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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 Director's report
 Publications, news, radio
 Agricultural conservation and related...
 Emergency farm labor
 Safety and fire prevention
 Work of county agents
 Agricultural engineering
 Agricultural economics
 Animal husbandry, dairying,...
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Farm forestry
 Soil and water conservation
 Soils and farm crops
 Home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Food, nutrition and health
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Home improvement
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00008
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1946
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00008
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Director's report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Publications, news, radio
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Agricultural conservation and related programs
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Emergency farm labor
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Safety and fire prevention
        Page 22
    Work of county agents
        Page 23
    Agricultural engineering
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Agricultural economics
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Animal husbandry, dairying, poultry
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Farm forestry
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Soil and water conservation
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Soils and farm crops
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Home demonstration work
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Home improvement
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Index
        Page i
        Page ii
Full Text





COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
( Acts of May 8 and June 30. 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
A. P. Spencer, Director










1946 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1946
with
,FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1946









COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
( Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
A. P. Spencer, Director










1946 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1946
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1946









BOARD OF CONTROL

J. THOS. GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando M. L. MERSHON, Miami
J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
THOS. W. BRYANT, Lakeland J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension
MARSHALL O. WATKINS, B.S.A., Assistant to the Director

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor1
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor1
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor1
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
HANS O. ANDERSEN, B.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
P. L. PEADEN, M.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director, P. & M. Admin.
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Director, P. & M. Admin.
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
W. W. BROWN, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist1
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman'
FRANK S. PERRY, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husbandman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist1
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing2
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent
JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation
JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent
1 Part-time.
2 On leave.









CONTENTS
Page
Director's Report ........ ......... ....... .. .................. 7

Statistical Report .............. ........... ........ .................... 9

Publications, N ew s, Radio ....... ........... ............... ................ ........................ 13

Agricultural Conservation and Related Programs ................................. 16

Em ergency Farm Labor ................................. ......................... .................. 19

Safety and Fire Prevention ................................................ ......................... 22

W ork of County Agents ....................... ...... ........ .......... .................. 23

Agricultural Engineering .......... ................ ..... .... ..................... 24

Agricultural Economics ................ ................................... .... 27

Citrus Grove Management ................................... ................. 27

Farm Management Activities .................................. ................ 28

Animal Husbandry, Dairying, Poultry ........................................... 30

Animal Husbandry ...................... ............ ................. .... ............ ... 30

Dairying ............. ........ .................... .... 33

Poultry .. .................................................................................................. 34

Boys' 4-H Club W ork ............................................................ .................... 38

Farm Forestry ............................................................ ....... ............... 41

Soil and Water Conservation ................................... .. ............. 44

Soils and Farm Crops ........................................ ................ .. 47

Home Demonstration W ork ................... ................... .. ............ .... 50

Clothing and Textiles .............................................. ... ... .................... 56

Food, Nutrition and Health ........................... .. ...... ................... 58

Gardening and Food Conservation ...................................................... 60

Home Improvement ....................... ............... .............. .. ........ 62

Negro Farm Demonstration W ork ...................................... ................. 64

Negro Home Demonstration W ork ................. ......................... ...................... 66

N egro Statistical Report ............................... ... .......... .................. 68

[3]







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of December 31, 1946)
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua........... Loonis Blitch.................. Gainesville. Mrs. Josephine McSwine
Alachua........... T. H. McRorie, Jr.
(Asst.).........................Gainesville ...................... ....... ...
Baker............... J. Raymond Mills-..........Macclenny ... .....................
Bay...................M B. M iller....................Panama City .................. ..............
Bradford..........T. K. McClane, Jr..........Starke .......................... .......
Brevard............J. T. Oxford....................Cocoa...........--.......Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward...........B. E. Lawton...................Ft. Lauderdale........Miss Louise Taylor
Broward...........Robert S. Pryor (Asst.) Ft. Lauderdale .........................
Calhoun............Troy Penton....................Blountstown............Mrs. Lucille Clark
Charlotte.........N. H. McQueen..............Punta Gorda .......................................
Citrus...............0. M. Maines..................Inverness ...........Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Clay..... ......... Gn. Cve. Sgs...Mrs. Read Crow Shettler
Columbia......... J. M. Kennedy...............Lake City............Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Dade ................ C. H. Steffani................ Miami......................Miss Eunice Grady
Dade................. J. Lawrence Edwards
(Asst.)......................... Miami........Miss Edna L. Sims (Asst.)
Dade................. Miami..............Miss Olga Kent (Asst.)
DeSoto..............W. L. Woods...................Arcadia ..................................
Dixie.................C. L. Dickinson.............. Cross City .......................... ........
Duval ..-...........A. S. Lawton...................Jacksonville-..........Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval................G. T. Huggins (Asst.).. (Asst.)
Escambia.........E. H. Finlayson..............Pensacola..............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia.........J. B. Walker (Asst.).....Pensacola ................................. ..
Gadsden-...........A. G. Driggers............... Quincy......................Miss Elise Laffitie
Quincy......Miss Margaret Rish (Asst.)
Gilchrist...........A S. Laird.......................Trenton ..-. ................... .. ..... ........
Glades........:......A. G. Hutchinson.......... Moore Haven ................................
Gulf...................C. R. Laird...................... Wewahitchka....Mrs. Wilma A. Revell
Hardee..............E. H. Vance..................... Wauchula ........Miss Mildred J. Taylor
Hardee..............Earl G. Rodgers (Asst.)Wauchula ..................... .....
Hendry.............H. L. Johnson................. LaEelle .....................................
Hernando.........H. J. Brinkley-................Brooksville ...................................
Highlands........V. T. Oxer........................ Sebring .........Miss Catherine Brabson
Hillsborough...Alec White..................... Tampa...-........................Miss Lora Kiser
Hillsborough...Edwin Booth (Asst.).....Tampa ..... ..........................
Hillsborough.. J. O. Armor (Asst.)...... Plant City.-..Miss Emily King (Asst.)
Holmes ............Stuart C. Bell................. Bonifay..................Miss Carolyn Clark
Indian River....M. A. Boudet.................. Vero Beach...................................
Jackson............J. W. Malone-..................Marianna..............Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson............Vacant (Asst.) ...............Marianna..... ..........
Jefferson..........E. N. Stephens.............. Monticello..........Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
Lafayette.........S. L. Brothers-----..........Mayo.................
Lake..................R. E. Norris.................... Tavares ..........-.Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lake................. J. P. Hill (Asst.) ............Tavares........ .................
Lee....................C. P. H euck.................... Fort M yers................ ................
Leon..................James L. Rhoden...........Tallahassee............Miss Wilma Smith
Levy..................T. D. Tickenbaker..........Bronson..................Miss Lila Woodard
Liberty.............Vacant....................-----Bristol................. ......
Madison...........W. W. Glenn................. Madison..............Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Madison........... Eric R. Mills, Jr. (Asst.) Madison..................................
Manatee...........Ed L. Ayers....................Bradenton............. Mrs. Anne D. Davis
Manatee............ AB. Alford, Jr.(Asst.) .Bradenton ....................... ...
Marion..............Carl Hendricks............---Ocala......................Miss Allie Lee Rush
M arion..............S. B. Parnell (Asst.) .... Ocala..................................

[4 ]







HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Martin..............L. M. Johnson................Stuart........................Miss Lucile Inscoe
Nassau..............Gordon B. Ellis..............H illiard.......... ...................................
Okeechobee..... C. R. Boyles.....................Okeechobee.......................................
Okaloosa.. ......F. W. Barber.................. Crestview...................... ...............
Orange............ F. E. Baetzman..............Orlando........Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
Osceola.............J. R. Gunn-.........-..-... Kissimmee..................Miss Ruth Wilder
Palm Beach....M. U. Mounts.............. W. Palm Bch.....Miss Bertha Hausman
Palm Beach..-.H. L. Speer (Asst.)........Belle Glade....Mrs. Mildred J. Michaud
(Asst.)
Pasco.....................J. F. Higgins...................Dade City..........Mrs. Essa D. Gould
Pinellas............ J. H. Logan......................Clearwater..........Clear......Miss Tillie Roesel
Pinellas...................................... ..... Clearwater........Miss Emma Stevenson
(Asst.)
Polk..................W. P. Hayman................Bartow................Miss Elma B. Willis
Polk .................W H. Kendrick (Asst.). Bartow......................................................
Putnam............H. E. Maltby.................Palatka....Mrs. Elizabeth W. Starbird
Putnam............V. H. Major (Asst.)......Palatka.......................... .........
St. Johns......... Ross V. Swartsel..........-St. Augustine........Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie.......... C. D. Kime................... Foort Pierce..................................Vacant
Santa Rosa......E. D. McCall ..................Milton ........................................Vacant
Santa Rosa......J. N. W atson (Asst.)....Milton............................. .........
Seminole..........C. R. Dawson..........Sanford....................Mrs. Ouida Wilson
Sarasota.......... W. E. Evans............... Sarasota.................Miss Sara Horton
Sumter...........Kenneth A. Clark ...... Bushnell............................
Suwannee.........S. C. Kierce.....................Live Oak......Miss Geraldine Crawford
Suwannee....... W. J. Cowen (Asst.)......Live Oak ............................ ......
Taylor............. D. D. McCloud........------Perry......... ..........Mrs. Ruth Elkins
Union................J. T. Holloway................Lake Butler..................................
Volusia...........William J. Platt, Jr.-...DeLand.............Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Wakulla........... Harry E. George............ Crawfordville-............... ......
Walton..............Mitchell Wilkins..........DeFuniak Springs............................
Washington.....H. 0. Harrison....... Chipley..................

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY NEGRO COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua ................-.. ...............Richard A. Hartsfield (Acting)..Gainesville
Columbia..............................McKinley Jeffers..........................Lake City
Gadsden........................................R ussell Stephens...................................Quincy
Hamilton ...................................N. H. Bennett.......................White Springs
Jackson............................................Thomas A. Harris...........................Marianna
Jefferson................ .............. ...M E. Groover.................. ............Monticello
Leon..........................................English M. Greene......................Tallahassee
M adison....................................... James C. M iller............. ................M adison
Marion................................Eugene P. Smith...............................Ocala
Sumter.........................................Richard L. Bradley.........................Bushnell
COUNTY NEGRO HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua.........................................Leontine Williams.......................Gainesville
Columbia........................ ..........Ozella Sansome..............................Lake City
Duval............. ...... .......................Ethel M Powell............................Jacksonville
Gadsden................................. Diana H. Spencer.................................Quincy
Hillsborough....................... ....Sudella J. Ford........................................Tampa
Jackson...........................................Annie Doris Preston.-....................Marianna
Leon......... : .................. Jewel P. McGriff...................Tallahassee
M adison.........................................Althea Ayer.................. ......M adison
M arion.......... ............ ..........Idella R. Kelly................................... Reddick
Putnam......................... -..........Lee Ella Gamble.................................Palatka
Volusia (Asst.).............................Ida T. Pemberton.............................DeLand

[5]








































Fig. 1.-Florida cattlemen have improved and fertilized thousands of acres of range pastures during
the year.











Part I --General


DIRECTOR'S REPORT
A. P. Spencer, Director
M. O. Watkins, Assistant to the Director
Developments affecting the farmers' income must necessarily be taken
into consideration in planning an Extension educational program. With
conditions approaching normal there are certain farm products now in
abundance affecting the prices received by the producers and in turn the
consumer's consumption of that production. Extension must be in a posi-
tion to promote the best interests of agriculture and home economics with
accurate information that will guide in production and marketing.
Personnel.-The increase in Extension personnel has served to assist
county and home agents in the performance of their regularly assigned
responsibilities for educational programs among rural people. Insofar as
county funds can be made available, it is the policy of the Extension
Service to increase the number of assistant county and home agents to
the extent that such services are needed. There is a definite need for an
increase in personnel to serve as assistants so that projects of importance
to agriculture and home economics may be continued and expanded. Some
assignments have been delayed due to difficulty in finding persons who
have the professional and personal qualifications. The assignment of
assistant agents serves as a training procedure for building up a staff of
personnel well qualified to perform Extension duties.
It is the Extension policy that the counties shall maintain their contri-
4 butions and defray a part of the expenses of Extension work. Through
the cooperation of county boards, a number of county budgets provide for
assistant agents. The assistants are assigned specific duties with special
emphasis on 4-H club work. During the current year 30 percent of Florida
Counties were served by assistant agents who are agricultural and home
economics graduates.
Retirement System.-Since January 1, 1946, 9 Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service workers have retired. These workers had a total of over
240 years of service. The shortest period of service was 20 years and 3
months, the longest 30 years and 6 months.
Practically all county and home demonstration agents and part of the
State staff are enrolled in the State Teachers' Retirement System. State
staff members not participating in the Teachers' Retirement System are
eligible to be enrolled in the State Officers' and Employees' Retirement
System.
Professional Improvement-To provide refresher training for new men
and women Extension workers and those recently returned from military
service, a course in agricultural Extension methods was offered during the
summer of 1946. The course carried 3 hours University of Florida credit.
Details of the course were worked out by a committee. The USDA Ex-
tension Service cooperated by sending staff members to give the majority
of the lecturers. Other lectures, demonstrations and assistance with work-
shops were given by the Director of the South Carolina Extension Service,
members of the staff of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Agri-
cultural Experiment Station workers, and faculty members of the Univer-
sity of Florida. The course was under the supervision of a faculty mem-
ber of the College of Agriculture.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Thirty-nine extension workers, 1 senior and 1 graduate student took
the course.
The Annual Extension Agents' Conference was held October 21-25, 1946.
Morning sessions were joint programs and were devoted to overall discus-
sion of problems. For the afternoon sessions the men and women met
separately and discussed subject matter and methods of getting the jobs
done.
Housing Program.-Early in 1946 the Agricultural Extension Service
invited in for a conference the heads of agencies functioning in the State
which were interested in education in the field of rural housing. The
group organized for the purpose of working out a coordinated program
and asked the Extension Service to act as coordinator.
As a start, the group selected 3 counties in the State to be known as
demonstration counties and asked the county workers whose agencies were
represented on the State Committee to work together to solve 2 or 3
housing problems most needing attention in the respective counties. This
project is now functioning in the 3 counties with assistance from the State
Committee in the form of plans, visual aids, reference material, etc. The
following agencies are represented on the State Committee: Agricultural
Extension Service; State Department of Education; State Board of Health;
Project of Applied Economics of the College of Education, University of
Florida; School of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women;
Farmers' Home Administration; and Rural Electrification Administration.
The following agencies have been asked to serve as consultants to the
State Committee as the need arises: Veterans' Administration, National
Farm Loan Associations, Florida Tuberculosis and Health Association,
Production Credit Associations, Master Plumbers' Association, Federal
Housing Administration.

FINANCING EXTENSION WORK
Financial Statement 1945-46
Federal Funds:.
Smith-Lever, Bankhead-Jones ..............................$200,645.82
Capper-Ketcham ........................... ................ 27,417.72
Bankhead-Flannagan ......................................... 77,910.28
Clark-M cN ary .................. .................................. 1,620.00

$307,593.82
State Appropriations:
Legislature (Annual) ....................................... $108,800.00
Continuing, Chapter 6141 ..------..................---................. 5,000.00
Continuing, Chapter 19216 .................................... 80,400.00
Sales Fund (Incidental) ....................................... 11,000.00

$205,200.00
Grand Total ........................................ ..................... $512,793.82

The Federal funds shown above are provided by Congress and are
allotted to the Department of Agriculture and in turn to the states as pro-
vided in the original Smith-Lever Act. The provisions governing Smith-
Lever funds were made effective in 1914 and govern in a general way the
allotment of funds provided by subsequent Congresses in the Bankhead-
Jones Act, the Capper-Ketcham Act and the Bankhead-Flannagan Act.
The Smith-Lever Act and subsequent acts have provisions that the
states must provide offset funds. Federal funds are distributed to respec-
tive states on the basis of rural to urban populations. State funds re-







Annual Report, 1946


quired as offset are governed by the same regulations as federal funds.
The Extension program is handled through the project system and
Florida is now operating under 19 definite projects. There are 5 main
classifications, as follows: Administration, Publications and Information
Material, County and Home Demonstration Work in the Counties, Specia-
lists in Farm and Home Projects, and Negro Work. Four-H Club work,
which comes under a specialist classification, covers boys' and girls' pro-
grams. Specialists' programs cover salaries and expenses of various
specialists attached to the respective projects. County and home demon-
stration work takes up the larger part of Extension funds expended, this
being the main feature and purpose of agricultural Extension work in the
State.
County operations are carried on in 63 counties and each county con-
tributes a proportionate part of the needed expenses for the successful
operation of the work. County appropriations are provided by boards of
county commissioners and school boards and vary with the needs in the
counties.
Work with farm labor and soil conservation and the production and
marketing administration has been financed primarily from federal funds
and through the cooperation of the Extension Service. The programs
operate largely through Extension offices and personnel throughout the
State.
Farm Labor.-The emergency farm labor program provides largely for
distribution of migrant farm labor and has been handled in cooperation
with the Office of Labor of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and ad-
ministered by a special staff. County agents serve as the main adminis-
trators in their respective counties.
Soil Conservation.-Through appointment by the State Soil Conservation
Board, the Director of Extension serves as the administrator of the State
Soil Conservation Act. The Extension Service is the educational agency
for this program and the county agents serve as secretaries to the district
boards of supervisors, providing informational material which corresponds
with recommendations of the Experiment Station and Extension Service.
This policy determines to a large extent the type of soil conservation pro-
gram carried out in the districts and provides a definite coordination be-
tween the Soil Conservation Service, the Extension Service and the Experi-
ment Station.
Production and Marketing Administration.-The Director of Extension
is ex-officio member of the State Production and Marketing Administra-
tion Committee. This work is carried on in the counties through the
county agents' offices. The county agent serves as secretary and ex-officio
member of the county committee and is in charge of records and educa-
tional programs. By this arrangement Production and Marketing Admin-
istration programs are coordinated with the program of the county agent,
the Experiment Station, College of Agriculture and U. S. Department of
Agriculture.

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants).....................- ............... 1,421
Days of service: In office-16,621; in field-17,876............................ 34,497
Farm or home visits made.............................................. 56,592
Different farms or homes visited................... ................ 31,390







Florida Cooperative Extension


Calls relating to extension work: Office-261,145; Telephone........149,727
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth.......................... 9,794
News articles or stories published................---......-- ......... 6,466
Bulletins distributed ........................ ---..................198,630
Radio talks broadcast or prepared......................................... ............... 738
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N umber .................................... ----------........... ......... 544
Total attendance of men and women..........-.....--......---...---.... 6,980
Method demonstration meetings:
Number ..... ......................- .................... 7,963
Total attendance ...................................... -- ----- ............... .......--154,890
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
Number ..----. ....................-................. 1,182
Attendance ..................-..-- -- -- ...-- ..-- ....-----. 18,239
T ours ....................................... ............................................................... 318
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work................ 452
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings-............................. 6,265

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE

Total number of farms- ..............--......- ----------......................... 61,108
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricul-
tural program ................... .......... .................................................... 28,632
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home
dem onstration program ..................................................................... 16,785
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural pro-
gram for the first tim e this year................................ ..................... 5,625
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for first time this year-............................. 3,074
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ----............................. ... 10,278
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program ..... ............................ .... ... .................. 12,405
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
dem onstration program ........................ .............. ......................... 18,615
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled................................ 6,267
Different farm families influenced by some phase of extension
program ................... ........... ....................................................... 37,909
Other families influenced by'some phase of extension program.......... 28,874

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group-..................... .............. 483
Unpaid ..... .......... ............ ... ........ .....----------- 343
Paid ...........................................----------------- 140
Communities in agricultural planning...................... .......... 45
Members in community agricultural planning........................................ 229
Planning m meetings held.................................................... .......................... 1,128
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w workers ........................................ ..................... .......-- 2,285
Unpaid voluntary leaders of committeemen.............................................. 2,062
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 4,320

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to w ork.................................................... ..... 7,114
Communities in which work was conducted....................................... 3,005
Voluntary leaders and committeemen............................ ................... 1,355







Annual Report, 1946 11

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work....................................... ... ... ....... ..... 5,519
Communities in which work was conducted---.................... ---........ ... 2,320
Voluntary committeemen and leaders.......................... ............ 939
Breeding and improvement organizations ---....................-- ...----- 30
Farmers assisted ................................................ 30,180

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work....................................................... .................. 1,479
Communities in which work was conducted..... ------...............-......... 977
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen............................................. 474
Farmers assisted in soil management................... ..................... 39,221
Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation..................... 6,550

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work........................................... 1,245
Farmers assisted ..............-..... ................- .......21,223

GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE
Days devoted to work.................... .. .................... ................ 363
Communities in which work was conducted.......---.............-..........- 399
Voluntary leaders and committeemen............................ .......... 415
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted................................. 877

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work......................--... ..................... 2,647
Communities in which work was conducted....................-----......... 2,859
Established cooperatives assisted....................... ..... ........... 78
New cooperatives assisted in organizing........................ ........... 28
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during
the year (established and new)..................................................$13,624,785
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year................$42,077,663

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work................................................. 2,233
Communities in which work was conducted.......- --.................-........ 1,546
Voluntary leaders and committeemen................. ............................ 878
Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification, and farm buildings........-............... 36,901

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work.....---................. ........ .......... 5,172
Communities in which work was done................... ........................ 2,415
Families assisted: In improving diets-18,597; food preparation-
10,448; total .......................................-.......................... 29,045
Families assisted with food preservation problems...........-.................-- 22,393

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work.............................. ................ 466
Communities in which work was done................. ............ ........ 426
Voluntary leaders assisting....................................... 303
Families assisted .................................... ............ 3,429








12 Florida Cooperative Extension

Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 382
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies............ 10,476
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems................................. 12,753

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work................................. ....... ... ............. .... 1,441
Communities in which work was done..................... ................. 570
Voluntary leaders assisting........... .....-..-..... ................ 421
Families assisted ... ----............... .......---- ................. 21,588

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work.................................................. 369
Communities in which work was done..................... ................. 357
Voluntary leaders assisting...................................... 201

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
D ays devoted to w ork............................................ ... ... ........ ................. 740
Communities in which work was done....................... ................ 448
Voluntary leaders assisting....................................... ... ......... ..... 602
Families assisted in improving home recreation...................................... 2,847
Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities 215
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities, or meeting programs.................. .......... ......... 323
Communities assisted in providing library facilities............................... 39

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys......................................... ....................... 5,216
Projects completed by girls..................................................... 17,975
Boys completing corn and peanut projects..................... .............. 671
Boys completing fruit projects............................. .......... 79
Boys completing garden projects................................................................. 1,049
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops.................. 107
Boys completing dairy projects................................ .. ............ .... 438
Boys completing poultry projects............................................. 915
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ...-.......................... ... 50
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ............................... 154
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects..................................... 1,374
Girls completing fruit projects............................................................ .. 577
Girls completing garden projects.................................... ..... ........ ...... 2,593
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning............................ 3
Girls completing dairy projects......................... ................. 158
Girls completing poultry projects............................................................... 1,031
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects...................... 3,246
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects.............. 545
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and
room improvement projects............................. .................... 5,637
Girls completing food preservation projects........................................ 1,655
4-H Membership-
Boys: Farm-5,942; non-farm-1,955; total................................... 7,897
Girls: Farm-6,114; non-farm-4,295; total................................... 10,409
4-H club members having health examinations because of participa-
tion in extension program ........................................................... ... 1,592
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs...................................... 417








Annual Report, 1946 13


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Associate Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
The first full year of peace following World War II brought little
change from the war years. Farm production goals were still high, farm
people had little new equipment to help them produce more efficiently,
labor remained scarce, and the need for information continued unabated.
All available information aids were employed to supplement the personal
activity of Extension workers in serving rural families.
An outstanding feature of the Editorial Department's work during the
year was informational aid rendered in connection with the celebration of
the first National Home Demonstration Week in May. News stories, farm
journal articles, radio talks and other means were employed to stress the
work done by Florida's home demonstration staff, and a number of prom-
inent business and professional leaders issued commendatory statements.
The celebration was centered around the theme, "Today's Home Builds
Tomorrow's World."
PRINTED MATERIALS
Purchase of printing proved more difficult in 1946 than in any of the
war years as printing paper and labor became even more scarce and de-
mand still higher. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, the Ex-
tension Service printed 3 new bulletins totaling 168 pages and for a total
of 52,500 copies. While no new circulars were issued, 3 comparable publi-
cations were printed in an ornamental gardening series. These added up
to 28 pages and 3,000 copies. Other materials in almost normal quantities
were published. Printed materials issued during the year are included in
the following list:


Bul. 127
Bul. 128
Bul. 129
Garden


Timber-Grazing-Game ................ .........
Raising Chicks, Broilers and Pullets.......................
Avocado Production in Florida..........................


Series The M agnolias ................................ ....................
Garden Protection.of Plants from Cold Injury and Treat-
Series ment of Trees and Shrubs Injured by Cold............
Garden Garden Soils ................ ................................
Series Final Report, 19th National Egg-Laying Test....
Announcement and Rules, 21st National Egg-
Laying Test .............. ................
Calendar 1946 ........................... ...... .........
Form 7 Agents' Monthly Report Blank................................
Veterans' Forms 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, each
Veterans' Form 7............. .................... ---
Veterans' Form 8......................... ............ ..........
Veterans' Form 9........................ ........ ...... ....
Veterans' Form 1 and 2 (revised)....................
Individual 4-H Club Member's Record.................
4-H Club Record Book........................................
Record Book, Florida Clothing Program for
Junior 4-H Club Girls........... ....... ........
Record Book, Home Improvement for Florida
4-H Club Girls................... ..... .. .........


Pages
16
40
108


Edition
15,000
30,000
7,500


12 1,000

8 1,000
8 1,000
24 1,250

6 300
12 12,000
2 10,000
2 1,000
1 3,000
2 2,500
2 2,500
2 1,000
2 10,000
16 10,000

4 12,000

12 10,000








Florida Cooperative Extension


Pages Edition
4-H Membership Card............................ ............ 2 20,000
Program, Boys' 4-H Short Course............................ 8 400
Farm Labor Identification Cards............................ 2 2,000
Poster Farm Help Wanted......................................... .. 1 150
Poster Avoid Livestock Losses........................ ............. 1 1,000
Poster Florida Poultry Institute.............................. ..... 1 300
Map Florida Type-of-Farming Areas............................ 1 10,000
Both new and old bulletins and other'printed materials are distributed
to county and home demonstration agents from the Mailing Room and
bulletins and circulars are both given out and mailed to individuals on
direct request.
The Extension Editor continued to serve as Florida Distribution Officer
for the USDA Extension Service and ordered and distributed to agents
thousands of copies of new USDA publications. The Editorial Office,
however, does not keep a supply of USDA publications on hand for distri-
bution.
SERVING NEWSPAPERS AND FARM JOURNALS
Ninety-eight white agents in 59 counties report having 6,466 news items
published in their local papers during the year. Among the negroes, 21
agents in 14 counties reported 188 news items printed.
Newsprint shortages, which became more acute during the year, con-
tinued to limit both daily and weekly newspapers in the amount of material
they could publish, and competition in news continued keen. The papers,
however, continued to use generously of agricultural news distributed from
the Extension Service.
Carrying from 8 to 15 separate news items in each issue, the weekly
clip-sheet remained the principal method of distributing news from the Ex-
tension Service. It served as a medium of direct releases to weekly news-
papers and as the basis for re-writes of the principal stories for press
associations serving daily newspapers and for farm papers.
In addition, 93 special stories were sent direct to press associations and
32 to 1 or more daily newspapers. Four skeleton, or fill-in, stories were
sent to county and home demonstration agents during the year for localiza-
tion and release.
Farm journals, as usual, were interested in Florida copy, and used num-
erous stories from the Extension Editors. Six journals of national circula-
tion printed 9 stories from the Extension Editors, occupying a total of 200
column inches of space. Two Southern farm periodicals carried 18 items
for 297 inches of space. Four Florida farm papers published 9 articles
which accounted for 150 column inches of space. This gave a total of 647
column inches of space in 12 journals of national, regional and loal
circulation.
BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
With increasing numbers of radio stations being established throughout
Florida, broadcasting activities of county and home demonstration agents
have stepped up until the State is well blanketed with farm and home in-
formation. Forty-six white agents in 32 counties reported making 738
radio broadcasts during the year, while 6 negro agents in 4 counties made
11 broadcasts.
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF, from 12:15 to 12:52 p. m. each
week day, continued to serve as a principal means of disseminating infor-
mation by radio from the College of Agriculture.
Regular features of the program included the weekly farm question box
and daily farm news highlights, both prepared and delivered by Extension








Annual Report, 1946


Editors. Staff members made 105 additional talks on the Farm Hour dur-
ing the year. Special features of the Farm Hour during the year included
remote control broadcasts from the Harry-Anna Crippled Children's Home
in Umatilla and from the Poultry and Nutrition Laboratories on the Uni-
versity of Florida campus.
In cooperation with the USDA Radio Service, the Extension Editors
sent farm flashes for 5 days each week to 21 Florida radio stations. Most
of these were sent first to county agents for approval and forwarding to
the stations. The flashes included copies of 104 talks made by Experiment
Station workers and 85 talks by Extension Service staff members made
during the Farm Hour.
Since home-makers' chats were discontinued by the USDA some time
ago, no comparable service was supplied to home demonstration agents
during most of the year. However, the Editors inaugurated a Florida
Home-makers' Chats series of weekly broadcasts on November 11, 1946,
supplying copy to 12 agents.

VISUAL AIDS, MEETINGS, MISCELLANEOUS
Florida agents are increasingly interested in making the best use of all
possible visual aids in carrying out their work. They are using motion
pictures, slides and filmstrips, as well as pictures and related materials.
The Editorial Office maintains a filmstrip library and is endeavoring to
establish a slide library. Motion pictures are deposited in the library of
the General Extension Division on the campus.
Through the cooperation and under the leadership of County Agent H.
L. Johnson, the Extension Service made a good motion picture film on
pasture establishment and maintenance. It is approximately 800 feet
in length, colored, silent.
The Editorial Office prepared and mimeographed a daily paper, DAILY
DOINGS, for the boys attending 4-H Club Short Course at the University
of Florida for 1 week in June.
The Editor made more than 100 photographs for use in various ways.
As in the past, the Editors and mailing clerks devoted approximately
half of their time to work for the Agricultural Experiment Station.

Fig. 2-A remote control broadcast from the Harry-Anna Crippled Chil-
dren's Home, Umatilla, paid tribute to the work of 4-H club boys there.

mm* nn 1 W.u P m. s nt-TF








16 Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION AND RELATED
PROGRAMS

H. G. Clayton, State Director, Production and Marketing Administration
R. S. Dennis, Assistant to the State Director
In Florida the agricultural conservation and related programs carried
on by the Field Service Branch, PMA, are closely coordinated with the
work of the Agricultural Extension Service.

THE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM
During the year 1946 the agricultural conservation program work was
in 3 major phases: (1) closing out the 1945 program and completing pay-
ments of assistance to farmers; (2) operation of the 1946 program; and
(3) development of 1947 program provisions, practices and rates of
assistance.
Closing out the 1945 Program.-Under this program there were 47,658
farms covered by worksheets. These farms contained 2,213,158 acres of
crop land, 388,173 acres of commercial groves and orchards and 8,743,102
acres of fenced non-crop pasture. During the year 23,588 farms partici-
pated and the operators of these farms received cash assistance to aid them
in carrying out needed soil-building and soil-conserving practices. The
total cash assistance value of all practices carried out was $2,856,400.
Actual cash payments made to these farm operators (prior to small pay-
ment increase) totaled $2,093,075.
The extents of the major practices for which assistance was given are
as follows: Superphosphate applied to soil-conserving crops and pastures,
89,785 tons of 20'percent equivalent material; Basic slag, raw rock and
colloidal phosphate applied to soil-conserving crops and pastures, 13,945
tons; potash, 60% equivalent applied to winter legumes and pastures,
1,080 tons; ground limestone applied to farm land and pastures, 66,711
tons; winter legumes seeded, 31,707 acres; new pasture established by
sodding or seeding approved grasses, 48,041 acres; pastures reseeded, 41,-
941 acres; pastures mowed or chopped, 192,500 acres; terraces constructed,
1,987,125 linear feet; summer legume cover crops, 115,480 acres; small
grains seeded for cover, 106,334 acres; legume and grass seed harvested,
8,575 acres; surface water control ditches on pastures 2,400,316 linear feet.
Operations of the 1946 Program.-Regulations required that all farm
operators who desire to participate in the 1946 program indicate their in-
tention to participate by March 1, 1946. Approximately 31,800 farmers
indicated their intention by that cutoff date. Of this number, approxi-
mately 22,000 will receive assistance amounting to approximately $3,046,-
000 for carrying out practices designed further to improve and conserve
soil resources. The major practices and the estimated extent of each
carried out in 1946 are: Application of phosphate materials to soil-con-
serving crops and pastures, 102,100 tons of 20 percent equivalent super-
phosphate, 9,385 tons of basic slag, raw rock and colloidal phosphate; ap-
plication of 60 percent potash to winter legumes and pastures, 1,436 tons;
ground limestone applied to farm land and pastures, 85,334 tons; winter
legumes seeded 65,135 acres; new pasture prepared and seeded or sodded,
59,700 acres; pasture reseeded, 18,800 acres; pasture mowed or chopped,
241,280 acres; terraces constructed, 2,029,700 linear feet; summer legume
cover crops seeded, 120,250 acres; small grains seeded for cover, 119,530
acres; legume and grass seed harvested, 8,437 acres; surface water con-
trol ditches constructed on pastures, 1,739,554 linear feet.







Annual Report, 1946


To assist farmers in carrying out these practices certain materials and
services were furnished by PMA. The costs of the materials or services
furnished were deducted from the payments earned by the farmers. In
1946 the kinds and amounts of materials and services furnished were:
Alyce clover seed, 1,850 pounds; Austrian winter peas, 22,600 pounds;
Bahia grass seed, 500 pounds; basic slag, 654.3 tons; blue lupine seed,
1,071,487 pounds; dolomitic limestone, 3,864.6 tons; high calcium limestone,
79.0 tons; limestone screenings, 746.4 tons; mixed fertilizer, 18 tons; 18%
superphosphate, 3,803.8 tons; 19% superphosphate, 772.25 tons; 20% super-
phosphate, 181.9 tons; triple superphosphate, 288.3 tons; terracing, 486,393
feet; and vetch seed, 45,500 pounds.
The 1947 Program has been developed substantially along the same
general lines as the 1946 program. The amount of $2,497,000 has been
tentatively allotted to the State for the purpose of making 1946 practice
payments to farmers in Florida.

RELATED PROGRAMS
Marketing Quotas were in effect for flue-cured tobacco. In 1946 the
acreage allowed to 6,703 farms was 24,605.6 acres. There were 20,279.95
acres of flue-cured tobacco planted on 6,036 farms. The 1946 production
of flue-cured tobacco on Florida farms was approximately 18,917,616
pounds. Marketing quotas were not in effect for any other crop.
Sugar.-Payments made in 1946 on the 1945 crop to Florida sugar pro-
ducers amounted to $837,102.14. The 1945 acreage harvested for sugar
was 31,362 acres and production was 1,041,108 tons of cane. The estimated
total commercially recoverable sugar (96, raw) was 206,361,974 pounds.
Due to the February 1947 freeze and other factors, the acreage that will
be harvested from the 1946 crop cannot be estimated at this time with
any degree of accuracy.
Cotton Crop Insurance was in effect in Walton and Leon counties in
1946. In Walton there were 58, in Leon 82 contracts. A requirement of
this program is that before insurance contracts can be effective in the
county at least the smaller of 50 farms or one-third of the cotton farms
in the county must apply for insurance. A number of applications were
made in other counties but could not be accepted because the minimum
number was not secured.
Irish Potato Goals.-Irish potato goals amounting to 23,926 acres were
established on 673 potato farms. Farms planting within the established
goals are eligible for the price support offered by the government in con-
nection with the 1947 potato crop.
Under the Dairy Feed Payment Program dairy subsidy payments were
made during the first 6 months of 1946 to 932 Florida dairymen. These
payments amounted to $1,737,667.77 and were made on the sale of 204,882,-
900 pounds of whole milk and 19,734 pounds of butterfat. This program
was discontinued June 30, 1946.
Farm building applications under the Veterans' Emergency Housing
Orders were filed in the county offices, processed by county committees
and transmitted to the State office for disposition. A total of 1,969 farm
building applications of all types were processed from April 23, 1946, to the
end of this program on December 23, 1946. Applications for building per-
mits and priorities totaled 698 veteran's farm dwellings; 1,139 non-veteran's
farm dwellings; 20 veterans' farm buildings other than dwellings; 112 non-
veterans' farm buildings other than dwellings.








18 Florida Cooperative Extension

Veterans' preference applications for farm machinery also were made
in the county offices and processed by county committees under instruc-
tions from the State office. If approved, the county committee issued a
preference certificate to the veteran for the item or items of farm mach-
inery applied for and covered by the order. This certificate when pre-
sented to a dealer entitled the veteran to preference over non-veteran pur-
chasers. During the year 1946 county committees issued preference certi-
ficates for 2,393 items of farm equipment. The program ended in Decem-
ber 1946.
Agricultural production goals calling again for a relatively high level
of production were established for 1946. The State USDA Council, repre-
sentatives of the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station, Extension
Service, farm organizations and State agencies all cooperated in working
out these goals. The 1946 goals for the major crops and livestock were:
Peanuts picked and threshed 90,000 acres; sugar cane for sugar 39,000
acres; Irish potatoes 31,000 acres; sweet potatoes 18,000 acres; cotton
25,000 acres; all tobacco 24,800 acres; corn 700,000 acres; oats 130,000
acres; milk cows 120,000; hens and pullets 1,711,000; eggs 17.1 -million
dozen; chickens raised 4,217,000; turkeys raised 126,000; sows to farrow
in the spring 93,000; cattle and calves on farms 1,159,000 head; truck and
vegetable crops; 253,700 acres.







Annual Report, 1946


EMERGENCY FARM LABOR

E. F. DeBusk, State Supervisor
H. S. McLendon, Assistant State Supervisor
H. O. Anderson, Assistant State Supervisor
P. L. Peaden, Assistant State Supervisor

The 1946 labor program in Florida was carried on in a general way
along the same lines as for the past 3 years. In winter and early spring
a large supply of labor is needed for harvesting vegetables, fruit and
sugarcane for sugar in the southern part of the State. It was necessary
to use considerable foreign labor for this purpose, as not enough local
domestic migrants were available to do all the work. When the central
and northern part of the State was ready to harvest vegetables, the peak
need for labor had passed in the southern area, making it possible to trans-
fer some of this labor north. This applied to both foreign and domestic
migrants. Part of the domestic migrants move from southern Florida
direct to states north and east. The Farm Labor Office, assisted by Emer-
gency Farm Labor personnel, helped to a larger extent in directing this
migratory movement in 1946 than in any previous year.
In the western part of the State where labor is needed to harvest pea-
nuts, corn, sugarcane and tung nuts, and where in the past prisoners of
war have been used, it was possible to get enough local labor to harvest
these crops this year. Some of the county agents were assisted to recruit
and get this local labor on the job. Part of the needs were taken care
of in this area by the exchange of work. This applied especially to the
small grower, both negro and white.
In several cases equipment was loaned to growers to help house both
foreign and domestic migratory labor. A representative of the State
Office visited some of the growers and inspected their quarters where
labor was to be housed.
One negro was added to the State staff in the spring. His duties were
to work mostly with the domestic migratory labor. His appointment was
cooperative with the Washington office. Another member of the State
staff was also placed on a cooperative appointment, his duties being mostly
with domestic migratory workers also. Both of these followed the domes-
tic migrants up the coast from state to state, remaining but of Florida for
several months in the summer. These changes have put Florida in closer
touch with domestic migratory workers.
There were 31 farm labor supply centers operated in Florida during
1946, 2 by grower organizations and the other 29 by the Office of Labor.
Total capacity of these supply centers was 18,859 and they had an average
of 9,885 in them during the time they were operated. A number of labor-
ers are housed in quarters on individual farms and this type of housing is
increasing each year. Three of the supply centers were for white domestic
laborers, 3 for colored domestic, 2 for both domestic and foreign colored,
and 23 for foreign labor.
The State Advisory Committee of 1945 continued to serve the program,
subject to call when conditions justified.
New workers were given proper supervision and assistance until they
became familiar with their jobs.
Up to the present, farm labor associations in Florida have used mainly
foreign labor or prisoners of war. The principal service they have rend-
ered has been the assignment of this labor, keeping a record of their
services, making out the payrolls and paying the labor.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Determining the needs for labor in a county, or area of a county, was
done through the assistance of the county agent.
Recruitment and Placement.-Efforts are made to channel both inter-
state and domestic labor where it is most needed. Since there is a negro
on the staff who devotes all his time to migratory workers, it is easier to
stay in closer contact with them and this will build up confidence with
leaders. It has been necessary to keep a number of placement men on
the payroll to handle the placing of the foreign labor which was housed in
labor centers operated by the Office of Labor.
During 1946 there were 43,278 farm workers, both domestic and foreign,
placed in 28 counties. These placements were made by county agents,
labor assistants and placement men. In these 28 counties 2,297 orders for
workers were received. Labor was placed with 1,407 different farmers.
Of this total number placed, 6,500 were placed for a period of 1 to 3 days,
8,546 for a period of 4 days to 1 month, 26,409 for a period of 1 to 5 months,
and 1,823 for year-round work, or longer than 5 months. The number of
different individuals placed is estimated at 39,664. Of this number 31,017
were men, 7,223 women and 1,424 youth 16 to 18 years of age. Included in
the total number of placements were some 600 high school children who
went to Connecticut to work with shade tobacco during their school vaca-

Fig. 3.-Bahama labor continued to be relied upon principally for relieving
a tight labor situation in the State.

^ "







Annual Report, 1946


tions; also some 125 adult tobacco workers who went to Canada after
their crops were made and marketed here in Florida.
During 1946 no prisoner of war camps were operated exclusively for
agriculture; however, some growers did use prisoners from a camp oper-
ated by the Army and Navy.
Florida supervisors cooperated with the Washington Farm Labor Office
by assisting in the recruiting of migratory farm workers in the spring of
1946. Farm workers were needed for summer and fall harvest in States
north. The recruitment was done to comply with the Florida recruitment
law of 1943. Seven farm labor supervisors came to Florida in May and
June and were personally introduced into counties having a surplus of
labor available for out-of-state recruitment.
Farm workers and crew leaders were given an identification card which
was recognized by local law enforcement officers.
In the migratory movement 431 groups or crews with 10,998 workers
were assisted. This movement has increased in size since 1945 and repre-
sents the largest supply of harvest workers on the eastern seaboard. Job
information was offered in labor surplus counties and an information sta-
tion at the State line gave the time of the movement.
County agents' records of workers issued identification cards showed
that about 10,000 workers from 13 counties migrated to 10 states.
Domestic workers were directed within the State. Workers were given
job information on potato and bean harvest in the northern part of Florida.
Domestic workers were supplied to 2 concerns resuesting 125 foreign work-
ers to harvest tung nuts. Five employers and 4 negro crew leaders were
brought together and a work agreement developed.
Victory Farm Volunteers.-It has been very difficult to operate an ac-
tive program for children, due to the fact that school terms conflict with
harvesting seasons. There is considerable work done by teen-age children
in Florida on their parents' farms.
Health and Medical Service.-During the fall of 1945, Florida sent a
representative of the State Farm Labor Staff to Alabama to assist in re-
cruiting some workers to help with the harvest of beans and sugarcane.
The transportation of these workers was paid from Extension farm labor
funds. In cooperation with the Migratory Labor Health Association our
office furnished medical service for these workers as long as they remained
in Florida. A number of these did not return to Alabama until April or
May of 1946.
An agreement between the Florida State Board of Health, the Office of
Labor and the Agricultural Extension Service provided for joint inspection
of sanitary housing requirements. The State Board of Health issued 101
permits for approved housing of 9,372 foreign and domestic workers.
Employers received aid in laying out housing and labor camp sites
where these services were requested. County agents received notice of
sale of surplus Army buildings. Assistance was given to employers to ob-
tain priorities for purchase and to locate materials.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION

Joyce Bevis and L. T. Nieland

County reports show that 30 counties provided definite training in
safety and fire prevention for 3,740 club girls and 1,956 girls and 1,396
women were enrolled in home and farm safety. As a result, 5,219 families
carried on better practices in home safety throughout the year. Home and
farm safety was discussed at 230 meetings with 4-H club groups. There
were 153 meetings of this type held with home demonstration club women.
At these meetings a total of 209 method demonstrations were given before
the groups.
A safety record book has been prepared to assist in the development of
the home and farm safety program among 4-H club members. It is plan-
ned to have 20,000 copies of this record book printed for use in conducting
4-H farm safety programs.
All county and home agents were supplied with "Farm Safety Packets"
by the National Safety Council. These packets contained news stories,
posters, safety stickers, proclamations, radio spot announcements and
statistics useful in helping county and home agents conduct farm safety
campaigns in observance of National Safety Week.
A mimeographed outline was prepared for use of county agents in deve-
loping farm safety programs in their counties.







Annual Report, 1946


Part II--Men's Work


WORK OF COUNTY AGENTS
A. P. Spencer, Director
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
K. S. McMullen, District Agenti
Probably more changes in county personnel occurred during 1946 than
in any other period in the history of Extension work in the State. With
the war over, 4 county agents and 1 assistant county agent returned from
the service to be placed back in the counties. Two new county agents who
had been in service and 1 other new county agent were employed. Four-
teen new assistant county agents, 13 of whom had been members of the
armed services, were employed. One county agent resigned to take a posi-
tion on the State staff and 2 other county agents resigned to enter private
employment. Five assistant county agents resigned to enter other work.
Four county agents were transferred to other counties.
With the large number of new agents and assistants employed and the
necessity for bringing up to date in subject matter those agents returning
from service, much emphasis has been placed on training during the past
year. Supervisory agents through personal visits provided as much train-
ing on the job as possible. Many of the new agents attended the 3 weeks
training course in agricultural Extension methods offered at the University
of Florida during the period June 17 to July 3. This course proved to be
of much value in indoctrinating these men in Extension work.
Although there was a large number of applicants to select from during
the past year, it has not always been easy to fill positions vacated. All
agents appointed must have a degree from an agricultural college. They
must have a good personality and be able to work with people. They must
have a genuine interest in farm problems and be able to plan constructively
and carry out definite programs in the counties.
Local boards of county commissioners cooperate in making available
funds for employment of county agents and assistants. Supervisory
agents maintain a very close and cordial working relationship with these
boards.
During the year many activities which had been suspended during the
war were revived. The South Florida Fair at Tampa was held for the
first time since 1942 and a number of agents placed county exhibits there.
A number of other fairs over the State were resumed. Such activities as
4-H club camps, institutes and short courses received renewed emphasis
from Extension workers.
Supervisory agents have stressed the necessity for careful planning
and execution of all programs in the counties and have aided the county
Extension workers in every way possible in carrying out these programs.
Such programs usually require the assistance of 1 or more specialists, and
efforts are made to coordinate the activities of specialists in the Extension
Service as well as those outside the service who are in position to contri-
bute to these programs.
Supervisory agents make every effort to keep abreast with office and
clerical needs in the counties. Efforts are made to assist county agents
with the organization of their offices and the training of clerical personnel.
'Appointed February 1, 1946.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
John M. Johnson, Agricultural Engineer
Housing.-The Extension housing program had for its purpose raising
the standard of living, health and income through better farm houses.
Plans and recommendations for a housing program were made by 5
committees composed of county and home demonstration agents and staff
members. Copies of the recommendations were mailed to each county and
home agent for guidance in setting up an Extension housing program.
Considerable activity in this field exists in all counties and agents are be-
ing confronted with inquiries concerning all phases of housing.
State Housing Committee.-The Extension Engineer, Assistant to the
Director and State Home Demonstration Agent were appointed by the
Director to represent the Extension Service on the State Housing Com-
mittee. This committee introduced the program on an experimental basis
in 3 demonstration counties. Organization meetings were held by the
county groups and sub-committees were appointed to work on specific
problems. A survey was conducted in each county to determine the needs
for specific projects to be undertaken by the group. As far as the surveys
have been completed, the committees have selected remodeling, grounds
beautification, rural electrification, sanitation and water supply as projects.
The Extension Engineer and other committee members visited 2
families selected by the county committees for a demonstration in remodel-
ing and building in 2 of the demonstration counties. Plans, working
drawings and specifications have been furnished and work has been started
on the 2 projects.
Farm Building Plan Service.-The building service was started by se-
curing from the USDA plan exchange service Van Dyke printings for all
plans shown in Miscellaneous Publication 360 and Farmers Bulletin 1738.
In addition to the 198 Van Dykes from the bulletins, the following plans
and information have been prepared by the Extension Engineer:
Three dwelling house plans.
One vat creosote plant plan.
One concrete water tank plan.
One potato-curing barn plan.
One canning kitchen plan.
One brooder plan.
One septic tank plan (mimeographed).
One model kitchen assembled (for use in talks and schools).
Six mimeographed series on house planning (general distribution).
Five charts for "better planning" lectures.
Two kitchen planning charts.
Two furniture arrangement charts.
Three statistical charts on housing conditions (for use in talks
and schools).
Three farmstead plans, landscaped (for use in talks and schools).
Information on the following subjects is being assembled to be pub-
lished in bulletin form for state-wide distribution:
Plans for Florida farm buildings.
Farmstead planning and beautification.
Bibliography of Housing (information for county workers).
Housing Activities by Agents.-County and home agents assisted farm
families and 4-H club members in housing, sanitation and farmstead plan-
ning in 561 communities and were aided by 401 voluntary local leaders.
Agents assisted in planning farm buildings, remodeling and repairing in







Annual Report, 1946 25

337 communities, with 182 voluntary local leaders assisting in this activity.
Six radio talks and several news items were contributed by individual
committee members.

STATISTICAL SUMMARY ON HOUSING AND FARM BUILDING
ACTIVITIES

(County and Home Agents-White)

Families
Assisted Counties
DWELLINGS
Construction .. ..................................- 1,005 50
R em modeling ................................... .....................1,322 48
Storage space ..................... ..... ................... 1,217 40
Kitchen improvement ....................................... 1,268 37
Room arrangement ........................ .................. 1,847 36
H eating system s .................................................... 207 32
Laundry and utility rooms ..............-................ 604 33
SANITATION
Sewage systems ...................... .............. 491 40
W ater systems .......... .... ... ................... 723 46
Sanitary privies ................ .... ................ ... 501 27
Screening ................. ........ ............................ .... ...2,247 38
FARMSTEAD PLANNING
Farm and home plans .................. .............. 364 21
Home grounds improvements ..............................3,862 47
W indbreak planting ................... .. .......... 181 19
FARM BUILDINGS
Construction ................-- ....- .... ...... 973 50
Remodeling and repairing .................... .............. 1,338 46
Construction of farm building equipment.......... 382 27

Farm Machinery.-All machinery requires proper maintenance and ef-
forts have been concentrated on this phase of the program.
Two classes in internal combustion engines were conducted daily for
boys at 2 summer camps. A cut-away 4-stroke cycle engine, charts, draw-

Fig. 4.-A tractor maintenance short course trained 23 voluntary leaders
from 12 counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ings and an automobile engine were employed as teaching aids. Two farm
machinery classes were held each day during the 4-H Short Course at the
University.
Tractor Maintenance Short Course.-A 3-day short course on tractor
maintenance was conducted in cooperation with the State 4-H Club Agent
for voluntary 4-H leaders. Twenty-three leaders from 12 counties attended
the course on the University campus.
Terracing Equipment Demonstration.-Two demonstrations of terrac-
ing equipment were held in cooperation with the Extension Soil Conserva-
tionist and the county agents, and over 300 interested farmers attended.
Development of New Machinery.-The continuing farm labor shortage
has forced the farmer to design and build machines and labor-saving de-
vices. All possible assistance was given in designing and building these
machines.
County agents report 1,469 farmers assisted in selection of mechanical
equipment; 1,500 farmers assisted in making more efficient use of mech-
anical equipment; 1,560 farmers following instructions in the maintenance
and repair of mechanical equipment; and 6 farm machinery demonstra-
tions.
4-H Club Girls' Training Classes.-Training classes on house planning
and remodeling were conducted for 4-H club girls, home agents and local
leaders at the Annual Girls' 4-H Club Short Course. Classes ,were also
conducted at a 4-H girls' summer camp.
Rural Electrification.-County and home agents worked on this pro-
ject in 255 communities, assisted by voluntary leaders. Assistance was
given in 23 counties in organizing associations for the purpose of obtaining
electricity. Farm families assisted in obtaining electricity this year total
2,848 in 47 counties. Seventeen hundred and thirty-eight families in 32
counties were assisted in selection of electrical equipment, in lighting and
in using electricity for income-producing purposes.
Seed Drying.-In the absence of research information on the storage
of lupine seed, all available information possible was gathered from farm-
ers who had gotten favorable germination from seed saved. Conclusions
and recommendations drawn from the study were made in a circular letter
furnished each agent in the counties in which lupine is grown.
Drainage.-County agents, soil conservation technicians and county
foresters have cooperated in the immediate action taken to regain ample
moisture for successfully growing trees and pasture grasses. Assistance
was given 1,126 farmers in 41 counties in working out drainage problems
this year by agents and the Specialist.
Citrus groves and truck farms in certain areas of the State need supple-
mental irrigation 1 or 2 times during the year. Several grove irrigation
systems have been designed and a project in cooperation with a grove
owner is under way to demonstrate the possibility of the addition of liquid
fertilizer with irrigation water.
Eight hundred and ninety-three farmers in 33 counties were assisted by
agents and the Specialist on irrigation problems during the year.
Oil as Fuel in Syrup Cooking.-Labor and wood for fuel have been criti-
cally short for the farmer who produces sugarcane and sweet sorghum
syrup on a commercial basis. This situation was greatly improved by the
introduction of a mechanical pot-type oil burner for use in making syrup
in the widely used shallow, baffle-type, continuous evaporators. The Ex-
tension Engineer made 12 farm visits in rendering aid in the installation
and adjustment of the burners. Seven county agents were instructed in
the use of the burners.







Annual Report, 1946


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Dr. C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist


CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT

Zach Savage, Agricultural Economist
There were 243 citrus records obtained for the 1944-45 season from 13
counties. These records are the basis for the information presented in
this report.
Florida citrus growers received the highest prices for their fruit during
the 1944-45 season that they received during the entire period of this grove
management project which was begun in 1931. The price received for the
average box of citrus, including grapefruit, was $2.02. This was 31 cents
higher than the price received the previous season.
Fruit harvested per acre in 1944-45 was 26 percent less than the previ-
ous season but ranked third in the past 14 seasons. This drop in fruit har-
vested was largely due to the storm of October 1944, The fruit harvested
in the entire State was 25 percent less than the estimated production prior
to the storm.
Operating costs per acre have increased each season for the past 7
years. Operating costs per box increased from 31 cents in 1943-44 to 52
cents in 1944-45, or 68 percent. Per-acre costs increased 25 percent be-
tween these seasons and the remainder of the increase, 43 percent, was
due to the increase in the number of boxes of fruit harvested per acre.
Per-acre returns above operating costs decreased 20 percent from the
previous season, whereas the per-box net returns increased 7 percent due
to the increased sale price of fruit.
Preliminary returns from fruit for the 1945-46 season indicate the
following: A slight decrease from 1944-45 in the price received for fruit,
considerable increase in fruit harvested per acre, very little change in net
returns above operating costs per box, but the largest net returns above
operating costs per acre of any season during the past 15 seasons.
Citrus grove prices continued to increase during the year. An effort
was made to disseminate information by magazine articles and radio show-
ing the productive history of all groves on which the Extension Service has
records and the resulting values this production would justify.
Trees of the same age produced more during the past 6 seasons than
during the previous 7 seasons. The cumulative effects of applying so-
called fertilizer amendments, applying increased quantities of fertilizer,
favorable weather conditions, an increasing proportion of grove acreage
being irrigated, and other factors resulted in increasing the productiveness
of orange and tangerine trees of the same ages to such an extent that
orange production in the State was increased at least 30 percent and
grapefruit at least 12 percent during the past 2 seasons.
The Extension Citriculturist has had access to and used fertilizer, spray
and other information from the growers' records in our files. To obtain
more complete information from growers who keep records on our books,
the Citrus Grove Record Book was revised to include additional informa-
tion, particularly on fertilizers and sprays. Likewise, blanks used in con-
nection with personal visits to growers who do not keep records were re-
vised to include this same additional information.
Summary figures for each of the 243 records kept in the 1944-45 sea-
son were returned to the cooperators. Each cooperator was sent costs
and returns for the 2 age groupings for 1944-45 and costs for 1945-46, a







Florida Cooperative Extension


copy of costs and returns of the older grouping for the county in which
the grove was located, and a summary of costs and returns for the older
grouping by seasons for the 14-year period, 1931-45, together with costs
for 1945-46.
County agents in each of 4 counties received a bound copy containing
a report of each individual grove within their counties.


FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management

Assistance to Veterans.-The Farm Management Specialist is a member
of the State Veterans' Advisory Committee and has contributed to the pro-
gram in the following ways:
Visited 12 counties and assisted county advisory committees in setting
up minimum standards for various types of farms, below which a veteran
could not operate and be recommended for on-the-job training.
Florida's farm record book, Miscellaneous Publication 31, was selected
for general use among the veteran trainees. Those choosing to keep any
other creditable set of records were permitted to do so. A manual for
teaching Publication 31 was prepared and use of the manual was demon-
strated at a school for trainers.
Four district meetings of Extension agents and county advisers have
been held to present and discuss benefits for veterans employed in agri-
culture, and a round table discussion of the subject was conducted at the
Extension Annual Conference.
During the period May 1945 through June 1946 the Farm Management
Specialist was visiting instructor in farm management at the Welch Com-
valescent Hospital at Daytona Beach, making 25 trips. He met 90 classes,
with an attendance of about 3,500 enlisted men and 700 officers.
Throughout the year veterans have made many requests for information
on how to get started in farming, the possibilities for homesteading and
other farm management problems. To supply this demand, articles were
supplied to the press and mimeographed material was prepared.
Farm and Home Planning.-Farm and home planning with individuals
was carried through its sixth year. This project is primarily an experi-
ment in Extension methods with low-income farm families.
Methods used include first, a 1-day refresher school for the cooperating
county agents. Then the Farm Management Specialist spends 2 days with
each agent, visiting about 12 farmers, analyzing their businesses and mak-
ing recommendations for improvements that will secure higher income or
will improve the standard of living. Following the Specialist's visit, each
agent continues the process with a limited number of farmers.
A total of 202 farm families were served in this way and 1,320 recom-
mendations were made, of which 72 percent were carried out in a credit-
able manner. Conservative estimates of the value of the additional pro-
duction on the farms as a result of following these recommendations range
from $50 to $650, with an average of $190 per farm. This is an average
increase of about 10 percent over 1945 income and about 300 percent over
1939 income for these farms.
Nine groups are now organized so that follow-up contacts can be made
with the cooperators at meetings. However, the initial contact each year
is made at the farm. Timely circular letters and printed publications are
mailed to all cooperators.
Record Books.-In addition to the 1,500 farm record books supplied to
veteran trainees and the demonstration on how to teach records presented









Annual Report, 1946 29

to the trainers, about 1,600 farm record books have been supplied to farm-
ers through county agents. Assistance has been given in meetings and
personally in entering inventories and otherwise keeping books. Many
farmers now keep better record books than formerly because they find
that well-kept books save them money in making income tax returns.
Four Extension record books were revised during the year.
4-H Club Work.-Classes in farm management were conducted for a
total of 210 4-H club boys and girls at 2 summer camps.
A class in better methods was conducted for older boys at the summer
Short Course. Four teams were trained to demonstrate greater labor effi-
ciency, assistance was rendered at 5 achievement day programs, and 15
club meetings were attended.
Extension Methods Teaching.-In August the Farm Management Spec-
ialist was appointed Professor of Extension Methods in addition to his
present title. Beginning in February 1947 he will teach all Extension
methods courses offered in the regular sessions at the University and will
teach and supervise such courses in the summer sessions.









Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING, POULTRY
A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman

Throughout the year 1946 the Extension Service has endeavored to steer
the livestock industry on a sound, economical basis to meet postwar condi-
tions.
, Information on the livestock situation and meat animal goals was furn-
ished to all county agents and to 2,700 livestock men. However, unsettled
market conditions and a questionable outlook somewhat interfered with
meeting these goals.
A joint livestock field day and junior livestock judging contest was
staged in Escambia County in February. Four-H members and Future
Farmers from 2 Florida and 2 Alabama counties were represented by 14
judging teams of 6 members each.
BEEF CATTLE

According to a BAE report, there is an annual 5.8 percent death loss in
calves in Florida with a 3 percent death loss in cattle, amounting to 57,000
deaths each year. With average prices, this loss amounts to almost a
million and a quarter dollars each year.
The monthly letter, "Of Things That Concern Florida Cattlemen," which
was sent to all county agents and 2,550 cattlemen, attempted to prevent
this loss. Circular letters, radio talks, visits and news articles have been
used to keep before the producers the necessity of producing feed and pre-
venting the loss. The monthly letter handled all phases of the cattle
business including breeding, selection, feeding and disease and parasite
control.
County agents report many cattlemen culling their herds and reducing
cattle numbers to fit the feed and pasture supply. Their reports further
show that there are now 770,062 cattle now on fenced pasture.
As a result of Extension work with beef cattle, it is now a common
practice for cattlemen to select their bulls more carefully and have them
in better condition during the breeding season. County agents report
1,052 farmers assisted in improving methods of feeding.
Auction market managers, breeders and dealers have cooperated in
bringing in carloads of purebred bulls which were sold at public auction.
The Extension Service has encouraged cattlemen to produce and grow
out home-raised bulls. County agents' reports show that 5,957 bulls were
raised in the State and that 3,047 bulls were sold for breeding purposes.
County agents assisted 559 cattlemen to obtain purebred bulls and 384
cattlemen to obtain high grade cows.
In practically every county in the State there is at least 1 herd of
purebred cattle. Brahmas, Herefords, Angus, Devons and Shorthorns lead
in the order named. County agents report a total of 215 of these pure-
bred herds in the State.
Many cattlemen have improved the quality of their breeding herds and
have increased the percentage of the annual "calf crop," following recom-
mendations of the Extension Service. County agents report that 719
cattlemen are practicing controlled breeding, that 1,028 cattlemen are
selecting heifers for herd replacement and that the percentage calf crop
in the best herds is 811/2 compared with 573 in the average herd.







Annual Report, 1946 31

County agents report also that the average age of market calves is 5 to
9 months and the average weight is 225 to 400 pounds.
To reduce the death loss of cows and calves in the spring, the Exten-
sion Service points out the recommendations of Experiment Stations on
wintering beef animals on sugarcane with cottonseed meal, protein feeds,
hay, pasture and oats.
The scarcity of protein feeds has interfered with winter feeding, conse-
quently, cattlemen have turned to sugarcane, oats, rye and rye grass.
Approximately 150,000 acres of oats were sown last fall. Much of this
was for grazing and wintering animals.
County agents have made recommendations regarding land preparation
for pasture, planting seed, fertilizing pasture, and maintaining pastures
already established.
DDT has been used very extensively in the State for the control of
parasites. Information on the use of this material was supplied through
the monthly news letter. Reports show that 2,802 farmers have been
assisted in treating more than 20,000 cattle for grubs and approximately
200,000 cattle for lice. This does not represent all of the cattle that have
been treated for parasites, grubs and lice, nor the number that have been
treated for internal parasites. Also, 1,482 farmers have been assisted in
their efforts to control worms and flukes in cattle.

Fig. 5.-Betty Simmons and her grand champion Hereford steer-as good
beef as to be found anywhere in the country.








Florida Cooperative Extension


In December 1945, cattle fever ticks were re-discovered in Okeechobee
County. The Director of Extension called a meeting of county agents in
southern Florida with members of the State Livestock Sanitary Board and
the State Veterinarian at Sebring in January 1946. After receiving instruc-
tions and getting an understanding of the necessary steps for tick eradica-
tion, the Extension Service put on an educational campaign to help eradi-
cate and prevent the spread of ticks.
Marketing information was sent to nearly 3,000 cattlemen. Govern-
ment reports show the following number of cattle and calves marketed in
Florida during the 11 months, November 1945 to October 1, 1946, as com-
pared with 1945: 1946 1945 Increase of
Cattle ......... ......... ...110,533 106,104 3,329
Calves ........ ........................ 64,266 55,237 9,029
Three fat stock shows and sales were held in Florida this year. At
Ocala 281 fat animals were shown, including 28 4-H club calves and 30
FFA calves. At Quincy there were 258 fat cattle, including 13 4-H and
44 FFA calves. In Pensacola the show and sale included 36 4-H calves.
Betty Simmons, 12-year old 4-H girl of Alachua County, topped the
show and sale at Ocala (and the State) with her 873-pound yearling Here-
ford steer by winning grand champion of the show and 4-H grand cham-
pion and selling her calf for $1.15 per pound. The champion steer at
Quincy brought $1.15. The Pensacola 4-H champion brought 46 cents per
pound.
One range cattle show was held this year at Kissimmee, where 155
representative cattle from the surrounding counties made a very credit-
able exhibit.
There have been 2 purebred shows and sales, 1 by the Florida Brahma
Association and 1 by the Florida Angus Association.
HOG WORK
The Nation's and the State's 1946 goals in swine production were
brought to the attention of the county agents in their annual meeting and
discussed with reference to their plans of work. This matter was also
brought to the attention of the negro agents at Tallahassee in the discus-
sion of their plans of work.
Hog marketing were affected by quotas. However, records show hog
sales in May, June, July and August 1946 were 34,624 head, compared with
18,101 during the same period in 1945. Yet, for the 11 months, November
1, 1945, to October 1, 1946, there was a decrease in hog sales of 13,253
head, compared with the year before. County agents reported having
aided 1,271 farmers to improve their feeding methods.
The Extension Service motto for swine raisers is "Raise Healthy Pigs
on Grazing and Fattening Crops in Fields Free of Parasites." County
agents report having aided 2,760 farmers in controlling external parasites
of hogs and 4,497 farmers to control internal parasites.
The Florida Duroc Swine Association held its second annual sale in
Ocala on October 17. Forty-five purebred hogs-the top, a gilt bringing
$155.00-were sold. During the year county agents assisted 440 farmers
to obtain purebred boars and 386 farmers to secure purebred or high grade
sows and gilts.
The managers of cold-storage meat-curing plants have been given in-
formation on methods of handling meats and helped to solve troubles in
curing operations.
Information has been furnished on handling meats through cold-storage
locker plants. In addition, information was furnished on construction,
location and management of these plants.








Annual Report, 1946


A picture on operating and handling meat through freezer locker plants
was shown to 26 county agents.
At the county and home demonstration agents' annual conference,
methods of packaging meat and poultry for freezer locker plants were
demonstrated.
There has been a growing interest in locker .plants throughout the
State.
4-H CLUB WORK
Four-H club members have been instructed in feeding and finishing out
calves for market and for show, and how to handle steers in the show-ring.
At the short course in Gainesville, 161 4-H boys were given demon-
strations on how to select breeding animals and how to judge beef cattle.
At Camp McQuarrie, 108 boys were taught how to select beef cattle
and hogs for meat production and how to handle animals in the show-ring.
There were 3 county 4-H calf shows.
Two 4-H boys staged an educational demonstration on raising healthy
pigs free of parasites on grazing and fattening crops. They used a chart
listing the crops, time of planting, when to graze, and when and where
for pigs to be farrowed. They had samples of the crops and feeds, show-
ing the feed saved on healthy pigs.
Nine county 4-H judging teams competed at the Ocala show.

DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman2

Dairy Extension work for 1946, the first postwar year, underwent some
changes. The critical shortages of good dairy feed, price advances, uncer-
tainties about OPA, dairy subsidies, labor problems and shortages of
essential materials were obstacles that caused a reduction in milk pro-
duction.
Feed and labor shortages and mastitis resulted in the sale of a large
number of dairies. Fortunately, most of these dairy properties were taken
over by other dairymen who, in many cases, expanded their operations.
The result was very few dairy farms left vacant. Florida dairymen prob-
ably received 11/4 million dollars for their products in the first part of 1946.
Florida dairies have not recovered from wartime conditions sufficiently
for dairymen to give individual care to cows.
County agents in 42 counties participated in a program to improve
pastures with 25 percent of the market milk dairy farms on 8,000 acres.
County agents made use of the Soil Conservation Service in handling, ter-
racing and draining 3,500 acres of pasture lands. Seven county agents, in
cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service and powder companies, re-
moved stumps from 2,800 acres of grasslands in the 1946 pasture improve-
ment program.
On 525 farms 13,417 acres of forage crops for dairy cows were fertilized
in 1946.
During the very unfavorable weather conditions that prevailed in 1946,
cattail millet was the 1 annual crop that gave milk cows continuous graz-
ing for some 120 days.
Oats.-Oats are the number 1 winter grazing crop bver a wide area of
Florida. More dairy farms seeded oats in 1945 than in any other year.
Junior dairy club boys made wide use of fall-seeded oats for grazing and
as a hay crop for the family cow.

2Retired October 31, 1946.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Rye.-Rye is more suitable as a winter grazing crop on rolling sandy
soils. Rye is also more capable of withstanding unfavorable grazing con-
ditions than oats.
Rye Grass.-English and Italian rye grasses have been seeded exten-
sively on 22,000 acres of the more fertile muck lands in southern Florida.
Feed Production and Conservation.-County agents in 5 counties are
working with small dairy farmers in the construction of trench silos.
Dairymen planted 7,450 acres to sorghum to use as silage crops in Florida
in 1946. There was a great reduction in the amount of silage crops of all
kinds because of labor conditions.
Sugarcane as a forage crop has been given recognition in the dairy
program for some 15 years. This year 105 farmers throughout Florida
have been using forage cane as a supplementary roughage feed.
Hybrid varieties of corn developed at the Main Experiment Station at
Gainesville and used at the Belle Glade and Quincy stations have proved
to be a very valuable silage crop when grown on fertile, moist land.
The dairy subsidy program caused the 900 market milk dairy farmers
of the State to give attention to feeding the better cows in proportion to
their production. During the period of food rationing, most market milk
dairy farmers have greatly increased the number of cows on their farms.
On large dairy farms it is not practical to feed each cow according to
her production. However, on Penney Farms in Clay County 240 dairy
cows are fed according to the DHIA program. We estimate that 120 dairy
farms in Florida are feeding according to production.
Sanitation and Management.-Bang's and mastitis in herds handled by
untrained milkers using milking machines have resulted in an increase in
herd replacements using grade cows. Herd replacements imported from
other states have probably exceeded 20,000 in 1946. Importations before
the war ran from 5,000 to 10,000 cows per year.
The records show that something over 10 million gallons of milk were
imported from other states to Florida during 1945. There is probably as
much as 7 million gallons coming to Florida in 1946. Some 95 percent of
this milk is number 3 milk, less than 5 percent of it is grade A milk.
Progress is being made in 10 counties in the building of the small dairy
units with the dairy house, dairy barn and feed room under the same roof.
The family cow program, promoted principally through 4-H club mem-
bers, has been a great aid in building a farm dairy program in a number
of counties.
With the ending of World War II, 4-H club work was back to normal
again. The annual short course in late May had a special dairy class of
18 boys.
The Florida Jersey Cattle Club and the Guernsey Cattle Club have con-
tinued under the successful leadership of county agents as secretaries. F.
E. Baetzman, agent in Orange County, is Secretary of the Jersey Cattle
Club, and John H. Logan, agent in Pinellas, is Secretary of the Guernsey
Cattle Club.

POULTRY ACTIVITIES
N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
F. S: Perry, Assistant Extension Poultryman

Poultry production goals for Florida in 1946 included: (1) 5 percent
increase in egg production; (2) 7 percent decrease in chickens raised; and
(3) turkey production the same as 1945.
The 1946 Extension program was developed not only to attain these
goals but also to improve the efficiency of poultry management.







Annual Report, 1946


The number of chickens raised during the year as reflected by a com-
parison of relative numbers of hens and pullets on hand during October
1945 and October 1946, eggs per 100 layers, total egg production, and
chicks hatched for the same period are shown below:
October October
1945 1946
Number layers on hand.................... 1,508,000 1,406,000
Eggs per 100 layers........................ 763 747
Eggs produced in October.............. 12,000,000 11,000,000
Eggs produced January-
October inclusive ....................175,000,000 165,000,000
Chicks hatched in October............. 660,000 660,000
Chicks hatched January-
October inclusive ...................... 9,826,000 7,325,000

Eggs of higher quality and more uniformity were marketed by the
producers of the State as a result of the egg quality program. The Ex-
tension Service has sponsored this program for several years and is assisted
materially in its development by the State Inspection and Marketing
Bureaus.
The National Poultry Improvement Plan, under the supervision of the
State Livestock Sanitary Board, has continued to expand. Extension
Service workers have cooperated with this agency in fostering the pro-
gram, which this year includes more poultry flocks and hatching egg capa-
city than in 1945.
Estimates obtained from airline officials, foreign departments of agri-
culture and dealers in baby chicks show that over 21/ million chicks were
exported from Florida during 1946. Puerto Rico alone imports approxi-
mately 44,000 baby chicks weekly, the largest portion of which come from
Florida flocks and hatcheries.
The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association and the Florida
Breeders' and Hatchery Association have assisted Extension poultry work-
ers in developing the State poultry program. Also, 272 local leaders
assisted in developing the poultry program.
Quality Chicks.-Importance of starting with quality chicks was empha-
sized to all producers, handlers and users of baby chicks. The program
includes 6 basic points: hatch early, clean chicks and eggs, clean brooder
houses, clean land, balanced rations, and separation of pullets and cock-
erels.
Extension recommendations were followed by 1,141 families in obtain-
ing better strains of baby chicks, and 1,565 families in improving methods
of feeding. These recommendations were carried into 571 communities
throughout the State.
Egg-Laying Test.-The Florida National Egg-Laying Test completed its
20th year on September 22, 1946. It included 1,248 pullets, or 96 pens of
13 pullets each. Entries consisted of 45 pens of Single Comb White Leg-
horns, 26 New Hampshires, 13 Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, 7 White
Plymouth Rocks and 5 Barred Plymouth Rocks.
Average egg production per bird for the entire test was 224.1 eggs for a
value of 230.8 points. This egg production was determined by using the
original number of birds and is 8.9 eggs and 13 points higher than the
record secured in the 19th Test. It is the best production ever obtained
at the Egg-Laying Test.
The high pen for the year (51 weeks) was a pen of S. C. Rhode Island
Reds owned by the To-Lani Farms, Stone Mountain, Georgia. These 13
Red pullets laid 3,693 eggs for a total value of 3,865.40 points.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The high individual bird also was a Single Comb Rhode Island Red
owned by Wilson's Red Farm, Greenville, South Carolina. This pullet pro-
duced 336 eggs for a value of 369.05 points.
The high Florida bird was a New Hampshire owned by the Camphor
Tree Farm, DeLand. This pullet laid 331 eggs for a value of 343.55 points.
Mortality averaged 11.1 percent for the year, 4 percent less than during
the previous test.
In addition to the Egg-Laying Test, broiler experiments under way at
Chipley include studies of floor space requirements.
Culling.-With feed scarce and prices high it is necessary for poultry
producers to obtain high egg production from their flocks to make a profit.
Culling demonstrations were given by Extension workers during the year
to 4-H club members, home demonstration clubs and county and home
demonstration agents' classes in an effort to diffuse culling information
throughout the State.
4-H Work.-Poultry club members were encouraged and assisted in
their program of supplying eggs and poultry meat for home consumption
and some of their products for market. During the year 1,796 boys and
1,949 girls were enrolled in poultry club projects. Of this number, 915
boys and 1,031 girls completed their projects with a total of 121,341 birds,
approximately 7,000 birds less than were carried in 1945.

Fig. 6.-These 4-H boys were interested in studying poultry at the Univer-
sity of Florida poultry laboratory during Short Course.








Annual Report, 1946


Poultry classes were held regularly at the 4-H boys' and girls' camps
and also at the boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee.
In addition, classes were held periodically at the University Poultry
Laboratory for both girls and boys. Management, feeding, housing, sani-
tation, culling, killing, dressing, marketing and judging were some of the
most important demonstrations given.
The special 4-H girls' poultry demonstration project sponsored by Sears-
Roebuck Foundation in 1945 was continued and 1 additional county partici-
pated, bringing the total to 15. The girls were very successful in this pro-
ject, raising a high percentage of the chicks started.
The Statewide 4-H Club Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest
was held again this year in connection with the Central Florida Exposition,
Orlando, February 25- March 2, 1946. Seventy-nine club members from
12 counties participated in the show and 45 members participated in the
judging contest. Three hundred and sixty chickens, 131 dozen eggs and
various scale models of poultry houses and equipment were shown.
Miscellaneous.-Four thousand five hundred and four families were
assisted in controlling poultry parasites and diseases. Demonstrations on
chickenpox vaccination were given in 16 counties. Housing and equipment
demonstrations were given in 9 counties.
The Fifth Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie August 26-30,
1946, after a lapse during the war period from 1941 to 1946.
All State agencies, Florda State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida
Poultry Council, Hatchery and Breeders' Association and commercial or-
ganizations cooperated in making this institute a success. Over 250
registered during the week, with about 100 spending the entire week.
Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given by Extension
workers. Seventeen egg shows were held at county and State fairs.
According to estimates by Inspection Bureau officials, approximately
4,000,000 dozen eggs will be marketed in cartons in 1946, contrasted with
about 3,000,000 dozen in 1945. In addition to this, 13,000 cases of eggs of
U. S. Grade AA classification will be marketed in cartons.
Poultry dressing demonstrations were given at 5 home demonstration
council meetings and at 4-H camps and short courses.
Better marketing methods were stressed by radio talks, news articles
and classes held at the University Poultry Laboratory.
Assistance in marketing poultry and eggs was given in 356 communities
to 1,882 farmers or families. The value of products sold or purchased by
cooperatives total $79,800, and by non-members $226,783.
In the 1946 official list of hatcheries and poultry breeding flocks, 74
hatcheries with a total capacity of 2,700,000 eggs are listed. This is
about 70 percent of the total number of hatcheries and egg capacity in
the State. There are 215 flock owners cooperating in the plan, with a
total of 166,831 breeding birds.
Three hundred and thirty-one farmers were assisted in obtaining pure-
bred males and 315 farmers secured purebred females.
Radio talks, letters, bulletins and demonstrations have been used to
further a practical turkey management program which gave particular
emphasis to the separation of chickens and turkeys and portable coops
used on clean land. Orange, Broward, Alachua, Leon and Suwannee coun-
ties have been active in turkey work during the year.
Turkey production increased from 140 thousand in 1945 to 156 thousand
in 1946. This is also an increase over the 1937-41 average of 113 thousand
turkeys produced per year.








Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
W. W. Bassett, Asst. State Boys' Club Agent3
W. W. Brown, Asst. State Boys' Club Agent'

The year showed a marked improvement in county Extension 4-H club
organizations. On January 1, 1946, there were 3 counties employing
regular assistant county agents. During the year 14 additional counties
employed assistant agents so that more and better club work could be
accomplished. Three of these counties report enrollments of over 500 4-H
club boys each.
The changing of county agents always disrupts club work and there
have been 14 county agent changes during the year.
Eight counties used 4-H club broadcasts to create a better understand-
ing of club work. The Extension Radio Specialist prepared script and
furnished material for club programs. The State Club Staff prepared and
made 12 broadcasts on club work.
Four-H club activities fit into the programs of civic clubs. Agents
were assisted in preparing club programs for presentation to these clubs.
The State staff made talks on club work before 15 such groups. In almost
every county at least 1 4-H program was given before a civic club.
A newsletter has been sent out each month by the Boys' Club Depart-
ment.
On January 1, 1946, W. W. Bassett, Jr. returned as Assistant Boys'
Club Agent after 5 years in the armed services. In the 6 months he
worked before resigning to enter business, he helped set up local club or-
ganizations and wrote a 4-H leaders' manual, which is now being printed.
On November 1, 1946, W. W. Brown, a former 4-H boy and county
agent, became Assistant Boys' Club Agent.
Outstanding Accomplishments.-The greatest accomplishment of the
year was in codifying the results of 30 years of 4-H club work in the
form of a State 4-H program of work with boys. The district organiza-
tion has proven the most forward step taken in boys' work in Florida.
The State is divided into 10 4-H districts of 5 to 7 counties each. The
county agents in each district elect 1 of their number as chairman. The
10 district chairmen met in Gainesville in January for 2 days. They did a
conscientious and complete job in preparing a boys' 4-H club, state
program.
Decided progress was made in 1946 in determining adjustments and
relationships of present programs to long-time objectives. The Florida
boys' State 4-H club program established a definite written policy for
boys' club work in the State.
Ten district 4-H conferences were held in January and February. 1946.
The conferences were called by the district 4-H chairmen. At these meet-
ings the goals for the year were established by the county agents.
During the annual Extension Conference in Gainesville in October 1946
the 10 district chairmen met and decided upon goals on a State basis.
Activity and project goals with results are given in the table below:
Activity Goals
Goal Result
Leader training meetings-................................. ........ 10 64
Dem onstration team s .................................................... 35 11
Judging contests .........---.. ---.........-- ......--..... 5 6
Short Course ...............................----. ------ 1 1
'Resigned July 1, 1946.
4Appointed November 1, 1946








Annual Report, 1946


Boys at camp ...........................-------- --1,500
Achievement days .................-....- --------.... ...- 25
4-H tours ................ ....- ------........ ...- .. 150
Educational trips --..........---...-...------------------ 50
Recreational meetings ............. .....-......- .------- 500
Older youth organization --. ...- ..............-- --------- 3


Project Goals
Goal
Corn............ ... .---............... ..... 1,500
Peanuts................................. 200
Soil conservation.......................------- 2,000
Potatoes.................... ..... ........ 200
Cotton................ ...........---------- 25
Home gardens..........-..................-------1,500
Market gardens....................... ---- 225
Poultry ........... ------.---------1,000
Dairy cattle .................- ....--------- 1,200
Beef cattle............ .... ............ .... 1,000
Swine......... ............. ...... .......... 3,000
Forestry..................-....-----. .... 100
Agricultural engineering...............-.... 75
Farm management.-........--.-...- 25


acres
acres
acres
acres
acres
enrolled
acres
completions
animals
animals
animals
acres
enrolled
enrolled


Results
1,077 acres
542 acres
511 acres
128 acres
38 acres
2,002 enrolled
164 acres
915 completions
1,006 animals
859 animals
2,534 animals
100 acres
14 enrolled
34 enrolled


In the 1,3301/4 days spent in the field the 17 assistant county agents
made 2,382 visits to club projects. Visiting the boy at his project helps
secure better project work.
There was a 35% increase in enrollment this year. Enrollment and
reports are compared by years as follows:


1944..................
1945..................
1946....................


Enrollment
... ....-... 5,360
..-- ....... 5,808
-.------- 7,897


Reports
3,346
3,164
4,194


62%
54%
53%


The Florida Bankers' Association contributes five 4-H $100.00 scholar-
ships to the College of Agriculture each year. The scholarships are

Fig. 7.-Flag raising ceremony at the tent city where the 4-H boys at 1946
Short Course camped.










.II
t 1,_-. ,1 ^ ,


1,414
27
78
31
375
0







40 Florida Cooperative Extension

awarded at the annual short course based on an examination given by the
Boys' Club Agent.
A large cartridge corporation is continuing its contribution to conser-
vation by sponsoring 4-H conservation camps for white and negro 4-H
club boys.
During April and May the State Club Staff spent 1 day with all but 4
of the county agents in the State helping with club program.
Camps, Short Course.-The Annual 4-H Club Short Course is the big
event of the year. Many boys receive their inspiration to go to college
through attendance at the short course. The 1946 course was the 27th held
at the University of Florida. It was attended by 215 boys. The theme
was "Know Your Government," arid all general assembly talks were on
phases of this subject.
The summer. 4-H camp is an institution in Florida. The 3 district
camps were repaired as well as possible, considering the shortage of labor
and materials.
In 1946 1,483 boys and 835 girls attended 4-H camps. This was the
largest number of club members to attend club camps in any year.
The desire of all livestock shows and breed associations to promote
club work has given Florida 4-H boys opportunity to compete in 6 live-
stock judging contests. Two more poultry contests will be added in 1947.







Annual Report, 1946


FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Farm Forester

Forest fires are still the greatest obstacle to the development of pro-
ductive and profitable forests in Florida. County agents report assisting
4,829 farmers to prevent them.
County agents were assisted in visualizing the extent of fire damage
by trips through both burned and unburned woods.
They were also given instruction in methods to be followed in influenc-
ing farmers and other timberland owners in fire protection.
Largely through discussions during field visits, county agents were
assisted in conducting demonstrational and other educational activities in
fire prevention at the most appropriate and strategic times of the year.
Through cooperative arrangements with the State Forest Service fire
protection organization, county agents were able to extend the work of the
Forest Service and provide protection for many additional acres of forest
land.
The Extension Forester delivered 1 radio talk on the need for protect-
ing woodlands from fire and made 6 other forestry radio talks during the
year. These radio talks were made available to county agents in 12 other
counties. County agents in 15 counties were given assistance in planning
and developing result demonstrations in the Timber-Grazing-Game method
of forest fire prevention.
Instruction in forest fire prevention was given to 4-H club boys during
the annual short course and at 2 4-H camps. Forest fire prevention was
also included as a feature of many talks delivered by the Extension For-
ester before 4-H club meetings throughout the State.
Forest Planting.-Demand by farmers for forest planting stock far ex-
ceeded the supply, and hundreds of farmers and 4-H club members could
not obtain forest seedlings for plantings during 1946. This is, of course,
a severe blow to the Extension forest planting program in Florida. How-
ever, agents' reports show that they assisted 353 farmers in planting trees
last year.
County agents received assistance in determining suitable species of
forest trees for planting under local soil and climatic conditions. They
were shown how and when forest-grown wild seedlings of slash pine and
red cedar could be taken up from the woods, where they have come in too
thickly, and transplanted to other areas where needed.
Through close cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service, county
agents were able to assist in the distribution to farmers of more than 40,-
000 red cedar seedlings which were supplied by SCS nurseries.
Two mimeographed instruction sheets on forest planting were prepared
and distributed to all county agents. A number of method demonstrations
were given by the Extension Forester before meetings of county agents
and farmers showing correct tree planting procedures.
To 443 4-H club boys forest planting methods were taught during the
annual short course and at 2 summer camps. In addition, 36 other club
boys received instruction and actual experience in tree planting by parti-
cipating in farm, school and community 4-H club forest plantings. The
Extension Forester provided willing red cedar seedlings and assisted
county agents and 4-H club boys in making forest plantings of cedar on the
grounds of 3 different schools.
Timber Marketing.-Efforts were made to stimulate harvesting of all
farm timber which is ready for market.







42 Florida Cooperative Extension

To help relieve the pole shortage which was holding up rural electrifi-
cation construction and other power and telephone service, county agents
were assisted in publicizing the need for cutting more pole timber.
Farmers were urged to cut conservatively, keeping always a satisfac-
tory stand of trees growing in their woods. County agents were supplied
with market information on forest products.
In 25 counties where the services of woodland marketing project
foresters are available, county agents contributed materially to the effec-
tiveness of the project by bringing farmers in need of timber marketing
assistance and the project foresters together. Agents' report assisting 329
farmers in selective cutting of lumber and 263 farmers in timber estimat-
ing and appraisal. They further report assisting 211 farmers to market
and distribute $187,565 worth of forest products, and assisting 178 farm-
ers in thinning, weeding, pruning and improvement cutting of timber.
Instruction in marketing farm timber was given to 443 4-H club mem-
bers during the annual short course at 2 4-H club camps and during 4-H
club meetings held throughout the State.
The idea of planting and managing the farm forest so that most, if
not all, of the farm requirements for wood can be met was included in the
instruction offered 4-H boys.
To meet the problem of fires on farm woodlands the Timber-Grazing-
Game Program was devised. County agents received assistance in plan-
ning, developing and publicizing this program in their counties. During
field visits local situations were studied on the ground and recommenda-
tions were made for establishment of demonstrations.
Extension Bulletin 127, Timber-Grazing-Game, was made available to
county agents in quantities sufficient for distribution to all interested
farmers and other forest landowners. ,News stories and radio talks were
prepared to provide publicity for the program, both locally and State-wide.
Mimeographed outlines covering 4 different 4-H club projects were pre-
pared and furnished county agents. Instruction in the field was given 443
club members by the Extension Forester in tree identification, tree plant-
ing, timber estimating, pruning, timber utilization and forest fire protec-
tion. County agents report 32 club boys completed forestry projects on
100 acres of forest and 36 club boys completed projects in wildlife and
nature study. They further report 1,422 boys receiving training in forestry
and 1,362 boys receiving training in wildlife.
Development of Game, Fish and Other Wildlife. Opportunities for
establishment of fish ponds and better management of existing ponds were
pointed out to county agents during field visits. Also, conditions favorable
to restocking certain areas with desirable game birds and animals were
outlined. Establishment and maintenance of suitable food and cover also
were given much consideration.
The agents report having assisted 58 farmers in the construction and
management of fish ponds, 221 farmers in protection of wildlife areas, 135
farmers to plant wildlife food plants and 108 farmers to plant food and
cover plants.
Naval Stores Conservation Program.-County agents were given in-
formation on gum farming during the annual conference of Extension
workers and at sectional meetings. Printed instructions from the naval
stores cooperative agent and itemized cost figures for installation per
1,000 pines of turpentine size were helpful additions to the available list of
printed materials useful to farmers. County agents report assisting 76
farmers in gum farming work.
Forest Insects and Diseases.-County agents were assisted in recogniz-
ing diseases and insect pests during field visits.








Annual Report, 1946 43

Fence Post Problem.-Work was continued in helping county agents
and farmers in meeting the growing need for durable fence posts. The
planting of an acre or more on each farm to native red cedar has been
recommended.
Posts from 3 additional tree species known or said to be durable-red
mulberry, catalpa and Casuarina-were secured for placement in the post
durability test established a year previously.
A mimeographed instruction sheet, explaining the South Carolina
method for treating non-durable pine and other sapling posts, with chro-
mated zinc chloride by the "tub method" was prepared and furnished
county agents.
Farmers within reach of local creosote treating plants were advised to
have their posts custom treated by this process whenever possible.
Demonstration Forests.-Additional work was done in carrying forward
work begun 3 years ago on 4 forest demonstration plantings in 4 different
parts of the State. Two of the plantings are being carried out in coopera-
tion with organized 4-H club groups.
Interest in community forests was stimulated in 4 counties by county
and home agents, and in 2 counties plans for improving 20- and 52-acre
tracts of community-owned land already have been adopted.







44 Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
T. K. McClane, Jr., Extension Soil Conservationist"
K. S. McMullen, Extension Soil Conservationist6

With the organization of 3 new soil conservation districts and comple-
tion of organization in 2 others, Florida now has 36 districts covering 39
counties and comprising nearly 65% of the acreage of the State.
The educational work with organized soil conservation districts was
conducted through the respective county agents. Planning and execution
of such activities was approached, first, on a State level through officials
of the Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service, and second, on
a county and district level through the county agent, boards of supervisors
and district and work unit conservationists.
County agents act as secretaries to the boards of supervisors in every
district except 1.
Annual elections of supervisors were held in 29 districts in 1946.
The combined annual report of Florida soil conservation district super-
visors showed 1945 to be a banner year in conservation of soil and water.
5February 1 to November 30, 1946.
GDecember 1, 1945, to January 31, 1946.

Fig. 8.-Soil-improving cover crops, such as this lupine, are encouraged by
Soil Conservation workers and the Extension Service.







Annual Report, 1946 45

(Annual reports of supervisors for 1946 will not be released until February,
1947, and therefore are not included in this report.) Districts also contri-
buted to war food and feed production. Reports indicated more interest
in conservation by both the farmer and the general public.
Supervisors report that conservation surveys as a basis for determining
capabilities, management practices and proper land use, have been com-
pleted on 287,857 acres during 1945 in the 31 districts operating that year.
Contour and topographic information has been developed and used in areas
where water control and water management were necessary. This scienti-
fic information plus farmer experience has been used in the development of
3,195 farm plans covering 861,001 acres. These plans call for devoting
each acre to its best use for maximum production and sufficient soil con-
servation practices to maintain soil fertility.
For specific practices established, supervisors' reports show a decided
increase over the previous year. Report on practices established and
planned to date (December 31, 1945):
Practice Established Planned
Crop rotations ........................... ............... ...139,684 acres 229,521 acres
Strip-cropping ............. ..... ....... ...... 4,579 acres 10,493 acres
Kudzu ................... .. ................ 6,075 acres 18,739 acres
Terracing ...................... ................ 6,602 miles 14,465 miles
Pasture improvement .................................... 37,352 acres 172,279 acres
Fish ponds ............... ........ .............. 31 65
Wildlife areas ................................. 28,605 acres 35,359 acres
Farm drainage ........----...........-.................. 28,664 acres 71,360 acres
Woodland improvement ....--........................135,804 acres 251,103 acres
Contour farming .............................. 72,693 acres 117,291 acres
(Only practices involving larger acreages shown.)
Reports show that districts expended more than $40,000 during the year
and that they now own a considerable amount of machinery and equipment
obtained by grants, purchase or other means. Many districts own tractors,
terracing equipment and combines in addition to smaller items such as
choppers, cultipackers, seed drills, lime spreaders, etc.
Organization of New Soil Conservation Districts.-The Director of Ex-
tension is Administrator to the State Soil Conservation Board and is re-
sponsible for administering the State Districts Act. Also, in accordance
with departmental policy, he is responsible for the educational activities in
districts. Based on this authority, the Extension Soil Conservationist,
administratively responsible to the Director, heads up the organizational
and educational work in districts on a State level and the county agent
assumes the same obligation on a county level.
During the period covered by this report 3 districts were organized.
The Extension Conservationist assisted 4 districts in arranging tours
of soil conservation work. Two districts were assisted in terracing demon-
strations. Twenty-eight meetings of boards of supervisors were attended
to assist in either administrative or educational matters. Seven tours
were attended. Twenty-six districts were assisted in setting up record
keeping and accounting systems. Very little uniformity existed in this re-
spect between districts and for this reason, as well as to provide adequately
for preserving of district records, a record system was prepared. This
system has been adopted as the official system of records for districts by
the State organization of soil conservation district supervisors.
A tour was also arranged for county agents in citrus counties in Janu-
ary at Haines City, Polk County, Florida. The purpose of this tour was to
inspect and study field trails on (1) moisture control and (2) prevention of
erosion in citrus groves as conducted by the Soil Conservation Servic-.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Plans for the tour were made by the Extension Conservationist, Extension
Citriculturist and representatives of the Soil Conservation Service, work-
ing cooperatively.
Soil and Water Conservation Work with 4-H Clubs.-The teaching of
soil and water conservation to rural and urban youths is of inestimable
value, yet 1 of the most difficult jobs ever attempted. The lack of tangible
ownership, as well as the lack of specific remuneration, seems to be the
main deterrent to conservation projects. Some 20 counties signed up in
a State soil conservation contest (sponsored by Firestone) and 3 counties
submitted reports.
The State winner of the 4-H Soil Conservation Contest was guided on a
10-day tour of soil conservation work in the State with the assistance of
county agents and SCS personnel.
The Extension Conservationist assisted in the 4-H Club Short Course
at the University in early June.
SUMMARY OF SOIL CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES BY COUNTY
AGENTS
Information taken from annual statistical reports of county agents is
given below, showing totals for Florida:
Number of communities in which work was conducted this year-
(a) Soil management ....................................... ------ 540
(b) W wildlife conservation ...............................-- -- --. ---.................. 151
Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisted this year-
(a) Soil m anagem ent .......................................... .... ............... 300
(b) W wildlife conservation ....................................... ..... .......... 56
Number of farmers assisted this year-
(a) With problems of land use based on soil types ............................ 4,416
(b) In the use of recommended crop rotations .....----............................... 4,002
(c) With strip-cropping ...........----.................------------ 128
(d) In constructing terraces ................................-- ......................... 435
(e) In grassing waterways or otherwise controlling gullies ............ 393
(f) W ith contour farming of crop land ........................ .................. 217
(g) In contouring pasture or range ...................... ................. 122
(h) In the use of cover or green manure crops ..................................14,136
(i) In otherwise controlling wind or water erosion .......................... 375
(j) In summer fallowing ...............................----- 124
(k) In making depth of moisture tests ................................................ 30
(1) W ith drainage ....................................... ............ 1,085
(m ) W ith irrigation ........................ .................. 852
(n) W ith land clearing ..... ........................................ 980
Number of farmers-
(a) In soil conservation districts which were assisted with or-
ganization or operations this year.............................. ..... 9,762
(b) Assisted in arranging for farm-conservation plans this year.... 1,135
(c) Assisted in doing work based on definite farm-conservation
plans this year .............................................. 1,029
Number of farmers assisted this year-
(a) In construction or management of ponds for fish .................... 58
(b) In protection of wildlife areas, such as stream banks, odd
areas, field borders, marshes and ponds, from fire or livestock 221
(c) In planting of edible wild fruits and nuts in hedges, stream
banks, odd areas and field borders ..................................... ... 135
(d) With other plantings for food and protection in wildlife areas 108
4-H club projects in soil conservation and pasture improvement-
(a) Number of boys enrolled .............................--..-- 61
(b) Number of boys completing ............................ .. ..... 31
(c) Number of units involved in completed projects ........................ 511







Annual Report, 1946


SOILS AND FARM CROPS

J. Lee Smith, Agronomist

Extension agronomy work was aimed at, first, informing Florida farm-
ers on the most economical agronomic production practices known: second,
finding, securing, or assisting them in producing supplies of better seeds;
third, helping them to make the best use of the fertilizers which they
secured; and fourth, assisting them to maintain and improve soil fertility
while producing crops.
The county agent, as secretary to the Board of Soil Conservation Dis-
trict Supervisors and secretary to the P & MA Committee, has planned,
promoted and executed programs that have resulted in a good many con-
servation accomplishments during the year.
Green Manure Crops.-Since 1940, when the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station distributed to farmers, through county agents, the first
commercial supply of blue lupine seed, the Extension Service has been
very active in demonstrating the value of this winter cover, finding the
best methods of handling it, and building up a supply of seed. Depth
of planting, seedbed preparation, time of planting, rate of seeding and fer-
tilizing methods had to be learned.
There has been a steady growth and interest in this 'new legume.
County agents in 33 counties reported 59,405 acres of blue lupine planted
on 1,954 farms, using 4,455,398 pounds of seed, in 1946.
Through the efforts of the Agronomist and county agents, a larger
supply of planting seed has been secured each year. In 1946, 22 counties
reported that 6,405,840 pounds of blue lupine seed were harvested from
8,919 acres.
Other green manure crops which the Extension Service has been pro-
moting and the acreage grown in 1946 are: Indigofera, 1,091 acres; Alyce
clover, 6,767 acres; Sesbania, 8,320 acres; others, 5,706 acres.
Because supplies of seed were short and it was profitable to farmers,
the county agents during very recent years have promoted the growing
and harvesting of manure crop seed. The agents report accomplishments
for 1946 as follows: 661,000 pounds of crotalaria seed harvested from
26,804 acres, 62,000 pounds of indigofera seed harvested from 685 acres,
1,258,400 pounds of Alyce clover seed from 5,615 acres, and 12,600 pounds
of Sesbania seed from 63 acres.
To show the value of lupines as a manure crop, demonstrations in grow-
ing corn following lupines were conducted in 1946 in approximately 16
counties.
Southeastern experiment stations, in cooperation with IU.S. Department
of Agriculture research workers, have discovered a hard-seeded, volunteer-
ing Crimson clover named the Dixie Crimson clover. The North Florida
Experiment Station has tested its adaptability to the North Florida region.
Eight county agents established demonstrations in 1945 comprising 358
acres. In 1946 they have established demonstrations on 2,143 acres using
10,400 pounds of seed.
Peanuts.-Of the approximately 450,000 acres on which peanuts were
grown in 1946, only 110,000 acres were dug. The remainder were used
for hog feed.
The seed disinfecting program to control damping-off which was begun
5 years ago has been continued this year. County agents' reports indicate
that 85% of the seed used on the 450,000 acres planted to peanuts was
treated this year. This practice has been estimated to be worth between
3 and 4 million dollars annually to Florida farmers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Extension Service supervised the production of Dixie Runner pea-
nuts in 1945 and 1946. The reports show that 356 farmers saved 104,000
bushels of this seed in 1946.
Cotton.-The Extension program for cotton is to maintain the use of
varieties having a staple length of 1 inch or better, improve the quality,
if possible, and strive for more economical production.
Approximately 95% of the cotton grown this year was of varieties of
1 inch staple or longer.
Because of rainy weather during harvesting season, the grade and
quality of the lint was poor.
Corn and Oats.-More and more interest has been developed in sweet
corn production. Demonstrations were conducted with 4-H boys in 16
counties.
The oats acreage in Florida has grown from 26,000 to 165,000 acres in
recent years. The Extension program calls for growing a larger acreage
of higher yielding oats of rust-resistant varieties. However, Helminthos-
porium leaf spot is lowering the value of many new rust-resistant varieties.
Pastures.-More and better grazing from more and better pastures on
Florida farms and ranches is an item in the Extension agronomy program.
Spearheaded by the county agents and other Extension workers and
using the helps offered through the P & MA, approximately 718,122 acres

Fig. 9.-County agents aided growers with tobacco production problems
and acreage allotments.







Annual Report, 1946 49

of improved pasture have been established in this State during the past 11
years. It is estimated that approximately 100,000 acres were in improved
pasture at the beginning of that time. This makes a total approximately
800,000 acres of improved pasture in the State at present.
Because of the scarcity of pasture grass seed, Extension workers have
made a special effort to get farmers to save what they could. There were
128,655 pounds of seed harvested in the State and used on other pasture
lands this year. A total of 514,620 pounds have been purchased and used
by the Florida cattlemen and farmers this year, according to reports from
50 counties.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Part Ill--Work With Women and Girls


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent
A State home demonstration agent, 3 district agents and 4 specialists,
40 county home demonstration agents, 7 assistant agents, 11 negro home
demonstration agents and a negro district agent make up the personnel
responsible for guiding the work.
First attention is given to work in rural areas and the interests of
farm people. The entire program with the rural family is developed in
direct relationship to agricultural problems as they affect the life of rural
people. During the past 3 years the interest of non-farm people in home
demonstration work has increased greatly and plans have been adapted,
as far as facilities permit, to meet this trend.
Community home demonstration clubs for girls and women are or-
ganized to serve as a means of reaching more people and to encourage
cooperative work locally. Many other women receive direct assistance
from the agents.
Organization.-District agents work through county home demonstra-
tion agents to strengthen practical programs and to maintain cordial rela-
tionships with county appropriating boards. Because of the many changes
in personnel and scarcity of suitable prospective workers, district agents
have had a busy and perplexing year.
The 4 specialists work in the fields of food preservation; nutrition and
health; home improvement; and clothing. They provide reliable informa-
tion to the workers and assist in determining the most effective methods

Fig. 10.-The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work ex-
tends valuable aid to the home demonstration staff in planning and carry-
ing on the work.







Annual Report, 1946


and programs. Extension specialists in dairying, animal husbandry, poul-
try and agricultural engineering have given fine assistance through their
work with home demonstration agents.
County councils made up of representatives of the community clubs help
in determining programs and in getting desired results. The 2 State coun-
cils, 1 for 4-H girls and the other for women, serve as advisory boards to
the home demonstration agents and develop recommendations for State-
wide programs.
The 3 district agents assist with (1) 4-H work, (2) women's programs
and (3) negro work, thereby helping in the general guidance of State-
wide programs.
Eleven counties have no clerical help and 10 have part-time help only.
Fifteen have full-time help financed by either the county alone or the State
and county jointly.
County boards of commissioners and school boards cooperate financially
in establishing and maintaining home demonstration work in the counties
and have given fine understanding and support to the work during the
year.
Three counties made appropriations to establish the work for the first
time. Two counties provided funds in the budget for 2 assistants and 5
other counties set up funds for employing assistant agents. Almost with-
out exception, increases were made in county budgets this year and addi-
tional or improved facilities were provided.
Home demonstration work as a part of the Extension Service is fortun-
ate in its cordial relationships with other agencies at work in the State and
organization plans include cooperative work.
The strength of home demonstration work continues to be largely in the
vision, ability and devotion of the home demonstration agents in the coun-
ties. It is a cause of real concern, therefore, to find a nation-wide scarcity
of trained women ready to fill the positions necessary in a rapidly expand-
ing national program.
Seventeen changes have been made in county and State positions this
year. Six agents have retired from Extension work after years of fine
service. Eight have left home demonstration work for marriage or to
give full time to their homes and families. Two have resigned for other
reasons, 1 to return to Extension work in her native state and 1 proved
better suited to other fields. One home demonstration agent died in ser-
vice. Exclusive of the 5 who served only 1 year and the 2 who were trans-
ferred to other counties, before resignation, the average tenure of the above
agents was 21 years.
Thirteen of the new appointees have had no experience in home demon-
stration work. An undue amount of time of the State and district agents
has been taken with personnel problems, selection and training. Specia-
lists have made adjustments in their program to give needed special aid.
Fourteen counties have been provided with part-time clerical help with
funds available from the State office. All personnel had salary increases.
At least 15 counties made extensive improvement in the offices. Retire-
ment provisions have brought a sense of security to home demonstration
workers which is noticeable in its effect on their work.
Eleven home demonstration agents, most of them appointees during the
year, attended the 3-weeks course at the University of Florida, June 17 -
July 3, receiving needed information and 3 hours' graduate credit.
Pre-service training has been developed in cooperation with the Florida
State College for Women in the appointment of home demonstration assis-
tants who serve on apprenticeship in at least 2 counties in the 10 months'
period of employment.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Farm labor continued to offer some perplexing problems. Women and
girls continued to help with family duties, according to 18 home demon-
stration agents who reported they helped women on 951 farms to improve
labor-saving methods and in better ways of sharing labor and equipment.
The home demonstration agents looked directly to farm people for facts
and made 20,535 home visits to secure as well as give needed information.
This was an average of 402 home visits per agent.
Program Planning.-Specialists provided the agents with carefully con-
sidered suggestions throughout the year as situations changed. State and
district home demonstration agents and specialists made a total of 349
visits into counties to aid in determining programs and to assist in carry-
ing out the plans made.
Seven hundred and thirty-two communities reported their programs had
been planned cooperatively by Extension agents and local committees.
Leaders named by the clubs and councils assumed responsibility for get-
ting suggestions from the club members about the kind of information
needed. Evidence of local participation is shown in the fact that 2,648
women served as voluntary local leaders in furthering adult programs and
642 women and 1,032 older 4-H girls aided in 4-H club work for girls.
These leaders held 1,590 meetings without the agent being present, with
an attendance of 25,793 girls and women. At 165 meetings held to train
these leaders the attendance was 2,393 women. Also, 222 meetings were
held to train 4-H club leaders with an attendance of 3,105 girls.
Meeting Needs of All Farm Families.-Organized work through clubs
was conducted in 953 Florida communities in counties employing home
demonstration agents; 296 organized clubs functioned for women and 441
4-H clubs for girls. Reports from 40 counties show the 47 county home
demonstration agents and assistants worked with 8,468 women in organized
clubs. In addition, 4,789 other women who could not become members of
an organized club carried out demonstrations in their homes. Also, 10,-
133 girls were members of 4-H clubs directed by the home demonstration
agents.
Reports show that 16,785 farm homes have been improved as a result of
participation in home demonstration work. Reports of 40 counties show
18,615 non-farm homes received similar direct help. Florida rural families
have 189,547 daughters of 4-H club age (1940 census) with a total enroll-
ment of 13,386 girls, white and negro, in 4-H club work.
.4-H Work for Girls.-Four-H club work for girls in 1946 has continued
as an important part of the program of home demonstration work in the
State. This junior home demonstration work is designed to train young
women and 4-H girls from 10 to 20 years of age to become useful, skillful,
happy citizens and leaders in their homes and communities.
All members of State staff assist with the 4-H program. Negro home
demonstration work for girls is supervised directly by the Negro District
Agent and home demonstration agents, working under the direction of the
State Home Demonstration Agent.
The total 4-H club enrollment in 1946 of 10,133 white girls is an increase
of 563 over 1945, when the total enrollment was 9,570.
Of the 10,133 girls, 4,482 are enrolled for first-year work; 2,693 in second
year; 1,432 in third; 881 in fourth; 350 in fifth; 186 in sixth; 68 in seventh;
and 39 in eighth and ninth.
The 4-H girls of different ages enrolled this year show an increase in
numbers of girls 10, 11, 12 and 14 years of age and approximately the same
number of older girls as enrolled last year, as indicated by the accompany-
ing chart:








Annual Report, 1946


1946 1945
10 years of age....................................2,735 2,251
11 years of age..... ..............2,148 1,945
12 years of age...................................... 1,826 1,806
13 years of age........-............................. 1,358 1,497
14 years of age...................... ................ 976 948
15 years of age................................. .... 578 595
16 years of age............................... ... 297 321
17 years of age....................... ...... 134 134
18 and 20 years of age.......................... 46 60

In 41 counties 441 4-H clubs for girls are organized, an increase of 18
clubs over the previous year. The total demonstrations carried by club
girls in 41 counties numbered 30,869. There were 18,277 completions this
year.
The number of 4-H girls enrolled in 1946 as "out of school" was 522 and
"in school" 9,986.
Junior Home Demonstration Councils.- Junior home demonstration
councils made up of 2 representatives from each community 4-H club are
organized in 23 counties and meet regularly. Older 4-H girls who become
council members have participated in community and county-wide events.
Committees of girls working within the councils have worked on scrap
salvage and bond drives, famine relief programs, school, church and
libraries, and community club houses and recreation projects, and have
been responsible for local publicity and recreation programs.
The State Council of Junior Home Demonstration Work was re-organ-
ized during the State Short Course in June, when 21 organized counties
sent delegates to the State meeting.
Volunteer Leadership.-The fine work of volunteers and leaders respon-
sible for the direct leadership of the work with 4-H girls in the 41 counties
has been noted with pride. In their own neighborhoods or communities
2,253 women and 916 older girls have served as volunteer local lea ers.
They have met with clubs at 1,391 meetings. Some parents have volun-
teered to become new 4-H leaders this year.
Local leaders were trained at club meetings, special leadership meetings
and short courses by home demonstration agents, specialists and district
agents. Leadership handbooks were prepared by the State Home Demon-
stration Office and discussed and given to local leaders in the Short Course
program. A total of 222 training meetings for leaders have been held in
counties.
Major Accomplishments Through 4-H Club Work.-Reports reveal that
13,386 girls and young women from 10 to 20 years of age (white and negro)
are enrolled this year in 600 4-H clubs throughout the State.
Club girls planted hundreds of home gardens to produce food for better
family nutrition and are producing beef, dairy cattle, feed, poultry and
eggs. This year 4-H girls conserved 239,905 quarts of fruit and vegetables.
War bonds and stamps valued at $725.00 were given by interested Flor-
ida citizens for outstanding 4-H achievement.
Agents report that 4,322 girls enrolled in gardening and 2,735 com-
pleted this demonstration; 735 girls enrolled for fruit plantings; 65,153
quarts of fruits, 139,914 quarts of vegetables and 34,838 quarts of meats
were canned by these girls, making a grand total of 239,905 containers.
The reports showed that this year in .11 counties 1,106 club girls were
enrolled in health, nursing and first aid, and that 545 completed demon-
strations in this activity. In 27 counties 1,300 girls enrolled in 4-H work
had complete physical examinations.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Poultry.-The poultry program for 4-H girls had an enrollment in 1945
of 1,873, with 1,180 completing. The poultry raising demonstration in co-
operation with Sears, Roebuck and Company, and directed by the home
demonstration agents and the Poultry Extension Specialists, helped train
4-H girls for leadership and provided 15,000 to 20,000 pounds of fryers
and over 125,000 dozen eggs in 13 counties.
Clothing.-During 1946 41 counties reported 8,990 4-H club girls enrolled
as clothing demonstrators, including 1,988 negro girls.
White Negro Total
New garments made ..............25,491 14,596 40,087
Garments remodeled ............. 6,344 3,536 9,880
Household articles made .-...... 5,218 3,361 8,579

Food Selection, Preparation and Meal Planning.-Reports from counties
showed that this year there were 5,574 girls in 41 counties enrolled in this
phase of club work and 3,329 girls in 41 counties completed the demon-
strations. These girls in 40 counties planned 79,253 meals and in 41 coun-
ties served 85,320 meals.
Home Safety.-Thirty counties in Florida reported having given definite
training in safety and fire prevention to 3,740 4-H girls; there were 1,956
4-H girls carrying on a safety demonstration in their homes or communi-
ties. During the year 230 meetings for promoting safety in the home were
held with groups of 4-H club girls and a total of 209 method demonstra-
tions were given before the groups.

Fig. 11.-Florida 4-H girls, at their 1946 Short Course, collected hun-
dreds of clothing items and canned hundreds of containers of food for
sending to distressed peoples overseas.








Annual Report, 1946


In 12 counties 946 girls were enrolled in home management programs;
2,497 improved 1,300 rooms and made 3,233 articles of home furnishings.
Thirty-four counties reported girls and women made 1,774 rugs from waste
materials.
Home yards were beautified by 1,011 girls. Lawns and ornamental
shrubbery, including fruit and nut trees, were planted.
Home Industries.-Four-H girls have utilized home resources and money
through crafts learned under the direction of home demonstration agents.
Four counties report 27 demonstrations given on the standardization of
products. Counties report 779 girls making 1,943 articles. Fresh garden,
poultry and dairy products sold by 4-H girls totaled approximately $11,713.
Other Community Activities in Which 4-H Girls Cooperate.-Women
and girls representing 12,112 families have worked together in canning
centers to conserve 1,780 canned products for famine relief. They have
helped with the work of the school lunch program in 237 communities
where 44,048 children were involved. Seven communities have had school
gardens which 4-H girls planted for use by the school lunchroom and 4-H
club.
Libraries have been maintained or assisted in 38 communities by home
demonstration clubs.
Club girls and women planned and held 422 socials in 50 home demon-
stration club houses. They took part in 204 programs on special days.
State Short Course for 4-H Girls.-The annual State Short Course for
Florida Club Girls was held at the State College for Women, June 10-14,
attended by 500 4-H girls and leaders.
District and County 4-H Camps.-The summer 4-H camps are events
which 4-H girls look forward to with great anticipation. It was necessary
to cancel or postpone some camps this year, due to the prevalence of polio
in the state. Twenty-nine camps for girls were held with a total attend-
ance of 753.
Achievement Days and Exhibits.-In 39 counties 329 4-H achievement
days have been held this year. These community and county-wide events
included exhibits of 4-H club work prepared and set-up by the 4-H girls.







CLOTHING AND
TEXTILES

Joyce Bevis, Specialist in
Clothing and Textiles

The Florida clothing program is
planned to interest, inspire and
teach Florida rural women and
girls the selection, construction
and care of clothing and household
textiles; and to help them to con-
tribute to better family living by
understanding the needs and re-
sponsibilities of all members of the
family and home in supplying
clothing for the family and textiles
for the home.
The number of clothing leaders
in the State has increased from 241
to 493 and the clothing program
has been carried into 10 new com-
munities this year.
Clothing Program. During
1946 there were 2,642 clothing
demonstrators among home dem-
onstration clubs and 7,002 among
4-H club members who were
working on their clothing prob-
lems. These clothing demonstra-
tors were located in 577 com-
munities of the 40 counties of the
State where home demonstration
work is established.
County reports show that
through the help of the Specialist,
the county home demonstration
agents and 493 leaders, 7,744 fam-
ilies were assisted with clothing
construction problems, 5,913 fam-
ilies received assistance with pro-
blems in selection of clothing and
household textiles, 6,980 families
were given help in problems of
care, renovation and remodeling,
1,758 families asked for help on
clothing budgets and 628 families
had help on the care and repair of
their sewing machines. The result
was that 337 sewing machines
were put into good working con-
dition through the aid of the agent
and specialist. In addition, 11,192
families used thrift materials such
as sacks.



Fig. 12.-Nell Tison, president
of the Florida Council of Junior
Home Demonstration Work, is
typical of the well dressed Flor-
ida 4-H club girl.







Annual Report, 1946


As a result of the assistance received by these families, the records
show that 32,549 garments were remodeled, 108,439 garments were mended
or renovated, and 98,341 new garments were made.
There were 493 leaders among the home demonstration and 4-H club
groups who helped to carry out a good clothing program this year. These
leaders gave 1,229 method demonstrations on phases of clothing work and
helped to set up 536 clothing exhibits, besides giving individual help to
others in solving various types of clothing problems for women and girls.
During 1946, 41 counties report 7,002 4-H club girls enrolled in clothing
demonstrations. Of the 7,002, 3,742 girls completed their demonstrations.
These demonstrators made 25,491 new garments, remodeled 6,344 garments,
and made 5,218 articles of furnishing for their homes. Some of these cloth-
ing and household articles were exhibited at the State Short Course, and a
few of the dresses were modeled by the girls at a small dress revue.
Household Textiles.-In the field of household furnishings 50,182 new
household articles, such as pillowcases, curtains and quilts, were made.
Also, 28,588 accessories such as hats, bags, blouses, dickeys, etc., were
made. Home demonstration women reported making 165 mattresses, re-
novating 543 mattresses, and making at home 1,774 rugs.
Clothing Contributions.-In addition to the regular clothing work done
by the home demonstration and 4-H club members, 27 counties reported
having contributed 15,377 clothing articles and 21 counties reported contri-
buting 923 sewing supplies and 1,233 other articles to the overseas relief
program.








Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist
The food, nutrition and health program of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
tension Service was a continuation of a program to assist individuals and
families to provide a better food supply through the use of more home-
grown and home-conserved foods, and to help individuals and families im-
prove their health and physical fitness by assisting them to acquire a
better working knowledge of food values and of nutrition generally.
Nutrition and Health.-At present 41 of the 67 counties in Florida have
full-time health departments accredited by the State Board of Health.
All counties have had provision made for some type of health service from
the health departments of adjoining counties if none is available within
the county. Home demonstration agents receive fine cooperation from
these units.
Reports of county home demonstration agents show that they devoted
476 days to programs on home care and food for the sick. They cooperated
in presenting 204 programs to promote Child Health Day. Agents report
the following additional activities: 4,720 persons were assisted in pre-
vention of colds and other common diseases; 5,337 individuals were
assisted in taking positive preventive measures to improve health; home
nursing and first aid courses were given to 1,728 individuals; in 5 counties
18 health clinics were organized through the efforts of Extension workers;
and 1,897 individuals were assisted with child-feeding problems.
Campaigns to get people to eat an adequate breakfast were stressed
again this year. The Nutritionist and home demonstration agents pre-
pared recipes for nourishing sandwich fillings which were published in
local papers. Mimeographed copies were distributed to parents. Reports
show that 342 schools were assisted in establishing or maintaining hot
school lunches and that 8,278 families planned and prepared food for home
use and for school lunches, using methods to get the most food value.
There were 771 food preparation demonstrations given by home demon-
stration agents, 429 by adult home demonstration women and 675 by 4-H
club girls. Also, 9,065 families in 34 counties report planning meals using
food locally produced and 8,127 families report using alternatives made
necessary by food shortages; 3,649 families in 29 counties reported budget-
ing and buying foods weekly through cooperative arrangements; 204 food
exhibits were arranged in 27 counties by home demonstration agents, 346
in 22 counties by home demonstration club women and 657 in 28 counties
by 4-H club girls.
The study of food needs showed that in many counties there was a need
for more milk, butter and cheese to be used in family meals. Special food
preparation demonstrations were given in an effort to correct this situa-
tion. In 37 counties 6,559 families used home-made butter and 1,644 fam-
ilies in 34 counties made and used 29,407 pounds of cottage cheese.
Food preparation and meal planning continued to be a most popular and
interesting demonstration. 'Reports show that improved food practices
were adopted in baking by 4,828 families; in meat cookery by 4,451 fam-
ilies; in vegetable and fruit cookery by 5,647 families; in dairy products by
3,268 families; in poultry products by 3,637 families and in fats by 2,735
families.
'A number of counties reported that farm families purchased dairy
cows primarily as a result of the nutrition program in which the need for
milk in the family diet was discussed and demonstrated. This year in 37
counties, 2,015 family cows were added, bringing the total number of family







Annual Report, 1946


cows owned by home demonstration women to 11,003. Also, 272 milk goats
supplied milk for home demonstration club families in 21 counties.
The home demonstration agents in 41 counties devoted 1,283 days to
promoting home production of the family food supply, with 571 communi-
ties participating and 954 Voluntary local leaders assisting. The reports
show that 8,423 families produced their food supply according to needs
and 20,272 families reported that they had made changes in their food
supply by making changes in home production of vegetables, fruit, meats,
milk, poultry and eggs.
4-H Club Work.-This year 1,061 4-H club girls were enrolled in health,
home nursing and first aid and 545 girls completed demonstrations in this
activity. Also, 1,300 4-H girls had complete physical examinations.
This year 5,574 girls in 41 counties enrolled in food preparation and
meal planning projects and 3,329 of these girls completed their demonstra-
tions. They planned 79,253 and served 85,320 meals.
Accomplishments in home food production by 4-H club girls were indi-
cated by the following reports: 1,945 girls enrolled in poultry production
and 1,004 girls completed with 60,523 birds; 213 girls enrolled in dairy
demonstrations with 153 completing with 290 animals; 87 girls enrolled in
beef cattle demonstrations with 45 girls completing projects on 124 ani-
mals; 57 girls enrolled in beekeeping demonstrations, 47 completing with
projects on 298 colonies.
Reports showed that there were 22,746 girls enrolled in the different
phases of 4-H club work, with 12,244 completing. Records were submitted
in the following national contests: General records, home grounds beauti-
fication, food conservation, gardens, clothing achievement, dress revue, food
preparation and poultry.
Cooperation With Other Agencies.-Current reports showed that the
average school lunch attendance in federally reimbursed school lunch de-
partments was approximately 112,000. Last year the average daily at-
tendance ranged from 88,000 to 90,000. The number of schools having
lunch rooms increased from 400 to 750. Last year 239 school lunch depart-
ments were not federally reimbursed. This year approximately 175 school
lunch departments were not federally reimbursed.
In 6 counties 7 home demonstration clubs acted as sponsors of school
lunch rooms and in 30 counties 237 communities were helped by home
demonstration groups with the school lunch program. Over 44,048 children
in 26 counties were involved in these programs. Seven communities in 6
counties report having a school garden program. The State report shows
that 1,897 families in 36 counties were assisted with child feeding problems
and that 342 schools in 33 counties were assisted in establishing and main-
taining hot school lunches.







Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION

Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

The food situation during 1946 offered a tremendous challenge to every
home demonstration worker in the country.
Substantial contributions to famine relief were made in the 10 carloads
of food shipped out of the State from 11 counties. In addition, many other
donations of food have been made for which we have no record.
Home Gardens, Fruit Plantings.-In gardening activities some 40 coun-
ties reported a total of 17,081 gardens grown by women and girls with a
cash valuation of $48,471.17 in fresh vegetables sold from them. This
year's figures show an increase of 1,981 gardens over those grown in 1945.
Scarcity of some items of food has caused a better appreciation for
many home-grown products and has kept food conservation-canning,
freezing and curing-at a high peak.
Club members report calendar orchard fruit tree and vine plantings
started this year as totaling 7,010.
Food Conservation.-Reports from home demonstration agents show
that adult home demonstration club members representing 21,029 different
families conserved available foods in 1946 as follows: Fruits and vege-
tables-canned 2,030,820 quarts, dried 2,533 pounds, stored 386,424 pounds,
frozen 19,223 pounds. Meats and fish-canned 401,387 quarts, cured
1,972,323 pounds, stored 649,694 pounds and frozen 226,748 pounds.

Fig. 13.-Home demonstration agents throughout the State, like Miss
Elise Laffitte of Gadsden, aided their people to conserve vast quantities
of food.







Annual Report, 1946 61

There were 63 canning centers reported operating in 1946, 49 of which
come under the supervision of home demonstration agents.
Reports from 11 Florida counties show a total of 355,927 No. 2 con-
tainers, making over 10 carloads of food, used in canning in 1946.
Quick Freezing.-Twenty-two community freezer lockers are reported
as being established this year and 100 club members were able to purchase
home freezing storage cabinets. Agents gave 84 result demonstrations on
handling and packaging fruits, vegetables and meats.
Gardens, Fruit Plantings, Canning.-Gardening drew an enrollment of
4,322 girls, and of that number 2,735 completed the demonstrations. Also,
735 girls enrolled for fruit plantings and 547 were able to make the plant-
ings as outlined. These girls canned 65,153 quarts of fruits, 139,914 quarts
of vegetables and 34,838 quarts of meats, making a grand total of 239,905
containers.










HOME IMPROVEMENT

Virginia P. Moore,
Home Improvement Agent'
The Specialist in this program
retired in the middle of the year,
so the work reported here was
done largely as a result of co-
operative interest of all home
demonstration workers.
Housing.-Crowded conditions
made housing one of the state's
greatest problems. Inadequacy of
houses available for family living
as to space, sanitation, conveni-
ence or state of repair brought
distress to many people. Thanks
to better incomes and a great de-
sire for more satisfying homes,
many Florida families had cash
laid away ready for use in making
improvements in their houses or
surroundings when building was
possible. Shortages of materials
and high prices did not prevent
realization of the hopes of 544
MISS VIRGINIA MOORE families who did build new houses.
Florida's apostle of home improvement, A house plan service set up for the
retired June 30, 1946, after 23 years of first time, under the direction of
noteworthy service to rural families of the the Agricultural Engineer, was
useful to those families.
With more women doing their own work, and because of greater inter-
est in home management, 5,775 women enrolled in everyday good house-
keeping. For efficiency, strength-saving and cleanliness 1,817 kitchens
were improved and 299 water systems and 627 sanitary privies or indoor
toilets were installed.
Comfort as well as utility was important for better family living and
624 mattresses were repaired or renovated and 287 new mattresses were
made. All these improvements also contributed to good health.
A committee of Extension agents, men and women, defined the housing
program to be undertaken in all counties to emphasize repair and sanita-
tion in the house and surroundings and yard beautification. All families
intending to build later were urged to make plans on paper, using the
house plans available. A list of prospective home-builders is being com-
piled in many county Extension offices to receive timely suggestions.
Electrification.-At least 993 houses of families enrolled in home demon-
stration work enjoyed the use of electricity for the first time, most of the
service coming through the extension of Rural Electrification Administra-
tion lines. Generally speaking, our farm women are and have been good
everyday housekeepers, but now what a difference! Yes, the farm woman
who has electricity as a servant is fast overcoming kitchen drudgery.
Two special training courses were given all agents on uses of electricity
and selection of equipment, showing trends in appliance manufacture,
through the cooperation of business concerns making and distributing
equipment.
7Retired June 30, 1946.







Annual Report, 1946


Home Beautification.-Agents report that 6,101 4-H girls and women
'improved and beautified their home grounds, 573 lawns were started,
1,006 families planted grass and 1,082 started foundation plantings around
the homes. A State contest in yard beautification was scheduled for the
4-H club girls, with 6,354 girls enrolled in home improvement. These fam-
ilies influenced 3,360 other people to paint or whitewash their buildings,
or to plant grass or shrubs. Instruction on color in the home and simple
decoration in home furnishings was given girls enrolled in 4-H club work.
Management in the Home.-Agents report that 2,851 families asked for
help with home account keeping. The number of families producing their
family food supply wholly or in part increased appreciably, due to high
costs of fresh produce. While the total amount of canning was less this
year than last, home pantries were more carefully budgeted with the
1%/ million pints canned or stored. Management of time became increas-
ingly important, as many women were employed outside their homes, and
1,875 families were assisted with time-management problems.
According to reports given to the home demonstration agents, 830
families were helped to use the resources of their homes and farms to
develop home industries, which added $666,263.99 to the cash income of the
families.
Consumer Interests.-To make buying decisions or other adjustments
in family living, 4,122 families reported they used timely economic infor-
mation, supplied by the home demonstration agents. Also 7.424 families
were assisted with information on how to buy food, clothing and home furn-
ishings, equipment and supplies to better advantage.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Part IV--Negro Work

NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK
A. A. Turner, Negro District Agent
Negro farm demonstration work, under the supervision of the Negro
District Agent, was carried on in 10 counties in 1946. In addition, Exten-
sion work was extended to as many counties as could be effectively carried
on without agents being employed therein. A number of adjoining coun-
ties were reached with information sent through circular letters, newspaper
articles and personal contacts with farm families.
A summary of results of the efforts of negro county agents with negro
farm families is presented below.
Crop and Livestock Production.-To increase crop production, negro
county agents assisted 1,923 farmers to obtain improved and certified
varieties or strains of seed. Higher yields of corn, sweet potatoes, fruits,
tobacco and other crops were obtained. Twenty two hundred and fifty-
eight farmers were assisted with the use of fertilizers.
To increase livestock production, the agents assisted 1,812 farmers in
improving methods of feeding livestock and 322 farmers in obtaining pure-
bred males and females.
To conserve our natural resources, agents worked with 341 farmers in
the use of crop rotations, 99 in constructing terraces and 480 with the use
of cover or green-manure crops. Eight hundred and ninety-one farmers
cooperated in prevention of forest fires.
To plan and make adjustments for farming activities, agents assisted
521 farmers with farm-labor problems, 386 with locating supplemental
sources of income, 413 in developing farm and home plans, 336 in keeping
records, 323 in using outlook information to make adjustments on the farm,
and 185 with credit problems.
Improving Farms and Equipment.-To improve farm homes, farms and
equipment, agents assisted 220 families in constructing dwellings, 393 in
remodeling homes, 917 in screening or using other recommended methods
of controlling flies or other insects, and 564 families in improving home
grounds. In addition, 166 families were assisted in obtaining electricity
and 18 families with using electricity for income-producing purposes.
Agents also assisted 94 farmers with the construction of farm buildings

Fig. 14.-Negro 4-H boys received instruction in 'selecting, feeding and
caring for hogs to obtain best results.








Annual Report, 1946


and 72 with remodeling or repairing farm buildings. One hundred and'
sixteen farm families followed instructions in the maintenance and repair
of mechanical equipment and 132 farmers were assisted in the selection
and more efficient use of mechanical equipment.
Health and Recreation.-To improve health conditions among rural fam-
ilies, the agents assisted 1,119 families in the prevention of colds and other
common diseases, 927 families with preventive measures to improve health,
and 1,258 families in removing fire and accident hazards. The importance
of taking advantage of county health units and county doctors and nurses
was stressed to rural families.
To improve recreation and community life as well as family relation-
ships, the agents assisted 504 families in improving home recreation and
115 families in improving community recreational facilities. Twenty-seven
communities were assisted in providing library facilities, 308 families were
assisted with child development and guidance problems, 230 families in
improving family relationships, and 422 individuals participated in child
development and parent education.
Leadership.-There have been 2 changes in personnel during the year.
Financial assistance has been given in promoting farm demonstration work
among negroes in the counties. Various counties gave financial assistance
for purchase of demonstration materials, and to assist with the 4-H Club
State Short Course and district camps. Boards of commissioners in the
counties provide office space for all agents.
There are 741 volunteer local leaders who are of valuable assistance to
the agents in determining and promoting the programs in the counties.
These leaders are given special training under the supervision of the local
agents. Dependable persons who are good demonstrators are selected to
assist the agent in promoting and carrying on county programs.
Special Events.-During the latter part of May the Annual State 4-H
Short Course was held at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College.
All counties except 1 participated. There was much improvement in this
short course over previous years. The NFA boys and 4-H boys and girls
had their state meetings at the same time, with an attendance of over 400
rural boys and girls. Many of the programs were held jointly with 4-H
boys and girls and NFA boys.
One district camp was held at Lake Hall, Leon County, with boys from
5 counties participating.
The second district camp was held at East Lake Weir, Marion County,
during the month of July with boys from 5 counties participating.
Achievement days have been held in each county supervised by the
Negro District Agent.
The Rural Pastors' Institutes at the Florida A. and M. College, Talla-
hassee, and at Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, were held during the
months of April and June. These institutes were under the auspices of the
Federated Council of Churches of America, with colleges and the Extension
Service cooperating.
The Florida State Fair was held February 1-12. Four farm agents
were assisted by county boards of commissioners and business men in dis-
playing exhibits in the Negro Exhibit Building at the Fair. This was the
first fair since February 1942.
Funds were provided for negro farm demonstration work in 10 counties
the past year. Through the cooperation of vocational agriculture teachers
and home agents in counties where no farm agents work, the work was
carried into 10 additional counties in 1946. The Negro District Agent
closely supervised all agents in order to broaden the scope of Extension
work.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Floy Britt, Negro District Home Demonstration Agent

In the supervisory program for 1946, the following goals were stressed:
Family food supply, food conservation, nutrition, home improvement, cloth-
ing, health, sanitation and community work. These activities were selected
because they represented the most urgent needs of the people.
Foods and Nutrition.-In the field of food production, reports from
agents show that 5,588 gardens were grown, 11,997 calendar fruit plantings
started this year, 6,580 berry plants and vines planted, 53,936 chickens
raised, 42,565 dozen eggs produced, and 2,768 families owned cows. One
hundred ninety-nine milk cows were added this year.
In food conservation agents report 3,081 families canned 396,849 quarts
of vegetables, fruits and meats and 124,175 containers of pickles, marmal-
ades, poultry, fish and fruit juices.
In the field of nutrition and health 2,439 farm families improved their
diets, 3,178 families made improvements in food preparation, 2,232 families
improved family food supply, and 1,320 families made food supply budgets.
Three thousand, one hundred ninety families served balanced meals with
food locally produced and 969 families made improvement in feeding
children. Also, 1,577 families put forth efforts in preventing colds and
other common diseases, 759 families gave first aid treatments in their
homes, and 1,599 families removed accident hazards from their homes.
Horme Improvement.-Agents report on home improvement in their
counties as follows: 1,525 families improved housekeeping methods, 176
families constructed new houses, 281 families remodeled old homes, 1,257
families improved the arrangement of kitchens and other rooms, 113 fam-
ilies obtained electricity, and 429 families bought electrical equipment.
Thirty-three families installed water systems, 5,125 farm families installed
water heaters and 1,477 homes were screened. Thirty-six families installed
indoor toilets and sewage systems and 28 farms families installed outside
toilets. Seven hundred and seventeen families repaired homes and 307
families painted homes. Seven hundred and nine families made complete
improvement of grounds, 2,169 families utilized sack materials in their
homes, and 228 mattresses were made and renovated this year.
On improving the family clothing supply the agents report as follows:
3,556 garments remodeled, 14,596 new garments made for family members,
7,579 garments mended, and 16,890 household articles made. Eight hun-
dred and forty-three families improved methods in laundering.
Community Advancement.-Under community work agents report that
90 communities improved community recreational facilities, 14 communi-
ties provided library facilities this year, 46 communities improved school
grounds and 1,039 families made use of canning centers. Forty-four com-
munities assisted with school lunch program and 3,547 children benefited
by school lunch program in these 44 schools, and 56 communities provided
school gardens. Two hundred and ninety-six articles were contributed to
overseas relief, 164 containers of canned products were contributed to
famine relief and 670 community volunteer leaders assisted with commun-
ity activities this year.
Supervision.-There have been 2 changes in negro home demonstration
personnel this year.







Annual Report, 1946 67

Financial aid has been given to help promote home demonstration work
among negroes in all counties where home demonstration agents are em-
ployed.
There are 670 local leaders and other interested people who play a very
important part in helping the agents to determine programs in the coun-
ties. The assistance given by Extension specialists has proven most help-
ful to the negro agents.
Specialists give helpful demonstrations and assistance to all agents
(men and women) at the annual conference for negro farm and home
agents.
In the 10 counties supervised by the Local District Agent there are
volunteer leaders including women, men, boys and girls who aid the agents
in promoting county-wide programs. Dependable persons who are good
demonstrators are selected and given special training by the local agents,
preparing them to render valuable assistance in their various counties.
Besides assisting the agents in getting information to the rural families,
they help with community and county exhibits, fairs, achievement pro-
grams, picnics, camps and short courses.
Twenty-three business firms contributed to the support of the negro
4-H club program in 1946.
The following supervisory goals for 1946 have been reached:
Some improvement of offices and facilities in all counties.
Clerical help added to 1 county.
Telephone installed in 1 agent's office.
More financial aid has been given for conducting work in all counties.
Creditable exhibits have been shown in various counties creating a de-
sire in farm people to better their circumstances.
Much has been done to assist in supplying the food, shelter and cloth-
ing needs of the people in the counties, but there is much yet to be done.
Short Courses and Camps.-The Annual 4-H Short Course for Negro
Boys and Girls was held at the Florida A. and M. College in Tallahassee,
beginning Tuesday afternoon, May 28, and closing Saturday morning, June
4. Enrollment in 1946 increased over 1945, with 156 girls and 11 local
leaders attending.
The program for the short course was designed to help meet the needs
of Florida 4-H club boys and girls. Emphasis was placed on gardening,
poultry, dairying, food production, canning, home improvement, self-im-
provement, leadership instruction, nutrition, health, music and citizenship
training. Leading girls from the various counties assisted local agents
with demonstrations on gardening, canning, home improvement and self-
improvement.
Two very successful district camps for negro 4-H club girls were held
in the northern and central sections of Florida, with 60 girls from 7 coun-
ties attending. Girls at both camps received training in foods, health,
handicrafts, community singing, nature study, first aid, water safety and
recreation.
In addition, a very successful camp for negro 4-H club girls was held
at the Youth Center, Alafia, Florida, on August 1-4, 1946. Forty 4-H club
girls attended. The Duval County 4-H club girls enjoyed 1 week's camp
at Florida Normal College, St. Augustine. Forty-two 4-H club girls
attended.
The Ministers' Institute held at Edward Waters College proved most
helpful. Over 50 ministers selected a course in home and community
improvement.







68 Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK

(Men and Women)

GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Months of service (Agents and Assistants)........................... .................. 243
Days of service: In office-1,916; in field-4,082.................................... 5,998
Farm or home visits made................ ..... ................... ......... 9,547
Different farms or homes visited......................... ............................ 4,657
Calls relating to extension work: Office-18,986; telephone............... 4,481
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth............................ 2,638
News articles or stories published........................... .. ...... .......... 188
Bulletins distributed ..................................... .... ..... 15,555
Radio talks broadcast or prepared......................................... .............. 11
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen................... 317
Total attendance of men and women................ .............. .... 3,153
Method demonstration meetings.......................................... 1,458
Total attendance .................................. ......... .............18,280
Meetings held at result demonstrations ......................... ........ 203
Attendance ................................................ 3,302
Tours conducted ..................................................... .................................... 40
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work................ 42
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings........................... 1,161

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms in counties worked............................................... 7,845
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year and in past............................. ...................... ..... 3,130
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration
and agricultural programs............................... .... 2,099
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the
home demonstration program................................................ 2,316
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstra-
tion and agricultural program this year.................................... 5,004,
Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension
program ................................................. .................... ........................ 4,853
Other families influenced by some phase of the extension program.... 2,361

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group......................... ................ 50
Unpaid ................................ .................... ......... 45
Paid ................................................................... ........... 5
Communities in agricultural planning...................... .. ................. 20
Members in community agricultural planning.................................... 129
Planning meetings held............................ ............................ .......... 307
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
workers ................................... .................. ................ 368
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen..................... ............. 427
Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen.......................... 455

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work...................................... ........ 989
Communities in which work was conducted.......................... 753
Voluntary leaders and committeemen..................................... .. 1,043








Annual Report, 1946 69

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work....................................................... 727
Communities in which work was conducted..-.............................. ..587
Voluntary committeemen and leaders............................ .. .............. 466
Farmers assisted ................................................... 6,864

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
D ays devoted to w ork............................. .. ......... .............. .............. 201
Communities in which work was conducted...................................... 210
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen..................... ............. 170
Farmers assisted in soil management................................ 1,836
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation......................... 1,126

FARM MANAGEMENT
D ays devoted to w ork.................................... ..................... ................... 220
Farm ers assisted .................... .. ...... ................ ........ ..... ......... 2,902

GENERAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS RELATED TO AGRICULTURE
Days devoted to work..................... ................. ...................... 85
Communities in which work was conducted............... ..................... 82
Voluntary leaders and committeemen............................................................ 98
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted............................... 102

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work.......... ........... .......... ............ .... ......... 821
Communities in which work was conducted.................. .................. 1,005.
Established cooperatives assisted.................-----.......... 2
Value, of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during
the year (established and new)........................ ....... ....................$1,000
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during year......................1,282,170

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work.............................. .. .................. ... 373
Communities in which work was conducted .................... ............. 352
Voluntary leaders and committeemen............................. ... ........... 452
Families assisted in house furnishings, farm buildings, surroundings,
mechanical equipment, rural electrification........... ...................... 5,911

NUTRITION AND. HEALTH
D ays devoted to w ork.... .......... ............................................. 1,316
Communities in which work was done................................................ 814
Families assisted: Improving diets, 2,436; food preparation, 2,162;
total .... ...................................................... ...... .......................... 4,598
Families assisted with food-preservation problems............................. 3,415

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work......................................................... 117
Communities in which work was done..................................... 122
Voluntary leaders assisting............................................... ................ 116
Families assisted .......................................... 1,739
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies 150
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies................ 421
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems................................ 639








70 Florida Cooperative Extension

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to Work.............. ................------ 234
Communities in which work was done............................. ........ 156
Voluntary leaders assisting ---..................---..- ............153
Families assisted ------------- ... .. 3,585

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work.... -------................---..-...- 103
Communities in which work was done................ ............... 121
Voluntary leaders assisting............................. ............ 109

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
D ays devoted to w ork............................................................... ..................... 174
Communities in which work was done................................ .... 192
Voluntary leaders assisting............ ..................... 203
Families assisted in improving home recreation....................... 504
Communities assisted in improving recreational facilities............... 115
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities, or meeting programs............................... 92
Communities assisted in providing library facilities............................ 27

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys... ................... ............... 4,301
Projects completed by girls... ..................... ......--.. 7,290
Boys completing corn and peanut projects................ ........... 861
Boys completing fruit projects................ ....... ....... ....... 101
Boys completing garden projects........................ .................. 917
Boys completing market gardens, truck, and canning crops.................... 120
Boys completing dairy projects...................... ...... ......... 108
Boys completing poultry projects............................. .. .................. 528
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects......................... ........ 98
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects................................ 367
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects..................................... 523
Girls completing dairy projects.............................................. 53
Girls completing poultry projects................................ ......... ......... 441
Girls completing home gardens............................... .. ............ 1,005
Girls completing fruit projects.............................................. 176
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops................... 23
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects....................... 810
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid.............................. 764
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvement projects........................... .......... 1,872
Girls completing food preservation projects............................ ........... 1,086
4-H Membership:
Boys: Farm, 2,109; non-farm, 196; total............. ............. 2,305
Girls: Farm, 2,399; non-farm, 854; total......... ................... 3,253
4-H club members having health examinations because of participa-
tion in Extension program ................................... ............................ 1,293
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs............................. 147






INDEX


Achievement days and exhibits, 55
Agricultural conservation, 16
Agricultural economics, 27
Agricultural engineering, 24
Agricultural Experiment Station, 7,
15, 18
Agricultural production goals, 18
Andersen, H. 0., 19
Animal husbandry, 30

Baetzman, F. E., 34
Bankers' Association, State, 30
Barrus, Edith Y., 50
Bassett, W. W., 38
Beale, Clyde, 13
Beef cattle, 30
Bevis, Joyce, 22, 56
Blacklock, R. W., 38
Boys' 4-H club work, 38
Broadcasting activities, 14
Brown, Hamlin L., 33
Brown, W. W., 38
Buildings, farm, 17, 24
Bulletins, 13
Camps, 40, 55, 67
Cattle, beef, 30
Child Health Day, 58
Citrus grove management, 27
Clayton, H. G., 16
Clothing and textiles, 56
Community advancement, 66
Conservation, food, 60
soil, 9, 44
Cooper, J. Francis, 13
Cooperation with other agencies, 59
Corn and oats, 48 .
Cotton, 48
crop insurance, 17
Councils, junior, 53
senior, 51
County agents' work, 23
County and home agents, 45
Crops, demonstrations, 47, 64
green manure, 47
Culling poultry, 36

Dairy cattle shows and sales, 32, 33
Dairy feed payment program, 17
Dairying, 30, 33
DeBusk, E. F., 19
Dennis, R. S., 16
DDT, 31
Director's report, 7
Drainage, 26
Duroc Swine Association, 32
Editorial work, 13
Egg-Laying Test, 35
Electrification, 62
Emergency farm labor, 19
Engineering, agricultural, 24
Extension methods, 29

Farm and home planning, 28


Farm building service, 24
applications, 17
Farm forestry, 41
Farm labor, 9, 19
Farm machinery, 25
Farm management, 28
Feed production and conservation, 34
Financial statement, 8
Fire prevention, 22
Florida Bankers' Association, 39
Florida Breeders' and Hatchery As-
sociation, 35, 37
Florida Duroc Swine Association, 32
Florida Jersey Cattle Club, 34
Florida Poultry Producers' 'Associa-
tion, 35, 37
Florida State Board of Health, 21
Food conservation, 60
Food, nutrition and health, 58, 66
Food selection, 54
Forest demonstrations, 43
fence post problems, 43
insects and diseases, 42
planting, 41
Freezing, 61
Fruit plantings, 60


4-H club work, 29, 33,
boys, 38
camps, 40, 55
girls, 26, 52, 54, 55
short course, 40


36, 46, 51, 59


Game, fish and wildlife development,
42
Gardening and food conservation, 60
Grass, rye, 34
Grove management, citrus, 27
Guernsey Cattle Club, 34
Hampson, C. M., 28
Health and medical service, 21, 58, 65
Hog work, 32
Holloway, Ethyl, 50
Home demonstration work, 50
organization, 50
program planning, 52
meeting needs of farm families, 52
volunteer leaders, 52
Home gardens and fruit plantings, 60
improvement, 62, 66
beautification, 63
consumer interests, 63
electrification, 62
management, 63
safety, 22, 54
Household textiles, 57
Housing, 8, 24, 62
state committee, 8
Improvement, professional, 7
Industries, home, 55
Insurance, cotton, 17
Irish potato goals, 17
Jersey Cattle Club, 34







Index


Johnson, John M., 24
Junior home demonstration councils,
53

Keown, Mary E., 50

Labor, farm, 9, 19
Livestock work, 30, 64
Local leaders, 52
Logan, J. H.,. 34

Machinery development, 26
Marketing quotas, 17
McClane, T. K., 44
McDavid, Ruby, 50
McLendon, H. S., 19
McMullen, K. S., 23, 44
Meal planning, 54
Mehrhof, N. R., 34
Men's work, 23
Moore, Virginia P., 62

National Home Demonstration Week,
13
National Poultry Improvement Plan,
35
National Safety Council, 22
Naval stores, 42
Negro home demonstration work, 66
food and nutrition, 66
home improvement, 66
community advancement, 66
supervision, 66
short course and camps, 67
Negro work, 64
health and recreation, 65
leadership, 65
special events, 65
crop and livestock production, 64
improving farm equipment, 64
Nettles, W. T., 23
Newspapers and farm journals, 14
Nieland, L. T., 22, 41
Noble, C. V., 27

Oats, 33, 48
Oil, fuel in syrup cooking, 26
Office of Price Administration, 33

Pastures, 48
Peaden, P. L., 19
Peanuts, 47
Perry, F. S., 34
Personnel, 7
Planning, farm and home, 28
Potato goals, Irish, 17
Poultry, 30, 54
activities, 34
culling, 36
miscellaneous, 37
national improvement plan, 35
Poultry Institute, 37
Printed materials, 13
Production and Marketing Adminis-
tration, 9, 14, 17, 48


Production goals, 18
Publications, news, radio, 13

Radio programs, 13, 38, 41
Record books, 28
Recreation, 65
Retirement system, 7
Rural Electrification Administration,
26, 62
Rye, 34
Rye grass, 34

Safety and fire prevention, 22
Sanitation and management, dairy
herds, 34
Savage, Zach, 27
Seed drying, 26
Shealy, A. L., 30
Sheely, W. J., 30
Sikes, Anna Mae, 58
Smith, J. Lee, 23, 47
Soil and water conservation, 44
Soil conservation, 9, 44
activities by agents, 46
new soil districts, 45
Soil Conservation Service. 33, 44
Soils and farm crops, 47
Spencer, A. P., 7, 23
State Advisory Committee, 19
State Forest Service, 41
State Housing Committee, 24
State Livestock Sanitary Board, 32,
35
State Soil Conservation Board, 9
State Veterans' Advisory Commit-
tee, 28
Statistical report, 9
negro work, 68
Statistical summary, housing and
farm buildings, 25
Sugar, 17
Swine work, 32
Syrup, cooking with oil, 26

Textiles, 56
Thomas, Jefferson, 13
Timber marketing, 41
Tractor maintenance short course, 26
Turner, A. A., 64

United States Department of Agri-
culture, 7, 15, 18, 24

Veterans, assistance to, 18, 28
Victory farm volunteers, 21
Visual aids, 15

Water conservation, 44
Watkins, M. O., 7
Wildlife development, 42
Work of county agents, 23
Work with women and girls, 50
WRUF, 14