, Joe N., 41
Camps, 18, 38, 41, 83, 85
Carter, Bonnie J., 18, 74
Changes in staff, 10
Chicken-of-Tomorrow contest, 55
Child development, 13
Citrus, 22, 43
acreage returns, 23
advisory committee, 45
grove management, 22
Clayton, H. G., 7, 19
Clothing and textiles, 13, 68, 85
Community life, 14
Conservation, food, 80
natural resources, 13
Consumer education, 76
Community work, 65, 75
Cooper, J. Francis, 15
Cooneration with other agencies, 9,
Cooperative planning, 10
Councils, 4-H, 63, 71
home demonstration, 63, 69
Cow testing, 48
Crop production, 12
Dairying, 12, 47
herd management, 47
feed and pasture program, 47
sire service, 48
Director's report, 7
Drainage and irrigation, 28
Driers, mechanical, 28
Economics, agricultural, 20
Editorial report, 15
Egg-laying test, 55
Egg quality program, 54
Electricity, uses of, 31
Electrical equipment, 29
Engineering, agricultural, 26
Extension organization, 7
Fairs, 39, 42, 54, 73, 83
Family living, 74
Farm and home planning, 20
Farm conservation plans, 57
home improvement, 13
home institute, 66
Farmer cooperatives, 22
Filmstrip, library, 17
Financial statement, 7
Fire prevention, 18
Florida Citrus Commission, 45
Florida Citrus Mutual, 45
Food and nutrition, 85
Food conservation, 80
Forest fire prevention, 50
4-H club activities, 37, 65
dairy work, 48
farm and home electric contest, 30
poultry projects, 54
short courses, 42
work, 14, 21, 37, 41, 42, 65, 83
work for girls, 70, 71, 72, 76, 85
Florida Cooperative Extension
Goen, Oliver F., 36
Grazing crops, 33
Gresham, Joseph A., 82
Griffith, L. Odell, 15
Grove management, 22
Hamilton, H. G., 20
Hampson, C. M., 20
Hatcheries, chick, 56
Hay drier, 28
Haynie, John D., 38
Health, 80, 85
Henderson, J. R., 32
Holloway, Ethyl, 62
Home demonstration work, 62, 63,
64, 65, 66, 67, 84
food production, 80
forest products, 51
improvement, 13, 74, 85
industries and marketing, 77
milk supply, 49
Housing, 13, 74
Housing Committee, 8
Jamison, F. S., 60
Johnson, John M., 26
Joiner, Jasper N., 15
Journal articles, 16
Kendall, Gladys, 77
Keown, Mary E., 62
Lawrence, F. P., 43
Laying flock, 53
Lemmon, Ruth, 70
Livestock, 12, 22
Livestock Sanitary Board, 56
Machinery, farm, 27
Management, broiler, 53
laying stock, 53
Marketing activities, 21, 77
McGregor, J. A., 36
McLendon, H. S., 57
McMullen, K. S., 19
Mehrhof, N. R., 53
Men's work, 19
Myers, F. E., 60
Moore, J. S., 53
National Home Demonstration
Neely, Grace I., 80
Negro agents, 6
farm demonstration work, 82
farm planning, 20
home demonstration work, 84
Neiland, L. T., 18, 50
News releases, 16
Nutrition and food, 80
Nutrition and health, 13, 80
O'Steen, A. W.; 53
Parvin, F. W., 20
Pastures, 20, 33
Perry, F. S., 19
Personnel training, 8
Pettis, A. M., 29
Poultry, 12, 53
breeders' conference, 55
broiler management, 53
egg quality program, 54
Products standardization, 77
Reaves, C. W., 47
Recreation, 14, 75, 85
Rosenberger, S. E., 60
Rural housing, 8
Savage, Zach, 22
Short courses, 4-H, 18, 42, 73, 83, 85
Sikes, Anna Mae, 62
Smith, J. Lee, 19
Soil, water conservation, 57
Staff changes, 10
Statistics, 11, 86
Stevens, Lorene, 70
Teaching methods, 20
Telephones, rural, 30
Textiles, 13, 68, 85
Timber marketing, 51
Timmons, D. E., 21
Tobacco, flue-cured, 31, 34
Tractor maintenance, 27
Training, 8, 30, 62
Annual Report, 1950
Turkey management, 55
United Nations flag project. 67
Veterans' assistance, 20
Visual aids, 17
Water conservation. 57
Watermelon Growers and Distribu-
tors Association, 22
Watkins, Marshall O., 7
Work with women and girls, 62