<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 Director's report
 Publications, news, radio
 Safety and fire prevention
 Work of county agents
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural engineering and...
 Animal husbandry, dairying,...
 Beekeeping
 Boys' 4-H club
 Farm crops, soils and conserva...
 Farm forestry
 Horticulture
 Home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Food and nutrition
 4-H club work for girls
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Home improvement
 Rural health improvement
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00009
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1948
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00009
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Director's report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Publications, news, radio
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Safety and fire prevention
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Work of county agents
        Page 19
    Agricultural economics
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Agricultural engineering and electrification
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Animal husbandry, dairying, poultry
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Beekeeping
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Boys' 4-H club
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Farm crops, soils and conservation
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Farm forestry
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Horticulture
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Home demonstration work
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Food and nutrition
        Page 71
        Page 72
    4-H club work for girls
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Home improvement
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Rural health improvement
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Index
        Page i
        Page ii
Full Text



~j4q-g


COOPM BATM BEXTMBNION WORK DI
AOtIUcvioaUR AND ons aooiomcOs
(Aets of May 8 and June 30 1914)
;Agriclt ual Extenlion Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
v AndDUnited States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
H, G. Clayton, Director


J, DtPAmRIM N1 Of 4 MIM L IURa
L. I RAR VY

JUL 281949 r
ATLANTA BRANOM
ATLANTA, QgORGIA


148 REPORT


FLhIDA AGRICILTrRAL.


EXTENSION SERVICE


REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1948
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1948


2


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I


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''


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tl:ia, .










COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State University
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
H. G. Clayton, Director









1948 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1948
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1948








BOARD OF CONTROL
J. THOSE. GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando HOLLIS RINEHART, Miami
J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
THOS. W. BRYANT, Lakeland W. F. POWERS, Secretary, Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
J. HILLIS MILLER, Ph.D., President of the University'
H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture'
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director of Extension
MARSHALL O. WATKINS, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director
Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor'
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent
H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Soil Conservationist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.'
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
C. W. REAVES, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman'
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
F. S. PERRY, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husbandman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
F. W. PARVIN, B.S.A., Assistant Economist
JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer
FRED P. LAWRENCE, B.S.A., Acting Citriculturist
W. W. BROWN, B.S.A., Asst. Boys' Club Agent
A. M. PETTIS, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist2
JOHN D. HAYNIE, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. JOHNSON, Rodent Control Specialist
J. RUSSELL HENDERSON, M.S.A., Agronomist'
F. S. JAMISON, Ph.D., Vegetable Crop Specialist'
Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist
BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist
GRACE I. NEELY, M.S., Asso. Economist in Food Conservation
LUCILLE RUSS, M.S.P., Rural Health Improvement Specialist
LORENE H. STEVENS, B.S., 4-H Club Specialist for Girls
Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. GRESHAM, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

'Cooperative other divisions, U. of F.
2In cooperation with U. S.











CONTENTS


Director's Report .. ........... ... -- .... .......... .. .
Statistical Report ..................................................
Publications, News, Radio .............................
Safety and Fire Prevention ..... .......... ............
Work of County Agents .....................................
Agricultural Economics ............... ...........
Farm Management Activities ...................................
Citrus Grove Management ------...........- ......--..
Marketing Activities ...-.... ----..-............
Agricultural Engineering and Electrification ...........
Agricultural Engineering .................................
Farm Electrification ......----- ---.. .........-


Page

--------- ----.-. -- 7
--....---................. 10
......... .......... .......... 13
----------.. ............... 17
........... .................. 19
.......................... ... 20
.............................. 20
............................ 22
...- .............. 23
S...... ................ 27
............ ................. 27
............................ 31


Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Poultry .......... .-.----------.
Animal Husbandry ................ ...................................
Dairying ....... ---..........................-----.................
Poultry Activities .................... --- ......
Beekeeping .....--.....................................................
Boy's 4-H Club Work -..........................
Farm Crops, Soils and Conservation .......................................
Soils and Farm Crops ........... .........................-.
Soil and Water Conservation ..--... ............. .................
Farm Forestry ... .. .......... .... ........................ .. ........ .....
Horticulture .................--... ...............-- .----.
Vegetable Crops .. ......................................................
Citrus Culture -..........- .. ......... ... ................- -
Home Demonstration Work ............ ....... ........- ............
Clothing and Textiles ....... ..... ...............
Food and Nutrition ... ...............-...-.....
4-H Club Work for Girls ............................. ...............
Gardening and Food Conservation .................
Home Improvement ........ ..................... ... ............
Rural Health Improvement .......... ............. ................
Negro Farm Demonstration Work ........- .................. .............
Negro Home Demonstration Work .........................................
Statistical Report, Negro Work ...............-... .. ........... -...








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of December 31, 1948)
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT HOME DEMONSTRATION
ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua......-----..............Loonis Blitch..........Gainesville..Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua (Asst.).......T. H. McRorie, Jr.:.Gainesville.....................................
Baker..........................J. Raymond Mills.. Macclenny........................... ........
Bay..............................J. A. Sorensen....... Panama City..............................
Bradford.....................T. K. McClane, Jr...Starke..............Miss Dorothy P. Ross
Brevard......................J. T. Oxford...........Cocoa....................Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward.....................B. E. Lawton..........Ft. Lauderdale ...Miss Louise Taylor
Broward (Asst.)......Robert S. Pryor....Ft. Lauderdale........................
Calhoun......................Thomas B. Jones..Blountstown................Miss LaMittice
Pearson
Charlotte..................N. H. McQueen......Punta Gorda.......... ..................
Citrus..........................0. M. Maines.........Inverness..........Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Citrus (Asst.)...........Quentin Medlin......Inverness---.... ---.......---
Columbia ...................John M. Kennedy.Lake City........Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Columbia (Asst.)... F. A. Stenholm, Jr..Lake City......-..................-..
Dade..........................C. H. Steffani........Miami...................Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.)...........J. L. Edwards.........Miami....................Miss Olga Kent
Dade (Asst.)-.......... J. D. Campbell........Miami -----..................Miss Ruth Taylor
DeSoto........................W. L. Woods ..........Arcadia.......... ............
Dixie...........................C. L. Dickinson .....Cross City....................... ..
Duval..........................A. S. Lawton..........Jacksonville-......Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.)...........G. T. Huggins.......Jacksonville........Mrs. Lucille Colsen
Escambia...................E. H. Finlayson....Pensacola..........Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia (Asst.)....Albert H. Odom... Pensacola............Miss Ouida J. Webb
Gadsden......................A. G. Driggers-... Quincy....................Miss Elise Laffitte
Gadsden (Asst.)......Bernard H. Clark.Quincy............Mrs. Ivan S. Woodbery
Gilchrist.....................A. S. Laird............. Trenton.................. ..........
Glades.........................A. G. Hutchinson.. Moore Haven.......-..................
Gulf..................C. R. Laird.............Wewahitchka..Mrs. Wilma A. Revell
Hamilton....................A. E. Nesmith-...... Jasper.-..... .................................
Hardee........................E. H. Vance-...--.. Wauchula...................................
Hendry......................H. L. Johnson .......LaBelle................. ....... ......
Hernando....................Harry J. Brinkley.. Brooksville.....................
Highlands..................V. T. Oxer.............. Sebring........Miss Catherine Brabson
Highlands (Asst.)....Bert J. Harris, Jr.Sebring..............................
Hillsboro....................Alec White............. Tampa........................Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsboro (Asst.)......Edwin Booth...... --- Tampa........ ......... .....................
Hillsboro (Asst.)......Frank Neff .........-Tampa ------...............
Hillsboro (Asst.).....J. 0. Armor...........Plant City..............Miss Emily King
Holmes........................Stuart C. Bell........Bonifay..............Miss Laurena Croom
Indian River.............Marcel A. Boudet-Vero Beach........................
Jackson.......................J. W. Malone-.........Marianna-........Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson (Asst.) ........Fred C. Sumners..Marianna................................
Jackson (Asst)........ Oliver T. Burgess-..Marianna...............................
Jefferson----....................E. N. Stephens......Monticello..........Miss Mary A. Curtis
Lafayette....................S. L. Brothers........M ayo............. ............
Lake --------............................R. E. Norris-..........Tavares..............Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake (Asst.).............James N. Watson..Tavares......................... ......
Lee..............................C. P. Heuck........... Fort Myers...........................
Leon............................James L. Rhoden..Tallahassee....................Miss Nellie M.
Daughtry
Leon (Asst.)..............A. H. Clemmons....Tallahassee... .....................
Levy............................T. D. Rickenbaker.Bronson.............. ............. .......
Liberty................................... .................. Bristol..........M rs. Camilla R. Radney
Madison......................W. W. Glenn............Madison..........Miss Bennie F. Wilder

[4]








COUNTY COUNTY AGENT HOME DEMONSTRATION
ADDRESS AGENT
Manatee......................Ed. L. Ayers..........Bradenton............Mrs. Anne D. Davis
Manatee (Asst.).......Joe N. Busby.........Bradenton....-----......------------
Marion -----........................Carl Hendricks......Ocala....................Miss Allie Lee Rush
Marion (Asst.).....-....Sidney B. Parnell.Ocala-......-Mrs. Mamie C. Daughtry
Martin........................L. M. Johnson .......Stuart...........----.. Miss Lucile Inscoe
Nassau........................Gordon B. Ellis.....Hilliard..........Mrs. Julia P. Jernagan
Okaloosa.....................Fred W. Barber.... Crestview----..... ........ ----------
Okeechobee................C. R. Boyles...........Okeechobee... --.................. ...
Orange.......................F. E. Baetzman.....Orlando....Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
Orange (Asst.).........Henry F. Swanson Orlando .....Miss'Sammie J. Killgore
Osceola..........------.............J. R. Gunn..............Kissimm ee.........................................
Palm Beach...............M. U. Mounts........West Palm Beach..Miss Sara Horton
Palm Beach (Asst.).H. L. Speer ............Belle Glade .Mrs. Mildred J. Micnaua
Pasco...........................J. F. Higgins.........Dade City................Miss Ruby Brant
Pinellas.......................J. H. Logan............Largo-----................Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Pinellas (Asst.)........L. E. Cunningham..Largo-........ Miss Frances E. Johnson
Polk.............................W. P. Hayman......Bartow----................Miss Elma B. Willis
Polk (Asst.)..............W. H. Kendrick.....Bartow............Miss Emma Stevenson
Putnam.......................H. E. Maltby.........Palatka..Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam (Asst.)........James W. Bailey... Palatka -----.... -------------......
Saint Johns...............Ross V. Swartsel..St. Augustine......Miss Anna E. Heist
Saint Lucie-- --................Charles D. Kime....Fort Pierce..........Mrs. Irene Roberts
Santa Rosa................--- Emmett D. McCall.Milton ...................Miss Lora A. Botts
Santa Rosa (Asst.)..Johnnie E. Davis.Milton...........................
Sarasota.....................W. E. Evans............Sarasota..........Mrs. Laleah B. Brown
Seminole.....................C. R. Dawson.........Sanford.................Miss Lila Woodard
Sumter------........................Kenneth A. Clark.Bushnell-----..................Miss Tillie Roesel
Suwannee...................S. C. Kierce............Live Oak........Miss Doris A. Cahoon
Taylor.........................D. D. McCloud.......Perry....Mrs. Ruth McKeown Elkins
Union.........................William J. Cowen.Lake Butler...........................-------
Volusia........................W. J. Platt, Jr........DeLand ----.............Miss Edna L. Sims
Volusia (Asst.).........T. R. Townsend.....DeLand.......................
Wakulla......................------Harry E. George.....Crawfordville-.................
Walton........................Mitchell Wilkins.....DeFuniak Springs....Mrs. Marguerite
R. Brock
Washington................ 0. Harrison.......Chipley..........Miss Mary L. Brownlee

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY NEGRO COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua............................................Otha W Nealy...............................Gainesville
Columbia....................................McKinley Jeffers..............................Lake City
Gadsden-.......................................... Russel Stephens.................................... Quincy
Ham ilton..........................................N. H Bennett............................W white Springs
Jefferson..........................................M E. Groover.................................M onticello
Leon-------...................................... Richard A. Hartsfield..................Tallahassee
M adison.......................................... James C. Miller ---------..................................M adison
Marion-.................................... Eugene P. Smith ...................................Ocala
Sum ter..........................................Richard L. Bradley............................Bushnell
COUNTY NEGRO HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua...........................................Leontine W illiam s..........................Gainesville
Duval............................................Ethel M Powell............................Jacksonville
Hillsboro..........................................Sudella J. Ford--------- --................................ Tampa
Jackson........... .-.................... ..Annie Doris Preston........................Marianna
Leon................................................Irie M ae Clark...............................Tallahassee
M adison........................................... Althea Ayer..........................................M adison
M arion...... ............ ......................Idella R. Kelly ...................................Reddick
Putnam....................................... Lee Ella Gamble Asia........................Palatka
Volusia.................................- .... Ida T. Pemberton...............................DeLand

[5]







7rI


-U- -


I


a.


Fig. 1.-The State Home Demonstration Council assists the state staff in planning and conducting home demonstration work.


L -L.61


vim










Part I -- General

DIRECTOR'S REPORT
H. G. Clayton, Director
Marshall O. Watkins, Assistant to the Director

The people of Florida made increasing demands upon the services
rendered by Florida Agricultural Extension workers during 1948. To meet
these demands some additional county and state workers were employed.
Some increase in federal, state and county funds made it possible to add
to the staff nine assistant county agents, one home demonstration agent,
two assistant home demonstration agents and four specialists. The spe-
cialists added include workers with vegetable crops, rural health improve-
ment, 4-H club girls and food conservation.
The increased funds and personnel made it possible to reach some 450
more families in 1948 than were influenced by the Extension program in
1947. The increase also provided for more efficient service to the 79,331
families who received assistance during the year.

FINANCING EXTENSION WORK
Financial Statement 1947-48
Federal Funds:
Smith-Lever, Bankhead-Jones .....................-..$200,645.82
Capper-Ketcham ........ ......... ............... ........ 27,417.72
Bankhead-Flannagan .................. ..................... 92,910.28
Clark-McNary ....................... ..................... 1,620.00
Research & Marketing ......................................... 3,000.00
State Appropriations: $325,593.82
Legislature (Annual) ...................................222,574.56
Continuing, Chapter 6141 ........................... 5,000.00
Continuing, Chapter 19216 .............-............... .. 80,400.00
Sales Fund (Incidental) ................................... 19,822.90
$327,797.46
County Appropriations: ......... --.......... .................. $291,234.00 291,234.00
Grand Total .....................- .............. .................. .$944,625.28

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION
Personnel employed on the staff of the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service in 1948 was as follows:
Number of County Agents ................................... .......(62 counties) 61
Number of Assistant County Agents .................................................. 28
Number of Home Demonstration Agents ........................(44 counties) 44
Number of Assistant Home Demonstration Agents ............................ 12
State Staff
Administrative M en ........ ............ ............... ..... .. ........ 2
Supervisory ........................................... ........ .............. 2
Specialists .................-.....-.. -. ................... ...... 22
Administrative Women ..................... ..................... .... 1
Supervisory ............... ............................................ 3
Specialists ......................... ................... 6
Negro: Supervisory ........................ ...... .......................... 2
Negro County Agents .................................(11 counties) 9
Negro Home Demonstration Agents ............(10 counties) 9
[7]








Florida Cooperative Extension


TRAINING EXTENSION WORKERS
For the past three years a three-week training course for Extension
workers has been offered by the University of Florida during the first term
of the regular summer session. A similar course is planned for the sum-
mer of 1949. Four courses will be offered from which the student may
select two. Each course carries 1% hours of credit. The courses are of-
fered on a graduate level.
The Annual Conference for Extension workers was held at the Uni-
versity of Florida, October 4-8, 1948. Morning sessions during the con-
ference were devoted to discussions by well-known authorities on topics of
a general nature affecting agriculture. Afternoon sessions were devoted to
discussions on improved methods and techniques of doing Extension work
and on recently developed research information.
A plan was developed by the State Home Demonstration Agent, in co-
operation with Florida State University, for providing "on-the-job" train-
ing for prospective home demonstration agents. Students were placed in
counties to work under the direction of the home demonstration agent
during a part of their summer vacation period. This plan was first tried
the past summer with seven students and was very successful. Such a
program provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the work of the
prospective employee, gave the student a chance to decide whether or not
she wished to make Extension work a career and also provided the home
demonstration agents in counties to which they were assigned some good
assistance during this period of "on-the-job" training.
During the annual 4-H Club Wildlife Camp at Camp McQuarrie, a
special recreation course for assistant county agents was held. All the
assistant county agents attended and were given a special intensive short
course in practical recreational activities which they can apply in their
work back in the counties. Results of this course will be reflected in the
counties during the coming years.

DEVELOPING STATE PROGRAMS
Rural Housing Program.-The State Rural Housing Committee estab-
lished in 1946 continues to serve a very worth while purpose. This is a
cooperative project and serves to coordinate the work of several Exten-
sion specialists in related fields. The Assistant to the Director is co-
ordinator and the State Home Demonstration Agent and Agricultural
Engineer are members. The Farm Electrification Specialist, Home Im-
provement Specialist, Rural Health Improvement Specialist and Rodent
Control Specialist all contribute to the work of this committee.
Coordinating Work of Specialists.-In developing Extension programs
for the major commodities, a Citrus Advisory Committee and a Vegetable
Advisory Committee consisting of county agents and specialists have been
established. These committees hold quarterly meetings at various points
over the state and research workers, industry organization representatives
and others attend upon invitation. The committee members and others
obtain a clearer conception of the problems and programs of the research
and industry people who in turn become better acquainted with the Ex-
tension objectives and plans. The advisory committees are helpful in shap-
ing the Extension program and influencing county agents' programs of
work. The Citrus Advisory Committee has operated long enough to begin
to see results and the Vegetable Advisory Committee, only recently or-
ganized, is getting off to a good start.
Boys 4-H club work has been materially strengthened by dividing the
state into 10 4-H club districts with some five to eight counties in each








Annual Report, 1948 9

district. The agents develop their club programs in their respective dis-
tricts, assisted as necessary by the state 4-H staff. The addition of a girls'
4-H club agent to the home demonstration staff is strengthening the pro-
gram for girls.
In practically all counties the county agent serves as secretary to the
county PMA committee and the soil conservation district supervisors, in
addition to various crop, poultry and livestock organizations. This keeps
the Extension worker informed and also permits him to participate in the
work of these groups in an active as well as an advisory capacity. The
specialists work very closely with these organized agricultural groups.
The recently employed apiculturist is getting a good program for bee-
keepers into operation.
Some Broad Extension Programs Which Have Helped Solve Major
Rural Problems.-The 4-H club boys have carried out demonstrations with
crops and livestock for the purpose of introducing new varieties of field
crops and better methods of production with both crops, livestock and
poultry.
The Dairy Specialist has been able to strengthen the dairy calf 4-H
club program and to improve the dairy herd improvement association
work. He is also getting organizations of dairymen to establish artificial
insemination associations.
In tobacco production, Extension programs have been largely respon-
sible for the upward trends in yields per acre and in maintaining and
improving quality.
The poultry program has been able to tie together the industry which
includes the feed dealers, hatcherymen, poultry dealers and producers in-
to a group that works together on all phases of improvement of the in-
dustry. Leadership by the Extension Poultry Specialists and county
agents has been a potent influence in securing the results obtained.
During the past year, the district agents, Extension Agronomist and
county agents have sponsored a series of meetings with fertilizer, seed
and machinery dealers to give timely information on the Extension agron-
omy program. This program includes information on the varieties and
kinds of fertilizer, disease and insect control methods and materials that
will be recommended for the principal field crops. It has met with good
response and enables dealers to stock the recommended seeds and supplies.
Assistance of research people has been used in these meetings.
In the vegetable and citrus area, the Extension program has been
largely with productive problems to meet the changing demand and price
situations.
In livestock, the improvement in Florida beef cattle production has
been outstanding and the Extension program has continued to play an
important part in the establishment of improved pastures, improved man-
agement and breeding practices. Agents have had an active part in ob-
taining the participation of cattlemen in the P & MA pasture improve-
ment programs, and use of other soil-building practices available under
this program.
In home demonstration work through organized home demonstration
clubs and 4-H clubs, Extension programs in nutrition, health and housing,
conservation, clothing and home beautification have made a definite and
substantial contribution to the welfare of rural and urban families. A
newly employed Rural Health Improvement Specialist is getting a solid
program into operation which is enabling the home demonstration agents
to initiate improved programs affecting the health of rural people. The
State Health Department and the State Improvement Commission are
participating actively in the Extension health program.








Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home'Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) .........................-.................. 1,618
Days of service: In office-17,999; In field-21,238 ............................ 39,237
Farm or home visits made ...........---------------............................. 63,224
Different farms or homes visited ................................................ ......... 33,810
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-259,057; Telephone ........168,788
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth ........................ 12,419
News articles or stories published .......................---- ..... ...- .................. 9,219
Bulletins distributed ........................ ............ ... ....... .. ............254,015
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ................... --...... ...................... 1,957
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber ........................................ ............... ............. 1,133
Total attendance of men and women --.... ---.............................. 10,431
Method demonstration meetings:
Number ..........................----------.. ----------------- 10,259
Total attendance ............................-- ---........--.--- 208,415
Meetings held at result demonstrations: .
Number ............................................----------- --- 1,231
Attendance ......-- ....--.... .... ....-----------.---- 21,871
AttendanceTours .................................................................................................. 44421,871
Tours -.-------- ---.... .........---------------------.......-----.--.--- ---------- -------- 444
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ............ 548
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ............................ 8,206

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms ..............-.................-------.. ----.-............ 60,604
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricul-
tural program .......................... ----..........- ..................... -----30,524
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home
demonstration program ................................ .---...........--- .--- 14,137
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year .......................-----------................. 5,531
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for first time this year .................------...... 3,208
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled .----..................................... 10,443
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program ........................... ........................... 16,690
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration program .................----------------------................. 12,356
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ............................ 6,175
Different farm families influenced by some phase of Extension
program ...................--.---.. .......----------....-----.................... 40,202
Other families influenced by some phase of Extension program ...... 32,778

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group ------.................... ................ 574
Unpaid .-- --.....------------- ....... ---............-....... 324
Paid ..............--...............--------. ------- -------- .---- 250
Communities in agricultural planning .....................--------------- .. 73
Members in community agricultural planning ....................................... 221
Planning m meetings held ................................................ .......................... 1,434
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
workers .......................------ -------...............--------... 2,980
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen .......................................... 3,060
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 7,507










Annual Report, 1948 11

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to w ork .................................................-.................... 8,205
Communities in which work was conducted ....................-.................... 3,241
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .......................... ....................... 1,451

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to w ork ................................................-.................. 6,623
Communities in which work was conducted .................---.................... 2,329
Voluntary committeemen and leaders ...----------...............-----........-.-- 952
Breeding and improvement organizations ....................-....----..--.... 72
Farmers assisted ............---......-- ..-...--.------....----- 41,705

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work ........- .................................. .................... 1,874
Communities in which work was conducted ....................................... 1,119
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ..................................... 1,151
Farmers assisted in soil management --................... ..........-------------- 50,702
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation ..............-.... 11,519

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work .........-.......--------.........--....- ........ 1,348
Farmers assisted ..... .... ........ .. .... ......... ..... .... 27,304

GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE
Days devoted to work ............-..---............... .... ... ....... ...----.. 355
Communities in which work was conducted .------............... --..... ..--..... 408
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ............---- -.........-- ............ 759
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ................-----............. 973

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work .......................................-------- ..... ......... ...... 2,745
Communities in which work was conducted ...............-...-....-....-........ 2,915
Established cooperatives assisted ...........-.......... ----..--.......- .. 110
New cooperatives assisted in organizing ..............-..........-....--- ........... 29
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during
the year (established and new) ...............................................$22,257,286
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year ..............$16,923,303

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work .....................------..................----............. 2,427
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 1,471
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ............----.................--- ........-- 1,448
Familip-s assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification and farm buildings ...................... 39,782

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work ........................................................ 5,488
Communities in which work was done .........................-----............... 2,007
Families assisted: In improving diets-16,767; food preparation-
12,624;
Total ............................--......---- .......-------- ---------- -........ 29,391
Families assisted with food preservation problems ................................ 17,543

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ............................---------------.. 409
Communities in which work was done .....................-............. ....... 380









12 Florida Cooperative Extension

Voluntary leaders assisting ....---....-..-..................... ................... 234
Fam ilies assisted ..................................................................................... .. 4,381
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 367
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies ........ 10,285
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems .............................. 15,609
CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to w ork ........... .. ......... .. ...... ....... ................................ 2,120
Communities in which work was done ................................................ 551
Voluntary leaders assisting .......................................................... 580
Families assisted .......-- ......-..-- ---- --...... .........--........... 26,731

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work ...--..... ... ....... ......................................... 348
Communities in which work was done .................................................... 300
Voluntary leaders assisting .................................................... 199

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work ............................ .... ..... ................... ... 918
Communities in which work was done ................... ......-.............. 503
Voluntary leaders assisting ............................... ... .... ...................... 645
Families assisted in improving home recreation .----................................... 3,884
Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities 267
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities or meeting programs ....................... .................... 455
Communities assisted in providing library facilities ..........-................. 34

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ................................................. .................. 6,458
Projects com pleted by girls ............................... ......... ...................... 19,175
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ....-................................... 887
Boys completing fruit projects ----------....................... -- -............. 92
Boys completing garden projects ......-....-.........---.........-----.............. 1,294
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............ 96
Boys completing dairy projects ........................ ............................... 503
Boys completing poultry projects ........................... .... ............ 1,052
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ........................................ 56
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ........-- .................. 181
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .................................... 1,440
Girls completing fruit projects --...............-.......- .--....- ........... 315
Girls completing garden projects ............................................................ 1,911
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............ 4
Girls completing dairy projects ............................................. 143
Girls completing poultry projects ........................................ ........... 1,066
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects .................. 3,442
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects ........ 777
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings
and room improvement projects ......................... ......................... 6,600
Girls completing food preservation projects .................-...................... 1,279
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-6,029; non-farm-1,928; total .................................. 7,957
Girls: Farm-6,083; non-farm--4,016; total .................................. 10,099
4-H club members having health examinations because of participa-
tion in Extension program ..................................... ..... ................. 3,962
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs ...................................... 458









Annual Report, 1948


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO
J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Associate Editor

Publication of bulletins, circulars, record books and other materials
continued at about the usual rate, but is considerably short of actual
needs. Demand for most bulletins is so heavy that supplies are quickly
exhausted. There is need also for a mapped plan of publication to assure
the bulletins and circulars needed.
The Editors are doing more visual aids work than formerly, but the
need for expansion in this field is great.

PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTED MATERIALS
The Extension Service printed three new bulletins and three new
circulars during the year ending June 30, 1948, and reprinted two bul-
letins and one circular. The new bulletins amounted to a total of 108
pages, with 55,000 copies being printed. The new circulars covered a total
of 36 pages, the total issue being 37,000 copies. Following is a list of ma-
terials published during the year.


Bul. 133 Annual Flowers .............. .... ...........--. ....
Bul. 134 The Fruitful Papaya ......................................
Bul. 135 The Goodly Guava ............................................
Bul. 124 The Cultivated Persimmon in Florida (reprint)
Bul. 131 The Florida Home Garden .....................................
Circ. 82 A Simple Farm Brooder and Finisher ..............
Circ. 83 Portable All-Purpose Poultry House ................
Circ. 84 Pullorum Disease in Chickens ............................
Circ. 65 Planting Charts for Home Gardens (revised) ....
Announcement and Rules, Florida National
Egg-Laying Test ........... ...... ......... .......
Final Report, 21st National Egg-Laying Test
MP 31 Florida Farm Record Book B .........-...................
Florida Clothing Program for Junior 4-H Club
G irls ........................................... .............
What Did You Eat Yesterday? ...........................
Florida 4-H Club Songs ..........................
Poultry Institute Cards .................- ...........
4-H Club Short Course Diplomas ......................
4-H Exhibit Cards ............... ........ .......... ......
Cards for 4-H Camps .-................... ........
Cards-Rules for 4-H Camps .............................
Form 7-Agents' Monthly Report Blank ............
4-H Club Record Book ....................... ....... .......
Coop Cards, 4-H Poultry Club ................................


Pages
52
20
36
32
16
12
8
16
4


Edition
25,000
15,000
15,000
10,000
30,000
15,000
10,000
12,000
30,000


300
24 2,500
28 7,500

4 10,000
1 2,000
16 20,000
1 250
1 500
1 5,000
1 75
1 75
2 15,000
16 20,000
1 1,000


The mailing room distributed close to 100,000 copies of bulletins and
over 50,000 copies of circulars, principally on request. Each new publica-
tion was sent to libraries and specialists in the field, as well as to county
agents. About 5,000 were notified that the publication was available. Sub-
sequent distribution was on request only.
As in the past, the Editor served as publication distribution control
officer for the USDA Extension Service and placed orders for thousands









Florida Cooperative Extension


of USDA publications to be distributed to county and home demonstra-
tion agents.

NEWS STORIES AND FARM PAPER ARTICLES
Practically all Florida dailies and most weeklies used generously of
news and information supplied by the Extension Editors, either direct or
through press associations. The Editors sent 19 special stories to one to
35 daily newspapers and filed 87 special stories over press association
wires.
Agents in 61 counties report having 9,461 news stories published by
their local newspapers during the year. This is more than double the
number reported the year before.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to be a
principal means of disseminating information to weekly newspapers and
was sent also to a few dailies that especially requested it. It carried from
8 to 18 different items each week relating to progress in the counties,
news of state-wide interest, and suggestions from Agricultural Experiment
Station and Extension Service specialists and the USDA.
Florida, Southern and national farm journals used widely of material of
interest and value to farm families from the Extension Editors and other
staff members. Of material supplied by Extension Editors, two Florida
journals printed five articles totaling 77 column inches in length; one
Southern periodical printed 17 articles totaling 232 column inches; and
three national magazines printed four articles totaling 215 column inches.
One Florida journal printed numerous articles by other members of the
staff.
BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
Radio broadcasting activities expanded during the year, as more radio
stations throughout the state received service. The Florida Farm Hour
over WRUF, occupying 30 minutes each week day except Saturday and
15 minutes then, continued to be a principal radio outlet. The Editors pre-
pared and presented a summary of farm news highlights each day, the
farm question box once a week, and the editorial of the week each Satur-
day. In addition, they prepared seven other special talks.
A review for the year shows that Experiment Station workers made
126 talks, Extension Service staff members other than Editors made 75,
the College of Agriculture staff made seven, State Plant Board staff four,
and PMA staff seven.
Home economics notes, mostly from USDA, were presented weekly.
Farm flashes, principally from USDA, were presented on 127 occasions.
The Farm Hour presented four remote control programs, four tran-
scriptions and 51 interviews during the year. Those interviewed included
home demonstration agents and 4-H club members, two visitors from
Sweden, one from the Dutch West Indies, one from Egypt who repre-
sented his country on the Food and Agriculture Organization, the man-
aging editor of Progressive Farmer, and a representative of the Rural
Electrification Administration.
Agencies and countries represented by speakers included the U. S.
Wildlife Service, Soil Conservation Service, PMA, REA, vocational ag-
riculture, State Marketing Bureau, Federal-State Frost Warning Service,
USDA tung laboratory, Alachua County Health Department, State Live-
stock Sanitary Board, and Costa Rica.
The Farm Hour was canceled on March 5 for the inauguration of
University President J. Hillis Miller and was reduced to 15 minutes on
March 17 to make way for a message by President Harry Truman.









Annual Repoi t, 1948


In addition, the Editor staged three 15-minute radio broadcasts over
two Tallahassee stations during the annual 4-H girls short course in
June. The girls not only did the talking but also furnished music for the
broadcasts.
The Editors also wrote four interviews which were transcribed and
used on one or more other stations, and had two transcriptions made at
the first annual Regional Negro 4-H Club Camp in Baton Rouge.
Farm flashes, each approximately seven minutes in length, were sent
to 25 Florida stations for five days each week. A number of flashes,
adapted only to the area of one or two stations, were sent to these stations
in addition to the regular allotment.
The Editors prepared 24 flashes, while 107 came from other Extension
Service staff members, 121 from the Experiment Station, 69 from the
USDA Radio Service, and nine from others.
The Associate Editor supplied a bi-weekly roundup of approximately
700 words to 12 stations and also sent a weekly Florida farm review to
the Associated Press, which placed it on its radio station wire.
Agents in 36 counties reported making 1,971 radio broadcasts during
the year.
VISUAL MATERIALS AND MISCELLANEOUS
This office maintains a filmstrip library and the strips are being
used somewhat more widely by the agents. The Editors also assist agents

Fig. 2.-The microphone is carried to chick and egg shows and other
events outside the studio.








16 Florida Cooperative Extension

in obtaining motion pictures and projectors. The office maintains two 16
mm sound projectors and a public address system.
We had duplicates made of 17 slides and hope to add to the slide and
strip collection as it becomes possible to obtain someone to handle the
work.
Additional shots were made for the color motion picture depicting
activities at 4-H club camps, and it is hoped to complete that picture be-
fore the next camping season.
The Editor served as assistant secretary of the State Horticultural
Society during the year and helped this group obtain some news releases.
Materials needed by county and home agents were distributed from
the mailing room, where the employees are on a cooperative basis with the
Experiment Station, as are the Editors.
The Editor spoke to the negro agents at their annual conference, out-
lining some things they might do to make better use of available materials.








Annual Report, 1948


SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION
L. T. Nieland and Bonnie J. Carter

National Farm Safety Week, July 25-31, 1948, was observed by the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service.
The State Farm Safety Committee provided each agent with a farm
safety packet prepared by the National Safety Council and containing
much material of help to the agents in organizing and conducting their
county farm safety campaigns.
In addition, further suggestions and instructions were furnished agents,
and all were urged to conduct county-wide farm safety campaigns.
To stimulate interest in 4-H safety programs, county and home demon-
stration agents were supplied with a total of 1,162 free copies of a farm
safety booklet prepared by a leading oil company. These booklets were
distributed to 4-H club members by the county and home demonstration
agents.
With the cooperation of the State 4-H Club Agent, agents were sup-
plied with copies of the Florida 4-H club farm safety record book pre-
pared by the state farm safety committee. This record book was used in
conducting the 4-H farm safety contest in Florida. The state winner in
this contest was awarded a free trip to the National 4-H Club Congress in
Chicago.
The Extension editorial staff contributed substantially towards pre-
paring materials and publicizing farm safety throughout the state by
both newspapers and radio.
Reports from agents show the following activities in this field: 20
county agents and 39 home demonstration agents carried out an organ-
ized county-wide safety campaign.
Through the efforts of agents 2,370 4-H girls and 2,350 women carried
out safety programs; 1,251 4-H club boys participated in Farm Safety
Week; and 3,052 boys received training in farm safety during the year.
Home demonstration agents and leaders gave 471 method demonstrations
to show how accidents and fires could be prevented in the home. Demon-
strations were given at 618 meetings for girls and women.
County agents sent out circular letters on farm safety and had safety
articles published in county papers. They displayed farm safety posters
and discussed safety at farmers' meetings.
Radio talks were given by both men and women agents.
Home demonstration agents reported that 5,404 families carried out
better practices to make their homes and surroundings safe from accidents
and fire hazards, and 4,942 families actually removed such hazards.
A special program on fire prevention was planned by the Agricultural
Extension Service for people attending the West Florida Farm and Home
Institute at Camp Timpoochee in July. Approximately 250 farm men and
women, Extension workers and others were present.
During the annual short course for 4-H club girls, the education direct-
or of the Florida Forest Service, the chief examiner for drivers licenses
for the Florida Department of Public Safety and the Director of the local
Red Cross chapter assisted with instruction in safety and fire prevention.
They used posters, motion pictures and mimeographed material, along
with lectures and demonstrations, to present the subject to approximately
300 girls, volunteer leaders, and home demonstration agents from all parts
of the state.









18 Florida Cooperative Extension

Specialists included safety and fire prevention in their programs.
In health education the program has emphasized the development of
desirable habits and attitudes growing out of the acquiring of funda-
mental knowledge of safety relating to home, recreation and the farm.
Special stress was placed on safety in the home and on the farm-pure
milk and water supplies, proper sewage and garbage disposal and the
elimination of breeding places of flies and mosquitoes.
The Nutrition Specialist continued to use her mimeographed leaflet
listing safety practices in the kitchen. She followed these practices when
giving demonstrations and emphasized them when training volunteer
leaders.
This year the Food Conservation Specialist taught home demonstra-
tion agents and volunteer leaders to test gauges for safe use of pressure
cookers.
When training clothing chairmen or leaders in different methods of
presenting information to club groups and community residents, the
Specialist in Clothing and Textiles stressed safety and fire prevention in
several ways. She suggested the use of demonstrations to show women
and girls how to flame-proof household articles such as ironing board
covers, pot holders and window curtains, and how to present and encour-
age the use of the U.S.D.A. bulletin on home methods of fire-proofing.
She also showed these leaders how they, as consumers, could keep them-
selves and others informed as to what commercial agencies are doing to-
ward using and giving to the public the results of flame-proofing re-
search promoted for war purposes. She encouraged them to watch labels
and study the trade names used for flame-proofing fabrics and to keep
up with the legislation on standardization of such finishes. She encouraged
selection of materials suitable for children's clothing from the standpoint
of safety.
Through the 4-H club program, emphasis has been placed on water
safety. Qualified instructors for water-front duty were employed in each
of the three district 4-H camps for white children and two camps for
negro children.








Annual Report, 1948


Part II-- Men's Work

WORK OF COUNTY AGENTS
H. G. Clayton, Director
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, District Agent

A favorable situation exists in the counties for successful Extension
work. Financial support has been fairly adequate. Demand for services of
county agents has been unusually large, but Extension programs and
methods have been reshaped and readjusted to meet the demands most
effectively. Additional federal, state and county funds made it possible
to place nine new assistant agents in counties during the year.
A new agent employed must be a graduate of an agricultural college.
In addition, he must be practical, adaptable, energetic and possessed with
high moral standards and a good personality.
Assistants are employed primarily to do 4-H club work, with time
budgeted about 80 percent for 4-H club work and the other 20 percent on
such general Extension work as might be found advisable by the county
agent.
District Agents provided on-the-job training for both old and new
agents insofar as possible. Efforts were made to see that assistant agents
received the proper induction training and both the county agent and the
assistant had a proper understanding of their duties and responsibilities.
The three weeks' short course at the University of Florida in June and
July provided valuable training for those agents enrolled. The annual Ex-
tension conference held October 4-9, 1948, emphasized methods of getting
the job done and provided valuable training for all agents.
Efforts were made by District Agents to increase the efficiency of
county agents' offices by assisting in training office personnel, improv-
ing inadequate filing systems and office records and assisting agents to
secure adequate office equipment.
Several conferences for agents were held at Experiment Stations dur-
ing the year. A series of such conferences in December and January
helped the agents to formulate their plans of work for the new year.
Emphasis was placed on meeting the needs of the people and in doing an
effective job.
District Agents worked with county agents insofar as time would per-
mit in the execution of plans of work. Assistance was rendered with
county fairs, livestock shows, field days, grower meetings and training of
leaders. Assistance was given county agents in evaluating results of their
activities.
A District Agent was chairman of the State Extension Citrus Advisory
Committee and a member of the Extension Vegetable Advisory Committee.
District Agents were responsible for determining 4-H camping sched-
ules for counties in their districts and for assisting with the camping
organization during the week at camp. Assistance was also given in
carrying out the Citrus Institute, Poultry Institue and two Farm and
Home Institutes.
District Agents served as the direct contact between the county agent
and the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, in a public relations
capacity. A number of talks were given before civic clubs, farmers' or-
ganizations and other public gatherings.








Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management
F. W. Parvin, Associate Economist

During the year covered by this report, about half of the Economist's
time was given to regular Extension work and about half to teaching
methods in agricultural Extension. The Associate Economist gave full
time to farm management work after his appointment on February 1,
1948.
Farm and Home Planning.-Farm and home planning with individuals
was carried through its eighth year. This project is primarily an experi-
ment in Extension methods with low-income farm families. Methods used
include, first, a refresher school of one day for the cooperating county
agents. This is followed by the Economist spending a day or two with
each agent, during which time visits are made to about a dozen farmers
whose businesses are analyzed and recommendations are made for im-
provements that will secure larger income or will improve the standard
of living. The Economist and the agents alternate in conducting inter-
views and making recommendations. After each farm visit, a few minutes
are spent in constructive criticism of the interview. Following the Econo-
mist's visit to the county agent, each agent continues the process with a
limited number of farmers. Also, a letter containing a list of recommenda-
tions made is sent to each farmer.
A total of 245 farm families were served in this way and 1,390 recom-
mendations were made, of which 72 percent were carried out in a credit-
able manner. Conservative estimates of the value of additional production
on the farms range from $50 to $700, with an average of $220 per farm.
This is an average increase of about 10 percent over their 1947 income and
about 50 percent over their 1939 income.
Nine groups are now organized so that follow-up contacts can be made
with the cooperators at meetings instead of through farm visits. The
initial contact each year is made at the farm. Timely circular letters and
printed publications are mailed to all cooperators. One tour is made an-
nually by a class in agricultural policy to one community, and this class
has used data from the cooperators' records and annually makes field trips
to some of the farms.
Assistance to Veterans.-Upon request, a table was provided for de-
termining size of farm business based on income using current prices. The
method used minimizes the discrepancies which exist between one-horse
farms and farms which operate with teams or tractors. The table must
be revised annually.
Record books were supplied to more than 4,000 farmer veterans at-
tending training classes.
Record Books.-The simplified record forms for 4-H club members were
received with enthusiasm by young club members. The new forms are
easier to keep than the old forms which are now used only by older club
members.
Assistance to Negroes.-Approximately 50 percent of the work done in
the farm-and-home-planning project is done with negroes; one of the train-
ing meetings for veterans' teachers was for negro teachers; one day was









Annual Report, 1948


given to farm management instruction at a negro 4-H camp and one day
to assisting in the annual conference of Extension agents.
Teaching Methods in Agricultural Extension.-In the fall term of school,
two regularly scheduled undergraduate courses in Extension methods were
offered and taught by the Economist. Two problem courses, one graduate
and one undergraduate, were available throughout the year. A three-week
summer school for in-service Extension workers included courses in gen-
eral Extension methods, 4-H club work, home gardening and speech for
Extension workers. Three courses were taught by local staff members,
including the Economist, and a field worker from the Extension Service in
Washington taught the fourth. Each course provided 1%/ hours of credit
toward a master's degree.
Twenty-two students were enrolled in the summer school and 39 were
in the fall classes. There were 10 enrolled in the problems courses.
An Analysis of Beef Production Practices on 69 Florida Ranches.-In
the spring the farm management staff with the assistance of the Animal
Husbandman, prepared a ranch questionnaire, after consultation with 11
county agents in beef cattle counties. The questionnaire was sent to co-
operating county agents who contacted representative cattlemen in order
to assemble facts relative to practices in breeding, feeding, pasture prep-
aration and marketing.
The 69 cattlemen who cooperated in the survey operated a combined
acreage of 1,275,000 acres. Sizes of operations ranged from a few hundred
to almost a quarter million acres.
The analysis was made in two parts-one for smaller operators and one
for the larger ranches. County agents have made use of the study with
cattlemen.
A Study of Dairying Possibilities in Hardee County.-In an effort to
Improve the economic status of farmers in Hardee county, where approxi-
mately one-half the farms produced farm products for sale with an average
total value less than $900, the county agent contacted Extension specialists
to propose alternate agricultural enterprises.
The Farm Management staff prepared a report with the possibility of
starting a dairy industry in the area. The District Agent, Dairyman and
Agricutural Engineer assisted with preparation of the report.
Extension Outlook.-A mimeographed sheet, summarizng economic in-
formation important to Florida agriculture adapted from reports from the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics in Washington, was prepared monthly
for county agents and staff members for use in farm radio talks, news-
paper articles and circular letters.
The Associate Economist represented the State Extension Service at
the National Outlook Conference in Washington, D. C., October 11-16.
Methods used in presenting information obtained at this conference to
Florida farmers included a report for county agents' use, four radio talks
and an article prepared for the December issue of Florida Cattleman.
Farm Management Exhibits.-Enlargement of nine black and white
photographs, 14" x 18", of "farm management-in action," were shown to
760 farm people at farm and home institutes held at camps Timpoochee
and Cherry Lake.
4-H Club Work.-The Farm Management Staff assisted in conducting
seven one-day leader-training meetings and one such meeting for club of-
ficers. These meetings were the result of courses in extension methods
given during the past two summers. Four counties are in the process of
establishing community clubs to replace in-school clubs.
The farm management staff assisted in training 21 assistant agents in









Florida Cooperative Extension


local leadership at Wildlife camp; in holding five achievement day pro-
grams and one club rally; and in selecting a state prize winner for a
national contest.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
Zach Savage, Associate Agricultural Economist

There were 235 citrus grove records obtained for the 1946-47 season
from 13 counties. These records are the basis for the information pre-
sented regarding costs and returns for the 1946-47 production year. The
number now in process of keeping these records for 1948-49 is 306, which
is an increase of 12 percent over the 1947-48 season. The acreage repre-
sented in the 1948-49 records is approximately 10,000 acres, or 2.4 percent
of the bearing citrus acreage of the state.
Cooperators averaged $1.23 less per box for their fruit in 1946-47 than
for the preceding season. This was a reduction of 62 percent in price.
According to the figures of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA,
there was a reduction of 56 percent in the on-tree price between these two
seasons for the state as a whole. The price of 74 cents was the lowest re-
ceived by cooperators since the 1940-41 season.
There was a further reduction of 41 percent in the on-tree price of
fruit in 1947-48 as compared to 1946-47 for the state as a whole. Figures
on returns from fruit received by cooperators are not complete at present
but the price received by cooperators representing 80 percent of the
acreage of all cooperators was lower by 42 percent. This means that the
price received by these cooperators in 1947-48 was only 22 percent of the
price all cooperators received two years earlier. This was a reduction in
price of 78 percent. The reduction in price received by all growers of the
state between these two seasons was 74 percent.
In the face of these reductions in price received for fruit, the costs of
items of production have increased, some of them to considerable extent.
According to figures of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, the prices
paid by farmers in the United States for commodities increased 22 percent
in 1947 over 1946. There was another increase of 7 percent during the
first 11 months of 1948. Fertilizer constitutes from 30 to 50 percent of the
operating cost of producing Florida citrus and the United States price for
this item increased 10 percent between 1946 and 1947.
While production and marketing costs have continued to increase,
prices received by the grower for fruit have continued to decrease. Pro-
duction costs are 21/2 times prewar costs on a per-acre basis and double on
a per-box basis. Operating costs of cooperators increased 16 percent on a
per-acre basis in 1946-47 over 1945-46. Such costs in 1947-48 decreased 1
percent.
Returns above operating costs on a per-acre basis were the lowest in
1946-47 since the 1940-41 season, and the lowest on a per-box basis since
the 1939-40 season. Four of the past 16 seasons had returns above operat-
ing costs lower-per-box than in 1946-47. The consistently large number of
boxes of fruit harvested during recent seasons has aided in lowering per-
box cost, tending to increase the net above operating cost.
Some growers had low production costs while others had high costs in
1946-47. Operating costs ranged from 21 cents to $2.32 per box. Fifty-
five of the highest yielding groves had an average operating cost of 40
cents per box, while the 55 with the lowest yields had an average cost of
91 cents per box.
Each cooperator was given a summary of the information on his own
grove for 1946-47 and costs for 1947-48. Assistance was given him by the









Annual Report, 1948


Associate Economist, the Citriculturist or the county agent in his county
in an effort to reduce production costs where such were out of line with
efficient production. Comparative figures were supplied each cooperator.
These included the 5-year average figures for all cooperators, a table
showing cost and return data by seasons from 1931-32 through 1946-47,
and cost data for 1947-48, together with a summary of costs and returns
by age groups of 10 and under and over 10 years of age.
County agents in each of four counties received a bound copy contain-
ing a report of each grove within their counties.
Prior to sending out the regular report, preliminary figures for 1946-
47 were supplied each cooperator.
Four large cloth charts of State and Lake County data were prepared
for an exhibit in cooperation with the Citriculturist and Lake County agent
for the fair at Eustis. The Associate Agricultural Economist and the
Critriculturist remained at the exhibit throughout the week. Data were
prepared and presented to interested growers.
A group of non-cooperating growers, individuals and firms of the citrus
industry, were mailed copies of all regular reports issued.
Papers were presented at the annual meeting of the Florida Citrus
Production Credit Association in Orlando in February; the annual meet-
ing 'of the Florida Express Fruit Shippers Association in Miami Beach in
May; the Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie in September; and the Flori-
da Citrus Production Managers' Association at Lake Alfred in October.
In September, citrus record books were sent cooperators using the
books of the Agricultural Extension Service for keeping their records. The
fiscal year for these records is September 1 through August 31.
Considerable material was supplied for vocational high school, vocation-
al G.I. training and college classes in farm management and agricultural
marketing. Special arrangements were made by the Associate Economist
for a field trip to the groves of two cooperators by a professor and his
class in farm management. Permission was obtained from these co-
operators for using their grove data by members of this class.
A request was received for cost and return data on orange and grape-
fruit groves separately by the Production and Marketing Administration,
Washington. These data were available from this project for 16 seasons
for each of the two kinds of citrus.
Articles relating to citrus record work were prepared, including three
for newspaper release, two in the Florida Farm Bureau Bulletin, two in
The Citrus Industry, one for Florida Grower, one for the Journal of Farm
Economics and one for the Florida Bankers' Association Magazine.
Two radio talks on fertilizer costs were given on the Florida Farm Hour
program of Radio Station WRUF.

MARKETING ACTIVITIES
D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing

With regard to farm income, livestock producers enjoyed a good year
but orange growers and most vegetable producers suffered great losses.
Despite storms, hurricanes and freezes, Florida produced a record crop
during the 1947-48 season. Almost 300,000 carloads of produce moved
from the state, as compared to 263,000 for the season before.
Cash receipts from farm marketing for the first nine months of 1948
were about 10 million dollars less than for.a similar period in 1947. Cash
receipts from livestock and livestock products were higher in 1948 by three-
fourths million dollars, but crops were down about 11 million.









Florida Cooperative Extension


Florida farm prices for the past two years for fruits and vegetables
have tended downward. Compared with last year, prices of fall vegetables
are much lower; livestock prices, except cattle, considerably lower; citrus
fruits about the same; and pecans, honey, corn and other farm crops gen-
erally lower.
Farm labor, marketing costs and material costs are increasing in the
face of lower prices to farm producers.
Citrus.-Demand for fresh Florida citrus throughout the 1947-48 season
was slow. With a combined total drop at record-breaking volume, fresh
orange consumption showed a sharp decrease from recent seasons, while
the processed output increased sensationally, accounting for over one-half
of the total orange disposition for the first time in the history of the in-
dustry. Prices at all levels were lower than a year ago. When considera-
tion is given to increased production, packing and transportation costs,
actual returns figure even lower.
Florida's citrus production in 1947-48 was placed at 95.1 million boxes,
of which 58.2 million were oranges, 33 million were grapefruit and 3.9
million were tangerines. The tangerine total has been exceeded in previous
seasons but both orange and grapefruit totals are record highs.
Prices for the 1947-48 season averaged $3.27 for oranges, as compared
to $3.50 the year before and a high of $4.58 in the 1944-45 season. Grape-
fruit prices during 1947-48 averaged $3.07, as compared to $3.29 the season
before and a high of $4.24 during 1944-45 season. Tangerines averaged
$1.98, as compared with $2.17 the season before and $2.51 for the 1945-46
season. Since more than half of Florida citrus went into cans, returns
were not as good as these prices indicate. The canning prices during 1947-
48 season averaged less than 40 cents delivered to the canner for grape-
fruit and about 83 cents for oranges. This includes an advertising tax of
3 cents a box on grapefruit and 2 cents a box for oranges and 1/5 cent for
inspection tax. Since more than half of the fruit brought these low prices,
it is evident that net returns on all citrus was less than cost of production.
The Florida Citrus Commission is the state agency charged with stimu-
lating demand for citrus. With funds derived from an advertising tax, the
Citrus Commission does an almost two-million-dollar advertising and dealer
service job for the citrus industry. The Economist in Marketing met with
the commission regularly and conferred with their manager with reference
to the educational part of their program, in order to acquaint county
agents with programs of the commission. Officers of the commission met
with county agents from citrus-producing counties at two meetings and
discussed with them in detail the entire program of the Citrus Commis-
sion.
The Economist in Marketing has been appointed by the governor-elect
to work with his advisory committee in developing maturity standards and
other proposed legislation designed to improve the citrus situation. A
number of meetings have been held and a recommendation has been made
to the governor-elect which outlines the production trends, the need for
increasing quality standards and improving marketing facilities.
The Economist in Marketing has given assistance to trade groups, in-
cluding Producers Trade Association and United Growers and Shippers
Association, representing fresh fruit; Florida Canners' Association and
Canners League, representing canners; the Indian River Citrus League,
representing the Indian River district; and the Farm Bureau, representing
growers in all districts.
Vegetables.-Florida produced almost 48,000 carloads of vegetables,
strawberries and watermelons during the 1947-48 season-a little over









Annual Report, 1948 25

11,000 cars more than was produced the year before. The 1947-48 crop
grossed not quite a hundred million dollars, as compared with $102 million
for the 1946-47 season. Average price for the current season was about 15
percent lower than last season. The 1948 fall crop, not included in the
above figures, was extremely large but prices were even lower. Cucumber
growers hardly made fertilizer cost and bean growers abandoned large
acreages because they would not pay cost of harvesting. The fall tomato
crop started off the best of any fall crop but prices were not satisfactory
and only number one tomatoes were shipped.
Bean growers expressed their desire for a Federal Marketing Agree-
ment, so discussions were held with a number of growers to try to develop
a marketing agreement.
Close cooperation has been given the Florida Fruit and Vegetable As-
sociation in their program of trying to find less expensive and improved
methods of marketing vegetables. The Economist in Marketing has kept
in contact with pre-packaging studies being made under the Research and
Marketing Act in cooperation with various state agencies. A number of
tours by county agents and farmers have been sponsored to make observa-
tions on this pre-packaging project.
Transportation.-Railroad cars are inadequate in number, aged and in
poor condition. This means that produce arrives in the market in bad
condition, with a consequent marketing cost increase. In addition to poor
service, freight rates have continually gone up and have reached a point
beyond growers' ability to pay.
In addition to these complaints, the Southeast has long been discrim-
inated against by the whole transportation rate structure. Because of
these conditions, it has been necessary to organize a Regional Transporta-
tion Committee in an effort to see if something can be done to relieve the
situation. The Economist in Marketing was chosen as chairman of this
committee for the first year. Three important meetings have been held,
at which these problems were discussed and committees appointed to see
what can be done.
Farm Labor.-A number of meetings have been held with the Labor
Committee of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Committee in an effort to
develop a labor association to take over the government labor camps.
Progress is being made on this project.
Farm Training for Veterans.-A number of farmer veterans studying
agriculture have organized local cooperatives for purchasing farm supplies
and selling farm products. Ten meetings were held to assist in the forma-
tion of three cooperatives.
Cooperatives.-The Economist in Marketing continued with assistance
to the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives. The council's program is
educational. Its main purpose is to keep members informed with items
of special interest to cooperatives. Three district meetings and one an-
nual meeting of the council were held. The proceedings were made avail-
able to cooperatives through the cooperation of the Economist in Market-
ing. The Marketing Economist attended the meeting of the American
Institute of Cooperation in Amherst, Mass., and made use of materials
presented through circular letters.
Low farm income stimulated interest in cooperatives and resulted in an
unusual number of requests to the Marketing Economist for assistance in
setting up farmer cooperatives.
Watermelons.-In cooperation with the Lake County agent, a bulletin
has been prepared on harvesting and loading watermelons. This material









Florida Cooperative Extension


was mimeographed and made available to county agents in watermelon-
producing counties and for interested growers and shippers.
The 1948 annual meeting of the Watermelon Growers' and Distributors'
Association was held in Jacksonville. The Economist in Marketing acted
as secretary and guided the program committee. Two meetings, one in
Washington, D. C., and the other in Gainesville, were held on transporta-
tion problems.
Honey and Pecans.-During the year, backed up supplies of honey and
a record pecan crop resulted in low prices to producers. A number of
meetings were held with producers to assist them in getting as much as
possible out of these products.
Assistance was given in establishing a number of pecan auction
markets. Information on grades and varieties was supplied and growers
were urged to grade and package in a more acceptable manner.
The Economist in Marketing represented the Florida Pecan Industry at
a meeting in Washington, D. C., where a support price program was re-
quested. This request was denied, so Florida growers had to do the best
they could in a grading and auction sale program.
Miscellaneous.-A circular letter entitled "Market Briefs" was sent to
over 500 persons. This letter consists of topic sentences and occasionally a
very short summary of current topics of special interest to Florida farmers.
The general outlook, credit situation, trends in price level and other topics
of direct concern to Florida farmers are included.
County agents in watermelon-producing counties are kept currently
advised of Watermelon Association activities by means of circular letters.
In addition all members of the Watermelon Association are sent circulars
at regular intervals on items of concern to the watermelon industry.
County agricultural agents and farmer cooperatives are sent circulars
on items concerning farm cooperatives, both purchasing and selling or-
ganizations. Information coming from the National Council of Farmer
Cooperatives considered of interest to Florida cooperatives was sum-
marized and made available. This was also true with reference to ma-
terials that came from the American Institute of Cooperation and from
state councils in other states.
The Economist in Marketing sent out reports from time to time on
cannery prices, volume going to canners and the use made of cannery
fruit. This was a cooperative project with the Florida Canners' Associa-
tion.








Annual Report, 1948


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND
ELECTRIFICATION


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer

The Extension agricultural engineering program is designed to reduce
human effort and costs in the production of essential and desirable com-
modities needed by man and animal.
Eighty-five percent of all agricultural problems have engineering im-
plications.
The Agricultural Engineer spent 30 percent of his time on farm build-
ings, 25 percent on farm machinery, 20 percent with 4-H club projects,
15 percent on marketing facilities, and 10 percent on special services, such
as drawing plans for buildings for use as canning centers or livestock
shows and sales.
Farm Buildings.-The need for new housing and repair of old build-
ings has remained the first problem for agricultural engineering action.
Labor and material costs have remained high; however, there has been a
gradual leveling-off in material costs and few items remain in short
supply.
Florida Farm Building Plan Service.-The Florida farm building plan
service is maintained to aid the Florida farmer to plan and properly con-
struct farm buildings. Van Dyke prints of all building plans from Farmers
Bulletin 1738 and Miscellaneous Publication 360 are maintained for the
purpose of reproducing prints for distribution upon request. In addition to
these, plans have been developed or adopted for use in the state by the
Agricultural Engineer and are on file for distribution.
Leaflet 9 of the agricultural engineering series on house planning,
"Plans of Farm Dwellings and Appurtenances," lists the 30 dwelling plans
most suited for Florida. In addition to the dwelling plans, there is included
a description of 26 sheets of plans of structural and interior details and
14 separate miscellaneous plans for cattle guards, garages, outdoor fire-
plices and other appurtenances.
All plans are mailed upon request either to the county Extension offices
or direct to the individual. In order to reduce costs of mailing and re-
producing, 30 of the most popular plans have been printed on letter size
paper.
During the past year 4,883 sheets of building plans have been mailed.
An additional 1,930 plans have been furnished for reference files of all
county Extension offices, vocational agriculture and veterans' teachers.
There were 5,381 other leaflets on house plans, painting and home sani-
tation distributed.
To aid the agents in conducting educational programs on housing, a
file of visual aid material was maintained. This material consists of four
sets of color slides on various phases of housing, a set of drawings on con-
struction for use in opaque slide projectors, a model house and shrubbery
and a set of five enlarged floor plans, useful in discussion groups.
State Rural Housing Committee.-This cooperative program was started
in 1946 to coordinate the housing activities of all educational agencies in
the state. Representatives of the agencies were appointed to serve on a
general committee known as the State Rural Housing Committee.









Florida Cooperative Extension


During the year two additional counties were organized and standard
surveys made.
County and Home Demonstration Agents' Summary.-County Extension
workers spent a total of 1,620 days assisting farm families with housing
problems. The work was done with the aid of 711 volunteer local leaders
in 683 farm communities.
The agents devoted 410 days to working with farmers on construction
and remodeling of farm buildings. They were aided by 229 volunteer local
leaders in carrying information to farmers residing in 336 communities.

Statistical Summary Housing and Farm Building Activities By Agents

WHITE NEGRO
Families assisted Families assisted
Constructing dwellings ............. 921 131
Remodeling dwellings ..................... 1,630 340
Sewage systems .......................... 664 85
W ater systems .......................... 739 201
Heating systems ......... ................. 260 23
Improving kitchens, storage space,
laundry and other rooms .......... 6,054 1,680
Sanitary privies ................. ........... 816 223
Screening ....................................... 2,270 1,140
Construction of farm buildings ...... 648 56
Remodeling or repairing
farm buildings .................... ... 532 61


Fig. 3.-This 4-H club class pays close attention
an engine.


to a cutaway model of








Annual Report, 1948 29

Farm Machinery.-The aim of the farm machinery program is to teach
the farmer, his family and his hired labor the importance of wise selection,
proper use and constant maintenance of the many pieces of machinery
now being used in the home and on the farm.
No other change is taking place faster on the farms of Florida than
mechanization. As of July, 1948, there were 17,467 tractors operating on
farms of the state.
Thirty-one farm visits were made in which farm machinery received
attention. Farm machinery demonstrations were held at two farm and
home institutes. At Camp Cherry Lake, 30 pieces of equipment were dis-
played for 425 attending farmers. All of the equipment, including tractors,
field implements, stationary engines, garden tractors, spray equipment
and a small electric welding machine, was operated for interested farmers.
A welding demonstration was held at which a tank made from a 55-gallon
drum was used in a demonstration on treating fence posts.
The Agricultural Engineer aided in planning a series of meetings for
the state distributors of one equipment line, at which motion pictures on
operation, maintenance and safety we're shown to over 6,000 farmers.

Summary of Extension Activities in Farm Machinery
The Agricultural Engineer spent 126 days in the field, of which, 47 were
devoted to farm machinery and equipment. County agents' reports on
farm machinery show:
White Negro
Days devoted to machinery ..........................------ .... 331 37
Number of communities work conducted ................ 339 39
Number of volunteer local leaders .............................. 209 26
Number of volunteer leaders attending tractor
schools ..............................................--..... -.. ..... 44 0
Number of counties represented at tractor schools 25 0
Number of machinery maintenance schools ............ 2 0
Farmers assisted this year in:
Selection of machinery equipment ................... 1,143 59
Making more efficient use of mechanical equip-
m ent ........----..... ....---...........- ............................ 1,304 153
Number of farmers following instructions in
repair and maintenance ................................ 1,521 102

Seed and Hay Drying.-For the purpose of promoting mechanical seed
drying, a scale model was made and displayed at a livestock show, farm
and home institutes and other farmer meetings. Nine groups of farmers in-
terested in hay and seed 'drying have been conducted through the drying
barn on the Experiment Station farm. The Agricultural Engineer con-
ducted a seed and hay drying discussion for the county agents during the
Annual Extension conference, at which time the model was displayed and
a tour conducted to the Station drier. As a result of this activity, there
are now 21 similar driers being used to dry various seeds, grains and hays
throughout the state.
Fence Post Treating.-The recommendation for treating fence posts
with a preservative to prevent decay and insect damage is tar creosote.
There are 15 open-vat post treating plants operating throughout the state.
However, the combined capacity is not adequate to meet the farmers' de-
mands.
A cooperative program was started with the Extension Forester to
study preservatives and treatment methods. The leaflet on the treatment
of fence posts has been distributed to all county offices. Supplies on the








30 Florida Cooperative Extension

agents' bulletin racks are quickly exhausted and more than 1,500 leaflets
have been furnished to individuals upon request.
At the annual Extension conference, a demonstration was held for
county agents in the cold-soak method of fence post treatment. The Ag-
ricultural Engineer conducted the same demonstration at two farm and
home institutes attended by 600 people and at a pine tree festival attended
by 500 people.
Mechanical Burners for Syrup Making.-Cane sirup is a highly im-
portant cash crop for western Florida farmers. Labor and wood for fuel
have been expensive and hard to obtain.
An oil burner adapted to heat the evaporators is still proving success-
ful. Coal in automatic stokers was used at various points in the sirup
area and showed a very low operating cost.
Of the 126 days spent in the field, 17 were devoted to marketing fa-
cilities. County agents assisted 1,202 farmers in selecting mechanical
equipment and 1,457 farmers were reported as making more efficient use
of mechanical equipment.
Power Spray Equipment.-Farmers and agents in the flue-cured tobacco
area requested information on power spray and dusting equipment to
combat a leaf aphid attacking the tobacco. The problem was to find, or
develop, a machine that would operate in tobacco, planted in conventional
rows. The search was made for equipment and none was found suitable.
Several manufacturers were called in and the problem explained. This
resulted in one Florida concern developing a small narrow gage sprayer.
The Extension Engineer cooperated in the design and testing of the spray
unit.
A demonstration of power spray and dusting equipment was provided
for two farm and home institutes and for several counties.
Irrigation and Drainage.-Requests for assistance on drainage and ir-
rigation problems are usually from farmers or agents in need of informa-
tion for draining a small area or for small plot irrigation. This year, nine
irrigation systems have been designed and 11 farmers assisted with drain-
age. Twenty days were devoted to field work in these problems. Four
demonstrations in irrigations and three demonstrations in drainage by
ditching with explosives, were held. The agents report assistance was
given 1,992 farmers on drainage and 732 on irrigation problems.
Fruit Washer.-The price of citrus fruit has been at a low level and
several requests for a machine to wash and clean tree-ripened fruit were
received. The Agricultural Engineer developed a small fruit washer for
use in roadside stands and small operations.
4-H Club Work.-Classes in farm machinery were held for an advanced
group attending the boys' 4-H short course. The classes were conducted as
a laboratory period, at which basic principles of operation, safety and
maintenance were presented.
At two 4-H club summer camps two groups of 30 boys were given
daily instruction on safety and basic principles of farm engine operation.
Two three-day schools were held to train 4-H club leaders in tractor
maintenance and club leadership. A school for northern and western
Florida was held at Marianna in January, with 21 leaders from 13 counties
attending. The second school, at which 23 leaders from 12 counties were
trained, was held at Plant City in July, for southern Florida leaders.
Twelve counties participated in the Tractor Maintenance Contest and a
club member from Santa Rosa county won a trip to the National Club
Congress.








annual Report, 1948


The Agricultural En ineer attended three 4-H camps where housing
demonstrations were give for girls and boys.

FARM ELECTRIFICATION
A. M. Petty is, Farm Electrification Specialist

Situation.-At the begnnning of 1948, power suppliers in Florida were
optimistic about procuring line-building materials to extend their lines to
unelectrified farms. Electrical farm equipment was rapidly becoming
available, and the supply of some items was catching up with demand.
More than 4,000 farns in this state were connected to electric lines
during the past year. At present 39,975 Florida farms have electricity,
65.4 percent of the farms in the state. They receive power from 15 REA
cooperatives, three major utilities and several minor utilities and munici-
palities with rural lines. Approximately two-thirds of the electrified
farms are served by REA cooperatives.
With the exception of refrigerators, electrical equipment is generally
available for immediate delivery in almost every section of the state.
Some appliances, such a radios, appear in abundance.
Safe, Adequate Wirin .-The basis of a farm electrification program is
the promotion of proper wiring. Farmers should be advised about wiring
just prior to having their farms wired. Copies of the USDA bulletin,
"Planning Your Farmstead Wiring and Lighting," were sent to all Ex-
tension personnel in the state, and agents were encouraged to assist farmers
in planning their wiring. During the latter part of 1947 demonstration
material was assembled to promote good wiring. This material has been
added to and used successfully in wiring meetings. Seventeen demonstra-
tions on proper wiring were given to more than 1,000 people, including 4-H
members, farmers, county agents and home demonstration agents.
Motor Table.-A home-made motor table to show farmers some ways
electricity could save their time and labor was demonstrated. This motor
table has one small electric motor which operates several pieces of house-
hold equipment usually turned by hand. This equipment consists of a
churn, a sausage mill, an emery wheel and an ice-cream freezer. Plans for
making the motor table were distributed at 10 meetings, attended by ap-
proximately 5,000 farmers.
Converting Treadle Sewing Machines to Electric Models.-The Farm
Electrification Specialist realized the need of many farm women for help
in using electricity economically. One of the best time and labor savers is
the electric sewing machine. Many farms have a satisfactory treadle
machine which could be converted to an electric model. New electric sew-
ing machines are costly and hard to obtain, so dealers who sell motors
which could be attached to treadle machines were located. The Extension
Service published a bulletin titled, "Convert Your Treadle Model To An
Electric Sewing Machine." Demonstrations on the conversion of a treadle
machine were given at 12 meetings, attended by approximately 3,800
people.
4-H Club Work.-The Farm Electrification Specialist devoted approxi-
mately one month to 4-H club work. Emphasis was placed on the im-
portance of proper wiring and agents were encouraged to promote the
better methods contest. Assistance was given to agents in holding six
meetings with 4-H members. During the Short Course at the University o'
Florida, the better methods contest was explained to 4-H members. Results
were disappointing, as age limitations prevented selection of a winner.







32 Florida Cooperative Extension

Proper wiring was demonstrated during the Short Course to 175 4-H
boys. At two summer camps 4-H boys and girls improved existing wiring,
Under supervision of the specialist, by mounting 29 switches and installing
500 feet of non-metallic, sheathed cable. In addition to teaching 4-H mem-
bers, this helped to improve the safety and conveniences of the camps.
Additional Help.-Additional help was given to agents and farmers by
answering inquiries about wiring and electrical farm equipment. Assistance
in obtaining proper wiring for a negro county agent's new office building
was given in one county.
Demonstration equipment has been shown at county fairs, agricultural
shows and 4-H club gatherings.
This year, Extension personnel assisted 2,494 farmers in obtaining
electricity, helped 2,915 farm families with the selection and use of lights
and electrical equipment in the home and advised 614 farmers about
electrical equipment used on the farm for producing additional income.








Annual Report, 1948


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING, POULTRY
A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman

BEEF CATTLE
The Situation.-In December 1947, west Florida county agents, district
agents and specialists met at the North Florida Experiment Station with
the Experiment Station staff. Central Florida agents met in Gainesville
with the Experiment Station staff. At these conferences they heard re-
ports on experimental work with cattle, hogs, feed and pasture. The dis-
cussions were for the purpose of aiding in working out a unified program
based on factual information in meeting local situations and using local
associations and organizations in putting over a program.
Efforts have been made through demonstrations, correspondence, cir-
cular letters, news articles, tours, meetings, radio talks and home visits
to furnish cattlemen with proven methods of successful beef cattle pro-
duction, including selection, breeding, culling, disease and parasite con-
trol, feeding and pasture development. Forty-five thousand copies of a
monthly circular letter, "Of Things That Concern Florida Cattlemen,"
containing timely articles, were issued to county agents and approximately
4,000 cattlemen.
Since the annual calf crop is the foundation of the beef cattle work
and the annual Florida calf crop has been low for the last five years, 57
to 65 percent, special attention was directed to the calf crop and its im-
portance.
In a recent survey, 40 agents reported the average calf crop was 56
percent, while the better managed ranches averaged 74 percent. A survey
of 69 ranches in 15 counties showed a 1940 calf crop of 50 to 59 percent
and a 1947 calf crop of 75 percent.
Developing heifers for herd replacement paid off in reduced death
losses and in heavier weights of calves. Forty agents report 1,706 cattle-
men developing heifers for herd replacement.
According to market reports, the average weight of market calves
for September 1948 was 245 pounds. Many county agents reported market
calf weights from 250 to 400 pounds from the best herds.
Having cows calve in early spring, developing pasture and feed pro-
duction and practicing good herd management has produced the heaviest
calves at weaning age. The Animal Husbandman encouraged culling shy
breeders and inferior heifers, using scales to get calf weights and keeping
records of cows producing the heaviest calves.
A survey of 69 cattlemen in central and south Florida showed that
these cattlemen selected from 52 to 62 percent of their heifers for herd
replacement and bred the heifers to drop first calves at about 21 years,
with a low death rate of 3 to 4.4 percent and calf weights as follows:
Grade bulls x native cows-calf weight 230 pounds.
Purebred bull x native cow-calf weight 261-264 pounds.
Purebred bull x grade cow-calf weight 312-327 pounds.
Purebred bull x purebred cow-calf weight 342 pounds.
Cattle numbers over the nation have been on the decrease since 1944.
Florida cattle numbers show an increase since 1938.








34 Florida Cooperative Extension

The following report shows the number of Florida cattle and calves
moving to local markets from November 1 to October 31 for the last three
years.
1948 1947 1946 1945
Cattle ................................ 148,527 145,903 130,859 106,104
Calves ................................ 83,044 81,961 76,190 55,237
Purebred Herds and Breeder's Shows.-The Angus, Brahman and Here-
ford breeders have local breed associations.
The Extension Service has cooperated with the local breed associations
in putting on four purebred shows and sales. South Americans have at-
tended the Brahman sales and shows, and as a result many Florida cattle
have gone to Latin American islands and countries.
The third annual Angus sale, held in March, included 27 animals which
averaged $282 per head.
At the second annual Hereford show and sale in February, 35 animals
averaged $321 per head.
The fourth annual Brahman show and sale, held in January, included
37 animals which averaged $889 per head.
At the second annual south Florida Brahman sale in March, 35 animals
brought an average of $996.
A recent survey showed that 50 out of 69 cattlemen used purebred bulls
exclusively, while 10 used grades and purebreds.
County agents report that 623 farmers were assisted in securing pure-
bred bulls and 647 farmers were assisted in securing purebred and high
grade females. Of 4,518 bulls placed in Florida herds, 3,000 were Florida
raised.
Pasture and Feed.-In cooperation with the Agronomist, county agents
and the PMA, the Animal Husbandman has encouraged pasture develop-
ment and maintenance and advised against over-stocking. The Animal
Husbandman advocated fencing of vegetable lands and grazing them with
cattle, thus obtaining two returns for the fertilizer applied to the vege-
tables.
Cattlemen and county agents have been advised on minerals essential
to annual production. Agents report cattlemen have increased use of min-
erals by mineral boxes and fertilizing pastures and that in all, 1,771
farmers were assisted in improving methods of feeding.
Sugarcane plus a protein supplement and sugarcane in the field has
gained attention as a winter feed. Deferred grazing in summer and letting
the grass grow for winter pasture has proved practical in some sections.
Many cattlemen in the citrus area are using wet citrus pulp from the
canneries. Others are using dried pulp and citrus molasses supplemented
with a protein feed pasture or hay. Some cattlemen are using feed pel-
lets manufactured by feed mills, while others are using mixed feed and
pellets put up by canning companies. Two citrus canning companies are
making special efforts to get cattlemen to use citrus molasses by offering
special prices per ton.
The State Cattlemen's Association is a strong force for good in beef
cattle work and in working for a coordinated water control system. This
association took the initial steps October 6, 1948, in bringing together all
sections in working for a Florida water control rather than a sectional
one. Thirty-seven local county livestock associations are affiliated with the
state association.
Parasite Control.-With the advent of DDT and other materials, ex-
ternal parasite control has progressed. County agents report 3,235 farms
using controlled methods. Cattle free of flies, lice and other pests make








Annual Report, 1948


maximum gains on grass and feed. The Animal Husbandman has co-
operated with the livestock men and the Entomologist in keeping county
agents and cattlemen advised on sprays, dips and dusts in parasite control.
The use of DDT in controlling lice and horn flies has reduced the
screw-worm infestation. Also where tick eradication is in process, very
few screw-worms are found.
4-H Club Work.-During the year 4-H district livestock judging con-
tests were held in five counties. Typing demonstrations were held in three
counties. Three different 4-H judging contests were held at Ocala at the
Brahma breed show, Hereford breed show and annual fat stock show.
A 4-H club girl at the fourth annual west Florida fat cattle show and
sale in Quincy won grand champion with her Hereford steer. The Animal
Husbandman served as judge in the junior showmanship contest at the
fat stock show in Ocala.
Two purebred Hereford field days, one in Escambia county and the
other in Leon, were held for 4-H club members.

HOG PROGRAM
During the period November 1, 1947, to October 31, 1948, 145,491 hogs
were marketed, compared with 107,539 a year earlier, an increase of 37,952
head.
Since demand exhausted the supply of the bulletin, "Swine Production in
Florida," considerable time was devoted to revising it.
The Animal Husbandman urged farmers to grow a succession of crops
so hogs could avoid the spring starving period and be finished for early
market. Attention has been given to the use of mineral and protein sup-
plements in hog production. Reports show that county agents assisted
3,043 farmers in improving methods of feeding hogs.
County agents aided 3,161 farmers in controlling external prarasites
and 5,812 farmers in controlling internal parasites.
Purebred Hogs.-Purebred hog breeders enjoyed a good season, for
demand was brisk.
In september the Duroc breeders promoted their fourth annual sale, at
which 45 head were sold. There were 115 barrows in the tenth annual hog
(breeding and fat animal) show. At an all purebred 4-H hog show held in
one county, 50 animals were exhibited. At one fat hog and breeders show,
110 animals were exhibited.
A Hampshire breeder reported selling 1,000 head, 107 of which went to
Cuba and Latin American countries.
Reports show that county agents aided 585 farmers in securing pure-
bred males and 885 farmers in securing purebred and high grade females.
Meat Cured by Cold Storage Curing Plants.-During the season, Sep-
tember 1, 1947, to April 1, 1948, there were 6,798,121 pounds of meat cured
for farmers compared to 9,718,515 pounds a year earlier. This is a de-
crease of 2,929,394 pounds. This decrease was attributed to high price of
hogs, increase in freezer locker plant patrons and increase in the use of
home freezers. Figures available on meat cured and meat handled by
locker plants show that of the 60 meat curing plants, 44 reported meat
cured.
4-H Club Work.-During the 4-H short course for boys, the Animal
Husbandman assisted with instruction in beef cattle selection and typing.
In six counties 4-H judging contests and typing demonstrations were
held.
The Animal Husbandman helped obtain prizes and eight scholarships








Florida Cooperative Extension


for 4-H livestock members from the purebred breeders and livestock as-
sociations.
Civic clubs throughout the state are showing interest in sponsoring 4-H
activities in livestock.
County agents' reports show that 1,440 club members with 3,481 animals
were enrolled this year, compared with 1,358 club members with 3,271
animals in 1947.
DAIRYING
C. W. Reaves, Extension Dairyman

Two district meetings, one at Quincy for west Florida county agents
and one in Gainesville for central Florida agents, were held in December
1947 at which the 1948 dairy program was presented.
Feed Program.-The feed conservation program, formulated in the fall
of 1947, was continued through the winter months while feedstuffs were
expensive and scarce.
A citrus feed study was made in early May as a result of the large
amount of citrus and citrus by-products available for cattle feed. Follow-
ing a meeting with the Extension Citrus Advisory Committee, the Exten-
sion Dairyman prepared a brief report on citrus and citrus products as
feed for dairy cattle. Demonstrations of cafeteria style feeding of citrus
molasses to dairy cattle were set up in several counties.
A report was prepared on dehydrated Irish potatoes as a potential feed
for dairy cows just before surplus potatoes became available for feeding.
County agents' reports showed 1,202 dairymen were aided in improv-
ing their methods of feeding dairy cows.
Development of Dairying in New Areas.-Many south Florida cities im-
port a part of their milk during the winter months. In dairy areas near
these cities, many dairymen have large numbers of cows on small acre-
ages so they must buy practically all feed. The purchase of replacement
cows is a big cost item for these herds.
The farm dairy program in west Florida is in the process of expansion.
A meeting, attended by 250 people, was held in Marianna in January. A
questionnaire filled out at the meeting indicated that 1,250 cows would be
milked by those present by the end of the year. Local business men formed
the Jackson County Development Corporation, which built a dairy plant
and leased it, with option to buy, to a large commercial dairy. This con-
cern will operate the plant as a receiving station for supplying milk to
deficit cities in the winter. In the summer, the milk will be used for ice-
cream mix and other outlets for quality milk products. A grade A milk
receiving station is in operation at Chipley.
The Extension Dairyman arranged a conference in October for develop-
ing a west Florida pasture program in order to enable representatives of
the milk plants and educational and action agencies to make the same
recommendations in their work with farmers.
The Extension plan for developing the dairy program is on a farm-
sized basis, with plans for sufficient pasture and a large percent of the feed
for each dairy established. All producers are building barns and getting
equipment to produce grade A milk
Better Sire Program-The year 1948 has marked the beginning of an
organized artificial breeding program in Florida. The Extension Dairyman
initiated a survey in one county to determine the status of present sire
service and the interest in attempting to provide artificial breeding service.
The survey showed the average annual cost of feeding and caring for a








Annual Report, 1948


bull was $195.75, with 34 cows served per serviceable age bull and an aver-
age annual bull cost per cow of $5.75.
The survey indicated a need to provide artificial breeding service. The
Extension Dairyman prepared a list of responsibilities assumed by differ-
ent groups, which included the State Agricultural Extension Service, the
local county agent's office and the county association, in developing county
artificial breeding programs. As a result of the survey, two counties have
organized artificial breeding services and two others have made initial
plans to form like associations.
Placement of privately owned bulls has been continued in most
counties. Herds on dairy herd improvement association test provide sources
of seed stock with known production ancestry. County agents report 210
farmers were assisted in purchasing pure-bred dairy sires.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Program.-The West Coast,
Pioneer and Duval dairy herd improvement associations completed a year's
operation which showed progress over 1947. The three associations now
have more than 2,500 cows on test in 10 counties.
The West Coast DHIA increased in membership from five to nine. The
Pioneer DHIA completed its eleventh year of continuous operation with
an annual meeting in the county agent's office at DeLand. The number
of cows on test had doubled during the year. The Duval DHIA greatly ex-
panded its work during the year also.
The annual herd summaries are made out by the DHIA supervisor and
sent to the Extension Dairyman's office, where they are checked, totaled
and averaged. Results are sent back to association members.
A dairy herd improvement association furnishes excellent result demon-
strations of improved feeding and management practices and is of basic
importance in a progressive county dairy program.
Official Cow Testing.-The Extension Dairyman is superintendent of
official cow testing for the state. Twenty of the state's better breeding
Guernsey, Jersey and Ayrshire herds are carrying on official testing. One
Jersey dairyman carrying on testing had three Jersey bulls to qualify for
the superior sire award of the breed in the last two years. Another co-
operating dairyman had a bull qualify for the senior superior sire award,
the highest sire award made by the American Jersey Cattle Club.
Work With Dairy Cattle Breed Associations.-The Extension Dairyman
has worked with the Florida Guernsey and Jersey cattle clubs in helping
plan and carry out their programs. These associations have cooperated by
supporting 4-H dairy activities, the testing program, artificial breeding
projects, providing for expense of state 4-H dairy winner to National 4-H
Congress and by making heifers available at reasonable prices to 4-H club
members.
The Extension Dairyman gave assistance in planning and holding the
two breed sales and the Guernsey field day.
4-H Dairy Club Work.-To stimulate interest in dairy club work, a
state 4-H dairy show, two district dairy shows and several county shows
were held. The first state-wide show was held in connection with the
Central Florida Exposition in February.
The 4-H boys and girls had the animals well-fitted and showed them in
a manner that impressed attending breeders and dairymen. A sample check
made at the fair exit gate one day showed the 4-H dairy show to be the
most popular attraction of the fair.
The central Florida five-county area show was continued for the second
year. Following a county show in each county, the area show was held the









Florida Cooperative Extension


morning of the state Jersey sale. A registered dairy heifer was awarded
the winning boy in each of the five counties.
The second annual west Florida 4-H and FFA dairy show was staged in
Chipley in August, with an attendance of approximately 200 farmers.
The Tampa Chamber of Commerce sponsored a dairy calf show for
Hillsborough County 4-H members in the center of Tampa. Plans were
made for expanding this show into the Florida West Coast Dairy Show and
making it an annual event.
Florida participated in the national 4-H dairy production contest. Eight
savings bonds were awarded and the state winner's report was entered for
sectional competition.
The Extension Dairyman conducted a dairy class during the State 4-H
Short Course, helped with 4-H camps and arranged for club members to
be included in educational events at the Guernsey judging school. The
judging school was an opportunity for selected club members to learn fin-
er points in judging, with practice on animals of correct dairy type.
There were 974 members enrolled in 4-H dairy projects with a total of
2,524 animals in completed projects.
Home Milk Supply.-Because of the relatively small number of com-
mercial dairies in Florida, a large portion of 4-H dairy club work directs

Fig. 4.-Three of the 4-H boys who won registered dairy heifers for
being tops in dairy club work in their counties, together with Jersey
breeders who cooperated in the program.









Annual Report, 1948


attention to an adequate home milk supply. The county agents in a num-
ber of counties have cooperated with the district Bureau of Animal In-
dustry veterinarians in listing family cows to be tested for Bang's disease
to the extent that all family cows in certain counties were tested.
General Activities.-The Extension Dairyman and the dairy department
of the College of Agriculture jointly planned and conducted a one-week
dairy herdsmen's short course at the University in September. Forty peo-
ple, representing 10,000 dairy cows, attended.
The University dairy field day, held in July, was sponsored jointly by
the Florida Dairy Industry Association, the University of Florida dairy
husbandry and dairy products departments and the Extension dairy depart-
ment.
The Extension Dairyman served as judge at several dairy shows, includ-
ing the State Fair, and was named an "Approved Jersey Judge" by the
American Jersey Cattle Club in their 1948 list.
Radio, News Articles, Circular Letters and Illustrative Materials.-
The Extension Dairyman presented 11 radio talks on the Florida Farm
Hour program of Radio Station WRUF. Approximately 25 articles on im-
proved practices and publicizing objectives of Extension dairy projects
being carried out with 4-H members and adults were prepared for the
Agricultural News Service, which goes to about 200 weekly and daily news-
papers over the state.
Some results of the 1948 Extension dairy program as reported by
county agents:
Cows on DHIA Test .............................. ... ...................... 2,600
Cows on official test ........................................................... 550
Purebred sires placed ............... ..... ............ ...... 210
Artificial breeding associations formed..................... ....... ....... 2
Farmers aided on feed problems ................................. .............. .. 1,202
Farmers aided in treating for external parasites .......................... 1,666
Farmers aided in controlling disease and internal parasites.......... 2,126
4-H club members completing dairy projects .............................. 646
Animals in completed 4-H dairy projects .................................... 2,524
4-H animals in state or area shows..................... ... ...... 190

POULTRY ACTIVITIES
N. R. Mehrhof, Poultry Husbandman
F. S. Perry, Assistant Extension Poultryman

A. W. O'Steen, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Test
Florida's poultry industry has been expanding gradually for the past
30 years. Today it is one of our most important agricultural enterprises.
Florida farmers began the current year with 1,924,000 layers on hand.
This was a slight increase over the 1947 figure of 1,901,000. Leading egg
producing counties are Hillsborough, Pasco, Nassau, Duval, Polk and Jack-
son, in the order named.
Leading broiler producing counties in order are Dade, Hillsborough,
Duval, Palm Beach and Polk. Two new commercial areas are developing
-one in Walton County and another in Putnam. It is reported that com-
mercial producers raise between six and seven million birds annually. This
is in addition to a yearly production of five million farm-raised broilers.
This yield is far short of the eggs and poultry consumed each year by
Florida residents.
Florida's hatcheries operate on a 12-month basis and chicks are pro-









Florida Cooperative Extension


duced more uniformly throughout the year than in almost any other state.
A total of 11,572,000 chicks were produced during the period January
through October, 1948. This was slightly more than the 11,323,000 chicks
produced during the same period in 1947. It is estimated that chicks
hatched for the period December 1, 1947, to November 30, 1948, would
total 14,000,000-an increase of 12% over the same period a year ago.
Growing Healthy Pullets.-Extension recommendations were followed
by 1,260 families in obtaining better strains of baby chicks and by 3,139
families in improving methods of feeding. These recommendations were
carried on in 506 communities throughout the state.
Egg-Laying Test.-The Twenty-Second Florida National Egg-Laying
Test was completed September 21, 1948. Each test is conducted for a
period of 357 days, starting October 1. Competing pens numbered 95, each
including 13 pullets. In this test there were 42 pens of S. C. White Leg-
horns, 25 of New Hampshires, 11 of S. C. Rhode Island Reds, 12 of White
Plymouth Rocks and 5 of Barred Plymouth Rocks.
Average egg production for the 51 weeks was 210.8 per bird, with a
credit of 215.6 points. Average egg production for the heavy breeds was
204.4 eggs per bird, and for the light breeds 218.9 eggs per bird.
Average feed consumption was 104.4 pounds per bird per year. Each
dozen eggs produced required 5.7 pounds of feed. Mortality during the
year averaged 11.2 percent.
High pen consisted of S. C. White Leghorns owned by J. A. Hanson,
Corvallis, Oregon. These 13 pullets produced 3,715 eggs for a value of
3,764.70 points.
High individual was a S. C. White Leghorn owned by the Dryden
Poultry Breeding Farm, Modesto, California. This pullet produced 327
eggs and was credited with 344.65 points.
The high Florida entry was a pen of S. C. White Leghorns owned by
Pinebreeze Farm, Callahan. These 13 pullets produced a total of 3,393
eggs for a value of 3,313.20 points.

Fig. 5.-The broiler industry has expanded rapidly in Florida.








Annual Report, 1948


A pen of New Hampshires was the second high Florida pen. These pul-
lets laid 3,096 eggs for a total of 3,201.05 points.
The 23rd test was started October 1, 1948, with 88 competing pens.
Culling Demonstrations.-Poultrymen must obtain a high rate of lay
from their flocks if they are to make a profit. Methods used to diffuse
culling information to poultry producers throughout the state were: culling
demonstrations, bulletins, exhibits, culling charts, radio programs, leaflets
and circular letters. In addition, local leaders, 4-H club members and
county and home agents were schooled in the principles of selecting and
culling poultry.
4-H Club Poultry Work.-Poultry club members were encouraged and
assisted in their program of supplying poultry meat and eggs for home
consumption and for market.
Poultry classes were held regularly at the 4-H boys' and girls' summer
camps and also at the boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and
Tallahassee. Flock management, proper housing, feeding, sanitation, cull-
ing, killing, dressing, marketing and judging were some of the more im-
portant demonstrations given. During short course, blue awards were
given to 4-H club boys from Duval County who presented a flannel dem-
onstration on "The Fundamentals of Broiler Production" and Dade County
boys who presented a demonstration on "Poultry Housing."
The special 4-H club girls' poultry demonstration project sponsored by
the Sears-Roebuck Foundation in 17 counties was continued again this
year. In this project alone, during the 1947-48 season, there have been 17
poultry shows and 17 egg shows. The program accounts for 17,000 baby
chicks started, approximately 20,000 pounds of poultry meat sold, over
5,000 hens on farms and more than 60,000 dozens of eggs produced in the
participating counties.
The west Florida district 4-H club poultry and egg show and judging
contest was held at Chipley with all of the 10 west Florida counties par-
ticipating. Entries included 210 birds and 43 dozen eggs. The state 4-H
club poultry and egg show and judging contest was held again in con-
nection with the Central Florida Exposition at Orlando, with more than
105,000 people attending. A total of 1,045 birds and 160 dozen eggs were
entered. Twenty-one judging teams from 14 counties competed in the
judging contest.
During the year 1,774 boys and 1,542 girls were enrolled in poultry club
work. Of this number 1,052 boys and 1,006 girls completed their projects
with a total of 126,032 birds.
Prevention of Disease and Parasites.-Extension workers have con-
tinued to stress the importance of clean land, range rotation, use of litter,
chicken pox vaccination, control of internal and external parasites and the
use of sanitary poultry houses and equipment.
Sporadic outbreaks of Newcastle disease have been of much concern
to Florida poultrymen.
There were 5,190 families assisted in controlling various types of poul-
try parasites and diseases.
Poultry Institute.-The seventh annual Poultry Institute was held at
Camp McQuarrie August 23-28. Over 300 persons registered during the
week, with about 100 spending the entire week. Full programs on poultry
management, incubation, nutrition, disease, breeding, egg quality and
marketing were presented.
West Florida Broiler and Egg Institute.-The first annual broiler and
egg institute was held at DeFuniak Springs, July 8, 1948. Poultrymen from
west Florida, south Alabama and southwest Georgia attended the one-day









Florida Cooperative Extension


meeting, which included tours to broiler farms, feed manufacturing estab-
lishments and processing plants. Attendance from these three areas totaled
830.
The Egg Quality Program.-The Florida Poultry Council, composed of
representatives from all segments of the poultry industry, sponsored the
egg quality program again.
The program includes producing and handling eggs on the farm, and
grading and candling eggs on the farm or at marketing centers according
to standards specified in the Florida egg law. It also includes furnishing in-
formation to consumers on size and quality standards, in addition to con-
sumer information.
Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given by poultry work-
ers. Twenty-six egg shows were held at county and state fairs. A detailed
egg grading exhibit was prepared and demonstrated at two farm and home
institutes.
Marketing Eggs and Poultry Meat.-Few serious difficulties have been
experienced this year in marketing of poultry products. Prices have been
satisfactory and usually cost items have been in a favorable relationship.
When temporary surpluses did develop, however, the Extension organiza-.
tion and State Marketing Bureau cooperated in developing suitable market
outlets for this commodity.
Killing and dressing demonstrations were given at home demonstration
club meetings, 4-H club meetings and short courses, and classes were held
at the University Poultry Laboratory for Florida's poultry and egg in-
spectors.
According to estimates by inspection bureau officials, approximately
13,000,000 dozen graded eggs were marketed in cartons in 1948, contrasted
with 4,500,000 dozens in 1947 and 4,000,000 in 1946. In addition, there were
more than 40,000,000 pounds of graded poultry meat inspected this year by
the poultry and egg division of the State Marketing Bureau.
Assistance in marketing poultry products was given in 431 communities
to 2,384 farmers or families. Four new cooperatives were assisted in or-
ganizing during the year. Thirteen established cooperatives were assisted
during the year. There were 208 members in these 17 organizations. Value
of products sold or purchased by cooperatives totalled $238,050.00 and by
non-members $531,485.00.
RMA Project-Egg Phase.-Florida is a deficit poultry producing area;
however, there is a temporary surplus of eggs during the spring months.
There are difficulties in handling these surplus spring eggs produced on the
general farms in north and northwest Florida, where the size of flock is
relatively small. The Research and Marketing Act of 1946 has made pos-
sible Extension activity on this problem. The territory in north and north-
west Florida was selected for initial work.
The two principal objectives in the project have been: (1) To study
methods of improving the quality and merchandising of eggs, and (2) to
study trends in marketing poultry meat.
The initial survey period is well underway because of the excellent co-
operation of participating groups, and soon will be completed.
Broiler Production.-It is estimated that the annual consumption of
poultry meat in Florida is around 75,000,000 pounds; two-thirds of this is
broilers. Broiler plants produce about 6,500,000 head of chickens and gen-
eral farms and commercial egg farms produce about 5,000,000 birds. This
probably results in a production of about 30,000,000 pounds of poultry
meat annually. This falls far short of total consumption, so for the past
several years Extension poultry workers have been active in fostering
approved practices and economy of production.









Annual Report, 1948


The annual nutrition conference was held November 11 and 12, in
Gainesville. The poultry theme at this conference was broiler production,
including investment, costs and returns, methods and disease control.
The National Poultry Improvement Plan.-The National Poultry Im-
provement Plan was created by an act of Congress in 1935. It authorizes
the Bureau of Animal Industry, USDA, to cooperate with one official
agency in each state in the administration of the plan. In Florida, the
State Livestock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee, has been designated as the
official state agency. The Agricultural Extension Service, the poultry de-
partment of the University of Florida, the Florida State Poultry Producers
Association, and the Florida R.O.P. Association endorse and assist in
furthering the plan.
This plan assumes greater value as breeders and hatcherymen expand
operations to supply the demand for quality baby chicks in Latin and
South American countries and the islands of the West Indies. Airline traf-
fic officials estimate that Florida's annual export of baby chicks exceeds
31% million.
Results of the pullorum testing program during the past season have
been very satisfactory. Of all birds tested 77.1 percent were pullorum
clean; 14.5 percent were pullorum passed and 8.3 percent were pullorum
controlled. While a 2 percent tolerance is permitted in the pullorum con-
trolled class, Florida controlled flocks had only 0.52 percent of reactors.
The percent of reactors in all flocks tested was 0.043.
During the season it was necessary to reject 11 flocks containing 5,106
birds and to retest 30 flocks containing 19,712 birds.
Seventy-six hatcheries with a total capacity of 3,257,038 are now par-
ticipating in the National Poultry Improvement Plan. Of these, 59 with a
total capacity of 2,778,710 are in the pullorum clean or pullorum passed
classes.
Assistance was given poultrymen in selecting and breeding birds and
also in developing breeding programs. During December, 1947, a one-day
breeders' school was held at the University poultry laboratory in Gaines
ville. Four hundred thirty farmers were assisted during the year in se-
curing purebred males and 528 farmers obtained purebred females.
Turkeys.-When considered together with other poultry products, tur-
keys represent a relatively small percentage return to Florida farmers.
This enterprise, however, is important to the general farming section of
north and west Florida. Turkey production has declined slightly during
the past few years. Florida farmers raised 115,000 turkeys in 1946. This
was an increase over the 1939-43 average of 108,000. A 5 percent reduction
was reported in 1947 when 109,000 turkeys were produced. Estimates for
1948 indicate a further reduction of about 5 percent to 104,000 birds.
A practical turkey management program was fostered, giving particu-
lar emphasis to separation of chickens and turkeys, portable coops used on
clean land, good breeding stock, proper feeding and approved marketing
procedure. Eight counties have been active in turkey work during the year.
Chicken-of-Tomorrow Contest.-The chicken-of-Tomorrow contest has
as a goal the development of meatier chickens that will grow faster on
less feed and the breeding of strains of meat-type chickens of superior
merit through a program of progeny testing. Florida has held a state con-
test for the third year. In the 1948 Florida contest the winning entry in
the adult class weighed 4.06 pounds at 12 weeks of age and was owned by
W. A. Belote of Pine Air Poultry Acres, Jacksonville. This high award in
the junior class averaged 3.67 pounds at 12 weeks of age and was owned
by Michael Blocker, a 4-H club boy from Jacksonville.









Florida Cooperative Extension


BEEKEEPING
John D. Haynie, Apiculturist

The Apiculturist was appointed in December 1947. His duties are to
promote beekeeping in the state by instructing and assisting county agents,
home demonstration agents and district and state beekeeper associations in
scientific methods of beekeeping and the marketing of honey.
Organized activity among the beekeepers of Florida began in 1919 when
a state association was formed. The original purpose of the Florida State
Beekeepers' Association was to secure apiary inspection for the beekeepers
of Florida.
Some Beekeepers in the state are still lacking information concerning
problems in their respective localities. The Apiculturist, working with
county agents, organized six district beekeepers' associations, in addition
to the three associations already formed. These district beekeepers' as-


Fig. 6.-The Extension Apiarist demonstrates the five-deep
hive.


brood frame








Annual Report, 1948


sociations, which are scattered throughout the state, work closely with the
State Beekeepers' Association on all problems in beekeeping.
Cooperating with State Organization.-The Apiculturist supervises
honey exhibits at the Florida State Fair each year. This year, beekeepers
put on four individual exhibits, the Ladies' Auxiliary had a booth and the
State Association had one exhibit. Three of the beekeepers exhibiting sold
almost $2,000 worth of honey, in addition to premiums received. The most
popular booth among the honey exhibits was the Ladies' Auxiliary booth,
where foods made with honey were exhibited., Bulletin information on use
of honey in the daily diet was distributed at the booth.
The Apiculturist organized a three-day educational program for the
Florida State Beekeepers' Association. Speakers were selected from the
USDA, State Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Extension Service,
Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture and federal and
state representatives and beekeepers in the field. The beekeepers were in-
formed that a research program in honey plants was in the State Ag-
ricultural Experiment Station's budget for 1949.
This year in the nine district beekeepers' associations in the state, most
of the work has been centered around organization. Visual aids have been
used and beekeepers have brought them to the public for use in an educa-
tional manner. One of the sound motion picture films on the life history
of the honeybee was shown to several thousand children in one of the larger
cities by a beekeeper.
Teaching Aids.-Three circular letters on (1) methods of beekeeping,
(2) condition of honey plants and (3) remarks on marketing honey were
sent the beekeepers during the year. Four radio talks were given over
WRUF on the importance of bees in the pollination of crops, notes on the
history of beekeeping, importance of the bee industry in Florida and recom-
mendations on how to winter bees.
The Apiculturist and the county agent of Gulf County took an ento-
mology class on a tour to study honey production in the tupelo river
swamps, which is the only region in the world where tupelo honey is pro-
duced in quantity.
4-H Club Activities.-During the summer four colonies of bees were
brought to Camp McQuarrie, regional 4-H camp, for bee-handling demon-
strations. It was not certain that the area around Camp McQuarrie would
maintain colonies but it proved to be a fair location and nine gallons of
honey were produced from two colonies. The other two colonies were
secured later in the summer and they will be in condition to produce a
crop of honey in 1949. The honey was taken from the hives and extracted
by the 4-H club boys. At camp, groups of boys were given instruction in
beginning beekeeping. The subject matter included a brief outline of the
history of beekeeping in this country, the most important honey plants of
Florida, removing honey from the bees and re-queening, extracting and
handling honey.
At district 4-H Camp Timpoochee a large commercial beekeeper lo-
cated at Freeport invited the 4-H club group to visit his beeyard and ex-
tracting plant. The beekeeper conducted the group through the colonies
and explained how the bees are handled and showed how the colonies are
worked when shipping package bees. The group was taken through the
extracting plant where each operation in handling the honey from the
hives to the settling tank was demonstrated.
An outline on beginning beekeeping was written for use by 4-H club
members. A mimeographed circular of 20 pages, "First Lessons in Bee-








Florida Cooperative Extension


keeping," was written to fill the need for printed information on beekeep-
ing. A bulleting on beekeeping will be published later.
Cooperation with Research Workers.-Since there is not a published
bulletin on honey plants by the State Experiment Station, the Apiculturist
wished to help publish a bulletin on honey plants in Florida which would
serve the beekeepers and the science field.
Dr. G. J. Stout, horticultural department, food preservation, College of
Agriculture, became interested in working with honey in the granulated
form. Canada markets 95 percent of her honey crop in this spread form
and co-ops in the Northern states are beginning to put up clover honey in
a cream form. Dr. Stout found that by processing darker and stronger
flavored honey, the color becomes much lighter and the flavor milder. He
has demonstrated his processed honey samples to two large groups of bee-
keepers who are anxious that he continue with this work. While most of
his results are encouraging, he is not ready yet to give out definite infor-
mation on the formula. The honey processing requires a large amount of
equipment and should be undertaken only by a large honey packer or or-
ganization.
The Apiculturist and officials of the State Beekeepers Association
worked out a research project on plants. There is need for more honey
plants that will fit into the beekeeping season in order that beekeepers will
not have to move their bees to different localities to maintain them. At
the present, there is no information available to assist a beekeeper in de-
termining whether or not a section of the state is a good beekeeping area.
Exhibits.-A beekeeping exhibit was set up at the Farm and Home In-
stitute at Cherry Lake and Camp Timpoochee. The purpose of the exhibit
was to show the elementary steps in manipulating a colony, taking honey
from'the colony, equipment necessary to extract honey and the process of
extracting. The point stressed in connection with the exhibit was that a
few colonies of bees can be kept to produce honey for home use and help
insure pollination of crops. There were over 200 people who attended the
Cherry Lake Farm and Home Institute, with a lesser number attending
the Timpoochee Farm and Home Institute.








Annual Report, 1948


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
W. W. Brown, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent

The state is divided into 10 4-H districts with one county agent in each
district elected as district chairman to develop more effectively the 4-H
program. One-day meetings devoted solely to 4-H subject matter were
held in each district in January and February.
In October the 10 district chairmen, meeting with the state club staff,
decided upon features of 4-H to be emphasized in next year's program.
By combining a training course for assistant agents with the 4-H con-
servation camp, 21 assistant county agents received a week of practical
training in organizing and carrying on a 4-H program.
In two counties most of the 4-H members come from urban areas. Boys
from urban areas and smaller towns usually enroll in poultry and garden
projects and do excellent work. There are 12 4-H boys who have registered
in the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, from one urban county.
For the past year there has not been a Negro District Agent in charge
of the Extension program for negroes. The state club staff assisted in
planning for the negro 4-H short course and the negro Extension confer-
ence.
A location has been secured for a negro 4-H camp. A donation for 4-H
conservation camps was used to help finance two negro camps. A regional

Fig. 7.-This dairy show attracted widespread attention among adults
and juniors.








J'll %r :,: I








Florida Cooperative Extension


camp for negro 4-H members was started this summer at Baton Rouge, La.
At least one discussion on 4-H club work was given each month over
Radio Station WRUF. Twice during the year 4-H programs from local 4-H
clubs out in the state have been broadcast. Florida was represented in the
National Geographic's 4-H story last November.
Volunteer Leaders.-Progress was made in training local leaders. The
Economist in Farm Management assisted with eight local leader training
meetings and the state 4-H club staff assisted with 11. Many agents have
taken 4-H club meetings out of the schools and placed them on a com-
munity basis in order to have the assistance of local leaders.
The training school for local 4-H club officers has proven successful in
eight clubs.
Materials.-The state 4-H club department prepared an individual re-
port card for use in building a permanent file for the county agents' of-
fices. This card is being used in about half the counties.
The state 4-H club staff prepared material which was used in organiza-
tion, project work, recreation and demonstrations. A different type of card
for livestock judging was developed by the state club office, working with
the Animal Husbandman and Dairyman.
The state 4-H club staff obtained some equipment which was loaned to
counties and helped plan county 4-H exhibits which were designed to in-
terest and inform the public.
Enrollment and Completions.-County agents' reports show a decrease
of 84 boys enrolled in 4-H club work. This decrease was attributed to the
fact that agents decided to work with fewer boys in order to improve quali-
ty of work.
A decided improvement in number of members reporting was noted.
Percent completions went up from 57.7 percent in 1947 to 63 percent in
1948. This is the first time completions have averaged as high as 60 per-
cent. The quality of project work also improved. Five counties did out-
standing work ,with a special corn 'contest. Two counties had excellent
poultry projects. The work with beef breeding animals in three counties
was unusually good. The number and quality of dairy animals in six
counties improved considerably.
Tours and Short Courses.-A large number of 4-H tours and education-
al trips were held. In Florida, boys' 4-H work is completely separate from
girls' work. A departure from precedent this year was the organization of
five clubs of boys and girls on a community basis. Enrollment and interest
increased in these clubs.
The 1948 annual 4-H short course was held for the 29th year, with 250
boys attending. Crowded conditions at the University of Florida made it
increasingly difficult to house and feed the boys, but with better facilities
being built on the campus less difficulty is anticipated for future short
courses.
Council.-The state boys' 4-H council was revived. In addition to help-
ing promote 4-H work, the council collected $200.00 in donations from the
boys at 4-H short course to send to a W.A.C. officer in charge of German
youth activities in the Wurzburg area. A report from the W.A.C. officer
related that the money was used to purchase equipment for German youth
camps. Letters received from German youth groups expressed apprecia-
tion. At the National 4-H Camp, the Florida group supplied a package
of concentrated citrus products, which was shipped abroad.
Camps.-The administration of all 4-H camps became the responsibility
of the Boys' Club Agent this year. This includes maintenance, new build-
ings, operation of kitchens at camp and securing caretakers and camp








Annual Report, 1948


staffs. This year needed repairs were made and some new equipment was
added to the three 4-H camps.
Plans for 1949 include rebuilding two buildings at Cherry Lake and
finishing the apiary at McQuarrie. Four colonies of bees were started at
McQuarrie and plans have been made to enlarge the apiary until enough
honey can be produced to supply all camps. This will necessitate building
a honey extracting house, which should be completed by the summer of
1949.
Increased efficiency and better service was obtained after all camp
dining rooms and kitchens were placed under one head. Three kitchen
managers supervised preparing and serving over 45,000 meals at 4-H camp
and at four farmers' institutes held at the camps during the summer.
The meals at camp were served at a cost of 32c per meal.
Three directors and two life guards were employed for the summer.
Four were former 4-H boys and one a school teacher.
This year 3,233 4-H members attended camp. Accommodations were
available for a maximum of 425 people at a time, at the three camps. The
length of the camping period for each group was four and two-thirds days.
With the camp open for 12 weeks 5,000 could have been accommodated.
Because of the shape of the state and the distance from end to end, there
is need for another camp in the southern part of the state. Thirty acres
of land on an excellent lake have been donated for a fourth camp.
Group insurance was secured to protect the 4,000 4-H members attend-
ing camps and short courses against the hazard of accidents and sickness.
Awards.-Eight college scholarships were awarded in 1948. Seven boys
attended National 4-H Congress and two the National 4-H Camp. Two
banks in Tallahassee sponsored a trip for the champion 4-H corn boy.
The 4-H staff contacted 30 individuals and organizations who con-
tribute annually to awards for 4-H boys. In 1948, the following were se-
cured: seven college scholarships, trips for two to the National 4-H Camp
for white and for six to the Negro Regional Camp, trips for seven to
Chicago and donations for short course and camp scholarships.








50 Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM CROPS, SOILS AND CONSERVATION

SOILS AND FARM CROPS
J. R. Henderson, Agronomist

The Extension Agronomist was employed December 1, 1947, jointly by
the Agricultural Extension Service and the Agricutural Experiment Sta-
tion. Two-thirds time is devoted to Extension activities and one-third to
Station duties.
Major activities of Extension agronomy included:
1. Conferences with county agents, in groups, for presentation of sub-
ject matter information based on new research findings.
2. Meetings with seed, fertilizer, insecticide and fungicide dealers to
better acquaint them with Extension recommendations for production of
field crops and pastures.
3. Close study of research on soils, field crops and pastures at the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and its branches and at nearby
stations in Georgia and Alabama.
4. Carrying out specific projects in soils, field' crops and pastures as
need and opportunity arise.
Help was given agents in all sections of the state in recognizing the
major soils groups in counties, in working out pasture programs to fit soil
conditions and in determining lime and fertilizer requirements for various
soils when used for the production of the adapted pasture plants.
Two group conferences were held in December, 1947, at which research
information on all phases of field crop and pasture production was re-
viewed. One was held at the North Florida Experiment Station at Quincy
and the other at the Main Station at Gainesville.
Four meetings were held during the year, at which Extension recom-
mendations for production of field crops and pasture, fertilization and
liming, and insect and disease control were outlined.
As the 1948 production season advanced, special projects with several
crops and with pastures received attention. Crops concerned included
lupines, Dixie Wonder pea, hairy indigo, peanuts, corn, flue-cured tobacco
and small grains. Assistance was given in the development of a dairy pas-
ture program for northwestern Florida.
Lupines.-Bitter blue lupine has become well established as the favorite
leguminous winter cover crop in the general farming area of Florida.
Weather conditions during the past growing season were unfavorable for
lupine growth but highly favorable for the development of diseases. Agents
were encouraged to survey plantings in their respective counties and locate
disease-free fields for seed production. As a result of their efforts, a fair
supply of good seed was obtained.
Seed of sweet yellow lupine had been increased by the Experiment
Station. Through cooperation with them, several lots of these seed were
placed with farmers in strategically located counties for further observa-
tion.
Dixie Wonder Pea.-This variety, a selection out of the Austrian winter
pea, had been under observation at the Experiment Station for two years.
It was found to grow off earlier and produce larger yields of forage than
its parent. Agents throughout the general farming area were asked to
secure plantings for further study of its possibilities as a grazing and green
manure crop.









Annual Report, 1948


Hairy Indigo.-There is need for a summer cover crop to replace
Crotalaria spectabilis. Hairy indigo seems to meet these requirements and
has possibilities as a grazing and hay crop. This year, a small quantity
of the seed of an early-maturing strain was released to the Agronomist by
the Experiment Station. Six lots of this seed were placed in as many
counties for the beginning of a seed production program.
Peanuts.-Seed of a new strain, the Dixie Runner, were released to a
few growers in 1943. This variety has outyielded the common Southeastern
Runner by as much as 25 percent and the nuts are almost free of "con-
cealed damage." The seed supply after five years was sufficient to plant
only 15 percent of the acreage devoted to peanuts. The Agronomist is as-
sisting agents in strategically located counties throughout the peanut-
growing area in finding growers interested in becoming producers of
certified Dixie Runner seed. Small lots of foundation stock were released
to growers in three counties this year.
Corn.-In 1947 the average yield on approximately 700,000 acres of
corn was 12.5 bushels per acre. Experiment Station workers have shown
that the yield of corn can be increased considerably through the use of

Fig. 8.-Before they could put good quality tobacco in the barns, both
shade and flue-cured tobacco growers had to control the green peach
aphid this year.
rn J ri \ 'ar 'OJ- S W L








Florida Cooperative Extension


adapted hybrids, closer spacing of plants and heavier fertilization. Hy-
brids which appeared suitable for use under Florida conditions included
Florida W-l, Florida W-2 and Dixie 18. Seed of Florida W-1 has been avail-
able to farmers for several years but this was the first year that seed of
the other two were available.
All 4-H club boys having corn production projects were urged to use
one of the three adapted hybrids, space plants according to soil conditions
and fertilize in accordance with soil fertility and spacing. Demonstrations
were carried out in all counties where corn is an important crop. Results
were outstanding and did much to further the Extension program for corn
production. The following are typical of yields obtained. In Escambia
County, where the 1945 reported average yield was 18.2 bushels per acre,
the boys produced 55 bushels per acre. In Suwannee County, with a 1945
average yield of 9.3 bushels, average yield obtained under this project was
33 bushels per acre.
Flue-Cured Tobacco.-As a result of wide adoption of Extension recom-
mendations for weed control, blue mold control and correlations of soil
type, fertilization and spacing, the average yield of flue-cured tobacco was
increased from 860 pounds per acre in 1943 to 1,039 pounds in 1947. To
further the Extension program with tobacco, an area-wide meeting was
held in January. The program presented included research information
and Extension recommendations on all phases of production and process-
ing.
The green peach aphid became a serious pest in the shade tobacco fields
of Gadsden County in 1947, but only minor outbreaks were noted in the
flue-cured section. In May, when this aphid appeared in numerous fields
throughout the area, the Agronomist spent considerable time and effort in
compiling and publicizing the latest information on control measures, ar-
ranging for and staging demonstrations and keeping dealers posted on
sources of the materials required for control. In carrying out this program
the inadequacy of spraying and dusting equipment was found to be a lim-
iting factor. This was brought to the attention of spray machine manu-
facturers, who are redesigning their equipment for better application of
the insecticides.
Small Grains.-The annual acreage in small grains, especially that in
oats, increased tremendously in the 10-year period prior to 1946. Due to
prevalence of Victoria blight and a new race of crown rust during the
last two growing seasons the acreage devoted to oats has declined. Camellia
oats are resistant to both diseases. The Agronomist located seed supplies
of this variety, furnished this information to seedsmen and county agents
and urged them to secure the widest possible use of this variety in 1948 fall
plantings. In several counties certified seed of the Camellia oat was used
with the idea of developing local seed supplies.
Pastures.-Assistance was given in planning and conducting several
pasture tours throughout the state.
A pasture exhibit was set up at farm and home institutes at Camps
Timpoochee and Cherry Lake. This exhibit consisted of actual samples of
pasture grasses and legumes and a series of charts showing: (1) the value
of pasture, (2) adaptations of pasture plants, (3) fertilizing and liming for
establishment of different kinds of pasture, (4) effect of fertilization and
liming on the growth and composition of pasture herbage, and (5) steer
gains on different kinds of pasture. A small card, outlining its uses and
management, accompanied each plant sample.








Annual Report, 1948


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
H. S. McLendon, Soil Conservationist

The Soil Conservationist devoted full time to the work from February
1, 1948, to the close of the period covered by this report.
Charters were issued to two new districts, Union and Lafayette, in 1948,
bringing the total number in the state to 44.
Activities in Organized Districts.-The information given here is pre-
pared from Soil Conservation Service records. The report for the last six
months of 1948 will not be available until January of 1949 and this report
is a summary of results up to June 30, 1948. This statistical report covers
information on 40 districts. However, five of these districts show only
work done during the last six months of the period covered. There are
four new districts for which no work is shown.


Practice Planned
Crop rotations ..................--.......-..---..-- 472,467 acres
Cover crops ...................................----........... 219,755 acres
Contour farming ........................................214,772 acres
Crop residue management ..........................224,366 acres
Strip cropping ............................. ........... 68,173 acres
Range improvement ------.......................-----... 152,030 acres
Pasture improvement ........................--------- 868,239 acres
Seeding of range ...--.....................--------. 10,989 acres
Seeding of pasture ...-...-..--------------.662,859 acres
Wildlife areas ....................... -----185,002 acres
Woodland management ...------..........................716,017 acres
Tree planting .....--....... .-----------.. 31,481 acres
Farm and ranch ponds ..........----------... 340
Terracing ............................... ---- ---... 21,398 miles
Field diversions ............--- -----.--. 106 miles
Farm drainage ...........-----.......--------.......-816,870 acres
Closed drains ..................... .....................150,020 feet
Open drains .................................----- 1,460 miles
Irrigation ............................-------- 15,654 acres
Improved water application ................... 75,565 acres
Field windbreaks ..........................------- 25 miles
Water disposal areas .................-- -- ---........... 6,132 acres
Kudzu ......................................... 24,692 acres
Sericea ..........-----.................---------. ----. 3,317 acres
Alfalfa and permanent grass ......----... 46,827 acres
Firebreaks ........................------ ---.................. 5,511 miles
Fish ponds ................................ ----- 482
Farm planning surveys ...............................942,842 acres
Basic surveys ............................... ....111,471 acres
Reconnaissance ................ --------. -- 0 acres
FARM AND RANCH CONSERVATION PLA)
Applications received this period ................................------.... 2,601
Applications received to date ................................-----------11,759
Active applications to date ....-.......................----------... 3,181
Plans prepared and signed this period .....................--------....... 1,99
Plans prepared and signed to date ....--..---------------- 8,679
Active conservation plans to date ..................... ..----. 8,153
Combined treatment this period .....--. ....-----------
Combined treatment to date ...........................----------


Established
366,386 acres
151,508 acres
147,224 acres
156,654 acres
13,515 acres
31,403 acres
183,340 acres
3,155 acres
120,395 acres
170,911 acres
537,280 acres
8,265 acres
175
9,529 miles
85 miles
287,894 acres
150,020 feet
574 miles
7,856 acres
42,977 acres
1 mile
2,496 acres
7,888 acres
953 acres
12,390 acres
1,975 miles
196
6,020,457 acres
149,656 acres
1,305,202 acres
NS
1,197,785
5,585,060
2,323,033
6 612,838
2,949,719
2,803,836
386,311
1,293,706








Florida Cooperative Extension


Annual elections of supervisors were held in 37 of the 44 districts in
1948. According to the State Office of the U. S. Soil Conservation Service,
there is a total of 22,158,298 acres now covered by soil conservation dis-
tricts, of which 7,476,132 were covered by soil conservation surveys as of
June 30, 1948. There were 2,949,054 acres covered by 8,668 farm plans for
the same period.
Organization of Soil Conservation Districts.-The Director of the Flor-
ida Agricultural Extension Service is administrator of the State Soil Con-
servation Board and is responsible for administering the Soil Conservation
Districts Act. Based on this authority, the Extension Soil Conservationist
is responsible for organizational work in forming new districts in the state,
and the county agent assumes similar responsibilities in the county.

SUMMARY OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES
BY WHITE COUNTY AGENTS IN FLORIDA, 1948
Number of communities in which work was conducted this year:
(a) Soil and water ............... .................. 562 in 51 counties
(b) Wildlife .............................. ..................... 199 in 38 counties
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting
this year:
(a) Soil and water ..................................................... 508 in 32 counties
(b) W wildlife ............................ .................... 250 in 13 counties
Number of farmers assisted this year:
(a) With problems of land use .............................. 8,420 in 59 counties
(b) In the use of crop rotations .............................. 4,036 in 50 counties
(c) With strip cropping .......................................... 441 in 12 counties
(d) In constructing terraces .................................. 376 in 19 counties
(e) In grassing waterways or otherwise preventing
or .controlling gullies ................................... 435 in 28 counties
(f) With contour farming of cropland .................... 251 in 16 counties
(g) In contouring pasture or range ...................... 135 in 8 counties
(h) In the use of cover or green-manure crops ....15,696 in 56 counties
(i) In otherwise controlling wind or
water erosion ..................................... ........ 894 in 30 counties
(j) In summer fallowing ........................................ 596 in 9 counties
(k) In making depth-of-moisture tests ................ 191 in 7 counties
(1) W ith drainage ........................ ... .................. 1,931 in 46 counties
(m) W ith irrigation ....................... ...... ............... 718 in 35 counties
(n) With land clearing ....................................... 1,174 in 57 counties
Number of farmers:
S (a) In soil-conservation districts which were as-
sisted with education for organization or
operations this year .........................................11,479 in 39 counties
(b) Assisted in arranging for farm-conservation
plans this year ...:................................... 2,435 in 35 counties
(c) Assisted in doing work based on definite
farm conservation plans this year .............. 1,594 in 37 counties
Number of farmers assisted this year:
(a) In construction or management of ponds for
fish ....................................... ............ : ......... 187 in 34 counties
(b) In protection of wildlife areas, such as
stream banks, odd areas, field borders,
marshes and ponds, from fire or livestock 392 in 30 counties








Annual Report, 1948


(c) In planting of edible wild fruits and nuts in
hedges, stream banks, odd areas and field
borders ......................................------.......
(d) With other plantings for food and protection
in wildlife areas ...................................
4-H club projects in soil and water conservation:
(a) Number of boys enrolled .............................
(b) Number of boys completing ..........................
Days devoted to line of work by:
Home demonstration agents ................................
County agricultural agents .............. ..................
Number of communities in which work was conducted
this year ...................... ...........
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen
assisting this year ...............................
Number of meetings participated in this year by Ex-
tension workers .........................................


145 in 18 counties

223 in 26 counties

61 in 14 counties
34 in 13 counties

6 in 4 counties
590 in 47 counties

381 in 41 counties

171 in 21 counties

273 in 37 counties








Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester

Forest Fire Prevention.-Although progress in forest fire prevention is
being made, woods fires still constitute the main obstacle to successful
reforestation in Florida.
County agents were assisted in meeting the problem of forest fire pre-
vention through distribution of bulletins, charts, radio talks, posters,
circular letters, news releases, pictures, motion picture films, book mark-
ers and illustrated blotters which point out how fires damage timber
stands. In 20 counties agents were assisted in establishing or continuing
the forest fire prevention campaigns along the lines of the Extension
timber-grazing-game program. Under this procedure, grazing on wide
improved pasture firebreaks produces more beef from the forest range in
a given area than is possible under a woods burning program, and, at the
same time, safeguards the timber stands from fire.
In promoting forest fire protection on farms and cattle ranches, Bul-
letin 127, Timber-Grazing-Game, written by the Extension Forester, was
widely used by county agents and veteran's teachers. Recently the Florida
Bankers' Association requested 400 copies of this bulletin for distribution
to all of its member banks.
In Lake County the Extension Forester spent three days assisting re-
gional, state and local SCS workers and state foresters in planning, pre-
paring and executing an all-day forestry field meeting. Proper timber
harvesting, thinning, estimating, planting and fire protection methods
were discussed and demonstrated.
During the year, the Extension Forester conducted five training meet-
ings in forest fire prevention attended by 42 county agents. There were
3,057 farmers cooperating in forest fire prevention for the first time.
Forest Planting.-County agents were supplied with circular letters ad-
vising of the availability of forest planting stock, procedures for obtaining
it, time for making applications for forest seedlings and methods of plant-
ing forest trees.
Through the generosity of five Florida pulp mills, more than 21 mil-
lion slash pine seedlings were made available, free of charge, to Florida
farmers, 4-H club members and others.
For the past 10 years the Extension Forester has suggested the plant-
ing of native red cedar on farms to help meet the growing need for fence
posts and other high value uses of cedar, such as pencil wood, cabinet
wood and Christmas trees. The State Forest Service produced about 30,-
000 cedar seedlings, but they were infected with cedar blight in the nurs-
eries and poor survival resulted in most farm plantings. A few farmers
arrested the diseases and saved their seedlings by spraying them with
Bordeaux spray as suggested by the Extension Forester.
Small demonstration plantings of hardwoods, such as white oak, black
cherry, yellow poplar, wild mulberry, catalpa and swamp chestnut oak,
were continued. One small planting of native mahogany was made in one
county, using seedlings grown in a greenhouse by the Extension Forester.
In Lafayette County a fence post demonstration planting of 800 year-
ling catalpa seedlings was made. The Extension Forester planted 100 red
cedar seedlings, as an under-story planting to the catalpa trees, to demon-
strate the practicabilty of growing these two species of native forest trees
as companion crops.
The Extension Forester continued work on two demonstration forest








Annual Report, 1948


plantings made five years ago. Fairly complete records on these two plant-
ings, using 12 species- four conifers and eight hardwoods- were kept.
Average height of red cedar trees five years after planting, on the Gaines-
ville plot, 7 feet 2 inches; Chipley plot, 7 feet 4 inches. The average height
of slash pine, five years after planting, on the Gainesville plot was 12 feet
6 inches.
Windbreak plantings of Australian pines for south Florida and three
rows of slash pine interplanted with red cedar for north Florida were
recommended for protecting croplands and buildings.
Four training meetings for county agents were held. Thirty other
county agents received training in forest planting. There'were 159 addi-
tional demonstrations established.
Timber Marketing.-County agents, Norris-Doxey foresters and SCS
workers were assisted in conducting demonstrations in sound timber har-
vesting practices and in helping farmers adopt better cutting methods. Ten
thousand copies of the new farmers bulletin, No. 1989, "Managing the
Small Forest," were secured and distributed to county agents for re-
distribution to farmers.
Instruction in timber marketing was given by the Extension Forester
before 326 4-H club members in 18 different demonstration meetings.

Fig. 9.-An interested class learned about timber and forestry at the 4-H
wildlife camp.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Two training meetings for county agents were held and 14 other county
agents received training in timber marketing. Improved practices were
adopted by 257 farmers.
Forest Products For Home Use.-To help focus attention on the neces-
sity for helping farmers provide for farm needs for lumber, fence posts,
fuelwood, stakes, sills, shingles and handle material, the Extension For-
ester prepared a miniature display of seven forest products for home use
and seven for market. This exhibit was displayed at fairs, farmers' in-
stitutes, forestry meetings, schools and in one large bank.
The Extension Forester was concerned with the development of better
and more acceptable methods for treating non-durable sapling pine posts
with wood preservative on the farm.
In cooperation with the Extension Engineer, a two-page illustrated
mimeographed release on how farmers can treat their sapling posts with
pentachlorphenol preservative was prepared to meet the need. The Ex-
tension Engineer demonstrated this method before all county agents dur-
ing the annual Extension Conference. Two other demonstrations of this
method were staged during farmers' institute meetings, with the coopera-
tion of county agents, the Extension Engineer and Extension Forester.
The idea is to convert non-durable saplings, of which there is usually a
plentiful supply on farms, into durable posts, thus effecting savings of
timber, time, labor and money.
The Extension Forester collected 37 fence posts, representing 20 species
of Florida trees of known durability, from the woods and delivered them to
the Experiment Station at Gainesville for a fence post durability test.
Some were treated with preservative.
He cooperated with the foresters of the Lake City branch of the
Southern Forest Experiment Station in developing the 58 acres set aside
in the Osceola National Forest as a farm forestry demonstration area.
In this phase, three training meetings were held for county agents and
18 other county agents received training. Twenty-five demonstrations were
established.
4-H Club Forestry Programs.-Emphasis was placed on a 4-H catalpa
project. In 20 counties, county agents were furnished 1,000 catalpa seeds
each by the Extension Forester. One 4-H club member in each of these
counties planted these seeds in nursery rows which produced several
hundred catalpa seedlings for later fence post planting. The object was to
stimulate interest in forestry, give rural boys training and experience in
producing forest nursery stock and help meet the serious shortage of dur-
able fence post material.
This year several thousand additional forest trees were planted and
about 10 acres of new improved pasture grass fire lines established on the
4-H club owned 400-acre timber tract in Escambia County. With the help
of the county forester, 1,000 catalpa seeds were planted on the project and
several hundred nice catalpa seedlings were grown for transplanting into
a fence post plot on the project this winter.
Additional plantings were made at 4-H demonstration forest in Marion
County.
The Extension Forester taught forestry at five 4-H summer camps, and
during the 4-H short course held at Gainesville to 374 club members. Dem-
onstrations presented included tree identification, forest planting, timber
cruising and harvesting, fire protection, game and wildlife, production of
forest products for home use, thinning, improvement cutting and pruning.
Thirty county agents received assistance in organizing and conducting
project work. There were 12 training meetings for 4-H members and 36








Annual Report, 1948


other 4-H members received assistance. Fifty 4-H demonstrations were
established.
In addition, nine training meetings in forest fire prevention, eight in
forest planting, six in timber marketing and nine in forest products for
home use were held.
Teaching Aids.-As teaching aids, the Extension Forester has prepared
additional mounted specimens of leaves and twigs of native Florida trees
and 26 wood samples mounted on a panel showing bark, sapwood and
heartwood.
Eleven radio talks on various phases of forestry work were made and
furnished to 15 other radio stations for re-broadcast by county agents.
Summary of Extension Activity in Farm Forestry.-Examples of in-
creased farmer interest in forestry during 1948 as compared with 1947 are
shown in county agents' annual reports.
1948 1947
No. of days county agents devoted to forestry ........................... 488 406
No. of counties involved in preceding activity ......................... 57 56
No. of farmers assisted in forest planting ................................ 864 605
No. of counties involved in preceding activity .......................... 44 38
No. of farmers cooperating in forest fire protection ..................8,583 5,526
No. of counties involved in preceding activity ......................... 44 43
No. of 4-H forestry club members enrolled ...................-...........- 154 106
No. of counties involved in preceding activity ......................... 26 15
No. of acres involved in preceding activity ............................. 334 133








Florida Cooperative Extension


HORTICULTURE

VEGETABLE CROPS
F. S. Jamison, Vegetable Crops Specialist

The Vegetable Crops Specialist was employed June 1, 1948, jointly by
the Agricultural Extension Service and the Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion. One-half time is devoted to Extension activities and one-half time to
Station duties.
As Vegetable Crops Specialist of the Extension Service and Horticul-
turist-Vegetables Specialist of Experiment Station, 1,067 letters were writ-
ten answering inquiries of growers, supply men, county agents and others
concerning the adaptation of crops to specific areas, fertilizer requirements
of specific crops, control and identification of diseases and insects and
other production problems. Approximately 80 percent of the inquiries con-
cerned crop production. Many inquires were addressed to the experimental
laboratories and stations in various parts of the state. In addition to in-
quiries by mail, more than 300 individuals visited the department of horti-
culture requesting information about vegetables.
The Vegetable Crops Specialist spent considerable time in assisting the
organization of annual programs presented by the Florida State Horti-

Fig. 10.-The county agent and growers examine packed tomatoes at a
packinghouse.








Annual Report, 1948


cultural Society and Florida Seedsmen's Association, and in preparation
of the annual yearbook and meeting of the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association.
At the request of the Provost for Agriculture, the Vegetable Crops
Specialist organized a short course for transportation personnel engaged
in handling perishable products. The Southeastern Claim Association and
Southeastern Railroad Development Association assisted in holding this
school at Gainesville, November 9-12 inclusive. Sixty individuals, actively
engaged in handling perishable products throughout the Southeast, at-
tended the school and requested that it be made an annual event.
Time has been devoted to organizing a short course for seedsmen to be
held in Gainesville, January 11-13.
Through the efforts of county agents, more than 600 growers and ag-
ricultural supply men attended field days at the Vegetable Crops Labora-
tory, Bradenton, the Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade, and the
Watermelon Laboratory, Leesburg, of the Agricultural Experiment Station.
The Vegetable Crops Specialist made visits to county agents only
where there were specific problems, such as growing Honeydew melons and
onions in Suwannee County, growing of sweet corn in Marion and Colum-
bia counties and proper fertilization of tomatoes, peppers and other crops
in Orange, Marion, Sumter and Lake counties. The most common inquiry
from county agents concerned the cultural requirements of crops with
which they were unfamiliar or the performance of new varieties.
Information concerning the type of Extension vegetable crops program
that would be attempted was presented at the annual meeting of the
county and home demonstration agents. This was preceded by a meeting
of an advisory committee composed of five county agents and three state
staff members, who assisted in formulating a tentative program of work.
The work program suggested that area meetings of county agents be held
to discuss the most recent research work with varieties, disease and insect
control and changes in fertilizer recommendations.
As a member of the Florida Agricultural Production Adjustment Com-
mittee, the Vegetable Crops Specialist spent considerable time in develop-
ing suggested production programs for 1948-49. After this material was
assembled, it and published information pertaining to vegetables were pre-
sented to growers through the agricultural press and radio.

CITRUS CULTURE
F. P. Lawrence, Acting Citriculturist

The Acting Citriculturist is the only citrus specialist. However, the
Extension Marketing Specialist and an Experiment Station Associate
Economist, who works part time with Extension Service, both work in the
field of citrus.
In addition to these, there has been organized an Extension Citrus Ad-
visory Committee. This committee is composed of the Acting Citricul-
turist, the Marketing Specialist, the Associate Economist in Charge of
Production Records, the Assistant to the Director, the District Agents in
the citrus belt and five county agents from major citrus producing coun-
ties.
At a time when the American farmer is enjoying near peak prosperity,
Florida citrus growers are not getting sufficient returns to cover cost of
production.
In the 1945-46 season, Florida shipped 86 million boxes of citrus which
grossed $236,230,700. In 1946-47, 871/2 million boxes were shipped which
grossed $146,565,580 and in 1947-48, 91,100,000 boxes were shipped which








62 Florida Cooperative Extension

grossed only a little over 114 million dollars. This means that for the
bumper crop shipped last year, growers received only 46 percent as much
income as in 1945-46. The estimated total production of 95.29 million boxes
of citrus fruit in 1947-48 season is the largest on record. At the same
time, production, labor, marketing and material costs were slightly higher
than they were in 1945-46.
Developing a Program.-A suggested county plan has been developed
and placed in the hands of each county agent.
The Acting Citriculturist has recommended a program of minimum
cultivation, fertilization and spraying which will reduce operating costs
and at the same time maintain tree vigor and yields.
The Acting Citriculturist feels that a great many growers, especially
those in the ridge section, spent entirely too much money for cultivation.
Demonstration plots, some cultivated too much and others with minimum
cultivation, have been set up in Lake County to demonstrate the compari-
son in yields, maturity, texture, solids and solid-acid ratios between plots
and to help growers select the desired extent of cultivation for their own
groves.
It is important that adequate cover crops be grown in all Florida
groves during the summer to protect the soil.
During the depression in the 30's, many growers attempted to produce
fruit with only the nitrogen from leguminous cover crops, but because of
infestations of pumpkin bugs and the use of plants not well suited to grove
conditions, they were not too successful; however, there were those who
did produce good crops of fruit from young groves with little or no com-
mercial fertilizer.
With the introduction of hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), the citrus
grower finally has a legume that will produce well in citrus groves where
the tree canopy does not lap.
In some field studies conducted this fall, groves were planted to indigo
which gave green weight yields of 7,872 to 45,921 pounds per acre. The
latter yield would be equivalent to about 1,800 pounds of nitrate of soda
per acre. It is estimated that average yields in young groves would be
about 15,000 pounds green weight per acre.
Good cover crop prospects are often adversely affected by entirely too
much cultivation and by cultivating too late in the spring. All citrus-
producing counties have at least a few acres planted to demonstration plots
of leguminous cover crops and in most of them there are hundreds of acres.
During the year the 29 agents in citrus producing counties visited the
Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred for a day's schooling in identi-
fying diseases and insects, their control, grove production and manage-
ment. They also participated in a round-table discussion on citrus process-
ing and by-products. The following day the group met with the executive
secretary of the Florida Citrus Commission and his staff of advertising ex-
perts, who supplied current information on regulatory programs, their en-
forcement and plans for advertising Florida citrus for the next 12 months.
The Acting Citriculturist keeps agents posted on research and current
events in citrus.
The Acting Citriculturist joined the entomologists and plant patholo-
gists from the State Plant Board, the Citrus Experiment Station, the Main
Experiment Station, the State Horticultural Society, the Bureaus of Plant
Industry and Entomology and Plant Quarantine of the USDA in preparing
a spray schedule for the coming season. The pamphlet is published by the
Florida Citrus Commission and made available to Florida citrus growers
through offices of the above agencies and county agents.








Annual Report, 1948 63

Due to the large volume of Florida fruit being canned, an economy
program, which has as its aim maintaining the tree in reasonably good
health with minimum of care to the external appearance of the fruit, is
being devised.
Fairs and Institutes.-Three citrus institutes were held. The most im-
portant was the 15th annual meeting of the Camp McQuarrie Institute
August 30 to September 2. Approximately 500 different growers from 20
Florida counties attended one or more sessions of the week-long meeting.
Some 85 men, women and children were in residence at the camp for the
week. This institute is sponsored by the Lake County Horticultural So-
ciety and conducted by the Extension Service in cooperation with the
various agricultural agencies in the state.
The second annual Indian River Citrus Seminar was conducted by the
Extension Service for two days in October.
The fourth annual Gulf Citrus Growers' Institute was held in Brooks-
ville in April.
The Acting Citriculturist assisted the county agent and Associate Econ-
omist in putting up an educational booth at the Lake County Fair and the
Camp McQuarrie Citrus Institute. The value of record keeping was
stressed in these exhibits. Most citrus county agents are promoting this
important phase of citrus production and there was an increase of from
253 to 306 citrus records kept for the Extension Service.
Primary objectives of the Extension Service are making research, sur-
vey and demonstration plot results and other related information available
to growers. Practically every citrus-producing county has a county fair
and most of them cooperate in the State Fair at Tampa each year. These
county exhibits are of material value in disseminating research data.
Demonstration Plots and Grove Tours.-The majority of the county
agents in citrus-producing counties have many demonstration plots which
are used very effectively in furthering the Extension citrus program. Five
counties are conducting rootstock demonstrations, eight have fertilizer
demonstrations, four have spray programs, three have biological control
demonstrations, two have cultivation demonstrations and practically all
counties are establishing one or more plots with the idea of conducting
county tours to these demonstrations. In addition to tours to the experi-
ment stations, two counties which have demonstration plots conducted
tours within their own counties.
All citrus county agents made a tour of the USDA Citrus Station at
Orlando and the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred. Twelve of the
counties conducted county grower tours to these stations.
Processing and By-products.-The tremendous increase in citrus pro-
duction during the past two decades has been responsible for the rapid
development of the processing and by-products industry.
About 55 percent, or 50 million boxes, of the 1947-48 production was
processed. This included 52 percent of the orange crop, 67 percent of the
grapefruit crop and 17 percent of the tangerine crop.
Tremendous progress has been made in the so-called by-products field
in a comparatively short time and it is believed that the industry can ex-
pect more financial relief through this field than through any other. The
state now has 60 canning plants, 19 of which are manufacturing feed; 13
molasses; 10 essential oils; 6 frozen concentrates; 1 alcohol; and there are
pilot plants now in operation for the production of methane gas and feed
yeast.
Frozen concentrate was unknown to the consuming public until 1946,
at which time about a million gallons were marketed. This product has








Florida Cooperative Extension


set phenomenal records in consumer acceptance. This year, six plants will
be in operation which will process and market approximately 10 million
gallons of frozen concentrate-equivalent to 10 million boxes of fresh fruit.
Research has proven that fresh grapefruit is an excellent cattle feed.
Other citrus feeds are citrus molasses, citrus seed cake, wet citrus pulp,
pressed citrus pulp and dried citrus pulp. In addition to these products,
plants are manufacturing citrus meal, citrus range cattle pellets varying
from 12 to 24 percent protein, and pellets for rabbits.
While the majority of the peel and pulp is utilized at present, prospects
for new products are promising. Since the crop is grown in a limited area,
raw material is concentrated in sufficient quantities for large-scale opera-
tion. In the 1946-47 season 1,600,000 tons of citrus were processed. Of this
total, about 57 percent, or 910,000 tons, were from peel, pulp and seed, from
which about 140 thousand tons of dried pulp and approximately 96 thou-
sand tons of molasses were made. One cooperative was able to return 11
cents per box to its growers this year as a result of extensive quantities of
by-products manufactured.
The Acting Citriculturist gave a summary of research activities in the
field of citrus by-products at the Camp McQuarrie Citrus Institute and at
four other meetings of growers and processors. This summary was pre-
sented as an illustrated lecture.
Other Activities.-One bulletin on the home orchard was prepared and
used during a week's teaching at 4-H club camps and additional copies
were supplied to county agents.
An old Experiment Station technical bulletin issued in 1905 was mimeo-
graphed and supplied those counties interested in obtaining information on
the tree snail.
Four radio talks have been given and 10 formal talks were delivered at
industry meetings.
A monthly news letter was compiled and mailed to citrus county
agents. The Acting Citriculturist is working on a filmstrip and slide li-
brary to be used for loans to county agents as an aid in giving illustrated
lectures.
Educational exhibits were prepared and exhibited at two county fairs,
one citrus school and two citrus institutes.
Budding and grafting demonstrations were given before two women's
club groups and 4-H clubs were assisted in similar work.
Two talks were given before the Lake County Citrus School and one to
a group of growers in Hendry County. In addition, one talk was made to a
veteran's vocational agriculture group.
The Acting Citriculturist taught general horticulture to all 4-H club
members registered at the six-day 4-H club short course at Gainesville
in June and taught one week each in three county camps. There are three
clubs working on citrus projects exclusively.








Annual Report, 1948


Part III -- Work with Women and Girls


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent

Home demonstration workers were responsible for the development and
supervision of organized programs of work for both adult white and negro
women and girls and also shared in responsibility for the general program
for Extension work. Service to farm families takes precedence in all plans
of work, but the scope of services rendered to non-farm families has ex-
panded considerably.
ORGANIZATION
A state home demonstration agent, three district agents, six special-
ists, 43 home demonstration agents, 11 assistant home demonstration
agents, 11 negro home demonstration agents and a negro district agent
made up the personnel directly responsible for guiding the program of
home demonstration work in Florida.
District home demonstration agents were assigned responsibilities for
the development of the general program, for maintenance of a well-
planned, functioning program of work in the counties, for lining up suitable
personnel for county positions, for direct supervision of their activities, for
securing and maintaining budgets for home demonstration agents and for
direct contacts with cooperating county boards and people in order to
maintain effective programs suited to county needs.
Specialists of the state office were responsible for giving needed as-
sistance and training to the county workers in their specific fields of work,
for supplying them with authentic subject matter information and for
maintaining a satisfactory cooperative relationship with other workers to
insure a sound, well-rounded program to meet the needs of Florida people.
In addition to its status as part of the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service, Universty of Florida, home demonstration work functions as the
Home Demonstration-Extension Department of Florida State University,
under an agreement made more than 30 years ago. Florida State Uni-
versity provides housing for the state offices of home demonstration work
and a financial budget, which permits additional personnel and a pre-
service training program for prospective home demonstration agents.
Forty-three boards of county commissioners and nine county school boards
cooperated in maintaining work in their counties. Fine cooperation was
given by 34 counties in increasing their appropriations for expenses or
salaries. Eighteen counties made substantial improvements in facilities
provided for both office and field work.
Two new positions were established in the state office. A Health Im-
provement Specialist was appointed June 1, 1948, under a cooperative
agreement with the State Board of Health and the State Improvement
Commission. The Specialist in 4-H Girls' Work began work October 1,
1948.
Appropriations were provided for the first time in two additional
counties this year, Washington and Dixie, with the position in Dixie still








66 Florida Cooperative Extension

unfilled due to scarcity of qualified workers. Assistant agents have been
provided in two additional counties, Orange and Escambia.

PERSONNEL SELECTION AND TRAINING
At no other time in the history of home demonstration work has such
difficulty been experienced in securing qualified personnel. The enrollment
of students for professional training in home economics courses in the col-
leges of this state and elsewhere has not increased in proportion to the
growing interest in homemaking education on the part of the people, as
shown in their requests for expanded services through home demonstration
work.
The fact that salaries of home demonstration agents have not increased
in the same ratio as those for teachers and administrators in the public
school system and in other fields. Marriage has taken its toll of agents.
The limited availability and high cost of automobiles has caused many
prospective home demonstration agents to go into other fields. Of the
white home demonstration agents, seven left the service and one trans-
ferred to the state home demonstration office as home improvement
specialist. Of the seven leaving the work, two resigned because of illness,
two for marriage, one for added family responsibilities, one re-entered
teaching and one entered military service. To fill these vacancies two home
demonstration agents were transferred to other counties, two assistant
home demonstration agents were transferred to other counties as home
demonstration agents, five appointments as home demonstration agents
and five appointments as assistants were made. Because of the scarcity
of qualified workers in Florida, personnel has been secured from other
states, which has some advantages in that new workers bring varied re-
sources, different ideas and stimulation to the work here.
The importance of pre-service training for prospective home demon-
stration agents became increasingly evident this year. The plan established
five years ago, in cooperation with Florida State University, has proved of
value in securing qualified workers. Under this plan graduates of college
home economics courses are employed on an assistant or interne basis to
work in a county under an experienced agent. Nine of 17 such workers
who have been trained under this plan are employed as home demonstra-
tion agents. This year a plan was set up which included selection of seven
students in their junior year in college for assignment to a county for a
period of 21/2 months. Five of the students selected were former 4-H club
members.
Further training of home demonstratioA agents now employed was
given at a four-day training course on 4-H club work at the annual state
short course for 4-H girls and at two annual Extension conferences, one
for white agents and one for negro agents. Twenty-three home demon-
stration agents enrolled for the three-week course in Extension work at
the University of Florida. Each member of the state staff, with one ex-
ception, had training in national or regional workshops planned to meet
the needs of Extension personnel.
Lack of full-time, well qualified clerical assistance in county offices
proved one of the greatest handicaps. Only 25 home demonstration agents
had full-time clerical help, 13 had assistance half-time or less, while six
counties did not have any clerical help. Progress was made this year with
the addition of six clerical helpers.

PROGRAM OF WORK
Local Leadership.-For many years emphasis has been placed on se-
curing and training volunteer local leaders who would have the two-fold








Annual Report, 1948


duty of assisting with the program and developing capable community
leadership. Home demonstration agents reported holding 278 training
meetings on adult work attended by 3,400 leaders.
Community Clubs.-There were 9,816 women enrolled in 395 home dem-
onstration clubs. Agents reported 16,103 farm families and 14,269 non-
farm families adopted practices resulting from home demonstration pro-
gram.
County and State Councils.-County council members served as ad-
visers to the home demonstration agent and met at least quarterly to dis-
cuss work to be done in the county and state. One hundred thirty-nine
home demonstration clubs made health surveys of homes and communities
of their members and planned home and health improvement programs.
The Senior Council of Home Demonstration Work met in Gainesville,
July 13-16. The theme of the meeting was "Today's Home Builds Tomor-
row's World." The members were divided into committee groups on reso-
lutions, executive, finance, scholarship, 4-H clubs and youth, food and
nutrition, health, food production, food conservation, clothing, home and
farm safety, fire prevention, home improvement housing,, child care and
family life. Staff members or home demonstration agents served as ad-
visers to each committee.
County and state councils have given a fine service to education and
tangible proof of their interest in young people through their continuance
of the state scholarship loan fund. That fund, available for loans without
interest to worthy 4-H girls in their junior or senior year of college, has
made more than $3,000 available to 20 students in the 18 years it has been
established by the council. Every dollar borrowed has been repaid in full,
a remarkable record, according to administrators of similar funds.
The State Council closed its first quarter century of service and guid-
ance to home demonstration work, having been organized during the an-
nual farmers' week in 1923.
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
County home demonstration agents have been busy serving people, as
the following additional facts indicate:
Visited 11,796 different homes and farms.
Answered 55,223 telephone calls.
Gave 525 radio talks.
Gave help to 64,910 persons calling at their offices.
Had 4,290 news articles published.
Distributed 135,581 bulletins.
Recreation.-School consolidation has affected life in rural communities.
Recognizing the importance of maintaining the interest of people within
the community in their mutual problems and providing community centers
for recreation as well as education, home demonstration clubs own 113
club houses or rooms. Five hundred seventy-five community recreation
programs were held for the families. One example of this development of
community-wide interest in needed community improvements can be found
in the fact that 186 home demonstration clubs assisted schools by serving
as sponsors of school lunch rooms, serving 39,360 school children, which
program is directed by the State Department of Education and financed
under the general provision of legislation administered through the USDA.
Libraries.-Forty-seven home demonstration clubs maintained rural
libraries.
Canning Centers.-There were 38 canning centers in operation, serving
5,207 families.








Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles

At the annual Extension conference suggestions were given to home
demonstration agents for organizing, planning and conducting the cloth-
ing program in their counties. An illustrated lecture was used on "Trends
and Developments in Clothing and Textiles" with an exhibit of educational
materials suitable for use as teaching devices in promoting a good cloth-
ing program. The Clothing Specialist served as consultant to a group of
home demonstration agents who worked out a clothing program as a phase
of over-all program planning. This program served as a model for others.
In July, at the meeting of the State Home Demonstration Council, the
Clothing Specialist served as consultant to the clothing committee whose
members studied a plan showing situations, needs and objectives which
should be considered in a state-wide program. There were 53 official dele-
gates, 30 unofficial delegates, 15 home demonstration agents and the staff
from the state home demonstration office at the meeting.
In addition to the assistance given by the Clothing Specialist at the two
state-wide meetings, 77 days were spent in various counties helping the
agents with duties such as conducting leader training meetings for clothing
chairmen in 10 counties, judging achievement day exhibits and dress re-
vues in seven counties, holding two-day meetings in 12 counties, training
104 home improvement chairmen to learn to make slipcovers and helping
10 home demonstration agents to obtain sewing machines for demonstra-
tion purposes. The time spent in the field on program planning was with
the newly appointed agents who needed help on integrating and correlat-
ing the clothing program with the other phases of homemaking.
In November the Clothing Specialist served as co-chairman in putting
on a style show at the annual meeting of the Florida Home Economics As-
sociation. The style show was for showing the home economists of the
state-home demonstration agents and home economics teachers-the lat-
est trends in fashion designs, colors and lines, as well as the latest trends
in fabric developments, combinations and finishes. The home economists
expressed their appreciation for this show, which did a good job of show-
ing fashion trends.
In February a 4-H club stylist for a well known pattern company spent
four days in the state working with the Clothing Specialist, agents, lead-
ers and 4-H club girls on selection of clothing and accessories suitable for
the teen-age wardrobe. In presenting her wardrobe the stylist gave tips to
agents and girls on modeling their own clothes for dress revues. During
the four days the stylist worked with about 15 home demonstration agents,
20 leaders, 150 4-H club members and 25 college 4-H club members. The
Clothing Specialist also arranged for the 4-H stylist to work with the
home economics teachers and future homemakers in two high schools.
During the week of the State 4-H Short Course in June the Clothing
Specialist worked with 442 girls, 25 leaders and 47 home demonstration
agents in small groups to help them devise ways of making the clothing
program more interesting in their clubs. In the dress revue 103 girls from
34 counties modeled dresses which they made.


Fig. 11.-This 4-H club girl, and thousands of others, learned to make and
model their own attractive clothing.
























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4 1ll TA








70 Florida Cooperative Extension

Six articles on clothing and textiles were prepared for the Agricultural
News Service, which is sent to county newspapers.
New clothing record books were prepared according to recommenda-
tions submitted by the committee on improving Florida 4-H club programs
for girls. A mimeographed leaflet, "Make Your Draperies at Home-It Is
Fun," was prepared.
Reports submitted by home demonstration agents show that 580 local
leaders assisted home demonstration agents in carrying on a clothing and
textiles program in 551 communities. There were 10,568 families assisted
with clothing construction problems; 7,393 families assisted with selection
of clothing and textiles; 7,015 families assisted in care and remodeling of
clothing and 1,755 families assisted with clothing budgets.
Of 7,433 girls enrolled in 4-H clothing projects there were 4,374 who
completed their projects, which included making 19,797 garments and re-
modeling 8,122 other garments.








Annual Report, 1948


FOOD AND NUTRITION
Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist

Prior to 1948, interest in foods and nutrition was stimulated by war
activities and food shortages. The transition to peace time presented new
food problems and raised more nutrition questions. Adjustments were
made in the food and nutrition program to meet post-war situations.
Greater emphasis was placed on planning, producing, conserving and
utilizing the family food supply wisely, not only to have adequate nutrition
in Florida but also to assist with the world food situation and thereby pro-
mote peace.
Nutrition and Health.-Reports from the counties showed 6,314 families
were trained to recognize the difference between good and poor nutrition;
16,767 families were assisted in improving diets; 17 nutrition or health
clinics were organized; 226 food and nutrition exhibits were arranged by
29 home demonstration agents; 222 exhibits were arranged by women; and
264 women served as food and nutrition chairmen.
Reports of the agents showed that 1,638 4-H club members were en-
rolled in some phase of the health program, with 777 completing; 1,371
4-H members had physical examinations because of participation in the
Extension program and 378 nutrition exhibits were arranged by 4-H club
members. Home demonstration agents reported that they devoted 503 days
to the development of the nutrition and health program, assisted by 338
local leaders.
Food Selection, Preparation and Meal Planning.-Agents reported de-
voting 1,750 days to the development of the food selection and preparation
phase of the work and 423 volunteer local leaders in 330 communities as-
sisted. The reports showed that 12,624 families were assisted with food
preparation; 16,767 families were assisted in improving diets; 6,004 with
baking problems; 3,670 in use of dairy products; 3,824 in the use of fats;
4,423 in meat cookery; 4,886 in use of poultry products; 5,242 in vegetable
and meat cookery and 7,440 families prepared food for home use, using
methods to conserve the most food value.
In 28 counties 3,776 families budgeted and bought food wisely through
quality, quantity and cooperative buying; 6,668 families planned three
well-balanced meals to include daily the "basic seven" food groups and
7,044 families were trained to use local and seasonal foods to their best
advantage.
County reports showed that 3,061 young homemakers and mothers were
assisted with food preparation, 1,263 with money management and 1,748
with child feeding. Young homemakers were encouraged to take advan-
tage of prenatal and well-baby clinics. The reports showed that 699 moth-
ers took this advantage.
The Nutritionist served as consultant at a school lunch workshop, where
a bulletin was prepared to serve as a guide to making the school lunch
program a functional part of the total school curriculum, thus providing
better nutrition information for all the children.
Many of the community home demonstration clubs assumed responsi-
bilities in connection with the school lunch program and in 33 counties
3,454 families were assisted with well-balanced lunches for school children.
In 13 other counties 35 home demonstration groups assisted with the estab-
lishing of school lunch rooms and 174 communities helped with school
lunch programs with 38,650 children involved in the program.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Reports showed that in 28 counties 257 4-H club girls served as leaders
by assisting in planning and serving meals for community activities and
entertaining family guests.
The reports showed that 5,945 4-H club girls were enrolled in food
selection and preparation and/or baking projects, with 3,442 completing;
67,649 meals were planned and 81,983 meals were served; 951 food prep-
aration demonstrations were given by 4-H club girls and 378 food and
nutrition exhibits were arranged by 4-H girls.
Some of 'the demonstrations and work meetings that were given by the
Nutritionist in counties were "Money Saving Main Dishes," "Use of Citrus
Products and Locally Produced Foods Such as Honey and Peanuts," "Food
for School Children," "Food for All Ages," "Food for Families with Young
Children," "Yeast Bread and Variations," "Meal Planning Made Easier,"
"Plan Your Meals by the Basic Seven," "Planning and Preparing Low Cost
Meals," "Stretching the Food Dollar," "Oven Meals," "Meals for the
Family" and "Meals Prepared in the Electric Roaster." These meetings
were all conducted as leader training meetings for food and nutrition
chairmen.
Home Production of the Family Food Supply.-Reports of agents in-
dicated progress in home production of food. During the year 11,610 fami-
lies in 45 counties improved their food supply by making changes in home
production; 6,295 families had more vegetables; 3,063 families more
fruits; 3,421 families more meats; 3,942 families more poultry and eggs;
2,842 families more milk; 683 families made butter or cheese; 3,268 fami-
lies in 33 counties produced and preserved their home food supply accord-
ing to an annual food supply budget; and 2,195 families practiced home
butchering, meat cutting or curing.
Reports showed that families planned their family food supply. There
were 13,692 home gardens grown by girls and women. There were 2,735
fruit orchards; 5,511 poultry flocks; 2,111 families with one cow; 1,073
families with two cows; 486 families with more than two cows; and 2,482
families produced their home meat supply.
The Extension agents devoted 1,491 days to developing the program of
home production of family food supply. This work was conducted in 597
communities, with 433 voluntary local leaders assisting.
Reports showed that 1,362 4-H club girls served as leaders or chair-
men in gardening or fruit planting; 2,848 gardens were grown by 4-H club
members; 454 members were enrolled in fruit plantings, with 315 complet-
ing; 1,542 enrolled in poultry, with 1,006 completing projects which in-
cluded 42,423 birds; 206 members enrolled in dairying, with 143 complet-
ing projects with 224 animals involved; 93 were enrolled in beef cattle
demonstrations, with 56 completing projects with 102 animals; and 74
were enrolled in pig club demonstrations, with 52 completions with 82
animals.
One hundred seventy-six method demonstrations were given by 4-H club
members on poultry raising; 54 poultry exhibits were arranged by 4-H club
girls and 47 method demonstrations showing productive phases of the pro-
gram were given at county-wide meetings.








Annual Report, 1948 73


4-H CLUB WORK FOR GIRLS
A 4-H club specialist for girls, Miss Lorene Stevens, was employed
October 1, 1948, to handle activities relating to organization, adult and
junior leadership and program planning and to encourage wider participa-
tion in such events as county rallies, National 4-H Week, National 4-H
Achievement Week and Rural Life Sunday to further expand and strength-
en the 4-H club program of Florida.
There were 13,162 girls (10,009 white and 3,063 negroes) enrolled in
647 girls' 4-H clubs (505 white and 142 negro) in 1948.
Enrollment by ages in 1948 of all 4-H club girls:
10 years of age............. .... ....... ......................... ... 3,337
11 years of age......... ........... ..... ... .......---...... 2,652
12 years of age.......................... ................ 2,242
13 years of age.........................-- .............. 1,668
14 years of age......... ....... ....... .. ............... .... 1,313
15 years of age ............................ .................. 813
16 years of age-- -.............. ................ ....... 535
17 years of age......... ......... ...... .................. 315
18 to 20 years of age............. .................... ......... 287
The girls enrolled in 48,494 demonstrations, completing 32,590 of them.
Demonstrations in either foods, home improvement, child care and train-
ing, poultry, gardens, orchards or colthing were selected by each 4-H girl
according to her home needs and interests. To be an active 4-H member
each girl enrolled was expected to have at least two established demon-
strations in her home, one of which was on productive work.
Five hundred fifty-nine adult leaders assisted 486 white 4-H clubs and
150 women leaders assisted 107 4-H clubs for negro girls. One thousand
sixty-five older 4-H girls also assisted as local leaders.
County Councils.-County junior home demonstration councils, made up
of two representatives from each 4-H club in a county, usually met quar-
terly. Organized in 40 counties with 1,670 representatives of the community
4-H clubs, they helped plan and direct county-wide activities and worked
closely with the women in senior home demonstration councils. There are
30 white junior home demonstration councils and 10 negro councils.
Through the councils, state and county home demonstration agents ad-
vised with volunteer leaders and 4-H girls in developing county plans of
work to meet the needs of families.
State Council.-The State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work
is composed of the presidents of county junior home demonstration coun-
cils and one elected delegate from each county. The council held its an-
nual meeting June 11, during the annual state 4-H girls' short course at
Florida State University, Tallahassee. The ultimate goal of the state coun-
cil is to develop a program which will help girls to become finer women,
who can serve as worthy members of their families and be better prepared
homemakers of the future. Council committees on resolutions, reports,
programs of work, overseas gifts and finance met daily, with home demon-
stration agents serving as advisers.
State Short Course for 4-H Girls.-The annual state short course for
Florida 4-H club girls, held in Tallahassee June 7-12, 1948, was attended by
440 girls, 25 leaders and all but two of the home demonstration agents.
Club girls who met the necessary requirements of age, years in 4-H work
and general excellence of achievement in their records, were awarded
scholarships to the short course. These scholarships, totaling $7,178, were









Florida Cooperative Extension


provided by interested individuals and organizations in the counties, such
as county commissioners, women's clubs, parent-teacher associations, men's
civic clubs and home demonstration clubs.
Training meetings for the girls, leaders and home demonstration agents
were conducted in many phases of the 4-H club program, with opportuni-
ties for participation in the various activities.
Tours were arranged to give the girls pride in their Florida citizenship
and to acquaint them with interesting facts about the capital city, Tal-
lahassee. The group visited the state capitol, where they were received
by the Governor, Secretary of State, Commissioner of Agriculture and
other state officials.
District and County 4-H Camps.-The three district 4-H camps located
at Timpoochee, Cherry Lake and McQuarrie, were open during the camping
season of June, July and August. Counties were scheduled and attendance
limited to accommodate the county groups. One thousand six hundred
five 4-H club girls attended 54 4-H county and district camps in 1948. Each
4-H club girl was required to reach certain goals of achievement before she
was eligible to attend the 4-H camps. Camps were planned to develop
leadership, provide practical instruction and offer recreation. At Camp
McQuarrie, 104 girls learned to swim and of 1,104 girls participating in a
swimming program under the direction of a Red Cross official, 783 re-
ceived Red Cross swimming certificates.
National 4-H Club Camp.-Two girls, along with two boys, represented
Florida at the National 4-H Club Camp in June in Washington, D.C. The
theme was "Creating Better Homes Today for a More Responsible Citizen-
ship Tomorrow." Upon their return to the state both girls made reports to

Fig. 12.-Girls at camp learn to stencil and do many kinds of crafts work.








Annual Report, 1948


their local 4-H clubs and community groups, civic clubs, home demonstra-
tion clubs and farm and home institutes. The scholarship trips were
awarded by the Florida Department of Agriculture and the Atlantic Coast
Line Railroad.
National 4-H Club Congress.-Eight 4-H club girls received trips to the
National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago in November. The awards were
made for general excellence in all-around records, clothing achievement,
clothing-dress revue, food preparation, food preservation, farm and home
safety, gardening and home improvement.
National 4-H Weeks.-Florida 4-H club girls annually observe National
4-H Week in March and National 4-H Achievement Week in October
through planned and conducted special activities, such as window exhibits,
fairs, radio programs, newspaper stories, personal appearances of 4-H club
members at PTA, civic clubs, church groups and school assemblies. Four
hundred thirty six local and county achievement days in 44 counties at-
tracted 34,702 persons. Sixty-two conducted tours gave 1,047 girls, not
enrolled in 4-H club work, opportunities to see demonstrations of 4-H club
girls.
Other Activities.-The theme of the 25th anniversary meeting of the
State Congress of Parents and Teachers in West Palm Beach, November
9-11, was "Rediscovering the Family." To better acquaint the 753 women
attending with the 4-H club program for white and negro girls in the state,
an exhibit of posters, enlarged pictures, products grown and preserved and
articles made by 4-H girls was set up.
The State Farm Bureau Federation arranged a program on youth activ-
ities as part of their annual meeting held in Gainesville in November. The
president of the State Council of Junior Home Demonstration work rep-
resented the 4-H girls in a report on progress made. Twelve Alachua
County 4-H club girls assisted by serving at a banquet for approximately
200 persons.








Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Grace I. Neely, Economist in Food Conservation

Home Gardens, Fruit Plantings.-The Food Conservationist was con-
cerned with encouraging home gardens and fruit plantings to insure a good
home supply. Vegetable crop production was reduced in some areas by
floods and winds. Replanting and extra expense for labor reduced the
total income, so that some vegetable farmers realized only a small margin
on their investment. There were 13,692 good home gardens despite floods
and hurricanes, however.
There were 5,561 home orchards started with 18,841 fruit trees set out
and 48,673 berry and grape vines started. Nine counties reported 37
women pooling orders for fruit plantings.
Food Conservation.-The Food Conservationist re-emphasized to agents
the need for encouraging better quality food, regardless of the method used
for preserving it. Method demonstrations were given on scoring canned
foods, comparison of home canned and commercially graded foods and on
how to can foods the family can enjoy.
Local leaders were trained to give method demonstrations such as
checking pressure gauges or making a conserved product. There were 389
adult food preservation chairmen.
At a two-day Farmers Institute held at 4-H Camp at Cherry Lake the
Food Conservationist set up exhibits and presented the food preservation
program to more than 200 men and women.
Two food preservation workshops were held for newly appointed home
demonstration agents to demonstrate methods of conserving meat and
poultry. The Extension Poultryman and Animal Husbandman assisted in
conducting the workshops. Two days each were required for the work-
shops, which were held in September at Quincy and in October at Plant
City.
Extension agents report 1,234,984 quarts of vegetables and fruits were
canned, 4,631 gallons of vegetables and fruit brined and 464,457 pounds of
vegetables and fruits stored as dried, fresh stored and frozen.
A shift from curing to freezing was noted in the preservation of meat.
In the conservation of meat, fish and poultry, there were 248,747 quarts
canned, 34,150 gallons brined, 1,000,151 pounds cured, 996,651 pounds
stored, 766,729 pounds frozen and 4,028 pounds of fish smoked.
There were 38 canning centers, serving 5,207 families, in operation.
The Food Conservationist and home demonstration agents received
many requests for demonstrations and information on preparing and pack-
aging foods for freezing. Reports show there were 986 families in 39
counties with home freezers and 320 freezer locker plants in 22 counties.
The Food Conservationist cooperated with home demonstration agents and
freezer locker operators in four counties by giving demonstrations on pre-
paring and packaging foods for freezing at meetings held in freezer lock-
er plants.
4-H Gardening, Fruit Plantings, Food Conservation.-Home demonstra-
tion agents report that of 3,267 girls enrolled in gardening, 1,911 com-
pleted their projects. There were 454 girls enrolled for fruit planting
demonstrations, with 315 completing. This home orchard work consisted
of setting out 2,922 fruit trees and 4,175 berry and grape vines. The 4-H
girls reported selling 134,519 pounds of fresh fruits and vegetables from
their gardens and orchards, besides canning for their families.



















\~J1


Fig. 13.-Demonstrations in freezing foods always attracted attention.


N


V

r


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I


I








78 Florida Cooperative Extension

Of 1,910 girls enrolled in food preservation, 1,279 completed projects,
canning 43,100 quarts of fruit, 75,401 quarts of vegetables and 18,858
quarts of meat. There were 3,848 pounds of fruit, 5,905 pounds of vege-
tables and 47,410 pounds of meat, which were frozen, stored or cured.
Twenty-three records and stories of 4-H club girls were entered in the
state gardening contest. The winning girl's record was then judged with
the winning boy's record and this year, a 4-H girl from Madison County
received first state honors and the trip to the National 4-H Congress in
Chicago. Sixteen counties submitted records and stories of their achieve-
ments in canning and a Palm Beach County girl received the trip to the
National 4-H Congress.









Annual Report, 1948


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist

There was an 181/2 months lapse between the retirement of the Home
Improvement Specialist, June 30, 1946, and employment of the present
Home Improvement Specialist, January 16, 1948.
The home improvement program was planned and carried out in 45
counties through agents, groups of volunteer leaders, senior councils, club
meetings, county rural housing committees, 4-H club achievement days,
tours, home visits and work with other organizations and persons.
Assistance was given the negroes through the Negro District Home
Demonstration Agent, through conferences, bulletins, records, posters and
other material provided for her use and the negro agents.
Major home improvement problems include housing, family living and
consumer education.
Housing.-Florida needs more farm homes built for comfort, conveni-
ence, health and beauty, that rural people may live more satisfying lives
and become better citizens.
The home demonstration agents report that 1,904 kitchens and 1,787
rooms other than kitchens were improved during 1948. Improved storage
facilities for food, clothing and household supplies were provided by 1,627
families. There were 789 families who arranged for better laundry space
and equipment. For comfort and convenience, families installed 664 sewage
disposal units, 817 sanitary toilets, 743 water systems and 271 heating
systems, and 2,273 improved screens and ways of controlling insects.
Extension of electric lines by rural electric cooperatives made electricity
available to more homes. As a result, Extension agents assisted 2,494.
families in obtaining electricity. Of these, 1,918 used it for the first time.
Assistance with lighting and electrical equipment problems was given to
2,697 families with 1,130 new pieces of electrical equipment being bought
and over 2,400 pieces repaired and put back into use. Extension agents
helped 554 families use electricity to increase income.
Over 3,987 families improved their home grounds, with 818 of them
using plans for complete improvement. Eight hundred and sixty-six
started lawns; others improved lawns; some planted trees, shrubs and
flowers; and others built fences, outdoor living rooms and stoves. In ad-
dition, 1,767 houses were painted and 75 whitewashed.
Family Living.-Family living became more complicated daily. Some of
the problems that agents helped solve related to increasing income; spend-
ing wisely; producing food and feed when practicable; practicing orderly
work habits; needed medical and dental care; educational, recreational and
religious opportunities; and security for old age.
Agents helped 6,907 families to become better housekeepers; 2,512
families received help with time management; 602 with home accounts,
1,161 with financial planning; and 619 with better use of credit for family
living. Also, 562 4-H club girls learned to keep personal accounts.
To prepare themselves to be better parents and guides for young peo-
ple, 2,132 families took advantage of assistance in child development and
guidance offered through the home demonstration program, 2,525 sought
to improve family relationships and 2,020 adults participated in child de-
velopment and parent education programs. These families and individuals
represented 4,437 children.
The desire for educational advancement was evidenced by enrollment
of 9,816 women and 10,099 girls in county home demonstration programs.









80 Florida Cooperative Extension

Home demonstration agents, volunteer leaders and 4-H club girls as-
sumed responsibility for recreation in their respective counties. Seventy-
nine community houses and 23 club rooms owned or controlled by home
demonstration groups were used for club meetings, work meetings and
recreational activities for both young and old. Thirty-six counties reported
575 entertainments held for social purposes. This number did not include
fund-raising, benefit socials.
Home demonstration agents helped 276 communities improve recrea-
tional facilities. In addition, 1,741 club girls received training in recreation.
al leadership and 1,953 in music appreciation. 4-H club girls in 484 groups
engaged in the community activities such as school-ground improvement
and fairs. Since community recreation does not meet the needs of all, 3,966
families were helped to improve recreation at home.
To offer facilities for reading, 54 libraries in 20 counties were assisted
or maintained by home demonstration groups.
Consumer Education.-Home Demonstration agents report that 2,778
families were assisted with food problems, 3,190 with clothing and house-
hold textiles, 2,673 with household furnishings and 2,011 with household
supplies. The total number of families assisted with consumer buying was
5,544, while 4,793 families were assisted in decisions to make rather than
to buy and 5,142 in using timely economic information.
Some 2,465 families received assistance in selecting furnishings. In 45
counties 189 girls and 317 women serving as volunteer leaders assisted
home demonstration agents in giving 757 home improvement demonstra-
tions to girls and 819 to women.
A total of 10,302 families utilized feed and flour sacks, mill-ends and
remnants in making over and repairing household articles. Farm women
made 252 cotton mattresses, renovated 345 mattresses and made 1,729 rugs
To encourage thrift practices home demonstration agents and volun-
teer leaders gave 452 method demonstrations before women and 486 be-
fore girls.
4-H Club Work.-Four leaflets, "Let's Set the Table," "Let's Wash
Dishes," "Let's Arrange Flowers" and "Demonstration in Home Improve-
ment" were prepared for use at state short course for 4-H club girls.
Training in exterior and interior home improvement was offered to
approximately 300 girls, volunteer leaders and home demonstration agents
attending the short course.
State honors for achievement in home improvement were awarded to
an Orange County 4-H girl, who attended the National Club Congress.
The 4-H club home improvement program is designed to stimulate the
club member's interest in learning to do simple home tasks well, to make
interior and exterior home improvements and to become a well-adjusted
member of her family and her community. Home demonstration agents'
records show that 2,547 girls enrolled for homemaking or housekeeping,
with 1,831 completing; 2,298 enrolled for room improvement and home fur-
nishings, with 1,498 completing their demonstrations by improving 1,319
rooms and making 5,203 articles to adorn these rooms and their homes in
general; and 2,160 enrolled for beautification of home grounds and 1,222
completed their work.
Home industries, arts and crafts appealed to 4-H club girls and reports
show that 1,337 were enrolled in this phase of work, with 955 completing
1,961 articles. Under the guidance of home demonstration agents and
volunteer leaders they made 2,166 articles such as trays, etched glass,
palmetto products, cloth dolls and other toys, pictures, wastebaskets, rugs
and other articles to beautify their homes, to use for gifts and for younger
members of their families.









Annual Report, 1948


RURAL HEALTH IMPROVEMENT
Lucille Russ, Health Improvement Specialist

Effective July 1, 1948, a plan for a program of rural health education
was established with the Agricultural Extension Service, the State Board
of Health and the hospital division of the State Improvement Commission
cooperating. The State Health Improvement Specialist is responsible for
developing a program to meet needs of rural people of the state and to
coordinate such joint activities of the three agencies as may be advisable.
For at least 15 years a definite rural health program has been guided
by the Nutrition Specialist, who combined health education with nutrition
work.
Health education is the sum of all experiences through which a person's
habits, attitudes and knowledge in the field of individual, community or
racial health are improved.
Health education cuts across the program of the clothing, nutrition,
home improvement and food conservation specialists.
Since the Health Improvement Specialist has been on the program only
six months, much of this time has been spent in orientation, planning and
interpreting the program to the public, with a minimum of activity in the
field.
The Health Improvement Specialist has served as a coordinator and
consultant with all State Extension workers to:
1. Appraise the health and medical needs of communities and of Florida
as a whole, and to endeavor to establish realizable goals for the program.
2. Appraise existing health services, state and local, in terms of de-
sirable standards to meet health needs of Florida people.
3. Determine how existing health resources can be better used or ex-
panded and what new health services and facilities are needed.
4. Develop a plan of action with short-time and long-time goals which
will lead to the realization of comprehensive health services for rural peo-
ple. To direct groups of people to resources, local, state and national, to
which they may turn for technical advice in planning health education
programs.
5. Undertake specific projects, ranging from such simple measures as
immunization clinics and better health services to more complex programs
of procuring personnel, expanding public health services, constructing hos-
pital and health centers and evaluating prepayment plans for medical care.
Objectives for the state-wide Extension Service health education pro-
gram for 1948-49 were set up by the health committee of the Senior Home
Demonstration Council.
In most communities there are many agencies, such as the health de-
partment, the public schools, private agencies working with youth, and a
host of associations interested in specific diseases or health needs.
The aim of the Extension health education program is to develop co-
ordination between the organizations in order to achieve more complete
coverage of rural health by presenting the task as a whole so each group
can undertake those activities which it can best carry out.
Since the health department is the center of public health activities, the
Extension Service personnel urges rural people to avail themselves of the
educational services in personal and public health provided by the health
unit. The local health units have provided technical information and ma-
terials for developing county programs, as well as personnel to interpret
services and functions to the home demonstration and 4-H clubs.









Florida Cooperative Extension


Local chapters of the American Red Cross, Tuberculosis and Health As-
sociation. American Cancer Society and National Foundation for Infantile
Paralysis have been assisted by home demonstration agents in carrying out
educational programs.
Reports of home demonstration agents showed that 5,104 families in 39
counties had physical examinations last year; 8,380 families in 37 counties
had proper screening in homes; 9,671 families in 38 counties had water sup-
plies tested and improved; 216 home demonstration clubs in 39 counties
sponsored clean-up campaigns; 29 health chairmen in 29 counties were ap-
pointed; 2,448 families in 37 counties had cows tested for Bang's disease
and tuberculosis; 6 counties with 47 4-H girls reported attendance at Red
Cross home nursing courses; 48 women in 15 counties enrolled in this
course; 135 health surveys were made in 29 counties; 93 home demonstra-
tion clubs in 22 counties planned health action programs on the basis of
the health survey; 133 clubs cooperated with the hospital survey and con-
struction program; 13 senior council presidents or senior council health
chairmen were represented on county-wide health boards; 16 home demon-
stration clubs in eight counties made health exhibits and 204 women in 29
counties were health chairmen.
The Health Improvement Specialist taught two classes each day to the
girls attending 4-H short course. The theme of the week's work was, "All
4-H Roads Lead to Good Health."
Two 4-H club camps were attended where three classes each day were
held on personal grooming. Demonstrations were given on simple mani-
curing, shampooing and the making of tooth paste, deodorant and hand
lotions.
Visits were made to six counties, where assistance was given in organ-
izing clubs, teaching parliamentary procedure and presenting health infor-
mation. In two counties assistance was given in planning a year's pro-
gram of 4-H club work.
Securing, maintaining and effectively utilizing health services and
facilities are major problems facing rural 'people in this post-war era.
Many doctors, nurses and dentists did not return to rural practice at the
end of the war, but rather established themselves in urban areas. Before
the war there was an average of 1.5 general hospital beds per 1,000 people
in rural communities. A recognized yardstick for reasonably adequate
service is four beds per 1,000 population. The Florida Extension Service,
in cooperation with the State Improvement Commission, is endeavoring to
interpret these needs to rural people and to further the educational pro-
gram in connection with the hospital survey and construction act.








Annual Report, 1948


Part IV--Negro Work


Negro Farm Demonstration Work

A. A. Turner, Negro District Agent, retired February 29, 1948. J. A.
Gresham was appointed Negro District Agent November 15, 1948.
Farm demonstration work was carried on in 10 counties. One resigna-
tion and two transfers took place. One agent returned to duty after having
been away for one year working toward an advanced degree.
Most counties have given financial assistance for the promotion of farm
demonstration work among negroes.
At the annual 4-H short course for negro boys and girls at the Florida
A. & M. College, Tallahassee, May 31-June 4, county agents were given
training, which assisted them in improving their work in the counties.
The annual conference for negro Extension workers held at Florida
A. & M. College November 16-19, served as a training meeting for all
agents.
There were 101 leader training meetings held for 817 volunteer local
leaders. Dependable persons, who are good demonstrators, were selected to
assist the agents in carrying on the county-wide program.
Increasing Crop Production.-A summary of county agents' reports
shows that they assisted 503 farmers to obtain improved varieties of seed
corn, 568 with vegetable problems, 130 with fruit production, 330 with
legumes, 367 with cotton production, 378 with tobacco and 249 with pas-
tures.
Increasing Livestock Production.-Agents assisted 60 farmers in obtain-
ing purebred or high grade female dairy cattle, 10 farmers in obtaining
purebred male dairy cattle and 40 in obtaining purebred beef cattle. They
assisted 56 farmers in obtaining purebred male swine and 79 in obtaining
purebred or high grade female swine. Fifty-nine farmers were assisted in
obtaining purebred roosters, 113 in obtaining purebred or high grade pul-
lets and 1,003 in obtaining better strains of baby chicks. Nine hundred
sixty-seven farmers were assisted in improving methods of feeding poultry
and 1,203 in controlling diseases and external and internal parasites of
poultry.
Five hundred thirty-four farmers were assisted in controlling diseases
and external and internal parasites of swine, while 75 were helped with
these same problems with dairy and beef cattle, horses and mules.
Conserving Natural Resources.-Agents assisted 556 farmers in the use
of crop rotations, 241 in the use of cover or green-manure crops, 35 in con-
trolling wind or water erosion and 157 in arranging for farm-conservation
plans during the year. Two hundred eighteen farmers cooperated in pre-
vention of forest fires, 168 farmers with problems of land use and 57 with
strip cropping.
Planning Farm Activities.-Agents assisted 299 farmers in developing
a farm plan and 183 in developing a farm and home plan. Two hundred
eight farmers were assisted with credit problems, while 407 were assisted
in developing supplemental sources of income. Four hundred thirty-eight
farmers were shown how to keep general farm records and 293 were as-
sisted with inventory and enterprise records.
Improving Farm Homes, Farms and Equipment.-Agents assisted 340
farm families in remodeling their homes and 131 with plans for new








Florida Cooperative Extension


dwellings. 1,140 families screened their dwellings or used other recom-
mended methods of controlling flies and other insects.
Agents also assisted 297 farm families in obtaining electricity through
the rural electrification program. There were 60 families who used elec-
tricity for income-producing purposes.
Two hundred three farmers were assisted with construction, remodel-
ing, repairing and selection or construction of farm buildings and equip-
ment. One hundred two farmers followed instructions in maintenance and
repair of mechanical equipment and 153 were assisted in securing efficient
use of mechanical equipment.
Improving Health Conditions.-Agents assisted 1,294 farm families in
the prevention of colds and other common diseases, while 2,003 were en-
couraged to take positive preventive measures to improve health through
immunization for contagious diseases. The importance of taking ad-
vantage of county health units and county doctors and nurses was stressed
to these families.
There were 1,471 families assisted in removing fire and accident hazards
in and around the farm and home.
Recreation, Community Life and Family Relationships.-Two hundred
fourteen men participated in child-development and parent-education pro-
grams, while 737 families improved family recreation. Forty-eight school
or other community grounds were improved during the year and 13 com-
munities were assisted in providing library facilities.
Marketing-Agents assisted with the marketing of general farm prod-
ucts worth $547,202, grain and hay worth $27,040, livestock worth $194,-
071 and fruits and vegetables valued at $66,669.
4-H Club Work.-In May, the state 4-H short course for boys and girls
was held at Florida A. & M. College in Tallahassee. Eighty-two 4-H club
boys, whose project activities were outstanding, were selected to attend.
Three boys and three girls, selected on the basis of outstanding records
in project work and leadership, attended the first regional negro 4-H camp
at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in August. The negro county agent of Gadsden
County and the women's Negro District Agent accompanied the group.
Two 4-H club camps were held for boys during the summer. One at East
Lake in Marion County and the other at Lost Lake in Leon County. Ap-
proximately 125 boys attended the two camps.
There were 2,077 negro boys enrolled in 4-H clubs who completed 3,350
projects.
Achievement Days.-Thirteen achievement days were held in six coun-
ties, attracting 6,816 people.
Florida State Fair.-Four counties exhibited at the Florida State Fair
in Tampa during the month of February.









Annual Report, 1948


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Floy Britt, Negro District Home Demonstration Agent

The 1945 agricultural census shows there are 10,435 negro farm opera-
tors in Florida, of which 5,528 are land owners and managers. Many of
them have little or no education, live in over-crowded houses with unsani-
tary conditions and are under-nourished. In some sections, medical fa-
cilities are limited and educational advantages inadequate. With these
problems, the home demonstration agents have great responsibilities in en-
couraging a higher standard of living.
There were 11 negro home demonstration agents in Florida during 1948.
Two vacancies occurred, which will be filled as soon as qualified persons
can be obtained. One agent studied at Bethune Cookman College and an-
other took a course in extension methods at Cornell University during her
summer vacation.
Six of the counties supplemented funds for travel and expenses. Two
other counties provided funds for demonstration and exhibit materials.
Seven negro home demonstration agents shared offices with negro
county agents. Three negro home demonstration agents had separate of-
fices and one agent shared the office with a white home demonstration
agent. Six county offices had telephones and 10 offices had typewriters.
One full-time stenographer was employed in the Negro District Agent's
office and four part-time stenographers were employed in county offices.
There are four agents who do not have clerical help. The good relation-
ship which exists among home demonstration agents, county agents and
clerical workers is conducive to carrying on a cooperative program.
Assistance in Carrying Out Extension Program.-The Negro District
Agent assisted negro home demonstration agents in carrying out the Ex-
tension program through visits, result demonstrations, home visits, council
and club meetings, fairs, achievement days, preparing materials, obtain-
ing and analyzing local data, planning for camps, county short courses and
securing help of specialists.
Selection, Training and Use of Local Leaders.-There were 313 men, 225
women, 68 older club boys and 90 older club girls serving as voluntary
leaders. They aided the agents in promoting county-wide 4-H programs.
Training meetings for leaders were conducted in the counties to enable the
leaders to serve more efficiently.
State 4-H Short Course, Camps.-The annual short course for negro 4-H
club boys and girls was held at Florida A. and M. College in Tallahassee,
May 31-June 4. A total of 213 girls, 82 boys and 7 local leaders from 14
counties attended the short course. These representative boys and girls
were selected from 5,140 enrolled in 258 4-H clubs.
Three girls and three boy's, selected on the basis of outstanding records
in project work and leadership, attended the first regional negro 4-H camp
at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The Negro District Home Demonstration
Agent and negro county agent of Gadsden County accompanied the group.
At one county and two district 4-H camps 144 girls and 12 leaders re-
ceived instruction in grooming, first aid, nature study, water safety, handi-
craft, recreation, visual aids and 4-H organization. The Negro District
Home Demonstration Agent attended these three camps and 10 home dem-
onstration agents attended one of the camps. The county camp was held
by Hillsborough County at the 4-H club youth center on Spring Head
Creek. District camps were held at Lost Lake in Leon County in the Na-
tional Forest and at East Lake Weir in Marion County.









Florida Cooperative Extension


Agents' Annual Conference.-The annual conference for 21 negro county
and home demonstration agents, representing 13 counties, was held at
Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee, November 16-19.
General theme of the conference was "Better Living for Florida Fami-
lies." Out-of-state speakers included T. M. Campbell, field agent, Ag-
ricultural Extension Service, Washington, D. C., and J. P. Davis, Produc-
tion and Marketing Administration, Little Rock. Arkansas.
H. G. Clayton, director, State Agricultural Extension Service, and Miss
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent, made outstanding con-
tributions to the conference.
Evaluation of Accomplishments.-There is a favorable sentiment to-
ward negro home demonstration work in all counties. This favorable senti-
ment is enhanced by demonstrators, who are grateful for results achieved
and give credit to the assistance of the home demonstration agent.
Accomplishments of negro home demonstration agents have been out-
standing. In each county, there are signs of the development of finer
groups of negroes. Rural people are thinking more about feeding the
family well, promoting better health, better education, and making the
homes more comfortable, convenient and attractive.
Records show that a total of 1,851 members were enrolled in 116 home
demonstration clubs during the year.
Foods and Nutrition.-Reports from agents show that 2,619 gardens
were grown, 3,222 calendar fruit plantings were started this year, 25,628
berry plants and vines other than grape were planted, 117,390 hens and
cockerels were owned by demonstrators, 106,541 chickens were raised,


Fig. 14.-These negro 4-H girls are learning dressmaking, with the help
of their negro home demonstration agent and local leader.








Annual Report, 1948 87

118,492 dozen eggs were produced, 1,799 family milk cows were owned by
demonstrators and 233 milk cows were added this year.
Agents reported that there were 270 local leaders assisting with food
preservation and storage problems. In food conservation, agents reported
that 2,583 families canned 205,981 quarts of vegetables, fruits and meats
and 8,944 quarts of pickles and relishes, cured 67,900 pounds of meat and
made 12,229 pounds of soap.
In the field of nutrition and health, 2,173 families improved their diets,
1,877 families made improvements in food preparation, 2,689 families im-
proved the family food supply, 1,001 families canned according to a family
budget and 1,471 families removed fire and accident hazards from their
homes.
Home Improvement.-Agents report on home improvement in their
counties as follows: 1,908 families improved housekeeping methods, 471
families constructed new homes or remodeled old ones, 297 families ob-
tained electricity for the first time and 249 families added new electrical
appliances to their homes. Also, 309 families installed heating, sewage and
water systems in their homes, 340 families provided needed storage space,
342 improved laundry arrangement and 223 installed sanitary closets or
outhouses. Records further show that 1,140 homes were screened and
1,373 home grounds improved.
Agents reported that farm families did much to improve and conserve
their clothing and home furnishings. Records indicate 10,526 new garments
made, 21,510 garments mended, 2,382 remodeled and 1,300 home-made cos-
tume accessories made. Also, 14,218 household articles were made. A total
of 903 rugs were made and 180 mattresses made or renovated. There were
1,469 families assisted with clothing-construction problems, 1,326 families
assisted in selection of clothing and textiles and 1,718 families aided in care,
renovation and remodeling of clothing.
Recreation and Community Life.-Reports from agents show that 737
families improved their recreation facilities and 93 communities were as-
sisted by agents with organizational problems, programs of activities or
meeting problems.


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants)..................... ...................... 2221/2
Days of service: In office- 1,908; in field- 3,523.................................... 5,431
Farm or home visits m ade.............................................. ........................ 9,306
Different farms or hom es visited................................................................ 4,622
Calls relating to Extension work: Office-15,226; telephone................ 3,895
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth.......................... 2,566
News articles or stories published........................... .. ................... 265
Bulletins distributed ......................................... ........ ....................... 12,950
Radio talks broadcast or prepared........................................- .... 15
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen.................... 228
Total attendance of men and women...................... ...................... 2,508
Method demonstration meetings..--------........................... 1,400
Total attendance............. ........ .............................15,759
Meetings held at result demonstrations......................... ............. ..... 267
A attendance .... .. ..--- .............................. ...................................... 4,301
Tours conducted----.................------......-- .. ...--- .... 91









88 Florida Cooperative Extension

Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work................ 77
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings-............................... 618
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms in counties worked--................................-..... 7,439
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year and in past........................................................ ..... 2,524
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration
and agricultural program s.................................. ................................ 2,734
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the
home demonstration program............................---------... ..................... 1,966
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstra-
tion and agricultural program this year............................................ 4,490
Different farm families influenced by some phase of the Extension
program .........................---.-- ...... -----------------...............--- 3,980
Other families influenced by some phase of the Extension program.... 2,639
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group..............--......... ---........... 25
Unpaid ...........-----............ ------......-- -- ---- --................ 21
P aid ................................................................. .................................. 4
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w workers ....................................................................... 367
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen......................................... 392
Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen........................ 478
CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work........ ------------............................--------- 855
Communities in which work was conducted ----...................... --....... 781
Voluntary leaders and committeemen.............. .......... .................. 775
LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work.................................................... 512
Communities in which work was conducted .... --....................... ........ 441
Voluntary committeemen and leaders......... .............. ................... 293
Farm ers assisted.... ................................................................................... 5,324
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work--------....................................--------- 145
Communities in which work was conducted ............................-....... 172
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen..................................... 129
Farmers assisted in soil management ....................................................... 1,663
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation.......................... 483
FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work................................................... ... 180
Farmers assisted .......................... ......................... -- 3,165

GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE
Days devoted to w ork.......................................... .............. 61
Communities in which work was conducted......................................... 116
Voluntary leaders and committeemen............ ........... ................ 94
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted.................................. 84

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work.................................... .................... 690
Communities in which work was conducted.............................................. 896









Annual Report, 1948 89

Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during
the year (established and new)...........................................................$51,500
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year................$14,487,767

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work-----. ..................................................... 413
Communities in which work was conducted.......................-.... ..... 354
Voluntary leaders and committeemen....................................................... 325
Families assisted in house furnishings, farm buildings, surroundings,
mechanical equipment, rural electrification..................................... 8,890
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work................................... ..... ................ ... 1,126
Communities in which work was done.......................................................... 723
Families assisted: Improving diets-2,173; food preparation-1,877;
T total ............ ................................ .. .... .... ......... ..... ... ................. 4,050
Families assisted with food-preservation problems.................................. 2,574

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work.................................... .................. .. 179
Communities in which work was done-.....................-..---........... 148
Voluntary leaders assisting................ .----- ............................ 161
Fam ilies assisted.......................................................... ................. .............. 1,986
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 222
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies.......... 1,095
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems.................................... 1,454

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work.............................. ----- ----........ 278
Communities in which work was done.......................... ......... ........ 156
Voluntary leaders assisting........................................... ......... 193
Families assisted------........................----------........ 4,741

FAMILY RELATIONSHIP-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work -----------------............................................... 148
Communities in which work was done........................... ..................... 146
Voluntary leaders assisting........................... ........ .............. 147

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work.................................................. ..... 166
Communities in which work was done............................. .................. 167
Voluntary leaders assisting...................................................... 179
Families assisted in improving home recreation...................................... 737
Communities assisted in improving recreational facilities...................... 93
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities or meeting programs-......................... ...--. ... ..... 108
Communities assisted in providing library facilities................................ 13

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys............................ ... ........................... 3,350
Projects completed by girls................................. ........... .............. 11,509
Boys completing corn and peanut projects........................................... 632
Boys completing fruit projects................................ ......... ............... 49
Boys completing garden projects................................................................. 749
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops.................. 87









90 Florida Cooperative Extension

Boys completing dairy projects....................................... ................. 109
Boys completing poultry projects-..................................-.................. 443
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects............................................ 161
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects................................ 272
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects...................................... 237
Girls completing dairy projects................................. ................................ 160
Girls completing poultry projects............................................................. 696
Girls completing home gardens........... ..... .. .. ................................... 1,279
Girls com pleting fruit projects......................... ........... .......................... 477
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops................ 159
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects.................... 1,200
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid.............................. 928
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and
room improvement projects................................................... 3,185
Girls completing food preservation projects-....................... ........... 1,200
4-H Membership:
Boys: Farm-1,919; non-farm-158; total........................................ 2,077
Girls: Farm-2,617; non-farm--446; total....................................... 3,063
4-H club members having health examinations because of participa-
tion in Extension program ................................................ ................... 1,908
4-H clubs engaged in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs............................ ........ ......... 148








INDEX


Agents, list of, 4
Agricultural economics, 20
Agricultural engineering, 27
Animal husbandry, 33

Barrus, Edith Y., 65
Beale, Clyde, 13
Beef cattle, 21, 33
Beekeeping, 44
Better sire program, 36
Bevis, Joyce, 68
Blacklock, R. W., 47
Boy's 4-H club work, 47
Britt, Floy, 85
Broadcasting activities, 14
Broiler production, 42
Brown, W. W., 47

Camps, 4-H, 74
Carter, Bonnie J., 17, 79
Chicken-of-tomorrow contest, 43
Citrus, 24
culture, 61
grove management, 22
Clayton, H. G., 7, 19
Clothing and textiles, 12, 68
Community life, 12
Conservation of natural resources,
11
Cooper, J. Francis, 13
Cooperatives, 25
Cooperative planning, 10
Corn, 51
County agents, work of, 19
County and home demonstration
agents, 4
summary, 28
Cow testing, 37
Crop production, 11

DHIA program, 37
Dairying, 11, 36
Dairying possibilities in Hardee
County, 21
Director's report, 7
Dixie wonder pea, 50

Egg-laying test, 40
Egg quality program, 42

Family living, 79
Family relationships-child develop-
ment, 12
Farm and home planning, 20


Farm building plan service, 27
Farm buildings, 27
electrification, 27, 31
forestry, 56
labor, 25
machinery, 29
management, 11, 20, 21
training for veterans, 25
Fence post treating, 29
Financial statement, 7
Fire prevention, 17
Florida Farm Hour, 14
Flue-cured tobacco, 52
Food conservation, 76
Food and nutrition, 71
Forest fire prevention, 56
Forest planting, 56
4-H club beekeeping activities, 45
dairy work, 37
forestry program, 58
gardening, 76
poultry work, 41
work, 21, 30, 31, 35, 80
work for girls, 73
Fruit washer, 30

Gardening, 76

Hairy indigo, 51
Hampson, C. M., 20
Hay drying, 29
Haynie, John D., 44
Health, 81
Henderson, J. R., 50
Hog program, 35
Holloway, Ethyl, 65
Home demonstration work, 65
Home improvement, 79
Home management, 11
Honey, 26
Horticulture, 60
Housing, 27, 79

Irrigation and drainage, 30

Jamison, F. S., 60
Johnson, John M., 27

Keown, Mary E., 65

Lawrence, F. P., 61
Livestock, 11, 33
Lupines, 50








ii In

Marketing, 11, 23, 42
McDavid, Ruby, 65
McLendon, H. S., 53
McMullen, K. S., 19
Meats, 35
Mechanical burners for sirup mak-
ing, 30
Mehrhof, N. R., 39
Men's work, 19

National poultry improvement plan,
43
Neely, Grace I., 76
Negro agents, 5
Negro farm demonstration work, 83
Negro home demonstration work, 85
News stories, 14
Nieland, L. T., 17, 56
Noble, C. V., 20
Nutrition and health, 11, 71

Outlook, 21

Parasite control, 34
Pastures, 34, 52
Pasture and feed, 34
Parvin, F. W., 20
Peanuts, 51
Pecans, 26
Perry, F. S., 39
Personnel selection and training, 66
Pettis, A. M., 31
Poultry, 11, 39
Publications, 13
Purebred shows, 34
Radio, 13


dex


Reaves, C. W., 36
Record books, 20
Recreation, 12
Russ, Lucille, 81

Safety, 17
Savage, Zach, 22
Seed drying, 29
Shealy, A. L., 33
Sheely, W. J., 33
Sikes, Anna Mae, 71
Sirup making, 30
Small grains, 52
Smith, J. Lee, 19
Soil and water conservation, 53
Soils and farm crops, 50
Spray equipment, 30
Statistical report, 10, 87
Stevens, Lorene, 73

Teaching methods, 21
Timber marketing, 57
Timmons, D. E., 23
Training, 8
Transportation, 25
Turkeys, 43
Turner, A. A., 83

Vegetables, 24, 60
Visual materials, 15

Watermelons, 25
Watkins, Marshall O., 7
Work of county agents, 19
Work with women and girls, 65