<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Wilmon Newell
 Credits
 Report of the director
 Agricultural conservation
 Editorial and mailing
 County agents' activities
 Agricultural economics
 Agronomy accomplishments
 Animal husbandry, dairying and...
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Farm forestry
 Soil and water conservation
 Home demonstration work
 Clothing and textiles
 Food, nutrition and health
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Home improvement
 Activities with negro farmers
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00006
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1944
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00006
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Wilmon Newell
        Page 4
    Credits
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Agricultural conservation
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Editorial and mailing
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    County agents' activities
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Agricultural economics
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Agronomy accomplishments
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Animal husbandry, dairying and poutry
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Farm forestry
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Soil and water conservation
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Home demonstration work
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Home improvement
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Activities with negro farmers
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Index
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
Full Text








COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
A. P. SPENCER, Director










1944 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1944
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1944






BOARD OF CONTROL


H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
THOS. W. BRYANT, Lakeland T. T. ScoTT, Live Oak
M. L. MERSHON, Miami J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor1
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
ZACH SAVAGE, M.S., Economist'
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Assistant in Land-Use Planning'
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
W. W. BASSETT, JR., B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent'
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultry Husbandman'
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Poultryman
FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
H. S. MCLENDON, B. A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
MRS. BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Assistant WLA Leader
HANS O. ANDERSEN, B.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
G. NORMAN ROSE, B.S., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
P. L. PEADEN, M.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA'
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA1

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent

1 Part-time.
2 On leave.







CONTENTS
Page
Report of the Director .............. ......... ............. ...... ............ 7
Financial Statement ............ ....... .... ........... ....... ......-- 9
Statistical Report ............... .............. .. ... .............. 10
Agricultural Conservation .......................... ................ ..... 14
Editorial and M ailing .................. ..................... .. ............ ............. 17
County Agents' Activities .................. ..................... ...... 20
Agricultural Economics ............................. ........ .. ............ ........ 23
Farm Management ...... .......... ... ......... ...... ... ..... .......... 23
Marketing Activities ...................... ... ................... 24
Citrus Grove Management ......................... .... ..... ... ........ .... 25
Agronomy Accomplishments ................................. ............... 28
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Poultry .......................................... 31
Animal Husbandry ....................... .... .. .................. 31
Dairying ........................... ........ .. ....... .. ..... .......... 34
Poultry Keeping ......................................... .... .. .. ................ 37
Boys' 4-H Club W ork ...................... ............... .. ........... ........ 40
Farm Forestry .................... .......................... ...... ...... 43
Soil and Water Conservation ............................ .... .......... ........ 46
Home Demonstration W ork ....... ....................... .... ....... ............ 49
Clothing and Textiles ................ ......................... .... ............. ..... 57
Food, Nutrition and Health ............................. ................... ............. 59
Gardening and Food Conservation ............................. ........ ......62
Hom e Improvem ent ............................. ........ ........-----. ......... .... 65
Activities with Negro Farmers ...................................... ............ 67
Negro Home Demonstration Work ............................. ............. 70
Negro Statistical Report .................... .............................. 71




Hon. Millard Caldwell
Governor of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agri-
cultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida,
for the calendar year 1944, including a fiscal report for the year ending
June 30, 1944.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR,
Chairman, Board of Control


Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord-
ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT
President, University of Florida
[3]










































WILMON NEWELL
March 4, 1878 October 25, 1943
Dr. Newell was Director of the Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Service from early in 1921 until his death. He also headed
the State Plant Board from 1915 to 1943, the Agricultural Ex-
periment Station from 1921 to 1943, and was Dean of the College
of Agriculture from 1921 to 1938; Provost for Agriculture from
1938 to 1943.


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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
(As of December 31, 1944)
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua............Loonis Blitch...................Gainesville........Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker...............D. H. Ward................ Macclenny ..........................................
Bay....................J. A. Sorenson................Panama City ......... .........................
Bradford...........L. T. Dyer.................Starke .....................................
Brevard............................... ......... Coco.................... M rs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward............B. E. Lawton...........Ft. Lauderdale........Miss Louise Taylor
Calhoun.............W. W. Brown..................Blountstown.......Miss Evalena Rader
Charlotte..........N. H. McQueen...............Punta Gorda ...............................
Citrus............... M. Maines............... Inverness...........Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Clay........................ ................Gn. Cve. Spg...Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird
Columbia..........Guy Cox..........................Lake City............Miss Elizabeth Tyler
Dade..................C. H. Steffani--............. Miami......................Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.)...J. L. Edwards.................Miami....................Miss Edna L. Sims
DeSoto..............W. L. Woods....................Arcadia .............................- ...
Dixie..................C. L. Dickinson.............. Cross City .... .............................
Duval................A. S. Lawton.................. Jacksonville.............Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.)..G. B. Ellis..~........- Jacksonville......Miss Mildred J. Taylor
Escambia..........E. H. Finlayson.......... Pensacola..............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden............Henry Hudson................Quincy...... ....Miss Elise Laffitte
Gilchrist...........A. S. Laird..................Trenton ...................... ....... ....
Glades............ ...F. D. Yaun.......................M oore Haven .......... ........................
Gulf....................................... .Wewahitchka........Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
Hardee..............E. H. Vance.....................W auchula ............ ........... ...........
Hendry............. H. L. Johnson.................LaBelle ........ .........................
Hernando..........H. J. Brinkley.................Brooksville .................................
Highlands.........V. T. Oxer...................Sebring ...............................
Hillsborough...Alec White......................Tampa ............. ............... ....
Hillsborough...J. 0. Armor (Asst.) ....Plant City ...........................
Hillsborough....(West).............. ........Tampa.....Mrs. Caroline M. Boogher
Hillsborough....(East) ............................Plant City............Mrs. Irene R. Harvey
Holmes..............A. G. Hutchinson..........Bonifay............Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River....M. A. Boudet.................Vero Beach ............. ..............
Jackson.............J. W. Malone...................Marianna..............Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jefferson...........E. N. Stephens..........Monticello..................Mrs. Ella Loeb
Lafayette.........J. T. Oxford...... ...Mayo.. .................. ......
Lake..................R. E. Norris.....................Tavares...............Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee....................C. P. Heuck....................Ft. M years .............. .........................
Leon................. J. G. Kelley...--................Tallahassee..............Miss Wilma Smith
Levy ...............T. D. Rickenbaker..........Bronson..............Miss Lila Woodard
Liberty..............J. S. Alexander...............Bristol .....................................
Madison............W. W. Glenn................Madison............Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee............C. D. Newbern................Bradenton........Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion.............. Carl Hendricks................Ocala-............. Miss Allie Lee Rush
Martin...............L. M. Johnson................. Stuart....................Miss Edna L. Shuler
Nassau............J. D. Coleman, Jr..........Hilliard .................................. ...
Okeechobee......C. A. Fulford..................Okeechobee ..................................
Okaloosa...........F. W. Barber...................Crestview ............. .....................
Orange..............K. C. Moore---..................Orlando........Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
Osceola............J. R. Gunn.......................Kissimmee.... ......Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach.....M. U. Mounts..................W. Palm Beach..Miss Bertha Hausman
Miss Mildred Johnson, Asst.
Pasco.................J. F. Higgins................Dade City................Mrs. Essa D. Shaw
Pinellas..........J. H. Logan.................Clearwater............Miss Tillie Roesel
Polk..... ............W. P. Hayman................Bartow.................. Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam.............H. E. Westbury..............Palatka..........Mrs. Opal W. Middleton
St. Johns..........H. E. Maltby................-St. Augustine........Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie...........C. D. Kime......................Fort Pierce................Miss Mary Dixon
Santa Rosa......E. D. McCall...................Milton ............. Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole...........C. R. Dawson...................Sanford ....... Mrs. Ouida Wilson
Sarasota...........W. E. Evans.................. Sarasota .................................

[5]







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Sumter..............J. M. Kennedy-.......-........Bushnell .............. ......
Suwannee.........S. C. Kierce...................Live Oak..................Miss Jeanette Rish
Taylor.............D. D. McCloud.................Perry........-- ......Mrs. Ruth Elkins
Union................J. T. Holloway.........-......Lake Butler ........................................
Volusia..............F. E. Baetzman...............DeLand........... Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Wakulla............N. J. Albritton................Crawfordville ...... ....................
W alton..............Mitchell W ilkins.............DeFuniak Springs ..............................
W ashington......H. O. Harrison................Chipley .................................. ...... .


NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua...................--------.. ............. Otha W Nealy...............................Gainesville
Columbia....................... ....---- McKinley Jeffers-----...............................Lake City
Gadsden--.......................--.............----Russell Stephens .......... Quincy
Hamilton----....... .........----........... N. H. Bennett....................White Springs
Jackson............................................---Thomas A. Harris..............................M arianna
Jefferson.........................-----.... M. E. Groover...................................Monticello
Leon............... ......................-Rolley W yer, Jr ...... ..............Tallahassee
Marion-- --............................---............... Eugene P. Smith.................................. Ocala
Sumter.........................-----..............--Alonzo A. Young---.......-----..... Bushnell
Suwannee...---- ...----------------..........----Live Oak

COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua.........----.........--.......--- Leontine Williams.......................... Gainesville
Columbia ............................... ------Ozella Sansome...............................Lake City
Duval ...................--.............-. Ethel M. Powell-...........................Jacksonville
Gadsden -...-- ....... .................--Diana H. Spencer....................................Quincy
Hillsborough----....................... Sudella Ford...........................................Tampa
Jackson................................... Doris Groover Herring......................Marianna
Leon .................................... ....... -----------------...........Tallahassee
Madison -.............. ...................Althea Ayer -........---- .. ..... Madison
Marion............................................Idella R Kelly.....--.. ----.... ........ Reddick
Putnam ............................................Lee Ella Gam ble..................................Palatka























[6]










PART I-GENERAL


REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

A. P. Spencer, Director

For the third successive year every effort of the Florida Extension
Service was bent toward wartime food production to help meet the Nation's
calls. Goals for 1944 were established late in 1943, at a session directed
by the Agricultural Adjustment Agency and participated in by representa-
tives of all major State and Federal agricultural agencies and farm or-
ganizations. The Extension Service, through both its State staff and its
county and home demonstration agents, publicized the goals and at timely
intervals throughout the year promulgated suggestions to farm families
on meeting them. Goals committees checked progress from time to time
and made suggestions where desirable.
Emergency war food assistants to work with county and home demon-
stration agents, and in some instances in counties where no agents were
regularly employed, were named in 24 counties for part of the year. They
included both white and colored personnel. Employed with funds supplied
by the War Food Administration they rendered valuable assistance in help-
ing to step up food production. Many of them worked especially with 4-H
club girls and boys, since no 4-H club assistants are regularly employed.
A new Emergency Production and Conservation Series of publications
printed during the year presented wartime suggestions on 10 principal
commodities and on the utilization of income from 4 principal commodities.
Through untiring and sometimes what appeared to be almost super-
human efforts on the part of Florida farm families, aided and encouraged
by county and home demonstration agents, these families were able to
attain the highest production record in the history of the State. Three
counties-Jackson, Alachua and Polk-were awarded the War Food Ad-
ministration's A pennant for outstanding production.

SUPERVISION AND ADJUSTMENTS
Supervision continued very much as in the past, with 3 district agents
supervising the 38 county home agents and 2 supervising the 62 county
agents. Wartime conditions naturally induced numerous changes in per-
sonnel, particularly among the men agents, but fortunately the staff was
kept manned with trained personnel.
County and home agents' salaries continue to be paid in part from State
and Federal, in part from county sources. Sixty-three of the State's 67
counties are cooperating in financing the work-62 for men agents and
38 for women agents. Uniform rates of pay exist from State and Federal
funds, but there is considerable variation in amounts paid by the counties.
The annual conference of county and home demonstration agents was
held in Gairiesville in October, after having been abandoned in 1943. Dur-
ing this week the agents were given a picture of the situation and sugges-
tions for future work by State and Federal specialists and others, thu
enabling them to plan and conduct their work more efficiently. District
conferences were held from time to time, as: situations arose which made
them advisable.







Florida Cooperative Extension


COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES

Cooperation was continued with other State and Federal agencies deal-
ing with rural families and their problems. These included the Agricul-
tural Adjustment Agency, Farm Security Administration, Soil Conservation
Service, vocational agriculture teachers, State Board of Health, State Live
Stock Sanitary Board, State Department of Agriculture, State Defense
Council, War Food Administration, USDA Radio Service and others.
Cooperation was extended The Institute of Inter-American Affairs in
its plan of placing selected representatives of South American countries
on farms for studying agriculture, after they had studied at the state
university and in Washington. Two young men from Brazil were placed
in Volusia County, after they had spent some time at the University of
Florida.
Farmers' organizations assisted included the Florida Farm Bureau,
State Council of Farmer Cooperatives, State Dairymen's Association, State
Cattlemen's Association, State Poultrymen's Association and others.
County agents' offices in all but a few instances continued to be head-
quarters for administration of county AAA programs, the agents serving
as secretaries of county AAA committees.
County and home agents continued to lead campaigns for salvage,
particularly of used household fats, and for the sale of War Bonds and
Stamps among rural families.
Principal headquarters of the Agricultural Extension Service are at
the University of Florida in Gainesville, but the State Home Demonstra-
tion Office is at State College for Women in Tallahassee and supervision
of negro work is from the Florida A. & M. College in Tallahassee, both
of which institutions extended their usual helpful cooperation.

ASSISTANCE TO RETURNING VETERANS

Since discharged veterans were already returning to the State during
1944, many of whom were interested in farming, veterans' advisory com-
mittees were set up for the State and in all cooperating counties, under
the direction of the Extension Service. Membership is composed of county
agents, AAA representatives, farmers and others capable of giving sound
suggestions to returning veterans and others who wish to farm.
A number of the committees already have rendered advisory assistance
to veterans, and all of the groups will be ready when the demand arises.

EMERGENCY FARM LABOR

The farm labor situation continued to increase in seriousness during
1944, and the emergency farm labor program of the Extension Service
and the War Food Administration supplied needed labor wherever possible.
The State Extension Service recruited local labor and helped to place war
prisoners and imported (Bahaman and Jamaican) labor from camps oper-
ated by the War Food Administration. The program was able to supply
almost all the labor needed when it was needed, and only a very small
percentage of crops produced remained in the field for lack of harvest labor.
The emergency farm labor program was financed entirely by Federal
funds allotted by the War Food Administration.
A full report of this program is contained in Miscellaneous Publication
32, a supplement to this report.







Annual Report, 1944


CHANGES IN STAFF
A number of changes occurred in the personnel of county agents, fewer
shifts being registered in the staff of home demonstration agents. The
following changes occurred in the state staff during the year 1944:
R. H. Howard, former agricultural economist and more recently assist-
ant state supervisor, emergency farm labor, resigned May 31.
P. H. Senn resigned as assistant State supervisor, emergency farm labor,
September 30.
Norman G. Rose was appointed assistant State supervisor, emergency
farm labor, July 15.
P. L. Peaden was appointed assistant State supervisor, emergency farm
labor, December 11.
Mrs. Jo Spivey was appointed assistant agricultural editor September
16 and resigned November 14.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1944
RECEIPTS
Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Federal ..................$200,645.82
Capper-Ketcham, Federal ....-........................... ....... 27,417.72
Clarke-McNary, Federal .......................... .... ..... 1,620.00
State- Salaries ............................. ......... .... 67,980.00
Operating ............. ...... ... .. .... ........- 40,820.00
Continuing Appropriations ............................---- --.. 25,000.00
Commissioner of Agriculture ..................................... 5,000.00
County Appropriations .-..-----....... ..................... ..... 152,504.99

$520,988.53
EXPENDITURES
Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Federal ..................$200,645.82
Capper-Ketcham, Federal ...................-................ 27,417.72
Clarke-McNary, Federal ...................... .. ............ 1,620.00
State- Salaries ............-- .... ......... .. ...... ....... 67,980.00
Operating ........................ ..... -.....- --... 35,233.58
Continuing Appropriations .................. ................- 12,834.85
Commissioner of Agriculture ....................................... 5,000.00
County Appropriations ................... ........................ 152,504.99
Funds reverted-continuing funds ..........--.................... 12,165.15
Balance carried over .................. ........ ........... .... 5,586.42

$520,988.53
EMERGENCY FARM LABOR
(Year Ending December 31, 1944)
Receipts
Emergency Farm Labor Funds, Federal ........................................$115,000.00

Total .............. ........... ... .......... ... ......... $115,000.00
Expenditures
Emergency Farm Labor Funds ...................................$112,569.84
Unexpended balance ............................. ... --..... .....------- 2,430.16

Total ..... .......... ...... ....................$115,000.00







10 Florida Cooperative Extension

EMERGENCY WAR FOOD AND CONSERVATION
(For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1944)

Receipts
Emergency War Food and Conservation, Federal ............................ $25,000.00

Total ....... ..------ -- .................. .................... $25,000.00

Expenditures
Emergency War Food and Conservation ........................................... $20,039.66
Returned to Washington ---- ----..........--.............................. 4,960.34

Total ................................----------------- ............... $25,000.00


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) ....................................... 1,295%
Days of service: In office-15,645; In field-16,355 ............................ 32,000
Farm or home visits made .................. ............. ......................... 50,955
Different farms or homes visited .............................................. ........... 29,504
Calls relating to extension work: Office-305,710; Telephone ........163,464
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth .................... 7,118
News articles or stories published ......................................................... 5,717
Bulletins distributed ..................................... ........................... ......182,991
Radio talks broadcast or prepared .......................................................... 605
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber .......................................................... ......................... ...... 915
Total attendance of men and women ................................................ 7,446
Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber ................................. .............................. .................. .......... 8,143
Total attendance ........................................ ............................. 132,360
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber ........................... ... ................. .................................... 1,712
A attendance .................................. ......... ......................................... 12,720
Tours .................. ........................................................ ....................... .. 298
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work .......... 300
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ............................ 6,231

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farm s ...... .................................................................. 61,017
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricul-
tural program ........................................................................................ 29,512
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from home
demonstration program .......................................- .......................... 17,130
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year ........... ................................... 4,785
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for the first time this year .................... 4,102
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled .................................... 8,255







Annual Report, 1944


Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program --............................................. ............... 12,815
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of
home demonstration program .......................................................... 16,291
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled .......................... 4,122
Different farm families influenced by some phase of extension
program ................................................................................................. 36,771
Other families influenced by some phase of extension program .... 26,211
CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT
Communities conducting war work ........................................................ 520
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program ........-- .....-- ... 1,224
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian
defense, and other war work ...........................----....................... 3,526
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group ....--:.................................. 608
Unpaid ..................--------....-........--..-- --- -.....---- .... 507
Paid ....................................................................................----.. 101
Communities in agricultural planning ...................................--.... 97
Members in community agricultural planning .................................... 401
Planning m meetings held ....................................................................--........ 884
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w workers ............................ .......................... ... ............ ................ 1,841
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ........................................ 2,898
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 5,939
CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work ..................... .....--............................ 5,646
Communities in which work was conducted .......................................... 3,031
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ................................................ 2,205
LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work .........................................----..... ...................... 4,773
Communities in which work was conducted .......................................... 2,262
Voluntary committeemen and leaders ...................................... ...... 922
Breeding and improvement organizations ...........................................- 32
Farm ers assisted ...................................... ............. .... .. 31,846
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work ..................................................... .................... 1,209
Communities in which work was conducted .......................................... 884
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen .......................................... 740
Farmers assisted in soil management .................................................... 26,887
Soil management associations assisted during the year .................... 34
Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation ................... 2,034
FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work ........----........ .............. .................. 1,174
Farmers assisted .......-......-- ....---........-- ..............----.....-- 27,681
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ......................................................... 287
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 423
Voluntary leaders and committeemen --.............................................. 459
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ............................ 604







12 Florida Cooperative Extension

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work -- -------......................................-------....... 2,512
Communities in which work was conducted .......................................... 2,606 /
Established cooperatives assisted ----------.............................. ... 70
New cooperatives assisted in organizing ......................................... 8
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted dur-
ing the year (established and new) ...... ---..................................-$13,157,420
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year .................-$29,797,290
HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work ........... ................................----------- 1,812
Communities in which work was conducted .........................-....--- ...... 1,417
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ......-----......... ......................... 667
Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification .........................-- ---- ................ 30,089
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to w ork ...... .............................................. 4,916
Communities in which work was done ...-------................................... 2,256
Families assisted: In improving diets-15,303; food preparation-
11,999; Total ..................................... .... ......... ........... ............. 27,302
Families assisted with food preservation problems ........................... 27,006

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to w ork ......... ............................... .............. ............... 380
Communities in which work was done ...................................... 370
Voluntary leaders assisting .................................................................... 164
Fam ilies assisted ....--........ -------........... .. .... ........ ............................ 2,795
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household sup-
plies .................... ................................. ..................................... .... 673
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies........ 7,584
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems ............................ 12,611
CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work .....------- ...... --.. ................................... 1,442
Communities in which work was done -----... ----.............. ............... 504
Voluntary leaders assisting ... .........- ..- .......................... 442
Fam ilies assisted .--.................................... .-----.... ......... 22,799
FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work ..................................................... 200
Communities in which work was done ............................ ............... 312
Voluntary leaders assisting ... --.......................................- ... 167

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work .....----..-- ......----------- ...-...---- ... -- 524
Communities in which work was done ......................... 387
Voluntary leaders assisting .......-......-- ...........................-- ...... .. 432
Families assisted in improving home recreation ................................ 3,363
Communities assisted in improving community recreational facili-
ties ....................... ........- .........-...........................-........... ................... 191
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, pro-
grams of activities, or meeting programs ....................................... 14
Communities assisted in providing library facilities ....................... 54








Annual Report, 1944


SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ........ .................. ..................... 5,516
Projects completed by girls ......... .......... ........ ....................... 23,011
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ................................... 851
Boys completing fruit projects ....-----.................................. .. 40
Boys completing garden projects ......................................................... 1,525
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ............ 123
Boys completing dairy projects .......... ........... .................... 577
Boys completing poultry projects ......... .............................. 720
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects .................................... 39
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ............................ 245
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .................................. 1,396
Girls completing fruit projects ...................... .................. 712
Girls completing garden projects ........................................................ 2,832
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops ........... 18
Girls completing dairy projects ...................................... .................. 490
Girls completing poultry projects ...................................................... 1,526
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ................ 3,784
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects ......... 1,037
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings
and room improvement projects ................................................. 6,872
Girls completing food preservation projects ...................................... 2,177
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-4,278; non-farm-1,081; total .............................. 5,359
Girls: Farm-6,188; non-farm-3,368; total .............................. 9,556
4-H club members having health examinations because of partici-
pation in extension program .................................... .. 1,604
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs .................................... 363







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION
H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge
R. S. Dennis, Assistant Administrative Officer

In Florida the agricultural conservation and wartime emergency pro-
grams carried on by the AAA are closely coordinated with the work of the
Agricultural Extension Service. The State AAA Committeemen are:
James J. Love, Chairman, Gadsden County; C. S. Lee, Seminole County;
W. B. Anderson, Jackson County; H. C. Brown, Lake County; and A. P.
Spencer, ex-officio member. In each county, with few exceptions, there is
carried on in 1 office the work of the county agent, the county agricultural
conservation association and the county USDA war board. The agricultural
conservation associations are under the direction of county committees
composed of farmers elected by those participating in the program. The
USDA war boards are composed of representatives of all federal agencies
active in the county. The county agent is secretary of the conservation
association and of the war board.

AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAM
Approximately 35,000 farms participated in the 1944 conservation pro-
gram. Their operators received cash assistance amounting to approxi-
mately $2,900,000 for carrying out practices on the farm, designed to in-
crease food and feed production and further improve and conserve soil
resources. The major practices carried out and the estimated extent of
each are: Application of phosphate materials to soil-conserving crops
and pastures, 54,000 tons of 20 percent equivalent material, 2,500 tons of

Fig. 1.-The Agricultural Adjustment Agency assisted Florida farmers
in the construction of 4,600,000 feet of surface water control ditches such
as this during 1944.







Annual Report, 1944


basic slag, 7,500 tons of raw rock and colloidal phosphate; application of
liming materials, 45,000 tons; new pastures established, 61,000 acres; seed
used in reseeding pastures, 68,000 pounds; pastures mowed to control weeds
and noxious growth, 202,000 acres; summer non-legume cover crops, 382,000
acres; cover crops of crotalaria and other summer legumes, 462,000 acres;
cover of small grains seeded in the fall of 1943, 87,500 acres; surface water
control ditches on pastures, 4,600,000 feet; cover of winter legumes seeded
in the fall of 1943, 14,000 acres; winter legumes seeded in the fall of 1944,
22,500 acres; terraces constructed, 4,400,000 feet; legume and grass seed
harvested, 12,500 acres.
To encourage and assist farm operators in carrying out these practices,
certain needed materials and services were furnished by the AAA. The
costs of the materials or services furnished were deducted from the pay-
ments earned by the farmers. The kinds and amounts of the materials
and services furnished in 1944 were: Superphosphate, 4,232 tons; basic
slag, 1,559 tons; liming materials, 5,154 tons; blue lupine seed, 340,614
pounds; Austrian winter peas, 143,781 pounds; vetch, 21,750 pounds; rye-
grass seed, 53,250 pounds; seed oats and rye, 10,909 bushels; kudzu, 37,500
crowns; terracing, 2,895,397 feet.
Marketing quotas were in effect for flue-cured tobacco. In 1944 the
acreage allotted to 5,984 farms was 19,911 acres. There were 18,952 acres
planted on 5,682 farms. Farms planting in excess of the farm allotment
or planting tobacco without an allotment numbered 1,058. The acreage
planted in excess of the allotment by these farms was 1,459 acres. The
1944 production of flue-cured tobacco in the State was approximately
17,100,000 pounds. Marketing quotas were not in effect for any other crop.
The sugar program was continued with 29 growers planting approxi-
mately 28,640 acres of sugarcane for sugar. Exact figures on the acreage
harvested for sugar are not available at this time.

EMERGENCY PROGRAMS
War crop goals for crops, livestock, poultry and dairy products called
for the highest level of agricultural production in the history of the State.
These goals were: Commercial vegetables, 212,000 acres; peanuts picked
and threshed, 150,000 acres; oats, 40,000 acres; hay, 160,000 acres; cotton,
46,000 acres; Irish potatoes, 35,000 acres; sweet potatoes, 30,000 acres;
flue-cured tobacco, 17,300 acres; sugarcane for sugar, 33,000 acres; milk, 347
million pounds; eggs, 19 million dozen; chickens produced, 5.3 million;
broilers produced, 4.5 million; turkeys, 110,000; sows to farrow, 191,000;
cattle on farms 1,050,000 head. While these goals were not quite accom-
plished for some crops, they were substantially exceeded for others. For
the Nation as a whole, the increase in the overall 1944 crop production
as compared with 1943 was approximately 7 percent, while for Florida the
increase in the overall 1944 crop production was approximately 15 percent.
All the livestock, poultry, and dairy goals were substantially exceeded.
Dairy Feed Payment Program.-Under this program dairy feed subsidy
payments were made to 817 dairymen in Florida during the year. These
payments were based on sales of whole milk and butterfat at rates which
varied with seasonal conditions. Payments amounting to $2,451,635 were
made on 341,425,800 pounds of milk and 36,800 pounds of butterfat. These
payments enabled the dairymen to continue a high rate of production under
ceiling prices.
Farm Machinery and Supplies.-Many items of farm machinery were
rationed during the period through September. Rationing was done by
county farm rationing committees working in cooperation with AAA com-







Florida Cooperative Extension


mittees. These committees reviewed farmers' applications for rationed
items and, if approved, issued purchase certificates to the extent that
machinery was available in the county quotas. Every effort was made by
the county committees to see that available farm machinery was placed
where its use would contribute most to production. These committees
also furnished information regarding machinery needs in their respective
counties. Under this program the State committee was able to request
and aid in securing additional farm machinery for use of farmers in the
State. Crawler-type tractor quotas and applications from farmers for
these tractors are processed through county and State AAA committees
before transmittal to the War Food Administration. Crawler-type tractors
are still rationed.
Farm Lumber Program.-This program became effective in Florida in
July 1944. It was made necessary by the critical national lumber situ-
ation. The program was handled in the county offices by the AAA com-
mittees. A State farm lumber quota was established for each quarter
by the War Food Administration. These quotas earmarked a definite
quantity of lumber for use on farms and provided AA-2 and AA-3 priority
ratings for farm lumber. The State committee established county limita-
tions for each rating against which the county committees issued certifi-
cates for approved applications.
Copper Wire.-Copper wire quotas for farmstead use were in effect
throughout the year. This program was operated in the same manner as
the farm lumber program.
Farm Transportation.-County farm transportation committees work-
ing under the supervision of the AAA committees recommended cases
where it was necessary to convert tractors from steel wheels to rubber;
assisted farmers with their appeals, applications for certificates of war
necessity, and allocations of gasoline for farm trucks; assisted farmers
in making applications for the purchase of farm trucks; reviewed and
placed their recommendations on such applications; made recommendations
to OPA regarding off-the-highway gasoline for farm use and furnished
letters of recommendation to farmers for the purchase of surplus Army
trucks and other equipment.
Farm Building Permits and Priority Assistance.-Farm operators were
given aid in the preparation of their applications to WPB for permits for
the construction of farm buildings and for priority assistance for securing
scarce materials and machinery. These applications were reviewed by
county committees and recommendations were made and transmitted to the
State committee. The State committee affixed its recommendations and
forwarded them to WPB for final action.
Miscellaneous emergency activities included giving information to farm-
ers regarding government price support, purchase and loan programs;
certification of vegetable canners in connection with the canner subsidy
payments; operation of the feed wheat, oilseed meal, and molasses for
feeders program whereby feed mixers and feeders were enabled to obtain
these items from government stocks or stocks resulting from government
set-aside orders; the distribution of surplus government-owned grain bins
for use in labor housing, farm storage, etc.; and cooperation with other
agencies in matters such as production capacity studies, securing data
for farm production estimates, and other matters relating to agriculture.







Annual Report, 1944


EDITORIAL AND MAILING

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor

Wartime activities of farmers and their families again dominated the
planning and operation of the information work conducted by the Exten-
soin Service. Every effort was made to supply information needed by both
farm and urban families in their efforts to step up production of food,
fiber and other agricultural commodities.

PRINTED MATERIALS
Three new bulletins totaling 144 pages were printed and one old one
was reprinted. Other printed materials included 10 new circulars and 11
folders in a new Emergency Production and Conservation Series, nearly
225,000 copies of the two series being printed and distributed.
The following printed materials were issued during the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1944:
Pages Edition
Bul. 121 Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables .................... 56 15,000
Bul. 122 Household Pests ......................... ................... 56 10,000
Bul. 123 Screwworms in Florida ...................... ................... 32 10,000
Bul. 96 Citrus Propagation (reprint) ....--.-.......................... 56 10,000
Circ. 70 A Simple Farm Brooder and Finisher ................ 12 15,000
Circ. 71 Suggested Wartime Feeds for Chickens .............. 4 5,000
Circ. 72 Oats on Florida Farms .......................................... 8 3,500
Circ. 73 Producing Quantity and Quality Flue-Cured To-
bacco in Florida ............................................ ..... 12 7,500
Circ. 74 Put Conservation Farming Behind War Food
Production ..............................-................... 20 11,500
Circ. 75 Producing Peanuts in Florida ................................ 8 15,000
Circ. 76 Growing Corn in Florida Under Wartime Condi-
tions ......................................................... 8 15,000
Circ. 77 Sweet Potatoes .......................................................... 8 7,500
Circ. 78 Oats on Florida Farms ........................................... 8 15,000
Circ. 79 Growing "Manure" with Blue Lupines in Florida 8 8,000
EPCS 1 W ood for W ar .......................................................... 4 7,500
EPCS 2 Adjust Poultry and Egg Production to Feed
Supplies ................................................... 6 10,000
EPCS 3 Florida Turkey Talk .............................................. 6 5,000
EPCS 4 Raise Healthy Pigs for Wartime Needs ................ 6 10,000
EPCS 5 Wartime Beef Suggestions ................................... 6 7,500
EPCS 6 Successful Meat Canning ........................................ 6 15,000
EPCS 7 Food for Your Family in Wartime ........................ 8 20,000
EPCS 8 Wartime Clothing and Textiles Guide ................ 8 10,000
EPCS 9 Eat from All the Basic 7 Food Groups Daily........ 8 15,000
EPCS 10 Conserve Health Through Home Sanitation........ 8 15,000
EPCS 11 Your Tobacco Money-How Will You Use It?.... 6 5,000
M. P. 10 4-H Livestock Club Record (reprint) .................. 12 10,000
Agent's Monthly Report and Certificate of
Service ................................................................... 2 5,000
Emergency War Food Agent's Weekly Report.... 2 2,500
Announcement and Rules, 19th Florida National
Egg-Laying Test ................................................ 5 200







Florida Cooperative Extension


Pages Edition
Final Report, 17th Florida National Egg-Lay-
ing Test ...................................... 24 1,250
Window Cards, Peanut Dusting ............................ 300
Florida Victory Garden Record Book .................. 16 13,000
Record Book for the Secretary, 4-H Clubs for
Florida Girls ...................................................... 36 3,000
4-H Club News Letter ......................................... 4 20,000
Wartime Goals and Records in Home Improve-
ment for Florida 4-H Club Girls ............... 4 10,000
Florida Clothing Program for 4-H Club Girls.... 4 10,000
Secretary's Record Book, Florida 4-H Clubs...... 28 2,500
Agricultural News Service (weekly clipsheet),
42 issues, each ............................................. 1 900
Bulletins, circulars, record books, charts, window cards and other sup-
plies are distributed from the Mailing Room, the bulletins and circulars
going to all county and home agents and to others on request. Ninety-eight
agents in 62 counties reported that they distributed 182,991 bulletins of
all kinds.

NEWS AND FARM PAPER ITEMS
Despite demands for space by various wartime agencies of the govern-
ment and decreasing supplies of paper, both newspapers and farm journals
circulating in Florida continued to make wide use of information supplied
by the Extension Service editorial office and by county and home agents.
The clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, carrying from 8 to 15 items
each week, was printed and distributed to weekly newspapers, farm jour-
nals and a few dailies. Many of them were generous in the amount of
material they clipped and reprinted, thus carrying information of consider-
able importance and timeliness to their readers. Associated Press and
United Press wire services released in condensed form the most important
items each week, in addition to carrying stories filed especially for them.
In addition to the items contained in the clipsheet the editors sent 51
special stories to the wire services and 124 to 1 or more weekly and daily
papers. The stories related not only to the Extension Service but also
to the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station, State Plant Board,
Agricultural Adjustment Agency, Soil Conservation Service and other
agencies.
The Editors prepared 16 skeleton stories and sent to county and home
demonstration agents to be filled in and released locally. Ninety-eight
agents in 62 counties report 5,717 news stories of theirs published in local
papers.
Farm journals, both local and national, also were generous in their use
of material written by the Extension Editors, 10 of them-1 Florida, 4
Southern and 5 national--carrying 32 articles amounting to 585 column
inches of space.

BROADCASTING ACTIVITIES
The Florida Farm Hour at noon each day, reduced during the year to
slightly less than 45 minutes, continued to be the principal radio outlet
for the Extension Service, but farm flashes in cooperation with the USDA
were sent for 5 days each week to 14 county agents for passing on to their
local radio stations and for use in their own broadcasts.
A review of the year's work reveals that 944 talks and other features







Annual Report, 1944


were given on the Florida Farm Hour, in addition to market and weather
reports. Experiment Station staff members made 159 of these, the Dean
of the College of Agriculture appeared 10 times and other teachers also
were heard 10 times, the head of the Florida USDA War Board spoke once
each month, 4 USDA transcriptions were used, a State Plant Board worker
made 1 talk, and 165 USDA farm flashes were read. The 3 Editors pre-
pared 23 special talks and 463 daily and other regular features.
Special programs featured food production goals, Boy Scouts, Christ-
mas, a dairy field day, child health, annual county agents' conference, State
Home Demonstration Council meeting, and interviews with 4-H club boys,
farmers and visiting agricultural workers from this country and Honduras
and the Bahamas.
Sixty-nine Extension service talks were reworked into farm flashes
and forwarded to other stations.
The Editors in May began sending a regular weekly roundup of agri-
cultural news to Press Association for distribution to its client stations.
Around 100 of the WRUF talks by College of Agriculture, Experiment
Station and Extension Service workers were revised and forwarded to
Florida farm papers, where they were used extensively.
Twenty-eight county and home agents in 21 counties reported making
605 radio talks during the year, a tremendous increase over previous years.
In addition to the farm flashes, agents were sent 1 basic radio talk on
4-H mobilization, the manuscript for which was prepared by the Editors.

MISCELLANEOUS WORK
As usual, the Editors and Mailing Clerks gave a good portion of their
time to work for the Experiment Station, under the terms of their cooper-
ative employment.
The State Plant Board, as has been its custom, paid for the printing of
10 issues of the weekly clipsheet.
The Editor continued to make a large number of pictures, with a camera
supplied by the Agricultural Adjustment Agency. A good portion of the
pictures were used in various ways shortly after they were made.
The Editor, in conjunction with the Extension Forester, made up one
filmstrip for use by county agents in training their club members and
farmers to set pine trees. A filmstrip library was established during the
year, with more than 50 strips available for loan.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES

A. P. Spencer, Director
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent

As is natural in wartime, personnel problems were of considerable
importance during the year. The Extension Service has been fortunate,
however, in securing satisfactory replacements for agents who have entered
the armed services or resigned to go into private business. Emergency
war food assistant agents were appointed in a number of counties and
rendered very satisfactory service.
Training given new and untrained agents was largely on the job and
through visits made by them to the State office of the Extension Service
and Experiment Station and to other counties having problems similar to
those in the county where they planned to work. The District Agents go
into the philosophy and history of Extension work and methods the new
agent may use in accomplishing the most good. Plans for professional
improvement of the agents in service, through college training, have had
to be held in abeyance during the war.
The war, with its attendant emergency agricultural programs, has
forced the county agent to organize his office and his work for best efficiency
to accomplish the numerous duties heaped upon him.
County agents were assisted in planning their programs of work for
the year through group and district conferences, attended by representa-
tives of the State office and other organizations. After being given the
facts of the situation, the agents could evolve and adopt their own pro-
grams, in cooperation with their county agricultural leaders.

FOOD FOR THE HUNGRY

Agents joined farm families in striving to do everything possible to
produce the maximum amount of food to meet the demands of war. Goals
recommended by the War Food Administration and adopted by Florida
agricultural agencies in a conference called by the Agricultural Adjust-
ment Agency served as the basis for recommendations by county agents.
Peanuts have been the number 1 war crop in counties where they are
grown, and Florida farmers have tripled their production of harvested
nuts. Since harvested peanuts are quite soil-depleting, farmers have
been interested in planting winter cover of legumes to follow peanuts,
and county agents have encouraged and assisted them in this.
County agents staged a number of demonstrations on the value of dust-
ing peanut vines with sulphur to control leafspot disease, and results were
so astounding-40 percent increase in yield in some cases-that the dusting
is expected to be widely used next year.
Cotton.-Acreage devoted to cotton in western Florida has steadily
declined, making way for the production of more essential crops such as
peanuts. However, quality and length of staple have been materially im-
proved in recent years through county crop improvement associations spon-
sored by county agents and through the establishment of 1-variety cotton
communities.
Cotton classification records show that in 1939 over 80 percent of
Florida's upland cotton was less than 1 inch in length, while in 1944 at







Annual Report, 1944 21




X.




.-f,~;, ,^l-- J













Fig. 2.-This Jackson County farmer is planting peanuts on the contour, a
fine practice on sloping land. (SCS photo.)

least 85 percent was 1 inch or longer. Improved varieties and production
methods accounted for the increase.
Commercial Vegetables.-Florida's truck crop farmers have increased
their production of vegetables to help keep the country well fed. Fertilizer
could be obtained more readily during 1944 than during the previous season,
but labor has remained scarce. Through the cooperation of the AAA, the
Extension farm labor program and the best efforts of the farm families
themselves, there was practically no loss of produce.
Home Gardens.-While the home garden fever was not as intense this
year as last, the efficient producers went right ahead with good garden
programs, while the inefficient ones dropped by the wayside. Better quality
gardens were in evidence, and there were sufficient vegetables for everyone.
Citrus.-The problem of handling the ever-growing amount of citrus
produced has turned county agents' thoughts to lines other than produc-
tion. Citrus concentrates, frozen citrus juice and citrus pulp as a dairy
feed are believed to hold a good part of the answer.
The county agents, by giving out information on its value and breaking
down prejudice against something entirely new, have helped materially
in popularizing dried citrus pulp as a feed.
The Dairy Situation.-Many small dairymen have been forced out of
business by wartime conditions, and agents have rendered them every
assistance in closing out their operations where it was necessary for them
to quit dairying. Most of the cows, however, were purchased by large
dairymen, who increased their output to help meet the unprecedented de-
mand for milk.
The farm labor setup of the Extension Service assisted dairymen to
obtain some much-needed additional labor, but most dairies operated short-
handed.







22 Florida Cooperative Extension

Livestock and Pastures.-The fine work of Extension agents in the
establishing of improved pastures did not abate this year, and the livestock
industry is forging steadily ahead. Better animals and more feed are
being combined.
Water control and conservation are receiving intense consideration in
the southern part of the State, as it is realized that water conservation
is essential to a successful future livestock program. The agents have
cooperated with soil conservation districts in this and other activities.
Local Leaders.-The necessities of war have brought a great increase
in the use of volunteer local leaders. They have assisted the agents in
setting goals and then conducting an educational program to encourage
farm families of the counties to attain those goals.







Annual Report, 1944


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist

WAR WORK
Economic Information and Outlook.-The agricultural situation was in-
fluenced rather frequently by regulations of the Office of Price Administra-
tion, by changes in war situations and adverse weather. The general pub-
licity given by the radio and press to all such changes usually made it
appear futile for a State Extension Economist to issue any statements
regarding economic situations or outlook. However, in cooperation with
the Marketing Specialist, files of all OPA regulations received by this
office were kept and the best available information was supplied on request.
More than 4,000 farmers were given assistance in outlook and other in-
formation.
Assistance was given by the Specialist in the preparation of a report
on postwar agricultural production adjustments in Florida under assumed
conditions, and much time was given to postwar planning for the State
of Florida. Assistance was given also to the production goals committee
of the Florida State War Board in the preparation of State goals.
Services to Veterans.-In keeping with Federal and State programs for
veterans, considerable data have been collected in preparation for meeting
the needs not only of returning veterans but also of war workers when they
wish to take up agriculture. The same data will be valuable also in older
youth programs and for thousands who may migrate to Florida.
Committees to aid veterans have been named in most counties, some of
which have been active for months. One, in a beef cattle county, is a
group of 5 men selected from the livestock association. In another county
there is an agricultural committee composed of chairmen of 7 sub-com-
mittees and 3 business men with agricultural interests. The agricultural
committee serves with 6 other committees in an effort to build a complete
economic and social program for a whole trade area. Most of the active
committees are setting up standards and recommendations which are in-
tended to guide prospective farmers who wish to make a good living by
farming.
Emphasis is being placed on the need of starting with a farm business
large enough to pay well. Ownership of small units is being discouraged,
except with those who will have non-farm income.
Agents are encouraged to use active existing organizations rather than
to set up new and overlapping committees. Outlines of items for discussion
at committee meetings are being sent to agents. Some counties will have
only brief reports; others will be rather complete, including statistics and
maps.
Various specialists are asked to assist in county committee meetings.
They also review manuscripts for publication. Officials of the Veterans
Administration have been consulted from time to time for the purpose of
coordinating efforts.
Miscellaneous Activities.-Assistance was rendered in various war bond
and scrap drives. Help was also given to Emergency Extension Agents
with their food production and conservation programs and to the Victory
Garden Committee in its efforts to secure a maximum number of gardens








24 Florida Cooperative Extension

in the State. Four hundred victory garden pledge cards and 1,500 window
stickers were furnished to negro agents.
A series of 4 folders was published containing suggestions to farmers
for using their incomes. The leading suggestions are to get debts in shape,
secure needed land if farm is too small, make necessary improvements,
and save by buying war bonds.

REGULAR PROGRAM
Individual Farm Planning.-Twelve county agents were instructed in
methods of analyzing the business of low-income farmers and making
acceptable recommendations for changes which would increase the farm
income. Individual instructions were given to 8 white agents and a 2-day
school was held for instructing negro agents. Those agents have visited
113 low-income farmers and made 761 recommendations, of which 553
were carried out in a creditable manner.
Two neighborhoods were organized for educational meetings to save
the agent's time in making follow-up contacts. Other cooperators were
visited from 2 to 4 times during the year to give further assistance and to
measure progress. Timely circular letters and applicable publications of
the Extension Service and Experiment Station were sent to all cooperators.
Farm Records.-Farm record books have been supplied to more than
2,000 farmers and assistance has been given to many of them in entering
inventories and otherwise posting their books. Noted improvement has
been made by farmers in their record keeping during 1944 as a result of
their realization of the advantages to be obtained from accurate records
when they compute income tax returns.
Federal Income Tax.-Approximately 6,000 copies of "Farm Bookkeep-
ing and the Federal Income Tax" were distributed to farmers. More than
1,100 farmers have been personally assisted with their income tax returns
by county agents and the Farm Management Specialist.
Forest Farming Study.-Farm and woodland records have been secured
from 19 cooperating farmers for the third consecutive year of a 5-year
project which is being conducted in cooperation with the Florida State
Forest and Park Service. Visits are made by both the Farm Management
Specialist and the Farm Forester to the farms several times each year.
Management recommendations fitting war conditions are offered in regard
to both the farm and the woodland.
Miscellaneous.-Classes in principles of farm management were con-
ducted for a total of 320 4-H club boys and girls at 3 camps. Interest in
the subject was greater than in any other agricultural subject ever pre-
sented to club members by the Specialist.

MARKETING ACTIVITIES

D. E. Timmons, Marketing Economist

Adjusting Production to Wartime Needs.-All Extension specialists,
the AAA and many other State and Federal agencies cooperated in deter-
mining what crops were needed most, what areas might be expected to
increase production, the quantity of labor and materials needed and the
marketing facilities necessary in obtaining the increased food needs for
this country and its allies.
In advising increased production, caution was taken to see that crops
were not planted until facilities for marketing were assured. Growers








Annual Report, 1944


were urged to avoid over-expansion and especially to avoid trying to pro-
duce large quantities of crops on land not suited or with labor and manage-
ment not experienced in their production.
Results of the production effort may be seen in the following figures:
During the 1939-40 season Florida produced 185,000 carloads of fruits
and vegetables; 1942-43 production was 225,000; 1943-44 season production
was 261,000. Tomatoes, pepper, snap beans, celery and citrus accounted
for a large proportion of this increase.
Farm Labor.-Camp managers, local placement men and the farm labor
office were contacted relative to labor needs. The economist spent 2 weeks
at 1 of the labor camps, which consisted of labor recruits mostly from
adjoining states, to determine the psychology of the workers, type of
workers being recruited and how they might be utilized to best advantage.
A report was made to the farm labor office and a survey was made through-
out the State to determine just how serious the labor situation was.
Diseases and insects, adverse weather, shortages of marketing and trans-
portation facilities, price and many other factors were of paramount
importance.
Using the years 1936-40 as 100, the index of cost of farm labor was
116 in 1941, 150 in 1942, 211 in 1943 and 281 in 1944.
Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives.-The Florida Council of Farmer
Cooperatives, an educational trade association composed of bona fide co-
operative marketing, purchasing and service organizations as active mem-
bers and Extension Service, Production Credit Associations, and the like, as
associate members, consists of 28 cooperatives, including the Florida Citrus
Exchange.
The tonnage represented by council members is approximately 75 per-
cent of that of farmer cooperative tonnage in Florida. Citrus, vegetables,
sugar, dairy and livestock cooperatives are all represented in the council.
Community Canning Centers.-War conditions have created a consider-
able demand for home preservation of food and in a number of Florida
communities it is felt that canning centers are the most practical approach
to the satisfaction of this demand. Specialists from commercial organ-
izations assisted county agents in making surveys to determine needs for
canning centers, holding schools and locating equipment.
Organized Food Distributors.-In many states there are organized trade
associations which promote the interests of chain distributors, including
food stores. The Florida Chain Store Association, with headquarters in
Orlando, has added to its personnel a specialist in agriculture whose duty
it is to work with agricultural groups and with the facilities of its mem-
bership assemble and distribute agricultural products. He was supplied
with information on goals, outlook and other educational data for his use.
Three conferences between food distributor representatives and pro-
duction specialists were held where specialists referred to production prob-
lems and commodities that could be produced in commercial quantities if
distributors had the facilities to serve those producing areas. Distributor
representatives stated the type of commodity most in demand and the
-form, grade, size, etc., which met best consumer acceptance.
Civic Organizations.-Civic organizations have long been interested in
agriculture. Price ceilings, fear of food shortages and possibly agricul-
ture's being better organized have resulted in an intensified effort on the
part of civic groups to have a greater part in the agricultural program.
More requests than usual were made for outlook material, appearances on
programs and for participation in conferences on agriculture. Determin-
ing and bringing to the attention of these groups those things that have








Florida Cooperative Extension


been found more practical in a research way and preventing the use of
misinformation have been important phases of this project.
Farmer Cooperatives.-More interest has been shown by groups in the
formation of farmer cooperatives during the last year than ever before,
not only by groups interested in organizing local associations, but by local
groups interested in federating and by a number of interstate cooperatives
interested in working with Florida farmers.
In forming a cooperative the procedure followed is to survey the local
situation with reference to volume of business that a prospective cooper-
ative might be expected to have, the type of facilities that would be
needed, personnel and qualifications needed, number of farmers interested
and whether or not they have the spirit of working together in a group.
If a cooperative does not seem practical, those who originally made the
request will decide against its organization.
Shortages of feed and supplies are factors explaining the demand for
a purchasing type of cooperative. Dairymen and poultrymen have found
it quite difficult to obtain the right kind and quantity of feeds. Some of
the larger producers have found it necessary to go to feed-producing areas
and try to purchase direct. Needless to say, this involves considerable
expense and time, the result being a demand on the part of producers to
form cooperatives and hire personnel to go to these areas and get their
feed, fertilizer and supplies.
Agricultural Trade Associations.-The Florida Citrus Commission, made
possible by special acts of the State Legislature; the Florida Farm Bureau,
a branch of the American Farm Bureau Federation; the Producers' Trade
Association, composed primarily of citrus grower-shippers and farmer
cooperatives; the United Growers and Shippers, a citrus group composed
largely of on-tree buyers with some cooperative groups as members; the
Hillsborough Economic Development Committee; the Florida Citrus Mar-
keting Agreement Committees; the Florida Canners' Association; and the
Florida Vegetable Committee are agricultural trade associations, most of
which are organized as cooperatives.

MISCELLANEOUS
Pecans.-The State Marketing Bureau, Department of Markets and the
Extension Service have cooperated for 3 seasons in assisting in marketing
pecans. A committee of these groups meets prior to the pecan season and
makes plans for holding cooperative pecan sales which are usually held
at State markets. The Extension Service announces opening dates for
the markets, time of opening, who will be in charge and such market in-
formation as is available on supply and demand for pecans. County agents
are assisted in making up notices of these markets and their openings
and as many as possible of the sales are attended.
Grades, Standards and Packages.-The war situation has so upset grades,
standards and packages that it may take years to regain the progress
previously made in their improvement.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT

Zach Savage, Economist in Farm Management
An economic study of grove management has been carried on by the
Extension Service since 1930-31, during which period Florida citrus growers
have experienced widely varying conditions as to fertilizer and spray
recommendations, rainfall, labor and material costs, availability of labor,







Annual Report, 1944 27

machinery and equipment, other production problems, fruit prices and
general price level. Under such conditions accurate records are valuable
to the individual grower in forming a basis for future management. These
grove records collectively have supplied excellent data for planning in the
war effort.
A summary of costs and returns for 12 seasons was prepared and a
copy supplied to the Citrus Industry for publication.
Two hundred sixty grove records were obtained during the year. One
hundred forty-four were supplied by the grower and 116 were obtained
by the project leader through visitation and taking the record from the
cooperator's own records.
The project leader was appointed 1 of the advisers to the committee on
education and research, citrus department, Florida Farm Bureau, which
is interested in grower grove records, their interpretation, and getting
the results in the hands of citrus growers who do not cooperate in the
citrus record work as well as those who do cooperate.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY ACCOMPLISHMENTS
J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist

Approximately 83 percent of the farms of the State are operated by
white people and 17 percent by negroes; 72 percent are operated by owners.
The average size of the farms is 83 acres. The cultivated areas of many
farms are generally too small to be most economically operated. The
smallest farm which produces general farm crops does not supply suffi-
cient income to provide an adequate standard of living for the family, even
when most efficiently operated and prices are reasonably good, as they
were this last year.
Soil conservation districts are now organized in about one-half of the
State. The Florida Crop Improvement Association has been organized
to handle programs that will assist in improving the agriculture of north-
ern Florida.
It has been estimated that 500,000 acres of the 725,000 acres of crop
land in Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, Jackson, Wash-
ington, Calhoun, Leon, Gadsden, Jefferson and Madison counties are sub-
ject to surface erosion.
It has been shown that improved grasses such as carpet, Bahia, Dallis,
Napier and white and other clover plants established on pastures increase
the carrying capacity of the land from 5 to 20 times that of the native
grasses.
Objectives.-The Extension agronomy work was aimed at, first, per-
suading ana assisting the farmers of Florida in doing their part in meeting
the war food and feed needs; second, informing them of the most economi-
cal agronomic production practices known; third, explaining how they
can make the best out of the fertilizers which they can secure; and fourth,
informing them as to how they can best maintain their soil fertility during
the war period.
Goals and Accomplishments.-The radio, newspapers, circular letters
and brief circulars, meetings and personal contacts were used extensively
by Extension workers in getting the production goals and improved prac-
tices before the farmers this year.
The 1944 field crop production goals and accomplishments for Florida
were as follows: Peanuts, goal 305,000 acres grown alone and 150,000
to be dug, accomplished 256,000 acres grown and 120,000 acres dug; upland
cotton, goal 46,000 acres of longer staples, accomplished 35,000 acres, 86
percent of which was 1 inch staple and better; flue-cured tobacco, 16,200
acres, accomplished 15,000 acres; corn 775,000, accomplished 752,000; oats
52,000, accomplished 80,000; hay 160,000, accomplished 150,000; sugarcane
33,000, accomplished 30,000; sweet potatoes 30,000, accomplished 20,000;
gardens, goal all possible-accomplished.
Winter Cover and Manure Crops.-Since 1926 there has been some in-
terest in producing winter-growing legume cover and manure crops in
Florida. This early interest reached its peak in 1931. Austrian peas and
hairy vetch were the crops used then. Interest subsided because of fall
droughts, ravages of disease, distance of seed supply and the fact that
inoculation was not always good.
The Florida Experiment Station distributed the first commercial quan-
tity of blue lupine seed, another winter-growing legume. It has several
advantages over the vetches and Austrian peas in that it produces a heavier
crop of seed, can be planted earlier than the peas or vetches and will pro-
duce a larger tonnage of green manure within a given time. In 1942-43
there were 637 farms that grew 14,032 acres of winter legumes in 21 coun-














I /.


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Fig. 3.-New varieties of oats, such as Florida 167 (left) and Quincy White (right) are enabling this crop to stage a
strong comeback in Florida. It produces cheap feed, requiring comparatively small amounts of labor.


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30 Florida Cooperative Extension

ties, most of which was blue lupine. There were approximately 1%' million
pounds of seed produced. This was enough to plant approximately 20,000
acres in 1943. About 1,600,000 pounds of seed were produced in 1944.
There were 883,865 pounds of blue lupine seed planted, on between 12,000
and 16,000 acres this fall, and 219,000 pounds of Austrians peas and 92,810
pounds of vetch seed were distributed and planted on 11,967 acres. These
were generally higher quality than last year.
Preparaing for this year's planting program, the Extension Agronomist
published and distributed 7,500 copies of circular 79 entitled "Growing
Manure With Blue Lupine in Florida" and secured and distributed 5,000
copies of a USDA Farmers' Bulletin on lupines.
Developing a Farm Program for the White-Fringed Beetle Area.-Oka-
loosa, Walton and Escambia counties are infested with the white-fringed
beetle, a pest destructive to all spring-planted crops. Research has shown
certain outstanding facts, among which are these: The beetle does most
damage to crops when it is in the larval stage; it is in the soils for 10
months in this stage and is very active in the spring; peanuts, velvet beans
and certain weeds and vegetables commonly grown in the area are the
most desirable food plants and the beetle is capable of laying an abund-
ance of eggs when feeding on such crops, but very few when feeding on
grass and like crops; and, where peanuts, velvet beans and such crops
grow, a heavy "build up" of larvae occurs sufficient to destroy almost any
spring-planted crop.
With counsel of the Research and Quarantine Divisions of the U. S.
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, the Florida Experiment
Station, Soil Conservation Service, Farm Security Administration and
Plant Board employees, the Extension Service developed a farm program
which called for the following: Peanuts to be grown on the same area
not more often than once in 3 or 4 years; interplanting of corn with velvet
beans to be eliminated, or, either or both of these crops removed as far
from the infested area as possible; and oats and winter legumes added
to the list of crops grown-these crops to be grown on the areas of the
farm where the heaviest infestation would be expected to appear the next
spring.
The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine inspected and checked
every farm and reported in the spring of 1944 that 26.7 percent of the crop
land was grown to these crops in the 1943-44 season in the Florida area.
Satisfactory progress was made and inspection of fields showed that no
damage was done these winter-growing crops by the larvae in heavily
infested fields.







Annual Report, 1944


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY
A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman

The objective of the meat animal work has been to produce meat for
the war effort and to keep the livestock industry on a healthy, sound,
profitable and economical basis to meet postwar conditions.
Wartime Beef and Hog Suggestions.-To meet emergency needs and
aid in meat animal production, folders entitled "Raise Healthy Pigs for
War Needs" and "Wartime Beef Suggestions" were prepared and sent all
over the State.
Extension livestock work was accomplished through close cooperation
with county agents and existing agencies and through the use of circular
letters, news articles, radio talks, meetings, tours and personal visits.
Negro agents were specifically instructed in hog and beef cattle pro-
duction with special attention being placed on home meat supply for farms
and succession of feed crops to prevent the starving period of hogs in the
spring. During the year all negro agents and members of the A. & M.
College staff were furnished with copies of the 1944 meat animal goals
and current information, and were instructed in war needs.
Early Marketing of Livestock.-In accordance with instructions from
the Federal office, 3 conferences of county agents and producers were
called in the State at which the meat animal goals and livestock situation
were discussed. As a result of these conferences the July, August, Septem-
ber and October sales of cattle and calves were larger than for the same
period of 1943, with hog sales in August and September 25 percent higher
than the same period a year earlier.

BEEF CATTLE
Bulls for Herd Replacement.-Good breeding bulls are the foundation
on which herd improvement is based. In cooperation with county agents,
breeders and dealers, bulls were located for cattlemen. Gas and tire
shortage curtailed the shipping in of many bulls. Nevertheless more than
1,400 purebred bulls were placed in the State, many of which were raised
here. Florida breeders were assisted in growing out and placing their
bulls. One cattleman sold around 300 high grade and 80 purebred Brahma
bulls. One Polled Hereford breeder sold 60 home-raised bulls and a number
of other Florida breeders produced and sold various numbers of good bulls.
This home bull supply is a boon to beef production during wartime.
Ten years ago there were practically no breeders of purebred beef cattle
in the State. Today there are more than 100 good herds of Angus, Here-
ford, Polled Hereford and Brahmas, some of which are on a sound, eco-
nomical basis while a few have been established under high prices and the
urge to own purebred animals.
Selecting and Developing Heifers for Herd Replacement.-Growing out
"select" heifers for herd replacement and culling cows to increase the "calf
crop" are becoming common practices with cattlemen. One cattleman has
1,000 2-year old heifers to add to his herd next spring, and is sending
1,000 cull cows to market in addition to selling 500 heifers and cows for
breeding purposes. The quality of the grade herds has been improved
by selection and growing out of heifers and using good bulls to such an







Florida Cooperative Extension


extent that more than 1,500 heifers and cows have been sold for herd re-
placement. Breeding heifers to calve at 2 to 3 years of age has cut
down on death rate at calving time and produced heavier calves at wean-
ing and heavier, stronger breeding cows.
Winter Feeding.-Controlled breeding and winter feeding go together
for the betterment of the cattleman. Bulls were separated from the herd
on many pastures and put on winter pastures or feed. Throughout the
beef-producing areas cattlemen are making arrangements for winter feed-
ing as a business investment.
Feeding the cow herd is growing in popularity. Formerly, great quan-
tities of citrus pulp from canning plants were dumped in groves or on waste
land. Now much of this pulp is manufactured into dry cow feed. Still
there are large quantities of pulp in excess of the capacity of the drying
plants.
Many cattlemen near the canning plants are feeding the fresh pulp
to their breeding herds with good results. Cattle wintered on wet pulp
last year were fat in the spring and dropped and raised good calves that
averaged $46.50 on the market.
Sugarcane for winter feeding has become popular, due to heavy tonnage
of growth per acre and results of feeding tests.
Scarcity of protein feeds has helped to increase the acreage of oats
for winter grazing. The new rust-resistant varieties of oats have been
of great value to the livestock men.
Pasture Development.-Pasture improvement work has been curtailed
by labor shortage. More than a dozen counties report harvesting grass
seed for local plantings.
Fertilizing and liming pasture land greatly increased this season, with
county agents reporting 955 farmers fertilizing pastures and 626 farmers
putting lime on pastures.
Cutting briers, weeds and bushes increases the efficiency of the pasture.
Cattle gain and produce more pounds of beef where grass can grow in the
sunshine.
Brahma Breeders' Association.-The Florida breeders of Brahmas or-
ganized the Florida Brahma Breeders' Association, affiliating with the
National Brahma Breeders' Association. The purpose of the association
is to further Brahma cattle breeding and improve beef cattle in the State.
The first purebred show and sale was scheduled for February 1, 2 and 8,
1945, in Ocala.
Florida breeders were urged to assume the responsibility for produc-
ing bulls for herd improvement. War needs for meat in 1944 called for
an increase over 1943. Slaughter and marketing regulations caused some
confusion and uneasiness with both producers and processors and slowed
up the work. Regardless of regulations and market conditions, indications
are that Florida cattlemen will reach their goals.
Cattle and Horse Shows.-Three cattle shows and 2 horse shows were
held this year. At the Fat Stock Show in Ocala 180 steers were shown
and sold for $32,737.54, an average of $23.51 per hundred pounds.
Ten herds of purebred cattle and 21 grade herds were shown at the
Range Cattle and Horse Show at Kissimmee. At the horse show 42 ani-
mals competed in the ring. Seventy-five cow horses were in the workout,
showing cutting and herding ability of both horse and rider. At Arcadia
there were 155 purebred cattle and 55 head of excellent cow horses in the
show.







Annual Report, 1944 33

HOG WORK
Since hog production in Florida depends on field crops that can be
gathered by the hogs-peanuts, corn, cowpeas, chufas and oats-and since
the number of pigs raised per litter affects the feed costs per hog, our main
work this year has been feed production and raising healthy pigs.
Beginning in the fall of 1943 county agents were urged to advise farm-
ers to plant feed for early spring pigs. Circular letters were sent out to
county agents, farmers and to the press on finishing hogs for early market.
Reports show that 25 percent more hogs went to Florida markets in
August and September, 1944, than in the same months of 1943. A Gadsden
County farmer sent 300 No. 1 hogs to market in August, which had been
grown during the spring on oats with little other feed.
Raise Healthy Pigs.-Controlling parasites and growing crops for pigs,
together, will fit into hog production in Florida. County agents reported
1,966 farmers practicing control of external parasites and 6,300 farmers
controlling internal parasites in hogs.
Mineral supplements were used by more farmers during this year than
formerly, due to the fact that these minerals can be put out where hogs can
get them at will. Minerals and feed help to raise healthy pigs and prevent
a starving period in spring.
Farm Families' Meat Supply.-Farmers were urged to produce, process
and store sufficient meat for home use in order that transportation and
marketing facilities, labor shortage and cold-storage space at packing-
houses might be relieved.
Cold-storage meat curing plants have served a purpose in this State
and aided in the war effort. Information on-curing meat was furnished
to all county and home agents, to all negro agents and to every meat curing
plant in the State. Last season more than 8,000,000 pounds of meat were
cured by the meat curing houses.

WORK STOCK
County agents' reports still show an interest in work stock, especially
on small farms in western Florida and on cattle outfits in central and
southern Florida. Information on feeding and care of the work animals,
with special reference to keeping the animals healthy, was furnished.
County agents report more than 300 farmers were instructed in better
feeding of animals, over 200 farmers instructed in controlling external
parasites and more than 400 instructed in controlling internal parasites
in horses. Throughout the cattle country animals have been inoculated
against "sleeping sickness."
During the year 14 farmers secured stallions and 38 more secured
mares for colt production.
4-H CLUB WORK
Material on selecting, feeding and growing out of calves, pigs and colts
was furnished to county agents for club members.
Twenty 4-H club members showed well-finished steers at Ocala. These
evidenced the results of instruction and close attention to the business of
feeding out animals. A 4-H club calf, reserve champion of the show and
champion 4-H club calf, brought 610 a pound.
County agents report 368 4-H club boys and girls completed beef
projects, 1,082 completed swine projects and 97 completed horse and mule
projects.
Alachua and Hillsborough boys entered the National Polled Hereford
Judging Contest at Atlanta.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Methods of doing dairy work in 1944 differed from those used in pre-
vious years. The 8-point dairy program was featured and dairy work, as
much as possible, was built around the goals program. The 8-point pro-
gram is as follows: Grow more forage as pasture, silage, and hay; fertilize
all forage to increase quality and quantity; provide supplementary annual
grazing crops; give cows at least 6 weeks dry period; feed concentrates
according to production; keep as many cows as feed and labor will permit;
breed for better herd replacements-use safety bull pens; produce good
quality milk and avoid waste.
The dairy organizations, including the Florida State Dairymen's Asso-
ciation, the Florida Dairy Products Association, the Florida Jersey Cattle
Club and the Guernsey Cattle Club, with the various dairy associations,
cooperated as best they could under wartime conditions.
The feed situation improved steadily from January 1. Timely rains,
which were above normal, increased grazing and saved money and work
spent in fertilizing pastures. Grazing crops were helpful in reducing the
amount of feed consumed and greatly increased the supply of protein avail-
able.
Probably no 1 thing contributed more to helping the Florida dairy
production program in 1944 than the subsidy payments made available
through the AAA, which amounted to $2,228,767.59.

THE S-POINT DAIRY PROGRAM
Grow More Forage as Pasture, Silage, and Hay.-During 1944 some
13,000 acres of pasture were set with sod or root cuttings or seeded. The
great value of the pasture program was the large number of small farmers
owning family cows and smaller market milk dairymen who made.plantings
of the special varieties of grass, including Coastal Bermuda, Pangola,
Pensacola Bahia, common Bahia and other grasses. These varieties wc-re
spread over some 640 dairy farms in Florida where commonly grown carpet
grass and other kinds of grass that grow better on the moist lands have
not been adapted.
Seventy-four new farmers planted some forage cane to be fed green
in the fall. Some was converted into silage and some stacked to be chopped
and fed during the winter months. It was estimated that some 15,000
acres were planted to sorghum in 1944 for silage purposes.
Fertilize All Forage to Increase Quality and Quantity.-The 15,000
acres that have been fertilized through the AAA grant of aid allotment
of phosphate and limestone have served to spread the use of fertilizers and
increase forage production among some 650 new farms that did not fertilize
in previous years.
Provide Supplementary Annual Grazing Crops.-Cattail millet can be
planted by the first of the year in southern Florida and may be seeded
anywhere from February to March in northern and western Florida. It
fits in well in the early fall on farms where it is seeded in late July or
early August as a grazing crop to come on after the regular pasture
grasses are retarded on account of limited rainfall and the end of season
growth.
The seeding of oats has more than doubled in the last 2 years, with
an estimate of something over 100,000 acres having been seeded. Fertiliza-
tion of oats, together with the improved rust-resistant varieties, has prac-
tically revolutionized the growing of this crop.














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Fig. 4.-Despite drastic shortages of labor, Florida dairymen have kept their herds producing at top speed to help
supply critically needed dairy products.


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Florida Cooperative Extension


The seeding of rye has been reduced, due to increased interest in im-
proved varieties of oats. However, rye is a valuable winter crop for small
farms in counties where there are large numbers of small farmers.
Large acreages of rye grass were seeded in some counties through grant
of aid payments under the AAA. In Broward County 22,000 acres were
seeded, a large amount of which were used in grazing dairy animals.
Give Cows at Least 6 Weeks Dry Period.-During normal pre-war times
market milk farmers of Florida had a marked reduction in the consump-
tion of milk during the summer months, which usually provided at least
2 to 3 months dry period for all their cows. However, in wartimes when
there is year-round demand for milk, there has been a tendency for some
dairymen to overlook the allotted 2 months' dry period recommended in
most states.
Feed Concentrates According to Production.-Practically all of our
county agents use this point to get dairymen interested in estimating
the amounts of concentrate feed for high-producing cows. During the
year there was a radical change in the feed situation. The State AAA
office was very helpful in getting an improved distribution of feeds. In
addition to high-content protein feeds now available, steamed bone meal
is available in most areas in Florida.
Keep as Many Cows as Feed and Labor Will Permit.-Extensive con-
struction of air bases and all kinds of building and preparations for the
housing and maintenance of the armed forces now training in Florida and
employment of labor in the shipyards in Florida, to say nothing of drafted
dairy laborers, have caused labor to be the biggest problem confronting
Florida dairy farms. Most dairymen have been able to get necessary
milking machines and modern equipment for carrying on dairy operations
through the State War Board office. Probably the most important factor
is that dairymen are finally reducing their herds rather than attempting
to peak the production beyond practical means.
Breed for Better Herd Replacements-Use Safety Bull Pens.-This pro-
gram was enlarged through the 4-H club work. The programs put on by
the dairy breed associations, through the cooperation of the State Dairy-
men's Association, have been helpful in creating wide interest in improving
the dairy animals on the farm. There is greater demand in all areas of
the State for Dairy Herd Improvement Association and official testing
than in previous years.
Produce Good Quality Milk and Avoid Waste.-This program has be-
come more important each year with the extensive use of milking machines.
Among all the dairy cow diseases and ailments, mastitis has become the
most serious problem now prevailing on dairy farms throughout the State
and dairymen in general are looking for something to cure it. The success-
ful control of mastitis through systematic handling of infected animals,
segregating the diseased animals from the herd, and more careful manange-
ment of the milking operations are the only successful measures now in use.
Bangs' disease is more critical now than it has been in the last 10 years.
The program of testing and slaughter has been badly disrupted by the
drafting of veterinarians into the armed services. Frequent changes of
veterinarians, with serious labor shortage on dairy farms, have left many
herds with infected cows among them that are getting no immediate relief.
The Florida Dairymen's Association and the State Dairy Products Asso-
ciation are both concerned about the bangs' disease program and it is hoped
that some practical solution will be worked out in the near future.







Annual Report, 1944 37

THE FAMILY COW
Number of Farms in Florida Having Dairy Cows.-The U. S. Census
Bureau in 1940 listed 27,159 Florida farms reporting 1 or more milk cows.
There are probably 33,000 farms with dairy cows now, according to the
Florida office of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. About 90 percent
of the farms reporting are keeping dairy animals largely for the milk
they produce as a part of the family living.
Milk is the No. 1 Food.-Because of the importance of milk as a nearly
perfect food, with the vitamins and minerals that make it a protective
food for children and adults, great emphasis has been given to the family
cow program by all agricultural workers for the last 10 years. It is esti-
mated by the Department of Agriculture that 60,000 family cows produced
193,500,000 pounds of milk during the period from October 31, 1943, to
November 1, 1944, against an approximate 347 million pounds produced
by the market milk dairies of the State.

POULTRY KEEPING

Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
A. Woodrow O'Steen, Extension Poultryman
F. M. Dennis, Supervisor Egg-Laying Test
The 1944 goals program requested a reduction instead of an expansion
in poultry production. During 1943 increases were registered in egg pro-
duction, chickens raised, turkeys raised and pounds of poultry meat pro-
duced, while the 1944 goals requested the same egg production as in 1943,
9 percent fewer chickens raised, a 22 percent decrease in commercial broil-
ers and an 8 percent decrease in turkeys raised.
Florida's Poultry Industry.-The number of hens and pullets on farms
January 1, 1944, was 2,304,000, compared with an indicated 1,843,000 for
January 1, 1945, which is 461,000 fewer.
There was considerable reduction in commercial broiler production

Fig 5.-Commercial production of eggs and poultry meat at a heavy rate
in Florida has helped to meet the Nation's food supply situation.















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-.". ., .- _" -... "b w ...... .. ..

L;z;i= -S ~ -







Florida Cooperative Extension


during the year-an estimated 20 to 40 percent-due to high feed, chick
and labor costs and low ceiling prices. However, broiler production con-
tinues above the pre-war level.
Chicks hatched by commercial hatcheries during the first 10 months of
1944 were approximately 2'% million less than for the same period in
1943-a decrease of about 25 percent. Likewise, fewer chicks were shipped
into the State in 1944.
Egg prices dropped below ceiling level during the spring of 1944, while
poultry meat prices remained at ceiling level throughout the year.
Egg Quality Program.-The inspection bureau of the State Department
of Agriculture and the State Marketing Bureau cooperated in the develop-
ment of Florida's egg quality program, resulting in an improved quality
of egg offered to the consumers. The Florida Poultry Council and State
and county agricultural workers promoted the program so as to develop
and improve the quality of the egg.
Egg Purchase Program.-The War Food Administration's surplus egg-
buying program, which continued until the month of July and through
which approximately 50,000 cases of eggs were purchased in the State,
played an important part in making the producers and egg dealers grade-
conscious. The ceiling prices placed on eggs by the Office of Price Ad-
ministration were of considerable value in aiding the housewife to buy
eggs according to grade. WFA and OPA, together with State agencies
working on egg quality, improved the quality of Florida eggs.
Egg candling and grading demonstrations were given at egg-buying
stations set up by the War Food Administration, at which the producer
was able to see the value of producing and selling eggs on a graded basis.
Information on how to produce and maintain egg quality was furnished
the public by means of radio, letters, pamphlets and at group meetings.
Florida National Egg-Laying Test.-The 18th Florida National Egg-
Laying Test at Chipley started October 1, 1943, and ended September 22,
1944, with a larger number of heavy breed pens entered than in previous
tests. The plant's capacity of 96 pens of 13 pullets each was filled with
entries from 21 different states. Fourteen pens were entered by Florida
breeders from 6 different counties.
There were 46 pens of Single Comb White Leghorns, 24 of New Hamp-
shire, 13 of Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, 8 of White Plymouth Rocks
and 5 of Barred Plymouth Rocks.
Average production per bird was 209.8 eggs for the 357-day period.
These eggs were given a credit of 217.8 points, indicating that the egg
size averaged above 24 ounces to the dozen.
The high pen for the year was a pen of 13 S. C. White Leghorn pullets
owned by the Foreman Poultry Farm, Lowell, Michigan, which produced
a total of 3,630 eggs for a value of 3,765.55 points, or an average of 279.2
eggs and 289.66 points per bird.
The high bird was a White Plymouth Rock owned by the Colonial Poul-
try Farm, Pleasant Hill, Missouri, which produced 326 eggs at a value of
354.90 points. This bird was the high White Plymouth Rock entered in all
standard laying tests for the year 1943-44. The record is also a new high
for the breed.
Produce Healthy Pullets.-Strong, healthy pullets from a high-produc-
ing strain are necessary if eggs are to be produced profitably. During
the year the value of good stock properly raised was stressed at group
meetings and kept before the public at all times by means of radio, news
articles, bulletins and letters and by personal visits.
Extension recommendations were followed by 1,503 families in obtain-
ing better strains of baby chicks, 2,742 families in improving methods of







Annual Report, 1944


feeding, and 5,551 families in controlling disease and parasites. These
recommendations were carried into 531 local communities throughout the
State.
Grow Green Feed.-The value of green feed for poultry has been stressed
in Florida for years, but during 1944 special emphasis was placed on grow-
ing green feed to supplement the mash and grain ration. Where plenty of
land is available and the all-purpose portable poultry house is used, green
feed is best furnished from a permanent pasture of carpet or bermuda
grass or white clover. The portable house, which is a 10' x 12' even-span
house built on skids, makes it possible to move the birds to a new location
before the sod is destroyed near the house. The Improved Coastal Ber-
muda grass is very popular for grazing in this manner.
Culling Demonstrations.-Due to high cost and scarcity of feed and the
necessity of reducing the number of chickens, considerable emphasis was
placed upon culling during 1944. Culling demonstrations were given in
different counties throughout the State and local leaders and flock owners
were furnished information on culling practices by radio, bulletins, group
meetings and personal visits.
Control of Diseases and Parasites.-Losses due to diseases and para-
sites run into thousands of dollars each year. These losses may be reduced
to a minimum through good management practices. The use of clean
land, range rotation, absorbent litters, chicken pox vaccination and the
control of lice and mites were given consideration during the year.
Flock Records.-To insure reasonable success in the poultry business,
a record of expenses and receipts must be kept over a period of a year
so that the poultryman will know what his financial condition is at regular
intervals. Florida poultrymen were encouraged and assisted in keeping
records.
Junior Poultry Work.-During the year 1,298 boys and 2,351 girls were
enrolled in 4-H poultry club work. From this enrollment 720 boys and
1,526 girls completed their projects, with 98,578 birds involved in com-
pleted projects.
Poultry Organizations.-The 3 State poultry associations-Florida Poul-
try Council, Florida State Poultry Producers' Association and Florida
Breeders and Hatchery Association-continued their policy of assisting
in the development of the Extension poultry program. The local poultry
associations held regular monthly meetings at which various timely sub-
jects were discussed. During the year these associations approved the
following programs: 1944 production goals, surplus egg buying program,
egg quality program and the National Poultry Improvement Plan.
Turkeys.-Turkey management, including breeding, brooding, housing,
feeding and sanitation, was emphasized during the year. The 1944 crop
of turkeys was reduced from the record crop of 1943, in line with the re-
duction called for in the 1944 goals. The crop is selling at ceiling level
and the supply is short of demand.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent

The 1944 club staff was reduced to 1 full-time agent and 1 part-time
district assistant. N. H. McQueen, county agent in Charlotte, has been
devoting about 16 percent of his time to promoting club work in DeSoto,
Highlands, Hardee, Manatee, Sarasota, Lee, Glades and Hendry counties
and has been particularly interested and active in promoting the dairy
calf program in this area.

FOOD PRODUCTION UPPERMOST

Under wartime conditions with limited personnel there was but 1 job
for boys' 4-H club work-production of food. Labor shortage was just
as serious in Extension work as on the farm. The time found for working
with farm boys could contribute most to the war effort if used in helping
to get more crops and animals grown.
The 10 district 4-H chairmen met and set state-wide and district 4-H
production goals. Then the agents in each district met and decided on
county goals.
A comparison of 1944 production with 1943 shows: Corn, 388 acres
increase; other cereals, 14 acres decrease; peanuts, 12 acres increase; soy-
beans, etc., 18 acres decrease; soil conservation, 1,464 acres increase; po-
tatoes, 16 acres increase; cotton, 15 acres increase; tobacco, 4 acres increase;
home gardens, 44 acres increase; truck crops, 274 acres decrease; other
crops, 109 increase; poultry, 28,887 decrease; dairy cattle, 5 increase;
beef cattle, 1,121 decrease; swine, 705 increase; horses and mules, 68 in-
crease; other livestock, 1,784 increase; bees, 96 colonies decrease; forestry,
523 acres increase.
Corn Production.r-The use of a new hybrid corn-Florida W-l-was
stressed, with results none too satisfactory, due to bad corn-growing
weather. Yields were low but were above those secured with ordinary
seed corn. In Holmes County, where 4-H boys planted 200 acres to Florida
W-l, the yield averaged 17.5 bushels per acre, about 50 percent above
average yield.
Poultry.-There was not the great need for poultry products in 1944
and production of broilers was not stressed. There was an increase in
number of poultry club members and in number of laying hens cared for
by club members. Duval County had an exceptionally fine egg production
project which combined business training with poultry management.
Dairy.-Emphasis placed on the purchase of day-old heifer calves in
1943 continued through 1944. The calves placed in 1942 came into produc-
tion and added to the milk supply, as none of the animals left the State
and many of the freshened heifers were sold to dairymen at attractive
prices. When the 2,500 heifer calves placed with club boys in the last 3
years become producers there will be a measurable increase in the milk
production in the State. In most instances the calves would have been used
for meat had the boys not bought them.
Swine.-No attempt was made to increase production in the goals for
1944.
Beef Cattle.-Although a smaller goal for number of club members
enrolled in beef projects was set, the total poundage of beef produced was
higher and of better quality than for 1943.
Corn, Peanuts and Potatoes.-More emphasis was placed on these crops







Annual Report, 1944


with an average goal of 60 percent increase, due to requests by the govern-
ment for increased production.
Home Gardens.-A slightly higher goal was set for home gardens, but
this was not reached, since most farm families had gardens in 1943.
Forestry.-Goals were set in this for the first time. This was perhaps
the only postwar problem attacked in our club program for 1944. The
rapid cutting of our timber for war purposes was so great that it seemed
advisable to start replanting some of the land. There were 2 phases em-
phasized-school demonstration plantings and replanting for future com-
mercial production. Thirty-seven school plantings were planned and 200,000
pine seedlings set as goal for commercial plantings.

CLUB ORGANIZATIONS

Club organizations went by default in many instances, due to lack of
time on the part of county agents. Agents were urged to try to keep their
local clubs alive, but work with organization was not stressed. Some
agents carried on even better clubs than before but most reported that
it was impossible to do the necessary work.

SUMMER CAMPS

Here is where an effort was made to do more than before. The club
camp is the best opportunity we have found to date to instill 4-H loyalty
and enthusiasm. It is planned to increase and enlarge the summer camp.
The summer 4-H camp has become an institution in Florida. There
were 390 boys and 370 girls at Camp Timpoochee. Cherry Lake had 109
boys and 134 girls. Camp McQuarrie was open for 10 weeks with 979
boys and girls attending.
There were 1,135 boys and 847 girls from Florida who had the oppor-
tunity to get a weeks' vacation of instruction and recreation. This was
an increase of 340 over 1943.
A special wildlife camp for white 4-H boys and 2 for negro 4-H boys
were sponsored by a large cartridge manufacturing concern. The 1 for
white 4-H boys was held at Camp Cherry Lake.
No short courses were planned. All out-of-State trips were discontinued
for 1944, and with the exception of a fat steer exhibit at Ocala, all State
exhibits are off for the duration.

SUPERVISORY PROBLEMS, METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS

There are 3 counties where a special man is employed to devote most
of his time to 4-H club work. The county agents and assistant agents
spent on an average of 1 day out of 9 in work with youth. Seven of the
61 counties reported no time spent in youth work. Two agents had 4-H
club work in their program this year who had no youth work in 1943.
With the let-up in special war work on the part of county agents there
should be an opportunity for more time to be given to 4-H club work.
The State Boys' Club Agent attempted to contact every county agent in
his county at least once during the year.
A beef cattle judging contest was run in connection with the Fat Stock
Show at Ocala. Seven counties were represented. A dairy judging contest
was held in connection with a Jersey sale at the State Hospital Farm.
The specialists have given cooperation in club work. The Dairy and
Beef Cattle Specialists and the Extension Poultryman have helped agents







Florida Cooperative Extension


plan work in their respective fields. All specialists spent 1 or 2 weeks
at summer club camps to assist in the educational part of the camp program.
The Soil Conservationist gave time to help agents put on a soil con-
servation activity with their club boys. Without his efforts the project
would have been a complete failure.
The Farm Forester gave active and most important assistance in the
4-H school forest plantings. He was on the ground and directed most
of the planting.
Work with older youth has been disregarded, since almost every able-
bodied farm boy in Florida 17 years or over is in the armed forces.

STATE AWARDS
The $100.00 scholarship offered by the Commissioner of Agriculture
for the champion 4-H beef producer at the Southeastern Fat Stock Show
in Ocala was won by Jeannette Zetrouer of Marion County, who is now
a student at Florida State College for Women. The Danforth Foundation
Youth Camp trip was won by Henry Pittman Davis of Escambia County.
Hillsboro County won the beef cattle judging contest at the Ocala show.

SPECIAL OCCASIONS
The Maritime Commission offered Florida 4-H club members an oppor-
tunity to name a Liberty ship in honor of some deceased Floridian who
had contributed much to agriculture and 4-H club work. The honor went
to the memory of William L. Watson, who was 1 of the first county agents
employed by Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, and who helped establish Extension
work in Florida and had served for years as county agent in Duval County.
Since the yard where the ship was constructed (Panama City) did not
grant permission for 4-H participation in the launching, a special dedication
service was held at Camp Timpoochee. The ship was launched July 12, 1944.
The Florida Club Agent and a Florida club boy and girl had the pleasure
and privilege of assisting at the launching of the ship "Carl E. Ladd"
for the club members of New York State, just 2 weeks after the William
L. Watson was launched.







Annual Report, 1944


FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester

Harvesting Forest Products for War.-To stimulate harvesting of farm
timber for war purposes the Extension Forester addressed all county
agents, Farm Security supervisors, AAA workers, Soil Conservation Service
personnel and other agricultural workers of the State during a series of
meetings held in DeFuniak Springs, Madison, Gainesville and Lakeland.
The need of wood for war was explained, solutions to problems were dis-
cussed and steps that lead towards meeting the war need for wood were
pointed out.
A circular letter appealing to farmers to make their forest products
available for war, explaining what products were needed, stressing high
prices, urging conservative cutting practices and advising how the assist-
ance of trained foresters could be secured, was prepared and sent to all
county agents for transmittal to their farmers. Forty thousand copies
of a folder prepared by the USDA, WPB, WFA, Forest Service and Exten-
sion Service entitled "Get Out Your Farm Timber for War" were obtained
and sent with a personal appeal from the Extension Forester to each of
4,500 neighborhood leaders and county agents requesting that they dis-
tribute them. Twenty-five thousand copies each of "Cut Victory Timber,
But Cut It Wisely" and "Uncle Sam Needs Your Trees Now for Pulpwood,"
were supplied to county agents for distribution to farmers.
Seventy-five hundred copies of a 5-page illustrated folder entitled "Wood
for War" prepared by the Extension Forester with the assistance of the
Extension Editor, setting forth the things Florida farmers can do to in-
crease forest production, were distributed to county agents for redistribu-
tion to farmers. Five radio talks appealing to farmers to harvest their
forest products for war purposes were prepared by the Extension Forester
and delivered over WRUF during the Farm Hour, copies of which were
furnished to county agents for broadcast over 9 State radio stations as a
feature of their regular farm radio programs. Three newspaper articles
emphasizing war needs for wood were prepared by the Extension Forester
and were widely copied in State papers.
Protecting Woodlands from Fire.-County agents in 51 counties were
given instruction on damage to timber from fire, chiefly by pointing out
actual cases of forest losses while accompanying the agents on visits to
farm woodlands in their counties. While actually on the ground with the
agent it was possible to discuss ways and means of preventing fire losses
with both the county agent and the farmer.
Bulletins, leaflets, folders and mimeographed material giving informa-
tion on forest fire damage and how to prevent such losses were furnished
county agents. They were provided also with mimeographed instructions
covering the State's forest fire problem and outlining ways and means for
solving it. In meeting the problems it is believed that the best approach
to its solution lies in the adoption of a coordinated program of timber
production, grazing through the establishment of improved pasture strips
throughout timbered areas, and the development of the game and wildlife
resources. Such a program has been outlined and copies furnished all
county agents as a basis for demonstrations. This program was actively
pushed during the year and is meeting with much support. County agents
and farmers were assisted in establishing demonstrations in this 3-point
approach to the solution of the State's greatest forestry problem. A large
supply of fire prevention posters and other related materials were secured
for distribution.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Extension Forester, in cooperation with the Extension Animal Hus-
bandman and Extension Conservationist, sent a circular letter and packet
of printed material on fire prevention to all county agents, calling on them
to help in the rural emergency fire prevention program.
Planting Forest Trees.-In 37 counties agents were given personal in-
struction in forest planting and all county agents were provided with
bulletins and circulars giving information on planting forest trees. New
developments in planting methods were explained and demonstration plant-
ings, including 8 native species of forest trees-slash pine, red cedar,
longleaf pine, black cherry, yellow poplar, white oak, sweet gum and swamp
chestnut oak-were continued in 3 counties. Emphasis was placed on
planting trees which would supply farm needs for lumber, fence posts and
fuelwood.
Close cooperation was extended to 3 pulpmills in the State which sup-
plied 1,600,000 free slash pine seedlings to farmers and land owners, 4-H
club members and vocational agriculture students in 38 Florida counties.
They were obtained from the State Forest Service nursery at Olustee. Of
the total, 995,025 seedlings were distributed to farmers, 4-H club members
and others through the efforts of county agents.
In Duval County, through a cooperative arrangement between the county
agent and county school board, a school forest consisting of 11,000 slash
pines and 1,000 red cedar trees was planted on the grounds of 11 schools.
With the assistance of the Extension Forester and Extension Editor,
the assistant county agent in Alachua County developed a filmstrip show-
ing the several steps in forest planting from the drying cones in the
nursery shed to the planted trees on the farm. This filmstrip has been
duplicated for use in other counties.
A large manufacturing concern which furnished cork oak acorns and
seedlings was assisted in the distribution of these to interested farmers
and others for trial on an experimental basis. Cork oak seedlings of year-
ling size were planted on a wide variety of soils in widely separated parts
of the State.
4-H Forestry Club Programs.-Instruction was given in 4-H club project
work during 1 negro 4-H camp and 3 camps for white 4-H club members,
with a total of 186 members receiving training. Eighteen days were de-
voted to these training projects. Subject matter covered included instruc-
tion in forest fire prevention, planting forest trees, tree identification,
timber estimating, pruning forest trees, woodland improvement cutting,
war uses for wood and the protection and restoration of game and wildlife.
Assistance was given to 4-H club members at 3 meetings which were
held at the Buck Pond 4-H Club demonstration forest in Marion County.
Species planted included red cedar, yellow poplar, black cherry, white oak,
swamp chestnut oak and a few cork oaks.
The county agent in Escambia County was aided in developing a 4-H
timber-grazing-game demonstration on 400 acres of severely depleted forest
land which was donated by a public-spirited citizen. This project was
started last year and to date 11 acres have been planted to slash pine
and a little more than 9 acres have been cleared for planting improved
pasture grasses next spring. A fish pond is under construction and 4
cabins are completed. The tract was fenced during the year. County
commissioners, local civic clubs, Soil Conservation Service and several
prominent business men are cooperating with the 4-H club council in
development work.
Controlling Forest Insects and Diseases.-During the annual meeting of
the county agents at Gainesville a forest pathologist and an entomologist
at the University of Florida discussed forest disease and insect control.







Annual Report, 1944


The agents were provided with bulletins and circulars on the subject. Radio
talks, circular and personal letters and discussions during farmer's meet-
ings provided further information.
Much of the insect damage can be traced to fire and bad cutting prac-
tices. With the adoption of better cutting practices and with more success-
ful fire protection, damage by bark beetles and turpentine beetles-the
most destructive forest insects-will be greatly reduced.
Statewide Timber-Grazing-Game Demonstrational Program.-Because
the timber-grazing-game program is so far-reaching in its effect, applying
to both farm woodlands and all of the vast cut-over lands of the State,
it has been actively promoted during the year.
An outline statement attached to a drawing showing how this program
applies on the land, supplied to all county agents, was intended to serve
as a guide in establishing demonstrations and in explaining the program
to interested farmers and forest landowners. In 21 counties this program
was discussed in the field with the county agent and it was included in
the general plan adopted by the Hillsborough County Postwar Develop-
ment Committee. Demonstrations are being established in 7 counties and
plans are being made for additional demonstrations in 9 other counties.
Preventing Destructive "Clear Cutting". With heavy wartime demands
for the harvesting of forest products for war purposes, preventing destruc-
tive "clear cutting" in all activities for increasing timber production on
farms has been stressed. In all personal contacts with county agents and
farmers, at all meetings of farmers, 4-H club members and agricultural
workers, in circular letters, newspaper articles, personal letters, radio
talks, and by selection of bulletins, folders, leaflets and charts conservative
harvesting of forest products was emphasized. It was pointed out that
destructive cutting of timber, even in wartime, is not necessary or justified
and that it is against the best interests of both the landowner and the
Nation.
County agents contributed materially to conservative cutting of timber
by directing farmers to the Extension Forester, Timber Production War
Project Foresters or Woodland Marketing Project Foresters for additional
assistance in harvesting and selling their timber.
Cutting More Fuelwood on Farms.-Assistance was extended to the
Southern Forest Experiment Station at New Orleans in determining the
fuelwood situation for 1944. In view of the high market for fuelwood-
because wood is a replaceable fuel, to relieve congested transportation
facilities and to conserve coal and fuel oil for war purposes-farmers were
urged to cut and market low grade and salvage wood for fuel. County
agents were urged to encourage greater production of fuel wood on farms
for use both on farms and in the cities.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
K. S. McMullen, Soil Conservationist

The standard of living for Florida's rural population, approximately
900,000, who earn their living directly from general farms, groves, ranches
and forests is determined by the capacity of their lands to produce.
Florida is a state of wide variations as to soils, type of agriculture,
topography and climate. Soils are diverse, even in small areas. The
economic value of a particular soil type-Norfolk fine sand as an example-
found in western Florida would likely be classed as submarginal, whereas
in southern Florida this soil type produces citrus groves valued at $1,000
or more per acre. Likewise, the soil and water conservation program is
variable in accordance with these changing characteristics.
Farmer determination, patriotism and hard work, coupled with the in-
telligent use of all scientific devices for increasing yields, conserving fertil-
izer, making labor and equipment more efficient, and the diligent and
judicious use of soil and water conservation measures, gave as a reward
the great and vital 1944 production of food, feed and woodland products.
Though 1944 was a year of maximum strain on the land, it brought greater
realization in the mind of the farmer, and perhaps in the mind of everyone,
of the value and necessity for taking care of the land, that greatest of
assets to a man or to a people.

SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS

Soil conservation districts now cover 13,208,938 acres in 28 counties of
Florida, reaching from Escambia county on the west to Pinellas, Lee and
Hendry on the south. Problems and activities by districts are many, as
well as extremely varied. The problems, and likewise the programs, in
the peninsular section of the State are widely different from those of central
or western Florida. They are primarily water control, moisture conserva-
tion, forestry, wildlife, soil building and soil maintenance. Districts or-
ganized in this area are comparatively new, and work is just now begin-
ning to get under way. Supervisors of the Volusia district in Volusia
County, Istokpoga district in Highlands County and the Pinellas district
in Pinellas County report that conservation surveys and contour maps,
along with detailed water control and water management plans, have been
completed for several areas of each district.
Soil conservation districts are being organized in Florida very rapidly
and it is anticipated that most of Florida, covering the principal agricul-
tural counties at least, will be organized into districts within the next 2
years. Plans should be made to guide adequately this movement and to
insure its operation on a coordinated and cooperative basis.
Educational Work in Organized Districts.-The educational work with
organized soil conservation districts was conducted through the respective
county agents. One-day discussion conferences and field days were planned
and held at the North Florida Experiment Station at Quincy and at the
University of Florida Experiment Station.
Applicable material published on soil and water conservation by the
State Extension Service, State Experiment Station, Soil Conservation
Service and U. S. Department of Agriculture was distributed and informa-
tion regarding special activities by any particular district was furnished
other districts.
Boards of supervisors were assisted in obtaining equipment.
A detailed report on activities of all districts covering status of con-







Annual Report, 1944


servation surveys, conservation farm plans, educational activities, individ-
ual conservation practices and financial statement was compiled and
distributed.
Educational Work in New Districts.-Organization of 6 districts was
completed during 1944-Charlotte, Alachua, Peace River, Hendry, Hardee
and Lake. Organization of districts is in process in the following counties:
Putnam, Indian River, Polk, Brevard, Highlands, Gulf, Lee and Manatee.
Programs and work plans were developed through the cooperative effort
of the supervisors, county agents and district conservationists. Two days
were spent with the supervisors in each case. The immediate objective
was to develop the program and work plan, but perhaps the greatest ac-
complishment was that of bringing the supervisors together where they
could study and plan the operation of their districts.

POST-WAR STATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
The State was divided into 7 problem areas or adjustment areas, each
area being fairly homogeneous in nature but different from the others in
essential physiographic characteristics. The land-use capability classi-
fication was applied to sample surveys as nearly representative of each
adjustment area as possible and the data expanded mathematically to rep-
resent the total acreage of the problem or adjustment area, and thus
adjusted to the 1940 census data by land use-cultivated, idle, pasture,
woodland and miscellaneous.
Of the 34,727,680 acres of land in Florida there are 1,751,275 acres of
cropland, 1,474,954 acres of which should remain in cultivation, 165,818
acres of which should be devoted to improved pastures, and 110,503 acres
of which should be devoted to woodland; 462,248 acres of idle land, 264,172
acres of which may be converted to economical production of crops, 73,266
acres of which may be converted to economical production of pastures and
124,810 acres of which should be converted into woodland; 30,070,647 acres
of woodland, 668,124 acres of which are suitable for crops or improved
pastures and 23,390,523 acres of which should remain in woodland; 643,065
acres of pasture, 390,276 acres of which should remain in pasture, 320,124
acres of which may remain in pasture or be devoted to cultivated crops,
and 13,665 acres of which should be devoted to woodland. There are
1,800,445 acres of miscellaneous lands.

EDUCATION WITH YOUTH
Two weeks were devoted to teaching soil and water conservation to
regular classes at 2 1-week State 4-H club camps and 2 days were also
devoted to teaching a similar class at a county 4-H club camp. The course
was presented through the medium of discussion, lantern slides, field trips
and moving pictures.
The 1944 State Wildlife Camp for 4-H club boys included instructions
and activities in soil and water conservation for the first time. Instructions
in soil and water conservation were provided in 4 separate classes each
day for 3 days. One day was devoted to an extended field tour of farms
where actual field studies were made of soil erosion and depletion, cover
crops, terracing, crop rotations, pastures, forestry and proper land-use
measures.
In 7 counties 151 boys completed the activities of the National 4-H soil
and water conservation contest and a $50.00 war bond was awarded to each
of the 6 boys making the highest scores. Record of the boy receiving
first place in the State was submitted for regional and national competition.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Servicing Vocational Agriculture Teachers.-The 1944 soil and water
conservation program for Florida was presented to groups of teachers.
A circular, "Put Conservation Farming Behind War Food Production,"
was prepared by the Extension Conservationist and 11,500 copies were
distributed in an effort to present a complete picture of the contribution
of soil and water conservation to war food production and to show the
assistance available to farmers in planning and carrying out such a pro-
gram. Sufficient copies of this circular were furnished all teachers for
distribution to each of their students as an outline for the teaching activities.

SUMMER COVER CROP PROGRAM
A survey has been made to determine the extent of present plantings
of summer cover crops, extent of expansion that might be economically
feasible, source of seed and advisability of harvesting locally grown seed.
Results of the survey were encouraging and plans have been made to go
forward with the program in 1945.
A campaign was conducted in the spring of 1944 to secure increased
plantings of summer cover crops. Radio talks and news articles were
prepared and distributed on the value of summer cover crops.
The demand for crotalaria seed has been far greater than the supply
and an appeal was sent out for all seed possible to be harvested. Sesbania
(Microcarpa) is one of the most popular summer cover crops planted fol-
lowing the winter vegetables, and is particularly adapted to fields kept
flooded or partially flooded during the summer.

WINTER COVER CROP PROGRAM
Farmers agree that as a winter cover crop for Florida blue lupine is
far superior to any others introduced to date, even though it is apparently
adapted only to western and central Florida. Although Austrian peas
and vetches have year by year grown less popular since the introduction of
lupine, an appreciable acreage of these crops has been planted. County
organizations that were responsible for the largest acreage of winter cover
crops ever planted in Florida conducted a lupine seed harvesting campaign
in the spring that yielded approximately 1,500,000 pounds of seed.







Annual Report, 1944


PART III

WOMEN'S AND GIRLS' WORK

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent

County home demonstration agents are employed in 37 counties; assistant
agents in 4 counties; and negro home demonstration agents are employed
in 10 counties.
Assistants for the emergency program in food production and conserva-
tion worked full-time in Washington, Okaloosa, Hardee and DeSoto-Char-
lotte counties. Assistants worked part-time in Alachua, Duval, Jackson,
Marion, Polk and Hernando-Sumter counties. Negro emergency assistants
worked in Suwannee, Broward, Lake, Manatee, Seminole and Volusia.

PERSONNEL PROBLEMS
Changes were made in 11 positions of home demonstration agents and
assistant agents. Availability of higher salaries elsewhere, marriage, en-
larged home economics programs in the public school systems, difficulties
and expenses of securing automobiles and family situations made it diffi-
cult to secure county workers who met the requirements considered es-
sential in this State.
A plan has been set up to give training to graduates of the State
College for Women who desire to enter home demonstration work and who
have not had an opportunity to acquire a needed understanding of rural
life and the relationship between urban and rural interests and the im-
portance of agriculture in Florida. With the cooperation and approval
of the president of Florida State College for Women, funds have been
made available to employ 2 home economics graduates to work as home
demonstration assistants in selected counties. The work to be done is
planned on periods from 3 to 4 months, is definite enough so results can
be secured within that time and is work needed to be done in the county
program.
Professional Improvement in Service.-All home demonstration agents
and emergency workers received considerable in-service training this year.
Regional meetings in January provided information on the use of a plenti-
ful Florida food through 5 3-day short courses on fish curing, smoking
and canning. Seventeen 1-day training courses on meat cookery were
arranged and 6 2-day short courses on the use of home canned products
gave the agents and the council leaders valuable training in food prep-
aration.
All emergency'assistants were given a 2-day instruction course at the
Extension Service headquarters in preparation for their work and were
provided with definite outlines of work to be undertaken.

PROGRAM PLANNING
Home demonstration agents and local communities or groups conducted
definite programs in 553 of the 712 communities in counties served by home








Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration agents. Three hundred three home demonstration clubs
have been organized for work with rural women, exceeding by 33 the goal
set at the beginning of the year and exceeding by 29 the number in 1943.
The negro home demonstration agents directed 112 similar groups for
negro women interested primarily in food production and conservation and
home improvement.
Small neighborhood groups or special interest groups which were not
considered as organized home demonstration groups functioned generally
in the State to meet the needs of the women. County reports show 3,255
method demonstration meetings were held this year for women and 3,623
meetings for girls with a total attendance of 44,767 women and 73,957
girls. The emergency assistants gave useful help to 2,960 other women
and girls who worked with them on established demonstrations in their
home to increase food production and conservation.

4-H CLUB WORK
Four hundred forty-eight 4-H clubs in the State have a membership
of 9,349 white girls from 10 to 20 years of age; 3,669 negro girls are en-
rolled in their 152 4-H clubs. Emergency assistants enrolled 844 white
and 1,277 negro Victory 4-H girls in food production and conservation.
Enrollment of girls in 4-H clubs showed a slight decrease from last
year, although the total number of girls helped was higher. An analysis
of the reports was made to determine the reason for this decrease. The
number of girls enrolled for the first time in 4-H work almost doubled
in 1944 over 1943, increasing from the 2,401 beginning 4-H work in 1943 to

Fig. 6.-War Bonds were awarded by Governor Caldwell and Miss Keown
to outstanding Florida 4-H club girls for their work during 1944.














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Annual Report, 1944


4,343 beginning 4-H members in 1944. Evidently all girls who enrolled
in 1943 continued for their second year of 4-H work during 1944 because
the present enrollment of second-year girls is 2,421. Further analysis
showed that in 1943 2,433 girls of 14 years of age or older were actively
enrolled in 4-H clubs while in 1944 the enrollment of girls in this age group
dropped to 1,599. Apparently the reason for lower enrollment of older
girls lies in the fact that the older girls must assume a steadily increasing
amount of responsibility for home and farm duties or they have taken
employment outside the home.
Home demonstration agents from 38 counties devoted approximately
5,028 days to girls' 4-H club work, including training volunteer leaders
serving the 4-H clubs. These figures show that just a little less than one-
half of the time of the county home demonstration agents was given to
4-H club work this year.
Leadership Goals.-To increase the interest in 4-H club work in every
neighborhood and community 729 club girls and 364 women voluntarily
served as 4-H club leaders this year. The leaders, who received their train-
ing through membership in home demonstration clubs, attended 88 special
training meetings with an attendance of 1,421.
4-H girls are recognized leaders and have been trained in organization,
so have been able to give useful service in special campaigns conducted as
a part of the war program.
Achievement Goals.-4-H girls did outstanding work on farms and in
homes helping to feed, clothe and healthfully house the families during
this war crisis. They have been active in community war work. Their
achievement goals have been set according to the national 7-point program
for 4-H clubs for 3 years and have been the basis for planning work under-
taken by the Florida 4-H girls.
Achievement Days.-County 4-H achievement days are held in all coun-
ties and do much to encourage completions of 4-H work, to encourage the
development of the 4-H girls, to recognize girls' accomplishments, and to
bring the club girls and adults of the community closer together in under-
standing relationships.
This year, because of transportation difficulties, counties report holding
several local achievement days in place of the usual county-wide event.
Exhibits are displayed, records and products judged, and team demonstra-
tions presented and a recognition service or skit program held. Club girls
participate throughout. Agents report 288 achievement days were held
with 9,248 in attendance.
Camps and Short Courses.-During the period from May 9 through
August 24, 1944, 19 camps were held for Florida 4-H club girls. Thirty-
eight counties were represented at these camps by 36 home demonstration
agents, 2 emergency assistants, 12 county agents, 47 local leaders, 1,247
girls and 489 boys and 77 other assistants, including camp directors and
instructors, a total of 1,914 people. Eight of the 19 camps were held
jointly by county agricultural agents and home demonstration agents.
Most of the camps were held at the district camps-Timpoochee, Mc-
Quarrie and Cherry Lake. Five were held as individual camps at local
sites in Gadsden, St. Johns, Dade, Hillsborough and Pinellas counties.
Broward and Palm Beach counties camped together in Palm Beach County.
Seventy-six courses of instruction (40 different types of work) were
offered at 19 camps. Courses included: Health, swimming, posture, sew-
ing, first aid, nutrition, food preparation, meal service and good manners,
clothing construction, repair of equipment, canning, fire prevention and
safety, and handicraft.







52 Florida Cooperative Extension

FAMILY ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Home Improvement.-Farm and family incomes have increased. In spite
of building restrictions and shortages of labor, home improvements were
made because the family wanted them and worked for them. Two hundred
five new homes were built, 2,579 houses were repaired or remodelled and
1,088 were painted. The agents helped 1,884 families with house planning
problems for building later.
Recognition of the value of more attractive surroundings in improved
family living came to 347 families who completely beautified their home
grounds and the 338 who started lawns this year.
County home demonstration agents worked with 16,670 farm families,
helping the women and girls to make desired changes and improvements
in their homes. Of that number 3,551 farm homes were served for the
first time this year.
Home improvement demonstrations, both interior and exterior, have
been carried on by 4,081 4-H girls. Some are long-time demonstrations
which have been the results of several years of planning and work. This
year when more money is available some farm and suburban families have
been able to secure needed supplies for added rooms or repairs and im-
provement because of need for housing facilities in crowded war or labor
areas. The after-war home improvement plans are being started now as
girls plan for the wise use of bonds for home improvement needs. One
thousand five hundred thirty 4-H girls were enrolled in the beautification
of the home grounds.
Recreation.-Because recreation is so closely related to good family
relationships and to satisfying home and community life, the home demon-
stration agents encourage recreation as part of the 4-H club training
program. Some recreation is held for social purposes only, while other
recreation serves to make money for community improvements or for war
bonds.
Need for family and community recreation has grown as travel facilities
decreased. This year 3,152 families were assisted in improving home
recreation and 148 rural communities improved their recreational facilities.
Thirty-two home demonstration clubs for women maintained or assisted
in maintaining community libraries which carried a total of 525 magazines
and newspaper subscriptions.
Canning Centers.-Ninety-three canning centers were operated under
the direction of the home demonstration offices, 53 of which were established
this year. The canning center usually is a neighborhood meeting place
and many things besides canning are accomplished for the welfare of
the community as the women work together there. Canning center build-
ings often are used as community meeting halls, which are lacking in so
many rural communities. Seven hundred seventy-eight small neighborhood
groups worked together this year on their canning. Sixty-three community
buildings are owned by home demonstration clubs while 17 other clubs
have club rooms.
Four hundred eighty-four communities held entertainments for social
purposes only, while 204 others held community entertainments to raise
money for some community improvement.
Home Industries.-Rural women and girls were busier in 1944 than in
any other year attending to essential farm and home work. Therefore,
they did not have time to develop home and fireside industries and stand-
ardized home and farm products as extensively as in other years. Forty-
two girls and 410 women had standardized products for market. Reports
voluntarily made to the county home demonstration agents by women and
girls showed they sold products totalling $1,174,252.14.







Annual Report, 1944


Food Production.-Home gardens, fruit orchards, home poultry and
home-raised dairy products and meats all were considered essential war-
time activities. Fifteen thousand fourteen families asked the home demon-
stration agents-white and negro-for help in securing a good food supply
through home production. A smaller number of city families attempting
to grow gardens and chickens, and the general broadcast over the State
by demonstrations, press articles, radio and specially prepared circulars,
of food production information and recommended procedures, influenced
the gardening program this year. A total of 24,952 home gardens were
grown by women and girls enrolled in home demonstration clubs and by
emergency assistants. Of this number, 5,477 gardens were grown by
negro women and girls. Forty-six special garden courses were given
to train 928 women and 62 courses to train 892 4-H girls as garden leaders.
As an investment for food production a few years hence 3,212 calendar
fruit orchards were started this year with 1,035 additional orchards planted
by negro families on their farms. Thirty-five thousand eight hundred four
trees and vines were also planted in orchards previously started.
Poultry.-Nearly 5,000 families improved their home food supply by
raising their own poultry and eggs. Poultry raising was not so popular
in urban backyards this year as last, but farm women and girls kept their
farm flock production about the same, reporting they owned 312,350 hens
and 17,266 cockerels and raised 736,098 chickens. Three million three hun-
dred thousand dozen home-produced eggs were used in preparing the
family meals. 4-H club girls realized a total of $26,333.00 from the sale
of poultry and eggs.
Dairy Cows.-4-H girls cared for 650 dairy cows. This 4-H dairy work
assured many families of the dairy products so essential to good family
health. The value of good milk to the family was recognized by at least
3,672 families who asked for help in improving the family food supply
by producing more milk. Two thousand thirty-two cows were bought this
year, bringing the number of cows owned by home demonstration women
and girls to 10,762. Two hundred twenty-seven milk goats also helped out
the milk supply. Cheese and other dairy products made from this milk
supplied needed protein and added to the palatability of the diet of 9,213
families.
Livestock.-The livestock grown by 4-H girls numbers 2,070 beef cattle
and 1,546 other animals, including goats, swine and rabbits. This is a
decided increase over last year's figures but is in line with the increased
interest in the improved livestock industry throughout the State.
The Marion County home demonstration agent reports that 10 girls
began the year's work on raising beef cattle to sell at the Fat Stock Show
in Ocala in February. Seven of the girls completed their work, exhibited
their animals and sold them at the sale. The girls all realized a good sum
of money from the sales and a total of about $4,000. Some 4-H girls have
increased their number of animals for another year. A State winner in
the records and livestock contests this year was Jeannette Zetrouer.
Food Conservation.-Much more judgment was used in canning than
in 1943, when a sort of food frenzy seemed to strike the city people lest
rationing would catch them without food. This year non-farm families did
can but they chose fresh fruits and vegetables and used a good canning
budget.
In general, better canning methods have been used. Canned products
undoubtedly are of much higher quality. More home canning equipment
has been bought, more fresh vegetables have been raised and more freezing
units have been installed. Fifteen thousand five hundred eighty-seven
families reported they cured 2,768,810 pounds of meat and 5,469 families








54 Florida Cooperative Extension .

stated they made home-produced meats into 469,625 pounds of sausage.
The total amount of food canned was 3,122,294 quarts-148,243 quarts of
which were canned by negroes.
Club girls individually canned approximately 209,778 quarts of food
during the past year and improved workroom and storage facilities at
home.
Older 4-H club girls served as canning leaders, showing inexperienced
adults in their community how to can according to the best methods.
Food Preparation.-4-H club girls have assumed greater responsibility
than ever before toward seeing that the busy farm and war-working fami-
lies were well fed. Thirty-seven counties have reported 3,584 girls com-
pleted the 4-H food preparation demonstrations. Meals planned and served
at home numbered 39,915.
Nutrition.-During the year 14,937 families worked with the home
demonstration agents to improve their diets through applying a better
knowledge of nutrition to their family food problems. As a special service
the agents taught 371 nutrition courses in cooperation with the American
Red Cross; 17 of the agents reported they were registered as certified
Red Cross nutrition instructors.
Thirty-two 1-day training courses and demonstrations on the use of
meat, peanuts and home-canned products were given in 29 counties.
The nutrition and health and food preparation program has gone hand
in hand with the food production program and with home improvement
work.
Special War Services.-4-H girls are recognized leaders and have been
trained in organization, so have been able to give useful service in special
campaigns conducted as a part of the war program. Women and girls,
white and colored, collected more than 58 tons of scrap metal and 50 tons
of waste fat. They saved 32,080 glass containers and filled them with
food.
Home demonstration women and 4-H girls did valiant work in making
investments in government bonds and stamps and in their leadership in bond
drives. Voluntary reports given by 165 home demonstration clubs for
women in 26 counties show bonds bought amounted to $744,412.35. 4-H
girls of 25 counties representing 259 clubs report purchases amounting to
$123,997.85. Together these rural girls and women have invested close
to a million dollars as a part of their battle in their country's cause.
Home demonstration clubs and county councils which have been saving
and earning money for club buildings and scholarship funds report they
have invested their savings in government securities in the amount of
$17,630.
Maintenance of Good Health.-Although not generally organized as a
health agency, home demonstration work contributes definitely to better
family and community health and 14,937 families worked with the home
demonstration agents in improving their diets while 1,977 mothers sought
help on child feeding problems to insure healthy youngsters. Also, 4,318
families reported they profited from information given them on resistance
to and prevention of colds and other common diseases. Agents induced 4,101
families to be immunized against various diseases such as typhoid, small-
pox, etc.
Sanitation measures can account for considerable improvement in the
health of families; 1,884 women reported they had a general house clean-
ing; 989 homes were screened against flies and mosquitoes; 210 inside
toilets and 189 outside toilets were installed; 61 sunshine water heating
systems and 239 water systems were put into rural homes; and 588 mat-








Annual Report, 1944 55

tresses were made from home-grown cotton and 691 were renovated in
the interest of good sleep.
Child Care.-The aim of the child care program for 4-H girls was to
teach them to help their small brothers and sisters be healthy. 4-H club
girls have made a real contribution to victory by giving good care to their
little brothers and sisters while their mothers must be away or while they
are busy with extra home or farm work.
The program included care, management, food and clothing, depending
upon the age of the 4-H club girls and the child in her care. Each phase
of the child care demonstration was recommended by the Extension special-
ist concerned. It helped girls to learn how to take care of children properly
and in some cases was a means of a little cash income.
Realizing that every child is our concern and 4-H girls especially, the
State home demonstration staff and the county home demonstration agents
and volunteer leaders cooperated in every way possible to plan for chil-
dren's health and welfare in war and peace.
They assist with the well-baby clinics, school clinics and health check-
ups. They help with the program for young children of employed and
farm mothers; assist with the school lunch program and nutrition pro-
gram; help provide and encourage recreation programs and facilities; hold
camps to train leaders and 4-H girls; train leaders to help with some forms
of recreation; help families to provide safe play space at home and in the
neighborhood; help protect children from hazards and disease.
Farm Labor Needs.-Information on labor-saving methods and sharing
labor and equipment in order to get crops harvested was given by 16 agents
to 1,181 farm families. Also, 474 volunteer home demonstration leaders
assisted with explaining the emergency labor program and enlisting a
systematic understanding among both farm and urban people. Agents
estimate these leaders got 973 persons not regularly engaged in agricul-
ture to help with farm work and helped to place 111 in different year-
round jobs. Also, 9,011 women and 9,612 girls reported they did farm
work this year; 303 girls and women reported operating tractors, 268
plowed and 194 used cultivators. Nine hundred thirty-four women and
61 girls in 25 counties reported they managed the farm operations while
the men of the family were away in military service or in war industries.
Farm Safety and Fire Prevention.-In 24 counties 4,544 girls, both white
and colored, and 2,387 women in 15 counties enrolled for special fire and
accident prevention projects. A special outline for work to be done by
4-H girls was prepared and used to good advantage. Thirty-seven special
training courses for leaders were given to 694 women in 7 counties and
89 courses for the 1,518 4-H girls who served as group leaders.
Clothing.-Clothing demonstrations enrolled 6,132 4-H girls. Through
these demonstrations 28,318 new garments were made and 7,904 garments
were remodelled.
The State Clothing Specialist helped the agents develop the 4-H cloth-
ing program in the counties through visits to individual club groups and
to county groups. During the visits exhibits and demonstrations were
given to help promote a wartime program. Clothing work was taught at
4 of the summer 4-H camps.

WORK WITH RETURNING VETERANS

A large percentage of men now in the military service came from rural
communities and are looking forward to re-establishing homes there.
Others who are new to country life will wish to settle in the country.







56 Florida Cooperative Extension

All will be faced with the necessity of an adjustment within themselves to
a peace-time world that is different from the world they remember. The
civilian population must likewise make adjustments in their thoughts and
actions to meet those of the returned veterans.
Ways an which home demonstration workers and organized home dem-
onstration work are giving useful service in such an undertaking are by:
Making ready for the veteran and his family; serving in an advisory capacity
to give reliable information on and assistance with social, spiritual, economic
and educational problems; and giving special educational assistance to be-
ginners through direct teaching of useful skills and activities.

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK PROGRESSES
Negro home demonstration work is conducted in 10 counties with large
colored populations. The work of the negro home agents with both women
and girls, as well as with other members of colored farm families, pro-
gressed satisfactorily during the year. The colored farm families rallied
behind their leaders to do everything they possibly could to help produce
needed foods and other farm products.
The negro district home demonstration agent supervises the 10 agents
in counties, with the guidance of the State Home Demonstration Agent.
State specialists supply needed materials for use in the negro programs
and assist with the training of negro agents.







Annual Report, 1944


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
The records of the clothing and textile work done during 1944 show
that the clothing program was carried on in 496 of the 553 communities
of the State where home demonstration work is done. This is 130 com-
munities more than last year. Twenty-nine counties reported 2,445 cloth-
ing demonstrators among home demonstration members and 7,032 among
4-H club members; 7,808 families were assisted with construction prob-
lems; 6,291 families were assisted in the selection of clothing; 7,302
families were assisted with care, renovating and remodeling; 1,613 fami-
lies were assisted with clothing accounts and budgets; 966 families were
helped with care and repair of sewing machines; and 15,232 homemade
accessories were made by club members.
Red Cross Work.-A number of counties are continuing Red Cross sew-
ing and knitting. The Santa Rosa County home demonstration agent re-
ports the club women in that county made 300 night gowns, 200 men's shirts,
150 petticoats, 75 half petticoats and 75 knitted sweaters.
Dade County reports that 5,175 hours were spent by home demonstration
club members in sewing for the Red Cross during 1944.

4-H CLUB WORK
During 1944 6,132 girls were enrolled in the 4-H clothing program and
4,141 completed their demonstrations. Through these demonstrations 26,318
garments were made and 7,904 garments were remodeled.
Help was given the agents in developing the 4-H club program in sev-
eral different ways. Much interest was aroused through visits to 4-H
club meetings where the Specialist stressed the wartime clothing program
and showed exhibits of 4-H clothing demonstrations, remodeled clothes,
accessories made at home, sack articles and Christmas gifts that were
made at home. Courses in clothing construction, personal grooming, good
manners, leadership, handicrafts, swimming and safety in the home and
on the farm were taught to 449 girls and boys at summer camps held
for 4-H club groups.
The Specialist attended and judged clothing exhibits at many of the
county achievement days. The State winner in the dress revue for 1944
was Barbara McKinney from Dade County.

EMERGENCY WAR FOOD PROGRAM
Since the Emergency War Food Program deals with the production and
conservation of food, feed and fiber, the Clothing Specialist took a
part in helping to develop the emergency program by making available
to the workers helpful leaflets, news letters, bulletins and exhibits. One
of the exhibits available at the State office which was useful to the emer-
gency assistants in developing their program was a collection of suitable
work clothes to be used indoors and outdoors. The exhibit included a sample
costume of each pattern recommended by the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture as suitable work clothes and also included the uniform for the
Woman's Land Army.
In cooperation with district and home demonstration agents, the Special-
ist held approximately 30 leader-training meetings in the different counties
to train leaders to help carry on a useful wartime clothing program in
their communities. This training included help in program planning, mak-
ing and arranging helpful exhibits, wise use of additional leaflets, bulletins







58 Florida Cooperative Extension

and booklets, and planning and giving demonstrations for both 4-H and home
demonstration groups.
The Specialist related this leader training and clothing work to other
phases of homemaking, thus showing the presidents of these groups how
other demonstration leaders could help their agents extend useful knowl-
edge in foods and nutrition, gardening, canning, home improvement and
home management to many more people.
Although no bulletins on clothing and textile work were printed during
the year, good use was made of available Federal and commercial bulletins.
At the beginning of the year the Specialist attempted to simplify a
record book to be used for clothing demonstrations. The agents used this
record book in mimeographed form during 1944 to decide if it were what
was needed and desired. Considering suggestions for changes, it is ex-
pected that this mimeographed record book will be printed in 1945.
One of 2 helpful exhibits which were prepared at the State Home
Demonstration Office during the year for Statewide use illustrated ways
of using scraps and remnants of old materials that were collected by the
specialists for the past several years. The exhibit included dickeys, collars,
bags, hats and other accessories.
Another exhibit was 1 of various types and styles of bags, hats and
other accessories that can be made at home from materials, looper clips and
yarns. Much interest developed among the women and girls through the
use of this exhibit and the available commercial patterns for making at-
tractive hats and bags.
With all the possibilities and wonders in the making and with all the
discoveries that have resulted from wartime research there seems to be
much in store for us in the field of clothing and textiles for the postwar
period. The future world will be a wonderful place if we, as consumers,
use our knowledge wisely and remember to do the things for ourselves
that wartime conditions have taught us to do.







Annual Report, 1944


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Nutritionist
The food, nutrition and health program has developed through the 32
years since its establishment in Florida with 2 fundamental Florida food
problems foremost in mind: First, how to assist farm families to provide
better diets for themselves through the use of more home-grown and home-
conserved foods; and second, to help rural people improve their health and
physical fitness by assisting them to acquire a better working knowledge
of food values and of nutrition generally.
With the declaration of war the home demonstration nutrition program
became an essential war program and took its proper position in defense on
the home front. The training in skills and leadership given to thousands
of rural women and girls in the past proved its permanent value manyfold
under war conditions.

MAJOR ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
The longtime goal to keep the family well fed required additional im-
petus as war made increased demands on food supplies and health. Many
farm women and girls did outstanding work in fields, thus helping meet
labor shortages and increasing food production. Wartime food production
goals for home gardens and poultry were met and in most counties exceeded.
Best methods of cooking food to save nutritive values and for palata-
bility were the theme of 7,841 demonstrations given by the Nutritionist and
home demonstration agents. Merchants and agents cooperated in working
out practical aids for housekeepers in saving and using rationed foods and
in spending the ration points to get greatest nutritional value. Special
emphasis has been placed on the need to use abundant foods and spare
those foods that are not so plentiful.
Home demonstration workers participated with other agencies in pro-
moting and guiding the expanding school lunch program. In 1944 home
demonstration agents continued to give nutrition and canteen courses. In
some instances rural women who have been trained through home demon-
stration work have served as nutrition leaders.
In 8 counties 29 Red Cross home nursing courses were taught to ap-
proximately 545 women and girls. Through Red Cross nurses and local
doctors typhoid and diphtheria immunization were given. Health examina-
tions and home sanitation were stressed at club meetings.
Cooperative nutrition committee programs have been developed in many
Florida counties with home demonstration agents and leaders taking active
parts in analyzing nutrition situations and helping to decide upon the most
urgent needs within a county.
All activities of the home demonstration wartime nutrition program
have been aimed at helping rural families keep physically fit through im-
proved food habits and an adequate diet; helping them meet their own food
needs by larger production and more preservation; helping them use to
best advantage the foods available, through good meal planning and con-
servation of food values in cooking and handling; and helping them co-
operate, with understanding and willingness, in government war measures
such as food rationing, food price ceilings and war food-use programs.
Nutrition and Physical Fitness.-In this phase of the nutrition program
the goals were: To keep informed on developments in nutrition; to keep
physically fit through improved food habits and adequate diet; to correct
food attitudes and habits with children and adults to meet nutritional
standards; to relate nutrition and health programs more closely; to pro-







Florida Cooperative Extension


mote better planning and securing of the family food supplies, whether
home-produced or purchased; to aid home-makers in providing good meals,
especially while so many women are working and where school children
and war workers get part of their meals away from home. Other goals
were to spread information on rationing and use of new foods or alternates
and to improve nutrition and food preparation. Another important goal
was to work in close cooperation with all health authorities, including the
State Board of Health, for control of malaria, hookworm, typhus and all
communicable diseases.
Methods used in developing this program were training meetings, public
demonstrations, radio, exhibits, newspaper articles, quizzes, motion pic-
tures, filmstrips, circulars, leaflets, pamphlets, county nutrition courses,
home visits and the school lunch program.
Records show that this phase of the program was conducted in 35
counties and 535 communities; 1,493 families in 37 counties improved their
diets during the year; 1,977 families in 36 counties were assisted with child
feeding problems; 171 nutrition instruction courses in 18 counties were at-
tended by 2,266 women and girls; 4,110 women in 26 counties took positive
preventive measures to improve health through immunization programs;
1,635 families in 21 counties participated in first aid or home nursing
courses; 4,318 families in 33 counties were helped in preventing colds and
common diseases.
Food Preparation and Meal Planning.-The food preparation and meal
planning phase has been approached through building health with the
proper selection, preparation and attractive serving of the right foods.
During the year method demonstrations were given showing the correct
preparation of all groups of foods. However, because of wartime needs,
particular work was done on "utility beef", peanuts, soybeans, quick and
yeast breads using enriched flour, honey, syrup and vegetable cookery.
Twenty-nine agents and 20 leaders in 29 counties reported they gave 610
demonstrations in the use of enriched flour and cereals. Thirty-two agents
and 26 leaders in 32 counties gave 747 demonstrations on the use of meat
alternates.
The record of the number of families adopting improved practices in
food preparation shows: Baking, 4,111 families in 35 counties; meat cook-
ery, 5,595 families in 35 counties; vegetables and fruit cookery, 6,059
families in 34 counties; dairy products, 4,067 in 32 counties; poultry
products, 4,002 families in 34 counties; and fats, 3,396 families in 25 counties.
Reports show that 9,942 families in 35 counties were assisted with food
preparation and that 672 leaders in 30 counties assisted with this program.
In 34 counties 13,369 families reported that they planned their meals ac-
cording to available foods locally produced.
Production of the Home Food Supply.-During the war emergency there
has been a continued emphasis on the need for home production of food
as a means for providing essential foods for an adequate diet. Objectives
for rural families were: A victory garden to furnish vegetables for use
fresh and for preservation-always including green and yellow vegetables;
fruit orchards where possible; a cow or 2 for adequate milk supply, butter
and cheese; a poultry flock for meat and eggs; and meat animals.
Families were assisted in making a food plan and estimating the amount
of different foods needed on a 6-months' or a year's basis. Demonstrations
were given before groups showing how home production, conservation and
utilization of foods can contribute to better family nutrition.
Accomplishments in producing the home food supply are indicated by
the following report: 851 volunteer local leaders in 27 counties assisted
with educational work in connection with home production of the family








Annual Report, 1944


food supply; 3,490 families in 28 counties improved family food supply
by making changes in home production; 10,035 families in 36 counties im-
proved vegetable supply; 4,509 families in 37 counties improved fruit sup-
ply; 4,492 families in 35 counties improved meat supply; 3,672 families in
36 counties improved milk supply with 1,069 families in 26 counties making
more butter and cheese; and 4,950 families in 37 counties improved their
poultry and egg supply.
4-H Club Work.-The goals of the 4-H club food, nutrition and health
program were: To interest every 4-H club member in physical fitness,
vigor and general good health; to encourage members to help plan, grow
and preserve an adequate food supply for family needs; to help club mem-
bers work out a daily pattern for 3 adequate meals for themselves; to
encourage older members to work out patterns for the family's 3 meals
and to plan so that they will furnish the protective foods; to understand
how to prepare and serve the "basic 7" foods efficiently; and to give team
demonstrations and arrange exhibits as a means of extending information
and teaching skills to the neighborhood or community.
Method demonstrations were used extensively alone and in combination
with discussion meetings, exhibits and filmstrips by the Nutritionist in
training home demonstration agents, 4-H club leaders and members. 4-H
club members were trained by the Nutritionist, home demonstration agents
and rural 4-H club leaders to give team demonstrations in food preparation
and meal planning. In addition, demonstrations were given by club members
on the school lunch, posture and health improvement.
During the year 5,478 4-H club girls in 37 counties planned, prepared
and served 44,484 meals to their families. In addition 1,221 girls in 24
counties had health examinations and 4-H girls in 7 counties completed
home nursing and first aid courses; 4-H girls assisted with the school
lunch program with food preparation and service at times; 3,856 4-H club
girls in 35 counties grew home gardens; 417 acres of home orchards were
planted by 4-H club girls in 20 counties; 2,285 girls in 36 counties cared for
poultry flocks to help the family meet the egg supply; and 576 girls in 26
counties owned and cared for the family cow.
Health Acitivities.-The maintenance of health was stressed as a war-
time necessity, both because of a shortage of doctors and nurses and to
avoid absenteeism from work. More value was put on securing informa-
tion on food, nutrition and health and improving health habits. Special
attention was given to the immunization programs and to the prevention
of nutritional diseases.







Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation
Reports from home demonstration agents from over the State unfold
many splendid stories of achievement and of family and group adjustments
to social and economic changes during this the third year of World War II.

FOOD CONSERVATION
Goals were greatly exceeded this year, particularly in canning. In 1943,
14 times as many containers of vegetables were filled as in 1938. Mainly
this surfeit of canning took place among townspeople. Older home demon-
stration club members through years of experience in canning maintained
their usual budget which had been found satisfactory.
By early spring this year, however, the fear of not having enough food
had passed. Pantries were still bulging from the excessive canning pro-
gram of last year. Many had continued successful victory gardens. Fresh
vegetables were plentiful on the local markets. These factors tended to
decrease the number of gardens grown by amateurs and the amount of
some foods canned.
Canning Equipment.-The purchase of canning equipment, especially
pressure cookers, reached high proportions. Many urban women, recently
made aware of their value in securing a better food supply, were among
those purchasing equipment.
While the goal towards establishing several more up-to-date canning
centers with a choice of steam and gas or fuel oil units has not been
realized, smaller centers in many counties have been overhauled and mod-
ernized. In Palatka, where a considerable amount of truck crops is grown,
a center was built entirely new on the platform of the Farmers' Market.

Fig. 7.-Canning centers such as this operated throughout the State,
helping both rural and urban families to conserve needed foods.







Annual Report, 1944


A large, well-equipped, steam-operated center was completed early in the
year in Duval County.
Agents and their leaders stressed better use and care of canning equip-
ment, canning by budget and better quality finished products to increase
the satisfaction gained from the hard work involved and to contribute to
better family meals and more enjoyment of canned food. Agents have
furthered the can-for-quality movement by means of intensive training
meetings for chairmen and leaders; by demonstrations to clubs on correct
use of equipment; by demonstrations on newer techniques in food preserva-
tion methods other than canning-brining "under cover" in low salt solu-
tions; by comparisons of methods used in dehydration and freezing to secure
quality products; and by distributing up-to-date directions for fruit and
fruit juice canning, vegetable and meat canning.
Canning for shipment overseas was the reason for most calls for help
this year. The majority of those canning for overseas had never canned
before and had to be given special instructions. From 1 canning center
650 cans of chicken, steak, black beans and rice, spaghetti and meat balls,
pickles, smoked fish and shrimp, salami, salted and sugared nuts, candies,
cookies, cake and other good things were included in the output.
Fishery Workshops.-Four fishery workshops strategically located were
planned and a technologist of the Fish and Wild Life Service of the U. S.
Department of Interior was loaned to the Extension Service for a month
of intensive work with the home agents. Many of the agents participated
in these instructive demonstrations of up-to-the-minute methods and tech-
niques in smoking and canning fish.


VICTORY GARDENS AND ORCHARDS

Fewer victory gardens were grown in urban areas this year but fresh
vegetables were plentiful in the markets. Because of the influence of the
great national educational drive, gardening practices have been improved
and fruit plantings have been increased.
In some sections labor shortage was so acute that many heretofore home
garden growers gave their time to helping with both truck and field crops.
In Alachua County the county flower-zinnia-was grown by 185 club
members to beautify homes, to exhibit at the 15th annual zinnia show and
to sell. Each year 1 home demonstration woman makes a neat sum from
the sale of zinnia plants alone. Planting zinnias along the fence by the
highway, a 4-H club girl put up a poster announcing that zinnias were for
sale. So successful was she at this venture that she is planning to follow
the same plan another year.
In 1944, 92 families of Madison County added nursery plants to their
orchards in the amount of $1,816.30. Each of the 9 home demonstration
clubs held plant exchanges and hundreds of pears, grapes, figs, peaches and
plums were added to the home orchards through this source. Orchards
that were established through the community home orchard drives are
now bearing satsuma oranges, pears, peaches, plums, kumquats and blue-
berries. Budded pecan trees also have come into bearing that were planted
as a result of these yearly cooperative fruit tree drives.
Records submitted on gardening activities for the current year show
16,353 planted, with 4,600 homes having vegetables for sale.
The number of calendar fruit plantings this year was reported as 3,212
with 22,902 trees and vines. Berry plants and vines other than grapes
are listed as 53,289.








Florida Cooperative Extension


4-H CLUB WORK FOR GIRLS
Reports show 4,019 girls enrolled in gardening with 2,766 completing
the project. The number of girls enrolled in canning was 3,225 and 39,635
containers were filled with fruits, vegetables and meats. Girls from 17
counties scoring highest in their respective counties submitted records and
stories of achievement in gardening and canning to the State office for
judging.
Much canning was done as a part of the family food supply. Valuable
assistance was given in community canning centers in canning for the
school lunch program and in helping neighborhoods in many ways during
peak seasons of farm work.

MISCELLANEOUS
Citation for Achievement.-The home demonstration woman recognized
by the county personnel as having made the greatest contribution to her
club and community in promoting production and conservation during the
year was awarded a $5 war stamp. The stamp was attached to an attrac-
tive and appropriate scroll with a border of hand-colored Florida fruits,
vegetables, fish, poultry, cans and jars of foods and cookers.
Mango Forum.-Five summers ago the Broward County home demon-
stration agent announced the first mango forum. It was called during the
peak season of the too-little-known nutritionally valuable fruit so that a
large collection of different varieties could be gotten together to interest
residents of the region in growing more of the finer, choice mangos.
The agent gave considerable time and effort to this work and the forum
gathered interest and numbers with each meeting. The Specialist in Food
Conservation, for 2 summers, participated in the instruction at the forum.
Demonstrations were given on conservation and otherwise using the mango
in the menu at both forums.
There are still other relatively unknown but valuable fruits and fruit
products that should receive similar attention. If the guava, for instance,
now rated highest of any known fruit in vitamin C, were given this needed
consideration and the deserved research, the health education and the
horticultural development of the State would be greatly benefited.







Annual Report, 1944


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement
Because of the shortage of labor and materials fewer homes are being
built, but families needing new homes have given more thought to the new
home to be built with government bonds in the future.
Recently there has been more thought given to the remodeling of old
homes. There are now several remodeling plans under way and the Home
Improvement Agent has visited the home and helped with remodeling plans
and furnishings. Remodeled furnishings are being used until a better grade
can be secured. Painting and rejuvenating furniture have been very popu-
lar the past year with young people. A "hobby" is supplied when they
develop a home improvement demonstration and it makes them want to
stay at home and work on their home improvement problems, thus making
their homes happier places in which to live.
Compilation of the county home demonstration agents' reports shows
the following:

HOME IMPROVEMENT

Number of families assisted with house-planning problems................. 1,884
Number of sunshine water heating systems installed ..----.......................... 61
Number of homes repaired .........----...... --- ----- ------------- 1,885
Number of homes screened -----.................---.......---------------...... 989
Number of 4-H girls enrolled in rural electrification ...---- --....................... 83
Number of homes making complete improvement of grounds accord-
ing to plan .......................................-------- ------- 347
Number lawns started this year ...............------.-- ------------ 338
Number pieces electric equipment repaired ................... .......-.. .... ..... 2,249

THRIFT

Number of families who have utilized waste materials such as sacks,
mill remnants, etc .. ------------................................. 11,991
Number mattresses made ....................---------------------------- 610
Number mattresses renovated ....---------.............. ------ ---------- 691
Number of rugs made ------............ -------------------- 1,238

4-H GIRLS' ACCOMPLISHMENTS
The 4-H girls showed greater enthusiasm this year in home improve-
ment by: Painting and papering rooms; mending; planting and cutting grass
and hedges; and setting out trees, annuals and perennials.
There were 1,530 4-H girls enrolled in the beautification of home grounds,
with 1,041 completing; 1,027 4-H girls enrolled in home management, better
housekeeping and streamlining housework, with 724 completing; 2,551 4-H
girls enrolled in home furnishing and room improvement, with 1,705 com-
pleting; and 793 4-H girls enrolled in rug making and other home industries,
with 507 completing the project. Also, there were 1,468 rooms improved
and 5,495 pieces of furniture made or rejuvenated.

NEGRO WORK
The Home Improvement Agent works with negro home demonstration
agents as with the white agents. Ways of doing household tasks were
stressed this year.







Florida Cooperative Extension


One objective with the negroes was to have the wash bench the correct
height on which to place their wash tubs and to have the tubs under a
shade tree or build a pergola on which to grow vines. This adds to the
beauty of the premises as well as to the comfort of working.
Running water and sunshine heaters were stressed. The negro farmers
are interested in our simple instructions for installing these sunshine heat-
ers so as to have hot water for the weekly wash, which is a means of
livelihood for many nice, old, expert washerwomen. In some cases bath-
rooms have been added and an increase is expected in such conveniences
when materials are available.
Negro home improvement work has grown in those counties where
there have been negro home demonstration agents. More "sleeping rooms"
with better ventilation and glassed-in windows, screened windows and
screened porches are some of the things that have been stressed.
The Home Improvement Agent also stressed a neat table with napkins,
a plate, glass, cup and saucer and 10-cent store "silver" knife, fork and
spoon. Having a neat table where all could gather to eat with a family
blessing and better food has given the negro family a certain respect for
themselves.
One negro agent reports that priorities, rationing and scarcity of ma-
terials to do needed repairs around and in the home have brought about
keener interest in doing minor repairs and with the increased income due
to members of the family being in the armed forces and employed in defense
industries, plans are being made to build new homes and repair old ones
as soon as building materials are available.
Home improvement accomplishments, with all members of the family
assisting, for that county were:
H houses rebuilt ......... ..... ................................................ 1
Porches repaired ........ .......... ................. ..................... 15
Rooms painted ............... -------... ---............................ 4
Shelves built to store canned foods ................................ 75
Cabinets built .................. ---------------...................... 15
Outdoor toilets ......... ....- ...................... ..................... 35
Houses painted ........- --.......... ..----- -................ ...... 3
Houses screened ................. -......................... ................ 2







Annual Report, 1944


PART IV-NEGRO WORK

ACTIVITIES WITH NEGRO FARMERS
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent

PROBLEMS AND ADJUSTMENTS
Transportation was a major problem during the year. Circulars were
used by county and home agents, where possible, to get information to
farmers, thereby conserving gas and tires. District short courses were held
in central counties-Leon and Marion-due to transportation difficulties
and other wartime problems. In some counties there were no fairs. Local
agents held community achievement days at convenient places and times.
Labor shortage still prevailed in all counties worked by agents. More
able-bodied men left the farm for induction and war jobs, leaving the farm
with many problems. Agents used their influence in helping those who
remained to make adjustments in order to carry on the work by using
women, boys and girls, as well as men who were not eligible for the draft.
The communities, in a number of cases, pooled their labor and cooperated
in assisting one another in harvesting crops.

WAR ACTIVITIES
Neighborhood leaders were organized in all counties worked and the
agents reported very satisfactory results. Training meetings were held
and local agents assisted the District Agent in explaining the program
and various problems, as well as in making adjustments to solve pressing
problems. These leaders have pledged to render whatever service they
can in helping to carry out the wartime program.
Due to many problems arising in various sections of the State, it was
necessary to add an emergency war worker to each of the following counties
to carry on Extension work: Bradford, Madison, Union and Washington.
These emergency employees are doing very satisfactory work.
With added income in the family, the investment in war bonds and
stamps was stressed and all agents assisted in various war bond drives
and encouraged farmers to do their part. All counties made outstanding
reports.
Local agents in their association with defense councils urged clubs to
save scrap metals, paper and other necessary war materials.
Rationing of food and clothing still prevailed and agents stressed the
importance of caring for clothing and homes and emphasized the production
of more food.
MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS
Gadsden and Jackson were the outstanding counties in the production
of peanuts.
Every farm family was encouraged to have a home garden and, in the
face of rationing of canned vegetables, a year-round garden was emphasized.
In Alachua County home garden sales amounted to $5,000.00.
Some families have increased their number of milk cows during the
year and have been able to make enough butter for the family and have
received good sales for the surplus.
Due to meat scarcity, families increased their poultry production and,
with careful attention to the upkeep of flocks, feeding and general care,
have produced more poultry and eggs for home use as well as market







Florida Cooperative Extension


In Columbia County 1,800 pounds of turkey were sold, netting the farmers
$363.00.
Farmers have begun to take more interest in swine production since
rationing began. In Jefferson County 16 purebred Duroc-Jersey pigs were
purchased by 4 farmers at a cost of $200.00. Other counties reported con-
siderable increase in swine production.
In some counties more and more interest is being manifested in in-
creasing cattle for beef. It is believed this project will create interest
in all counties during the coming year because of the great demand and
good prices offered for beef.
In Hamilton County 1 farmer of the Spring Branch community sold
21,000 stalks of seedcane at 3'/2' per stalk. Three other farmers sold 12,000
stalks to local markets for chewing purposes for an average price of 50
per stalk.
Increased production of corn for home consumption and for market
purposes was noticeable. This crop still prevails as a major food and feed
crop among farmers.
In Gadsden County 9 flue-heated sweet potato beds were constructed,
with good results from the sale of plants. Over 400 acres of sweet potatoes
were planted in Columbia County; 250 acres being of the Louisiana Copper
Skin strain.


Fig. 8.-The display of Army equipment made by negro soldiers is of much
interest to the negro 4-H boys attending a club camp.







r






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44


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__- i -' ..- 1>'.* *-- -. .;







Annual Report, 1944 69

ANNUAL AGENTS' MEETING
The Annual Agents' Conference was held at the Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical College, November 8, 9 and 10, 1944, in conjunction with
the Annual Farmers' Conference.

4-H CLUB WORK
Out of 2,803 boys enrolled in 4-H club work, 2,117 completed their
projects during the year.
Corn projects were carried on by 1,114 boys with 1,026 completing.
Projects devoted to home gardens enrolled 1,776 and 1,614 completed;
swine 738 and 671; poultry 662 and 539; dairying 350 and 309.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Floy Britt, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

Major goals in the 1944 supervisory activities were increased food pro-
duction, conservation, nutrition, home improvement, health, clothing, mar-
keting, community activities, farm labor and special war activities. These
goals were emphasized in the program because they supplied the needs
of the rural families and aided the war effort.
Individuals were interested through club and community meetings,
newspaper publicity, local leaders, circular letters and personal contact.
Their accomplishments during 1944 were: Food production-7,969 gardens
grown, 1,122 fruit trees and vines added, 150,473 chickens owned by club
members, 248,408 dozen eggs produced and 2,135 family milk cows owned
by club members; food conservation-128,385 containers filled with fruits
and vegetables, 4,424 containers filled with fruit juice, 19,858 containers
filled with meat, 162,636 pounds of meat cured and on cold storage, and
18,116 pounds of lard made; nutrition-2,070 families improved diets, 3,430
families planned and served balanced meals and 714 families planned food
budgets for wise buying; home improvement-1,334 houses screened, 878
families remodeled houses; 271 families painted houses, 1,307 families
improved home grounds, 16 families installed water systems, 15 installed
electric lights and 1,324 families used improved methods in housekeeping;
health-2,598 persons followed recommendations in prevention of colds and
common diseases, 1,912 practiced better first aid and home nursing methods
and 1,520 girls and women received helpful training in home nursing and
first aid; clothing--4,986 garments mended and remodeled, 13,610 new
garments made, 1,131 homemade accessories, 5,817 household articles made,
1,410 families practiced better renovation and remodeling, 254 families
planned clothing budgets and 2,776 women and girls followed recommenda-
tions in better clothing protection and care; and marketing-$7,208.00 worth
of fresh fruit and vegetables sold, $47,431.00 worth of poultry products
sold, $628.89 worth of milk and butter sold and $269.14 worth of rugs,
quilts, spreads, craft and other articles sold.

ASSISTANCE WITH PROGRAM
Four hundred nine volunteer local leaders played a very important
part in helping the agents determine the program in the counties. These
leaders, including men, women, boys and girls, are dependable persons
who are good demonstrators and have been given special training by the
local agent. This has enabled them to render valuable help in their coun-
ties. Besides assisting the agents in getting information to the rural
families, the local leaders help with community and county exhibits, fairs,
achievement programs, picnics, rallies, camps and short courses. It is
through this type of service that many worthwhile achievements are made.
Assistance given by the State Home Demonstration Agent, district
agents and Extension specialists has been very helpful to the negro agents.
When specialists are visiting in counties where negro home demonstration
agents are employed, the negro agents are invited to attend special demon-
strations, get information and use it in their work.
Agents receive data and information from the U. S. Department of
Agriculture and the State Extension Service. This is studied and pre-
sented in a simplified form over the State.
In counties where there are no negro agents, the county home demon-
stration agent has rendered much assistance to the negro groups. They







Annual Report, 1944 71

have furnished bulletins and educational material to teachers, assisted
negro agents with short courses and home nursing courses and worked
with negro home economics teachers in nutrition programs, mobile canteen
units and Red Cross and home nursing classes.


RESULTS ACHIEVED

As a result of the many project activities carried on in various negro
sections of the State there is being developed a finer group of rural negroes.
Rural people are thinking more about promoting better health, better edu-
cation and making their home comfortable, convenient and attractive.
Rural families are learning to appreciate good family relations and the
importance of working and playing together. With these qualities exist-
ing rural families are going to be able to render valuable service to their
homes and communities and to their country.
In Duval County open house was held on May 11 and demonstrations
were given to 67 persons from rural and urban sections of the county on
canning chicken and packing overseas boxes.
In Madison County during National Negro Health Week, 42 schools
promoted a clean-up program, 27 cemeteries were cleaned and 27 ministers
preached health sermons. The county-wide effort created much interest
and the people of the county have become health conscious.
In continuing our effort to establish more wholesome living for rural
families through the development of pride in rural farm and home owner-
ship and in promoting peace and good will among families in the com-
munities, we must keep in mind that the success of our work depends not
on how much we do, but on how much we can get others to do.


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)

GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Months of service (agents and assistants) ...................................... 284%
Days of service: In office-2,103; in field-4,928 .............................. 7,031
Farm or home visits made ............................... ..... ............ 17,074
Different farms or homes visited ....................................... ............... 5,010
Calls relating to extension work: Office, 18,309; telephone ........... 6,727
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth .................. 2,365
News articles or stories published .......................................... 222
Bulletins distributed ................................... ........... ..... 20,189
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ....................................... .......... 5
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen ......... 337
Total attendance of men and women ........................................ 7,350
Method demonstration meetings .................................. ........... 2,579
Total attendance ............................................... ........... 37,897
Meetings held at result demonstrations .................................... 404
Attendance .............................. ..... ........... 4,928
Tours conducted .................................................................................. 29
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ......... 45
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ........................ 855







Florida Cooperative Extension


SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE

Total number of farms in counties worked ........................................ 9,197
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricul-
tural program this year and in past ............................................ 3,405
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstra-
tion and agricultural programs ......................................-.............. 1,299
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from
the home demonstration program ................................................. 1,919
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demon-
stration and agricultural program this year .................................... 774
Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension
'program .......................................................... .....--------....................... 5,450
Other families influenced by some phase of the extension program 2,756

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING

Members in agricultural planning group -......................................... 238
U npaid .......................... ........... ....................................................... 229
P aid ........................................................................... ............. 9
Communities in agricultural planning ................................-............ 52
Members in community agricultural planning .................................... 239
Planning m meetings held ......................................................................... 564
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w workers .......... .............................................................................. 289
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ........................................ 785
Days of service by voluntary leaders or committeemen .................... 257

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to w ork ......................................... ...................... 957
Communities in which work was conducted .......................................... 1,169
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ............................-................... 1,076

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
D ays devoted to w ork ............................................ .................. ... 601
Communities in which work was conducted ...................................... 667
Voluntary committeemen and leaders --................... ...................... 370
Breeding and improvement organizations ............................................ 138
Farm ers assisted .................................... .... ........ ...................... 11,585

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
D ays devoted to w ork ................................................................................ 135
Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 275
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ....................................... 195
Farmers assisted in soil management .................................................. 2,417
Soil management associations assisted during the year .................... 3
Farmers assisted in forestry and wildlife conservation .. ................. 1,414

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to w ork ........................ ...... ... ................................... 138
Farm ers assisted .................................................... ......... ............. 2,713







Annual Report, 1944


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ......................................................................... 57
Communities in which work was conducted .......................................... 76
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ................................................. 41
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ............................ 99

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work .............................................. .... ............... 898
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 1,247
Established cooperatives assisted ................................... ................ 9
New cooperatives assisted in organizing .............................................. 13
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted
during the year (established and new) ....................................$ 18,581
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families
(not members of cooperatives) assisted during year ............$1,372,917

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work .............................................................................. 353
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 336
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .................................................... 199
Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification ........................................................ 8,470

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work ........................................ ............. ............. 1,316
Communities in which work was done ................................................... 787
Families assisted: Improving diets, 5,974; food preparation,
1,307; total ................................................................. ....................... 7,281
Families assisted with food-preservation problems ............................ 5,517

HOME MANAGEMENT-FAMILY ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ................................................... ... 121
Communities in which work was done .................................................... 126
Voluntary leaders assisting ............................... ..... ....... ...... ...... 110
Fam ilies assisted .............................................................................. ...... 1,441
Clubs or groups assisted in buying food, clothing, household
supplies ..................................................... .......................... ............ 99
Families assisted in buying food, clothing, household supplies........ 1,333
Families assisted with consumer-buying problems ............................ 1,750

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Days devoted to work .................................... .. .. ........................ 195
Communities in which work was done .................................................... 145
Voluntary leaders assisting ..................................... ........................... 171
Fam ilies assisted .............................. ..... ........................................ 4,175

FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS-CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Days devoted to work ................................................................................ 101
Communities in which work was done .................................................... 123
Voluntary leaders assisting ...................................................................... 123







74 Florida Cooperative Extension

RECREATION AND COMMUNITY LIFE
Days devoted to work ................................................................................ 149
Communities in which work was done .................................................... 209
Voluntary leaders assisting .................................................................... 334
Families assisted in improving home recreation ................................ 558
Communities assisted in improving recreational facilities................ 83
Community groups assisted with organizational problems, pro-
grams of activities, or meeting programs ........................................ 116
Communities assisted in providing library facilities ........................ 8

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ................................... .............................. 6,621
Projects completed by girls .................................................................... 18,135
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ............................................ 1,732
Boys completing fruit projects ................................................................ 133
Boys completing garden projects ............................................................ 1,614
Boys completing market gardens, truck and canning crops................ 26
Boys completing dairy projects .................. .... .............................. 309
Boys completing poultry projects .......................................................... 539
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ........................................ 163
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ............................ 507
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .................................. 907
Girls completing dairy projects ........-...................... ........................... 639
Girls completing poultry projects ............................. ................. 1,229
Girls completing home gardens ..................................... ................. 2,124
Girls completing fruit projects ............................................................... 559
Girls completing market gardens, truck and canning crops................ 436
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects .................. 2,044
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid ............................ 1,484
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvement projects .......................... .............................. 3,917
Girls completing food preservation projects ........................................ 2,015
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm, 2,445; non-farm, 188; total ........................................ 2,633
Girls: Farm, 2,806; non-farm, 863; total ........................................ 3,669
4-H club members having health examinations because of partici-
pation in extension program .............................................................. 1,784
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs ...................................... 259










INDEX


Achievement days, 51
goals, 51
Activities with negro farmers, 67
Adjusting production to wartime
needs, 24
Agricultural Adjustment Agency, 8,
14
Agricultural conservation, 14
Agricultural economics, 11, 23, 73
Agricultural trade associations, 26
Agronomy goals and accomplish-
ments, 28
Animal husbandry, 31
Assistance to returning veterans, 8
Assistance with negro program, 70

Barrus, Edith Y., 49
Beale, Clyde, 17
Beef cattle, 31, 40
Bevis, Joyce, 57
Blacklock, R. W., 40
Boys' 4-H club work, 40
Brahma breeders' association, 32
Breed for better herd replacements,
36
Britt, Floy, 70
Broadcasting activities, 18
Brown, Hamlin L., 34
Bulls for herd replacement, 31

Camps and short courses, 51
Canning centers, 52
equipment, 62
Cattle and horse shows, 32
Changes in staff, 9
Child care, 55
Citation for achievement, 64
Citrus, 21
grove management, 26
Civic organizations, 25
Clayton, H. G., 14
Clothing and textiles, 12, 55, 57, 73
Club organizations, 41
Commercial vegetables, 21
Community canning centers, 25
Conservation of natural resources,
11, 72
Contribution to war effort, 11
Cooper, J. Francis, 17
Cooperation with agencies, 8
Cooperative agricultural planning,
11, 72


Copper wire, 16
Corn, 40
production, 40
Cotton, 20
County agents' activities, 20
Cow, the family, 37
Crop production, 11, 72

Dairy, 40
Dairy cows, 53
number of farms in Florida hav-
ing, 37
Dairy feed payment program, 15
Dairy program, 8-point, 34
Dairy situation, 21
Dairying, 34
Dairying, livestock, poultry, 11
Dennis, F. M., 37
Dennis, R. S., 14

Economic information .and outlook,
23
Editorial and mailing, 17
Egg culling demonstrations, 39
Egg purchase program, 38
Egg quality program, 38
Emergency Farm Labor, 8
Emergency programs, 15
Emergency war food program, 57

Family accomplishments, 52
Family relationships-child develop-
ment, 12, 73
Farm building permits and priority
assistance, 16
Farm forestry, 43
Farm labor, 25
Farm labor needs, 55
Farm lumber program, 16
Farm machinery and supplies, 15
Farm management, 11, 23, 24, 72
Farm records, 24
Farm safety and fire prevention, 55
Farm Security Administration, 8
Farm transportation, 16
Farmer cooperatives, 26
Federal income tax, 24
Feed concentrates, 36
Fertilize all forage, 34
Financial statement, 9
Fishery workshops, 63
Flock records, 39







Index


Florida A. and M. College, 8
Florida Council of Farmer Cooper-
atives, 25
Florida Farm Bureau, 8
Florida National Egg-Laying Test,
38
Florida State College for Women, 8
Florida's poultry industry, 37
Food conservation, 53, 62
Food, nutrition and health, 59
Food preparation, 54
and meal planning, 60
Food production, 40, 53
Forage as pasture, silage and hay,
34
Forest farming study, 24
Forest insects and diseases, 44
Forest trees, planting, 44
Forestry, 41
4-H club work, 33
4-H forestry club programs, 44
Fuelwood on farms, 45

Gardening and food conservation, 62
Girls' 4-H club work, 50, 57, 61, 64,
65
Grades, standards and packages, 26
Grazing crops, 34
Grow green feed, 39

Hampson, C. M., 23
Harvesting forest products for war,
43
Health activities, 61
Heifers for herd replacement, 31
Hog work, 33
Holloway, Ethyl, 49
Home demonstration work, 49
Home food supply, 60
Home gardens, 21, 41
Home improvement, 52, 65
Home industries, 52
Home management family eco-
nomics, 12, 73
Housing, farmstead improvement,
12, 73

Individual farm planning, 24
Institute of Inter-American Affairs,
8

Junior poultry work, 39

Keown, Mary E., 49


-Leadership goals, 51


Liberty ship launching, 42
Livestock, 53
and pastures, 22
dairying and poultry, 11, 72
early marketing of, 31
Local leaders, 22
Lumber, farm, 16

McDavid, Ruby, 49
McKinney, Barbara, 57
McMullen, K. S., 46
McQueen, N. H., 40

Maintenance of good health, 54
Major achievements, negro, 67
Major activities and accomplish-
ments, 59
Mango forum, 64
Marketing activities, 24
Marketing and distribution, 12, 73
Meat supply, farm families', 33
Mehrhof, Norman R., 37
Men's work, 20
Microcarpa, 48
Milk, 36
Moore, Virginia P., 65

Negro boys' 4-H club work, 69
Negro home demonstration work, 70
Negro home improvement work, 65
Negro problems and adjustments, 67
Negro work, 67
Nettles, W. T., 20
News and farm paper items, 18
Nieland, L. T., 43
Noble, C. V., 23
Nutrition, 54
and health, 12, 73
and physical fitness, 59

Organized food distributors, 25
O'Steen, A. Woodrow, 37

Pasture development, 32
Peanuts, 20, 40
Pecans, 26
Personnel problems, 49
Pigs, 33
Post-war state development pro-
gram, 47
Potatoes, 40
Poultry, 40, 53
disease and parasite control, 39
keeping, 37
livestock and dairying, 11
organizations, 39







Index


Preventing destructive "clear cut-
ting", 45
Printed materials, 17
Program planning, 49
Protecting woodlands from fire, 43
Pullets, 38

Recreation, 52
and community life, 12, 74
Red Cross work, 57
Results achieved, 71
Returning veterans, 55

Savage, Zach, 26
Service to veterans, 23
Shealy, A. L., 31
Sheely, W. J., 31
Sikes, Anna Mae, 59
Smith, J. Lee, 20, 28
Soil and water conservation, 46
Soil conservation districts, 46, 47
Soil Conservation Service, 8
Special occasions, 4-H, 42
Special war services, 54
Spencer, A. P., 7, 14, 20
State awards, 42
State Board of Health, 8
State Cattlemen's Association, 8
State Council of Farmer Cooper-
atives, 8
State Dairymen's Association, 8
State Defense Council, 8
State Department of Agriculture, 8
State Live Stock Sanitary Board, 8
State Poultrymen's Association, 8
Statistical report, men and women,
10
negro work, 71
Summary of Extension influence,
10, 72


Summary of 4-H club projects, 13
Summary of negro 4-H club projects,
74
Summer camps, 41
Summer cover crop program, 48
Supervision and adjustments, 7
Supervisory problems, 41
Swine, 40


Thomas, Jefferson, 17
Thursby, Isabelle S., 62
Timber grazing game
tional program, 45
Timmons, D. E., 24
Turkeys, 39
Turner, A. A., 67


demonstra-


U. S. Department of Agriculture, 8,
14, 18, 19, 30, 43, 46, 57, 70
U. S. Department of Interior, 63

Victory gardens and orchards, 63
Vocational agriculture teachers, 48

War activities, negro, 67
War Food Administration, 8
War work, 23
Wartime beef and hog suggestions,
31
Watson, William L., 42
White-fringed beetle area farm pro-
gram, 30
Winter cover and manure crops, 28,
48
Winter feeding, 32
Women's and girls' work, 49
Work stock, 33


Youth education, 47