<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Credits
 Director's report
 Emergency farm labor program
 Agricultural conservation and emergency...
 Editorial and mailing
 Work of county agents
 Agricultural economics
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry, dairying and...
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Farm forestry
 Soil and water conservation
 Home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Food, nutrition and health
 Gardening, fruit plantings and...
 Home improvement
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00007
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1945
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00007
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Credits
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Director's report
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Emergency farm labor program
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Agricultural conservation and emergency programs
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Editorial and mailing
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Work of county agents
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Agricultural economics
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Agronomy
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Farm forestry
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Soil and water conservation
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Home demonstration work
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Gardening, fruit plantings and food conservation
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Home improvement
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Index
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
Full Text








COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
A. P. SPENCER, Director









1945 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1945
with
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1945









BOARD OF CONTROL
J. THOS. GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando M. L. MERSHON, Miami
THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville
N. B. JORDAN, Quincy J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension
MARSHALL O. WATKINS, B.S.A., Assistant to the Director

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor1
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor1
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricutural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing'
ZACH SAVAGE, M.S., Economist'
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
W. W. BASSETT, JR., B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent"
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Husbandman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman'
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Egg-Laying Test
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
HANS O. ANDERSON, B.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
P. L. PEADEN, M.A., Asst. State Supervisor EFL
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., State Director, P&MA
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Asst. State Director, P&MA
JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A.E., Extension Agricultural Engineer


Home Demonstration Work; Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent

1Part-time.
SOn leave.









CONTENTS
Page
Report of Director .......................-.- ...-........ 7

Statistical Report, W hite ........................ -- ------------ -------------- 8

Emergency Farm Labor Program .........~.~...............--..... 12

Agricultural Conservation and Emergency Programs ....................-........- 17

Editorial and Mailing ........ ..................................... 21

Work of County Agents ......................... .. -------..---... 24

Agricultural Economics ..................- -- --------------- 26

Citrus Grove Management ....................................-------.....26

Farm Management ...........--.... --.- ------------------ 26

Marketing Activities .....................-- ----..-------- -- --.--------------------------.. ...... 29

Agronomy ....... ...... ..................-- ...........-- 31

Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Poultry .............. .......... ............... 34

Animal Husbandry ............. ................................. 34

Dairying ............... .. ........... ................... 36

Poultry .............. ..--- -- ............... .......... 39

Boys' 4-H Club Work ....................-------------- .....................42

Farm Forestry ........... .. ....................................47

Soil and Water Conservation --- ...... ....... .................. 52

Home Demonstration Work .................... ----------- ........... ....... 55

Clothing and Textiles ...................... ... ..... ------ 64

Food, Nutrition and Health ..........................--------....... 66

Gardening, Fruit Plantings and Food Conservation .......................... 70

Home Improvement ..................... .--------- -----... 73

Negro Farm Demonstration Work .............. .... ----- ..................76

Vegro Home Demonstration Work ..............-..---... ........-.....- 78

Negro Statistical Report ........... .......... .... ..................81








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of December 31, 1945)
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua............Loonis Blitch...................Gainesville..Mrs. Josephine H.McSwine
Baker...............D. H. W ard*..............Macclenny ...........................................
Bay................. J. A. Sorenson*............Panama City..............................................
Bradford ........ L. T. Dyer* ...... ..........Starke .................................. ............
Brevard............J. T. Oxford....................Cocoa....................Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward.........B. E. Lawton................Ft. Lauderdale......Miss Louise Taylor
Calhoun............ Troy Penton........... ... Blountstown............Mrs. Lucille Clark
Charlotte..........N. H. McQueen..............Punta Gorda ................ ................
Citrus.............0. M. Maines...............Inverness.........Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Clay...--. .............~ ........ Gn. Cve. Spg. Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird*
Columbia ....... J. M. Kennedy..............Lake City............Mrs. Glenn M. Sewell
Dade................C. H. Steffani....... ......Miami-..... ...Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.)...J. L. Edwards...-.............Miami........(Asst.) Miss Edna L. Sims
DeSoto.............W. L. Woods............. Arcadia .............. ..........
Dixie..................C. L. Dickinson*.............Cross City ............. .................. ..........
Duval...............A. S. Lawton........... ..Jacksonville..............Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.)..G. B. Ellis*.......................Jax......(Asst.) Miss Mildred J. Taylor
Escambia..........E. H. Finlayson....- ...Pensacola..............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Escambia.........J. B. W alker (Asst.).....Pensacola ............................................
Gadsden............A. G. Driggers...........- Quincy............. Miss Elise Laffitte
Gilchrist........... S. Laird......................Trenton ................ ................. .......
Glades-............F. D. Yaun....................Moore Haven...................................
Gulf.................. C. R. Laird......................Wewahitchka....Miss Wilma Alsobrook
Hardee..........-.. E. H. Vance....................Wauchula.....Mrs. Viola Y. Strickland
Hendry..............H. L. Johnson.................LaBelle ............ .........................
Hernando........H. J. Brinkley...........Brooksville ................................
Highlands.........V. T. Oxer................... Sebring............Miss Catherine Brabson
Hillsborough....Alec White.....................Tampa ......... ............................
Hillsborough....J. O. Armor (Asst.)......Plant City........................... ......
Hillsborough...(West).. ................Tapa........Mrs. Carolyn M. Boogher
Hillsborough...(East).. ............Plant City....................................
Holmes..............A. G. Hutchinson...-.....Bonifay...........Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River....M. A. Boudet.............Vero Beach ..........................................
Jackson.............J. W. Malone...................Marianna....... Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jackson............. E. W. Granger (Asst.)..Marianna ............ ...................
Jefferson...........E. N. Stephens ..............Monticello.......Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
Lafayette......... S. L. Brothers...........Mayo ........-- -.............. ...
Lake---.............. R. E. Norris...... ......Tavares..........Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee...... ... .... P. Heuck..... ............ Ft. Myers ............ ......................
Leon............. Woodrow W. Brown ..... Tallahassee..............Miss Wilma Smith
Levy..................T. D. Rickenbaker.........Bronson................Miss Lila Woodard
Liberty..............J. S. Alexander..............Bristol ..................... .........
Madison..........W. W. Glenn................. Madison..........Miss Bennie F. Wilde
Manatee-...........Ed. L. Ayers...................Bradenton..............Miss Margaret Cob
Marion..............Carl Hendricks-...............Ocala.............. Miss Allie Lee Rus
Martin............L. M. Johnson..............Stuart..... .......Miss Lucile Inscoc
Nassau... ............................... .Hilliard ..................... ......
Okeechobee .....C. R. Boyles....................Okeechobee ..............................
Okaloosa...........F. W. Barber.... Crestview..................Crestview
Orange ..K.......... C. Moore.....................Orlando.......Miss Elizabeth Dickenso
Osceola..............J. R. Gunn.................... Kissimmee.......... Miss Albina Smit
Palm Beach.....M. U. Mounts.. ...............W. Palm Beach..Miss Bertha Hausmar
Palm Beach (Asst.).......................... W. Palm Beach......Mrs. M. J. Michauc
Pasco.................J. F. Higgins...........- Dade City................Mrs. Essa D. Shav
Pinellas.............J. H. Logan............Clearwater............Miss Tillie Roese
Pinellas (Asst.)..............................C..learwater....Miss Mary F. McAnall
Polk-.................W. P. Hayman...............Bartow..........Miss Lois Godbe
Polk (Asst.).....Arthur M. Bissett...........Bartow .....................
Putnam .................. .... ........... ....... .....................Palatka .. ....
St. Johns...........H. E. Maltby*-..............St. Augustine........Miss Anna E. Heis

[4]









COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
St. Lucie-...........C D. Kime----.....--.....Fort Pierce................Miss Mary Dixon
Santa Rosa.......E. D. McCall...................Milton...........Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole..........C. R. Dawson...................Sanford.....--- Mrs. Ouida Wilson
Sarasota............W. E. Evans-------......... Sarasota------........ Miss Sara Horton
Sumter..............J. D. Coleman*.......-.........ushnell ----------------
Suwannee.........S. C. Kierce.....................Live Oak.................Miss Jeanette Rish
Suwannee.........C. G. Howell (Asst.).....Live Oak ... .....................................
Taylor...............D. D. McCloud...............Perry.....-------Mrs. Ruth Elkins
Union................J. T. Holloway...............Lake Butler --------..........................
Volusia..............F. E. Baetzman.............. DeLand.................Mrs. Gladys Kendall
W akulla ..........N. J. Albritton...............Crawfordville .............................
W alton..............Mitchell W ilkins............DeFuniak Springs.................................
Washington-..... O. Harrison*..............Chipley ............----.....-------.--

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua ......... ............-----...........Otha W. Nealy---........ --....-- Gainesville
Columbia.............----................... McKinley Jeffers.......................----Lake City
Gadsden----.............--....................-- Russell Stephens ...................................Quincy
Hamilton...............................---......N. H. Bennett..........................White Springs
Jackson...........................................Thomas A. Harris.............................Marianna
Jefferson...........................................M. E. Groover............................-- Monticello
Leon....................................-------- English M. Greene ...................Tallahassee
M adison............................................ James C. M iller................................. M adison
M arion.............................................Eugene P. Sm ith.................................. Ocala
Sumter.......................................... Richard L. Bradley..............................Bushnell
Suwannee................................ ....... Live Oak

COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua.................................--Leontine W illiams ..........................Gainesville
Columbia............................... ..........Ozella Sansome................................Lake City
Duval.................................. ..... Ethel M Powell............................Jacksonville
Gadsden.............................................Diana H. Spencer............. ...... ..........Quincy
Hillsborough........................... Sudella Ford ......................Tampa
Jackson........................................Doris Groover Herring....................Marianna
Leon..................................................Archie Engram ...................Tallahassee
Madison......... ---------.......................lthea Ayer...... .......... Madison
Marion -- -----.................................-- Idella R. Kelly..................................Reddick
Putnam..................................----Lee Ella Gamble.................... ........Palatka
Acting agent.
















[5]












PART I-GENERAL


DIRECTOR'S REPORT
A. P. Spencer, Director
Much credit is due the rural people of Florida for the enormous quan-
tities of food which they have produced. Every production phase of Ex-
tension work that could contribute to wartime needs was increased and
emphasized, stimulated by a patriotic understanding of the lieed for agri-
cultural products, satisfactory prices and a ready market for farm products.
In spite of labor and equipment shortages and wartime restrictions, the
production of food crops in the State virtually reached production goals
set for 1945.
County participation in support of Extension work is provided by
contributions to supplement salaries and travel expense paid to county
and home demonstration agents, and the furnishing of office space and
equipment. Substantial increases in salaries have been provided during
the past year, indicating county support and approval of the Extension
program.
Policies governing program-making are largely determined at the State
office. The Experiment Station and the teaching division cooperate with
the Extension Service in outlining programs and subject matter as a guide
for county programs. These programs are referred to county Extension
personnel by supervisory and specialist members of the State staff. It is
also a policy to coordinate Extension programs with other federal programs.
County offices have continued to be headquarters for AAA (now P & MA)
offices in the counties and the Extension agent serves with the county
committee as ex'officio member or secretary. County agents are largely
responsible for the organization of soil conservation districts. Relation-
ships with the Farm Security Administration and other federal agencies
are also established.
The Extension Service as a division of the College of Agriculture is
subject to the regulations set up by the State Board of Control and it is
an established policy that the 3 divisions of the College of Agriculture
shall be coordinated as to subject matter and overall cooperation. The
State office of the Agricultural Extension Service is located at the Uni-
versity of Florida. The State Home Demonstration Office is located at the
Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. The district negro agents
have offices at the Florida A. and M. College for Negroes at Tallahassee.

PERSONNEL CONSIDERATIONS
All new Extension staff members automatically become participants
in the State Teachers' Retirement Act. This Act provides for a graduated
assessment based on age at the time when the person enters the service.
An additional retirement system was established by the Legislature in
1945, providing for a 5 percent assessment on salaries and is available
to old employees not enrolled for the Teachers' Retirement Act.
The administration of the Extension Service of the future must deal
with the new era that is facing agriculture in the State. Policies must be
sufficiently flexible to meet the needs as they arise.
During the war period all Extension personnel have contributed to war
demands. A liberal amount of time and thought has been given to adjust-
ments and changes that were anticipated. The Extension Service has
assumed full responsibility for handling the Emergency Farm Labor pro-
[7]







Florida Cooperative Extension


gram and has placed the services of prisoners of war and foreign workers
with growers to relieve labor shortages. This part of the program is now
passing and it is apparent that Farm Labor education work can be under-
taken to render a service that heretofore has not been considered a part
of Extension educational work.

SPECIAL WARTIME EMERGENCY
The appropriation allotted by the War Food Administration to the Ex-
tension Service primarily for food production was used to stimulate pro-
duction as far as possible. Emphasis was placed on the employment of
emergency home demonstration agents, county agents and negro agents
in counties not being served. Special emphasis was placed on home gar-
dens and home poultry in rural and urban areas.
The difficulty of securing personnel sufficiently equipped to handle the
programs proposed prevented some of the accomplishments that were
expected, since persons qualified to do this work were otherwise employed
at salaries that would not justify their undertaking temporary employ-
ment. For the most part it was necessary to employ local persons who
had definite interests in their local communities.

FINANCING EXTENSION WORK
Financial Statement, 1944-45
Federal Funds
Smith-Lever-Bankhead-Jones ................................$200,645.82
Capper-Ketcham ....................... ...... ..... ........... 27,417.72
Clark-M cNary .......................... .................... 1,620.00
Soil Conservation ..................... --........----- 2,720.00*

$232,403.54
State Appropriation
Legislature (Annual) .......................................... 108,800.00
Commissioner of Agriculture
(Special continuing) ........................................ 5,000.00
Legislature (continuing) ........................................ 25,000.00

$138,800.00
County Appropriations (Approximately) .................. $165,500.00

TOTAL ......................................... ....536,703.54

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) .--.......--..............-............ 1,346
Days of service: In office-16,004; in field-16,735 ............................... 32,739
Farm or home visits made ..............---- ........ .......... ....--------........... 51,457
Different farms or homes visited ............................................................. 30,208
Calls relating to extension work: Office-294,686; Telephone ........178,594
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth-........................ 8,376
News articles or stories published ................................. ........... ...... 5,887
Bulletins distributed ............................................... .......................... 191,212
Radio talks broadcast or prepared -................. ............... 550
This amount paid direct to Extension Conservationist by cooperative agreement.







Annual Report, 1945 9

Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber ................................... .................. ..................... 902
Total attendance of men and women .......................................... 7,970
Method demonstration meetings:
Number ...................... ....... .............. 7,888
Total attendance ............................. ........ ............................149,029
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
Number ........ .................. ................. .................... 1,210
Attendance ...... ...... .............. .. .......... ........... 17,151
Tours ........................................ ... ........... .... ................................... .... .. 322
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work................ 483
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ......................... 6,448

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms ................................... ........ ................. 61,108
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricul-
tural program ..................... ................... ... .............. .......... ........... 28,474
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home
demonstration program ............... ............................ ... ......... 20,153
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural pro-
gram for the first time this year ..................................................... 4,483
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for first time this year ............................ 4,146
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ............... ......................... 9,186
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program ...... .......... ........... ........ ....... ....... 9,256
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
demonstration program ........................ .......... ....................... 20,158
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ........................... 5,113
Different farm families influenced by some phase of extension
program ............................ ..... ...... ..... ... ....... .....-........................... 39,707
Other families influenced by some phase of extension program........ 27,399

CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT

Communities conducting war work ...............-................... ....... ....... 1,008
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program ...................... 1,906
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian
defense, and other war work ........................ ............... 5,573

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group ........................................... 442
U npaid .......................... ..... .... ............... ........... ... ....... ..... 354
Paid ... ................ .... .... ...... ................. ...... .................. 88
Communities in agricultural planning ................................... ........ 67
Members in community agricultural planning ................................... 184
Planning meetings held ...................................... 1,041
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w workers ........................................................ 2,051
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ..................................... 3,283
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders dr committeemen.. 5,648
CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work ...................... ..................... 5,645
Communities in which work was conducted ......................................... 2,793
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ................-- ...................... 1,393







10 Florida Cooperative Extension

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work ....................................... 4,620
Communities in which work was conducted ......................................... 2,137
Voluntary committeemen and leaders ........... ...... ........... 745
Breeding and improvement organizations ........................................... 33
Farmers assisted ---........................................ 29,645

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work .................................................. 1,229
Communities in which work was conducted ....................................... 866
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ......................... ........ 1 494
Farmers assisted in soil management ............. ......................... 26,336
Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation ........ ......... 1,715

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work ......................................... 1,190
Farmers assisted ...--------....................... .................... 24,638

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ................... ........................ ............... 283
Communities in which work was conducted ...................................... 468
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .................................................. 283
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ................................ 509

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work ....... ..-............................................ 2,234
Communities in which work was conducted ...................................... 2,823
Established cooperatives assisted .................................................... 55
New cooperatives assisted in organizing ....................................... ...... 14
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted
during the year (established and new) ................................$14,546,507
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year ..............$22,612,633

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to w ork ... .............................. ...................................... 1,926
Communities in which work was conducted ....................................... 1,557
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .................................................... 802
Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification ......................... ...................... 34,112

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work ....... ... ............................ ................... 5,773
Communities in which work was done .............. ......................... 2,305
Families assisted: In improving diets-18,709; food preparation-
14,341; total .................................. ....... 33,050
Families assisted with food preservation problems .......................... 28,701

HOME MANAGEMENT- FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ............................... ................. 473
Communities-in which work was done .................. ................. 450
Voluntary leaders assisting ........ ......................................... 302
Families assisted .......... ........... ................................ 3,665







Annual Report, 1945


Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household
supplies ........................................... .... ... ..... ............ ........ 345
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies............ 9,248
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems .............................. 13,633

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work ...................................... ............ 1,288
Communities in which work was done ..................................... 587
Voluntary leaders assisting .......................................... 502
Fam ilies assisted ....................................... .. ... ... ........ ......... 24,140

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS -CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work .................. ......................... 244
Communities in which work was done .......................................... 376
Voluntary leaders assisting ............................. ....................... 195

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work .................. ... ............................................ 523
Communities in which work was done ....................... ....................... 495
Voluntary leaders assisting .............................................. ... 730
Families assisted in improving home recreation .................................... 3,467
Communities assisted in improving community recreational facilities 249
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, programs
of activities, or meeting programs ..................... ........ .........327
Communities assisted in providing library facilities ............................ 35

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ...................... .. -................. 5,467
Projects completed by girls ...........- ...-........ ....................... 22,201
Boys completing corn and peanut projects.......................................... 704
Boys completing fruit projects ......................... ......... ......................... 28
Boys completing garden projects ................................. .. ..... 1,023
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............. 165
Boys completing dairy projects ............................ ................ 492
Boys completing poultry projects .................................. .................. 803
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ...-................................ 44
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects .......................... 115
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .................................. 1,312
Girls completing fruit projects .................................. ................. 567
Girls completing garden projects ...................................... ....... ........ .... 2,853
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ................ 66
Girls completing dairy projects .................... ......... ............. .......... 203
Girls completing poultry projects ........................... .................................. 1,228
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects .............. 3,806
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects .......... 829
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and
room improvement projects ......................................... 6,886
Girls completing food preservation projects .......................................... 2,295
4-H Membership-
Boys: Farm-4,466; non-farm-1,254; total .................................. 5,720
Girls: Farm-6,165; non-farm-3,592; total ................................ 9,757
4-H club members having health examinations because of participa-
tion in extension program ................. .............. ............. 1,156
4-H club engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs ............................................. .. 292







Florida Cooperative Extension


EMERGENCY FARM LABOR PROGRAM

E. F. DeBusk, State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
H. S. McLendon, Ass't. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
Hans O. Anderson, Ass't. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
P. L. Peaden, Ass't. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
The 1945 farm labor program fuctioned in Florida in 3 definite periods:
First, in winter and early spring labor was needed to harvest fruit, vege-
tables and sugarcane in the southern part of the state. Second, as the
peak need was passed in the southern area part of this labor was trans-
ferred to the north and central part of the state to harvest spring vege-
tables. Third, in the western part of the state, labor was needed during
the late summer to help harvest peanuts, corn, sugarcane and tung nuts.
It was necessary in some cases to assist growers in arranging quarters
on their farms to house some of the domestic and foreign labor. Arrange-
ments were made for several growers to use labor from the same quarters
which this office had helped to establish and equip. The same representa-
tive from the State office encouraged growers to improve housing facilities
for their farm labor.
The 1945 program was very similar to that of 1944. However, in 1944
there -were only a few prisoners of war available for agricultural work
and the program had direct contact with many more domestic migratory
workers in 1945 than in 1944. Then too, in 1944 several hundred inter-
state workers, both white and colored, were brought in to help harvest
fruit and vegetables. In 1945 only 63 negro laborers were transported
from Alabama.
The State staff remained the same until October, when 2 staff members
resigned and their places were not filled. The State Advisory Committee
of 1944 continued to serve, subject to call when conditions necessitated.
Each farm labor supply center during its period of operation was a
placement center under the management of the placement supervisor. The
county agent's office was a year-round placement center. All requests for
farm labor were cleared through the county agent's office as were referrals
by the U. S. Employment Service of work applications with agricultural
background.
Emergency farm labor assistants exerted every effort to mobilize local
labor. Police and sheriffs' offices cooperated by putting on drives to keep
vagrants off the streets. Public schools staggered their schedules for
boys who worked on the market platforms. The negro schools in Oakland
Park, Pompano and Deerfield closed during the period of heavy harvest
for school children to assist with the vegetable harvesting.
Farm leaders and members of the Farm Labor Advisory Committee
gave their time to the program whenever needed. School officials helped
with the recruitment of students for harvesting work. Farmers recruited
their own labor in centers located in negro communities.

DETERMINATION OF FARM LABOR NEEDS AND SUPPLY
Requests for workers for either production or harvesting were endorsed
by the county agents and sent to the State Farm Office for review and
consideration. The number of workers supplied in previous years was
used as a guide in estimating needs.
County agents analyzed the local situation, with the aid of county
farm labor advisory committees. These committees determined the neces-
sity of using transported workers. County agents used their recommenda-
tions as a basis for their certification of need for workers. The State







Annual Report, 1945


office allocated workers to the different counties and the agents placed
the workers with the growers most needing them.
The county agricultural agent, as local representative of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, informed growers regarding procedure to obtain
farm workers in addition to the local supply. In 11 counties, where the
demand for additional farm workers justified, emergency farm labor as-
sistants were employed to work with county agents in informing the public
of the farm labor situation and in administering the program. In 6
counties full-time stenographers were employed and in 10 counties clerical
assistants were employed part-time on farm labor funds.

DISSEMINATING INFORMATION
Upon requests from county agents, representatives from the State
Farm Labor Office met with groups of farmers over the State and ex-
plained steps to be taken by them to obtain various types of farm workers
and the responsibilities farmers must bear in the operation of the program.
Personnel from the State office kept in constant touch with county agents
and emergency farm labor assistants and kept them informed on the
over-all farm labor situation.
Many news articles covering different phases of the farm labor program
were published in the Agricultural News Service, Florida Agricultural
Extension Service weekly clipsheet. Some were republished in local, weekly
and daily newspapers. Several radio talks were made during the year
dealing with various phases of farm labor.

FOREIGN AND INTERSTATE LABOR
On January 1, 1945, approximately 3,000 Jamaicans were in the employ
of the U. S. Sugar Corporation. Approximately 4,500 Bahamians, re-
cruited prior to 1945, were working for citrus and vegetable growers.
Many did not renew their work agreement and a new recruitment began
in January. Approximately 1,200 Bahamians were secured to add to the
number already employed.
No recruitment of interstate workers was made during the first half
of the year, because at that time all workers were needed in their home
states. In November, 63 negro laborers were recruited from Alabama.
Fifty-four were placed with vegetable growers in Broward County and
9 with the U. S. Sugar Corporation. By December 31, only 2 remained
with the Corporation.
In many instances growers were assisted in locating and moving work-
ers within the State but the general trend was for the workers to move
as migrants, following the vegetable areas as they came into production.
Very few local mobilization campaigns were effective. Assistance was
given in several communities, negro recruiters were employed and contacts
were made but the effort was unsuccessful. Very few of the idle laborers
cared to work. Then too, most of the farmers preferred to recruit and
transport their own domestic workers and looked to the Farm Labor Office
principally for foreign labor.

PRISONERS OF WAR
Prisoners of war from some 13 camps were utilized in agriculture dur-
ing 1945. The highest number of prisoners available for agriculture from
these several camps was 1,944; however, that number was never employed
at any 1 time. There were 145,146 man-days of work accomplished, for
which the growers paid the United States Treasury $531,578.95. The







Florida Cooperative Extension


prisoners harvested more than 242,512 boxes of citrus fruit, put up 129,200
stacks of peanuts, picked 34,490 quarts of blueberries and harvested 32,072
bushels of tung nuts. Other jobs accomplished were harvesting approxi-
mately 1,147,088 bushels of Irish potatoes in 2 areas, helping clear land
for permanent pastures, harvesting corn and sugarcane for syrup, pro-
ducing sugarcane for sugar, general citrus grove work, cutting ensilage
and filling silos and picking peanuts.
Through an interpreter, 270 prisoners of war at the Marianna camp
who harvested peanuts were given job method demonstration.

WOMEN'S LAND ARMY
Women performed all kinds of farm tasks on their own farms, ex-
changed work with neighbors and worked for hire. The need for women
workers in packinghouses and canneries was as great in 1945 as in 1944
and women from the surrounding areas, as well as large numbers who
came from other sections of the country, met that need. Home demon-
stration agents encouraged women to go into this work to help market
the food produced and to earn the extra money. This kind of work appealed
to local women in the areas of need because of its seasonal nature, the
good wages and satisfactory working conditions.
Citrus growers were forced to accept women as pickers because they
could not secure enough men. It was shown that women could work
satisfactorily in tangerine and other groves where the trees were low
enough for them to stand on the ground.
Approximately 25% of the Bahamians who worked in Florida were
women. They did much of the vegetable planting and harvesting in south-
ern Florida. Domestic women in the camps for migratory workers also
worked in the vegetable fields, mostly at harvest time. Practically all of
the 4,698 women who were placed during 1945 were Bahamians or migra-
tory domestics.
In commercial potato-growing sections practically all seed potatoes
are cut by women. At harvest time these same women go to the fields
to pick up potatoes or to the sheds to grade and sack them.
Home demonstration agents in 30 counties reported that 19,277 women
and girls worked on farms in 1945 and 2,167 of these worked for the first
time. From these figures it is estimated that approximately 30,000 women
and older girls in the 67 counties helped produce and harvest-field crops,
cared for cattle, hogs and poultry, worked in dairies and managed farms.
They swapped labor and pooled their efforts right along with the men.
The farm work of women was extremely important in that it helped
Florida reach agricultural goals. Recognition of their contribution to the
production of food, feed and fiber during the war was given through the
press, over the radio, by home visits and in club meetings.

VICTORY FARM VOLUNTEERS
The work of boys and girls on farms, always important to agriculture,
was much more so during the war. Boy Scouts, 4-H club members and
other school children were called on to harvest tung nuts in 1945, A
small group of Scouts from Marianna harvested more .than 5,000 pounds
of nuts 1 Saturday. By arrangement with school authorities, 4-H club
girls and Boy Scouts at Chaires, in Leon County, spent 1 school day in
gathering nuts. They were transported by school bus and were paid the
prevailing wages to harvest 5 tons of nuts. Twenty-four 4-H club girls
and boys from a school in Calhoun County harvested more than 20 tons
of tung nuts during the season.







Annual Report, 1945


The VFV program for recruiting youth for agricultural work was not
ised in Florida because the Labor Advisory Committees did not think that
such a recruiting program was feasible. However, many young people
other than those who lived on farms were employed in agriculture. The
records show that 734 youth under 18 years of age were placed by county
emergency farm labor workers, while thousands of others found jobs for
themselves. In the camps for migratory workers children of all ages
went to the fields to help harvest vegetables, especially when the rate of
pay for piece work was high. There is no record of the number of these
placements.
Work of youth in fruit and vegetable packinghouses is worthy of note.
In many of the small houses, such as those in Alachua and Lake counties,
boys and girls graded and packed cucumbers, peppers, squash, beans and
other vegetables. They worked after school and on Saturdays. The rate
of pay ranged from 50 to $1.00 per hour.
By agreement with the Connecticut Extension Service and the Connecti-
cut Shade Tobacco Growers' Association, Inc., 763 youth and 68 adult
supervisors were recruited in Florida and transported to Connecticut and
Massachusetts to work in shade tobacco during the summer months.

HOUSING AND HEALTH
Through an agreement with the Migratory Labor Health Association,
the Extension Service bears financial responsibility for the health and
medical service of interstate workers and their families transported by
the Extension Service. Certificates of physical fitness were required.
The Migratory Labor Health Association provided health and medical
service for the workers and members of their families for whom an
identification card was issued by the county agent showing that the appli-
cant was covered by the agreement.
Housing for interstate workers and foreign workers was approved by
the State Board of Health. Permits were required for quarters housing
5 or more workers. Much less difficulty was encountered in getting growers
to improve their housing facilities than in 1944. The educational value of
this requirement has done much to set an example for better housing for
negro workers in Florida. Employers were given assistance in planning
farm quarters and in locating and buying building material and equipment.
The Extension Service maintained equipment for a camp of 150 workers.
This equipment was loaned to 7 farmers in emergencies. Through the co-
operation of the Extension Service, the U. S. Sugar Corporation, Clewiston,
secured the loan of Army bedding and mess equipment for 3,000 Jamaicans.
Three citrus growers also were loaned Army equipment to quarter 360
Bahamian workers.
Two prisoner-of-war camps and 1 Bahamian camp were operated the
entire year; other camps through the spring and fall seasons. The federal
Office of Labor maintained and operated 23 camps with a total housing
capacity for 13,088 workers. In addition to the 6 Army bases from which
prisoners of war were used for agricultural work, Army Service Forces
operated 7 farm labor supply centers with a housing capacity of 2,715
prisoners of war. Camps operated by the Office of Labor were loaned
equipment by Army Service Forces for use of foreign workers.
The Office of Labor transported foreign workers from area to area in
the State but local transportation-from camps to groves and return-
was furnished by the growers.
On February 1, during the peak harvesting season, 211 growers had
5,477 foreign agricultural workers housed in private quarters.







Florida Cooperative Extension


MOVEMENT OUT OF STATE
Eighty men and boys experienced as primers or curers of cigarette
tobacco were recruited from 3 counties to assist with the tobacco harvest
in Ontario, Canada. The employers paid the transportation both ways.
This was the second year of recruitment. The deal appeared to be satis-
factory to both workers and employers.
Migratory labor movement during 1945 was much more orderly than
in previous years, since to obtain gasoline and' tire rations these workers
had to be endorsed by the county agents who did not release them until
they were not needed locally.
Through county agents, maps of the Atlantic Seaboard were supplied
crew leaders, showing the contact to make in the area in which the crew
desired to work. The time of need was determined, as well as the distance
of the trip. Crew leaders were encouraged to make their own contacts.
No leader was assisted in going to an area where he was not needed. A
total of 1,371 crew leaders, carrying 15,780 workers, were cleared through
the offices of 20 county agents.
To assist this movement further, information stations were set up at
the Georgie line on the 2 principal highways leading north. The purpose
of these stations might be defined as follows:
1. To estimate the flow of migrants by highway.
2. To distribute job information.
3. To assist migrants with emergency problems, such as
tires and gasoline.
4. To furnish Northern states information on groups en-
tering their areas.
A total of 4,705 workers were contacted at the 2 stations. The heaviest
movement through the stations was during the last 3 weeks of May and the
first week in June. Workers were en route to 24 states, North Carolina,
New Jersey and New York receiving the heaviest volume.

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
In most counties Selective Service Boards requested information from
county agents on men who asked draft deferment or discharges because
of agricultural interests. During the year 2,240 such cases were handled.
A 4-day school of instruction was held at Gainesville for county agri-
cultural and home demonstration agents, members of the Extension staff
and emergency farm labor supervisors and assistants. A total of 30 men
and women attended, 19 of whom completed the courses offered.
The Office of Labor gave assistance in designing and procuring parts
for a celery harvesting machine now patented by the University of Florida.







Annual Report, 1945


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION AND EMERGENCY
PROGRAMS
H. G. Clayton, State Director, P. & M. Administration
R. S. Dennis, Assistant to the State Director
The agricultural conservation and war-time emergency programs car-
ried on by the Field Service Branch, PMA (formerly AAA), are closely
coordinated with the work of the Agricultural Extension Service in this
State. State AAA committeemen are: James J. Love, Chairman, Gads-
den County; C. S. Lee, Seminole County; W. B. Anderson, Jackson County;
H. C. Brown, Lake County; and A. P. Spencer, ex-officio member.
In each county there is carried on in the county office the work of the
county agent, the county agricultural conservation association and the
county USDA war board. Late in 1945 the USDA war boards were dis-
solved and reorganized as USDA councils. The agricultural conservation
associations are under the direction of county committees composed of
farmers elected by the farmers participating in the program. The USDA
war boards (now USDA councils) are composed of representatives of all
federal agencies active in the county. The county agent is secretary of
the conservation association and is in most instances secretary of the
USDA council.

THE AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM
During the year the work involved (1) closing out the 1944 program
and completing the major portion of the farm payments earned for carry-
ing out soil-building practices, and (2) operating the 1945 program and
also developing the 1946 program provisions and regulations.
Most payments for the 1944 Agricultural Conservation Program which
closed December 31 were made in 1945. Under this program 33,742 of
the 47,303 farms in the State under worksheet participated. These farms
contained 1,726,890 acres of cropland while the cropland on all farms under
worksheet amounted to 2,172,747 acres. Farms participating included 71
percent of all farms under worksheet and 80 percent of the cropland on
-all such farms. The total gross payment amounted to $2,948,250, while
the value of all practices carried out amounted to $3,357,529.78.
Practices carried out in 1944 included application of 60,654 tons of liming
material, 69,981 tons of phosphate material, green manure and cover crops
on 1,082,739 acres, terracing 11,578 acres, mowing 299,442 acres of pas-
ture, establishing 46,031 acres of new improved pastures, reseeding 4,418
acres of old pastures and control of myrtle on 8,383 acres.
Approximately 25,000 farms participated in the 1945 conservation pro-
gram. These farms will receive cash assistance amounting to approxi-
mately $2,250,000 for carrying out practices designed to increase food
and feed production and improve and conserve soil resources. The major
practices carried out and the estimated extent of each are: Application
of phosphate materials to soil-conserving crops and pastures, 72,500 tons
of 20 percent equivalent material; 3,500 tons of basic slag; 6,800 tons of
raw rock and colloidal phosphate; application of liming materials, 67,000
tons; new pastures established, 64,000 acres; pounds of seed used in re-
seeding pastures, 100,000; pastures mowed to control weeds and noxious
growth, 204,000 acres; seeded summer non-legume cover crops, 10,000
acres; seeded cover crops of crotalaria and other summer legumes, 75,000
acres; cover of small grains seeded in fall of 1944, 108,000 acres; surface
water control ditches on pastures, 3,844.000 feet; cover of winter legumes
seeded in the fall of 1944, 24,300 acres; winter legumes seeded in the fall







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

of 1945, 34,500 acres; terraces constructed, 6,000,000 feet; legume and
grass seed harvested, 10,500 acres.
To assist farm operators in carrying out these practices, certain ma-
terials and services were furnished by the AAA. Costs .of materials or
services were deducted from payments earned by the farmers. The kinds
and amounts of materials and services furnished in 1945 were: Super-
phosphate, 8,965 tons; raw rock phosphate 291 tons; basic slag, 1,876 tons;
liming materials, 5,665 tons; blue lupine seed, 326,069 pounds; Austrian
winter peas, 98,466 pounds; vetch, 50,700 pounds; ryegrass seed, 6,631
pounds; terracing, 1,468,829 feet.

TOBACCO AND SUGAR PROGRAMS
Marketing quotas were in effect for flue-cured tobacco. In 1945 the
acreage allotted to 6,462 farms was 21,682 acres. There were 19,093 acres
planted on 5,772 farms. The 1945 production of flue-cured tobacco in the
State was approximately 16,910,018 pounds. Marketing quotas were not
in effect for any other crop.
The sugar program was continued in 1945. Figures on the acreage
that will be harvested for sugar are not available at this time. It is esti-
mated that the acreage harvested will be in excess of 30,000 acres and the
production will establish a record for the State.

COTTON CROP INSURANCE
Crop insurance for cotton was in effect in Jackson and Jefferson coun-
ties in 1945, with 155 contracts in Jackson and 58 in Jefferson. A few
applications were made in other counties but could not be accepted because
the minimum number (50 applications or %1 of the cotton growers) were
not secured. The total indemnities for losses slightly exceeded the amount
of premiums collected. The net loss in 1945, however, was much less than
the net loss in the 1942 and 1943 insurance programs.

EMERGENCY PROGRAMS
Production Goals.-Goals were established by the State War Board,
together with representatives of the Experiment Station, College of Agri-
culture, Extension Service, AAA, farm organizations and State agencies.
The goals for crops, livestock, poultry and dairy products again called for
a very high level of agricultural production for the State. The major goals
established were: Peanuts picked and threshed, 120,000 acres; oats,
100,000 acres; hay, 150,000 acres; cotton, 30,000 acres; Irish potatoes, 116
percent of 1944 acreage; vegetable goals ranged from 80 percent of the
1944 acreage for cabbage to 120 percent of the 1944 acreage for green
peas and cucumbers; sweet potatoes, 20,000 acres; flue-cured tobacco,
20,000 acres; sugarcane for sugar, 32,000 acres; milk, 500 million pounds;
eggs, 18 million dozen; chickens raised, 3.9 million; broilers raised, 100
percent of 1944 production; turkeys, 105 percent of 1944 production; sows
to farrow in spring, 116,000; cattle on farms, 1,040,000 head.
While these goals were not accomplished for some crops, they were
substantially exceeded for others. All the livestock, poultry, and dairy
goals were met or substantially exceeded.
Dairy Feed Payment Program.-Under this program dairy feed subsidy
payments were made to 857 dairymen in Florida during the year. These
payments were based on sales of whole milk and butterfat at rates which
varied with seasonal conditions. Payments amounting to $2,907,793 were
made on 365,483,400 pounds of milk and 28,885 pounds of butterfat. A







Annual Report, 1945


few payments for the last quarter of 1945 are in process of being made
and are not included in these figures. These payments enabled the dairy-
men to continue a high rate of production under ceiling prices by partially
offsetting higher labor and feed costs.
Farm Machinery, Supplies and Feeds.-These continued in short supply
throughout.the year. State and county offices were active in furnishing
information to the Washington authorities, calling attention to the critical
needs for these items. These efforts in many instances were successful in
meeting minimum requirements. Until August 20, 1945, crawler-type
tractors were under rationing and 299 applications for these machines
were processed through the county and State committees.
The feed situation with respect to grains and oilseed meals during the
first quarter of 1945 was materially relieved by the shipment of 86 cars
of wheat from government stocks for feeders and feed mixers, and by
the shipment of 8 cars of oilseed meal from the "set aside" stocks.
Farm Lumber was rationed until October 1, 1945. This program was
handled in the county offices by AAA committees. A State farm lumber
quota was established for each quarter by the War Food Administration;
The State committee established county farm lumber limitations from
the State quota. These quotas provided a definite quantity of lumber with
AA-2 and AA-3 priority rating for use on farms. During the nine months
of 1945 that this program was in operation the State quotas amounted to
1,354,000 board feet with AA-2 priority and 5,920,000 board feet with
AA-3 priority. County committees issued 1,004 AA-2 certificates for
832,406 board feet and 4,981 AA-3 certificates for 5,025,528 board feet.
Ammunition.-Early in 1945 it became evident that the inability of
strawberry and vegetable growers to obtain ammunition to combat de-
structive birds and other animal pests was the cause of a substantial loss
of these much-needed crops. The State office was successful in securing
a special allocation of 262,000 shotgun shells and 100,000 cartridges from
the War Production Board for the use of strawberry and vegetable growers
in combating these pests. Farmers were able to buy this ammunition
upon a certificate approved by the county committee. During the season
county committees issued 4,678 certificates for 233,000 shotgun shells
and 94,000 cartridges.
Copper wire quotas for farmstead use were in effect until September
10, 1945. This program operated in the same manner as the farm labor
program. During 1945 the State quotas amounted to 4,700 pounds. County
committees issued 165 certificates for 2,589 pounds for farmstead use.
A veteran's preference program for farm machinery came into effect
in 1945. -Under this program county committees issued preference certifi-
cates for farm machinery to returned veterans who are farmers and who
need such machinery to begin their farm operations. Dealers are required
to give the holders of these certificates preference over other purchasers
of farm machinery or furnish written statements showing why preference
is not granted. In 1945 county committees issued 641 veterans' preference
certificates for all types of farm machinery and equipment.
Farmers were required to obtain farm building permits and priority
assistance from the War Production Board for many types of farm con-
struction until September 7, 1945. State and county committees gave
aid to farmers in the preparation of their applications to the WPB for
these purposes. These applications were reviewed by the State and county
committees who made recommendations and transmitted them to the
WPB for final action. During this period 388 applications were handled
from southern Florida and 180 from northern Florida.







Florida Cooperative Extenszon


A Canner Certification Program was in effect for 1945 for processors
of snap beans and tomatoes. This program was for the purpose of insur-
ing growers the benefits of the price support measures on these crops.
Each canner filed an application which was processed by the county and
State committee. A separate certification was required for each vegetable
processed. During the year 28 plants were certified, 24 for snap beans
and 14 for tomatoes.
Farm Transportation.-Trucks for farm use were under a tight ration-
ing program by the Office of Defense Transportation during most of 1945.
Under this program until August 25 county committees issued AAA truck
certificates for purchase of surplus government trucks. The county offices
and county committees assisted farmers in preparing and processing ap-
plications for new trucks, assisted farmers to secure supplemental gaso-
line and obtain certificates of war necessity for farm vehicles. In con-
nection with this program 1,485 applications were processed in 1945. On
June 20, 1945, this work was transferred to the Office of Defense Trans-
portation.
Miscellaneous emergency activities included giving information to farm-
ers regarding government price support, purchase and loan programs;
issuing priority ratings on gasoline engines for farm use until September
1945; making a conservation needs study for the State; and cooperation
with other agencies in matters such as production capacity studies, secur-
ing data for farm production estimates, and other matters relating to
agriculture.







Annual Report, 1945


EDITORIAL AND MAILING

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Associate Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
The final year of World War II brought undiminished demands for food
and other farm products and required unabated efforts of all Extension
Service workers to assist in procuring the needed production. The Editors
continued to supervise the publishing of bulletins, circulars, record books,
posters and miscellaneous printed matter required by other Extension
workers and needed by the public to encourage and assist in production,
harvesting and marketing of tremendous amounts of farm products. News
stories, farm paper articles, visual aids and other features were employed
to make the information program most effective.
The Editors cooperated closely with the Agricultural Adjustment
Agency (now P & MA) in publicizing the goals for 1945 farm production
and emphasizing methods of attaining the goals. Cooperation in releasing
information was extended other federal and state agencies dealing with
agriculture.

BULLETINS AND OTHER PRINTED MATERIALS
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1945, the Extension Service
printed 3 new bulletins totaling 100 pages in a total of 37,500 copies. One
bulletin out of print was reprinted. One new circular and numerous
miscellaneous items were issued, as shown by the following list:
Pages Edition
Bul. 124 The Cultivated Persimmon in Florida ........... 36 7,500
Bul: 125 Strawberry Production ...........................---. 20 10,000
Bul. 126 Poultry Houses and Equipment ................ 44 20,000
Bul. 113 Papaya Culture in Florida (reprint) ........... 36 10,000
Circ. 80 Rejuvenating Furniture ...................................... 12 10,000 .
Circ. 76 Growing Corn in Florida Under Wartime Con-
ditions (revised) ....................- ................... 8 15,000
EPCS 11B Your Peanut Money-How Will You Use It? 6 4,500
EPCS 11C Your Vegetable Money-How Will You, Use It ? 6 3,000
EPCS 11D Your Livestock Money-How Will You Use It? 6 4,500
Biennial Report, Soil Conservation Board ...... 12 1,000
MP 32 Emergency Farm Labor (annual report) ........ 20 2,500
MP 15 Record Book, Food Preparation and Meal Plan-
ning (reprint) .............................. ................... 24 10,000
MP 18 4-H Poultry Club Record (reprint) ............... 16 20,000
Florida Clothing Program for Junior 4-H
Club Girls ................................... .............. 4 10,000
Form 7 Agent's Monthly Report and Certificate of
Service ............. .............. ............ ........ 2 10,000
Weekly Report, Emergency Assistants .......... 2 5,000
4-H Victory Achievement Record (revised).... 4 15,000
Final Report, Florida National Egg-Laying
Test, 1943-44 ......................... ........... ...... 28 1,500
Calendar, 1945 ...............-.........-.... ... 12 12,000
Card Watch Your Franked Mail ................................ 1 400
Card Crew Leaders (farm labor) .............................. 1 300
Certificates, Boys' 4-H Short Course ................ 1 500
Florida 4-H Club Songs (reprint) .................. 12 10,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


Pages Edition
Boys' 4-H Enrollment Cards ............................. 1 10,000
4-H R ibbons ........................ ................... ............ 299
Agricultural News Service (weekly, 42 issues,
each) ......... ...................... ................. 1 900
A 16-page illustrated brochure, Victory on the Food Front, was pre-
pared and 6,000 copies were printed by the University of Florida for dis-
tribution in a series of publications pointing out the contributions made
by University workers to the wartime welfare of the State and Nation.
County agents were furnished with bulletins and other supplies and
bulletins were distributed to the general public. Extension bulletins are
sent to libraries as soon as published, and are then distributed only on
special request.
The Extension Editor serves as state distribution control officer for
the USDA Extension Service, in a plan designed to secure better coordina-
tion in the printing and distribution of federal bulletins.

SERVICE TO THE PRESS
Despite the reduced space brought about by newsprint shortages and
the competition of other war news, newspapers and magazines used gen-
erously of agricultural copy.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was the principal
means of disseminating information from the Extension Service to weekly
newspapers. It carried from 8 to 15 separate news items and editorials
each week, which were widely reprinted. The State Plant Board paid
for the printing of 10 issues of the clipsheet.
Press associations and from 1 to 25 daily newspapers were supplied
with special stories about 3 times a week, 80 of these going to press
associations and 73 to 1 or more newspapers direct during 1945. 'All
were used. These stories related to the activities of, or information released
by, not only the Extension Service but also the Agricultural Experiment
Station, the State Plant Board, the AAA (now P & MA), the Rural
Electrification Administration, the College of Agriculture, and other
agencies.
A large number of county and home demonstration agents had regular
columns in their weekly newspapers, others contributing occasionally.
Two sample news stories were furnished to home demonstration agents
during the year.
Florida Grower, Citrus Industry, Florida Cattleman and Florida Farm
Bureau Bulletin printed 13 articles by the Extension Editors, using 309
inches of space for the purpose. Progressive Farmer, Southern Seedsman
and Southern Agriculturist printed 24 items from the Florida Extension
Editors for an even 309 inches of space also. Six publications of national
circulation-Better Crops, Farm Journal, Farm for Victory, American
Fruit Grower Magazine, the Furrow and National County Agent-printed
12 articles from the editorial office for a total of 191 column inches of
space.
Each month copies of from 6 to 10 radio talks by Experiment Station
and Extension staff members were revised slightly and forwarded to
Florida farm papers that had requested them.

SERVICE BY RADIO
Twenty-eight county extension workers prepared and delivered 550
radio talks over stations in their areas. Farm Flashes for 5 days a week
were sent from the Extension Editorial Office to 13 stations, and the noon-







Annual Report, 1945


day Florida Farm Hour over WRUF served to blanket the state with
farm radio broadcasts.
The Florida Farm Hour consisted of about 43 minutes each week day
except Saturday; beginning September 15 the Saturday program was
cut to 15 minutes. Out of a possible 313 programs during the year, 312
were staged. Other Farm Hour programs were reduced because of im-
portant national or state broadcasts scheduled at the same time.
Each 43-minute program consisted of about 3 talking features, weather
and market reports and recorded music. Farm News Highlights were a
daily feature. Weekly features included the Farm Question Box each
Tuesday and radio's weekly farm newspaper and agricultural notes and
comment each Saturday until September 15.
One hundred forty-nine Farm Flashes, mostly from the USDA Radio
Service, were broadcast during the year. Seven USDA home economics
features and 24 USDA transcriptions went on the air during the Farm
Hour also.
County agents presented 7 talks, other Extension workers 53, the
Editors 19, provost for agriculture 9, and the state director of the P & MA's
field service branch 12. There were 907 separate features during the year,
of which only 8 were straight interviews.
Speakers included staff members of the Extension Service, Experiment
Station, College of Agriculture, and representatives of the Florida Forest
Service, USDA, Soil Conservation Service, State Legislature, State Plant
Board, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Public Health Service, State
Department of Agriculture and State Geological Survey. An interview
with Drs. Pierre Roux and Felix J. Faure of France was a special feature.
Eight USDA transcriptions were sent to 3 other stations and 260
separate Farm Flashes were sent to 13 other stations, transmitted prin-
cipally through the local county agents. Of these Flashes, 116 were from
the USDA, 87 were rewrites of talks by Experiment Station staff members
and 57 were from Extension staff members.
Fifty-two weekly scripts on agriculture were prepared, each 800 words
in length, for Press Association release to 12 stations.

TRAINING COURSES AND MISCELLANEOUS WORK
The trend toward the use of local news continues, and consequently
the most effective reporting comes from local sources. Agents were
assisted with their news writing and other informational work at 4 district
conferences, attended by 155 people, and at 3 state conferences, attended
by 206 people. The state conferences included agents assembled for
special work relative to promoting 4-H clubs, the annual conference of
white county agents and home demonstration agents,. and the annual con-
ference of negro agents.
The Editor also taught records and reporting to 115 girls at the
annual 4-H short course in Tallahassee and taught the same subjects to
57 girls from 3 counties at Camp Cherry Lake for a week. He instructed
in first aid for 39 boys at the annual 4-H wildlife conservation camp at
Cherry Lake for a week. Suggestions concerning records and news writ-
ing were given to 19 members of a county home demonstration council.
Assistance was rendered agents in scheduling motion picture films
and filmstrips and new filmstrips received from the USDA were added
to the library. Hundreds of pictures were made during the year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART II-MEN'S WORK

WORK OF COUNTY AGENTS

A. P. Spencer, Director
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent

The war brought a number of changes in the county organizations.
The county agent had to assume many -new responsibilities and become
an executive in charge of additional personnel in his office. Much of his
work in carrying on the war effort was accomplished through committees.
These experiences are going to make for greater efficiency and a broader
vision of Extension work on the part of all concerned.
Several changes in county agent personnel occurred during the year.
A number of "acting" county agents were appointed to take the place
of agents called into service and appropriations were-secured from as
many counties as possible to provide for the employment of assistant
county agents. Most of the assistant agents are devoting the major
portion of their time to 4-H club work. It is expected that this will increase
and strengthen junior work in those counties. The new men had to be
trained, and training was accomplished by personal visits and on-the-job
training, information sent through -the mails and group meetings. In
addition, a week's conference with men agents and a number of assistant
county agents, giving them special training in organizing and carrying on
a good 4-H club program, was held just prior to the annual Extension
conference.
Professional training and improvement through additional college work
was not possible during the war, but plans are now being perfected to
allow county agents to obtain additional professional training at a summer
short course at the University of Florida College of Agriculture, with
courses presented on a graduate level.
County agents' salaries have been increased in many counties during
the year, and the State now offers a very satisfactory retirement system
which has raised the morale of the county agents considerably. All
county offices now have secretaries. This enables the county agent to
plan his office and field work so that the public knows the agent's office
hours and his field hours.
War food goals were set by the State War Board and adopted by the
counties. The county agents decided on means and agencies to be used
in informing the people about these goals. Newspaper editors, seedsmen,
farm implement dealers, seed dealers, fertilizer manufacturers, leading
farmers, AAA committeemen, soil conservation district supervisors and
4-H club boys all assisted in calling attention to these goals. The radio,
newspapers, placards, circular letters and demonstrations were all used
to accomplish the job. In the fall at the annual Extension conference, the
agents were given a picture of conditions that faced the country and
agriculture in the postwar period. Considerable time also was devoted
to methods of Extension teaching.
The Extension Service has worked very closely with many organiza-
tions, giving help to some and receiving help from others. The War
Food Administration, through the cotton and fiber branch, has assisted
farmers to purchase planting seed recommended by the Extension Service.
The Extension Service has administered the program completely from the
state level on down. County agents have assisted in the rationing of many
articles that went to farmers. Assistance is rendered local chambers







Annual Report, 1945 25

of commerce with their agricultural programs. The Extension Service of
this State supervises and actually conducts the Production and Marketing
Administration (formerly the AAA) program in the counties. The P. &
MA. furnishes the office personnel to carry on the detailed work and
issues payments to farmers for carrying out soil-building practices. This
assistance makes it easier for the Extension Service to get the practices
carried out on the farms Soil Conservation Service personnel map the
farms of cooperating farmers and assist them to put into effect practices
that are in line with the Extension Service's recommendations.
The Extension Service has assisted in organizing soil conservation
districts and county agents assist the boards of supervisors in carrying
on the work of the districts. The county agents and F. S. A. personnel
confer with each other and together extend further service to farm people.
The county agent's office, in many cases, writes applications for seed loans.
The Crop Improvement Association has distributed seed and other materials
in line with recommendations of the Extension Service.
The vocational agricultural group and Extension Service personnel
work in cooperation with each other. The Rural Electrification Administra-
tion has received the county agents' fullest cooperation. The agents have
been especially active in organizing and getting into service many REA
lines all over the state.







Florida Cooperative Extens:on


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT

Zach Savage, Economist in Farm Management
Florida citrus growers experienced a continuation of high fruit prices
during the 1943-44 season. Production costs increased over what they
were in 1942-43 but the increase in fruit harvested per acre resulted in
a substantial increase in net returns. Operating costs per box for the
groves on which the Agricultural Extension Service was supplied records
increased from 30 cents in 1942-43 to 31 cents in 1943-44. During this
same time returns above operating costs increased from $1.23 per box
to $1.40.
There were 244 citrus records obtained for the 1943-44 season from
13 counties. Eighty-five percent of these were from 4 counties: Polk,
Orange, Lake and Highlands. Of these groves 222 had ages averaging
over 10 years. The fruit harvested per acre from this age group increased
19 percent over the previous season. At the same time the price received
per box of fruit increased 12 percent, with the result 'that net returns
above operating costs increased 35 percent.
Summary figures for each record were returned to the cooperator.
Each cooperator also received cost and return figures of the 2 age groups
for 1943-44 and costs for 1944-45, a copy of costs and returns for the
county in which his grove was located and the summary of costs and
returns by seasons for the 13-year period, 1931-44, together with costs
for 1944-45. A letter to each cooperator accompanied the above material.
The county agent in each of the 4 counties named above received a
copy of each report of individual groves located in his county, his county
summary and the 2 state summaries. Record books were mailed in Sep-
tember to those cooperators desiring them for the 1945-46 season. A
letter accompanied each book.
Several articles were prepared during the year for publication, with
some being carried by a number of magazines and newspapers.
In October the project leader went to Washington, D. C., as consultant
to the manager of the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation in formulating
the proposed citrus crop insurance program for 1946. This work was
done while on leave of absence from the Agricultural Extension Service.

FARM MANAGEMENT
C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist

ADVISORY SERVICE TO VETERANS
When the announcement was made that the Extension Service would
be the main source of information for veterans who wanted to engage in
some phase of agriculture, and that there would be an advisory committee
in each county, efforts were made to learn what the Extension Agents
and the committees needed most in their advisory duties.
County agents and advisory committees wanted explicit instructions,
regarding what a veteran should do to secure aid, where he should go
to get it, what aids were rendered by each assisting organization, and
the duties of the advisory committees. Six forms were compiled to meet







Annual Report, 1945


these demands. The agents also asked for forms outlining desirable
farm organizations of different types and sizes and forms which veterans
might use to provide the committees with essential information. Two
other forms were designed to meet these needs. These forms, along with
a Florida Types of Farming map, 1945 edition, were bound into 1 set
and supplied to all advisory committee members. The State Director
of the Farm Security Administration requested sets for all county FSA
offices and sets have been supplied to various individuals and organizations
who assist veterans. These include lending agencies, veterans' organiza-
tions and agricultural committeemen of civic clubs.
Ten visits have been made to the Welch Veterans Convalescent Hospital
at Daytona Beach for the purpose of instructing veterans in Farm
Management. A different.group of men was met on each visit. More
than 2,100 enlisted men and 500 officers have attended the classes, which
are 90 minutes long. Nearly all of the men are from the Southeast.
Classes included discussions on the low farm income situation in the
South, the necessity of operating a farm larger than a 1-mule farm, the
desirability of renting rather than buying a small farm, and the essential
capital and livestock necessary for starting a 2-mule farm. Also, dis-
cussions on using the benefits of Section 902 of the G. I. Bill of Rights
(guarantee of $100 income per month for 10% months) to make farming
a success, land prices, when to buy a farm, and the necessity of written
agreements and annual settlements when farming in family partnerships.
Whenever the number in a class section was 10 or less, the farm prob-
lems of each individual were discussed rather than following the above
outline. The enlisted men rated these discussions third in what they
"liked best about the course," having placed field trips first and movies
second.
The 500 officers were approached from a less personal angle in groups
of about 50. Comments of the officers both during and following each
discussion period indicate that they had given little or no thought before
to the economics of low incomes and the influence which the incomes of
farmers have on the prosperity of business and professional men in town
and city. Requests for repeating the above discussions regularly at
6-week intervals since May 8, 1945, attest to their evaluation by the
heads of the educational center at the hospital.
Recently veterans have appeared at county agents' offices seeking
information regarding farms and farm jobs. Early in 1945, several
county advisory committees organized and began functioning. With in-
creasing interest, plans are being made to hold district meetings for the
purpose of training committeemen and establishing standards and policies
which will be used as guides for advising all who wish to engage in
agriculture.
Considerable data have been collected regarding investment required
for successful farming, methods of acquiring land, financing, labor and
material requirements, horses versus tractors, incomes to be expected
from small farm businesses, part-time farms, etc.
In cooperation with Max Brunk, assistant agricultural economist with
the Experiment Station, a Florida Type of Farming Area map was revised,
prepared and published.
4-H RECORD BOOK
A new 4-H club record book was devised and mimeographed, replacing
5 record books which have been in use for many years. The book was
first typed and submitted in person to 9 county agents for constructive






Florida Cooperative Extension


criticism. It was then revised, mimeographed and submitted to 40 agents
at the Annual 4-H Club Short Course. A few more revisions were made
and by unanimous vote the book was accepted and a request was made
that it be mimeographed at once so it would be ready for fall club enroll-
ments in southern Florida. A part of the regular weekly program at Camp
McQuarrie all summer was the teaching of the new book to campers so
they could serve as instructors upon return to their respective counties.

INDIVIDUAL FARM PLANNING
The program of individual farm planning was carried through its
fifth year. No effort was made to expand the work this year except with
4 negro agents. The Specialist traveled with each of these 4 to visit
about 12 farmers whose businesses were analyzed and recommendations
were made for improvements. For the purpose of training the agents,
the Specialist and the agents alternated in conducting the interviews.
A total of 148 farmers were served in this way, and 1,033 recom-
mendations were made, of which 725 were carried out in a creditable
manner. Conservative estimates of the value of additional production
on various farms ranged from $45 to $640, with an average of $170 per
family. This is an increase of about 20 percent over their 1944 income.
The plans are to add about 50 farmers to the present list for 1946.
Seven groups are now organized so that follow-up contacts can be
made with the farmers at meetings instead of through the time-consuming
method of farm visits. However, the initial contact each year is made
at the farm. Timely circular letters and publications of the Extension
Service and Experiment Station are mailed to all cooperators. The
Professor of Farm Management and Agricultural Economics of the Uni-
versity has become intensely interested in the methods pursued and results
obtained. As a result of this interest, 1 tour was made by his class in
Agricultural Economics to 1 community.

FARM RECORD BOOKS
Farm record books have been supplied to farmers through county agents
and assistance has been given in meetings and personally in entering
inventories or otherwise keeping records. Farmers are keeping much
better records since they are making income tax returns. They find that
well-kept books save them money in making returns.
Farm and woodland records have been secured from 15 cooperating
farmers for the fourth consecutive year in a 5-year project being con-
ducted in cooperation with the Florida State Forest and Park Service.
Visits are made by both the Farm Management Specialist and the Farm
Forester to each farm several times each year to assist in making in-
ventories and otherwise posting their records. Management recommenda-
tions for both the farm and woodland are made and assistance is given
in making out income tax returns.
Classes in principles of Farm Management were conducted for a total
of 245 4-H club boys and girls at 2 camps. Interest in the subject was
intense. The fact that a small farm business will not supply ar income
large enough to support a good standard of living seemed to impress the
children, about % of whom live on low-income farms.
When visiting and while conducting any farm management work within
a county, appropriate cooperation is always secured from Farm Security
Administration, vocational agriculture teachers, soil conservationists and
other agricultural workers within the county.







Annual Report, 1945


MARKETING ACTIVITIES

D. E. Timmons, Extension Economist in Marketing

Florida fruit and vegetable producers seem to have more difficulty in
connection with price ceilings than do those of other states. War Food
Administration and the Office of Price Administration have called upon
the University for assistance in this problem. The Extension Economist
in Marketing, in cooperation with the Research Department of Agricul-
tural Economics, has prepared a number of briefs showing grade and
size as well as seasonal variations in price of a number of Florida vege-
tables.
The Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives program is being expanded
and additional help is being given to expand educational work with Florida
cooperatives. Some time has been devoted to the preparation of market
briefs, conferring with other agencies like the Florida Canners' Associa-
tion, United Growers and Shippers, Producers' Trade Association, Florida
Watermelon Growers' Association, State Marketing Bureau, State Depart-
ment of Markets, Florida Vegetable Committee, Citrus Committee and
Florida Farm Bureau.
The Florida Canners' Association supplies weekly statistics of the
movement of Florida citrus into cans, which in turn is made available
to county agents.
PRICE CEILINGS
A very controversial proposed ceiling was that of tomatoes. An ex-
hibit was prepared in the fall of 1944 and several conferences have been
held in Florida and Washington to discuss those exhibits as they related
to the proposed ceiling on tomatoes. It has been the policy to supply any
groups interested with all factual information available and to assist
in assembling additional information thought to have a bearing on the
ceiling under discussion, but at no time to express an opinion as to what
the ceiling should be. It is understood that the complications brought
out in these investigations are responsible for tomatoes having no ceiling
to date.
Similar exhibits were prepared for celery. However, it is not expected
that a ceiling will be put on Florida celery in the near future.
Watermelon ceilings were established in June 1944 at $45.00 per ton
f.o.b. from the beginning of the season to July 4 and $35.00 per ton for
the remainder of the season. In December of 1944 OPA announced an
intention to revise the ceiling to $34.00 per ton f.o.b. beginning of the
season to June 9, $29.00 from June 10 to July 4 and $23.00 per ton after
July 5. A very extensive study was made of the estimated cost of pro-
duction of' watermelons, the season of normal planting and the amount
of expense incurred prior to the date the announcement was made. Three
or 4 trips were made to Washington and conferences held in connection with
this budget. It was finally decided by OPA to leave ceilings as originally
effected.
STRAWBERRIES AND TRUCK CROPS
Considerable time has been devoted to assembling statistical informa-
tion on truck crops. Conferences have been held, but no formal hearings
as yet. Adjustments were requested in price ceilings because of the
storm last fall and the drought in the spring of 1945. The second adjust-
ment was requested in the case of a number of crops. Investigations
are under way preparing for a hearing on string beans and fall cucumbers.







30 Florida Cooperative Extension

Jewel peaches are a high cost crop and are sufficiently different from
regular peaches to warrant exemption from the price ceiling announced
on peaches. Numbers of conferences were held and this crop was exempted.

FLORIDA COUNCIL OF FARMER COOPERATIVES
The Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives held its annual meeting
in Orlando, March 29, 1945. This meeting was attended by approximately
100 persons representing an estimated 80% of the cooperatives in Florida.
Since then a series of meetings has been attended by newspaper editors,
leading bankers, secretaries of chambers of commerce, representatives
of the Extension Service and cooperative leaders, at which the whole
question of Florida cooperatives was discussed. The Extension Economist
in Marketing has acted as secretary of this educational group. The State
Department of Agriculture, State Department of Markets, State Market-
ing Bureau, Agricultural Extension Service and Smith-Hughes agricultural
teachers are all associate members of the council.
Work with the Council has been in cooperation with the American
Institute of Cooperation and the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives,
of which the State Council is a member.







Annual Report, 1945


AGRONOMY

J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist
The north half of Florida is the field crops area of the State and
includes about 30 counties and 66 percent of the land from which field
crops are annually harvested. The acreage of field crops in the remainder
of the State is very small. Soil conservation districts are now organized
in most of this area and the Florida Crop Improvement Association has
been organized to handle programs that will assist in improving the
agriculture of northern Florida in 7 of these counties. Pasture and graz-
ing crops are important throughout the State.
The 4 objectives of the Extension Agronomy program were: 1. Assist
Florida farmers to do their part to meet the war food and feed needs.
2. Inform farmers of the most economical agronomic production practices
known. 3. Inform farmers as to how they could best maintain their soil
fertility during the war. 4. Inform farmers how they could make the
best use of the fertilizers which they secure.
First consideration was given to the national war food and feed needs.
The country's needs during the war had to be met. Special emphasis was
given to the projects that tied in with the war food goals set by the
government. Practices were recommended and were pretty well followed
which appeared to help most in meeting the production goals. Economic
practices have always been a major item of consideration in the produc-
tion of crops, but more so during the war period because of the shortage
of labor and materials. The agronomy projects demanded and secured
the attention of all agricultural workers serving the people in the general
farming area of the State.
The newspapers, circular letters and radio, as well as published brief
circulars, meetings and personal contacts, were all used extensively by
Extension workers in getting the production goals and improved practices
before the farmers this year.
The 1945 field crops production goals for Florida and accomplishments
were as follows:
Peanuts: 250,000 acres grown alone and 120,000 to be dug; accomplished
243,000 acres grown and 106,000 acres dug.
Upland Cotton: Goal 30,00 acres or 55,000 acres less than the allotted
acres but of longer staples; accomplished, 25,000 acres, 95% of which
was 1 inch staple and better.
Flue-cured tobacco: Goal, 20,000 acres; accomplished 19,097 acres
grown.
Corn: Goal, 732,000 acres; accomplished 695,000 acres grown.
Oats: Goal, 100,000 acres; accomplished 155,000 acres grown.
Hay: Goal, 150,000 acres; accomplished 127,000 acres grown.
Sugarcane for sugar: Goal, 32,000 acres; accomplished, 31,900 acres
grown.
Sweet potatoes: Goal 20,000 acres; accomplished 18,000 acres grown.
Garden: Goal all possible-accomplished.

PASTURE DEVELOPMENT
Spearheaded by the county agents and other Extension workers, using
the helps furnished through AAA, approximately 665,593 acres of im-
proved pasture have been established in this State during the last 10
years, approximately 50,000 acres of which was established this year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


It is estimated that approximately 100,000 acres were in improved pasture
at the beginning of that time. This makes a grand total of approximately
750,000 acres of improved pasture in the State at present.
Because of the scarcity of pasture seed, Extension workers have made
a special effort to get farmers to save them. The Extension Conserva-
tionist has been especially active in this connection. There have been
65,090 pounds harvested in the State and used on other pasture lands
this year. A total of 500,000 pounds have been purchased and used by
Florida cattlemen and farmers this year, according to reports from only
30 counties
In the spring of 1945 approximately 1,750,000 pounds of blue lupine
seed were harvested and in the fall 18,000 acres of blue lupine, 3,325
acres of Austrian peas, 3,178 acres of vetch and 358 acres of Crimson
clover were planted.

WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE PROGRAM
The program formulated in 1942 to control the white-fringed beetle
was continued in 1945 with definite results. This program called for
planting annually 1 of the cultivated acres in a winter-growing crop,
not more than another third in such crops as peanuts and velvet beans-
crops on which beetles thrive and lay numerous eggs-and the other %
in other crops such as cotton and corn. The Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine inspected every field in the area in 1945 and reported
that the acreage to such crops as peanuts and velvet beans had been
reduced from 66.7% to 36% of the tilled acreage, acreage to winter-growing
crops increased to 33% from none, and solid corn was 21% compared to
9.5% when the program began a little more than 2 years ago.

OATS STAGE COMEBACK
Ten years ago the acreage devoted to oats in Florida was almost
negligible, and this was for grazing only. Today oats are an important
crop in northern and western Florida, and there is an important seed
industry in the area.
Something of the advance in oat production may be gained from the
following figures on acreage, by years: 1938, 26,000; 1939, 30,000; 1940,
37,000; 1941, 45,000; 1942, 58,000; 1943, 90,000; 1944, 125,000; and 1945,
155,000 acres.
The Extension Service educational and promotional program, combined
with other factors, has resulted in the oats acreage in Florida "running
ahead" of the best cultural practicesknown. Since fertilizer improvement
of the crop was needed, the Extension service, in the fall of this year,
established 51 result demonstrations of 5 acres each scattered in 17
counties. These will be used extensively this growing season for teach-
ing purposes.
PEANUTS
The peanut seed-treating program was continued. Beginning in 1940
the county agents constructed, purchased the dust and demonstrated the
use of barrel dusters for this purpose. Since then they persuaded dealers,
sellers and others to put in treating machines and carry on the work.
They introduced 2% ceresan, arasan and spergon for this use. This year
approximately 750,000 bushels, or 85% of the total 880,000 bushels planted
in the State, were treated. This has meant the salvation of the crop since
the farmers have been forced to resort to machine shelling.







Annual Report, 1945


The Experiment Station developed and distributed to a few growers
in 1942 a new runner peanut known as the Dixie Runner. These were
being "dissipated" or lost. The Extension Service "picked up" 10 tons
owned by 1 producer and distributed them among growers in 10 counties
for multiplication. The result was approximately 200 tons produced and
distributed to growers again for multiplication another year. Another
50 tons were produced by other growers and most of them have been
distributed for like purpose. The production from all these are to go
to the sellers who will store, reclean and put them back on the farms
as seed in 1947.
COTTON
According to the U. S. Cotton Classification Service, 80% of Florida's
1939 cotton crop was less than 1 inch staple and the yield was poor.
About 18 different varieties were being grown. The Extension Service
began and has since continued through this year a cotton improvement
program beginning with variety tests throughout the cotton belt. The
agents followed up by asking for and securing the cooperation of ginners,
dealers and farmers in extending the program. Elimination of undesirable
varieties and substituting the Stonewilt 2b and Coker-Wilds were insisted
upon. Since then Stonewilt and Coker 100-wilt have been added. Seed-
treating and seed-purchase programs were conducted. The result has
been much higher yields per acre and approximately 95% of Florida's
1945 staple was 1 inch or longer. This was worth to the growers approxi-
mately $300,000 additional money.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
The Extension Service program for the last 6 years has consisted of
blue mold control and the correlation of soil grade, fertilizer and number
of plants set per acre. Not as much progress as was desired has been
made, but an understanding of the application of these practices is now
growing fast. However, an increase of 105 pounds per acre average has
been secured during the last five years. This was a total increase from
the 19,097 acres grown in 1945 of approximately 2,000,000 pounds, or a
gross additional income of more than % million dollars.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY

A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
Objectives of the Extension meat animal work for 1945 were to meet
adequately war needs for meat animal products, furnish sufficient meat
for home use and keep the livestock industry on a sound, economical basis
in preparation, for postwar conditions.
Meat animal goals as set by the War Food Administration were ex-
plained to all county and home demonstration agents, AAA committee-
men and Farm Security workers at 4 district meetings in January. On
January 20 explanations of these goals were made to the inegro county
and home agents.
BEEF CATTLE
An outline presenting facts, remedies and suggestions for profitable
herd management and other production problems is mimeographed and
mailed from time to time.
Overstocking has been 1 of the evils of fenced-in pasture land. Ad-
justment of cattle numbers to feed and pasture supply was set up as a
"must" in the district meetings with the county agents, at the Annual
State Cattlemen's Association meeting in January and at various local
meetings. Results have been very evident, except in a few areas where
drouth or flood affected results.
The 1945 goal was to place 1,000 good bulls and send an equal number
of poor bulls to market. This goal has been reached and exceeded. The
monthly letter carried facts regarding bulls, the calf crop and the size
of calves. At markets and in private herds the results of good bulls have
been pointed out.
This office has located bulls in Florida and elsewhere for cattlemen.
More than 1,000 bulls have been shipped into the State this year. In
addition, there have been more Florida-raised bulls, both purebred and
grades, placed this year than ever on record. A number of cattlemen have
sold as many as 20 to 60 purebred bulls of their own raising. There are
more than 200 owners of purebred beef herds in the State consisting of
Brahma, Angus, Herefords, with a few Shorthorns and 2 evons. It is
estimated that more than 800 purebred, home-raised bulls have been sold
this season from these herds.
There are 3 purebred beef breeding associations in the State. The
Brahma group organized in 1944, the Angus group in the spring of 1945
and the Hereford group in September 1945. The Brahma people had their
first sale this spring with a top price of. $2,100 being paid for a bull.
They have scheduled another sale for early in January.I The Hereford
people are planning a sale for the coming spring.

THE CALF CROP AND CONTROLLED BREEDING
This office set out the factors affecting the calf crop and recommended
controlled breeding. Following these recommendations, many cattlemen
have increased the number of calves dropped and are producing heavier
calves at weaning time. Many cattlemen are getting a 60 to 85 percent
calf crop, against the 40 to 57 percent average, and are avoiding screw-
worm infestation.








Annual Report, 1945


Recently 200 calves 5 months old weighed an average of 250 pounds.
These calves were from 3-year-old heifers and topped the market. The
champion pen of 5 grade calves at the Kissimmee show averaged 569
pounds at 8 months old. These calves also were from 3-year-old heifers.

WINTER FEEDING
In various sections of the State it has been demonstrated that cows
which are fed during the winter bring and raise to weaning age larger
and healthier calves. Sugarcane, citrus pulp and oats are gaining favor
as winter feeds. In some cases sugarcane is cut and fed with a little
cottonseed meal and in other cases the cattle are turned in on the sugar-
cane to graze. Citrus pulp is hauled to the pasture, where ranches are
located close to canning plants.
Throughout the State the Extension Service personnel have called
attention to the necessity of keeping the proper minerals before cattle
on free range.
This office has furnished information to cattlemen, county agents and
farmers on methods for controlling lice, grubs and ticks. More than
5,000 folders giving the remedies for controlling these pests have been
sent out. From information gathered over the State it is estimated that
approximately 500,000 cattle have been treated for lice and grubs.

MARKETING AND ADJUSTING CATTLE NUMBERS
TO FEED SUPPLY
Government demands for meat rose and cattle numbers increased in
1945 until an adjustment in cattle numbers to the feed supply was neces-
sary. This matter was brought to the attention of the Extension Service,
the State Cattlemens' Association, the local county associations (35)
and through them to the individual cattlemen. This office sent this in-
formation out to nearly 3,000 cattlemen. During the 11-month period
December 1, 1944, to October 31, 1945, 12 percent more cattle and calves
were sent to market than during the preceding 11 months.
From farm to market each year many cattle, calves and hogs are
crippled, bruised and killed. The Extension Service, in connection with
the National Livestock Loss Prevention Board, put on a campaign to
check these losses.
SHOWS
Two fat stock shows were held in Florida this year, in Ocala and
Quincy. There were 345 animals exhibited in the Southeastern Fat Stock
Show and Sale in Ocala, bringing an average price of $184.05, and 195
animals were exhibited at the Quincy Fat Stock Show and Sale, bringing
an average price of $171.48.
Two Range Cattle Shows were held this season also. At Kissimmee
158 head of representative cattle of the surrounding counties were ex-
hibited. At Arcadia were shown 150 head of range cattle, mostly Brahma
with some Angus and Santa Gertrudis, representing a cross-section of
the cattle in the trade area of the Arcadia market. At this show a com-
bination sale of 230 purebred Brahmas, Angus and Herefords was held.
There are 35 local county livestock associations in the State, all
affiliated with the State Cattlemen's Association. The Extension Service
has encouraged the cattlemen to get together in local associations.

HOG WORK
The 1945 hog goal for Florida was the same as the year before, when
192,000 sows farrowed and 960,000 pigs were saved.








36 Florida Cooperative Extension

At 3 district meetings the hog situation and the 1945 goal were discussed
with county and home agents, AAA and FSA representatives. A similar
discussion was held with the negro home and farm agents. News articles
and letters were sent out urging farmers to save the spring pig crop.
Florida hog raisers responded wonderfully. In the 11 months, December
1, 1944, to October 31, 1945, Florida farmers sent 1,100 more hogs to
market than they did the same time the year before. To encourage farm-
ers to produce hogs, this office publicized the support prices as set by
the WFA and called on farmers to finish hogs out to No. l's, 180 to 240
pounds, and to put their feed in young hogs to produce the maximum
amount of meat for feed consumed.
This office was able to assist in 2 purebred hog sales during the year,
a sale of purebred boars at Trenton and a Duroc sale at Ocala.

FARM FAMILY MEAT SUPPLY
Farm families were urged to produce, process and store their home
supplies of meat by curing and canning.
Information on temperatures for uniform meat curing and methods of
chilling and storage has been furnished to cold storage facility managers.
This office has also furnished these men with detailed instructions on
butchering and handling hogs for farm home meat supply. i
This office, in connection with a number of county agents, put on a
meat cutting demonstration at various points in the State.
The home demonstration agents also urged farmers to cure meat for
home use with the result that about 81/2 million pounds |of meat was
cured in cold storage meat curing plants.
This office has furnished county and home demonstration agents and
interested persons with information in reference to freezing' and handling
meats. At the recent agents' conference, the Extension Animal Husband-
man demonstrated methods of wrapping meats and poultry and showed
samples of beef and poultry that had been properly wrapped and frozen.

4-H CLUB WORK
The crowning feature of the calf club work was the '4-H calf club
show and sale at Ocala. The champion steer was a 21/-year-old Angus
weighing 1,339 pounds which sold for 80 cents a pound. Sixty-six well-
finished 4-H steers averaged 766 pounds and sold for an average of 34
cents per pound.
This office furnished information on feeding and gave demonstrations
on handling and showing of these 4-H club calves.
The outstanding 4-H pig show was in December in Live Oak when 33
victory pigs were sold. Kiwanis Clubs in several counties :sponsored 4-H
pig club work.
During the year this office has furnished information to Icounty agents,
assistant agents and 4-H club members on calf and pig club work.

DAIRYING
H. L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Labor shortages on dairy farms in Florida became more critical in 1945
than in any previous year, due to the continued drafting of labor and the
volunteering of younger boys. Drouth conditions during the winter and
spring months intensified the feed shortage. In the late summer and fall
the prices of dairy feeds were high and feed was scarce and bf very inferior







Annual Report, 1945 37

quality. Florida feed dealers found it difficult to locate materials for mixed
dairy feeds.
Conditions arising from shortages of labor, drouth and mastitis resulted
in a large number of dairies being sold. Fortunately, in most cases, these
dairies were taken over by other dairymen who wished to expand their
operations or by new men just starting in the dairy business. The net
result was that few dairy farms were vacated.
There were some 2% million dollars paid out to Florida dairymen in
subsidies in 1945. Florida county agents cooperated with the AAA offices
in getting production information for the milk producers in their respective
counties.
THE 8-POINT DAIRY PROGRAM
The 8-point program recommended nationally was adopted in Florida
and promoted by the Extension Service. In line with suggested policies
for introducing the program, leaders of the State Dairymen's Association
and the industry were consulted. These leaders assisted in 4 district con-
ferences at which the program was presented, along with regular Extension
suggestions. The program was also presented at all special district meet-
ings held with county agents early in 1945.
The Florida interpretation of the 8-point dairy program was as follows:
1. Grow more forage as pasture, silage and hay.
2. Fertilize all forage to increase quality and quantity.
3. Provide supplementary annual grazing crops.
4. Give cows at least six weeks dry period.
5. Feed concentrates according to production.
6. Keep as many cows as feed and labor will permit.
7. Breed for better herd replacements-use safety bull pens.
8. Produce good quality milk and avoid waste.

PASTURE AND FORAGE
Plantings of Bermuda, Bahia and Pangola -grasses have been spread
over more than % of the counties of the State. These plantings were
made on some 325 farms in 1945.
It has been very practical to run sugarcane mixed with peanut vine
hay through an ensilage cutter. The juices of the cane are absorbed by
the hay, making a more palatable and practical roughage. Ninety-four
farmers have been using forage cane as a supplementary roughage feed.
There were 8,340 acres planted to sorghum to be used for silage purposes
in 1945.
Kudzu is supplying grazing over a period of 5 months and is 1 crop
which suffers little from unfavorable weather conditions. It offers pos-
sibilities of being 1 of the best summer hay crops and has been spread
from Pensacola to % the distance of the State south.
Alyce clover is successfully grown on the lighter soils over a wide area
of Florida, and is an ideal feed for milk production.
Cowpeas planted in May and early June make an ideal cover crop
during the summer months and afford excellent grazing for 30 to 60 days
in the fall months when milk cows normally are in slump.
Dairy farmers are learning the value of fertilizing all forage crops
from the many practical demonstrations at hand. This year 430 farmers
fertilized 12,000 acres of dairy forage crops.
During the unfavorable weather conditions that existed throughout
Florida in 1945, cattail millet was the 1 annual crop that gave milk cows
continuous grazing for some 120 days. Agents report that 670 farmers
seeded cattail millet in 1945 for the family milk cow.







38 Florida Cooperative Extension

Improved varieties of Sudan grass are grown by a few dairy farmers.
On account of the dangers from prussic acid poisoning it is riot as exten-
sively used in Florida as in other states.
More dairy farms seeded oats in 1944 than in any other year. Junior
dairy club boys made wide use of fall-seeded oats for grazing and as a
hay crop for the family cow program. Rye is more suitable: as a winter
grazing crop on the rolling dry lands.
English and Italian rye grasses have been seeded on 18,000 acres of
the more fertile muck lands in southern Florida. Rye grass has proven
to be a valuable supplementary grazing crop.

MANAGEMENT AND FEEDING
War conditions have resulted in farmers overlooking proper manage-
ment practices on dairy farms. Too often cows have not been given any
rest period.
The subsidy program has influenced the 900 market dairy farmers of
Florida to feed their better cows in proportion to production.i During the
war most market milk dairy farms greatly increased the number of cows
kept. Often as many as 4 groups of cows pass through each barn twice
daily. It is estimated that 140 dairy farms in Florida are feeding accord-
ing to production.
There is a very definite interest among a large group ofi dairymen in
artificial insemination. Volusia County dairymen intend to set up an
association in that area some time in 1946. At the State Hospital farm
in Jackson County, W. L. Ford is carrying on artificial insemination with
this herd and some of the neighboring herds in Jackson and Gadsden
counties.
In spite of war conditions, 340 registered bulls have been brought into
the dairy herds of Florida in 1945.
The primary problem in milk production in 1945 was mastitis. Culling
of herds has been the best means of holding mastitis under control.

WARTIME ECONOMICS
"Every-other-day" delivery, once this program of marketing was estab-
lished in a town or city, has been a boon to dairymen and has not worked
hardships on consumers. In many instances it has enabled dairymen to
continue in business with the scarcity of trucks and tires.! The saving
amounted to probably as much as 2 to 3 cents per quart inl many of the
towns in Florida.
In peace time many thousands of gallons of milk are wasted each year
during the surplus season. In many of the milk plants it has been a com-
mon practice to separate the cream and let the skimmilk run down the
sewer pipes. All during the war period this waste was completely removed.
The cooperatively owned plants at Miami and Tampa have installed milk
powder plants and equipment for evaporating the skimmilk for manu-
facturing purposes. The plant at Tampa has remained closed during the
war.
During the war county and home demonstration agents in Florida have
intensified their program of encouraging rural families to keep family
milk cows. Thousands of cows have been placed with families this year.
Statistics compiled by the Economics Department show that there was
an increase of 12,000 family cows in the 2 years 1943 and 1944.
Through the efforts of the 4-H club department, a county agents' com-
mittee of 10 members was established and worked out a goals program
that places from 2,000 to 5,000 calves each year on farms in Florida. One







Annual Report, 1945


county agent reports that he placed 1,050 calves in 1945. Many 3-day-old
calves were purchased in his county for $3.00 to $5.00 each.
Another county agent reports marketing 1,350 calves, of which 150 went
to 4-H dairy club boys. The family cow program was promoted by county
home demonstration agents and vocational agriculture workers also.
DHIA and official testing work has continued throughout the war period
under many difficulties. There are at present 3 DHIA associations operat-
ing in the State.
4-H CLUB WORK
One day was spent with the 4-H girls at their short course in Tallahas-
see, presenting an educational program on selection and feeding the dairy
cow. At the educational dairy program at Chattahoochee October 18, 93
girls took part in the judging contest from 7 counties. Awards were made
in the form of dairy heifers, halters and other articles useful in the dairy
heifer demonstrations.
Practical demonstrations in selecting, feeding and management of
dairy animals were put on in 3 camps in 1945.
Judging contests were held at the Florida Jersey Cattle Club sales in
Ocala August 16 and in Chattahoochee October 18, at the Florida Guernsey
Cattle Club sale in Largo October 25, and at the county judging contest
at Live Oak December 20.
At the State 4-H club meeting with negrb agents it was arranged for
3 of the agents to train demonstration teams to put on a demonstration
on home-grown feeds, selecting the dairy cow and feeding the family
milk cow.
POULTRY EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
A. Woodrow O'Steen, Ass't. Extension Poultryman
Poultry production goals for Florida differed slightly from those for
1944. The goal for the number of hens and pullets on farms in 1945 was
increased to approximately 2 million birds, while the goal for egg produc-
tion and broiler production remained the same as in 1944. An increase
of 3.4% in the number of chickens raised.for flock replacement was neces-
sary to attain, the egg production goals. The turkey goals called for a 5
percent increase in the number of birds produced.
The 1945 poultry Extension program was developed to help attain these
goals and to improve the efficiency of poultry management. The several
educational agencies, poultry associations, feed dealers and poultry and
egg dealers were advised of the goals and with their cooperation and
support Florida's poultry industry exceeded the goals established for 1945.
The number of hens and pullets on hand on January 1, 1945, was
2,064,000, which was increased to 2,208,000 by the end of the year. The
indicated number of chickens raised in 1945 was 4,536,000, compared with
3,780,000 raised in 1944. For the first 10 months of 1945, chicks hatched
by commercial hatcheries totaled 9,492,000, with 7,691,000 hatched during
the same period in 1944. Turkeys raised in 1945 totaled 142,000, compared
with 118,000 raised in 1944. These numerical figures indicate that the
poultry producers of the state responded to the goals established early
in the year.
Production of quality pullets and efficient management of the laying
flock were the 2 long-time programs stressed during the year.
The use of artificial lights, better feed utilization, elimination of the
poorer producers, hatching early and the use of quality chicks are a few
of the points stressed to increase the efficiency of poultry production.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Emphasis in the entire poultry Extension program was centered on war-
time needs and methods of securing the necessary production.
One hundred and 13 local leaders assisted in developing the poultry
program. The Extension poultrymen have worked with 421 county and
home demonstration agents and 8 negro farm and home agents during
the year, assisting the local agents in developing their poultry program.

THE FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING TEST
The 19th Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, started October 1,
1944, and ended September 22, 1945. There were 96 pens of 13 Ipullets each;
39 pens of Single Comb White Leghorns; 31 of New Hampshires, 12 of
Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, 8 of White Plymouth Rocks and 6 of
Barred Plymouth Rocks. This was the largest number of |heavy breed
pens ever entered in a Florida test.
Average egg production for the entire test was 215.2 eggs per bird,
with a credit of 217.8 points. This production, based on the original number
of birds entered in the test, was 5.4 eggs higher than the best record ever
attained previously.
High for the year (51 weeks) was a pen of Single Comb White Leg-
horns owned by the Dixie Poultry Yards, Chapman, Alabama. These 13
pullets produced a total of 3,861 eggs for a total value of 4,003.30 points.
This is the highest total number of points ever recorded at the Florida test.
The high bird was a.Single Comb White Leghorn, also owned by the
Dixie Poultry Yards. This bird laid 344 eggs for a value of 371.35 points.
The second high bird was also a Single Comb White Leghorn owned by
the Crescent Farms, Bradenton, Florida, which produced 344 eggs for a
value of 371.25 points.
Mortality averaged 15.1 percent for the year. This is 2.37 percent less
than the mortality during the previous test.
Practical feeding trials were continued at the Chipley plant in addition
to the Egg-Laying Test.

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Extension recommendations were followed by 1,298 families in obtain-
ing. better strains of baby chicks, 2,140 families in improving methods of
feeding and 4,633 families in controlling -diseases and parasites. These
recommendations were carried into 510 communities over the State.
During the past year more poultrymen have planted seeds to provide
green feed than ever before. Poultry producers who plant a relatively
large acreage have been using various pasture grasses, including Bermuda
and carpet grasses and White Dutch clover. When the all-purpose port-
able house is used it is possible to move the house to a new location before
the sod is destroyed. When the permanent house is used green feed is
grown in alternate yards around the house, in a garden or separate yard
and cut and hand-fed daily.
Demonstrations in culling were given by Extension workers during the
year. 4-H club members were instructed in the art of selecting layers.
These demonstrations were also given at several county home demonstra-
tion council meetings.
ARTIFICIAL LIGHTS
The 2 popular methods of artificial illumination are (1)i morning and
(2) all-night lights. On farms where electricity is available, morning
lights are most popular. When electricity is not available and the portable
laying houses are used, all-night lights are furnished by oil lanterns. The







Annual Report, 1945


lights are usually turned on in October and continued until March 1 or
April 1. Lights have been found to be profitable on both pullets and hens.

PREVENTION OF DISEASES AND PARASITES
To prevent or lower losses from diseases and parasites, emphasis was
placed on the use of clean land, range rotation, use of good litter, chicken-
pox vaccination, the control of lice and mites, and sanitary poultry houses
and equipment. Demonstrations were given on chickenpox vaccination
in 6 counties.
The National Poultry Improvement Plan is under the supervision of the
State Livestock Sanitary Board of Tallahassee. Extension workers, both
State and county, have cooperated in every way possible to extend this
program. Assistance was given poultrymen in selecting and mating their
breeding birds.
POULTRY CLUB WORK
During the year 1,412 boys and 2,007 girls were enrolled in poultry club
projects. Of this number, 810 boys and 1,228 girls completed their projects
with a total of 128,308 birds, or 30,000 more than the previous year.
Poultry classes were conducted at 4-H boys' and girls' camps and also
at the boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee. A
special 4-H club girls' poultry demonstration project was started this year
in cooperation with the Sears, Roebuck Foundation. Fourteen counties
participated, with 10 girls from each county receiving 100 baby chicks
each. The girls signed notes payable sometime during the year. Special
instructions were furnished these girls on the care and management of the
chicks. In the fall each girl exhibited a pen of pullets and prizes were
awarded to the winners of the show. In addition, 2 of the counties spon-
sored auction sales. The girls were very successful in this project, rais-
ing a very high percentage of the chicks started.

MARKETING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES
Information on methods of producing and maintaining egg quality was
given by means of radio, letters and pamphlets and through group meetings.
A mimeographed circular dealing with the various phases of poultry
management was prepared and distributed to farmers interested in turkey
production. Turkey production was increased during the year.
Only 200 cases of eggs were purchased by the War Food Administra-
tion in Florida last spring. The.Extension Service and the State Marketing
Bureau cooperated in developing a rather satisfactory marketing outlet
for most poultry products. Additional U. S. egg grading stations were
established during the year in the larger cities of the State.
Poultry dressing demonstrations were given at 6 home demonstration
council meetings and at 4-H camps and 4-H short courses. Assistance was
rendered at the egg grading school held in Tallahassee in cooperation with
the State Marketing Bureau.

POULTRY ORGANIZATIONS
The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association and the Florida Breed-
ers' and Hatchery Association continued to assist Extension workers with
the development of poultry program. The Florida Poultry Council is being
reorganized and will be functioning again during the coming year.
Local or county poultry associations held regular monthly meetings
at which various timely poultry topics were discussed.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
When the 1945 plan was developed for boys' 4-H work, the war was
still in a critical stage. With but 2 counties having extra help which could
be used part time on club work, and with the county agents having a
multiplicity of wartime extra duties, it appeared that the only workable
boys' club program was to stress production of food to help win the war.
There was no possibility of county agents finding time to develop and
put in operation extensive club programs. Production of more food was
the 1 program which was feasible and which would be a real contribution
to the national war effort. It was thought necessary to concentrate on
the 1 endeavor which seemed to offer the greatest return in furthering
the war effort.
The abrupt ending of the war in August came after the crops in Florida
had been planted and final production was set. In most counties production
acreage goals .had been met and we felt that Florida 4-H boys had made a
worthwhile contribution to the war effort.

SPREADING THE GOOD WORD
Radio.-In 7 counties the agents used the local radio consistently to
inform the public as to what the boys are doing. The most effective
way was to have representative boys and girls on the radio program.
The radio was used in* every county where the facilities were available
during the 4-H enrollment week. Extension radio specialists prepared 4-H
scripts which were used to good advantage.
Service Clubs and Public Meetings.-The increasing interest of service
or luncheon clubs in youth work was brought to the attention of county
agents. Many 4-H club programs were given before these clubs by county
agents. The Boys' Club Agent made 8 4-11 talks before service clubs.
The best results were obtained when club members appeared on the program.
News Stories.-Through the Agricultural News Service, weekly clip-
sheet, timely stories on 4-H work were supplied all newspapers in the
State. Forty 4-H stories appeared in this Service.
There is an increasing willingness on the part of individuals, business
men and banks to support 4-H club project work, particularly in livestock,
through financial assistance. Contacts were made with 5 individuals and
firms by the Boys' Club Agent to help work out details for financial sup-
port for club projects.

TRAINING AND PROGRAMMING
In October 1945 a week's 4-H training course for about 45 of the younger
county and home demonstration agents was held. This was !the most ad-
vanced step taken in Florida toward improved 4-H club work! The agents
attending received not only inspiration for attempting an enlarged club
program but practical suggestions on the mechanics of doing the job.
Determining 4-H Program in the Counties.-Two years ago a different
approach was begun in Florida for determining 4-H programs in the coun-
ties. Since the county agents are the ones who do the work, it was decided
to give them a big part in making the club program. This plan was de-
veloped to set production goals in wartime club work.
This plans was as follows: The State is divided into 10 4-H districts
of 5 to 7 contiguous counties. The county agents in each! district elect







Annual Report, 1945


1 of their number as district 4-H chairman. The 10 district chairmen
meet with the State Club Staff and Extension Specialists to set State
production goals for 4-H work and to allocate State goals among districts.
At a later date the district chairmen call meetings of agents in their
districts and the district goals are divided among the counties. The district
chairman endeavors to develop enough enthusiasm in his district to have
all goals met. The plan was a success. Club enrollment went up 6%
and production 10%.
The second year it was decided to alter the plan a little. In place of
State goals each district set its goals and' State goals were formed by
combining district goals.
Meetings were held in every district and goals were set. It was never
possible to make a complete State goal, due to inability to get data from
some agents. The plan did not work quite as well because the district
chairmen did not get the enthusiasm which is generated by a State meeting
of all the chairmen.
It is felt that this method of securing and using the cooperation of the
men who have to do the work in building the club program is the most
important contribution made to club work in Florida in over 30 years.

COOPERATION OF SPECIALISTS

Extension specialists, especially those in livestock and forestry, have
given valuable service in supplying project plans for counties and helping
with special 4-H work. The Animal Husbandry Specialist helped locate
animals, supplied feeding instructions, went on tours, helped with judging
contests and contributed materially in reaching the goal of increased meat
production. The Dairy Specialist has helped with 4 dairy judging contests.
The Forestry Specialist attended many tree planting demonstrations and
was particularly active in the school forest plantings. The Extension Soil
Conservationist prepared material for 4-H conservation projects and offered
his assistance to any county agent desiring to start a soil conservation
project in his county. All specialists prepared rather definite instructions
for projects in their special fields.
A beginning was made at the 4-H training course in assisting in the
selection and training of local leaders. The first step was to give agents
themselves training in how to train and select leaders.

SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS

The following information will give some idea of how the State met
the production goals as set last spring. The end of the war with its let-
down and the change of agents in so many counties makes the total re-
ported considerably less than was really accomplished.
In 1945 54 county agents devoted 16 percent of their time, or 2,712
days, to 4-H club work. This is an increase of 552 days devoted to this
work over the previous year.
In 1945 there were 5,808 white boys in Florida enrolled in 4-H clubs,
an increase of 448, or 8%; 3,164 of them turned in reports-a decrease
of 182, or 5.4%.
Total production figures for 1945 remained about constant,, increases
being registered in some lines and decreases in others, as shown by the
following figures:







Florida Cooperative Extension


Corn .......... ..................-
Other cereal ........................
Peanuts ....... ...............
Other legumes .....................
Soil conservation, etc ..........
Potatoes ...............................
Fruit .................. .............
Cotton .... ......... .........
Home gardens ..-.... ...---.......
Tobacco ................... .....
Market gardens ......................
SOther crops .............................
Poultry ........... .................
Dairy cattle ..........................
Beef cattle ..................... ...
Sw ine .................... ..............
Horses and mules .................
Other livestock ......................
Forestry ............................


1944
1,467 acres
11 acres
676 acres
1 acres
1,468 acres
218 acres
238 acres
28 acres
.2,035 acres
19 acres
182 acres
181 acres
99,077 acres
1,679 head
827 head
3,427 head
86 head
1,846 head
128 acres


1945 Gain or Loss
1,098 acres 369 acres
39 acres + 28 acres
449 acres + 227 acres
15 acres + 14 acres
1,150 acres 318 acres
143 acres 75 acres
160 acres 78 acres
24 acres 4 acres
1,486 acres 549 acres
39 acres + 20 acres
205 acres + 23 acres
196 acres + 15 acres
128,308 birds + 29,231 birds
1,222 head 457 head
831 head + 4 head
2,693 head .- 734 head
75 head 11 head
1,436 head 410 head
58 acres + 70 acres


The above tabulation includes some production by girls enrolled in 4-H
projects with county agents.
N. H. McQueen, who is acting as part-time district club agent in south-
ern Florida, did excellent work in helping his agents put over a dairy calf
program. In 1 county over 350 day-old heifer calves were placed and many
were placed in other counties. Mr. McQueen helped plan the program and
located calves and worked out ways and means of getting them delivered.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
The only government agency that contributed to the 4-H club program
in 1945 was the Soil Conservation Service. Local representatives of this
service in 4 counties assisted boys enrolled in the 4-H Soil Conservation
State Contest in planning the program on the farm. The State Soil Con-
servation Office cooperated to the extent of writing letters to all their
field men asking them to cooperate in every way possible with 4-H boys
carrying soil conservation projects.
The State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission was' kind enough
to send a load of bass fingerlings to 4-H wildlife and conservation camp
to show boys how a lake is restocked. The Commission also loaned their
special moving picture film for showing at 4-H camps 5 times.
Commissioner of Agriculture Mayo continued to support 4-H club work
in a financial way. His office gave a $100.00 scholarship to the outstanding
club boy in baby beef project work. He also supplied most of the money for
4-H club prizes at the Southeastern Fat Stock Show. Mr. Mayo also offered
to match prize money for county dairy 4-H exhibits. Charlotte County
was the only county to take advantage of this offer. Mr. Mayo also paid
expenses of 7 scholarships to Boys' 4-H Short Course and offered a $100.00
scholarship for poultry work.
The Florida Chain Store Association contributes generously to prize
money for 4-H stock shows. Members of this Association always buy
the champion steers at the 4-H baby beef shows.
Rotary, Kiwanis and other civic clubs are generous supporters of club
work. The clubs take many ways to show their interest. The Boys' Club
Agent has been asked to appear before 8 clubs during the year. The
Kiwanis Club in Live Oak sponsored a "pig scramble," in which the same








Annual Report, 1945


number of pigs and club boys were turned loose in a pen and each boy
caught a pig. A boy and the Kiwanian who paid for the pig were partners
in the hog business. Each had to make at least 1 call on the boy during
the time the pig was being fed. When pigs were sold the boy paid for
his pig. Many scholarships to club camp and to State Boys' Short Course
were given by luncheon clubs.
Boards of county commissioners, in addition to paying their part of
county agents' salaries, often donated money for short course scholarships
and transportation to camps.
County school boards gave use of school buses for transporting county
groups to 4-H camp in many counties. Without exception, county school
superintendents have given cooperation to the 4-H program. County agents
are always welcome to visit schools and are given time for club meetings
whenever possible. In Hillsboro County 4-H club work is a definite part
of curriculum in county schools. The cooperation in Hillsboro County is
outstanding. The 4-H clubs try to fit their program into the school work
in every way possible. 4-H Club members have taken it upon themselves
to put on chapel programs, to clean up and beautify the school grounds,
to plant and maintain a school forest, and to contribute to the betterment
of the school in other ways.
The Florida Bankers' Association contributes 5 $100.00 scholarships
to the College of Agriculture each year. The scholarships are awarded
to club boys through an examination given at the Boys' Short Course.
An organization which gives material help is the National Committee
on Boys and Girls Club Work. It secures financial support and sponsors
county, state and district 4-H contests for all states. Eighteen of these
contests were sponsored in 1945. The value of awards made through this
Committee will run into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. In addition

Fig. 1.-Ten boys were awarded scholarships to the University of
Florida during annual Short Course by a representative of the State
Bankers' Association.







46 Florida Cooperative Extension

to sponsoring 4-H contests, this Committee stages the National 4-H Club
Congress in Chicago. The educational and entertainment features of the
Club Congress are outstanding. Florida 4-H club boys received 2 trips to
Chicago and $720 in war bonds and 76 county medals.
The Florida Guernsey and Jersey Cattle Clubs are cooperating in the
4-H dairy program through 4-H judging contests held in connection with
their shows and sales. Four such judging contests were sponsored in 1945.
Boys' 4-H club work has tried to do its part in furthering the dairy develop-
ment in the State through placing of heifer calves on farms for future
family cows or for sale to dairymen for herd replacement; 630 calves were
placed in 1945.
A large cartridge company continues to sponsor a 4-H wildlife and
conservation camp. This company has made an unusual contribution in
that they contribute to 2 conservation camps for negro 4-H work.

STATE 4-H SHORT COURSE
As wartime restrictions eased slightly, the first Short Course since
1941 was held this year. It was attended by 180 older boys who have
been in club work at least 2 years and are winners in their counties.
The theme for the 1945 short course was, "What's Ahead for Rural
Youth?" One program was devoted to honoring former 4-H club boys
now in the armed forces. Letters were read from 8 former 4-H boys
scattered from the South Pacific, India to Europe. A course in 4-H club
work was arranged for 30 county agents who came with their delegations.
Three district camps, well equipped, are owned by the Agricultural
Extension Service. Improvements were made in the manner of operating
camps, which was a help. A committee was appointed by Director to codify
regulations regarding camps. Better refrigeration was secured for 1 camp.
The camp program is built around the idea of training for citizenship.
At the 3 district camps 1,119 boys and 719 girls spent a week each. There
were 26,743 meals served at a cost of 254 per meal.
In addition to Florida club members, Georgia 4-H boys and girls
occupied Cherry Lake Camp for 1 month.







Annual Report, 1945


FARM FORESTRY

L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester

Information and assistance were given to county agents and farmers
to obtain maximum production of forest products for war. Two radio
talks were made over WRUF urging farmers and others to harvest forest
products for war. Copies of these talks were furnished county agents
for broadcasting over 12 other State radio stations. Two mimeographed
releases were prepared and furnished to all county agents. These releases
provided information on what forest products were needed for war pur-
poses, how to harvest them, where and how to market them, what grades
to cut and information about buyers and prices. County agents were also
assisted in cooperating closely with timber production war project foresters
and Noris-Doxey woodland marketing project foresters in extending the
harvesting of farm timber for war.
Many field visits were made by the Extension Forester to assist county
agents and farmers in cruising timber, recommending proper cutting prac-
tices and providing market information necessary to stimulate larger
production of farm timber for war purposes. To accumulate specific
market information needed by farmers on the demand and prices of forest
products, the Extension Forester was required to make many visits to
sawmills and other wood-using industries during the year.
Many letters were written in reply to inquiries by farmers, giving
specific advice and information on harvesting forest products for war.
The importance of forest products in the war effort was explained to
470 4-H club members during 4 summer camps and the annual Boys' Short
Course held at the University of Florida as a part of the regular instruc-
tion course in farm forestry. Valuable newspaper publicity was given this
program through the cooperation of the Agricultural Extension Editors.

TIMBER GRAZING GAME
To meet the forest fire problem most effectively, a plan was worked
out for combining timber growing with grazing by establishing fire-resist-
ant improved pasture grass sods in wide bands or strips around and through
the forest area. These strips keep outside fires from getting into a forest
area and prevent such fires as might get started inside a forest from
spreading to adjacent areas.
Sixteen days were spent assisting the county agent in Escambia County
and 4-H club members in planting forest trees and doing other improve-
ment work on the Escambia County 4-H Club Council's timber grazing-
game demonstration. This demonstration consists of 400 acres of severely
cut-over pine land now owned by the 4-H clubs of that county.
To bring the Timber-Grazing-Game Program more widely and promi-
nently before foresters, agricultural leaders, farmers and the public gener-
ally, the Extension Forester wrote the text, illustrated with photographs
and line drawings, for an Extension Service publication on this subject.
Many days were spent in the field assisting county agents, farmers, cattle-
men, and large timberland owners in adapting this program to their par-
ticular situation.
FIRE CONTROL WORK

Close cooperation with State and Federal Forest Services in fire pro-
tection was maintained. Bulletins, charts, posters and motion pictures
calling attention to fire damage to timber were obtained from these services












1qL\r


Fig. 2.-Boys attending the annual 4-H Wildlife and Conservation -Camp at Cherry Lake watch a lake restocked with
fingerling bass and learn about food border plantings for game.


<


h aL







Annual Report, 1945


and distributed to county agents for use in the State forest fire prevention
campaign. County agents were encouraged to refer interested farmers
to the State Forest Service for assistance in forest fire protection. Fire
protection problems in the counties were discussed with local forest
rangers and plans were made for cooperative action.
The protection from fire of the farmers' woods was a subject included in
all 4-H club training meetings in which the Extension Forester participated.
A total of 470 members received instructions in forest fire prevention dur-
ing these meetings. Club members were shown how fires annually destroy
millions of young pines and other forest seedlings while only a few inches
high, thereby often keeping forests down to 25% stand or less. Fire
damage to older trees was also pointed out. Motion pictures of forest
fires helped to illustrate the destructiveness of woods fires.


Fig. 3.-These 4-H boys have learned the value of planting pines on mar-
ginal lands, and of obtaining a good stand of young trees.

PLANTINGS ENCOURAGED

The forest tree planting program was given much attention. Planted
stands of forest trees add much to the farm value and serve as result
demonstrations.
County Agents were supplied with State Forest Service bulletins on
proper methods for planting forest trees and with mimeographed instruc-
tions on planting slash pines. Agents were provided with copies of a
suggested news release for local newspapers and a circular letter to send
to farmers urging them to plant trees. New agents were instructed in
planting methods. Attention of the agents was called to a new opportunity
for planting forest trees by planting up open spots in the farm woods.


. a








50 Florida Cooperative Extension

Close cooperation was extended by the Extension Forester and county
agents to 3 Florida pulpmills in a free forest tree distribution program.
These 3 mills made a total of 1,600,000 slash pine seedlings available free
to farmers and other landowners in 39 counties, 789,752 of which were
distributed to farmers and others through the efforts of county agents
in these counties. The seedlings were grown by the State Forest Service
and the Extension Forester assisted in their distribution in a cooperative
arrangement with the Forest Service.
Five county agents were assisted in establishing school forests on the
grounds of 14 schools in the State. A total of 10,650 trees were planted,
or approximately 15 acres. These plantings were sponsored by 4-H clubs
and most of the trees were planted by 4-H club members. In 2 of the
schools the entire student body turned out to participate in appropriate
and impressive dedication ceremonies. One school made a forest planting
of native red cedar and 2 others planted small blocks of cedar in addition
to the pines.
SLASH PINES
A total of 73,222 forest trees were planted by 4-H club members on
farms in individual club demonstration projects. This amounted to 107
acres planted by 4-H club members in project work.
Instructions in planting forest trees was given 470 4-H club members
during summer camps and at annual 4-H short courses. Additional work
was donq by the Extension Forester in replanting and maintaining 3
demonstration forests in Washington, Alachua and Marion counties in which
native hardwood trees were planted 2 years ago. Small blocks of longleaf
pine, slash pine and red cedar trees were also planted for purposes of
comparing their growth with the hardwoods.
In cooperation with a large commercial cork concern which furnished
the seeds, small demonstrational plantings of cork oak seedlings on farms,
city parks and school grounds in the State were made.
The planting of red cedar on farms to provide adequate supplies of
home-grown fence posts and other valuable products was again actively
promoted during the year. State Forest Service nurseries have never
been able to meet the demand for cedar seedlings. Farmers were assisted
in obtaining willing stock from the woods wherever this was possible.
All possible assistance was given the State Forest Service in obtaining
cedar seed for planting to meet the present shortage of planting stock.
Forty-six days were devoted to work on 4-H forestry club program
during the year. Assistance was given county agents in preparing suitable
procedures and project plans for their club members. Leadership training
in farm forestry was given 470 club members attending 4-H summer camps
and in class work during annual short course week.

INSECTS AND DISEASE CONTROL
Assistance in control of forest insects and diseases was given to county
agents and farmers by supplying them with bulletins on control measures
and by pointing out during field visits how these diseases can be recog-
nized and dealt with.

ENCOURAGED ALL TYPES OF WOOD PRODUCTS
General emphasis was placed on the need for producing in the farm
woods all types of forest products needed on the farm. This was stressed
in all talks before county agent groups and in radio talks, news releases,







Annual Report, 1945 51

mimeographed materials and posters sent to the agents from the Extension
Forester's office.
As an aid in furthering this program, and particularly in providing
much-needed fence post material, the Extension Forester has been assem-
bling and passing on to county agents and farmers information on little-
known and seldom-used species of native forest trees. The need for
making farm woodlands meet the farm requirements for lumber and other
wood products was very consistently presented in all educational work
with 4-H club groups.
An effort was made to coordinate the Extension farm forestry program
with the work of all other established agencies whenever opportunity
afforded and when this appeared in the interest of the farmer.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
K. S. McMullen, Extension Soil Conservationist
The year 1945 was marked by record production and also much accom-
plished in soil and water conservation. The growing recognition of the
value of conservation is evidenced by increased acreages of summer and
winter cover crops, extensive terracing, pasture maintenance and develop-
ment, construction of water control facilities and the adoption of many
valuable practices.
Florida agriculture includes general farming, citrus, vegetables, live-
stock, tropical fruits and poultry. Temperatures vary from as low as 10
degrees Farenheit in western Florida to sub-tropical conditions in southern
Florida. Types of soil vary greatly and soil and water conservation prob-
lems accordingly. The Production and Marketing Administration, Exten-
sion Service and many related agricultural agencies have united in efforts
to get conservation practices carried out.
Educational work in organized soil conservation districts was conducted
through county agents and in cooperation with Soil Conservation Service
personnel. Planning of a State-wide nature was made and executed through
cooperation of the Director of Extension, district agents and State officials
of the Soil Conservation Service. In the counties 'and districts, county
agents, boards of supervisors and district and work unit conservationists
cooperated. All applicable activities were referred to the State Soil Con-
servation Board for consideration.
One-day conferences and field days were held at each of 3 Florida
Experiment Stations-Quincy, Gainesville and Ona. Personnel in districts
in the vicinity of the stations attended, totaling 149 persons.

COMBINED ANNUAL REPORT OF BOARDS OF SUPERVISORS
(Annual reports of supervisors for 1945 will not be released until
January, 1946, and therefore cannot be included in this report.)
Districts are making a practical application of scientific information-in
their approach to getting conservation on the land. Supervisors report
that conservation surveys (soils maps) as a basis for determining capa-
bilities, best management practices and proper land use have been com-
pleted on 2,024,320 acres in the 19 districts now operating. They state that
contour and topographic information is likewise developed and used in
areas where water control and water management are necessary. Appli-
cation of this information has been made in the development of 2,334
complete conservation farm plans covering 578,816 acres to date.
Supervisors' reports on specific conservation practices established in
1944 shpw a decided increase over 1943. They report practices established
and planned to date as follows: approved rotations on 97,968 of the 171,968
acres planted; strip-cropping on 3,709 of the 9,049 acres planned; kudzu
planted on 5,237 of the 16,934 acres planned; perennial lespedeza estab-
lished on 467 of the 1,178 acres planned; perennial grasses (such as
Napier) established on 223 of the 611 acres planned; terraces constructed
on 59,555 of the 129,149 acres planned; water disposal areas established
on 1,258 of the 3,413 acres planned; pasture improvement established on
23,034 of the 93,907 acres planned; wildlife areas established on 660 of
the 1,100 acres planned; 4 farm fish ponds established of 32 planned; water
control facilities established on 15,103 of the 31,128 acres planned; wood-
land improvement on 92,336 of the 160,283 acres planned and tree plantings
on 2,668 of the 7,307 acres planned. Combined treatment of all practices
was established on 87,001 acres in 1944 and 225,004 acres to date.







Annual Report, 1945 53

A combined financial statement for all districts covering 1944 showed
a sizeable sum handled by supervisors in carrying out their program. Their
balance January 1, 1944, was $9,189.96; receipts were $34,878.97; expendi-
tures were $27,774.00; and the balance December 31, 1944, was $16,294.93.
Reports show that districts now own and are using considerable mach-
inery in carrying out their conservation work. Some has been obtained
through grants and some by direct purchase by supervisors. Five districts
now own combines. All districts where terracing is important own tractors
and terracing equipment. Many small pieces of equipment such as chop-
pers, seeders, lime spreaders, scoop pans, dibbles, etc., are owned by
practically all districts.
The Extension Editor prepared and released a news story on this report
to each of the larger papers of the State. Several papers not only pub-
lished the story but editoralized the report. One radio release was also
prepared and released to the stations in the state.

WORK WITH 4-H CLUB MEMBERS

A course in soil and water conservation was given to 180 boys attend-
ing the annual 4-H Club Short Course. These boys represented clubs from
all over the State and had done outstanding work in their respective
counties.
During the week of July 2-6, 1945, 84 boys attended Camp Timpoochee.
At Camp McQuarrie, week of August 19-25, 1945, 75 boys attended. The
course on soil and water conservation was given to the groups.
A 4-H Wildlife and Conservation Camp was held under the general
supervision of the 4-H club department. The Extension Conservationist
was responsible for the subject matter course taught on soil and water
conservation. The 39 boys attending were club members who had done or
were doing outstanding work in wildlife, forestry or soil and water con-
servation.

Fig. 4.-Soil conservation personnel and other visitors inspect clover plots
at the North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy.








54 Florida Cooperative Extension

Seven counties participated in the national soil conservation contest;
160 boys were enrolled and 69 boys participated in county and State com-
petition.
GRASS AND LEGUME SEED HARVEST
In a few years Florida has become an important seed-producing State.
Production and harvest of grass and legume seeds in 1945 approximated
2,775,000 pounds. Only 5 or 6 years ago Florida farmers imported all
legume and grass, seeds they planted.
The State-wide pasture and soil improvement program begun several
years ago, coupled with the shortage of grass and legume seeds during
the war, is responsible for the development of this important seed indus-
try within the. State. Producers harvest not only for their own plantings
but also for sale to neighbors, and the State seed inspection service assures
a good quality product.
The following table gives figures on the plantings of legumes and
grasses and harvesting of seed in the State for the year.

TABLE 1.-SUMMER AND WINTER LEGUMES AND GRASSES PLANTED AND
SEED HARVESTED IN FLORIDA DURING 1945.
1. Lupine
(a) Seed harvested ........................... ........... .............. 1,748,400 lbs.
(b) Planted ......................................- ........... 18,863 acres
(c) Planted following dug peanuts .............................. 6,320 acres


2. Austrian Peas
(a) Planted ....... .......... ... ....... .........
3. Vetches
(a) Planted ........ ......... ......... ........
4. Grass Seed Harvested
(a) Common Bahia .............. ........ .... ...................
(b) Pensacola Bahia .................. ...... ... ..............
(c) Carpet .................................................
5. Pasture Establishment
(a) Seeded ............ ...... ............... .... ......
(b) Sodded .... .... .......... ........... ...........
6. Crotalaria
(a) Acreage grown (seeded and volunteer) ......................
(b) Seed harvested
(1) Private combines ........................... ............
(2) District owned combines ......................................
7. Sesbania
(a) Acreage grown (seeded and volunteer) ....................
(b) Seed harvested ......................... ..................
(c) Seed imported ........................ .......... ........
8. Alyce Clover
(a) Acreage grown ................................. ..........
(b) Seed harvested ...................... .. ................... ......
9. Red Clover
(a) Planted previous to 1944-45 ...............-..-........
(b) Planted 1944-45 .................... ... .... .. .........
(c) Planted fall of 1945 ..................................... ........
10. Indigofera
(a) Seed harvested ................... ....... .... ............


3,725 acres

3,178 acres

23,400 lbs.
4,850 lbs.
38,340 lbs.

27,769 acres
11,585 acres

259,971 acres

186,550 Ibs.
26,000 lbs.

17,120 acres
80,380 lbs.
20,000 lbs.

4,000 acres
662,116 lbs.

12 acres
44 acres
372 acres

4,500 lbs.







Annual Report, 1945


P 4RT III-ACTIVITIES WITH

RURAL WOMEN AND GIRLS

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent

The State Home Demonstration Agent, 3 district agents and 4 special-
ists are responsible for guiding the State-wide programs. Forty-one
county home demonstration agents and 4 assistant agents work in co-
operating counties.
The State Home Demonstration Agent also directs the work of the
Negro District Agent and the negro home demonstration agents who work
in 10 counties.
As a part of the war program, 8 emergency assistants in food produc-
tion and conservation worked for limited periods in 9 counties prior to
July 1. One county appropriated for home demonstration work as a result.
Negro assistants helped with food conservation for 2 to 3 months during
the canning season in 4 counties.
The cooperation of the State press made a great contribution to home
demonstration work and 2,501 news articles were prepared by home demon-
stration agents. A number of training courses on news writing have been
given to the girls and women.
Radio broadcasts were made regularly in some counties, for special
events only in others. Agents and specialists report making 238 radio
talks this year.
There were 109 tours conducted to result demonstrations with an at-
tendance of 2,018 persons. Achievement days and exhibits to the number
of 493 were held this year with an attendance of 29,368.

RELATIONS WITH COUNTIES
Only slight adjustments have been made in the general plan for estab-
lishing and maintaining work in the counties. County Boards of Com-
missioners and County Boards of Public Instruction, either or both, co-
operated with the Agricultural Extension Service in supplying funds,
office space and equipment.
District Agents set a State-wide goal of securing increased county
appropriations in organized counties to maintain and enlarge facilities of
the county offices. Results have been highly satisfactory. In addition to
the 3 counties making appropriations for new agents, at least 20 counties
made substantial increases in funds set up for salaries and expenses.
Appropriations to each county for salary and expenses from State sources
were increased slightly.
In January, 1945, 20 county home demonstration agents out of the 39
employed had no clerical help except volunteer aid. Eight counties made
funds available for full-time clerical assistance during the year and at
least 8 counties increased their funds to provide more efficient help.
One helpful change in policy has been to provide some funds from State
sources for placing full-time or part-time clerical assistants in some coun-
ties where no local provision was made. Such help was given 12 counties
this year, 5 of them making appropriations for full-time clerks.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Substantial additions and improvements to the county offices, consist-
ing of equipped kitchens or work rooms, canning centers and meeting
rooms or buildings, have been made in at least 15 counties.
According to records, the number of farm families influenced by home
demonstration work is almost identical with the number of non-farm or
urban families receiving help. (26,141 non-farm and 27,852 farm families).
Special urban emergency assistants were placed in 2 counties this year
for short periods to try to meet this growing interest among urban people.

PERSONNEL PROBLEMS
Due to competition from other agencies, including the armed services,
and a decrease in the number of home economics graduates, considerable
difficulty in locating new agents has been experienced.
It has been necessary to spend more time in supervising new agents
and in some cases personnel not having all the advantages of pre-service
training or experience, heretofore considered essential, have been employed.
Seventeen resignations have been received in the 39 counties employing
a total of 42 agents and assistants, or 40 percent change in personnel this
year. Ten of the 17 new' appointments were filled by women without
previous experience as home demonstration agents or assistants, although
all have had excellent training and experience in some kind of home eco-
nomics work.
To help meet the need for training in Extension. work for new workers
a special 1-week course was arranged for all new agents and assistants,
men and women. Many of the sessions were held jointly with the men
agents. Special training was given in organization of 4-H work.
A definite plan of apprentice training or internship was set up 3 years
ago to give training in the counties to prospective agents. Thus far, only
4-H girls graduated from a 4-year college course with a degree in home
economics have been employed for such training as home demonstration
assistants.
At the annual conference held at the University of Florida in October
all members of the Extension Service considered matters of general policy
and State-wide situations. All specialists gave their outlook for the year
ahead and their recommendations for programs, together with sources of
released information. A similar annual meeting was held for negro Ex-
tension Service agents at the A. and M. College with all local farm and
home demonstration agents present.
District agents and specialists gave training to county workers in or-
ganization of work, program planning and subject matter in all their visits
to the counties during the year. Monthly staff meetings were held by
the State Agent for all members of the State office to study immediate
situations, review field work done during the month, make seasonal plans
and secure information needed to carry on the work.
Through the year the staff had opportunity for special training through
visits made to the State by several members of the Extension Service of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The State Agent has had the advantage of a liberal training course in
Extension work by serving as a member of the Extension Organization
and Policy Committee of the Association of Land Grant Colleges and Uni-
versities and a District Agent represented the office at the national out-
look meeting.
A library of recent reliable professional reference books and periodicals
has been provided for the use of staff members. Opportunities have been
made available for conferences by State personnel with national authorities
on subjects important in home demonstration work.







Annual Report, 1945


ORGANIZATIONS OF WOMEN AND GIRLS
Home demonstration work has an established organization of women
and girls in its community clubs and in county and State councils. County
home demonstration agents have definite work under way in all sections
of their counties. All home demonstration workers emphasized constantly
that the program belongs to the people and not to the Extension agent
and that the desired results can be secured only through the combined
efforts of the people. All reports and plans of work from county and
State workers show repeatedly that this sentiment is spreading.
Although organized separately, the close association of the 4-H program
for girls with the organized work for adult women has many mutual and
obvious advantages. Four-H club work required 44 percent of the time
of the home demonstration agents in Florida during the year. Organized
community work, for either 4-H girls or women, has been established in
604 of the 735 communities in the counties employing home demonstration
agents, an average of 16 communities per county served. Four hundred
seven clubs were organized for adult women and 596 for girls. These clubs
met at least once each month. Reports show that 9,224 women have' en-
rolled voluntarily this year in these organized clubs or community groups,
an increase of 2,751 members over last year. Enrollment of negro women
in their homemaking groups totaled 2,877, an increase of 639.
Community councils of women and girls named by their communities
to serve as advisory groups to the agent have continued to function in
spite of travel restrictions. Most of the councils have reestablished their
plan of quarterly council meetings. Result demonstrations conducted by
the 4-H girls or women are under way in many homes.
Volunteer local leaders assisted the agents on an even wider scale
during 1945, particularly with 4-H club work. Three hundred 48 women
and 811 older girls served as active 4-H leaders. Special training was
given leaders attending 4-H short course.
Timely information from community leaders was received by 26,300
persons in the 2,066 community meetings held and not participated in by
home agents. These leaders were trained by county home agents, district
agents and specialists in the 607 training meetings held and attended by
7,988 volunteer leaders.
OBJECTIVES
The main objectives governing the administration of home demonstra-
tion work in the State were:
1. To secure and maintain well trained and informed personnel in
State and county offices of home demonstration work, qualified to assist
people in carrying out needed programs.
2. To extend the services of home demonstration work into additional
counties.
Agents in all counties were given assistance in planning Extension
activities which would be useful in meeting these objectives. Three coun-
ties established work this year.

RESULTS OBTAINED
The 56 county home demonstration agents and emergency assistants
made 25,088 home visits this year, a State average of 512 home visits per
worker.
Aiding the War Effort.-The State Home Demonstraton Agent served
as State Chairman for rural women's activities in war savings. Incom-
plete information showed that women in 28 counties invested $369,258.50







58 Florida Cooperative Extension

in bonds. Two hundred eighty-seven 4-H clubs for girls bought bonds and
stamps valued at $39,612.75.
Many assignments have been made to the home demonstration agent
for special drives or campaigns contributing to the war effort.
Salvage.-Four-H girls in all counties participated in special community
activities directly related to the war program and 9,570 girls cooperated
with schools and communities in paper salvage .drives. The girls also col-
lected 2,390 pounds of metal and 7,669 pounds of waste fats through in-
dividual efforts. In addition they collected 2,699 glass jars as salvaged
containers.
Food Production for home use headed the list of war jobs to be accom-
plished by the Extension Service. Girls and women enrolled in clubs grew
20,704 home gardens, started 4,466 home orchards, and planted 65,723
fruit trees and vines. Over a half million chickens were cared for in the
home poultry flocks. Production of quality livestock is increasing rapidly
in Florida and 5,625 families increased production of meat at home. Women
in home demonstration clubs reported that 2,060 family cows were bought
this year.
A home garden campaign was conducted in the State with all Extension
agents, men and women, taking an active part. According to a poll re-
ceived from men and women agents in 61 counties, 130,823 home gardens
were grown in the State, a slight increase over the previous year in spite
of a general drought. .About one-third of the gardens reported were grown
by non-farm families and 14 percent by negro families. The quality of the
home garden has improved this year, attributed by gardeners to the lessons
learned last year and to the availability of reliable garden information
to suit local needs.
Labor.-The shortage of farm labor was 1 of the most far-reaching
problems in the State. The Extension Service was assigned responsibility
for the emergency farm labor program and home demonstration agents
gave all possible cooperation. A total of 26,283 girls and women did farm
work this year, 2,167 of them for the first time. Training courses were
given in many counties to help teach skills needed in these unaccustomed
duties. An assistant state supervisor was provided to direct activities of
girls and women and a county home demonstration agent was released to
take over that work. This position was discontinued October 1.
Nursing and First Aid.-Because of the scarcity of medical and nursing
services, home demonstration agents were asked to encourage rural girls
and women to take courses in home nursing and first aid. In the 72 home
nursing courses arranged by the agents 1,074 women and girls enrolled
and 215 took first aid courses to become neighborhood leaders.
Housing shortages and inadequacies were the basis of 1 of the State's
most far-reaching programs. In spite of difficulties, 540 new homes were
built, 2,179 houses painted, 1,191 outhouses painted or whitewashed, and
3,480 homes repaired. In an effort to have more beautiful grounds around
the home, 6,916 girls and women enrolled as home improvement demon-
strators; 557 lawns were planted; "everyday good housekeeping" seems a
drab term but the 5,521 women who enrolled found it brought them useful
information on time and labor and money-saving methods which spared
them drudgery and gave them a greater interest in their daily tasks.
Community Acitivities.-In spite of the war, 440 community recreation
programs were held for fun and pleasure, helping greatly to maintain
community morale.
Eighty-six school grounds were improved this year and 51 home demon-
stration clubs in 15 counties maintained or helped to maintain community







Annual Report, 1945


libraries, with 251 subscriptions for magazines being paid for in addition
to books.
Thirty-three home demonstration agents devoted 525 days in 457 com-
munities to recreation and community life, assisted by 649 leaders. In
31 counties 416 entertainments for social purposes only were held, while
235 entertainments were staged to make money. As a result of these enter-
tainments $8,780.25 was added to the treasuries of the clubs. During the
month of August many of the clubs planned a community-wide picnic
where all members of the family joined in for a day of fun and recreation
together.
Child Development.-Children being the most valuable resource, it is
interesting to note that 1,047 families asked for assistance in child-develop-
ment and guidance problems and 3,844 families in improving family re-
lationships. A growing recognition that the home must be kept attractive
to the children caused 4,373 families to improve home recreation facilities
by making "outdoor living rooms," playgrounds and toys.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
Many community programs are sponsored jointly by school authorities
and the home demonstration agent. Facilities for holding 4-H club meet-
ings are arranged in most schools. Teachers serve as local leaders of 4-H
clubs. The school lunch program received considerable help from the
agents. Clubs have acted as sponsors of school lunch programs and reports
show 50,794 children were served in the 178 school lunchrooms to which
home demonstration women gave direct assistance. The agents have
trained canning leaders for the school lunch program and in many cases
supervised the canning. Reports.show 114,567 quarts of canned products
reached the lunchrooms from community canning centers operated by the
home demonstration agents.
The State Agent and Nutrition Specialist serve on the State advisory
committee on school lunchrooms, at the request of the State Superintend-
ent of Public Instruction. Four-H clubs are encouraged to contribute to
the improvement of the school grounds.
Information on health situations used in the home demonstration pro-
gram is based on recommendations made by the State Board of Health.
Cooperation with the Red Cross has been extensive, although reports
are far from complete. Eighteen home demonstration agents gave 174
Red Cross nutrition courses attended by 2,118 girls and women from the
home demonstration clubs. Four counties gave canteen courses. Red
Cross nurses in a few counties taught home nursing courses to the members
of rural clubs. The area office assigned a mobile canning unit (canteen) to
the State Home Demonstration Office for use in the'canning program.

4-H CLUB WORK
Four-H club work is part of the year-round program of home demon-
stration work. All members of the State home demonstration staff are
responsible for working with home agents in developing 4-H club work
programs.
A district home demonstration agent, Mrs. Edith Barrus, has been
assigned to assist with the promotion of the State-wide program for 4-H
girls. More detailed information regarding various activities will be found
in the reports submitted by the specialists.
Home demonstration agents and assistant agents from 39 counties
devoted 5,601 days and home demonstration assistants and emergency as-
sistants devoted 5,736 days to work with 4-H club girls in older youth
groups. Florida 4-H girls were enrolled in 423 clubs this year. The en-





































Fig. 5.-Ten or more 4-H club girls from each of 14 counties raised poultry in a special demonstration sponsored by the
Extension Service, the home demonstration agent and the Sears, Roebuck Foundation. These 10 girls are receiving
100 baby chicks each.







Annual Report, 1945


rollment for the past year in 39 counties was 9,570 girls. There were
7,115 completions this year, or 74.4 percent of the total enrollment.
A breakdown of enrollment figures shows that 4,241 girls were enrolled
in 4-H club work for the first time, 2,588 were second-year girls, 1,467
were third-year girls and 1,340 were fourth to tenth-year girls. These
figures show that 4-H girls enrolling at the age of 10 remain in club work
in large numbers through their junior year in high school.
Health examinations were given to 1,118 4-H club girls in 21 counties
because of their participation in 4-H club work. There were 116 campaigns
for Child Health Day in 25 counties.
The State Short Course was held with 334 girls and all county home
demonstration agents attending.
Records of 156 girls winning county recognition were submitted to the
State Office to be judged for State honors, all of them receiving awards
and honors.
Majpr Achievements.-Fully 95% of the 4-H club girls of Florida
worked for victory in 1945, building for peace in achieving their national
war goals, along the following lines according to the national 4-H 7-point
program.
1. Florida 4-H girls helped to produce and conserve food for the food
arsenal.
4,160 girls raised home gardens.
819 girls planted home orchards or grew fruit trees.
302 animals, mostly family milk cows, were raised by 4-H girls.
12 girls kept bees.
1,873 girls raised poultry flocks with 89,618 chickens raised this year.
2,972 girls canned 255,996 containers of fruits, vegetables, and meats.
Cash value of home products marketed in 1945 totalled $38,789.61.
2. Florida 4-H girls are conserving and using many resources of their
homes and farms for thrift and better living.
4-H girls conserved food products to save money and protect the
health of the family.
$36,974.00 were invested in war bonds and stamps by 410 girls in
22 counties.
7,551 garments were remodeled.
2,688 glass containers were collected by 410 girls as salvage.
33,901 pounds scrap metal was collected, in addition to help given in
school and community drives.
7,669 pounds of waste fat were collected.
3. Florida 4-H girls are guarding their own health and the health of their
families.
1,118 girls have had health examinations this year by physicians.
9,570 girls improved their food habits by regular program in 4-H
clubs.
252 girls completed Red Cross courses in first aid, home nursing,
etc.
6,044 4-H girls enrolled in food selection and preparation as part of
a nutrition program.
These 4-H girls planned and prepared 80,676 meals according to
good nutritional standards.
4,140 girls enrolled as demonstrators for fire and accident prevent-
tion in their homes.
4. 4-H girls have served at home for those family members who have been
in the war and aided city youth to assist with farm work.
9,559 4-H girls helped to do farm work, such as harvesting crops.







Florida Cooperative Extension


785 girls helped in farm work for the first time.
353 girls operated farm machinery, such as tractors and cultivators.
Many 4-H girls worked on part-time jobs in defense work to release
others for essential war work or cared for children in every
community so parents could take war employment.
9,570 girls state they have learned practical and useful skills through
4-H club work.
716 girls were members of judging teams and are trained to teach
others.
5. 4-H girls are helping to interpret the nation's peace-building programs
to the community and becoming responsible citizens and
good leaders.
9,570 4-H club girls enrolled, an increase of 211 girls over last
year.
1,118 older girls have taken part in 4-H leadership activities.
3,490 4-H girls gave demonstrations to teach others in their com-
munities.
6. 4-H girls are learning to have a deeper appreciation of the democratic
way of life, at home and in their 4-H club meetings.
4-H girls are working together in 423 organized 4-H clubs, which give
training for cooperative effort.
23 Junior County Councils are meeting regularly to help plan county
4-H programs.
7. 4-H girls are discussing at 4-H club meetings some of the important
economic forces now at work and the steps they can take
to develop the good neighbor spirit at home and abroad.
They are helping to build a lasting peace. They are develop-
ing leaders to serve rural communities.
377 4-H clubs helped communities by beautifying school and church
grounds.
872 4-H girls volunteered as recreation leaders in their counties.
385 girls enrolled for wildlife conservation work.
The report for 4-H work with negro girls is not included in the above
statistics.
3,842 negro girls are enrolled in 173 4-H clubs. The work has been
outstanding in food production and conservation, home im-
provement and home health.
2,145 4-H girls canned 58,207 containers of food, grew 2,641 gardens
and raised 29,927 chickens.
Total enrollment of all girls, white and negro, between the ages of 10
and 20 years in Florida, therefore, numbers 13,412; the total number of
4-H clubs in the State is 594. As 1 illustration of the extent of the con-
tribution of 4-H girls to family living and to the economic welfare of the
State, reports show they canned 314,203 containers and raised 6,801 gardens
and 119,545 chickens.
Membership of the College 4-H Club is composed of former 4-H girls
now enrolled at the Florida State College for Women. The club has com-
pleted its 20th year as a campus organization. A member of the State
staff serves each year as sponsor and attends all monthly meetings of the
club.
NEGRO 4-H CLUB WORK
All plans outlined here are applied in the programs for negro girls
and directed by the Negro District Agent and 10 local home demonstration
agents. Home demonstration agents in counties not employing negro







Annual Report, 1945 63

agents gave considerable assistance to youth programs for negro boys
and girls, cooperating with negro leaders, nurses, ministers and other local
leaders. The 10 local agents devoted 1,334 days to work with 4-H and
older youth groups. They also worked with 3,842 girls of 4-H club age,
an increase of 173 girls over 1944. Also, 3,087 girls completed 20,439
projects during the year. Results in individual projects are included in
the report of the Negro District Agent.

AWARDS
The total awards given to 4-H girls in Florida this year for outstand-
ing achievement amount to over $800.00, all in War bonds and stamps.
Scholarships given to 400 girls to attend the State 4-H Short Course and
several hundred scholarships to 4-H camps have a much higher value than
the cash awards. This is an investment in education and training made by
business men which promises to bring satisfactory returns to all.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
County reports show that during 1945 the clothing program was carried
on in 566 of the 604 communities of the State where home demonstration
work is done. This work reached 108 more communities this year than
in 1944, 50 of which were new communities in which the extension program
was not conducted last year.
Thirty-one counties reported 4,075 clothing demonstrators among 4-H
club members. Adult clothing demonstrators were located in 2 more
counties this year than last and there was a 60% increase in enrollment,
or 1,450 more established demonstrations in clothing among women.
Rural women of Florida have certainly done their bit by using materials
they had on hand and making it last as long as possible, as shown by the
following figures: 8,566 families were assisted with clothing construction
problems, 758 more than in 1944; 6,799 families were assisted in the selec-
tion of clothing and textiles, up 488; 8,123 families were assisted with
care, renovating, remodeling, etc., an increase of 821; these families re-
modeled 38,954 garments and mended 194,791.
"Reports from 36 counties show that 140,514 new garments for family
members and 93,330 household articles, such as quilts, pillow cases, curtains
and draperies, were made. This is 72,423 more than was made in 1944
but 13,000 less than in 1943. Home demonstration club members have
bought only what they actually needed.
Thirty-five counties reported that home demonstration club members
had made 26,164 clothing accessories such as hats, bags, blouses and
dickeys. This year approximately 11,000 more accessories were made at
home than in 1944. Assistance with clothing accounts and budgets was
requested by 217 more families than in 1944.
Thirty-two counties report 1,250 families were helped with the care
and repair of sewing machines. As a result, 638 machines were put into
good working condition through the instructions given.
The negro work includes 1,607 families assisted this year with sewing,
1,180 families with clothing-selection, 1,792 with clothing care, and 413
families assisted with clothing budgets.

ASSISTANCE TO AGENTS
Each year at the annual Agents' Conference the current outlook on
the clothing and textile situation is given and discussed with the entire
group of home agents. The conference is held in October just before the
specialists and agents make their plans of work. Then following this
annual conference the specialists go into the various counties of the State,
meeting with the agents and either the clothing leaders or a council group
to help them analyze the situation and work out a program that will best
solve the local problems in clothing and textiles. The Specialist spent
parts of 30 days in such group meetings.
The most helpful assistance given to the agents this year by the Cloth-
ing Specialist was that of helping with the training of clothing leaders.
Thirty-two counties report 241 clothing leaders who helped to carry out
good county clothing programs by giving a total of 429 demonstrations.

4-H CLOTHING WORK
Throughout the year the Specialist has helped with the development of
the 4-H clothing programs in the counties. She has assisted also in judg-
ing 4-H exhibits and she attended 4 of the district 4-H summer camps







Annual Report, 1945


to teach clothing construction and self-improvement. She had a part in
planning and carrying out a week's program at the State Short Course for
4-H Club Girls. During the months of July and August the Specialist
camped with 8 counties.
The State Short Course for 4-H Club Girls of Florida was held during
the first week in June. During the Short Course the Specialist was re-
sponsible for a daily 90-minute class period at which the 4-H clothing'
program was explained to a different group of girls each day. Different
girls were taught how to teach other people to do a specific job (job in-
struction training). Every one of the 335 girls received this training.
In addition to these classes, a workshop hour with a small group of 40
girls each day was arranged.
During 1945, 38 counties reported 6,788 4-H club girls enrolled in
clothing work; of these, 4,272 girls completed. These 4-H clothing demon-
strators made 26,324 new garments and remodeled 7,556. Some of these
were exhibited at the State Short Course in June.

WAR ACTIVITIES AS RELATED TO CLOTHING
In addition to the regular clothing work done by home demonstration
and 4-H club members, 31 counties reported 2,304 members doing sewing
and knitting for the American Red Cross. A circular letter was sent to
each county home demonstration agent explaining the clothing collection
'for war relief and asking that the agents explain this activity to the
members. In response to this activity, 22 counties reported that 2,918
families contributed to the used clothing drive.
In thinking of plans for the postwar period, the Specialist has tried
to keep the agents and clothing leaders well informed as to the new develop-
ments in fibers, finishes and construction of textiles and clothing.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Anna Mae Sikes, Nutritionist

The food, nutrition and health program was developed this year to
.help families make the greatest contribution to the war effort, to maintain
the health of their members and to plan for the postwar period. Emphasis
was placed on the importance of production, conservation and wise utiliza-
tion of food.
In January of this year the State Board of Health, in cooperation with
the State Nutrition Committee, arranged for a nutritional survey to be
conducted by Dr. Walter Wilkins in Florida. During a period of several
weeks approximately 1,000 school children in 5 widely scattered Florida
counties were examined for signs of mal-nutrition. Of this group 75%
were white children and 25% negro. Home demonstration agents co-
operated with this survey.
In developing all the adult phases of the food, nutrition and health
program every type of Extension method has been used-method demon-
strations, result demonstrations, individual demonstrations, farm and home
visits, circular letters, news stories, bulletins, exhibits, general meetings,
discussion method, leader training, work with subject-matter chairmen,
tours, radio, letters, illustrative material, movies, filmstrips and pictures,
visits to key people, cooperation with other groups and agencies.

HEALTH IMPROVEMENT
Reports of county workers show that 422 days in 37 counties were
devoted to the food, nutrition and health program and that 3,851 families
in 26 counties were assisted to improve health. This included such meas-
ures as immunization for typhoid, diphtheria and smallpox. In addition,
1,813 families in 26 counties were assisted with first aid or home nursing,
5,256 families in 33 counties improved practices for the prevention of colds
and other common diseases, 497 communities in 34 counties conducted health
programs and 14 nutrition or health clinics in 13 counties were organized
through the efforts of home demonstration agents. In 22 counties 630
voluntary leaders were assisted with the nutrition and health phase of the
work.
During the past year many members of the families of home demon-
stration women were X-rayed for tuberculosis. In cooperation with county
tuberculosis associations, club women helped in canvassing rural com-
munities to let the public know about the program.

FOOD USE AND MEAL PLANNING
The Nutritionist has helped agents train home demonstration chairmen
to give food preparation demonstrations using better home-baked breads,
meat and vegetable cookery as the specific subjects. These chairmen in
turn have given the demonstrations to their respective club groups. In
addition, cookery of meats with low ration point values has been demon-
strated throughout the State at large group meetings. Considerable training
has been given on the correct cookery of each of the basic 7 groups of food.
There were 353 demonstrations on the use of enriched flour and cereals
by 28 agents and 247 by women in 21 counties. In addition, 20 agents gave
356 demonstrations and 20 women 386 demonstrations on the use of meat
alternates. In 35 counties 7,641 families reported planning and preparing
foods for home use and for lunches, using methods to get the most food
value.







Annual Report, 1945


In a number of counties food models and actual foods have been used
in showing the 3 meals for a day, including the basic 7 groups of foods.
Breakfast was the meal selected for a State-wide campaign. In 1 county
7 community clubs prepared a breakfast demonstration which included
table setting and etiquette. In 34 counties 14,022 families reported planning
meals according to available foods locally produced. In 32 counties 4,352
families reported budgeting and buying foods wisely through quality,
quantity and cooperative buying.
The study of food needs showed that in many counties there was a need
for more milk, butter and cheese in the family meals. Demonstrations in
making butter and American and cottage cheese and the preparation of
milk dishes and milk drinks have been given to groups in different sections
of the State. In 36 counties 7,768 families reported using homemade
butter, 1,743 families in 33 counties made and used 47,879 pounds of cottage
cheese and 214 families in 15 counties made 4,146 pounds of cheddar cheese
at home. This has been 1 means of creating a desire for an adequate home-
produced supply of milk.
In general this year there has been an increased interest in better meal
planning and food preparation shown by the records of the number of
families adopting improved practices in food preparation (a) in baking in
33 counties, 5,213 families; (b) in meat cookery in 36 counties, 5,688
families; (c) in vegetable and fruit cookery in 33 counties, 5,460 families;
(d) in dairy products in 35 counties, 4,461 families; (e) in poultry products
in 36 counties, 5,699 families; and (f) in fats in 27 counties, 5,277 families.

FOOD PRODUCTION
The years preceding and during the war many Florida farm families
expanded importantly their food production for home use. This is indi-
cated further by this year's report which shows that 12,475 families in 39
counties improved the food supply through home production. The changes
included 2,796 gardens in 39 counties, 3,882 orchards in 38 counties and
6,533 families producing poultry and eggs in 39 counties. In 37 counties
4,330 families improved their meat production and in 38 counties 3,284
families improved dairy products. In addition, 3,783 families produced and
preserved home food supply according to annual food budgets in 32 counties.
In 37 counties home demonstration families reported owning 13,041 milk
cows with 1,770 added this year in 34 counties. In addition, 186 milk goats
in 23 counties have been added for family milk supply.
In 36 counties 8,846 families report planning and producing the family
food supply in accordance with wartime needs. Adult demonstrators raised
412,606 chickens in 33 counties and used at home 171,710 chickens in 31
counties. They also produced 425,629 eggs in 30 counties and used at home
750,817 eggs in 29 counties.
4-H CLUB WORK
The 4-H club food, nutrition and health work has been developed using
somewhat the same methods. Club members have been trained through
4-H judging and demonstration teams and workshop methods.
A demonstration has been developed around health and posture exami-
nations and corrections of defects, right selection of food, need for regular
meals, nutrition, rest, sleep and recreation, prevention of diseases, safety
and first aid, safe milk and water supply, cleanliness and good grooming,
care of the teeth and eyes, mental health and good citizenship, including
home sanitation.
In 24 counties 1,231 girls had health examinations as a result of work-
ing on demonstrations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


4-H FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING
The food preparation and meal planning phase of 4-H food, nutrition
and health program is outlined into 5 demonstrations. Each member
enrolled in this phase checked food and health habits 3 times during the
year to note improvements and need for further improvements and made
an exhibit at the completion of each demonstration.
Community, county and State food preparation contests stimulated in-
terest in and motivated this phase. Fbur top ranking 4-H preparation club
girls received $25.00 War Bonds in recognition of their achievements.
Older girls previously enrolled in the food preparation and meal plan-
ning demonstrations made excellent leaders and have been a means of
extending this program to a much larger group. In 39 counties 6,044 girls
enrolled in this phase of club work and 3,750 girls in 36 counties completed
the demonstrations. These girls in 35 counties planned 80,588 meals.
Accomplishments in home production of food by 4-H club members are
indicated by the following reports: In 39 counties 4,160 girls enrolled in
home gardens and 2,711 completed this demonstration in 36 counties, with
9,691 acres in 34 counties involved; 1,873 girls in 39 counties enrolled in
poultry production and 1,180 girls in 36 counties completed with 95,776
birds. In 25 counties 259 girls enrolled in the dairy demonstration, with
185 completing in 23 counties with 331 animals in 24 counties involved.
In 11 counties 43 girls enrolled in beef cattle demonstrations with 28
girls in 10 counties completing with 1,545 animals involved; 42 girls in 11
counties enrolled in hog production demonstrations with 39 in 10 counties
completing with 1,079 animals involved; and 13 girls in 6 counties enrolled
in beekeeping demonstration with 12 completing in 5 counties with 52
colonies.
In addition to producing for home use, 4-H club members have pro-
duced some surplus foods and have sold both fresh and processed foods
as a means of increasing income and helping to relieve food shortages.
Accomplishments in this connection are as follows: Baked products, 167
pounds in 4 counties, valued at $49.77; canned products sold, 245 in 1 county,
valued at $56.20; fresh vegetables sold, 8,708 pounds in 9 counties, valued
at $4,781.20; fruit sold, 4,788 pounds in 8 counties, valued at $472.06. Poul-
try sold, 24,459 pounds in 17 counties, valued at $11,656.70; eggs sold,
47,301 dozen in 14 counties, valued at $21,691.12. Butter sold, 60 pounds
in 1 county, valued at $66.56; milk sold, 25 gallons, valued at $10.00;
cream sold 15 gallons, valued at $6.00.
For Short Course the Nutritionist arranged group demonstrations and
subject-matter instructions in food and nutrition, posture, health, dairying,
livestock and poultry.
Programs in 4-H camps were planned around health improvement and
the girl herself. The Nutritionist demonstrated various aspects of the
program at numerous camps and planned with the group demonstrations
which could be developed throughout the year in their homes, clubs and
communities.

COOPERATION WITH SCHOOL LUNCH AND OTHER PROGRAMS
The school lunch program was emphasized during the year. In 1,812
school centers 926 have lunchrooms and 886 do not. Of these, 665 received
federal aid and the average number of children served was 125, with aver-
age daily attendance of 115,750 served daily through the aid of federal
funds. The average daily attendance of school children is 312,648.
In 33 counties 178 communities were assisted by home demonstration
workers with the school lunch program. Over 50,000 children were involved
in these programs. In 8 counties 21 demonstration clubs served as sponsors







Annual Report, 1945 69

of school lunchrooms. In 35 counties 1,937 families were assisted with child
feeding problems and 223 schools in 31 counties were assisted in estab-
lishing or maintaining hot school lunches.
The regional Red Cross nurse met with home demonstration agents
at State 4-H Club Short Course and discussed the possibility of expanding
home nursing programs in the counties and ways to secure the assistance
of an itinerant nurse to teach these courses. This year 1 county has had
the services of such a nurse and 14 members received certificates for com-
pleting the course. In 3 counties a total of 57 women and 588 girls par-
ticipated in home nursing courses.
Many agents are members and some chairmen of disaster committees.
Many more have worked on committees for camp and hospital feeding and
preparing foods and gift packages for veterans. In 4 counties 122 women
participated in this activity. There are 89 women in 3 counties certified
as aides in canteen and 349 as aides.in nutrition.
There has been increased interest in the services of county health units.
Many counties are aiding health units and other are expanding the services.
'Pwenty-five agents spent 137 days working on public health and child care.







Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING, FRUIT PLANTINGS AND FOOD
CONSERVATION

Isabelle S. Thursby
Extension Economist in Food Conservation

Programs in these fields are developed cooperatively by the specialists
in food, nutrition and health, food conservation, home improvement, and
clothing and textiles.
Reports from the 42 home demonstration agents, the 6 emergency
workers and the 10 local home demonstration agents indicate that garden-
ing, fruit growing and canning continued at levels fairly comparable to
1944. A grand total of 3,061,022 containers of fruits, vegetables and meats
have been placed on home pantry shelves. The interest in wartime ac-
tivities continued to place the emphasis in the home and on the farm on
those things considered most closely related to winning the war and making
the peace. These activities may be listed as food production, conservation
and utilization-and all as a sensible aid to better nutrition and better
living.
There is an ever-increasing interest in Florida in the development of
those relatively unknown but nutritionally valuable fruit crops-guavas,
avocados, papayas, mangos and other sub-tropical fruits-for both home
yards and home orchards and commercial plantings. Demand for these
trees far exceeds the supply. The development of the frozen pack industry
will make it possible to present to the consuming public these various
kinds of tropical and sub-tropical fruits in different forms and at different
times of the year.
The Specialist in Food Conservation continued to encourage better
year-round gardens, permanent and varied fruit plantings and better
quality conserved fruits, meats, vegetables, poultry, fishery and other
food products for the family food supply, as well as for sale. Informative
material was provided agents on these subjects.
Thirty-one counties report a total of 20,704 home gardens grown by
women and girls, with a cash valuation of $47,013 vegetables sold from
them. New fruit trees added to calendar orchards already started number
16,240 and new plantings made total 65,723. Nurserymen have not been
able to fill the demand for fruit trees in too many cases. Extension work-
ers have emphasized the importance of all of these fruits and berries
adapted to their individual sections.

FOOD CONSERVATION
Home demonstration women are accustomed to the practice of conserv-
ing an adequate, thoughtfully budgeted food supply and continued their
program in 1945. The hysteria so generally displayed in the earlier war
years expended and 1945- found the canning program on a sensible and
practical plane. Reports indicate that emphasis was placed on proper
methods and quality-not quantity-canning. Canning by budget as well
as for quality was made a wartime "must."
The objectives in the gardening and food conservation program as set
up for 1944-45 have been met to an encouraging degree, as county reports
point out. Canning practices and menu planning seem to have had a
"spread of influence" from year to year. Through carefully directed judg-
ing of their own and their neighbors' handiwork, participants have learned
not only to recognize what constitutes quality but to develop and fix
standards of workmanship.







Annual Report, 1945


Agents continue to report large numbers of containers sent abroad.
This most appealing type of assistance has brought home agents into
contact with an entirely different group of people and has spread the work
of the Extension Service to many new people in new homes.
Training courses for overseas canning were given to 25 women of 1
large urban center to take care properly of the demand for this service.
At all times the extra care necessary when cans were going into a different
climatic situation was stressed.
In 1944, 4 fishery workshops, strategically located, were staged in
cooperation with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This year, further
educational work was undertaken with the same fine cooperation. Eight
2-day fish smoking and fish canning schools were held in 8 different sec-
tions of Florida, with 1,505 people attending and a total of 1,160 pounds
of fish smoked.
Some recognition is being given to sugars other than sucrose for use
in canning. Good results have been secured by home canners who have
made intelligent use of sugar substitutes, such as corn syrup, honey and
others.
NEGRO WORK
Local negro agents report that food production and canning has been
their most outstanding program for the year. They claim it has influenced
families to solve their food problems and has resulted in better use of
other Extension information in the home. They report assisting some
3,614 families in making gardens and improving home orchards and 3,289
families in canning a grand total of 214,695 quarts of fruits, vegetables
and meats.
Negro 4-H club girls have strengthened their garden and canning ac-
tivities and report a total of 2,641 girls enrolling in gardening and 2,259
completing their project and a total of 58,207 quarts of products canned.
Assistance was rendered negro home agents in judging their exhibits and
generally in their work and problems. In many counties certain days during
the week were set aside in which the negroes have full use of the canning
centers.
4-H CLUB WORK WITH GIRLS
All girls enrolling in 4-H club work have been required to either grow
gardens, help with or take over the canning needs for the family food
supply, raise poultry, help with the care of the family cow, or carry on
some similar activity. Learning to use the resources of the home and
community and to develop new resources is an important lesson for all
rural people.
During the year 4,160 4-H club girls enrolled in gardening. Of these,
2,711 completed the activity as required. They planted 12,154 trees and
berry vines and 625 girls reported selling fresh fruits and vegetables from
the established home garden and calendar orchard.
First-place girls from 39 counties submitted records and stories of their
achievements in gardening to the State Office for the 1945 national 4-H
gardening contest in October. The National Committee on Boys and Girls
Club work, through interested donors, generously awarded $25.00 Victory
Bonds to those 8 girls scoring highest.
Of 2,972 girls enrolled in canning, 2,283 completed, filling 255,955 con-
tainers of fruits, vegetables and meats.
Most of the girls' canning has been done as a part of the family food
supply and in cooperation with their mothers. Records, too, continue to
stress the outstanding assistance they have given, not only on farms but
in community canning centers, picking and canning vegetables in the truck-
ing areas for the school lunch.







72 Florida Cooperative Extension

The Sears, Roebuck and Company garden contest has given impetus
to the 4-H program in both gardening and canning. The statewide awards
donated by this company, in addition to those given in the county, the
excellent publicity, and the new friends gained, are both stimulating and
inspiring to the 4-H club movement in the counties where these contests are
held.
The 335 girls attending Annual State 4-H Club Short Course were given
demonstrations in gardening and in food conservation each morning.
Special workshop groups were formed for intensive training in the after-
noon. While 1 group made wooden "paddles" for use in preparing fruit
"spreads" and similar products another group made sandwich relishes for
the school lunch box and a third group was given recommended safety
methods and practices in handling the pressure cooker, water bath and
other implements used in canning processes.
FROZEN FOODS
Quick frozen food in the last 5 years has-developed into a very large
and important industry. Conserving food in the home in Florida by means
of quick freezing is definitely a part of the food conservation picture for
postwar years.
For the past several years the Specialist has encouraged preparation
for that time when home and community freezer lockers would be commonly
available and club members would need advice about suitable equipment
and its proper use.







Annual Report, 1945 73

HOME IMPROVEMENT

Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement
Much thought has been given to the eradication of the malaria mos-
quito. Nature study exhibits in the school showing its life cycle and
how to combat it in the wiggler stages by oiling the surface of the water
are an important demonstration. Bags of sawdust saturated with free
crankcase oil from filling stations and weighted down in semi-stagnant
streams give off a film of oil on the surface of the water and kill the
wigglers which are kept from breathing air by the oil.
Demonstrations built around health, comfort, convenience and beauty
inside and outside the house have been established. Several counties are
stressing better laundry in the house as a health measure. Several county
councils recently set goals for home improvement which include installation
of sanitary or flush toilets, new or patched screening for the house, health
in the outdoor washing place by installing a furnace built around the water
heater to eliminate strain in lifting water.
The feather comforter which was started at State Short Course in the
home improvement department for the leaders and home demonstration
agents has proven a big success. The beautiful, warm, light bed covering
made from home-grown feathers is encouraging more comfort and beauty
in the homes.
HOME MANAGEMENT
Home management and planning for the various activities in the home
with the younger boys and girls as well as the elders continued to be
popular. More interest in gardens and a continuous supply of milk (with
no dry cows) is 1 definite result observed in the better home management
program.
Also, remodeling of houses goes on as a real necessity. The. painting
and rejuvenating of furniture in developing the 4-H thrift rooms and other
rooms is even more popular and is keeping boys and girls interested and
busy in the home. There are no delinquent youth when the young people
are kept busy with some goals to reach in their own home. Much help is
given by correspondence. This office often has requests for help from the
agents who need it before the specialist can get there.
The rural electrification program is being revived, although some coun-
ties are being held up because of transformers being unavailable.
The Home Improvement Agent is continually on the alert to help
develop the young and inexperienced home demonstration woman. Some
very valuable teaching is done through home visits with a view to getting
the mother or girl to establish a real home demonstration. Personal letters
or notes to the county home demonstration agent when a personal visit
to the county is not possible appear to help a lot. Posters and home im-
provement notes in county papers are used along with the radio to make
people "think" and "want." Home improvement work is coordinated with
gardening, dairying, poultry, conservation, nutrition and clothing.
During the war years the big objective has been to keep the families
physically fit, mentally alert, well balanced and spiritually alive; to keep
the homes in good order, to freshen and brighten them within limits of
time and materials and to plan future improvements; to contribute to a
better community life through support of 4-H club work in training home-
makers and citizens and by helping young homemakers with peacetime
adjustments; to make ourselves, our families and our homes ready for
returning service men and women.







Florida Cooperative Extension


STATE SHORT COURSE
Among the many phases of work in home improvement taught at the
State 4-H Club Short Course were exterior beautification and home sani-
tation; interior home improvement, emphasizing the 4-H thrift room for
girls; victory through home improvement; types of rural homes needed in
Florida; rug making in woven, hooked and braided forms; for leaders and
older 4-H club girls the various types of stenciling for beautifying the
home at small cost and also as a time saver.
Making the feather comfort was taught, using beautiful and inexpensive
downproof satin. These demonstrations have proven most popular.
During the meat shortage the growing of ducks and geese for meat
and feathers was encouraged. "Goose picking" demonstrations are becom-
ing popular. This is an early American thrift idea-"Eat the meat, save
the feathers."
Time and motion saving adopted from the Manpower Commission has
been valuable the past year and proves to be a valuable home manage-
ment demonstration.
Home demonstration people cooperate with all the various war com-
mittees, such as Defense Councils, Red Cross and various drives to save
fats, paper, etc.
Some private agencies such as the Jeans, Rosenwald and Sloan Founda-
tions have had our cooperation. Farm Security Administration workers
are assisted as requests are made.
We are encouraging the "home made" homes where there can be no
further wait. We have encouraged a revival of the early American "log
rolling" and neighborhood cooperation in helping to remodel or build homes
that are needed especially for the returned veteran and his family.
HOME IMPROVEMENT STATISTICS
Following is the statistical report in home improvement for 1945:
Number of families assisted this year in:
Actively constructing dwellings ...................................................... 228
Remodeling dwellings ............ ------...-----.......---.... 1;121
Installing water systems ..............- .. ----------- -............ ............... 359
Installing sewage systems... ---.........-................. ... ............... 239
Installing heating system s ..................................................................... ... 99
Providing needed storage space ............................................ 831
Rearranging or improving kitchens .................................................... 1,262
Improving arrangement of rooms (other than kitchens) .............. 1,864
Improving methods of repairing, remodeling, or refinishing furni-
ture or furnishings ............................................................................ 2,419
Selecting house furnishings or equipment (other than electric).... 1,592
Improving housekeeping methods --- ---................... ....................... 3,689
Laundry arrangement .-----..........---................................................ 440
Installing sanitary closets or outhouses .............................................. 368
Screening or using other recommended methods of controlling
flies or other insects ............-...............-...........-. 1,695
Improving home grounds ........................................................... 2,338
Planting w indbreaks ................................................. .......................... 13
Associations organized or assisted this year to obtain electricity........ 10
Families assisted this year in:
Obtaining electricity .--- ----- -- ---------..................-----........ ....................... 760
Selection or use of electric lights or home electrical equipment.... 454
Using electricity for income-producing purposes ................................ 195
Number of farms assisted this year in:
The construction of farm buildings ....................... ........ ......... 20
Remodeling or repairing farm buildings ........................................... 262







Annual Report, 1945 75

Selection or construction of farm-building equipment .................... 42
Number of farmers assisted this year in:
Selection of mechanical equipment for the home ........................... 49
Making more efficient use of mechanical equipment ............. ..... 151
Farmers following instructions in maintenance and repair of
mechanical equipment this year .......................................................... 40
Number of families assisted with house planning problems ............ 1,986
Number sunshine water heating systems installed ............................ 21
Number homes screened .................... .... ........ ................ 521
repaired ............................... ...-------------..... 2,317
Number using synthetic wire ........................................ .................... 164
Number 4-H girls enrolled in rural electrification ................................. 6
Number inside toilets installed ......................... ............ 446
Outside toilets installed ..................... ..... .............. 416
Number houses whitewashed ........ .............................. 28
painted ........................ ........ ....----------........... 1,665
Number out-buildings whitewashed ....................... .................... 353
painted ............................................. 832
Number fences whitewashed ................. .......... .. ................. 62
painted ....................................-... ............................ 159
Number homes making complete improvement of grounds according
to plan ....................................... ..... ...... 611
Number lawns started this year .................................................................... 495
Number lawns already established .......................................... .............. 8,466
Number people, not club members, influenced to paint ...................... 1,147
whitewash ...................................... .............. 50
plant grass .................... --..............-............ 718
start foundation plantings ............................................... 1,190
Number pieces electric equipment repaired ....................... .................. 3,785
Number of families who have utilized waste materials such as sacks....15,044
Number cotton mattresses made .................... ... .................... 767
Number moss mattresses made ................................. 16
Number mattresses renovated ........... ..... ....................- 881
Number rugs made (all kinds) ............... .. ... .................. ...... 1,474
Number comforters made:
feather .......................... ....... ............. 31
w ool ....... .. ................................................................... .... 39
cotton .........................- .......-- .-- .----- 627
WORK WITH NEGROES
The Home Improvement Agent works with the negro home demonstra-
tion agents. The same assistance in home management thrift, health,
comfort and beauty is given to the local agents as is given to the white
county home demonstration agents.
Better and more convenient homes are being built. More privacy in
the home has been stressed by curtaining off the beds where there are no
private bedrooms. More sleeping porches have been added. Better venti-
lation for air and sunshine is stressed. "Own a home" has been an ob-
jective in many negro families for a long time. Money from good crops,
soldier allotments and better livestock is helping this to become a reality
in rural Florida among the negroes. Landlords have been asked to im-
prove their tenant homes. There are many fine negro leaders in rural
Florida.
Home-made soap has been popular with the whites and negroes in
Florida. This soap has been for laundry work and almost any household
use. When women learned to make good soap, little did they think that
they would at any time be forced to use it for so many things in the home.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART IV-NEGRO WORK

NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK

A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
Negro Extension work with men and boys was carried on in 1945 in the
following counties: Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden, Hamilton, Jackson, Jef-
ferson, Leon, Marion, Sumter and Suwannee. This work was under the
supervision of the State Extension Service of Gainesville and the Local
District Agent, who had headquarters at Florida A. & M. College in Talla-
hassee. Although the labor shortage was not so acute as in previous
years, many labor problems did exist. Local agents emphasized the need
for farm products and encouraged farmers to stay on the farm and feed
themselves and the nation.
A total of 5,339 different farm families and 2,911 non-farm families
were influenced by some phase of the Extension program.
Better health was emphasized during the year, with the result that
health improvement among farm families is quite noticeable. More families
observed general health rules, paying special attention to the proper feed-
ing of their families.
In many instances travel had to be curtailed because of gasoline and
tire shortages. Circulars were frequently sent out in lieu of personal
contacts to keep the agents informed.
With surplus income in the farmers' pockets from wartime jobs and
soldier allotments, the farmers, in many cases, needed sound advice on
investments. The agents stressed buying war bonds and thrift was en-
couraged during the entire year. Families were encouraged to conserve
their home furnishings and clothing and to provide more sanitary living
quarters for their families.
The agents assisted in getting deferments where necessary to retain
essential labor on the farm.

WAR AND POSTWAR ACTIVITIES
The neighborhood leader and volunteer worker phase of the Extension
program was continued. Volunteer leaders assisted the agents in all coun-
ties in carrying Extension activities to the various communities. The
leaders were given information on the various war and postwar problems
and activities in which local participation was needed. The leaders were
of great assistance in spreading information to their respective com-
munities and enabled the agents to broaden their program in the county.
All local agents reported very satisfactory progress along this line.
A close spirit of cooperation existed between the negro workers of the
State Extension Service and other federal agencies in carrying out the
Extension and other rural programs in the counties supervised.
Negro farm agents assisted in acquainting farm families with the
program of other agencies, through meetings and other means.
Food and feed production was stressed during the year. Noticeable
results were accomplished this year despite the many problems arising.

MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS
Gardens.-The garden program was an outstanding phase of the work
this year. Farm families were urged to plant larger gardens with a wider
variety of vegetables for home use as well as for market. Many farmers
raised a surplus of vegetables over canning and table needs and sold this







Annual Report, 1945


surplus to supplement the family income. A year-round garden program
was emphasized for all farm families. All agents reported noticeable re-
sults in this project.
Poultry.-Farmers took more interest in poultry this year, due to the
scarcity of meats. Local agents assisted farmers in selecting better breeds
of poultry and emphasized proper feeding and better housing of the flock.
As a result more families raised poultry for home use, canning, market
and egg production.
Dairying.-The local district agent and local farm agents placed con-
siderable stress on this phase of the program in view of the butter and
canned milk shortage during the first half of the year. The local agent
stressed milk as a necessary part of the family diet and urged better care
of daity cattle, better breeds, better feeding and sanitary conditions.
Sweet Potatoes.-The Copper Skin Porto Rican sweet potato was most
commonly used. The farmers received good prices for this crop. Most of
them produced enough for home use and a surplus for market. The pro-
duction of this crop has been increased in most of the counties in which
work was conducted.
Peanuts.-The increase in production of peanuts was noticeable the past
year. This crop was for home use, oil, and feed for hogs.

ANNUAL AGENTS' MEETING
The annual agents' meeting was held at the Florida A. and M. College
from November 19 to 21 and was followed by the regular farmers' confer-
ence on Friday. All agents attended this conference, which afforded them
an opportunity to obtain information on the 1946 program from Extension
specialists and officials.
4-H CLUB WORK
There were 2,524 boys enrolled in 4-H club work in the counties, with
2,138 members completing their projects. There was a decrease in enroll-
ment under 1944, due to the fact that a number of older boys were called
into service, while others left the farms for jobs offering better wages.
The boys enrolled carried on a number of projects, among which were
swine, with 928 boys enrolled and 833 completing; corn, 1,016 members
enrolled and 785 completing; home gardens, 1,303 enrolled and 1,140 com-
pleting; poultry, 808 members enrolled and 574 completing; sweet potatoes,
678 members enrolled and 596 completing; dairying, 232 members enrolled
and 162 completing.
The Negro Extension Division of the State Agricultural Extension
Service held its first State Short Course since the war began at the Florida
A. and M. College, June 5-9, 1945. The boys who attended were inspired by
the information given them by State specialists and officials. A number
of activities were engaged in by the boys during the Short Course week.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Floy Britt, Local District Home Demonstration Agent
No changes have been made in negro home demonstration personnel
this year. Ten negro home demonstration agents served in as many coun-
ties, where there were large numbers of negro farm homes.
The agents rendered service on all worthwhile county programs and
their services have found growing appreciation. Both rural and urban
people have sought and secured the services of these agents.
All agents employed have farm backgrounds, are 25 years old or older,
have had college training, preferably in home economics, and are experi-
enced in working with rural people. They receive training and make plans
at their annual conference at Florida A. and M. College.
Assistance has been given in improving agents' office facilities, and all
agents received salary increases during the year. The State retirement
system has been extended to all agents.
Editors of several negro newspapers in Florida are quite cooperative,
publishing news of interest, accomplishments and efforts of rural people.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
As in previous years, the District Agent and local agents have given
and received the cooperation of other agencies. These included war boards,
civilian defense agencies, U. S. Employment Service, Farm Security Ad-
ministration, Rural Electrification Administration and the State Board of
Health.
The District Agent has given assistance in planning and promoting
rural church institutes for rural ministers and church women; served as
chairman of committee on resources of Florida at a public school workshop
at Florida A. and M. College; assisted with round table discussion on
recreation for rural people at Recreation Institute held at the college;
assisted with 2 institutes of the State Tuberculosis & Health Association
held at the A. and M. College and Jacksonville.

4-H SHORT COURSE
The annual Short Course for Negro Boys and Girls, held at the Florida
A. and M. College in Tallahassee, was attended by 114 girls from 10
counties.
The program was planned to help 4-H club members meet their needs
in wartime. Emphasis was placed on food conservation, food production,
food, nutrition and health, clothing, self-improvement, personal grooming,
home improvement and recreation.
The boys, girls, leaders and agents expressed themselves as having
been greatly helped as a result of the Short Course and pledged themselves
to make plans for short course early so as to make a better showing and
to accomplish more in 1946.

ADJUSTMENTS AND PLANNING
Many negro families have come back to the farm since the end of the
war, again becoming members of the communities. Local home demon-
stration agents are helping them to make needed adjustments, as well as
assisting other families to adjust to changed conditions.
The 946 volunteer local leaders play a very important part in helping
agents to determine programs in the counties, as well as in promoting







Annual Report, 1945 79

county-wide programs. Most of these leaders have been -given special
training by the agents, are dependable and are good demonstrators.
Besides assisting the agents in getting information to rural families,
they help with community and county exhibits, fairs, achievement pro-
grams, picnics, rallies, camps and short courses.
The needs of the people are discussed and considered in club and county
council meetings also.
The District Agent's office aids the agents "in preparing and mimeo-
graphing materials, preparing news articles, staging exhibits, conducting
camps and short courses, holding meetings, procuring equipment, planning
their work and furthering their county programs generally. Extension
specialists also give the negro agents valuable assistance.
There is great need for better record keeping, and the District Agent
has prepared a simple record book for 4-H club girls and another for home
demonstration club members.

RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED
In the supervisory program for 1945 the main goals emphasized were
food, shelter and clothing. Others included community activities, recre-
ation and special war activities. These goals were emphasized because
they supplied the needs of the rural people and helped in winning the war.
Results accomplished were as follows:
Diets were improved in 3,465 families, 2,988 women planned balanced
meals for their families and 1,208 women planned a family food budget;
719 women followed improved methods in child feeding, 2,203 individuals
adopted habits for preventing dietary diseases such as pellagra, anemia,
constipation, etc.; 2,297 individuals improved health habits according to
recommendations; and results in food conservation were particularly out-
standing.
Nine hundred and seven women cured meats and made lard and sau-
sage; 1,208 individuals canned foods according to a family food budget;
1,768 women improved storage of food according to recommendations; and
272,866 containers of food were reported canned this year.
The goal of providing each family with adequate milk and other dairy
products was not recorded but results are encouraging. There were 2,211
milk cows already owned and 290 were added this year. Improvement in
1,160 home dairies was made with 536 women making butter and cheese
and 1,276 families used homemade butter. Records show that 1,116 homes
supplied each child with 1 quart of milk daily and each adult 1 pint. Dairy
products sold were valued at $1,911.40.
Home garden results included 4,891 family gardens grown, 109,363
quarts of vegetables canned, and 2,055 fruit trees planted this year; 1,712
women and girls sold $10,062 worth of fresh vegetables.
Poultry results included 2,627 women conducting demonstrations in
poultry raising, 75,403 chickens raised and 57,041 dozens of eggs produced.
Poultry products valued at $39,792.75 were sold.
'Under the general goals for better shelter, 983 families were assisted
with home planning problems, 312 homes were built according to plans
furnished and 458 home were remodeled. Fifteen families installed sewage
according to recommendations; 1,576 families screened and improved sani-
tation of the home; 906 families improved home grounds; 467 homes were
painted; 733 families improved methods of repairing, remodeling or re-
finishing furniture or furnishings; and 1,832 families used improved house-
keeping methods.
Accomplishments in the family clothing supply program included 1,607
families who followed instructions on clothing construction, 1,180 individuals











L
Ir i.- -
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,
i
:r" L .C r. ~-
; ~~i ~4( ~~r~
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-u,
o

i ; ~rs.l ~P;?i~Rl~i~P~AIIB~I Fl

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Fig. 6.-Negro women in home demonstration clubs reported canning 272,866 containers of food at home during 1945.







Annual Report, 1945


followed information given on selection of clothing, 413, families planned
clothing budgets, 1,792 individuals followed instructions for care, renovation
and remodeling of clothing, 601 families followed timely information con-
cerning buying of clothing and 551 families were assisted with "making
versus buying" decisions.
Home health and sanitation results include 1,576 homes screened and
improved in sanitation; 206 sanitary privies were built and 15 inside toilets
installed; 2,203 families adopted positive methods to improve health; 946
families were assisted with first-aid or home nursing; and 2,028 families
were assisted in removing fire and accident hazards.
A great deal was accomplished from county and community activities
involving schools, churches, etc., with 44 school or community grounds im-
proved, 104 community groups assisted with organizational problems, 735
families following recommendations for family recreation, 73 communities
improving recreational facilities, 83 community exhibits held, 9 community
canning centers operated under home demonstration agents, and 18 com-
munity entertainments held for social purposes.

STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) ........................................ 230/2
Days of service: In office-1,870; in field-4,210 ............................ 6,080
Farm or home visits made .................................... ................... ... 13,039
Different farms or home visited .................................................-......... 6,347
Calls relating to extension work: Office, 20,456; telephone ............ 5,949
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth .................... 2,660
News articles or stories published .........................-----.........-......... 229
Bulletins distributed ..................... ... ........ ... .................... 17,428
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ................-................---.............. ... 2
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen .......... 493
Total attendance of men and women ........................................... 7,803
Method demonstration meetings ........ .................. .............. .... 2,429
Total attendance .......................--------- .........---- --- ................. 32,029
Meetings. held at result demonstrations .................-.. ...................... 573
A attendance ................................................ -..................... 3,685
Tours conducted ..................... ............................................................ 38
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ........ 44
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ........................ 695

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms in counties worked ........................................ 9,297
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricul-
tural program this year and in past ................................................ 3,051
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstra-
tion and agricultural programs ...................................................... 1,035
Farms homes in which changes in practices have resulted from
the home demonstration program ................................................... 2,122
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demon-
stration and agricultural program this year ........---....................... 5,173
differentt farm families influenced by some phase of the extension
program ................................................... -......-.....................--................. 5,339
Other families influenced by some phase of the extension program 2,911







Florida Cooperative Extension


COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group ........................................ 256
Unpaid ................................ .. ...... ................... 252
Paid ............................................ ... ........... .. ............. 4
Communities in agricultural planning ........................ ....... ........ 67
Members in community agricultural planning ................................ 183
Planning m meetings held ......................................................................... 568
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
workers ......................... ............... ....312
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ...................................... 969
Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen .................. 934

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work ....................................... ......... 1,007
Communities in which work was conducted ..................................... 965
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ............................................ 1,043
LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work ....................................... ..... 594
Communities in which work was conducted ...................................... 675
Voluntary Committeemen and leaders ............................................. 807
Breeding and improvement organizations ....................................... 4
Farmers assisted ................................................... 8,836

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work ............................ ............. ...... 152
Communities in which work was conducted ................................... 290
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ....................................... 293
Farmers assisted in soil management .......................... ........... 2,917
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation ................. 1,813
FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work ........................................ 178
Farmers assisted .......................... .... .. .. ..................... 5,192

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ..... ..................................... ... .... ................. 63
Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 73
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ....................................... 58
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ............................ 171

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work .................................................... 815
Communities in which work was conducted ................................... 1,217
Established cooperatives assisted .......................... ................ 12
New cooperatives assisted in organizing ......................................... 3
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted dur-
ing the year (established and new) ..............................................$ 32,356
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during year ......................$706.147

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work ...................................... ... .... 347
Communities in which work was conducted ..................................... 390
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .......................... ................ 382







Annual Report, 1945


Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification ...................................... ........... 12,059

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work .............. ............................. 1,311
Communities in which work was done ................................................ 911
Families assisted: Improving diets, 3,464; food preparation, 2,938;
total ................................................. ...................................... ........... 6,402
Families assisted with food-preservation problems .......................... 4,074

HOME MANAGEMENT- FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ........................................ ................. 114
Communities in which work was done ........................................ 165
Voluntary leaders assisting ............................................. ................ 160
Families assisted ..- .................... ...... ................................... 3,197
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household sup-
plies .... ........... ................. ........................... ....................... 175
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies........ 1,385
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems ............................ 952

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work ...................................... ................. 190
Communities in which work was done .......................................... 199
Voluntary leaders assisting -.....-. .--- ............... ........ 178
Families assisted ............................................ 4,992

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work ............................. ............ 78
Communities in which work was done ...................................... .. 156
Voluntary leaders assisting ... .......................... .............. 163

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work ....................................................... 124
Communities in which work was done ............................................. 176
Voluntary leaders assisting ..................... ................. 187
Families assisted in improving home recreation ........................... 1,237
Communities assisted in improving recreational facilities .............. 79
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, pro-
grams of activities, or meeting programs .................................... 124
Communities assisted in providing library facilities ................... 27

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ......................... ................................... 5,941
Projects completed by girls ........................... .............. 18,874
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ........................................ 1,431
Boys completing fruit projects ................... ......................... 165
Boys completing garden projects ............................................ ....... 1,140
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............ 73
Boys completing dairy projects ........................................ 162
Boys completing poultry projects ......................... ................... 574
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects .................................... 110
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects .......................... 596
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .............................. 1,018
Girls completing dairy projects ......................... .. ............... 524







84 Florida Cooperative Extension

Girls completing poultry projects ..................... ........................ 1,511
Girls completing home gardens ........................... ....... ........... 2,269
Girls completing fruit projects ............................................................. 578
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............ 362
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ................ 2,001
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid ........................ 1,541
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvement projects ............................................ ............... 3,712
Girls completing food preservation projects ........................................ 1,959
4-H Membership:
Boys: Farm, 2,380; non-farm, 136; total .................................... 2,519
Girls: Farm, 2,943; non-farm, 899; total .................................... 3,842
4-H club members having health examinations because of partici-
pation in Extension program .......................................................... 2,142
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs ................................... 143










INDEX


Agricultural conservation, 17
Agricultural economics, 26
Agricultural Experiment Station, 7,
22, 52
Agronomy, 31
American Institute of Cooperation,
30
American Red Cross, 59, 65, 69, 74
Ammunition, 19
Anderson, Hans 0., 12
Animal husbandry, 34
Artificial lights for poultry, 40
Association of Land Grant Colleges
and Universities, 56

Bahama laborers, 15
Barrus, Edith Y., 55
Beale, Clyde, 21
Beef cattle, 34
Bevis, Joyce, 64
Blacklock, R. W., 42
Board of Control, 2
Britt, Floy, 78
Brown, H. L., 36
Bulletins and circulars, 21
Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, 32

Calf crops, 34
Child development, 59
Child Health Day, 61
Citrus grove management, 26
Citrus Producers' Trade Association,
29
Clayton, H. G., 17
Clothing and textiles, 64
Cooper, J. Francis, 21
Cotton'crop insurance, 18
improvement, 33
County agents' work, 24
County and home agents, 4, 5
Connecticut Extension Service, 15
Shade Grown Tobacco Association,
15
Crop insurance, 18, 26

Dairy cattle shows and sales, 39
Dairy feed subsidies, 18
Dairying, 36, 77
Dairy pasture and forage, 37
DeBusk, E. F., 12
Defense Transportation Service, 20


Dennis, R. S., 17
Director's report, 7
Diseases, poultry, 41

Editorial and mailing, 21
Egg-Laying Test, 40
Emergency Farm Labor, 12

Farm Bureau Federation, 29
Farm forestry, 47
Farm labor, 12
Farm management, 26
Farm planning, 28
Farm records, 28
Farm Security Administration, 25,
27, 36, 74, 78
Fat stock shows and sales, 35
Federal Crop Insurance Corporation,
26
Feeding beef cattle, 35
dairy cattle, 38
Financial statement, 8
Fire control, 47
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
College, 7, 56, 77, 78
Florida Bankers' Association, 45
Florida Breeders' and Hatchery As-
sociation, 41
Florida Canners' Association, 29
Florida Chain Store Association, 44
Florida College of Agriculture, 7, 24
Florida Council of Farmer Cooper-
atives, 29
Florida Department of Agriculture,
23
Florida Farm Hour, 23
Florida Forest Service, 23
Florida Guernsey and Jersey Cattle
Clubs, 46
Florida National Egg-Laying Test,
40
Florida Poultry Council, 41
Florida State College for Women,
7, 62
Florida Vegetable Committee, 29
Florida Watermelon Growers' Asso-
ciation, 29
Flue-cured tobacco, 33
Food conservation, 70
Food, nutrition and health, 66
Food production, 58, 67
Foreign and interstate labor, 13







ii In

Forest tree plantings, 49
Frozen foods, 72
Fruit plantings, 70

4-H Club boys, 42
girls, 59, 67, 71
negro, 62, 77
4-H Club training, 42
4-H Club camps, 46, 47

Gardening, fruit plantings, and food
conservation, 70, 76
Girls' state short course, 61, 63, 65,
68, 72, 73, 74
Grass and legume seed, 54
Goals, production, 31, 34, 39
Grove management, 26

Hampson, C. M., 26
Health improvement, 66
Hog work, 36
Holloway, Ethyl, 55
Home demonstration, 55
negro, 78
Home improvement, 73
management, 73
Housing for labor, 15
work, 58


Jeans, Rosenwald and
tions, 74


Sloan Founda-


Keown, Mary E., 55

Labor, 12
Legume seed, 54
Lumber rationing, 19

McDavid, Ruby, 55
McLendon, H. S., 12
McMullen, K. S., 52

Machinery rationing, 19
Marketing, 29, 41
Mayo, Nathan, 44
Meal planning, 66, 68
Mehrhof, Norman R., 39
Migratory Labor Health Association,
15
Moore, Virginia P., 73

National Committee on Boys' and
Girls' Club Work, 45, 71
National Council of Farmer Cooper-
atives, 30
National 4-H Club Congress, 46


dex


National Livestock Loss Prevention
Board, 35
'National Poultry Improvement Plan,
41
Negro agents' annual meeting, 77
Negro farm demonstrations, 76
Negro short course, -77
boys' and girls', 78
Nettles, W. T., 24
News stories, 22, 42, 53
Nieland, L. T., 47
Noble, C. V., 26
Nursing, home, 58

Oats' comeback, 32
Office of Price Administration, 29
O'Steen, A. Woodrow, 39

Pasture development, 31, 37
Peaden, P. L., 12
Peanut seed treating, 32
Pines, 50
Planning, farm, 28
Planting trees, 49
Poultry, 39, 77
Press service, 22
Price ceilings, 29
Prisoners of war, 13
Production and Marketing Adminis-
tration, 21, 25, 52
Production goals, 18, 31

Radio programs, 22, 42
Reporting, 23

School lunch program, 68
Seed, harvest, 54
Soil conservation, 52
State Marketing Bureau, 26, 41
State Nutrition Committee, 66
State Poultry Producers' Associa-
tion, 41
State Plant Board, 22
State Soil Conservation Service, 44,
52
State Superintendent of Public In-
struction, 59
State Tuberculosis and Health Asso-
ciation, 78
Statistical report, 8
negro, 81
Subsidies, 18, 38
Sugar quotas, 18
Sweet potatoes, 77

Thursby, Isabelle S., 70







Index


Tigert, John J., 2, 3
Timber, grazing, game, 47
Timmons, D. E., 29
Tobacco marketing quotas, 18
Transportation, 20
Truck crops work, 29
Turner, A. A., 76

United Growers and Shippers, 29
United States Cotton Classification
Service, 33 r
United States Department of Agri-
culture, 17, 22, 23, 56
United States Employment Service,-
12, 78
United States Fish and Wildlife
Service, 23, 71


United States Public Health Service,
23
United States Sugar Corporation,
13, 15
University of Florida, 7, 22, 45, 47,
56

Veterans, advisory service, 26
Victory farm volunteers, 14

War Food Administration, 8, 19, 24,
29, 36, 41
War Production Board, 19
Water conservation, 52
White-fringed beetle, 32
Wildlife camp, 53
Women's land army, 14