Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Director's report
 Publications, news, radio
 Safety and fire prevention
 Work of county agents
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering and...
 Animal husbandry
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Farm crops, soils and conserva...
 Farm forestry
 Poultry activities
 Home demonstration work
 4-H club work for girls
 Clothing and textiles
 Food and nutrition
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Home improvement
 Home industries and marketing
 Rural health improvement
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work

Report Florida agricultural extension service
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00010
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1949
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00010
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Director's report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Publications, news, radio
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Safety and fire prevention
        Page 18
    Work of county agents
        Page 19
    Agricultural economics
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Agricultural engineering and electrification
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Animal husbandry
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Farm crops, soils and conservation
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Farm forestry
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Poultry activities
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Home demonstration work
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    4-H club work for girls
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Food and nutrition
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 73
    Home improvement
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Home industries and marketing
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Rural health improvement
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
Full Text

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture
H. G. Clayton, Director




JUNE 30, 1949


St. Petersburg N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
ELI H. FINK, Jacksonville W. F. POWERS, Secretary,
GEORGE J. WHITE, SR., Mt. Dora Tallahassee

J. HILLIS MILLER, Ph.D., President of the University'
J. WAYNE REITZ, Ph.D., Provost for Agriculture'
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director of Extension
MARSHALL O. WATKINS, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville

CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor'
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent
F. S. PERRY, B.S.A., District Agent
H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Soil Conservationist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.2
OLIVER F. GOEN, D.V.M., Assistant Animal Industrialist
C. W. REAVES, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. Agr., Poultry Husbandman'
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management'
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
F. W. PARVIN, B.S.A., Assistant Economist
JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer'
FRED P. LAWRENCE, B.S.A., Citriculturist
W. W. BROWN, B.S.A., Asst. Boys' Club Agent
A. M. PETTIS, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist2
JOHN D. HAYNIE, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. JOHNSON, Rodent Control Specialist2
F. S. JAMISON, Ph.D., Vegetable Crop Specialist'
STANLEY E. ROSENBERGER, M. Agr., Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Home Demonstration Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., District Agent
JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist
BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist
GRACE I. NEELY, M.S., Asso. Economist in Food Conservation
LORENE H. STEVENS, B.S., State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
GLADYS KENDALL, A.B., Home Industries and Marketing Specialist

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. GRESHAM, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

'Cooperative other divisions, U. of F.
2In cooperation with U. S.


Director's Report --------------.......
Statistical Report .- ------------
Publications, News, Radio ..---------.... ....---.
Safety and Fire Prevention -------
Work of County Agents -----------...........
Agricultural Economics ------------.
Farm Management ............ --------.---
Citrus Grove Management --------...------.
Marketing -..-- ------
Agricultural Engineering ----------
Farm Electrification .--....--------------....
Animal Husbandry .... ------ ..
Beekeeping -......-- ........- --------..-

Boys' 4-H Club Work --------
Dairying -- ------------------
Soils and Farm Crops .--.- ----- ..-..--
Soil and Water Conservation .---------... ..
Farm Forestry ----...--.. ------ ------
Horticulture ----------.....
Citrus Culture .....---..-.--------------
Vegetable Production and Merchandising .
Poultry Activities ---. ----.....-
Home Demonstration Work ---.-.. --- --.....
4-H Club Work for Girls -...- ------------.....- -.
Clothing and Textiles ----. ..........---------..
Food and Nutrition ..--.._....-----------------.
Gardening and Food Conservation -----
Home Improvement ..------.....-----------.... -.
Home Industries and Marketing -----... .......--.
Rural Health Improvement --.--- --.. -----
Negro Farm Demonstration Work _.----... _-. ...
Negro Home Demonstration Work .--...--......-
Negro Statistical Report --.....------------.

-...-.. ------...----.......--- 7
S-------------------. 11
.----.-........--...--- ....--- 15
-...----....---- ----- .......- 18

....-.-----.--...--------...........-- 19
-...- ---...... ---. ...-- ..-...- 20
-.......----.......--- ---- -20
---...-.-.. ..-----.. ---.-- ---- --... 22
-.-------... -.--.. .--.--... 24
.-.........-- ----- ----- 27

...---.-----..... ----..-------. 30
..... ........... ............ ........ 32
.-.------ --........ ......--- ... ..---- ..---- 35

..---......- ....................---- .... 3840
----- ------ -- -- -- 40
-.-.....---...-.. ------.-.-.... -- 43
-----.-.- ----------.-. 45
--..-----... -----. -- 49
------------- 51
------------- -.- --- 51
-......- ......--- ...------.---- 54
.----..---...-- .... 58
.--.. ---..--- .....-- .....-...---- 62
-........-......--- ..-.....--- ......-- 65
........... --------.. --.... ...- 68
--.-....------.- -------- 71

---------- 74

.........-- ------.... ------- 77

---------- -- 79
-..-..-.--...... .... .....------ .-- 81
.-----..-.... ...-.-............--- 84
...--.-. ----- 86


(As of Novmber 30, 1949)



Alachua __-----------Loonis Blitch ---..-...... Gainesville ..--_--_ Mrs. Josephine
Alachua (Asst.) -... T. H. McRorie, Jr. -.Gainesville .--------- -----
Baker .....----------J-- J. Raymond Mills ... Macclenny ........------------
Bay------ .... -------_ J. A. Sorensen .----- -Panama City --------- --
Bradford .--...------ T. K. McClane, Jr. --Starke ---- Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard ..-- ..--------J. T. Oxford ....----.--Cocoa ----...... Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward .......------ B. E. Lawton .----_--. Ft. Lauderdale ...--.. Miss Louise
Broward (Asst.) -. Robert S. Pryor -__ Ft. Lauderdale --------------..-...
Calhoun ...........--- ---Thomas B. Jones -.. Blountstown .-. Miss Florence L.
Calhoun (Asst.) -- Fred J. Green --__... Blountstown .-------- .
Charlotte ......-- --_----N. H. McQueen ---.. Punta Gorda _..-.-..----------....
Citrus ....---..-----. O. M. Maines, Jr. ..--Inverness Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Citrus (Asst.) ---.. Quentin Medlin ---. ne.. Inverness ----------------
Columbia -------James N. Watson .--- Lake City -_ Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia (Asst.) F. A. Stenholm, Jr. -- Lake City ------------....... -
Dade .---..-..------- C. H. Steffani ----.._ Miami .- ---- Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.) ----.. J. L. Edwards _---- Miami --- Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.) _..---. J. D. Campbell --.--- Miami .----.--- Miss Ruth Taylor
Dade (Asst.) ----.. A. E. C. McIntyre .--- Homestead .......------------..---
DeSoto --.....-------. W. L. Woods ----..-- Arcadia .-------......--- ----------
Dixie --....----------C. L. Dickinson --... Cross City -_ Mrs. Mary M. Dally
Duval ...----..------- A. S. Lawton -----...-Jacksonville Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) ---.- G. T. Huggins ---.-- Jacksonville Mrs. Lucille Colson
Duval (Asst.) .........----- -------------- Jacksonville -- Miss Emma Sue

Escambia -------.-
Escambia (Asst.)
Gadsden ---------
Gadsden (Asst.) -_
Gilchrist ...-------
Glades ......---- --..--
Gulf ..-.-------

w arren
.E. N. Stephens ---.- Pensacola Miss Ethel Atkinson
...Albert H. Odom .--..- Pensacola Miss Oudia J. Webb
.-A. G. Driggers ------ Quincy -..---- Miss Elise Laffitte
-.Bernard H. Clark.-- Quincy -_ Mrs. Ivan S. Woodberry
--- Harry E. George -- Trenton ------------
_..A. G. Hutchinson --. Moore Haven .----------------- ----
- C. R. Laird ____- Wewahitchka ..--. Mrs. Wilma A.

Hamilton--- ........-----A. E. Nesmith
Hardee .--..-.---.....--. E. H. Vance ....

-Jasper -.__

- Mrs. Frances P.

Hendry _--....---.----- H. L. Johnson .----.. a- LaBelle .--.------------------..
Hernando --___.. Harry J. Brinkley --. Brooksville -...... -----------....
Highlands ..__.--_ V. T. Oxer --__ Sebring Miss Catherine Brabson
Highlands (Asst.) __Bert J. Harris, Jr. Sebring --------------------------
Hillsboro .-----.......-- Alec White ....------.. Tampa -----.-___ Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsboro (Asst.) ..--Edwin Booth T---- ampa -------------
Hillsboro (Asst.) -_Jean Beem ---...- ----Tampa ----.......- --------.
Hillsboro (Asst.) _- J. O. Armor ....-------Plant City ....... Miss Emily King
Hillsboro (Asst.) -- Raleigh S. Griffis -.-Ruskin ----------------
Holmes -----.. -----_ Stuart C. Bell _..--- Bonifay ---- Miss Laurena Croom
Indian River .--_..-- Marcel A. Boudet ..--Vero Beach -.__....---------------
Jackson --___ --______. John M. Kennedy -- .Marianna __ Mrs. Alyne C. Heath


Jackson (Asst.) --- Fred C. Sumners ..-_ Marianna ----. ----
Jefferson __- J. W. Malone .----.... Monticello Miss Mary A. Curtis
Lafayette --- S. L. Brothers ...- ..Mayo
Lake -----------R. E. Norris --- -- Tavares --.. Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake (Asst.) ------ Floyd L. Eubanks --- Tavares .----.--_-.. __-._- .-..__..
Lee -..--..--... ..-- C. P. Heuck --.... -_Fort Myers -----. -
Leon ...-- --.. --... James L. Rhoden _.-Tallahassee -........ Miss Nellie M.
Leon (Asst.) --.---....A. H. Clemmons .--- .Tallahassee -_-----_---........---- -
Levy -- ---------T. D. Rickenbaker -- Bronson --.___-.-. Mrs. Virginia B.
Liberty -------- ...-.----. ..-........-. Bristol -_ Mrs. Camilla R. Radney
Madison ...---------W. W. Glenn -----...-- Madison Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee -------Ed. L. Ayers _----_.. Bradenton -- Mrs. Anne D. Davis
Manatee (Asst.) Joe N. Busby ...-----.--.. Bradenton --
Marion ..----- Carl Hendricks ..---_- Ocala ----- Miss Allie Lee Rush
Marion (Asst.) -..- Carey A. Robbins ... Ocala -_ Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Martin ....---.------- L. M. Johnson -...--- Stuart -...--. Miss Lucile Inscoe
Nassau .__----_....... Gordon B. Ellis -........ Hilliard Mrs. Julia P. Jernagen
Okaloosa -_.._ Fred W. Barber ------- Crestview --............---------
Okeechobee ---.... C. R. Boyles -......---.___ Okeechobee ....----------------
Orange ..------.F. E. Baetzman ------- Orlando ...- Miss Elizabeth
Orange (Asst.) --. Henry F. Swanson __-Orlando ----..._. Miss Sammie J.
Osceola .-- --. J. R. Gunn ..---------. Kissimmee
Palm Beach -------- M. U. Mounts -.....--- West Palm Beach .... Miss Sara
Palm Beach (Asst.) John H. Causey --...- West Palm Beach Mrs. Mildred J.
Palm Beach (Asst.) H. L. Speer ---........ Belle Glade ----._...---------------...
Pasco _.----__. ......... J. F. Higgins ---.... Dade City ...----------------.....
Pinellas .. -----.... J. H. Logan ---...----...Largo ...........-
Pinellas (Asst.) ---- L. E. Cunningham Largo
Polk ------- W. P. Hayman -----.... Bartow .....---- .. ---------..---
Polk (Asst.) ----.... W. H. Kendrick ..---. Bartow Mrs. Minnie M. Carlton
Putnam _-- .H. E. Maltby .-----..?-- alatka ---..... Mrs. Elizabeth W.
Putnam (Asst.) _--- Ralph T. Clay .----. Palatka .-...- -----------.-....
Saint Johns ------.- P. R. McMullen -..-- St. Augustine ...--_ Miss Anna E.
Saint Lucie ----. .... Charles D. Kime --- Fort Pierce Mrs. Irene Roberts
Santa Rosa ----..- Emmett D. McCall ..-Milton ---... ... Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa (Asst.) .Johnnie E. Davis -_-- Milton ---------------....-----
Sarasota --_. ---.. W. E. Evans .----....-. Sarasota Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Seminole --------.......C. R. Dawson __----_ Sanford .--- ._ Miss Lila Woodard
Sumter ....--- ...----. Kenneth A. Clark --. Bushnell --.... Miss Tillie Roesel
Suwannee ...._---.. S. C. Kierce .------.... Live Oak ----- Miss Elizabeth M.
Suwannee (Asst.) --William C. Zorn ---.. Live Oak ....---_-------------------
Taylor .---------D. D. McCloud ...---- Perry -....- Mrs. Ruth McKeown



Union -- ___----- William J. Cowen .-. Lake Butler .. ------
Volusia -----William J. Platt, Jr. ._DeLand ............ Mrs. Edna L. Eby
Volusia (Asst.) _.. T. R. Townsend __- De.DeLand ..-....... ------.-..-..-.--.----
Wakulla -..------ A. S. Laird .....---.--...........--Crawfordville -----.-...--
Walton ..--.........-----...Mitchell Wilkins ---- DeFuniak Springs
Mrs. Marguerite R. Brock
Washington .-----... H. O. Harrison ..........Chipley __ Miss Mary L. Brownlee


Alachua ---..-------.English M. Greene Gainesville .- Leontine Williams
Columbia ..-- --._-- McKinley Jeffers .--_- Lake City Victoria M. Simpson
Duval ....- _------............... Jacksonville -- .- Ethel M. Powell
Gadsden --_.....---- Russell Stephens -. -Quincy ----- Gladys Wilkins
Hamilton .....----. N. H. Bennett ----.-- White Springs --_
Hillsboro .....--.--_-......---------- ..... Tampa ----- Sudella J. Ford
Jackson ------- .Virgil Elkins .-----....Marianna -- Annie Doris Preston
Jefferson ...._ M. E. Groover .._-__-.. Monticello
Leon ---.----- Richard A. Hartsfield Tallahassee ----__ Irie Mae Clark
Madison --.__... James C. Miller -- Madison --.. ---- Althea Ayer
Marion --- Eugene P. Smith ...-Ocala .----- ----
Marion -------------------Reddick .... Idella R. Kelly
Putnam --__ ----- ---------- Palatka Lee Ella Gamble Asia
Sumter .----........- Richard L. Bradley __Bushnell ----------.. -------------
Volusia -.--_-.-.. -----------------....DeLand ..... Ida T. Pemberton



Part I General

H. G. Clayton, Director
Marshall O. Watkins, Assistant to the Director

A total of 87,820 families were reached by some phase of the Extension
program in 1949. This was 7,221 families more than were reached in 1948,
or an increase of over 9 percent.
The 4-H club enrollment was 26,095 in 1949, compared with 23,196 in
1948, or an increase of approximately 12 percent. There were correspond-
ing increases in number of projects completed and in other 4-H activities.
Florida Agricultural Extension Service workers extended their efforts
all along the line during the year in order to reach more people and to
bring new information to those already being served.
The additional funds provided by the 1949 Florida Legislature permitted
some salary increases for Extension personnel. These increases brought
salaries of Extension workers more nearly in line with salaries paid by
industry and other institutions and agencies. The result has been better
morale and a higher efficiency among all workers. Additional personnel
added to handle increased demands during the year include the following:
two assistant county agents, one home demonstration agent, one district
agent for men's work, two specialists for men's work, one specialist for
women's work, one negro county agent and two negro home demonstration

Fig. 1.-Area and state 4-H club dairy shows revealed much progress in
this field by these illustrious youngsters.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever, Bankhead-Jone ..-.....------ $200,645.82
Capper-Ketcham --_..--------.. .... 27,417.72
Bankhead-Flannagan .._------.-______ -.. ------. 112,163.96
Clark-McNary ---....-----------.. ------ 1,620.00
Research & Marketing ---.-----..-..-.... ....---- 3,000.00

State Appropriations:
Legislature (Annual) -----... .........
Continuing, Chapter 6141 (Annual) --
Continuing, Chapter 19216 (Annual) -
Sales Fund (Incidental) ------.------..-.--

County Appropriations: .--------....--- -----------
Grand Total --------------------........



$307,149.00 $307,149.00
-----.. .... ---. $1,036,822.76

Personnel employed on the staff of the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service on December 1, 1949, were as follows:
Number of County Agents ........------------------------ 61
Number of Assistant County Agents -......--....- ------------- 30
Number of Home Demonstration Agents ----------......... --------- 45
Number of Assistant Home Demonstration Agents --------... --------- 12
State Staff: (Men) Administrative --.......--..----- --- 2
Supervisory -----.---------------- a
Specialists ........ ---------------------- 24
(Women) Administrative 1-------------------
Supervisory ---------------------- 3
Specialists .. ---------- 7

Negro: Supervisory --------------
Negro County Agents ..---- -------- -------
Negro Home Demonstration Agents ---...
Number of Clerks in State Offices -_. ....---------...
Number of Clerks in County Offices ..------- --.. ----

-------------------------------- 2
..........------.- .----- 10
.....--------- 11
-...............-------- 23
-.--..-.-....---- ----..- 43

A three weeks' training course for Extension agents was held in the
summer 1949 for the fourth consecutive year. Four courses were offered,
each carrying 1% hours of graduate credit. A student was permitted to
take only two courses for credit. The courses offered were:
Axt. 503-Agricultural Extension Service Programs
Axt. 507-Agricultural Extension Service Youth Programs
Jm. 320-Agricultural Journalism
Ey. 492-Advanced Economic Entomology
A committee of Extension workers is responsible for handling the ad-
ministrative work for the training course. Extension workers are kept
abreast of new research work by occasional training meetings at the Experi-
ment Stations. One two-day school was held at the Citrus Experiment
Station at Lake Alfred for all agents working in citrus producing counties.

Annual Report, 1949

Another two-day school included a day at the Range Cattle Experiment
Station, Ona, and a day at the Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Bradenton.
Agents in the central and southern part of the state attended these schools.
The annual conference for Extension workers was held at the Uni-
versity of Florida, October 17-21, and provided in-service training for
agents as well as inspiration for a job ahead. Morning sessions were
devoted largely to discussions by outstanding speakers on topics of national
and international importance.
The annual conference for negro Extension agents was held at Florida
A. & M. College, Tallahassee, during the week of October 31-November 4.
A two-day recreation school was held at a 4-H camp for all county and
home demonstration agents in central and northern Florida. This school
dealt primarily with the mechanics of organizing recreational work in
the counties.

At a staff conference during the summer of 1949 a committee of three
men and two women was appointed to work out and recommend to the
Director some suggestions for making plans of work more effective. This
committee made its recommendations at a staff conference in September
and the report was unanimously adopted. A revised procedure for arriving
at plans of work calls for use of community and commodity committees
and envisions the development of more complete long-time state and
county program in agriculture and home economics, with the yearly plan
of work developed as a section of the long-time program. The work of all
the agents in a county is coordinated into one county plan of work.
Considerable progress has been made in carrying out the new procedure
in developing 1950 plans of work. By the fall of 1950, it is expected that
county and community committees will be well established.
The Extension Citrus Advisory Committee and the Extension Vegetable
Advisory committee, composed of state and county workers, serve a very
worthwhile purpose. At periodic meetings these committees determine
over-all Extension programs for these two major commodities. All agents
from citrus counties and all agents from vegetable counties met for
separate two-day refresher and conference schools during the year to be-
come acquainted with the latest research information and methods in
these fields.
Club work is advanced by the functioning of 10 4-H districts in the
state. One county agent in each district, elected by his fellows, serves as
chairman. Activities such as shows and training schools for 4-H club
officers are planned by the districts and carried out with the assistance of
the state staff.
In practically all counties the agent serves as secretary to the County
PMA Committee and the Soil Conservation District Supervisors, in ad-
dition to various crop, poultry and livestock organizations. This keeps the
Extension worker informed and also permits him to participate in the
work of these groups in an active as well as an advisory capacity. The
specialists work very closely with these organized agricultural groups.
The recently employed Apiculturist is getting a good program for
beekeepers into operation.

Florida Cooperative Extension


Dairying.-The Extension dairy program has made outstanding ad-
vancement in 1949. Dairy Herd Improvement Association work is making
good progress. Seven artificial breeding associations have been organized,
an increase of five over a year ago when the first was started. These as-
sociations are working smoothly and the efforts of the Extension Dairy
Husbandman and the county agents in the counties affected are in great
measure directly responsible for this success. The greatly improved dairy
club work and the improved calf club exhibits at an increased number of
fairs and contests are indicators of progress being made. Production of
milk has increased to the point where state needs are being met and there
is some surplus this winter. We anticipate a marketing problem for
surplus milk. With the pasture program and the items mentioned above,
a good foundation is being built to produce a large part of the dairy cow
replacements needed in commercial herds, which have in the past been
obtained by out-of-state purchases.
Vegetable Production.-The Extension vegetable program is being en-
larged and intensified to better serve the vegetable industry. As men-
tioned above, a vegetable program advisory committee consisting of county
agents and specialists is now functioning. The agents from vegetable
counties are working hard on vegetable problems and they have been
assembled at the Vegetable Crops Laboratory for instructions and re-
fresher work in new material and techniques. New outlets for some
vegetables not usually produced are opening up new vegetable industries.
An RMA vegetable marketing study was inaugurated.
Beekeeping.-The work of the Extension Apiculturist is meeting a
need in this industry. Most county agents had limited experience with
bees but, with the assistance of the Apiculturist, they are now in position
to promote beekeeping projects. The 4-H bee club work is also expanding.
Marketing is one of the major problems confronting beekeepers and with
the assistance of the Extension Marketing Specialist, some progress is
being made. A small apiary is maintained at one of the State 4-H club
camps, which has supplied some honey for use at all the camps and
Livestock.-Good progress continues to be made in the pasture im-
provement program. Pangola grass plantings in middle and south Florida
have continued in increased volume and this grass is continually gaining
in favor. Developing of a method of planting the tops instead of sod
pieces has greatly simplified the planting operation.
An interesting development has been the widespread use of citrus
molasses self-fed to range cattle and to dry and young dairy cattle.
Citrus molasses has been cheap and it fills a need for an economical sup-
plemental feed for cattle on grass pastures. Considerable work has been
done to encourage the use of sanitary precautions against the spread of
disease due to transporting cattle bought at local auction markets and
carried back to the farms and ranches.
The beef cattle industry has made good advances in breed improve-
ment. Exports of breeding cattle of both the beef and dairy breeds to
South America and Cuba via air transport have continued to increase. The
county agents have worked very closely with the beef cattle development.

Annual Report, 1949

Agronomy.-Real progress is being made in changing over to the
higher yielding varieties of corn and peanuts with resultant increased
yields. In tobacco, county agents did a good job in carrying out programs
to control the peach aphid which was a real threat to production in 1948
and 1949. Work in increasing tobacco yields and improvement quality is
also making good progress.
The acreage in Dixie Crimson clover has been greatly expanded and
this is fitting well into the pasture improvement program. Reasonable
progress is being made in developing a commercial sweet potato industry
and the prospect for further advance in 1950 appears good.


Data from White County and Home Demonstration Agent's Reports
Months of service (agents and assistants) -------- 1,706
Days of Service: In office-18,912; In field-22,409------------ 41,321
Farm or home visits made ..-.----- .---. ------- -- 67,949
Different farms or homes visited -.....---......-- ---------- -- 37,917
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-249,520; Telephone -....- 192,005
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youths ---- 13,698
News articles or stories published --......---------------------- 10,633
Bulletins distributed --------- --.------- 300,645
Radio talks broadcast or prepared .. -..----------- ------. 2,266
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
Number ...---_--.. ----------.------------------ 1,121
Total attendance of men and women ------.. --------------- 16,960
Method demonstration meetings:
Number -................-- ------------ -------- 11,029
Total attendance ._..- --------. ..234,666
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
Number-------------------- -------- --------- ,6 1,466
Attendance -----------------------------.. 27,950
Tours ---...__---- -.._--.--- ---- --. ........ -.------ 546
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work -.------. 557
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings __-_.------_.--..-----. 10,754


Total number of farms -. .....-------.----------------...-------..-
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agri-
cultural program ---_.. ...-------------- --------------- -----..-. ..
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home
demonstration program ----------------------
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year ------ .-------. ---
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration programs for first time this year -..-....---.--
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled -____..--------.-..--....._....
Non-farm families making changes in practices as result of the
agricultural program ----......---.--.--------------.-----
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration program-----.----.-------- ---








Florida Cooperative Extension

Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ...-----... ---.---... 7,587
Different farm families influenced by some phase of extension
program _. ---....-.......... ...-- ..... ................... 41,663
Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program .----- 40,102

Members in agricultural planning group .__-----.............-............. 754
Unpaid __ ------------....... ... ..--- ............ .................... 465
Paid ---------...-..... ----.--------. ......... ----.... ----....... 289
Communities in agricultural planning ....------...-...___............_-_ 33
Members in community agricultural planning -...............----.......- 283
Planning meetings held --------------------------------...... ............-. 1,495
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
workers ._------------.--- ..----.-..----....... --.................... 3,049
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen -...-..---......-- ......._...-_- 3,225
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen_ 7,373

Days devoted to work --...--.....-.....~--.............. ---... 8,617
Communities in which work was conducted -____ .._......--_..._--- 3.404
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ____-------.-.....---------_ 1,570

Days devoted to work ..........................------- 6,709
Communities in which work was conducted ...--.. --........---.------ 2,369
Voluntary committeemen and leaders ...--..-....-...... -------_.. 1,040
Breeding and improvement organizations .... .... ..---------.--.-..-- 88
Farmers assisted ..... ..-.--.- -.----..----------- .........................._ 51,280

Days devoted to work ..........-----------------. .- .1,841
Communities in which work was conducted --...-..-....... ------- 1,167
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ----......... .-------........... 638
Farmers assisted in soil management -...--... --..... ... .... .. 46,517
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation ---...------- 13,742

Days devoted to work .-------........__---... -- -...........---.- 1,456
Farmers assisted 2... --......---..-.. --..... ----- ...... ......... 22,505

Days devoted to work -.__....-- .....___.......------.... --- 336
Communities in which work was conducted --------- 458
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ......--..... -----.---.. -- .. 345
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ------ 836

Days devoted to work --..- ... .... ..... --- ..........-.......... ........._-._. 2,879
Communities in which work was conducted ......-------...... ................. 3,091
Established cooperatives assisted -----......... ........-.- ....__._........ 109
New cooperatives assisted in organizing -...... .-----.--.........--.-- ..-- 24

Annual Report, 1949

Days devoted to work ---------......... -- --.-__.. _.._--._........
Communities in which work was conducted .............-------.--------.
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ...-....._---.. ...._-......_...
Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification and farm buildings ..-.................

Days devoted to work -----------------.--------- -- ..... ...........
Communities in which work was done ...---------...........-..-...-.........
Families assisted: In improving diets-19,777; food preparation-
17,360; Total ........... ..---------............. .......................
Families assisted with food preservation problems .-.. _---..-.. ........

Days devoted to work ..---..._.------.. .------ ............ ......
Communities in which work was done ---..... --------..._-..- ..._--.
Voluntary leaders assisting --- ..........-......_......-_.
Families assisted .........--------------- ............--.-..-..
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies -------
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems -----......- ____


Days devoted to work .......----------.--
Communities in which work was done
Voluntary leaders assisting ----...........
Families assisted .---- ............


Days devoted to work -...--..----.... .-...
Communities in which work was done
Voluntary leaders assisting ............__

--.----.-. ... 429
--.-----.-- 380
-..-------.... 294

Days devoted to work ---------------------... --------........ _
Communities in which work was done .-.-_-_... ....._ _..._
Voluntary leaders assisting -..--._.. ------ ................. .._.- ....... .... .__.-_
Families assisted in improving home recreation ...........-------- ..-
Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities or meeting programs ---_._--- --- ........-......_._....
Communities assisted in providing library facilities ----................


Projects completed by boys -----------------... ---........ .... .. .
Projects completed by girls ------------.---------............ .. ..
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ----------------......
Boys completing fruit projects ._.. -------..---..... --....--.
Boys completing garden projects -----.... .___.--------.-..._
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops

---- 22,636
----- 952
.--- 86
----- 1,600
--. 121






..-----.-.... 2,434
---.--.5--- 77
.---.-........ 689
.---.- ..--- 35,722



14 Florida Cooperative Extension

Boys completing dairy projects _.. --------..-...---.. .... 6 6
Boys completing poultry projects -..-- .- ....------------------ 1,14
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects --.......----------...--.- '4
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ...-..-----------.... 1 7
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects __----- 1,534
Girls completing fruit projects _.........------------------- 11
Girls completing garden projects -----.......- --------------- 1,997
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ....------ 5
Girls completing dairy projects ........ ... ....------------------- 9
Girls completing poultry projects ____._-......-- ---- -------... 1,0 0
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects -----.... ---- 4,219
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid projects --...-- 28
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and
room improvement projects .-.-.-.. ----------------- -- 8, 85
Girls completing food preservation projects __-------------- 1, 45
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-6,405; non-farm-2,636; total ------9, 41
Girls: Farm-6,396; non-farm-5,776; total ---- 12,172
4-H club members having examinations because of participation in
Extension program .....--.---------------------.....----------------- 1,551
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs ---------_____.- 27

Annual Report, 1949


J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Associate Editor

Through the press, radio and visual aids, the Editorial Department keeps
a continuous stream of helpful information flowing to the general public of
Florida. Efforts along this line supplement and complement the work of
specialists in the field, making it possible to reach more people and to
distribute more information.
The Editorial and Mailing Room staff serves both the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service and the Agricultural Experiment Station on approximately
a 50-50 basis.


During the year the Service printed four bulletins and seven circulars
in addition to a large number of record books and miscellaneous materials.
The bulletins ranged in pages from 20 to 52, totaling 152, and in edition
from 10,000 to 25,000, totaling 60,000 copies. The circulars varied in pages
from 4 to 36, with a total of 92, and in edition from 9,600 to 20,000, with a
total of 86,100 copies.
Following is a list of publications and other materials printed during
the year ended June 30, 1949:

Bul. 136 Strawberry Production ----.-...... _-_--------...___..
Bul. 137 Propagation of Ornamental Plants .....------------.
Bul. 138 Swine Production -------.-----......
Bul. 139 Citrus Propagation ----------------- ...... ............
Circ. 85 Fun and Play the 4-H W ay -----..... -...-................
Circ. 86 Tribulations of Porky, the Pig .--............------------ -.
Circ. 87. The Future for 4-H Club Members ---------._.---....
Circ. 88 Daylilies in Florida .---.......----.....-------___..___.
Circ. 89 Crumpy, the Calf ........-...-------.-------.........
Circ. Convert Your Treadle Model to an Electric
Sewing Machine .--..... ...---_--------...._
Circ. Farming in Florida to Beat the White-Fringed
Beetle -...------ ........-------.... ....
Final Report, 22nd National Egg-Laying Test ----
Annual Farm Inventory ---... ----.-.. __..__._ .
What Did You Eat Yesterday? .----------.....--------...
Food Preservation for 4-H Club Girls
(Dem s. I & II) -- --.-------------------... -----. ------------
Food Preservation Record for 4-H Club Girls
(Dems. III, IV, V & VI) --.--------.------------- .-____. .
Food Preparation Record for Junior 4-H Club Girls
4-H Food Selection, Preparation and Meal
Planning Record for Senior 4-H Club Girls ...
Florida Clothing Program for Junior 4-H Girls -_
Clothing Record-the Well Dressed 4-H Club Girl
Secretary's Record Book for Florida 4-H Clubs --_



4 9,600

8 5,000
28 1,500
20 10,000
1 10,000

8 15,000

8 15,000
4 15,000

16 15,000
4 12,000
12 15,000
32 7,500


16 Florida Cooperative Extension

In addition, the Service printed 45,000 copies of six enrollment car s,
window cards and monthly report blanks.
The mailing room distributed something like 50,000 copies of bulletins
and as many copies of circulars during the year, primarily on request frdm
individuals or through county and home demonstration agents. Copies of
each new publication are sent to libraries and to county and home dem n-
stration agents.
The Editor continued to serve as Publications Distribution Control OffiCer
for the USDA Extension Service and distributed hundreds of publications
to Florida county and home demonstration agents.

The Editors released an average of two stories a week to the Associ ed
Press or to one or more daily newspapers. In this the Extension Service
cooperated with the production and Marketing Administration, the College
of Agriculture, School of Forestry, Rural Electrification Administration
and other agencies. A tabulation reveals that 71 news stories went to the
AP and 32 to from one to 35 daily newspapers. Mats were sent ith
three of the separate stories.
Also, the weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was printed
and sent to weekly newspapers, a few dailies requesting it, farm journals,
county and home demonstration agents, vocational agriculture tea ers
and others working with groups of farm people. Each week's printing
consisted of 950 copies.
Farm journals continued to be be willing and anxious to use copy rom
the Extension Editors. One Florida magazine printed one story Which
filled 57 column inches, while three Southern journals printed 16 stories
totaling 284 column inches in length. Florida journals printed numerous
articles by other members of the staff.
Agents in 62 counties prepared or furnished materials for 10,977 news
articles in their local papers.


Radio broadcasting activities continue to expand and to require more
time and more materials. Additional stations request copy from time to
time. This year the Extension Editors inaugurated a service of radio
broadcasts on tape to stations requesting it, and two tapes were cut near
the end of the year.
The Florida Farm Hour, which is broadcast over University of Florida
radio station WRUF 30 minutes Monday through Friday and 15 minutes
Saturday, continued to be one of the chief outlets for radio information.
The program went on the air 309 times. The Editors prepared 306 daily
Farm News Highlights, six minutes, the weekly farm question b x and
editorial, and presented six straight talks. The secretary pr sented
weekly home notes.
Extension Service staff members made 98 talks, Experiment Station
workers 111, teaching division workers 19, 4-H club members 11, roduc-
tion and Marketing Administration staff 9, and State Plant Boa d staff
members 2. A number of students also made talks. Other speak rs rep-
resented the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, State Department of Agri-

Annual Report, 1949

culture, State Highway Patrol, State Livestock Sanitary Board, Future
Farmers of America, and State Home Demonstration Council.
Veterans training under the vocational agriculture program appeared
once each month, an average of three participating.
Remote control programs were staged from the Florida State Fair,
Tampa (2), and the Florida Sportsmen's Exposition, Eustis. Programs
recorded on wire came from the Polk County Youth Fair, Clay REA
Cooperative, one home demonstration agent, one county agent, a county
home demonstration council, a county 4-H fair, the Southeastern Fat Stock
Show, and the Vegetable Crops Laboratory Field Day.
Interviews included one each with a Dutchman, a Chinese and an agri-
cultural attache of the British Embassy in Washington.
Farm Flashes from the USDA were presented 103 times.
The Editor also presented three radio programs featuring 4-H club
girls over two Tallahassee stations during the girls' short course there in
June. He made one radio recording in a county for presentation over
WRUF. One skeleton radio talk to be filled in and presented over local
stations was mailed to agents.
Farm Flashes were sent out five days each week to 26 radio stations
throughout Florida. These included 8 prepared by the Editors, 99 by other
Extension workers, 118 from Experiment Station staff members, 34 from
the USDA, and 3 from others.
The Associate Editor furnished a 700-word script to the Associated
Press each week for distribution to stations served by its wires. Be-
ginning in April he also sent the AP a monthly news letter on home
demonstration club women's activities for distribution to radio stations.
He continued to mail a fortnightly review of Florida agriculture to sta-
tions not receiving AP service.

The filmstrip library, now numbering nearly 100 strips, was increased
during the year by accessions from the USDA and other sources.
The color motion picture depicting life at three Florida 4-H camps was
completed during the year and has been shown at camps and elsewhere.
Two hundred feet of color motion picture film were shot at the negro
camp on Doe Lake during its first season of operation.
The Editors also assisted agents in obtaining motion picture films from
the Extension Service's supplies and from the General Extension Division
depository. Two projectors and a public address system were maintained
for frequent use.
Food and Home Notes copy from the USDA each week was forwarded
to all home demonstration agents. Many of them used it for radio broad-
casting and others took some items from it for newspaper release.

Florida Cooperative Extension

L.T. Nieland and Bonnie J. Carter

National Farm Safety Week, July 24-30 and National Fire Preventi

Week, (

of mate
help in
sent to
safety a
ing outl
home de





to 4-H
boys an
tures we
the Nat

efforts c
six hund
safety a

)ctober 9-15, were observed by the Florida Agricultural Extensi n

a county and home demonstration agent was provided with pack ts
rial on safety prepared by the National Safety Council and on re
ion by the USDA and the National Fire Protection Association to
emphasizing and conducting programs during these weeks. n-
on on precautions to follow when using some of the new and Id
des, prepared by Florida Experiment Station entomologists, as
all agents.
Home Improvement Specialist and the Farm Forester, who gui ed
.nd fire prevention programs, prepared suggested activities, inc]ud-
lines for demonstrations for use by local leaders, 4-H memb rs,
demonstration clubs and farmer groups.
Extension editorial staff prepared materials on safety and fire
on, which were used in newspapers and on radio broadcasts
out the state.
nsion specialists presented two panel discussions at the S uth-
Safety Conference in Tampa in February.

ng the summer camping period water safety was re-empha ized
groups. At annual short courses held for white and negro 4-H
d girls motion pictures, posters, exhibits, demonstrations and lec-
ere used in presenting safety and fire prevention information.
y Loadholtz, 4-H club boy of Volusia County, received a trip to
ional 4-H Congress, Chicago, as state winner in the safety con-

;y-five county agents and 35 home demonstration agents reported
out organized safety and fire prevention programs. Through
)f these agents, 8,677 families were assisted in removing fi e and
hazards. Four hundred twenty-six volunteer leaders assisted in
1,091 method demonstrations at 694 meetings. Eight th usand
Hired eighty seven 4-H boys and girls received definite trai ing in
t regular club meetings.

Annual Report, 1949

Part II Men's Work

H. G. Clayton, Director
F. S. Perry, District Agent J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, District Agent
District Agents continued their close liaison with cooperating Boards
of County Commissioners to the end that work in the counties might be
maintained at a highly efficient level. Every effort was made to insure a
satisfactory Extension program in each county. The cooperative boards
have provided some additional funds for salaries and facilities.
During the year, County Boards provided their share of the necessary
funds for employing two additional assistant county agents. Six assistant
county agents resigned and one was transferred to a position as county
agent. Three county agents resigned, two were transferred and two re-
tired. All vacancies were promptly filled by cooperative arrangements
with the Boards.
New agents were acquainted with Extension objectives and policies by
District Agents. This was accomplished by frequent visits with these
Two District Agents devoted considerable time to plans for and financ-
ing of a badly needed additional 4-H club camp in the southern part of the
state. This camp will make it possible for approximately 1,200 additional
4-H club boys and girls to attend a 4-H camp each year.
District Agents assisted in every way possible to maintain and promote
the good public relations between agencies, organizations, commodity
groups and county agents which are so necessary for good Extension work.
The support of these groups has been very evident during the year and
has made it possible to reach additional people.
District Agents were instrumental in initiating a new system of pro-
gram development. Much time and effort were spent in acquainting county
workers with the new plan and assisting them in initiating it into their
work. The new plan will result in greatly increased participation by the
people in developing Extension programs.
Much time was spent by District Agents in correlating the work of
specialists within the districts, thus facilitating and making more effective
the work of the specialists. The District Agents spent some time working
with the Citrus Institute, the Poultry Institute and the Farm and Home
Institute. They also assisted county workers with local, district and state
shows and fairs.
Four-H club work within the districts and on a state-wide basis was a
major responsibility of each District Agent. Two 4-H leader-training
camps were held during the year. District Agents attended 10 group
meetings of county agents to discuss and plan 4-H activities. The
scheduling of counties to 4-H camps was also their responsibility.
The outlook is good for efficient Extension work in the future through-
out the state. Salaries somewhat comparable with those paid by industries
and other agencies must be maintained in order to employ and hold the
best qualified people. Equipment, office facilities and secretarial assist-
ance is more nearly adequate than at any time in the past; however, the~r
are still a number of offices which need additional equipment. Public' shp-
port is good and the morale of agents is high and every effort is being
made to fully justify favorable support and to maintain high morale.

20 Florida Cooperative Extension

C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management
F. W. Parvin, Associate Economist
About half of the Economist's time was given to regular Extensi n
work and about half to teaching methods in agricultural Extension. T e
Associate Economist gave full time to farm management work.
Farm and Home Planning.-Farm and home planning with individu is
was carried through its ninth year. This project is primarily an expe i-
ment in Extension methods with low-income farm families.
Methods used include, first, a refresher school of one day for the o-
operating county agents. This is followed by the Economist spending a
day or two with each agent, during which time visits are made to about a
dozen farmers whose businesses are analyzed and recommendations 4re
made for improvements that will secure higher income or will improve
the standard of living. The Economist and the agents alternate in con-
ducting interviews and making recommendations. After each farm visit,
a few minutes are spent in constructive criticism of the interview. rol-
lowing the Economist's visit to the county agent, each agent continues
the process with a limited number of farmers. Also, a letter is sent to
each farmer which contains a list of recommendations made to him.
A total of 259 farm families were served in this way and 1,550 recom-
mendations were made, of which about 70 percent were carried out n a
creditable manner. Conservative estimates of the value of additional
production on the farms range from $50 to $700, with an average of 220
per farm. This is an average increase of about 10 percent over their a948
income and about 50 percent over their 1939 income. It is planned td add
a few farmers to the present list for 1950.
Nine groups are now organized so that follow-up contacts can be ade
with the cooperators at meetings instead of through farm visits. The
initial contact each year is made at the farm. Timely circular l tters
and printed publications are mailed to all cooperators. The Profess r of
Farm Management at the University of Florida has become int nsely
interested in the methods pursued and results obtained. As a result of
his interest, one tour is made annually by his class in agricultural policy
to one community, and his farm management class has used muc data
from the cooperators' records.
Assistance to Veterans.-Annually a table is provided for dete inning
size of farm business based on income and using current prices. This
method minimizes the discrepancies which exist between farms with vary-
ing kinds and amounts of drawbar power.
A new record book was devised containing monthly and annua helps
for analyzing the farm business and for arriving at corrective me sures.
Many letters were answered regarding homesteading and starting in
farming. Farm management discussions were conducted in 10 district
meetings for teachers and eight local class meetings.
Assistance to Negroes.-Approximately half of the work done in the
farm-and-home-planning project is carried on with negroes; one of the
training meetings for veterans' teachers was for negro teachers, and three
of the 4-H leader meetings were for negro leaders; one day was given to farm

Annual Report, 1949

management instruction at a negro 4-H camp, and four days at the negro
4-H short course. Two days each were given to the following: Negro
Resources Committee, Annual Conference of Extension Agents, and farm
management problems at Hungerford School.
Teaching Methods in Agricultural Extension.-In' the fall term of
school, two regularly scheduled undergraduate courses in Extension
methods were offered and taught by the Economist. Two problems courses,
one graduate and one under-graduate, were available throughout the year.
A three-week summer school for in-service Extension workers included
courses in general Extension methods, 4-H club work, economic entomol-
ogy, and journalism for Extension workers. Three courses were taught by
local staff members, including the Economist, the fourth a field worker
from the Extension Service in Washington. Each course provided 1Y2 hours
hours of credit toward a master's degree.
Twenty-nine students were enrolled in the summer school, 65 in the
fall classes, and 26 in the problems courses.
Classroom teaching is followed by assistance in the field. Help was
given in training 4-H leaders from 21 counties and 4-H officers from three
An Analysis of 15 Privately Conducted Citrus Feeding Trials.-During
the spring and summer of 1949, the Associate Economist studied the
operations of privately conducted beef cattle feeding trials in Florida in
which citrus products were used as the principal fattening ingredient. An
analysis of the costs and returns of 15 trials involving 894 animals was
made and a report showing the results published.
Economic Considerations in Florida's Pasture Improvement Program.-
A preliminary study of costs of pasture improvement programs, mainten-
ance programs and resulting increases in beef-producing capacity of the
land indicated that in a great many cases the annual cost per acre of a
pasture program is very high.
The Associate Economist has pointed out in group meetings with rural
bankers and professional agricultural workers, both in the counties and
at the University of Florida, that caution should be exercised in making
recommendations to farmers in the field of pasture improvement. He has
pointed out that there are conditions under which a pasture program will
not pay and that those conditions are not merely isolated cases.
Economic Outlook for Florida Farmers.-A mimeographed sheet sum-
marizing economic information important to Florida agriculture adapted
from reports from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in Washington
was prepared monthly for use of county agents, vocational agriculture
teachers, veterans teachers, rural bankers and Extension staff members.
Florida Agricultural Outlook.-Following the National Outlook Con-
ference in Washington, October 31 to November 4, the Associate Economist
prepared a general report entitled "Florida Agricultural Outlook for
1950." This report was distributed to 1,200 people who serve Florida
During the year the Associate Economist appeared before 13 farmer
meetings where he discussed the general subject of agricultural outlook
for Florida farmers. The combined attendance at these meetings was ap-
proximately 1,400 farmers. Fifteen radio talks were prepared and de-
livered on the subject of outlook for various commodities and supplies for
Florida farmers.

22 Florida Cooperative Extension

4-H Club Work.-Assistance was given at 37 4-H club events, including
short course and camps, at seven district and county fairs, in compiling
new Secretary's Record Book and in the selection of state prize winners
for national contests. Help in conducting training meetings with 4-H
leaders from 21 counties and 4-H officers from three counties has been
mentioned previously.
Miscellaneous Activities.-Background data regarding economic pro-
lems were secured and analyzed for five county agents. In addition, a-
sistance was given in 15 meetings of 10 different organizations, to sone
college classes, to students who made office visits, and in the preparati n
of two manuscripts by members of the Florida Agricultural Experimet
Station Staff.
Zach Savage, Associate Economist, Agricultural Experiment Station
Florida citrus growers maintained their interest in citrus cost ad
return records and the reports made therefrom. Some growers studied
summary reports to help them decide whether to purchase additional citrus
acreages. Other growers were interested in the reports as a basis for
formulating long-term leases of citrus properties and contracts for long-
term purchases of citrus fruit from stipulated groves. Many prospective
grove owners requested copies of these reports to assist them in deciding
whether or not to purchase citrus properties and in determining grove
values. Various segments of the citrus industry used the reports to as ist
them with their particular problems. Many processors, particularly on-
centrators, were interested in production costs, while real estate dealers
were interested in costs and returns to assist them in handling citrus
Cooperators received 43 cents per box for their fruit from groves ver
10 years of age in the 1947-48 season. This was 58 percent of the rice
received the previous season and 21 percent of the 1945-46 price. The
price of 43 cents received in the 1947-48 season was the lowest since the
1938-39 season and there was only one other season, 1932-33, when the
price was lower than in 1947-48.
While fruit prices have been declining, costs of most production items in-
creased. However, the operating costs per acre decreased 1 percent in
1947-48 as compared to the previous season. There was a further de-
crease in 1948-49 that amounted to 13 percent of the 1946-47 season.
These reductions were effected by postponing and/or eliminating ome
operations rather than performing the operations at lower rates.
Growers represented by these records encountered their worst s ason
in 1947-48 from the standpoint of returns above operating costs and net
returns. Returns above operating costs showed losses of $21.97 per acre;
or 7 cents per box. These losses were encountered in spite of a record
yield for the season of 321 boxes per acre.
Although 13 counties were represented in the 1947-48 season, 8 per-
cent of the groves and 85 percent of the grove acreage were in four
counties, Polk, Lake, Orange and Highlands.
Included in this study were some groves made up largely of orange
trees and others in which grapefruit predominated. The sample of rape-
fruit groves was small, but records on these were difficult to obtain since
such a small proportion of Florida groves are grapefruit.
'This project is cooperative with the Agricultural Experiment Station.

Annual Report, 1949

Storms, hurricanes, drouths and low temperatures reduced the number
of boxes harvested during some seasons. Strong winds affect grapefruit
yields more than orange during the latter part of the fruit seasons, due
to the larger size of fruit. These and other factors resulted in wide
fluctuations in yields of both groups of groves, particularly grapefruit.
The number of boxes of fruit harvested per acre from grapefruit
groves averaged 39 percent higher than from orange groves. Operating
costs per acre were 23 percent higher on grapefruit and 12 percent less
per box. Returns from fruit per acre averaged 46 percent higher on
oranges and 105 percent higher per box. Returns above operating costs
per acre were 145 percent higher on oranges and 246 percent higher per
The 1947-48 season was the only one when returns from all orange
groves were less than operating costs. There were five of the 17 seasons
when returns from all grapefruit groves failed to pay operating costs, and
the loss was greatest in 1947-48. There were three seasons when each
orange grove returned its operating costs. There were four seasons when
each grapefruit grove returned its operating costs. Over the 17-year
period, one out of six orange and one out of three grapefruit groves failed
to return operating costs.
Some groves included in this study were located in the Indian River
section. Counties included in this section are Brevard, Indian River and
St. Lucie. A separate report was made on the groves in this section. Grove
records were not included for seasons prior to 1933-34, thus limiting this
report to 15 seasons. The average age of Indian River groves included
was 12 years.
For the first time since the inception of this project, groves were grouped
in six age groups for costs and returns in the 1947-48 season.
The individual summary report for each grove of the study over 10 years
of age included for the first time the ranking of that grove for each of seven
items, (1) boxes harvested per acre, (2) fruit returns per acre, (3) operat-
ing costs per acre, (4) returns above operating costs per acre, (5) spray and
dust materials cost per acre, (6) fertilizer materials cost per acre, and (7)
nitrogen per box of fruit harvested.
These rankings indicated the position of the individual grove in relation
to all others and the cooperator was able to see how he ranked with others
in the group. Also, comparative data for his county were supplied each
cooperator, along with data from all sections by age groups, the "1947-48
Citrus Costs and Returns with Comparisons of Other Seasons," and "Seven-
teen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns." Cooperators of the Indian River
section received in addition, "Costs and Returns on Indian River Groves."
County agents in citrus-producing counties were requested to supply
names and addresses of their county citrus advisory committees. These 146
committeemen and other interested persons were included on the mailing
list to receive summaries as released.
Articles were prepared for the January issue of the "Florida Farm
Bureau Bulletin" and the November issue of "The Citrus Industry." Shorter
articles appeared in six issues of "Citrus Notes for County Agents in Citrus-
Producing Counties."
Copies of different releases were supplied each member of six classes of
students in the University of Florida College of Agriculture. Classes using
this material were in horticulture, farm management and agricultural
marketing. The Associate Agricultural Economist appeared before four


24 Florida Cooperative Extension

classes and assisted in presentation of the data at the time publications we e
A copy of the Extension citrus grove record book was sent each cooper -
tor in September, since the fiscal period of these records is September 1
through August 31.

D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing
Adjustment to post-war conditions is affecting agriculture to a great er
degree than most other industries. Prices of raw products usually fall
faster than finished products. Prices of those products the farmer bays
fall more slowly than those he sells. This condition results in unrst
among farmers and an unusual demand for lower costs and economies.
Florida farmers, as a group, fared relatively better during the 1948-49
season than they did the previous year. This was due to larger produ
tion and to the fact that a freeze in California reduced the supply of
citrus fruits and vegetables-Florida's principal crops.
Citrus.-The volume of citrus marketed has been increasing rapidly nd
the demand for more outlets continues. The California and Texas fre zes
relieved the surplus situation during 1949. The previous two Florida ea-
sons were disastrous, due to low prices. Growers demanded new legisla-
tion. New organizations were formed and growers took part in numerous
meetings where proposals for solving the citrus problems were demanded.
The Extension Economist in Marketing attended most of these meetings
and participated only in the economic phases of the discussions. s a
result of growers' efforts, legislation, known as the Citrus Code of 949,
was passed. The main feature of this code is an increase in the maturity
standards of all citrus and the including of processed fruit in the ame
legislation applying to fresh fruit. In some instances maturity and trade
regulations differ; but in all cases, the intent is to insure the hi chest
quality of Florida citrus it is practicable to market.
The Citrus Code of 1949 was the principal topic at many meetings
held in citrus counties. The Extension Economist in Marketing as listed
with 17 of these meetings and cooperated with the Extension Citru Ad-
visory Committee in developing programs to produce better quality citrus
Florida Citrus Mutual.-The Florida citrus industry is giving much
thought and effort through a new growers' organization known as Florida
Citrus Mutual to programs which would stabilize the citrus market. This
organization includes over 90 percent of the growers. The program at
the moment involves minimum prices and a weekly prorate. A goo fea-
ture of the Citrus Mutual movement has been the educational accomplish-
ment. Meetings, conferences and arguments in connection with Mutual and
its program have done much to familiarize the industry with problems
and has caused growers, shippers and others to become more conscious of
the task ahead and the importance of cooperation in attacking these
problems. Assistance has been given Mutual by advising with its officials,
attending directors' meetings, and assisting in arranging program .
Florida Citrus Commission.-The Florida Citrus Commission is the
state agency responsible for stimulating demands for citrus. Th Com-
mission meets regularly once each month and at many called m etings.
The Extension Economist in Marketing attended most of the Commission

Annual Report, 1949

meetings and took part in discussions. He assisted in the dissemination
of rules and regulations issued by the Commission and reported reactions
of the industry concerning various questions to the Commission.
Canning Publication.-For a number of years, the Economist carried on
a cooperative project with the Florida Canners' Association, which con-
sisted of writing the summary of the season's operations, making radio
talks and putting out circulars in connection with the citrus canning opera-
tions. This project was temporarily suspended during the war but was
resumed during the current year.
The citrus canners requested a publication on the history and develop-
ment of the citrus canning industry and statistics showing trends in pro-
duction by various kinds of citrus products. Emphasis on the production of
frozen citrus concentrate, a new product in the citrus industry, was to be
included. This publication is in the hands of a citrus canning committee
and should be ready for distribution in early 1950.
Citrus Institute.-The Economist cooperated with the Extension Citri-
culturist in holding two citrus institutes, one at Camp McQuarrie and one
with the Indian River Citrus League.
Growers' Administrative and Shipper's Advisory Committee.-The Ex-
tension Economist in Marketing attended a number of the meetings held
by this committee, where assistance was given in disseminating rules and
regulations of the committee. Assistance was also given in holding meet-
ings to nominate grower members to the Advisory Committee.
Lime Maturity.-Producers and packers of limes held a number of
meetings during the last year on the percent of juice content as a require-
ment for maturity. Some producers and packers wished to raise the
juice content while others felt that the present standard of 40 percent
was high enough. The group agreed to ask the University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station to conduct research to determine what
was advisable. The Economist has been active in this series of meetings.
He helped to present the need for a project to determine the desirable
juice content standard to the Experiment Station and also assisted in
setting up the project.
Vegetables.-Extension marketing activities in vegetables consisted of
cooperating with the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association in their
program of transportation, better packaging, marketing agreement educa-
tional meetings, farm labor and commodity meetings. The Economist
assisted the Assistant Extension Horticulturist in setting up a project
which was designed to demonstrate proper displaying and care of produce.
A third phase of vegetable activities during the past year included
assisting with a number of vegetable meetings and field days in coopera-
tion with the various branch experiment stations and the Extension Horti-
Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives.-The Economist continued to
assist the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives, which carries on an
educational program for its members. This cooperative consists of 58
members representing an estimated 90% of the buying and selling carried
on by Florida farmers' cooperatives.
Watermelon Growers' and Distributors' Association.-The Watermelon
Growers' and Distributors' Association has its headquarters in Gainesville,
Florida. The Extension Economist in Marketing was re-elected secre-

26 Florida Cooperative Extension

tary of this association in 1949. Membership in this organization ha
more than doubled in the last three years. About one-third of the mem
bers are Florida producers and all receiver members handle Florida pro-
Pecans.-As a result of extremely low prices in 1948, pecan growers
requested support prices. The Southeast Pecan Growers' Association took
an active part in this move and finally requested hearings on a proposed
federal marketing agreement affecting the five states of Mississippi, Ala-
bama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida. In Florida, two series df
educational meetings were held with growers and shippers on the pro-
posed agreement.
Outlook.-The Economist took part in a number of out-look meetings.
He worked very closely with the Associate Economist on this project. One
issue of marketing briefs was prepared and mailed.

Annual Report, 1949

John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer
The need for agricultural engineering was keenly felt because of de-
crease in farm labor, increase in size of farms, development of new lands
which require clearing or draining, and the unprecedented interest in
better housing and mechanization. In view of this broad need for engi-
neering services, the agricultural engineering program was designed to
reduce human effort and costs in the production of essential and desirable
commodities needed by man and animal and to make the farm and rural
community a more desirable place to live.
Housing and Farm Buildings.-The aim of the farm housing program
is to raise the standard of living and income through properly planned,
better constructed and more efficiently arranged buildings.
Information on this important phase of the engineering program was
disseminated through radio, news items, result demonstrations, method
demonstrations and farmer meetings. Many teaching devices, such as
models, charts, slides and motion pictures, were used. The Florida building
plan service is an additional aid in carrying out the housing program.
Through this service, a file of 275 farm building plans, including about
75 different designs for dwellings, is maintained. All plans are described
in two mimeographed leaflets: "Plans of Farm Dwellings and Appurten-
ances," which lists only dwelling houses, miscellaneous structures and
equipment, and "Plans for Farm Buildings," which lists farm buildings
other than dwellings and various types of farm and ranch equipment.
During the year, 4,468 sheets of building plans were furnished to
farmers in answer to requests made to the Agricultural Engineer or

Fig. 2.-This drying outfit has a capacity of 40,000 pounds of seed or
40 tons of hay. Cutoffs developed by Florida agricultural engineers permit
the use of any or all sections of the drying surface at one time.

Florida Cooperative Extension

through county agents' offices. An additional 2,000 plans were furnished
for reference files for county agents, vocational agricultural and veterans'
teachers. The Agricultural Engineer spent 45 days in the field answering
requests for on-the-spot assistance in planning and construction.
County Extension workers spent a total of 2,123 days assisting farm
people with housing problems. The work was done with the help of 762
volunteer local leaders.

Statistical Summary-Housing and Farm Building Activities By Agents.
White Negro
Families Assisted Families Assisted Total
Constructing farm dwellings --- 942 194 1,136
Remodeling farm dwellings ..-. 1,985 384 2,369
Sewage systems ----~..~.----..-..-.----. 704 77 781
Water systems -- ---------....-- 751 145 896
Heating systems ......-------- 334 38 372
Improving kitchens, storage
space, laundry and other rooms 6,322 1,569 7,891
Sanitary privies ---. --- 666 167 833
Screening --.....--..----- --....... 4,262 1,078 5,340
Construction of farm buildings .- 665 86 751
Remodeling or repairing farm
buildings ----..------..-..---.. ....-----. 721 169 890

Farm Machinery.-The aim of the farm machinery program is to teach
the farmer, his son, his hired labor and the county agent the importance of
wise selection, proper use and maintenance of the many pieces of machinery
used in farming operations.
The number of tractors on Florida farms has tripled in the past 10
years. This rapid change in the number of tractors is an indication of the
over-all trend toward mechanization. There is an estimated 114,258 pieces
of automotive equipment in operation on Florida farms.
To get information to the most farmers possible, demonstrations and
exhibits were used to a great extent. The Agricultural Engineer partici-
pated in planning or conducting 27 farm machinery demonstrations and
exhibits. The purpose of the demonstrations, which in some cases were
of specialized machines, was to show the farmer enough regarding the
operation and capabilities of a piece of machinery for him to determine
whether he needed such a machine for his farm. One such demonstration
gave the 100 farmers in attendance definite proof that a combine will ef-
ficiently harvest an important seed crop, crimson clover.
Two three-day tractor maintenance schools were conducted for 48 4-H
leaders at Ocala and Live Oak. Instruction was given in routine farm
machinery maintenance practices, club leadership and organization.
A 4-H tractor operators' contest was developed to stimulate interest
among farm youth in farm machinery and to increase interest in the 4-H
tractor maintenance project. In two counties, 4-H tractor operators' con-
tests, with 52 participants, were witnessed by over 4,000 people.
County and home demonstration agents worked 377 days in 369 com-
munities assisting farm people with mechanical equipment. The work
was done with the help of 179 volunteer local leaders in 23 counties.

Annual Report, 1949










YEAR. 1920 1930 1940 1950
Fig. 3.-Farm use of automobiles, trucks and tractors has risen, while the
number of mules on farms has decreased materially.

Summary of Extension Activities in Farm Machinery.
White Negro
Families Assisted Families Assisted
Selection of mechanical equipment 1,464 106
Use of mechanical equipment --. 1,331 268
Maintenance and repair of
mechanical equipment ...- .. 1,528 189
Number tractor schools ..---- 2 0
Number leaders attending
tractor schools -------- 48 0




Marketing Facilities.-The marketing program was designed to furnish
all available information to the interested farmer on preparing his products
for both market and home use in the most efficient manner to maintain
quality and bring a good price.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The major activity in marketing was in seed and hay drying. There
were approximately 25 mechanical driers, other than batch-type seed driers,
operating in Florida. Twelve of these driers were the combination seed,
feed and hay type. The two largest installations made this year had a
floor capacity of 40,000 pounds of seed or 40 tons of hay.
Some emphasis was placed on fence post treating, since the last legisla-
ture passed a law to become effective in July 1950, making it unlawful for
livestock to roam at large on all state roads. This law, and the desire to
establish improved pasture under fence, stimulated fencing activity. A
cooperative program with the Extension Forester on preservative and treat-
ment methods for fence posts was continued. The preservatives recom-
mended were pentachlorophenol and copper napthanate, both of which were
used in the concentrate form. A tank was built and used in treating
demonstrations. These demonstrations were witnessed by 2,100 farmers.
Personal Service and Miscellaneous.-The nature of agricultural engi-
neering work made a service program necessary. The Agricultural Engi-
neer was most frequently requested to render personal service on irriga-
tion and drainage problems. These problems consisted of a farm drainage
system or portable irrigation system. The Agricultural Engineer worked
with 14 farmers on irrigation and with 15 farmers on drainage. County
agents assisted 1,088 farmers with irrigation and 2,362 farmers with drain-
age problems.
A. M. Pettis, Farm Electrification Specialist
The power suppliers in Florida have been engaged in extensive line-
construction programs during 1949. Electrical equipment for farms and
homes has been produced at a very rapid rate since the war and this
equipment was generally available in all sections of the state.
Congress authorized the Rural Electrification Administration to make
additional loans to further the building of electric lines in rural areas. The
line-construction programs of the power suppliers during 1949 has resulted
in 6,800 farms being electrified, which is the largest number ever electrified
in Florida in a single year.
At present 46,769 Florida farms have electricity, which is 76.5 percent
of the farms in the state. These farms receive power from 15 REA co-
operatives, three major utilities, several minor utilities and municipalities
with rural lines. Approximately three-fourths of the electrified farms are
served by REA cooperatives.
Safe, Adequate Wiring.-The most effective time to advise farmers
concerning installation of proper wiring is just before they have their
farms wired. Copies of the USDA bulletin, "Planning the Farmstead
Wiring and Lighting," were mailed all Extension agents in the state in
1948, and this year additional copies were sent upon request to agents and
to farmers. The farm Electrification Specialist discussed proper wiring
at 35 meetings attended by 850 people, including 4-H members, farmers
and county and home demonstration agents. In collaboration with the
Extension Engineer and the Home Improvement Specialist, the Farm
Electrification Specialist assisted in conducting four all-day training
classes on home improvement, with 40 county home demonstration agents
attending. At these classes, the Farm Electrification Specialist gave
demonstrations on home electrification.
Proper Lighting.-The Farm Electrification specialist constructed a

Annual Report, 1949 31

study lamp according to the USDA plans, "Make this Table Lamp." Plans
for this lamp, which was on exhibit at 4-H summer camps, were distributed.
Motor Table.-A home-made motor table was used to demonstrate to
rural people how electricity can replace expensive hired help. This motor
table has one small electric motor to operate different pieces of household
and shop equipment which are often operated by hand. USDA plans for
making the motor table were distributed at four meetings where the table
was demonstrated. Approximately 3,800 people attended these meetings.
Converting Treadle Sewing Machines.-In 1948 the Farm Electrifica-
tion Specialist prepared a leaflet entitled, "Convert Your Treadle Model to
an Electric Sewing Machine." A great amount of interest has been shown
by farm women in attaching an electric motor to their treadle machines.
This year the Farm Electrification Specialist gave 11 demonstrations to
3,700 farm people on converting treadle sewing machines. Although
there are not complete figures available concerning the number of farm
women now sewing electrically as a result of this activity, a tabulation
in one county revealed more than 50 women converted their treadle sew-
ing machines since the Extension leaflet was printed.
Chick Brooder.-A home-made chick brooder was constructed following
the USDA plans entitled, "A Home-Made Electric Brooder." In coopera-
tion with the Extension Poultry Specialist, these plans were sent to all
agents in the state.
Electric Equipment.-The selection, care and safe operation of elec-
tric appliances was discussed at nine meetings attended by 339 rural
people. Films concerning rural electrification, electric appliances and
water systems were shown at meetings and USDA leaflets on these sub-
jects were distributed.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H Better Methods Electric contest was pro-
moted as in previous years. Assistance was given to agents in nine
counties by discussing the contest at 14 meetings attended by 229 4-H
members. In addition, the contest was discussed with 219 4-H members at
summer camps. The results this year were the best to date. The state
winner of the contest was Jimmy Machek of Volusia County.
Demonstrations on the repair of ironing cords and extension cords
were presented before 120 4-H girls at their State 4-H Short Course. At
two summer camps, 264 4-H members improved existing wiring under the
supervision of the Farm Electrification Specialist.
Additional Help.-Additional help was given to farmers and county
agricultural leaders by answering their inquiries concerning wiring, light-
ing, and electrical farm equipment. A radio recording of talks on electric
water systems, electric cooking and proper lighting was obtained. This
recording has been loaned to five county agents and other county leaders
for use on radio programs.
The Farm Electrification Specialist has given demonstrations and as-
sisted with exhibits at fairs, agricultural shows and the Farm and Home
During 1949 county Extension workers assisted families on farm elec-
trification problems as follows:
White Negro
Families Assisted Families Assister Total
Obtaining electricity _------ ... ..-- 1,475 348 1,823
Using electricity in home -----..---- 3,421 185 3,606
Using electricity to produce income 611 33 644


32 Florida Cooperative Extension

W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman, December 1, 1948, to April 30, 194
Oliver F. Goen, Assistant Animal Industrialist
The Assistant Animal Industrialist was appointed April 1, 1949. Ths
report therefore covers the period April 1 through November 30, with tlhe
exception of the statistical data furnished by the county agents which
covers the period December 1, 1948, through November 30, 1949.
Because the work of the Assistant Animal Industrialist is primarily con-
cerned with the cattle industry and cattlemen throughout the state,
effort was made to meet with the various local cattlemen's associations. Ad-
dresses were given to four such groups. In addition, talks relating to
livestock were made at several meetings of combined veterans' classes nd
to the Trenton Kiwanis Club.
The Assistant Animal Industrialist helped carry on an education al
program designed to show the number of dollars lost each year by lives ck
producers because of improper handling of stock between farm and mar-
ket. During 1948 165,315,000 pounds of meat valued at $95,801,700 were
lost to the industry because of improper handling of livestock and damage
to hides by grubs.2
Since livestock shows can be considered show windows of the lives ock
industry, county agents were assisted in putting on livestock shows. he
Assistant Animal Industrialist served as judge in six livestock shows, as
judge of the showmanship contest in two, and helped others publicize
these shows through radio talks, circular letters and announcements at
Demonstrations were given and other services performed at three 4-H
camps. Considerable time was spent visiting 4-H livestock projects ith
county and assistant agents to assist them with livestock problems. At
the request of agents, study outlines were prepared to be used in tea thing
4-H club members to judge livestock and to appreciate type, quality and
productivity in breeding animals.
Prevention and control of livestock diseases and parasites has been
stressed through demonstrations, illustrated lectures, study course and
outlines distributed to 4-H club members attending camps and at other
Since external parasite control on livestock is being stressed by c unty
agents, the following estimated summary of livestock pest control work
was prepared, covering the period October 1, 1948, to October 1, 19 9.
Total number of power sprayers used for livestock pest control 267
Estimated amount of rotenone, in pounds, used in the external
parasite control program (in terms of 5 percent rotenone
root) ......-----.................-----------------.-......-..... 7,620
Estimated amount, in pounds, of DDT used (in terms of tech-
nical product) ....-------------..-... ..--- ..------- ..---------- 81,800
Estimated amount, in pounds, of methoxychlor --......... ......---- 6,920
Estimated amount, in pounds, of BHC (in terms of technical
material containing 10-12 percent gamma isomer) .------.-..- 12,715
Estimated amount, in pounds, of lindane -..------.......--......---.-. 1,190
Estimated amount, in pounds, of chlordane _...----.. ---.... ---. 6,390
Estimated amount, in pounds, of toxaphene -...---............-- 1,190
2From report of National Livestock Loss Prevention Committee.

Annual Report, 1949 33

Estimated amount, in pounds, of newer pyrethrum compounds ... 1,800
Estimated amount, in pounds, of other chlorinated insecticides 6,770
Number of farm premises sprayed for house fly and stable fly
control -- ----..------__... ... ------ .....-._._....._._. 12,719
Total number of cattle treated one or more times (regardless of
pest and not total number of treatments) ------.................._ 446,030
Treated for grubs ------...-----..-........ 11,250
Estimated saving ...-........-----...... ......- $15,900
Treated for flies ..-----.--..... ........ 402,000
Estimated saving .-..---...._.-.....----.........._-_ $873,000
Treated for lice -..---- -.----..... ...... 365,275
Estimated saving ----.---- --------...- $624,850
Total savings ..-------. $1,513,750
Total number hogs treated for lice, etc ----.-.-. ...... ...... _.... 18,380
Estimated saving -..-__._- ........ ....---... ..............___ $15,050
Total number poultry treated for mites, etc. ..-- ------------......... 806,700
Estimated saving ... ..--- ....--.................. ....._. ......_.. $30,660
A survey on the amount of meat cured in the state, with 31 meat curing
plants reporting, shows that 2,105,384 pounds of meat were cured for
farmers from September 1, 1948, to April 1, 1949. This was a decrease
of 4,692,737 pounds from a year earlier. During the period September 1,
1947, to April 1, 1948, a total of 6,798,121 pounds of meat were reported
cured. This decrease can be explained by the great increase in the use of
home freezers since the war and the increase in freezer locker plants in
the state. This same survey showed a total of 12,967 families curing meat
during this period. The total amount of meat processed by freezer lockers,
during the period September 1, 1948, and April 1, 1949, was 854,948 pounds,
compared with a total of 382,676 pounds processed during the period Sep-
tember 1, 1947, to April 1, 1948. This is an increase of 472,272 pounds.
The number of freezer lockers reported during the same period increased
from 5,356 in 1948 to 7,431 in 1949, an increase of 2,075 lockers.
This year a severe drought struck many areas of Florida, some areas
reporting only 21/ to 31/ inches of rainfall during the period from No-
vember until May. In these areas there was a scarcity of stock water;
and as a result, the construction of ponds, digging of wells and erection
of windmills were increased. A survey was conducted to find the extent
to which this program was carried out. County agents reported 974
windmills, 694 ponds and 4,955 wells dug or erected throughout the state
to furnish water for livestock. Despite this number of sources of water
being erected or dug, many farmers and ranchers were out of stock water.
County agents assisted 120 farmers in controlling predatory animals
endangering beef cattle and swine.
Beef Cattle.-County agents reported 605 farmers were assisted in ob-
taining purebred bulls and 766 farmers were assisted in obtaining 766
purebred or high grade heifers.
Reports also show 3,888 farmers controlled external parasites affecting
beef cattle, while 2,975 farmers used control measures on internal para-
sites and diseases of beef cattle.
County agents, assisted by 316 local leaders, spent 2,032 days in 634
communities working on beef cattle problems. They assisted 2,710 farm-
ers in improving methods of feeding beef cattle.

34 Florida Cooperative Extension

Fig. 4.-This Florida 4-H boy gave his pig extra good care, produced a fine
animal and won a trip to the National Club Congress.

Swine.-Reports show county agents helped 723 farmers secure pure-
bred boars and 1,007 farmers secure purebred and high grade gilts.
Also, 5,549 farmers controlled external hog parasites, while 6,984
farmers used control measures on internal parasites and diseases of
County agents assisted 3,962 farmers in improving methods of swine
County agents, assisted by 276 local leaders, devoted 1.770 days work-
ing on swine production.

Annual Report, 1949

John D. Haynie, Apiculturist
Florida beekeepers produced 30 percent more honey this year than last,
despite the near failure in the Tupelo section, the second largest honey
producing area in the state. The citrus blossom flow, which started out
irregularly, was extended over a long period and a record high quality crop
of citrus honey was produced. In normal years citrus bloom produces the
largest crop of honey in the state.
The average yield of honey for Florida beekeepers this year was 56
pounds per colony from an estimated 189,000 colonies. For the nation as a
whole, the average was 41 pounds from an estimated five million colonies.
Florida, with an increase of two and one-half million pounds over last
year's honey crop, ranked fifth in the nation. Florida producers have on
hand an estimated five million pounds of the 1949 honey crop, which
compares generally with stocks on hand throughout the nation.
Beekeepers in Florida and the Southeastern states are receiving more
money for their honey on the retail markets than is received in any other
section of the country. However, the present trend in Florida is to de-
crease colonies because of low prices, the slow movement of honey and the
continued high cost of bee supplies.
The Apiculturist assisted county agents in visiting beekeepers who
had special problems in beekeeping, in disseminating beekeeping informa-
tion, in programs for district beekeepers' meetings and exhibiting bee-
keeping information at fairs.
County agents cooperated with veterans' teachers, vocational agri-
culture teachers, public school teachers and civic organizations in assist-
ing with programs at which the Apiculturist discussed the value of honey-
bees in agriculture. The film on the life history of the bee was shown at
other meetings by teachers and county agents, when the Apiculturist could
not be present.
The Apiculturist cooperated with three county agents by setting up
exhibits of honeybees and distributing information on the role of bees in
legume pollination at three county fairs.
Reports from home demonstration agents show that home agents in
seven counties spent 35 days in the field on beekeeping. County agents in
42 counties spent 234 days on beekeeping. There were 166 communities in
35 counties in which beekeeping activities were conducted.
4-H Club Activities.-The Apiculturist carried a teaching program to
4-H club members through assistant county agents. In many instances,
science classes or the whole school were given instruction on the life
history and habits of bees. Visual aids proved effective in presenting sub-
ject matter to students.
A team of 4-H club boys from Polk County gave three demonstrations
at the State Fair on installing package bees in a hive. A description of
their demonstration was given over Station WFLA, Tampa. A 4-H
demonstration team from Lake County set up a colony and extracting
equipment under a screened cage. They smoked the bees, brushed bees
from the frames, extracted honey and distributed honey samples to spec-

36 Florida Cooperative Extension

The Apiculturist spent a week at each of the 4-H camps, Doe Lake,
Cherry Lake and Camp McQuarrie giving beekeeping demonstrations.
The boys were given instruction on the nature and habits of bees, how to
start an apiary, how to open a hive and determine the ability of a colony
to produce honey, how to prepare for the honey flow, remove honey from the
bees, requeen a colony, extract and settle honey and move colonies. A 20
minute film on the life history and habits of bees was shown at each 4-H
club camp.
Reports from county and home demonstration agents show that 122
boys and 35 girls were enrolled in 4-H beekeeping projects. The boys
completed 84 of their projects, while the girls completed 25 projects. There
were 381 colonies managed by club members in 29 counties.
District Beekeepers' Association.-Beekeepers live in widely scattered
areas because of the acreage required to maintain a colony. District bee-
keepers' associations were formed in order for each beekeeper to keep better
informed on problems affecting the industry. At these meetings, which
were held monthly or quarterly, the Apiculturist and county agents were
able to contact a large number of beekeepers, who were interested in
better beekeeping methods. The Apiculturist contributed to the program
at 17 district beekeepers' meetings.
The greater part of the Florida honey crop has to be exported. There
are at least five producer-packer plants in the state, none of which has
capacity for handling the large surplus which accumulates in the hands of
the producer. The Apiculturist and the county agent of Orange County,
working through the District Beekeepers' Association of Central Florida,
assisted in the organization of the Florida Honey Cooperative. Since this
co-op has been organized, beekeepers in Brevard and Palm Beach counties
plan to form honey co-ops in their counties.
Cooperation With State Organizations.-Since marketing is the number
one problem in honey production, the Apiculturist placed emphasis on
honey by supervising eight producer exhibits, a display of food prepared
with honey and an educational beekeeping exhibit, all at the State Fair
in Tampa. There were about eight tons of honey displayed in glass in
producer's booths. These beekeeping and honey exhibits, considered the
largest in the country, advertise honey to visitors from out of the state,
where the greater part of it is shipped.
Cooperation With Research Workers.-The Apiculturist, in cooperation
with Dr. G. K. Parris, Plant Pathologist in Charge of the Experiment
Station Laboratory at Leesburg, collected experimental data to determine
the effectiveness of honeybees in watermelon pollination. Preliminary
results indicate that bees do a thorough job in pollinating the water-
melon blooms for a limited distance from the hives. Three or four years
will be required to make final determinations in this project.
The Apiculturist and an Associate Agronomist from the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station cooperated in a clover pollination project to
determine if clover blooms received sufficient pollination from honeybees.
A preliminary report indicated there were not enough insects, beside honey-
bees, to do a thorough job of pollination. In cooperation with the As-
sistant Botanist of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, the
Apiculturist is compiling material for the bulletin, "Honey Plants of

Annual Report, 1949 37

Teaching Materials.-During the year Florida Beekeepers were mailed
seven news letters containing information on marketing honey, recom-
mendations on colony management, a statement on the condition of nectar
secretion in plants, suggestions on requeening colonies, and notes on the
history of beekeeping and preparation of colonies for winter.
Talks given over Station WRUF were on insect enemies of bees, pre-
paring colonies for winter and comb honey production.
Over 900 copies of the mimeographed circular, "First Lessons in Bee-
keeping," were mailed to all persons requesting information on starting
bees. Work on the regular beginners' bulletin on beekeeping is progressing
and the material will soon be ready for publication. A mimeographed
sheet, "Installing Package Bees," was prepared for a demonstration at the
annual Extension workers' conference and made available for those start-
ing in beekeeping.
Work was completed on Circular 90, The Five-Deep Brood Frame Hive.
Recommendations contained in this circular fit commercial as well as side-
line beekeeping operations.

Florida Cooperative Extension

R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
W. W. Brown, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent
R. W. Blacklock retired as State Boys' Club Agent on August 31, 1949,
after 33 years with the Florida Agricultural Extension Service. Of his
total service, 29% years were spent in the capacity of State Boys' 4-H
Club Agent. Former 4-H club members will long remember his outstand-
ing leadership and friendly advice.
The state has been divided into 10 4-H districts, with a county agent
elected as chairman of each district. The 10 district chairmen met with
the State Boys' Club Agents during the annual Extension conference and
made recommendations for the 1950 4-H program.
County agents and assistant county agents devoted 7,319 days to 4-H
club work this year, which represents an increase over previous years.
Two hundred seventy-two meetings were held over the state for the pur-
pose of training local 4-H club leaders.
The 4-H club members made 226 tours to members' projects, State
Agricultural Experiment Stations, key farms in the community and other
educational trips. Fifty-four achievement days were held in 32 counties.
Enrollment and Completions.-This year 9,041 white 4-H club boys
were enrolled in club work. This was 1,084 more boys, or an increase of

Fig. 5.-Four-H club members gave daily demonstrations during the Florida
State Fair in Tampa, attended by over a million people.

Annual Report, 1949

12 percent, in 4-H enrollment over 1948. Enrollment of negro boys in-
creased to 2,189 this year as compared with 2,077 boys enrolled in 1948.
The percentage of project completions also increased. This year 5,963
white 4-H club boys completed their projects, as compared with 5,081 in
1948. This year 1,670 negro 4-H club boys completed their projects, while
1,779 negro 4-H boys completed their projects in 1948.
Project activities automatically increased as a result of increased en-
rollment. This year combined reports from white and negro county agents
show that the boys completed 11,409 of the 16,148 projects they enrolled
in. Last year, 4-H boys completed 9,808 projects of the 14,149 projects
Florida county agents and assistants did an outstanding job of en-
rolling new members and encouraging project completions.
Camps.-The Boys' 4-H Club Agent is responsible for 4-H club camp
administration, which includes maintenance, construction of new buildings,
operation of kitchens and securing caretakers and camp staffs. The four
camps are Cherry Lake, Timpoochee, McQuarrie and Doe Lake.
New sanitary facilities were built at Cherry Lake and waterfront
equipment was improved through the addition of two more large army
floating docks. A new automatic pressure system for supplying water
was installed at Camp McQuarrie. Other needed equipment was obtained
and improvements made at all camps.
A most satisfactory camp, known as Doe Lake Camp, was secured for
negro 4-H club members from the U. S. Forest Service in the Ocala
National Forest. Improvements made at this camp included lighting,
sanitary facilities, equipping the kitchen and obtaining 130 mattresses.
The four district camps, now owned and operated by the Extension
Service, will not accommodate all the 4-H girls and boys who wish to
attend during the summer camping season. Land has been donated and
plans drawn for another 4-H camp to be located on a lake in Highlands
County. This camp, which will take care of 4-H club members in the
southern part of the state, should be ready for the 1950 camping season.
About 50,000 meals, at a cost of 32 cents per meal, were served at the
four camps this year. County agents reported 97 camps were held for
boys, with an attendance of 2,385. Three camps were held for 4-H leaders
from 12 counties.
Short Courses.-The 1949 annual 4-H short course, with 291 boys at-
tending, was held for the 30th year at the University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, June 6-11.
Two tractor maintenance schools, one in the southern part and one in
the western part of the state, were held for three days each in February
and July. This program for 4-H club members and leaders was sponsored
by a large oil company.
Shows, Judging Contests and Fairs.-State corn, poultry and dairy
shows were continued this year. The Boys' Club Agents assisted with 33
shows and contests. At the State Fair in Tampa in February, a 4-H exhibit
attracted thousands of people. The exhibit, which portrayed the 4-H
story, was supported by 22 4-H demonstrations given by boys and girls
during the 11 days at the fair.
Awards.-Nine boys attended the National 4-H Congress in Chicago.
Eight of these won state trips and one boy won a regional trip. Two boys
attended the National 4-H Camp in Washington, D. C., in June.
The 4-H staff contacted some 30 individuals and organizations who
annually contribute awards for 4-H boys.


40 Florida Cooperative Extension

C. W. Reaves, Dairy Husbandman
Developing Dairying in New Areas.-Some dairymen supplying milk to
large cities moved their dairies out to larger acreages and started pasture
Milk receiving stations were established at Moore Haven and Marianna.
West Florida counties including Jackson, Washington, Holmes, Walton
and Santa Rosa, expanded dairying operations. Milk, produced on a grade
A basis, is usei for cream and ice cream in surplus periods.
Better Sire Program.-Artificial breeding associations were organized
in Polk, Pinellas, Duval, Volusia and Palm Beach counties during the
year. Previously, a survey in Orange and Escambia counties resulted in
the organization of artificial breeding associations. The seven associa-
tions, operating with 9,292 cows, contracted for purchase of semen from
the Southeastern Artificial Breeding Association, which maintains a bull
stud of all high-production proved bulls.

Fig. 6.-One of the excellent calves sired in Florida by artificial insemination
drains the dinner pail as his owner and his mother look on.

Annual Report, 1949

In Florida eight bulls were proved in the DHIA proved-sire project.
Two bulls proved in the herd of Walter Welkener, Jacksonvile, were sold
in May. One bull went into the proved bull stud of the Southeastern Arti-
ficial Breeding Association and one to the Indiana Artificial Breeding
The table below shows herds and cows enrolled in the 'cooperative arti-
ficial breeding project:

Number commercial herd owners -------...... --...... .. 161
Number family cow owners ..- ------ --_.. 851
Total cows in commercial herds -......----.--......----. 8,298
Total family cows ---..---_---------__-----_-- 994

Where cooperative breeding associations have not been organized, county
agents reported 305 farmers were assisted in obtaining purebred dairy bulls
for natural breeding. County agents assisted 1,229 farmers in obtaining
purebred or high grade female dairy cows.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Program.-Development of the
DHIA program has been one of the major projects in Extension dairy work.
With less than 1,000 cows on test in the state in July 1947, the program
expanded to include 4,887 cows in five associations this year. The associa-
tions are Duval, Gadsden, Orange, Pioneer and West Coast. The number
of cows on test in 15 counties represented 3.2 percent of all milk cows in
the state. The percentage is higher than any other Southern state except
The Orange County DHIA, with 1,675 cows on test or approximately 40
percent of the total dairy cow population of the county, ranked among the
top counties in the nation in percentage of cows on test.
DHIA work has the two-fold objective of helping improve the manage-
ment and breeding program of the dairymen with herds on test and pro-
viding result demonstrations of improved practices in feeding, breeding and
management for other dairymen. DHIA results were tabulated and herd
analyses made to show results secured from improved pastures by DHIA
The following table shows comparison between DHIA cows and the
average milk cows in Florida:
Lbs. Milk % Test Butterfat
Average Florida DHIA cow ---..-..... 6,440 4.7 302
Average Florida milk cow ...------.... 3,800 4.2 162

Four DHIA members were awarded national herd honor roll diplomas
at the University Dairy Field Day for achieving a yearly per cow production
in excess of 350 pounds butterfat.
Official Cow Testing.-The Dairy Husbandman is the superintendent of
official cow testing for the state. Nine Jersey herds were on register of
merit test, eight Guernsey herds on advanced registry test, six Jersey herds
and one Ayrshire herd on herd improvement registry test and one milk goat
herd on advanced registry test.
Work With Dairy Cattle Breed Associations.-The relationship between
the Dairy Husbandman and the purebred cattle associations in the state was
mutually helpful. The Orange County agent served as secretary of the

Florida Cooperative Extension

Florida Jersey Cattle Club and the Pinellas County agent served as secre-
tary of the Florida Guernsey Cattle Club. The Dairy Husbandman worked
with breed associations in planning and conducting programs of work, in-
cluding sales, field days and classifications.
4-H Dairy Club Work.-A total of 746 boys and 340 girls completed dairy
projects with a total of 1,797 animals. Two production contests were used
to develop further interest in improved production methods.
Polk County, with 51 dairy club members who owned 78 animals, won the
trophy for best over-all county 4-H dairy project. All members used para-
site control measures, bred their heifers to registered dairy bulls and
carried out Bang's control. There were 43 members who fed minerals,
while 27 members developed improved pastures.
District 4-H dairy shows were held in Tampa, Chipley, Orlando and
Belle Glade.
The second annual state 4-H dairy show held in connection with the
Central Florida Exposition in Orlando served as the climax for the year's
4-H dairy activities. Thirteen counties from Jackson to Dade exhibited
cattle, while 16 counties participated in the judging contest. The 4-H
dairy banquet, which followed the show, was attended by representatives
of the state dairy organizations, breed officials, fair officials and civic
Home Milk Supply.-Many 4-H dairy projects provided a family milk
supply. In many counties county agents cooperated with the Bureau of
Animal Industry in making arrangements for testing family milk cows
for tuberculosis and Bang's disease. County and home demonstration
agents reported 4,222 families were assisted in improving food supply by
making changes in home production of milk. County agents reported
assisting 1,986 farmers with feeding problems, 2,672 farmers in treating
for external parasites and 3,536 farmers in controlling disease and internal
parasites affecting dairy cattle. There were 335 voluntary local leaders
who assisted county agents with dairying problems.
General Activities.-The Dairy Husbandman judged dairy cattle at the
State Fair in Tampa and served on the committee to help revise rules
and plans for the dairy show at this fair. The Dairy Husbandman served
as secretary of the state long-range dairy committee and as vice-chairman
of the extension section of the American Dairy Science Association. He
helped plan and conduct the University Dairy Field Day and the Dairy
Herdsmen's Short Course.

Annual Report, 1949

J. R. Henderson, Agronomist
All phases of field crop and pasture production are included under Ex-
tension agronomy. A summary of research conducted on pasture develop-
ment and related phases of livestock production was presented to county
agents attending a meeting at the Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona,
December 15, 1948.
In January the Agronomist presented field crop and pasture recom-
mendations at 17 Extension outlook meetings, attended by approximately
3,000 farmers.
Also in January two district meetings were held to give field crop and
pasture recommendations to seed, fertilizer and pesticide dealers. The
Agronomist, in cooperation with the Vegetable Crops Specialist and
officers of a seedsmen's association, served as instructor on soils, fertilizer
and field crop varieties at a seedsmen's school in Gainesville.
A demonstration of soil fumigants for nematode control was given at
the annual conference for Extension workers at Gainesville in October.
The Agronomist made eight talks on field crops and pasture produc-
tion on the Florida Farm Hour, Station WRUF. He spent 132 days in the
field, 70 of which were on area or statewide activities. Sixty-two days
were spent giving individual assistance to county agents in planning and
conducting farm tours, by speaking on agronomy subjects at meetings
of farmers, farm organizations and civic clubs, and by preparing a mimeo-
graphed set of recommendations for production of major field crops and
Corn.-The Agronomist assisted county agents and 4-H leaders in
carrying on corn production projects, using seed of the best known hybrid
available and heavy rates of fertilization. Results were outstanding in
Escambia, Santa Rosa and Gadsden counties, where 150 boys produced an
average of more than 56 bushels per acre with the highest yield being 98,
101 and 91 bushels per acre, respectively. Successful corn production
contests among adults were sponsored by a farm organization in several
Emphasis was placed on Dixie 18, a yellow hybrid which has good re-
sistance to weevils, high resistance to lodging and outyields all other
hybrids tested. An estimated 21 percent of the 1949 corn crop was planted
with hybrid seed. County agents were furnished information on sources
of seed and farmers were assisted in securing foundation seed for produc-
tion of Dixie 18. Hybrid seed corn was produced on 355 acres this year
and applications have been filed through the agronomist for enough foun-
dation seed to plant 600 acres next year. Since production of Dixie 18
seed will be insufficient to meet demand for some time, county agents in
28 counties conducted variety demonstrations as a means of interesting
farmers in other hybrids.
Peanuts.-County agents continued to improve peanut production by
recommending better varieties, seed treatment, spacing, rates and kind of
fertilization, placement of fertilizers and dusting for control of disease
and insect pests. Emphasis was placed on further development of certified

44 Florida Cooperative Extension

seed of Dixie Runner, a high yielding variety relatively free from con-
cealed damage. The Experiment Station produced approximately 20 tons
of foundation seed for distribution. Nine farmers produced certified seed
on 432 acres this year.
Flue-Cured Tobacco.-In cooperation with the tobacco branch of the
.Production and Marketing Administration, tobacco sorting and grading
demonstrations were held in each of the counties where flue-cured tobacco
is produced.
As a result of the adoption of recommended practices for the control
of weeds, insects and diseases, correlation of soil type, fertilization and
spacing, the average yield of flue-cured tobacco increased from 721 pounds
per acre in 1941 to 1,079 pounds per acre in 1949. Progress in improve-
ment of yields is shown in the following table:

Year Yields, Pounds per Acre
1941 ----------------..-- -- ---... .. ......-- 721
1942 ......--...--..--.-..---- ....---- --- 864
1943 .---..------------.. -...--..---- 860
1944 --....--..--......--..--......-- .-----... 895
1945 ---------................----.... .... 884
1946 --.....--..-..--.-----...... ......-- ..- 931
1947 -...---..-------. .......------..... 1,039
1948 ___----.-----_.... --- ....- .... 1,014
1949 ------------.. --.---..-------........ 1,079

Control of insects was simplified by adequate supplies of the newer in-
secticides and the widespread adoption of the sled-row method of plant-
ing, which permitted the use of tractor-drawn dusters and sprayers. Dry
weather during the early part of the growing season, combined with
widespread damage by nematodes and excessive use of fertilizers by many
farmers, resulted in much low quality tobacco.
Through the cooperation of a friend of tobacco farmers, the Extension
'Service sponsored an area-wide tobacco contest in which awards to growers
were made on basis of quality. This contest increased interest ip methods
of producing high quality tobacco.
Cotton.-Experimental plantings of Sealand 542, a long staple cotton
which resembles upland cotton in growth habits, have been made for
several years. Information on yields, prices, staple length and cultural
practices were furnished to county agents in central and northern Florida
for their guidance in working with farmers interested in growing this
Grain Sorghum.-Variety demonstrations, involving recommended varie-
ties of grain sorghum and others which showed promise, were conducted in
26 counties. Three promising varieties from Costa Rica were included in
four of these demonstrations.
Winter Cover Crops.-As a result of widespread outbreaks of anthrac-
nose, downy mildew, brown spot and other diseases during the last two
growing seasons, the acreage planted to blue lupine and the amount of
seed harvested annually have begun to decrease. Unusually warm weather
during the last two seasons was partially responsible for the severe
damage. Use of disease-free seed, early seedbed preparation and allowing
one or more seasons to lapse between plantings on a given field are being
recommended as practices that offer possibility for reduction of diseases.

Annual Report, 1949 45

Summer Cover Crops.-Hairy indigo meets requirements for a good
summer cover crop and can be used as a grazing and hay crop. In 1948 a
small quantity of the seed of an early maturing strain was released to the
Agronomist by the Experiment Station. Eleven growers produced certi-
fied seed from 78 acres that year. Nineteen farmers produced certified
seed on 568 acres this year.
Pastures.-Pasture plants include both legumes and grasses. Of the
legumes, Crimson, White, Black Medic and Hubam are the principal clovers
and common and Kobe are the most widely used lespedezas. Grasses in-
clude Bahia, Bermuda, Pangola, Carib, Para, St. Augustine and carpet.
Cattail millet, oats, rye, sweet lupine and Crimson clover are used as
temporary grazing crops.
Activities were designed to secure establishment of more pastures and
improvement of carrying capacities of those already established. County
agents assisted farmers with their pasture problems by furnishing pro-
duction recommendations, holding meetings, staging demonstrations, con-
ducting tours and assisting in locating supplies of seed, limestone and
other materials. More pastures were established this year than in any
previous year.

H. S. McLendon, Soil Conservationist
Activities in Organized Districts.-Information given is prepared from
Soil Conservation Service records, which are compiled at six months
periods of the calendar year. The last report for 1949 will not be available
until January 1950. This statistical report covers information showing
activities to date in 43 districts. Several of these districts are new and
conservation work is just getting under way.

Combined Report of Soil Conservation Districts-Activities From the Date
of Organization to June 30, 1949.

Crop rotations ..-----------.-.. ------------......
Cover crops .-.....---------..----------.------....
Contour farming ....-----.....-------_---
Crop residue management .........-..
Strip cropping ....---.--........--- ---.
Range improvement ......-......--
Pasture improvement -------......-
Seeding of range ---- ------
Seeding of pastures .....-..-------..
Wildlife areas ----_.-......-..-----------
Woodland management -------..... --
Tree planting -......----..-----------
Farm and ranch ponds -- -
Terracing .-------------
Field diversions .. ---------
Farm drainage -------
Closed drains -----.....----------.---
Open drains .. ---..-...-----
Irrigation _--_.----------.. ....--------





423,530 acres
206,041 acres
167,671 acres
214,277 acres
14,348 acres
132,587 acres
260,586 acres
3,353 acres
174,374 acres
224,326 acres
687,847 acres
13,647 acres
10,907.1 miles
97.4 miles
423,451 acres
392,740 feet
3,405.2 miles
24,119 acres

Florida Cooperative Extension

Improved water application --...--.. 105,146 acres 52,431 acres
Field windbreaks ------------------ 81.2 miles 9.2 miles
Water disposal areas .-.. 6,177 acres 2,688 acres
Kudzu --...-. --...---...-....... 24,743 acres 8,339 acres
Sericea --. ---- -----.... 4,179 acres 1,262 acres
Alfalfa and permanent grass -..- 32,948 acres 12,324 acres
Firebreaks _..........------------- 7,586.3 miles 2,912.9 miles
Fishponds ----........-------------- 618 275

Number Acres
Applications received this period ------.--------------- -- 2,419 779,677
Applications received to date _______--__.--..------....--- 14,188 6,283,410
Active applications to date --------.....------- ------ ..2,224 2,034,834
Plans prepared and signed this period -..---..------ 1,622 664,534
Plans prepared and signed to date --.....---------.. -- 10,301 3,614,255
Active conservation plans to date ___..-------- 9,557 3,411,666
Combined treatments this period ....-- --.... --_.. 429,142
Combined treatment to date ----------. ------- 1,668,407

Annual elections of supervisors were held in 41 of the 44 districts in
1949. According to the state office of the U. S. Soil Conservation Service,
there is a total of 22,157,298 acres now covered by soil conservation dis-
tricts, of which 8,629,868 were covered by soil conservation surveys as of
June 30, 1949. There were 3,614,235 acres covered by 10,284 farm plans
for the same period.
Organization of Soil Conservation Districts.-The Director of the Flor-
ida Agricultural Extension Service is administrator of the State Soil
Conservation Board and is responsible for administering the Soil Conser-
vation Districts Act. Based on this authority, the Extension Soil Conser-
vationist is responsible for organizational work in forming new districts
in the state and the county agent assumes similar responsibilities in the
One new district, the Clay Soil Conservation district, was organized
October 6. The area of The Hendry Soil Conservation District was in-
creased by 523,022 acres, the boundaries now coinciding with those of
Hendry County, by resolution of the State Soil Conservation Board dated
January 7.
Petitions requesting organization of soil conservation districts in Mar-
tin, Bradford and Nassau counties were received. Public hearings were
held in both Martin and Bradford counties, with a unanimous vote in
favor of organization. Legal notices were published for a public hearing
in Nassau County.
The Conservationist kept in contact with each district conservationist
and assisted, when requested, in getting a more complete soil and water
conservation program applied to the individual farm. The Conservationist
met with a number of district boards of supervisors to discuss expanding
the conservation program applied to farms in their districts and attended
three meetings with the directors of the Florida Association of Soil Con-
servation Supervisors. At their annual meeting, a memorandum of un-
derstanding between the Florida Agricultural Extension Service and the
Florida Association of Soil Conservation District Supervisors was author-

Annual Report, 1949

The Conservationist worked with county agents, assistant agents and
work unit conservationists in carrying on 4-H club soil conservation
projects. A Manatee County 4-H club boy, Lloyd Bradley, placed in both
sectional and national groups this year, winning a trip to the National 4-H
Congress, Chicago, and a $300.00 college scholarship.


Days devoted to work in soil and water --... __-----
Days devoted to work with wildlife ------............--...---__
Number of communities in which work was conducted
(a) Soil and water -----.....
(b) W wildlife -----. -.-.. ---- ...................................
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen
(a) soil and water -...-- -------.-.-.....-.....- _
(b) Wildlife .--...._. -----.... ..----. ------
Number of farmers assisted
(a) With problems of land use ----------......---.....-_
(b) In the use of crop rotations _-----------_ .-
(c) W ith strip cropping _____..-..... ....... .....-........_
(d) In constructing terraces .....---... __.._-- __- .
(e) In grassing waterways or preventing or
controlling gullies ----..--------------...--..------- -.
(f) With contour farming of cropland .........----
(g) In contouring pasture or range ------.--------_.. .
(h) In the use of cover or green-manure crops --- :
(i) In controlling wind or water erosion _------
(j) In summer fallowing ----------------------.......... .
(k) In making depth-of-moisture tests .-- .-----..._
(1) With drainage ..-..- --..-..-.... .... .
(m) With irrigation ...-- .------.. -----.._ ......---
(n) With Land-clearing ..------....------ _.
Number of farmers
(a) In soil-conservation districts which were
assisted with education for organiza-
tion or operation ...._. ..._-------..__------_ ___
(b) Assisted in arranging for farm-conserva-
tion plans -----------------......----..
(c) Assisted in doing work based on definite
farm conservation plans ------------.----..---.- ....
Number of farmers assisted
(a) In construction or management of ponds
for fish -----.... ------.._____--------
(b In protection of wildlife areas, such as
stream banks, odd areas, field borders,
marshes and ponds from fire or livestock .-
(c) In planting of edible wild fruits and nuts
in hedges, stream banks, odd areas and
field borders ----------------------------- ---..... ......
(d) With other plantings for food and protec-
tion in wildlife areas -._----........------

1,169 in 61 counties
303 in 4 counties

628 in 59 counties
270 in 44 counties

409 in 39 counties
158 in 21 counties

7,511 in
5,111 in
481 in
327 in



in 35 counties
in 22 counties
in 15 counties
in 59 counties
in 38 counties
in 13 counties
in 8 counties
in 52 counties
in 44 counties
in 60 counties

10,762 in 47 counties

1,607 in 44 counties

1,488 in 42 counties

265 in 41 counties

427 in 33 counties

197 in 27 counties

269 in 31 counties

Florida Cooperative Extension

4-H club projects in soil and water conservation
(a) Number of boys enrolled .........--........----
(b) Number of boys completing --. -----
Wildlife and nature study (game and fur animals)
(a) Number of boys enrolled ...----------.--
(b) Number of boys completing ---------
Number of different 4-H club members, including
those in corresponding projects, who received
definite training in
(a) Wildlife conservation -...-----...-. ...................
(b) Soil and water conservation ......__......-- .........---

109 in 15 counties
75 in 13 counties

230 in 13 counties
193 in 11 counties

2,584 in 39 counties
2,124 in 35 counties

Annual Report, 1949

L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester
Extension work in farm forestry was carried on by county agents in 61
of Florida's 67 counties.
Although farm woodland development programs were channeled to
farmers largely through county agents, close cooperation was extended to
public and private agencies such as the State Forest Service, United States
Forest Service, Florida Forest and Park Association, Florida Forestry
Council, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Conservation Service, Pro-
duction and Marketing Administration, four Florida pulp mills and other
wood-using industries.
Extension forestry work was divided into six broad fields of activity,
forest fire protection, forest planting, timber marketing, producing forest
products for home use, the timber-grazing-game approach to forest land
development and 4-H forestry club work.
Forest Fire Prevention.-Since woods fires still constitute the principal
obstacle to profitable forestry in Florida, the Extension Forester spent con-
siderable time furthering adoption of the timber-grazing-game approach as
a means of combating the forest fire problem. He advocated surrounding
blocks of timber with wide fire lines sodded to improve pasture grasses,
thereby providing effective fire prevention at minimum cost by removing one
of the basic reasons for woods burning in Florida. Some farmers, cattlemen
and large forest landowners have begun to accept the method, and such
adoption could be extended by widespread recommendations of Extension
workers and the Forest Service.
County agents in 48 counties reported 10,689 farmers cooperated in
forest fire protection.
Forest Planting.-By a close cooperative arrangement between four
leading Florida pulp mills and the State Forest Service, four million slash
pine seedlings were distributed free of charge by county agents in 47
counties to farmers and other small forest landowners. The other 20
counties were not areas designated by pulp mills for free forest seedlings.
Nearly twice as many free trees were distributed this year as were dis-
tributed before county agents handled distribution directly with the farmer.
Stepped-up planting of forest trees by farmers has stimulated better care
of both young and older growth in farm woodlands.
In 51 counties county agents reported assisting 1,718 farmers with
forest planting problems.
Timber Marketing.-In 25 counties where services of Norris-Doxey farm
foresters are available, county agents were able to obtain direct assistance
in timber marketing for their farmers. In most instances farmers receiving
this information were able to obtain a fair price for products sold, while
they kept adequate stands of immature growing stock on the land. In other
counties the Extension Forester and county agents furnished timber
marketing information and advice to farmers and other small forest land-
owners. Through information on proper timber cutting and advantageous
selling thousands of Florida farm woodlands were saved from the destruc-
tive cutting of all salable forest products.
Forest Products for Home Use.-The Extension forester has been a
pioneer in focusing attention of county agents, foresters and farmers on the

Florida Cooperative Extension

need for developing farm woodlands so that farm needs for lumber, fence
posts, fuel wood, stakes, sills, shingles and handle material can be supplied.
The need for including this feature of farm woodland management was
presented to those responsible for developing the 58-acre farm forestry
demonstration area at the Olustee experimental Forest near Lake City.
This idea was also promoted through radio talks, news releases, farm visits,
the Extension workers' conference and farmer's meetings and display ma-
terial exhibited during agricultural fairs and farmers institutes.
4-H Forestry Club Work.-The Extension Forester gave forestry in-
struction to 425 4-H club members during five summer camps and at the
annual short course for 4-H club boys. County agents in 20 counties were
furnished 25,000 catalpa seeds for establishing 4-H fence post demonstra-
tion plantings. Club members planted seeds in nursery plots for trans-
planting to fence post demonstration plantings in the spring.
County agents were given assistance in qualifying 4-H forestry club
members for participation in the regional 4-H forestry awards program.
Since an organization provided a trip to the National 4-H Congress in
Chicago as a state award, a project outline, listing requirements, was pre-
pared and distributed to county agents.
The large number of 4-H club members making individual forest plant-
ings with free slash pine seedlings contributed much to the whole forest
planting program. Other individual project work consisted of one or more
acres planted to red cedar. Group projects included school, community or
4-H county council forest plantings. In Lake County 4-H club members
planted five school forests.
In 32 counties 232 boys were enrolled in 4-H forestry projects with 619
acres involved. County agents in 41 counties reported 2,414 club members,
including those enrolled in other projects, received definite training in
Other Demonstration Forests.-The Extension Forester collected seeds
and forest-grown seedlings for demonstration plantings on the Florida
National Egg-Laying Test grounds at Chipley and on the Main Experi-
ment Station Farm at Gainesville.
Species planted, replanted and interplanted in these demonstration
forests included slash pine, red cedar, longleaf pine, black cherry, white
oak, swamp white oak, wild mulberry, sweet gum, catalpa, white cedar,
spruce pine, yellow poplar, tupelo gum, black gum, cork oak, cottonwood,
sycamore, linden, European locust and black locust.

Annual Report, 1949


F. P. Lawrence, Citriculturist
The Citriculturist is the only Extension citrus specialist, but the
Economist in Marketing and an Experiment Station Economist also work
in the field of citrus.
The 1948-49 citrus season was little different from the two preceding
economically disastrous years until January, when the situation changed
almost overnight because of freezes in the citrus belts of California and
Texas. Returns had risen to the highest peak in more than 20 years by
the close of the season.
Following the freezes, shipments of all varieties of fresh Florida fruit
were increased to a point that markets became glutted and prices tumbled.
It then became obvious that Florida alone possessed sufficient fruit to flood
and break the national market.
During this self-inflicted depression, all producers and handlers realized
that if the industry were to survive, something had to be done. The
Florida Citrus Commission and later the newly organized cooperative,
Florida Citrus Mutual, began a voluntary pro-rate which met with general
industry acceptance and cooperation. This pro-rate was strengthened by
the tightening of grade and size restrictions by the Federal Marketing Act.
This spirit of cooperation aided materially in more orderly marketing,
which checked the downward price trend and started prices up again.

Fig. 7.-These 4-H boys and their county agent are intensely interested in
the welfare of the young citrus trees growing in the 4-H citrus nursery.

Florida Cooperative Extension

During the last four months of the season prices advanced steadily to a
"top" exceeding the ceiling levels of the war years.
Florida's 1948-49 crop totalled 92.9 million boxes, of which 40 million
were processed into single-strength juice, sections and salads; 42 million
boxes were sold in the fresh fruit markets; and slightly over 10 million
boxes went into concentrates. These figures are about average for
recent years, except for frozen concentrates. The rapidly expanding
concentrate industry has more than doubled in output each year since
being introduced in 1946. Florida marketed a crop of 93 million boxes in
1948-49 for a gross income of 117 million dollars, less cost of production
of 45 million dollars, leaving a net profit to growers of 72 million dollars.
This net profit was about eight times higher than growers received the
previous year, which was one of the lowest net income years in Florida
citrus history.
The 1949-50 season promises to be a good one. There was less
processed juice, both single-strength and concentrate, in the warehouses
than at any time in several years. The markets opened strong with
demand firm, but for various reasons-possibly the large deciduous fruit
crop-the markets soon weakened and began falling. This downward
trend continued until November 1, when Florida Citrus Mutual, with a
membership representing about 80 percent of the total state tonnage,
set minimum prices for fresh and cannery fruit. This immediately sta-
bilized the market and prices have continued to rise.
Developing a Program.-In 1947 the Citriculturist was instrumental
in the organization of a state citrus advisory committee. This committee
drew up a long-time plan of work which was placed in the hands of
county agents. The plan had three objectives, namely:
1. Inauguration of a county citrus program in each citrus-producing
2. Improvement of fruit quality.
3. Reduction of production costs to cope with declining fruit prices.

In 1948 the committee decided that in each county a county citrus ad-
visory committee composed of the county agent and three to five growers,
packers, processors or other outstanding citrus men would be of value
in assisting the county agent in promoting and activating a county citrus
program based upon the needs of individual growers.
Twenty of the 32 citrus producing counties now have such committees
actively engaged in a citrus program and the remaining counties are in
various stages of organization.
The Citriculturist recommended a program of minimum cultivation,
fertilization and spraying to reduce production costs and at the same
time maintain tree vigor and fruit quality. He outlined demonstrations
and assisted county agents in setting up grower demonstration plots
based on these recommendations.
Field studies with cover crops and biological control of insects have
progressed, with increased interest on the part of growers and research
people alike.
Field studies with hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta) as a citrus cover
crop have continued. The Citriculturist reported field observations on this
promising cover crop at two citrus institutes and also at the State Horti-

Annual Report, 1949

cultural Society meeting. Green weight yields during the past year aver-
aged about 20,000 pounds per acre, with a return of approximately 120
pounds of nitrogen per acre. Realizing that it takes only from 90 to 120
pounds of nitrogen per acre per year to produce a 400-box crop of fruit,
many growers have set up demonstrations using indigo as a cover crop
and varying the amounts of applied nitrogen in efforts to reduce their
nitrogen applications and take advantage of free nitrogen from the cover
The Citriculturist published seven news letters for county agents in
citrus-producing counties. These letters reported current events and out-
lined recommended programs of fertilization and grove management.
The Citriculturist joined the entomologist and plant pathologist from
the Citrus Experiment Station, the Main Station, the State Plant Board,
the State Horticultural Society, and the USDA Bureau of Plant Industry
in preparing a spray schedule for the coming season. This pamphlet is
published by the Florida Citrus Commission and made available to grow-
ers, principally through county agents' offices.
Mimeographed pamphlets on "Pot Culture of Citrus," "A Recommended
Hamlin Orange Program" and a spray schedule for dooryard citrus were
developed and supplied county agents.
Institutes.-Three citrus institutes were held. The 16th annual Grow-
ers' Institute held at Camp McQuarrie, August 22-29, is the largest and
most inclusive of the institutes. Five hundred growers representing 20
Florida counties attended one or more sessions. In addition to Florida
growers, 11 members of the newly organized Texas Citrus Commission
flew to Florida and attended sessions of the institute.
The third annual Indian River Citrus Seminar sponsored by the Indian
River Citrus League was held at Vero Beach. At this two-day seminar,
research information presented was designed for Indian River area grow-
ers, whose groves are primarily on heavy hammock soils underlain with
marl. More than 100 growers attended sessions each day.
The fourth Gulf Citrus Growers Institute, held April 30, was originally
designed for citrus growers of Hernando County. This year there were
125 men and women present from five counties.
State and County Fairs.-Practically every citrus-producing county
now has a county fair. The Citriculturist has assisted in setting up edu-
cational exhibits and in judging entries. The quality of citrus exhibits is
Demonstration Plots and Grove Tours. The Citriculturist stressed
grower demonstration plots based on research findings. As soon as a
demonstration has been established it is included in one or more well
organized county tours, so growers within the county may have an oppor-
tunity to see and appraise the value of the practice. The majority of the
counties now have a series of effective demonstrations. Twenty-eight of
our 30 citrus-producing counties have one or more citrus cover crop demon-
strations, five have rootstock demonstrations, eight have fertilizer demon-
strations, seven have biological insect control projects, two have cultiva-
tion demonstrations, and six have spray demonstrations. All counties are
developing a program of demonstrations and county tours. In addition
to county tours, many agents have taken growers on tours of adjoining
counties as well as to the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, and
the USDA Subtropical Fruit Field Station at Orlando.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Other Activities.-The Citriculturist outlined six types of 4-H citrus
projects for distribution to county agents.
He made seven radio talks and five formal talks. In addition, four
articles were prepared for magazine publication or society proceedings and
10 newspaper items were released.
Three budding, grafting and plant propagation demonstrations were
given to county home demonstration councils.
Seven group demonstrations on citrus propagation were given to 4-H
clubs and grower gatherings.
Two weeks were spent in assisting with educational programs at county
and district summer 4-H club camps and one week was devoted to citrus
work at the state 4-H club short course for boys.

F. S. Jamison, Vegetable Crop Specialist
Stanley E. Rosenberger, Assistant Vegetable Crop Specialist
Arrangements were made during the year for county agents to attend
meetings at the Vegetable Crops Laboratory, Bradenton, and the Experi-
ment Station, Gainesville, where intensive instruction was given by re-
search workers on more important developments in varieties, fertilizers,
fungicides, insecticides and other phases of production.
The Vegetable Crop Specialist took an active part in helping arrange
a comprehensive program for presentation to the vegetable section of the
Florida State Horticultural Society and the Florida Seedsmen's Associa-
tion and in presenting production material at the annual meeting of the
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association.
In addition to state-wide meetings with these organizations, the
Vegetable Crops Specialist assisted in special sectional meetings with
seed and fertilizer dealers in Marion County and in western and northern
Florida. Seedsmen in the Gainesville area spent a day studying perform-
ance of new or recently introduced varieties in plots at the Experiment
Two short courses, held at Gainesville, were for seedsmen and trans-
portation interests. At the three-day school for seedsmen, attended by
seedsmen and supply men from all sections of the state, basic information
on soils, fertilizers, culture, diseases and insects was presented. The
other short course, prevention of loss of fruits and vegetables in transit,
was organized at the request of transportation personnel. Packinghouse
managers, package manufacturers and others engaged in handling or
transporting fruits and vegetables from a number of Southeastern states
attended the program.
Nine field days were held at Experiment Stations during the year. They
were held at the Potato Investigations Laboratory, Hastings; Central
Florida Experiment Station, Sanford; Vegetable Crops Laboratory,
Bradenton; Sub-Tropical Station, Homestead; and the Main Station, Gaines-
ville. These field days were well attended by growers who traveled con-
siderable distances to attend. At other area meetings with growers, men
engaged in research were present to assist with forum discussions.
The Vegetable Crops Specialist conducted home gardening demonstra-
tions at the Short Course for 4-H girls in Tallahassee.

Annual Report, 1949

County agents were assisted in planning their vegetable program of
work in many of the counties. Additional assistance was given directly
to more than half of the county agents, either through correspondence or
visits on special problems in their particular counties. Mimeographed
material giving variety recommendations was prepared for distribution to
county agents.
At the request of other Extension specialists, material on fertilizer
recommendations is being collected for a paper soon to be released.
Correspondence with individual growers or prospective growers has in-
creased heavily and exceeded any previous year.
Employees of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, including
horticulturists, pathologists, entomologists and many other workers en-
gaged in research on vegetable production, cooperated in holding meetings
and field days. Representatives of the USDA Bureau of Plant Industry,
Soils and Agricultural Engineering participated in area meetings and
short course programs and supplied valuable subject matter material to
county agents.
The Vegetable Crops Specialist assisted the State Department of
Agriculture in conducting two training schools-one for inspectors of
perishable products and the other at the annual meeting of seed and
fertilizer inspectors. Identification of vegetable varieties was made on
numerous occasions for the State Department of Agriculture. As a
member of the advisory committee on seed certification, the Vegetable
Crops Specialist assisted the State Department of Agriculture in formu-
lating standards for various crops included in the seed certification pro-
The Vegetable Crops Specialist recommended the use of the Congo
watermelon, which was grown successfully in trial plots last season.
More than 4,000 pounds of Congo watermelon seed grown during the
past season were sold to melon growers in Florida and neighboring
Black-rot of cabbage appeared in near epidemic form last season.
The Vegetable Crops Specialist recommended hot-water treatment and at
least 5,000 pounds of seed received this treatment this season. Where
untreated seed were planted, black-rot appeared.
The wide use of methods recommended for control of corn ear worms
and other insects and diseases illustrates the acceptance of improved
methods suggested by the Extension Service.

The Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist was employed March 1, 1949,
under provisions of the Research and Marketing Act. This Specialist's
work was devoted exclusively to studies and assistance to growers in the
field of more effectively merchandising vegetables.
Merchandising vegetables, an entirely new field of work for the Ex-
tension Service, involved working with groups and individuals who had
little previous contact with Extension work. Major activities of the
merchandising program were to:
1. Interest and obtain cooperation of wholesale and retail outlets which
were used to conduct vegetable merchandising demonstrations.
2. Conduct demonstrations in both independent and chain stores.

Fig. 8.-A study of vegetable marketing

at the retail markets was inaugurated during the year.

--- -~L~

7", T

Annual Report, 1949

3. Help direct the care, handling, preparation and displaying of the
produce brought into the cooperating store while the demonstration was
in progress.
4. Suggest and help make changes in the demonstrations as they be-
came necessary.
Five stores in the Tampa Bay area were cooperators in the vegetable
merchandising project.
The Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist prepared a paper on factors
which go to make up a good produce market and a score card for evaluat-
ing a produce market before the demonstration started and at later inter-
vals. The score card was prepared after making economic studies and
analyses of successful produce departments.
Physical and esthetic values were derived from merchandising demon-
strations. An example of physical value was in a store where the pro-
duce department was not wanted because it was not profitable. The mer-
chant wanted to stop handling produce but customer demand would not
permit. The merchant agreed to cooperate with the Extension Service in
setting up a vegetable merchandising demonstration. The store had a "walk
in" refrigerator in which all produce was kept. Temperature of the room
was held at 320 F. There was a homemade display unit, without a thermo-
stat, with temperature maintained at 200 F. High losses had been blamed
on the produce until the Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist turned off the
display refrigerator, raised the temperature in the "walk in" refrigerator
to 42 F. and kept items sensitive to low temperatures out of the refrigera-
tor. After these changes were made the merchant was convinced losses
from produce were caused from improper care rather than faulty produce.
Examples of esthetic values created by these demonstrations were ex-
pressed by customers when they complimented the merchant on the attrac-
tiveness and fresh appearance of produce.
The Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist reviewed 4-H garden club
record books to determine the state garden winner, assisted in conducting
short courses on vegetable production and loss prevention and served as
judge of vegetables exhibited at a county fair.

Florida Cooperative Extension

N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman
F. S. Perry, Assistant Extension Poultryman
A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test
Florida, poultry industry has made substantial growth and development
during recent years and now holds fifth place in importance among the agri-
cultural enterprises of the state. This year, between eight and 10 million
commercial broilers were produced in Florida. The hatchery industry has a
capacity of over 4,000,000 eggs and produced approximately 20,000,000
chicks in 1949. These hatcheries shipped over 3,000,000 chicks to Latin and
South American countries. Approximately 110,000 turkeys were raised.
Growing Healthy Pullets.-The percentage of pullets in flocks is now
ranging from 60 to 100 percent, with several flocks of New Hampshires
having 100 percent pullets. Due to changes in egg prices in the fall, there
is a tendency to place chicks in the brooder house earlier in the spring.
The Extension Poultrymen assisted graduate students in studying broiler
production and poultrymen in developing breeding programs.
Extension recommendations were followed by 1,785 families in obtaining
better strains of baby chicks and by 3,697 families in improving methods of
Egg-Laying Test.-The 23rd Florida National Egg-Laying Test was
concluded September 22, 1949, with the 1,144 pullets averaging 213.1 eggs
per bird with a value of 219.2 points. The average feed consumption per
bird per year (51 weeks) was 99.3 pounds, or 5.5 pounds of feed for each
dozen eggs produced. Mortality averaged 10.9 percent.
The high pen of 13 pullets and also the high individual pullet in the test
were all White Leghorns entered by the Missouri Valley Poultry Farm,
Marshall, Missouri. The pen of 13 pullets produced 3,401 eggs for a value
of 3,632.30 points and the high pullet laid 314 eggs for a value of 344.70
The high Florida entry was a pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by
Julian Webb, Jr., Chipley. These pullets produced a total of 3,207 eggs,
with value of 3,256.40 points. A pen of New Hampshires, owned by Dixie
Farms, Cherry Lake, was the high heavy breed entry from Florida. These
pullets laid 3,099 eggs for a value of 3,156.50 points.
Housing and Equipment.-Assistance was given in construction of
poultry houses and suitable equipment for poultry of all ages. Plans for
commercial broiler houses were discussed with poultrymen, as were various
types of water and feed equipment for commercial broiler production.
Management Practices.-Many poultrymen have found that green feed
is a good source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, except
vitamin D, and that good pasturage or cut greens reduce feed costs. They
also find that it pays to cull flocks throughout the year.
Commercial poultry raisers have found it profitable to use artificial
lights during the shorter days of the fall and winter on hens and pullets to
increase the rate of lay, especially when egg prices are relatively high.
Morning and all-night lights are the two systems used. The general
practice is to turn the lights on in October and continue their use until
March and April.

Annual Report, 1949

Working in close cooperation with poultry pathologists, the Extension
Poultrymen stressed the importance of clean land, rotation, use of litter,
chicken pox and Newcastle vaccinations and the control of internal and
external parasites. Seven thousand four hundred fifty-two families were
assisted in controlling various types of poultry diseases and parasites.
4-H Club Poultry Work.-Poultry club members were assisted in their
program of supplying poultry meat and eggs for home consumption and
for market. Some poultry club members have specialized in egg produc-
tion, while others have produced broilers for home use and for market.
Poultry demonstrations were conducted at the 4-H boys' and girls' camps
and at short courses in Gainesville and Tallahassee.


Fig. 9.-Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo gives a $.100
scholarship to the high judge in the 4-H poultry judging contest, as Claude
H. Wolfe, president of the Central Florida Exposition, looks on.

The special 4-H poultry demonstration project for girls, sponsored by
Sears, Roebuck Foundation, was continued in 18 counties. This project
requires the member to raise the birds, keep records of activities and
exhibit at pullet and egg shows.
The third annual district 4-H poultry and egg show and judging contest
was held at Chipley, Saturday, January 15, with club members from
10 western counties participating. Three hundred twenty-three birds
and 42 dozen eggs were entered. The annual state 4-H poultry and egg
show and judging contest was held in connection with the Central Florida
Exposition at Orlando, February 21-26. One hundred twenty-six club
members from 21 counties participated in the show and 57 club members
entered the judging contest. The high point judge proved to be Harold
Lewis of Dade County, and the Dade County boys' team was high point

60 Florida Cooperative Extension

team in the contest. A total of 1,632 birds and 168 dozen eggs were
entered in the show.
During the year 2,147 boys and 2,308 girls were enrolled in poultry
projects. Of this number, 1,497 boys and 1,602 girls completed their
projects with a total of 160,389 birds.
Poultry Institutes.-The eighth annual Florida Poultry Institute was
held at Camp McQuarrie, August 29-September 3. The program included
discussions on broiler production, pullet management, hatchery problems,
layer management, merchandising eggs and poultry, and diseases. The
Florida State Poultry Producers' Association and the Florida Hatchery
and Breeder Association held their annual meetings during the Institute.
All state agencies cooperated in making the Institute successful.
The second annual west Florida Poultry Institute was held at DeFuniak
Springs July 9. The Walton County agent was in charge of the program,
which consisted of talks on broiler production, disease prevention and con-
trol, marketing and outlook and producing market and hatching eggs. At
the conclusion of the program, a tour to feed mixing plants, processing
plants and broiler farms was made.
Marketing Eggs and Poultry Meat.-The egg quality program, spon-
sored jointly by the Florida Poultry Council and the several educational
agencies, has resulted in better quality eggs and poultry meat being
offered the consumer. The program has been developed for the producer,
dealer and consumer. In cooperation with the poultry and egg division of
the State Department of Agriculture, candling and grading demonstrations
were given and information was furnished the industry concerning the
specifications and requirements of Florida's egg and poultry law. Thirty-
six poultry and egg inspectors have cooperated with the Extension Poul-
trymen in furthering the quality program. These workers supervised
grading and labeling 34,000,000 pounds of dressed poultry and 39,500,000
dozen eggs during the period July 1, 1948, to June 30, 1949.
Assistance in marketing poultry products was given to 3,024 farmers
or families in 616 communities. Three new cooperatives have been organ-
ized. Seven established cooperatives were assisted. There were 247 mem-
bers in these 10 organizations.
National Poultry Improvement Plan.-The State Livestock Sanitary
Board is the officially designated state agency to administer the National
Poultry Improvement Plan in Florida. Since 1935, this program has de-
veloped with the cooperation of various poultry associations and the Ex-
tension Service.
Eighty hatcheries with a total capacity of 3,317,811 eggs are cooperating
in the plan. Of these, 51 with a capacity of 2,171,213 eggs, or 66 percent
of the total, are pullorum clean; 23 with a capacity of 1,012,618 eggs, or
31 percent are pullorum passed, and six with a capacity of 104,980 eggs,
or 3 percent, were pullorum controlled.
Annual Breeders' Conference.-The annual breeders' conference, spon-
sored by the Extension Service in cooperation with the Florida Hatchery
and Breeder Association, was held in Gainesville December 8-9, 1948.
There were 40 people in attendance. The main topics of discussion were
inbred-hybrids, selection of breeding birds, Newcastle disease in hatchery
operations and hatchery problems.
RMA Project, Egg Phase.-Extension Poultrymen completed work on
the RMA project during 1949 and did not request that provisions be made

Annual Report, 1949 61

for its continuation in 1950. Surveys were made of producers, handle-s,
distributors and users of eggs in eight western Florida counties. This
survey was made under provisions of the Federal Research and Marketing
Act. Purpose of the activity was to determine methods of improving egg
quality on the farm and to develop plans for merchandising more efficiently
eggs of higher quality.
Chicken-of-Tomorrow Contest.-The 1949 Florida Chicken-of-Tomorrow
Contest was started March 30 and continued for a 12 weeks' growing
period. Then each contestant selected 15 cockerels and sent them to
Jacksonville, where they were judged and prizes were awarded. The
contest was divided into two classes, senior and 4-H. There were 16 con-
testants in the senior division and 42 in the 4-H division.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Part III Work with Women and Girls

Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent"
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent

Home demonstration workers were responsible for development and
supervision of programs of work for both white and negro home demon-
stration club women and 4-H girls and shared responsibility for the
general Extension program.

A state home demonstration agent, three district agents, seven special-
ists, 45 home demonstration agents, 12 assistant home demonstration
agents, 11 negro home demonstration agents and a negro district agent
guided home demonstration work in Florida.
There were 26 clerical assistants in county and state offices paid en-
tirely or in part from funds assigned to home demonstration work.
The State Home Demonstration Agent supervised work of all home
demonstration agents and maintained satisfactory relationships in home
demonstration work within the Extension Service and with other agencies.
District Agents had the responsibility of developing the general pro-
gram and locating qualified personnel for county positions. They super-
vise agents' activities, obtain and maintain budgets for home demonstra-
tion agents and contact cooperating county boards and people in order to
maintain home demonstration programs suited to county needs. Each of
the District Agents accepted specific duties, such as work with negroes,
organization of 4-H clubs and councils and guiding the work of the State
Home Demonstration council.
Specialists gave needed assistance and training in their specific fields
to home demonstration agents. Specialists reported assisting with 214
meetings attended by 10,916 people.
Forty-four boards of county commissioners and nine county school
boards cooperated in maintaining home demonstration work in their
counties. In 15 counties, county boards increased appropriations to permit
expansion of work so that more people might be served. Improved facili-
ties for office and field work were provided. Eighteen counties increased
salary supplements to help with automobile maintenance. Eleven counties
made major improvements in office arrangements by providing new offices
or enlarging present facilities. All counties provided additional equip-
ment and materials to help the home demonstration agents give more
effective demonstrations. Several counties provided for workrooms or
kitchens. Three counties made major improvements in their county canning

3Retired May 31, 1949.

Annual Report, 1949 63

Changes in the state office included the retirement of one District Agent
on May 31. On October 1 the Nutritionist was transferred to that position.
The Health Improvement Specialist, whose position was maintained co-
operatively by the Extension Service, the State Board of Health and State
Improvement Commission, resigned September 30. A Home Industries and
Marketing Specialist was employed November 16.
Eleven changes were made in county positions during the year. Two
home demonstration agents resigned to re-enter college for advanced study,
two left the state to be with their families, three married, one entered
another field of work and one transferred to a state position. Nine appoint-
ments were made to fill these vacancies. Two negro home demonstration
agents were appointed to fill vacancies which occurred last year.
Home demonstration agents received training at the annual State Short
Course for 4-H Girls, at the State Home Demonstration Council meeting
and at two annual Extension conferences, one for white agents and one for
negro agents. Eight home demonstration agents attended the three-
weeks' summer school for Extension workers at the University of Florida
in June.

Fig. 10.-Volunteer local leaders help importantly in conducting 4-H club
work. This group assisted with State Short Course.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Local Leadership.-At the request of the State Home Demonstration
Council, a series of six training meetings was held for 555 leaders and
home demonstration agents from 45 counties. At these 1% day meetings,
District Agents and the State Girls' 4-H Club Agent showed adult leaders
how they could strengthen 4-H club work in their communities.
Home demonstration agents reported holding 363 training meetings on
adult home demonstration work, attended by 5,673 leaders, and 407 4-H
training meetings for 5,740 leaders.
Community Clubs.-There were 12,564 women enrolled in 473 home
demonstration clubs. There were 14,865 girls enrolled in 685 4-H clubs.
Agents reported 16,190 farm families and 20,654 non-farm families adopted
practices resulting from the home demonstration program.
Activities.-Home demonstration agents traveled 722,888 miles making
23,757 different home visits, attending club and council meetings and
making other necessary trips. They received 71,090 visitors at their
offices, answered 67,195 telephone calls, wrote 38,524 letters and distributed
179,073 bulletins.
Home demonstration agents reported giving 4,003 method demonstra-
tions to 87,051 home demonstration club women and 5,840 method demon-
strations to a combined attendance of 121,109 4-H girls. They also as-
sisted in planning and setting up 6,510 exhibits and displays.
The Extension editorial department helped home demonstration agents
make more effective use of press and radio. Home demonstration agents
reported that 5,214 news articles were printed and 881 radio broadcasts
made. They pointed out that excellent cooperation was received from
newspaper editors and radio station directors.
4-H Short Course.-The thirty-fourth Florida Short Course for 4-H
Club Girls was held at Florida State University, Tallahassee, in June.
Delegates included 478 outstanding 4-H club girls from 45 counties, 30
leaders, 56 home demonstration agents, 34 college 4-H club girls and seven
instructors other than staff members. Demonstrations were presented on
clothing, dairying, food conservation, foods and nutrition, gardening and
orcharding, health, exterior and interior home improvement, home safety,
poultry and recreation. Training was also given in music appreciation,
presenting devotionals and 4-H organization.
Silver Jubilee, State Home Demonstration Council.-The State Home
Demonstration Council, with a membership of 33 organized councils, cele-
brated its 25th anniversary at the annual meeting held at the University
of Florida, Gainesville, in August. More than 200 delegates heard talks by
former State Home Demonstration Agent, Mrs. Flavia Gleason Mims, and
the National Home Demonstration Council president, Mrs. Malcolm Byrnes
of Louisiana. The council was concerned with evaluation of accomplish-
ments and careful planning of a program of work.
In celebration of National Home Demonstration Week, May 1-7, home
demonstration councils reported 42 radio broadcasts made, 111 news stories
and 23 feature stories published, 56 exhibits set up, 26 achievement pro-
grams and 23 community meetings held, 10 tours to result demonstrations
and eight receptions held.
Libraries.-In 14 counties, 70 communities were assisted in providing
library facilities.

Annual Report, 1949

Lorene Stevens, State Girls' 4-H Club Agent
The 14,865 4-H club girls in Florida, with the guidance and assistance
of their families, local leaders, and home demonstration agents, carried on
49,616 demonstrations in foods and nutrition, clothing and textiles, interior
and exterior home improvement, food preservation, safety and fire preven-
tion, child care, home dairying, home gardening, poultry, livestock and
others. Eight thousand six hundred seventy-four 4-H club girls completed
32,221 projects. To complete a project, a 4-H club girl exhibits articles or
products representative of the project and submits to the home demonstra-
tion agent a complete record, including a story of the project. In many
counties, 4-H club girls gave method demonstrations relating to their field
of work before attaining the local requirements for completion. Five
thousand eight hundred forty method demonstrations were given by the
4-H club girls.
Many 4-H club girls used information relating to their projects to
establish result demonstrations in agriculture and homemaking in their
homes and on the farms. These result demonstrations have led to "greater
profit, culture, and influence" for the families, who established the demon-
strations, and for neighbors and friends, who have seen and heard of suc-
cessful results in agriculture and homemaking achieved by 4-H club
All 4-H club work for Florida girls is conducted through neighborhood
and community 4-H club organizations under the direction of the home
demonstration agents. Representatives of local 4-H clubs composed the
membership of 29 junior councils in 29 counties and were responsible for
assisting with planning county-wide 4-H activities in these counties. The
State Junior Council has encouraged county participation in observance
of National 4-H Week, National 4-H Achievement Week and Rural Life
Sunday. This organization participated in the national 4-H project of
sending CARE packages to foreign countries and in a foreign youth corre-
spondence program.
Though 4-H club work for boys and girls is organized separately,
there are many community, county and state activities which are planned
and conducted jointly.
Home demonstration workers have stressed the value of leadership
in the 4-H club program for girls and its function in the development of
individuals and in the 4-H program.
Eight hundred fifty-four women, who serve as 4-H leaders, have given
encouragement, time and effort to the development of the program with
girls. Training in 4-H club leadership has been provided adult leaders by
the home demonstration agents, state staff members and others through
conferences, group training meetings, visual aids, home demonstration
clubs, letters and bulletins. As a result of the leadership emphasis, 5,740
local leaders attended 407 community and county training meetings.
Through the work of the State Senior Council of Home Demonstration
Work, local home demonstration clubs selected a 4-H chairman whose
responsibility was to serve as a liaison between the two home demonstra-

Florida Cooperative Extension

tion groups, adult and 4-H, in the community and county. As a result
of this activity, there has been an increase in interest among home
demonstration club women in the 4-H activities.
One of the most valuable sources of leadership has been from the 4-H
girls themselves. Four-H girls served as officers of their local clubs and
of county and State Junior Councils as planning committee members, as
demonstrators, and chairmen of subject matter demonstrations, as speak-
ers at meetings of civic organizations and at local achievement events, tours
and fairs.
Although many 4-H club girls of all ages assumed leadership respon-
sibilities, 859 older 4-H club girls were actively engaged in forwarding
4-H club work.
Individuals and commercial groups provided awards for recognition of
leadership and project achievements which stimulated interest among the
girls and also among individuals and groups not directly connected with
the 4-H program.
Achievement Events.-Forty-seven thousand nine hundred eighty-four
people attended the 533 community and county achievement events and
tours to see exhibits of articles representing the projects conducted by
4-H club girls.

Fig. 11.-The candlelight ceremony, signifying the extension of 4-H club
benefits to others, is an impressive part of most camping periods for girls.

Fairs.-Four-H club girls participated in county, regional and state
fairs, livestock and poultry shows. They placed exhibits representing
their work at most of these events. Ten counties selected their top
team demonstrators for two appearances at the Florida State Fair, Tampa,
with different county groups appearing each day.

Annual Report, 1949

Five counties were represented by teams at the Leon County Fair and
more than 50 teams from Orange County gave method demonstrations
during the Central Florida Exposition. This show was also the setting for
the State 4-H Poultry and Dairy Show, where 4-H club girls from 13
counties exhibited birds and eggs from their poultry flocks.
National Events.-The national events participated in by Florida 4-H
club girls included the National 4-H Club Camp, Washington, D. C.;
National 4-H Club Congress, Chicago; American Youth Foundation
Christian Leadership Training Camp, Muskegon, Michigan; National 4-H
Club Week, National 4-H Achievement Week and Rural Life Sunday. In
some instances, these national events were joint activities planned and
directed by 4-H club boys and girls.
State Girls' 4-H Short Course.-Six hundred 4-H club girls, adult
leaders and home demonstration agents participated in the activities of
the 34th annual State Girls' 4-H Short Course in Tallahassee in June.
Small groups received information in clothing, dairying, food preservation,
devotionals, courtesies, foods and nutrition, 4-H organization, gardens and
fruits, health improvement, interior and exterior home improvement, home
safety, music, poultry and recreation from members of the State Agri-
cultural Extension Service staff, men and women, and others trained in
specific fields of work. General activities, such as recreation, tours, and a
candlelighting service, were participated in by the entire group. The
members of the College 4-H Club of Florida State University assisted
with preparation and direction of the short course by serving as assistants
to group instructors, as group leaders, as monitors in the dining hall and
with other details.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Joyce Bevis, Clothing Specialist
The Clothing Specialist spent 169 days in the office on such activities as
general planning and evaluating in joint staff conferences, planning a cloth-
ing program to fit the needs of homemakers, scheduling travel time, pre-
paring leaflets and other teaching aids, making reports and keeping in-
formed on new developments in clothing and textiles.
She spent 120 days with home demonstration agents and 4-H club mem-
bers giving method demonstrations, assisting with leader training, attend-
ing county achievement days, council meetings, regularly scheduled home
demonstration club meetings, camp activities and county fairs. The Cloth-
ing Specialist served about 4,000 people in some direct way.
Informational material prepared included a circular letter and instruction
sheet for each activity in two clothing demonstrations. The instruction
sheet was prepared to encourage larger enrollment and completion of cloth-
ing projects.

Fig. 12.-These home demonstration club women baste an attractive
slipcover on a couch.

Leader training meetings with home demonstration agents, 4-H leaders
and home demonstration clothing chairmen proved valuable in developing
the clothing program. In 4-H leader-training meetings, the home demon-
stration agent and Clothing Specialist gave instruction on how to teach
skills in clothing construction, how to help girls plan interesting meetings,
keep records and write stories. With home demonstration clothing chair-

Annual Report, 1949 69
men, the home demonstration agent and Clothing Specialist showed how
leaders can make their club meetings more interesting and educational by
means of exhibits, demonstrations, short reports, illustrated talks, and the
use of charts and posters.
First, the home demonstration agent and Clothing Specialist demon-
strated each method and discussed how the method might fit into a regularly
planned program. Then the leaders, working in pairs, selected one method
and presented it as they would at their own club meetings. After each
leader presented her activity, the group discussed the value of the presen-
tation by praising good points and giving suggestions for improvement.
Leaders gained confidence and poise in getting up before groups and
seemed inspired to become more active.
Fig. 13.-This clothing exhibit by 4-H girls showed accomplishments of
their nimble fingers.

|H _

Florida Cooperative Extension

The annual conference for Extension workers and the annual State
Home Demonstration Council meeting gave the Clothing Specialist oppor-
tunities to present new subject matter, outlook information and existing
situations in the clothing and textile field to home demonstration agents,
as a group. Further help in planning and conducting the clothing pro-
gram was given to individual home demonstration agents through con-
ferences in the counties and at summer camps. The Clothing Specialist as-
sisted with three one-week camps for 4-H girls.
At the 4-H short course for club girls in Tallahassee in June the
Clothing Specialist worked with 300, or half, the girls and leaders present.
Clothing record books and exhibits were used to demonstrate how to read
and follow directions. In the dress revue, 110 girls representing 34
counties modeled clothes which they made. Jane Suber of Gadsden County
was judged dress revue winner and Emma Nell Lawrence of Jackson
County was selected state clothing achievement winner. They attended
the National 4-H Congress in Chicago.
Combined reports of home demonstration agents show 2,742 days were
spent on clothing and textile work. Eight hundred eighteen local leaders
helped home demonstration agents in 704 communities to assist 15,301
families with clothing construction problems, 11,078 families with selec-
tion of clothing and textiles, 10,946 families with care, renovation and re-
modeling of clothing and 2,310 families with clothing accounts. Of the
10,905 girls enrolled in 4-H clothing, 6,642 completed their projects, which
included making 21,012 garments and remodeling 5,398 other garments.

Annual Report, 1949

Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist
The food and nutrition program was one phase of the Extension plan
for improving healthful living in Florida. The program was cooperatively
planned and developed with other specialists, District Agents, the State
Home Demonstration Agent and other groups.
The plan of work for the Nutritionist was based on needs and interests
shown by field and research groups. Plans, made on an annual basis,
were adjusted as needs arose or new situations were encountered.
Programs were planned and varied to serve the needs of all groups.
Emphasis was placed on providing adequate food and nutrition informa-
tion and developing plans which would insure good nutrition, despite fac-
tors which tended to keep many families from having optimum nutrition
and health.
The methods used included developing local leaders and establishing
individual and family result demonstrations. Many activities were used
to interest and reach large groups.
The program for adults was organized around three basic phases: (1)
nutrition and health, (2) food selection, preparation and meal planning
and (3) home production of the family food supply.
In the nutrition and health phase, emphasis was placed on improvement
of health through an appreciation of what good nutrition can contribute to
health, a working knowledge of what constitutes a healthful diet at the
different stages of life and economic ability to provide a nutritional diet.
Reports showed 8,446 families were assisted to recognize the difference
between good and poor nutrition; 21,654 families were assisted in im-
proving diets; 38 nutrition or health clinics were organized; 211 food and
nutrition exhibits were arranged by women. Three hundred seventy-one
women served as nutrition chairmen.
Food selection, preparation and meal planning included the right choice
of food, home production or wise purchasing of food, proper storage of
food, scientific preparation and cooking of food and serving of appetizing
family meals. Home demonstration agents reported 19,054 families adopted
improved practices in food preparation; 5,819 families in baking; 3,932
families in use of dairy products; 2,167 families in use of fats; 5,033
families in meat cookery; 4,431 families in use of poultry products; 6,962
families in vegetable and fruit cookery and 9,686 families prepared food
for home use, using methods to conserve the most food value. Six hundred
ninety-two communities participated in nutrition work with 665 volunteer
local leaders assisting with the development of the program.
Reports show that through the influence of nutrition work, 3,859
families budgeted and bought food wisely through quality, quantity and
cooperative buying, 7,512 families planned three well-balanced meals to
include daily the basic seven food groups and 7,512 families were trained
to use local and seasonal foods to their best advantage. From the emphasis
on work with young homemakers, reports show that 3,726 young home-
makers and mothers were assisted with food preparation, 1,317 families with
money management and 2,977 with child feeding.
Home production of food was advocated for improving nutrition and
health as well as for economical reasons. The Nutritionist recommended

72 Florida Cooperative Extension

that all families, where practicable, adopted the basic "live-at-home" pro-
gram. Home demonstration agents reported 20,606 families were assisted
in improving food supply by making changes in home food production of
vegetables, fruits, milk, meat, poultry and eggs. Twenty thousand nine
hundred seventy-one families were assisted with food preservation prob-
Objectives of the 4-H club food and nutrition program were to develop
the desire and ability of the girls to plan, produce, market, store, pre-
pare and serve simple, well-balanced meals, using home-grown or locally
produced foods, where practical. The food and nutrition program included
application of the principles of management, safety, health, wise use of
resources and development of satisfactory personal relationships.
Efforts were made to develop a flexible program to interest first-year
4-H club girls and meet needs and interests of older club girls. Training
and use of local leaders were important parts of the Nutritionist's work
with the 4-H program. Emphasis was placed on work meetings, judging
and team demonstrations by 4-H club girls, demonstrations by trained
leaders, social activities, playlets, skits, radio broadcasts, short course and
camping experiences. Personal record keeping was an important part of
this program. More emphasis was placed upon personal habits and atti-
tudes of the 4-H club member as the three following projects were de-
veloped, (1) nutrition and health improvement, (2) food selection, prepara-
tion and meal planning and (3) home production of food.
Home demonstration agents reported 2,542 4-H club girls were enrolled
in health improvement, 1,243 4-H girls had physical examinations and
1,042 nutrition exhibits were arranged by 4-H club girls.
Eight thousand six hundred forty-five 4-H club girls, enrolled in food
selection, preparation, meal planning and/or baking projects, planned
53,418 meals and served 59,547 meals. They gave 1,180 food preparation
Two thousand three hundred eight girls enrolled in poultry projects,
which included 46,152 birds; 507 girls enrolled in dairying with 689 animals
involved; 158 girls enrolled in beef cattle demonstrations with 135 animals
involved and 234 girls enrolled in swine projects with 468 animals involved.
Four hundred forty-one adult leaders and 258 older 4-H club girls as-
sisted with developing the food and nutrition program.

Annual Report, 1949

Grace I. Neely, Associate Economist in Food Conservation
Home Gardens, Fruit Plantings.-The Food Conservationist encouraged
home gardens and fruit plantings to insure a good home food supply.
Home demonstration club women in 43 counties planted 10,312 home gar-
dens, according to reports from home demonstration agents.
Food Conservation.-The Food Conservationist re-emphasized to home
demonstration agents the need for encouraging better quality home-
preserved food. Method demonstrations were given on all phases of food
conservation, including canning, preparation and packing foods for freez-
ing, care and checking of equipment, curing meats, making preserves,
marmalades and pickles and cooler storage for canned foods.
Food preservation demonstrations based on most recent research were
presented to food preservation chairmen. These leaders were shown how
to help others have more nutritious daily meals by producing and pre-
serving food at home. In 34 counties 648 food preservation chairmen or
voluntary leaders assisted home demonstration agents in presenting accu-
rate food preservation information in their communities.
An increasing number of requests was received from both rural and
urban families and managers of local freezer-locker plants for demonstra-
tions and information on preparing and packaging foods for freezing.
County reports show home demonstration club families own over 1,000
home freezers and farm families rented 8,537 freezer lockers. Since so
many families own home freezers and also rent freezer lockers to insure
added services and space, the exact percentage of families using freezing
as a method of food preservation has not been tabulated. A large per-
cent of all home demonstration club families reported using freezer-lockers
to freeze part of their home foods to insure better diets. Most of the home
freezers are from 10 to 30 cubic feet capacity.
At a two-day farmers' institute held at 4-H Club Camp Cherry Lake,
with 350 people attending, the Food Conservationist helped set up exhibits
on the family food supply. Since meat for the family was emphasized on
this program, the Food Conservationist gave a demonstration on the
preparation of meats for freezing.
Members of the State Home Demonstration Council re-established a
five-jar can-for-quality contest this year at their annual meeting. The
women felt that through this exhibit they would encourage better canned
foods and a higher quality, more economical source of food.
4-H Gardening, Fruit Plantings, Food Conservation.-Florida 4-H club
girls are required to carry at least one productive project such as garden-
ing, fruit planting, care of family cow or the poultry flock. This con-
tributes materially to an over-all agricultural program for rural families
and for all-round development of the 4-H club girl. Home demonstration
agents report 4,761 girls were enrolled in gardening and 793 girls were in
fruit planting.
Of the 3,209 4-H club girls enrolled in food preservation, 2,149 com-
pleted their demonstrations.
Twenty-one records and stories of 4-H club girls were entered in the
state gardening contest. The winning girl's record was judged with the
winning boy's record, and a 4-H club girl, Gussie Mae Hunter from Colum-
bia County, received first state honors. Fifteen counties submitted canning
records and stories in the state contest. Five 4-H club girls submitted
records and stories for the first time on freezing foods.

74 Florida Cooperative Extension

Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist
Major home improvement problems and opportunities include housing,
family living and consumer education.
The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 46
counties through home demonstration agents, groups of volunteer leaders,
senior and junior councils, club meetings, county rural housing committees,
4-H girls and women' achievement days, tours, home visits and work with
other organizations and individuals.
Assistance was given to negroes through the negro District Home
Demonstration Agent and through conferences and training meetings with
negro home demonstration agents. Bulletins, records, posters, exhibits
and other materials were also provided these agents.
Housing.-Florida needs more rural homes built for comfort, con-
venience, health and beauty in order that rural people may live more
satisfying lives and become better citizens. The home demonstration
agents reported that 3,505 families were assisted with problems relating
to building and remodeling homes; 2,601 with kitchens and 3,568 with

Fig. 14.-These girls give a demonstration in good lighting during the
course in interior home improvement at Short Course.

Annual Report, 1949

other room improvements this year. Improved storage facilities for food,
clothing and household supplies were built by 2,092 families. There were
1,393 families who arranged for better laundry space and equipment. For
comfort and convenience, families installed 781 sewage disposal units, 833
sanitary toilets, 896 water systems and 372 heating systems. Five thou-
sand three hundred forty families improved screens and ways of con-
trolling insects and rodents and 8,374 families followed better practices of
handling and disposing of garbage.
Extension of electric lines by rural electric cooperatives made electricity
available to more homes. As as result, Extension agents assisted 1,823
families in obtaining electricity. Assistance with lighting and electrical
equipment problems was given to 3,606 families with 12,347 pieces of
electrical equipment being obtained. Extension agents helped 644 families
use electricity to increase income.
Six thousand nine hundred sixty families improved their home grounds,
with 1,650 of them using plans for complete landscaping. Nine hundred
nine families started lawns, while 5,169 others maintained lawns already
established. Nine thousand five hundred thirty-four families made founda-
tion plantings, while 9,232 others pruned, fertilized and otherwise cared
for foundation plantings already established. Some families built and im-
proved fences and gates, out-door living areas and grills. Two thousand
twenty-eight houses were painted. In addition, 239 clubs in 26 counties
carried out organized clean-up campaigns.
Family Living.-Family living became more complicated daily and
families found it difficult to make income, ability and time meet the needs
ind demands of family members. Some problems home demonstration
agents helped solve related to increasing family income, spending wisely,
producing food and feed when practicable, practicing orderly work habits,
obtainingg needed medical and dental care, providing for educational, rec-
reational and religious opportunities for all family members and security
for old age.
Agents helped 6,418 families become better housekeepers; 2,132 make
better use of their time; 885 with home accounts; 1,059 with financial plan-
ning and 338 with better use of credit. Seventy-nine 4-H club girls were
taught how to keep personal accounts.
To prepare to be better parents and counselors for young people, 3,131
families took advantage of assistance in child guidance offered through the
home demonstration program, while 3,427 families sought to improve family
relationships and 271 men and 2,690 women participated in child-develop-
ment and parent-education programs.
Home demonstration agents, volunteer leaders and 4-H club members
assumed responsibility for recreation in their respective counties. In 50
counties, 429 communities were assisted in improving recreational facilities.
The 104 club houses and club rooms, owned or controlled by home demon-
stration groups in 36 counties, were used for club meetings, work meetings
and recreation for both adult and youth groups. Thirty-six counties re-
ported 678 entertainments held for socials or for raising funds.
Nine hundred ten local leaders assisted Extension agents with recrea-
tional activities. In addition, 2,137 4-H club girls received training in rec-
reational leadership and 2,346 in music appreciation. 4-H club girls in
487 groups engaged in community activities such as school ground im-
provement and fairs. Since community recreation does not meet all the
needs of people, 6,008 families were helped to improve recreation at home.

Florida Cooperative Extension

To offer facilities for reading, 70 communities in 24 counties were as-
sisted in providing library facilities.
Consumer Education.-Home demonstration agents reported 3,115
families assisted with food buying problems, 3,952 with purchase of cloth-
ing and household textiles, 2,524 with purchase of household furnishings and
equipment and 2,311 with purchase of household supplies. In addition, 5,224
families were assisted with repairing, refinishing and remodeling house-
hold furnishings. Seven thousand two hundred forty-two families were
assisted with consumer buying, 5,943 families were helped in decisions to
make their own rather than buy, and 6,239 families were assisted in using
timely economic information to make adjustments in family living.
These families were assisted with home improvement problems by home
demonstration agents and 832 volunteer leaders, who gave 1,118 method
demonstrations before women, 739 before girls and attended 99 leader train-
ing meetings for women and 83 for girls.
4-H Club Work.-The 4-H club home improvement program is designed
to stimulate the club members' interest in learning to do simple home tasks
well, to make interior and exterior home improvements and to become a
well-adjusted member of her family and her community. Home demon-
stration agents' records show that 2,494 girls enrolled in homemaking or
housekeeping projects, while 3,371 enrolled in room improvement and home
furnishings projects, which included improving 2,228 rooms and making
9,626 articles to adorn their rooms and homes. Three thousand seventy-
seven girls were enrolled in home grounds beautification projects.
The Home Improvement Specialist trained 4-H girls, their leaders and
home demonstration agents in interior and exterior home improvement at
the 4-H short course in Tallahassee in June. She also prepared demonstra-
tion outlines and compiled home improvement information for use at 4-H
club meetings and camps.

Annual Report, 1949

Gladys Kendall, Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
On November 16, 1949, the Home Industries and Marketing Specialist
was employed to assist farm women and others in developing home in-
dustries and marketing and utilizing Florida products and materials. The
program includes improvement and good management of home industries
already underway, securing wider distribution and use of Florida agricul-
tural products, establishing and maintaining high quality standards for mar-
ketable products by supplying timely information and training in skills
necessary to produce quality products.
This program will be developed by working with all Extension agents,
local leaders, individuals and groups of consumers. Such groups will include
home demonstration club women, 4-H girls, commodity organizations and
business concerns.
This year, home demonstration agents reported working in 1,907 dif-
ferent communities with 7,291 families on problems concerning marketing
and home industries. They were assisted in these activities by 1,079 volun-
teer leaders. Nine hundred eighty-eight of the families assisted with mar-
keting problems reported receiving a grand total of $1,306,494.37 from farm

Fig. 15.-These home demonstration club members staged a crafts
display and bazaar that not only displayed a wide variety of articles but
helped them to profit from their handiwork.

Florida Cooperative Extension

and home products sold. In a few instances home products sales repre-
sented the only cash income of the family, but generally they represented
added income. Home demonstration agents, reporting marketing activi-
ties, worked in or near large urban areas where ready markets exist. All
home industries and marketing activities were carried on in connection
with other phases of the home demonstration program.
Food Products and Other Commodities.-Home demonstration agents, as-
sisted by 705 volunteer leaders, helped 3,766 families living in 788 different
communities with production of food and other commodities. Home demon-
stration club members and 4-H club girls reported receiving $1,231,933.38
for products which included poultry, eggs, garden produce, dairy products,
fruit, livestock, honey and baked and canned foods.
Home Products and Crafts.-Home industries activities provide oppor-
tunities to develop skills in making various articles, to study and apply
principles of color, to add attractive articles to homes, to make worthwhile
use of leisure time by developing hobbies as well as to provide additional
income from sale of articles. Home demonstration agents, assisted by 257
leaders, worked 213 days in 889 communities demonstrating skills and
techniques in home industries. A total of $77,601.97 worth of home
products and handicraft articles were sold by home demonstration club
Three hundred ninety-one method demonstrations, attended by 4,061
women and 2,722 girls, were given in making handicraft articles from
native materials by home demonstration agents and leaders. As a result
of these demonstrations, 4,801 standardized articles were completed.
The home demonstration club women and 4-H club girls made 34,956
articles for use in their homes, for gifts and for sale. These articles in-
cluded 12,865 aluminum trays and other articles, 1,962 ceramic pieces in-
cluding dishes, 2,527 rugs, 1,770 stenciled articles, 1,659 pieces of etched
glass, 738 handbags of plastic or felt, 161 lamps, 471 wood and straw trays,
231 sock dolls, 120 pieces of painted glass and china, 55 wastebaskets, 290
copper tooled items, 250 yule logs for burning, 292 quilts, 424 pieces of
shell jewelry and 11,141 pieces of handicraft, which included handwoven
articles, household linens, crocheted and knitted goods, Christmas wreaths
and candles.
Other Activities.-Home demonstration agents participated in activi-
ties which promoted use and better distribution of plentiful foods, such as
the '"Use More Citrus" campaign. Home demonstration agents cooper-
ated with the State Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Women's
Clubs and school lunchroom programs.
An undetermined number of individuals added to their income by work-
ing as baby-sitters, in fields when crops were harvested, in factories, com-
munity canning centers and school lunchrooms.
Home demonstration and 4-H club members added indirectly to the
family income when they made donations of home-grown or made products
and services, rather than cash, to worthwhile community projects.
All home demonstration agents reported sales, dinners and entertain-
ments, given by home demonstration club and council groups, for such
purposes as building and repairing community houses, improving ceme-
teries, recreational facilities, church and school grounds, fund drives for
various service organizations, donating to the district 4-H club camp
building fund and providing funds for club and council activities.

Annual Report, 1949 79

Lucille Russ, Health Improvement Specialist'
Effective June 1, 1948, a plan for a program of rural health education
was established with the Agricultural Extension Service, the State Board
of Health and Hospital Division of the State Improvement Commission co-
Early in the year the State Health Officer and the Director of Extension
jointly arranged a meeting of the Health Improvement Specialist, State
Home Demonstration Agent, Director of the Hospital Program, State Im-
provement Commission, and personnel of the State Board of Health to work
out plans for holding a series of joint rural health conferences.
Four one-day rural health conferences were held in northern and
western Florida with representatives of the three cooperating agencies
present. Local health problems from the standpoint of agricultural inter-
ests, facilities available, socio-economic conditions and possibilities of co-
operatively planning for community organizations for better health were
included in the sessions. As a follow-up of these conferences, local groups
worked out plans to fit their situations.
The Health Improvement Specialist provided consultation and guidance
to various individuals and groups in developing and improving their health
education activities. Health education work was conducted at meetings of
home demonstration clubs and councils, veterans' classes, county agri-
cultural councils, health councils and rural housing committees.
The Health Improvement Specialist carried on specific work in 12
counties, contacting county and home demonstration agents and county
and community agencies concerned with health programs, health depart-
ments, county superintendents of public instruction, school lunch program
supervisors, welfare departments and others.
The Health Improvement Specialist worked with the Nutritionist on
sanitary food supply and nutrition problems, the Home Improvement
Specialist on child care, safety and first-aid, the Agricultural Engineer on
housing and safety, the Clothing Specialist in related health activities, and
the Assistant Animal Industrialist.
In June the Health Improvement Specialist taught daily courses on
health at the 4-H short course for girls and the negro 4-H short course.
She also assisted with the program at two 4-H camps.
At the annual meeting of the State Home Demonstration Council in
Gainesville in August plans were set up for continuing a planned rural
health program. Each of the 31 county home demonstration councils and
most of the 831 home demonstration clubs for women and 4-H clubs had a
health chairman who was responsible for carrying out the health program
in the communities.
The Health Improvement Specialist served as consultant on health edu-
cation at a workshop at Florida State University, which was attended by
supervisors and public school teachers from Levy and Gilchrist counties.
She also participated in a farm and home institute at Cherry Lake.
The Health Improvement Specialist led the discussion on "Health
Councils, Rural and Urban" at the annual meeting of the Southern branch
'Resigned September 30, 1949.

80 Florida Cooperative Extension

of the American Public Health Association, Dallas, Texas. Seventeen
Southern states were represented at the meeting.
County and home demonstration agents assisted local chapters of the
American Red Cross, Tuberculosis and Health Association, American Can-
cer Society and National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in carrying on
educational programs.
Combined reports of agents showed 6,462 families in 35 counties were
aided in prevention of colds and other common diseases, 9,343 families in
34 counties were encouraged to have immunization for typhoid, diphtheria,
smallpox and other diseases, 2,402 families in 30 counties were assisted
with first-aid or home nursing and 8,677 families in 45 counties were en-
couraged to remove fire and accident hazards.
In 15 counties 38 nutrition or health clinics were organized through
efforts of extension workers. Eight hundred thirty-three families re-
ported installing sanitary toilets or outhouses, while 5,340 families
screened their homes or used other recommended methods of controlling
flies or other insects.
In 42 counties 2,770 4-H club members had health examinations be-
cause of participation in Extension work.

Annual Report, 1949

Part IV Negro Work

Joseph A. Gresham, Negro District Agent
Farm demonstration work with negroes was carried on in 10 counties.
Changes in personnel included the resignation of the Alachua agent and
new appointments in Alachua and Jackson counties.
,Since this was the Negro District Agent's first year in the state, -7e
spent time in getting acquainted with people and agricultural conditions.
The Negro District Agent attempted to obtain increases in salaries of
county agents in seven counties. Five counties agreed to provide some
additional money for negro work and two counties agreed to consider
increases soon. Five counties furnished well located offices with neces-
sary equipment to carry on a sound program. Three counties provided
part-time clerical help for negro county agents.
The annual conference for negro Extension workers was held at
Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, October 31 through November 3.
Training in program planning, office management and field visits was
presented by state Extension personnel and representatives of the USDA.
Negro county agents reported holding 114 training meetings for 481
adult leaders and 725 4-H club leaders.
4-H Club Work.-There were 2,189 negro boys enrolled in 4,855 4-H
projects. Of this number 1,670 boys completed 3,936 projects.
In order to offer additional training and recreation to 4-H club mem-
bers, a state 4-H short course was held at Florida A. & M. College, Talla-
hassee, May 30-June 3. A total of 321 boys and girls, with outstanding
records of project achievement from counties where negro county and
home demonstration agents are employed, attended the short course.
One hundred seventy-five 4-H club boys and leaders from 10 counties
camped two periods from July 11-23 at the Doe Lake 4-H club camp in the
Ocala National Forest. This camp is the first permanent camp for negro
4-H club members in Florida and has 10 cabins, a main building and a
caretaker's home. The camp, which is located on a 30-acre lake, will ac-
commodate 130 at one camping period. In previous years small tents pro-
vided shelter at district camps.
Four 4-H club boys who were outstanding in project achievements and
leadership attended the second regional negro 4-H camp at A. and I. State
College, Nashville, Tennessee, July 26-August 2. Four 4-H club girls, the
Negro Home Demonstration Agent of Hillsborough County and the Negro
District Agent were in the group representing Florida.
Achievement days were held in seven counties with an attendance of
4,543 people.
A fat stock show and sale was held in Gadsden County with 234 club
members selling 24 animals for $4,599.63. The grand champion, which
weighed 890 pounds sold for $402.98.
Fairs.-Three negro county agents assisted with exhibits at county
fairs. Four agents assisted with displays at the Florida State Fair,
Tampa, and one negro county agent placed an exhibit at the Central
Florida Exposition, Orlando.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Increasing Crop Production.-A summary of county agents' reports
showed they assisted 889 farmers in obtaining improved varieties of seed
corn, 951 with vegetable problems, 347 with fruit production, 662 with
legumes, 296 with cotton production, 702 with tobacco and 321 with
Increasing Livestock Production.-Negro county agents assisted 76
farmers in obtaining purebred or high-grade female dairy cattle, 10 farm-
ers in obtaining purebred male dairy cattle and 56 in obtaining purebred
beef cattle. They assisted 61 farmers in obtaining purebred male swine
and 69 in obtaining purebred or high-grade female swine. Sixty-five
farmers were assisted in obtaining purebred roosters, 197 in obtaining

4 -W-i -
:A: 0- Jh __ A..

Fig. 16.-A negro 4-H club boy receives an award transmitted by his
county agent as his negro agent stands by.

Annual Report, 1949

purebred or high-grade pullets and 692 in obtaining better strains of baby
Seven hundred eighty-six farmers were assisted in improving methods
of feeding poultry and 1,385 in controlling diseases and external and in-
ternal parasites of poultry.
One thousand thirty-eight farmers were assisted in controlling diseases
and external and internal parasites of swine while 683 were helped with
these same problems with dairy and beef cattle, horses and mules.
Conserving Natural Resources.-Agents assisted 699 farmers in the use
of crop rotations, 718 in the use of cover or green-manure crops, 224
in controlling wind or water erosion and 113 in arranging for farm-conser-
vation plans during the year. One thousand one hundred eighty farmers
cooperated in preventing forest fires, 226 farmers with problems of land
use and 139 with strip-cropping.
Planning Farm Activities.-Agents assisted 462 farmers in developing
a farm plan and 214 in developing a farm and home plan. Three hundred
thirteen farmers were assisted with credit problems, while 629 were as-
sisted in developing supplemental sources of income. Three hundred
sevnty-three farmers were shown how to keep general farm records and
328 were assisted with enterprise and inventory records.
Improving Farm Homes, Farms and Equipment.-Agents assisted 384
farm families in remodeling their homes and 194 with plans for new
dwellings. One thousand seventy-eight families screened their dwellings
or used other recommended methods of controlling flies or other insects.
Negro county agents also assisted 348 families in obtaining electricity
through the rural electrification program. There were 33 families who
used electricity for income-producing purposes.
Three hundred four farmers were assisted with construction, remodel-
ing, repairing and selection of farm buildings and equipment. One hun-
dred eighty-nine farmers followed instructions in maintenance and repair
of mechanical equipment and 268 were assisted in securing efficient use of
mechanical equipment.
Improving Health Conditions.-Agents assisted 1,416 farm families in
the prevention of colds and other common diseases, while 2,030 were en-
couraged to take positive preventive measures to improve health through
immunization for contagious diseases. The importance of taking ad-
vantage of county health units was stressed.
There were 1,768 families assisted in removing fire and accident hazards
in and around the farm and home.
Recreation, Community Life and Family Relationships.-One hundred
eighty-eight men participated in child-development and parent-education
programs, while 485 families improved family recreation. Forty-eight
school or other community grounds were improved during the year and
28 communities were assisted in providing library facilities. County'
agents took part in civic development programs, churches, Boy Scout or-
ganizations, Red Cross, community chest drives, and other activities to im-
prove living conditions of negro people.
Marketing.-Agents devoted 593 days to marketing and distribution of
general farm products.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Floy Britt, Negro District Home Demonstration Agent
Eleven negro home demonstration agents were employed in Florida
in 1949. Vacancies which occurred in Columbia and Gadsden counties in
1948 were filled. Negro home demonstration agents studied bulletins and
circular letters, listened to radio programs, saw visual aids, attended
conferences and followed specialists' recommendations for professional im-
Salary increases provided by the state and salary supplements pro-
vided by some of the counties encouraged qualified people to accept posi-
tions as home demonstration agents. Eight counties supplemented funds
for travel and expenses, while three counties provided funds for demon-
stration and exhibit materials.
Seven negro home demonstration agents shared offices with negro
county agents, while the remaining four agents maintained separate
offices. Four offices had part-time clerical assistance.
Assistance in Carrying Out Extension Program.-During the year the
negro District Home Demonstration Agent made 69 visits to counties,
visited 43 result demonstrations and 56 homes, attended 31 club and
council meetings, fairs and achievement days, made 40 talks, gave 22
demonstrations, planned for camps, short course and annual conference
and secured help of Extension home demonstration specialists.
State 4-H Short Course, Camps.-The annual short course for negro
4-H club boys and girls was held at Florida A. & M. College in Tallahassee,
May 30 to June 4. One hundred eighty-one 4-H club girls and 11 leaders
attended the short course.
Four girls and four boys, selected on the basis of outstanding records in
4-H project achievement and leadership, attended the second regional 4-H
camp at A. & I. State College, Nashville, Tennessee, July 26-August 2.
The negro home demonstration agent of Hillsborough County and the
negro District Agent accompanied the group.
Two hundred sixty-three 4-H girls, 24 leaders and 11 home demonstra-
tion agents attended camping periods at Doe Lake, the newly acquired 4-H
camp in Marion County for negro 4-H boys and girls of Florida. Demon-
strations in grooming, first aid, nature study, water safety and handicraft,
training in citizenship and recreational activities constituted the program.
Agent's Annual Conference.-The annual conference for 11 negro
home demonstration agents, 10 negro county agents and two negro Dis-
trict Agents was held at Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, October 31-
November 4.
Home Demonstration and 4-H Organizations.-There were 263 women
serving as local leaders of home demonstration clubs and 175 women and
100 older club girls serving as 4-H leaders. Negro home demonstration
agents reported holding 127 training meetings for 876 adult leaders and
950 4-H club leaders.
In all of the 11 counties where negro home demonstration agents are
employed, county home demonstration councils have been organized. The
councils assisted the negro home demonstration agents in determining
needs of the people and planning programs to meet their needs.

Annual Report, 1949

Records show 1,950 women enrolled in 105 home demonstration clubs.
There were 2,693 negro girls enrolled in 11,796 4-H projects. Of this
number, 1,751 girls completed 9,585 projects.
Nutrition and Health.-In the field of nutrition and health, agents' re-
ports show that 1,877 families improved their diets, 1,694 families made
improvements in food preparation, 3,401 families improved the family food
supply, 817 families canned according to a family budget and 1,768 families
removed fire and accident hazards from their homes. In eight counties the
agents assisted 538 families in first-aid and home nursing practices.
Agents reported 143 local leaders assisted with the program of food
preservation and storage. Families reported canning 94,652 quarts of
vegetables, fruits and meats, 3,870 quarts of pickles and relishes and 16,447

Fig. 17.-Negro girls camping for the first time at the permanent new
4-H camp at Doe Lake show their craft articles to their district home
demonstration agent.

Florida Cooperative Extension

quarts of sweets and molasses. These families also reported freezing 981
pounds of fruits and vegetables, drying 281,085 pounds of food, curing
9,304 pounds of meat, making 65,011 pounds of lard and 972 pounds soap.
Home Improvement.-Negro home demonstration agents reported home
improvement activities in their counties as follows: 1,388 families improved
housekeeping methods, 578 families constructed new homes or rebuilt old
ones, 348 families obtained electricity for the first time and 185 families
added electrical appliances. Also, 260 families installed heating, sewage
and water systems in their homes, 329 families provided needed storage
space, 355 improved laundry arrangements and 167 installed sanitary toilets.
One thousand seventy-eight homes were screened and 971 home grounds
Clothing and Textiles.-One hundred twenty-nine leaders assisted negro
home demonstration agents in conducting clothing and textile work with
farm families. One thousand two hundred ninety-nine families were as-
sisted with clothing construction problems, 1,262 families with care and
remodeling of clothing and 1,352 families with selection and budget prob-
Recreation and Community Life.-Reports from negro home demon-
stration agents showed 75 communities improved their recreation facilities
and 85 community groups were assisted with organizational problems, pro-
grams of activities or meeting programs during the year.

(Men and Women)
Months of service (agents and assistants)- .........-------.------------.. 233/2
Days of service: In office-1,918; in field-3,851 ____----- 5,769
Farm or home visits made .------------------- .8,720
Different farms or homes visited _..._........__ --------------_ 4,547
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-13,911; Telephone -----..-. 5,068
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth .-------- 2,648
News articles or stories published ..-.. ------------------.--.-.-- 344
Bulletins distributed .----------------....-------- .... -----15,185
Radio talks broadcast or prepared .....--------.-_..-_--._ --------- 58
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen ....------. 241
Total attendance of men and women --- ----.....--- ...--... 3,079
Method demonstration meetings ..------ ----- --.--.-.-... -------- 1,383
Total attendance -..----..... ..........._... .... ---20,014
Meetings held at result demonstrations ....._.--- ----....----....336
Attendance --.....-----.. ---_--.-------------- 4,510
Tours conducted .------------. ....._........- 104
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ......_- 72
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ---..... .-... -- ...724

Total number of farms in counties worked __............ .....-----------_- 7,439
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year .---...-...... --------------...------- 2,132

Annual Report, 1949 87

Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration
and agricultural programs ---.--_- ..-.--. --------.. ------ 2,153
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the
home demonstration program --_----.------ .-------- 1,650
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstra-
tion and agricultural program this year -----~..---...---..--...--.-..-- 3,782
Different farm families influenced by some phases of the Extension
program .---.---....--_ ...........---------.----.-....------ 3,587
Other families influenced by some phases of the Extension program -. 2,468


Members in agricultural planning group .-----------------.~..--...---. 33
Unpaid .---- ---..------........ --.---.-...--..-.- ....---- ...-.... 22
Paid ...----.---.....------................---- ----.--------- 11
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
workers ---....-----.----...--.---..--.....-----..------------ 604
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen -.....-------------..------- 392
Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen .---..---........--. 464


Days devoted to work ..---.---..----..--- -------.---------- 945
Communities in which work was conducted .-....-.---...-----. ...-..--.-. 833
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ..---.--. ..-----.--..------ --- 759


Days devoted to work --------..--.. ---.. -------.--- -...... --------- 576
Communities in which work was conducted -......-- ........-------- -_-- 491
Voluntary committeemen and leaders -.......-------. -.-----..- 450
Farmers assisted ...-----.---.---.------... ---------...-.---. 5,820


Days devoted to work .---.....------.-- ...----..---- ... ...--. ....--.. 185
Communities in which work was conducted .. ------------------ 142
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ----...-----.. --. .-----------. 107
Farmers assisted in soil management ....--...----... ---- ...-. 2,763
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation --- ---1,328


Days devoted to work .....-------------------- ---------------........ 281
Farmers assisted ......----- ..--........ ...---.---.---------- -- 3,565


Days devoted to work ....-----.-.....-. -----.- ---------...--- 68
Communities in which work was conducted --....--....-.----.-- ------.--- 98
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .--..-..----....--- .....---....---..-----. 126
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ..........--------------- 64

Florida Cooperative Extension

Days devoted to work ........___. -----------------.------.. 833
Communities in which work was conducted _---_..-_.----______. ---------- 822

Days devoted to work .........----------------. --------- 495
Communities in which work was conducted ..-_.--_..._-... ----.-------. 301
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .....-----.....-.. -.... --------. 321
Families assisted in house furnishings, farm buildings, surroundings,
mechanical equipment, rural electrification ...--.--------------------... 8,158

Days devoted to work ---.--------.- --..------- ------ .. 1,189
Communities in which work was done ...---.-....~___ -. 605
Families assisted: Improving diets-1,877; food preparation-1,694:
Total--- .....-.----..---..---- ----- .-----------.----. 3,571
Families assisted with food-preservation problems .....--- ---.------- 2,601

Days devoted to work .....----------.-------..----. ----- 162
Communities in which work was done -..--...- ._...--- ----.-. 115
Voluntary leaders assisting ----.---------. ------..---- ----.. 124
Families assisted _------.... ----_- --------.---..--.. ----. 1,381
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 160
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies -------. 916
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems .---.-.---... ----__._ 728

Days devoted to work --------------------------...-.. 308
Communities in which work was done ---_____..-------__-.----.-- _..- 127
Voluntary leaders assisting .-----_._.__------_.___ ---_. ----------- 129
Families assisted --------------------- ----- -------- 3,913

Days devoted to work ------- -----..... -------...--- 136
Communities in which work was done .-..--. --- ----... 108
Voluntary leaders assisting .......-_ -------------- ---..--- 102

Days devoted to work ...------.... --------------------.. 133
Communities in which work was done ...--------_.-----------------. 138
Voluntary leaders assisting ....----- _--------------------- 145
Families assisted in improving home recreation ....--------------- 485
Communities assisted in improving recreational facilities -----------_. 75
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities or meeting programs .----_____. -----------.__.-- 85
Communities assisted in providing library facilities .... -----.-._ 28

Annual Report, 1949 89

Projects completed by boys --...--..--...___..............- 3,936
Projects completed by girls ___----_-.__ ---....-- 9,585
Boys completing corn and peanut projects .--_-_... ----------------_ 712
Boys completing fruit projects _-----_... __ .------- ----..-- 48
Boys completing garden projects ---------- --------------- 580
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops --- 153
Boys completing dairy projects ..---__--_-.. ---_.-------------- .- 140
Boys completing poultry projects -------------- 353
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects _---------...---. ---..- 205
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ---- ------- 263
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ------ 524
Girls completing dairy projects .__----.. .....------_--.- ------ 211
Girls completing poultry projects ----___ ---- -.----- 592
Girls completing home gardens ------.. --......----._------- -- 850
Girls completing fruit projects __ -------------- 425
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops 87
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ---...- 846
Girls completing health, home nursing and first-aid .---- --------- 857
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvement projects --_----____-.. ---... --... -------- 2,461
Girls completing food preservation projects --..._-------------- ..... 804
4-H Membership:
Boys: Farm-2,008; non-farm-181; total ...----...-----------.-.. 2,189
Girls: Farm-1,877; non-farm-816; total ----------..... 2,693
4-H members having health examinations because of participation
in Extension program ------ ---.. -- -- ----- 1,219
4-H clubs engaged in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs __ --_____---__ ..._ ---- 106

Florida Cooperative Extension


Agents, list of, 4
Agricultural economics, 20
Agricultural Engineering, 27
Agricultural outlook, 21
Agronomy, 11
Animal husbandry, 32

Barrus, Edith Y., 62
Beale, Clyde, 15
Beef cattle, 33
Beekeeping, 10, 35
Bevis, Joyce, 68
Blacklock, R. W., 38
Britt, Floy, 84
Broadcasting activities, 16
Brown, W. W., 38
Bulletins, 15

Carter, Bonnie J., 18, 74
Chicken-of-tomorrow contest, 61
Child development, 13
Citrus, 21, 51
canning, 25
grove management, 22
institutes, 25, 53
marketing, 24
Clayton, H. G., 7, 19
Clothing and textiles, 13, 68, 86, 88
Community life, 13, 64
Conservation of natural resources, 12
Consumer education, 76
Cooper, J. Francis, 15
Cooperative planning, 12
Corn, 43
Cotton, 44
County agents, work of, 19
Cover crops, 44, 45
Cow testing, 41
Crop production, 12, 82, 87

Dairying, 10, 12, 40, 87
Dairy sire program, 40
DHIA, 41
Director's report, 7

Egg-laying test, 58
Electric equipment, 31
Extension organization, 8

Family living, 75
relationship, 13, 88
Farm and home planning, 20
Farm buildings, 27
crops, 43
electrification, 30
forestry, 49
home improvement, 13, 83
machinery, 28
management, 12, 20, 87

Farmer cooperatives, 25
Financial statement, 8
Fire prevention, 18
Florida Citrus Commission, 24
Florida Citrus Mutual, 24
Florida Farm Hour, 16
Food and nutrition, 71
Food conservation, 73
products, 78
Forest fire prevention, 49
planting, 49
4-H club awards, 39
beekeeping activities, 35
camps, 39
dairy work, 42
forestry, 50
gardening, 73
home improvement work, 76
national events, 67
poultry projects, 59
short courses, 39, 64, 67, 84
shows and fairs, 39, 66
work, 13, 22, 35, 38, 81
work for girls, 65

Gardening, 73
Goen, Oliver F., 32
Gresham, Joseph A., 81
Hampson, C. M., 20
Haynie, John D., 35
Health improvement, 79, 83
Henderson, J. R., 43
Holloway, Ethyl, 62
Home demonstration work, 62, 63, 64
Home forest products, 49
gardens, 73
improvement, 13, 74, 86
industries and marketing, 77
management, 13, 88
milk supply, 42
products and crafts, 78
Horticulture, 51
Housing, 74, 87
Jamison, F. S., 54
Johnson, John M., 27
Journal articles, 16

Kendall, Gladys, 17
Keown, Mary E., 62
Lawrence, F. P., 51
Lime maturity, 25
Livestock, 10, 12, 87
production, 82
Local leadership, 64
Marketing activities, 12, 24, 83, 88
facilities, 29

Annual Report, 1949

McDavid, Ruby, 62
McLendon, H. S., 45
McMullen, K. S., 19
Mehrhof, N. R., 58
Men's work, 19

Neely, Grace I., 73
Negro agents, 6
Negro farm demonstration work, 81
Negro home demonstration work, 84
Neiland, L. T., 18, 49
News Releases, 16
Noble, C. V., 20
Nutrition and health, 13, 71, 85, 88

O'Steen, A. W., 58

Parvin, F. W., 20
Pastures, 21, 45
Peanuts, 43
Pecans, 26
Perry, F. S., 19, 58
Personnel selection and training, 63
Pettis, A. M., 30
Poultry, 12, 58, 87
breeder's conference, 60
institutes, 60
management, 59
marketing, 60
Publications, 15
Pullets, 58

Radio, 15
Reaves, C. W., 40

Recreation, 13, 83, 86, 88
Rosenberger, Stanley E., 54
Rural health improvement, 79
Russ, Lucille, 79

Safety, 18
Savage, Zach, 22
Sheely, W. J., 32
Sikes, Anna Mae, 71
Smith, J. Lee, 19
Soil conservation, 43, 45, 46
Soils and farm crops, 43
Sorghum, 44
State programs, 9
Statistical report, 11, 86
Stevens, Lorene, 65
Swine, 34

Teaching materials, 37
methods, 21
Timber marketing, 49
Timmons, D. E., 24
Tobacco, flue-cured, 44
Training, 8

Vegetable merchandising, 54, 55
production, 10, 25, 54
Visual aids, 17

Water Conservation, 45
Watermelon Growers' Ass'n., 25
Watkins, Marshall 0., 7
Wiring, 30
Work with women and girls, 62