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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Report of director
 Men's work
 Home activities
 Negro work














Report Florida agricultural extension service
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00005
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1943
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00005
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Credits
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Men's work
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Home activities
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Negro work
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
Full Text












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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
A. P. SPENCER. Director









1943 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1943
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1943







BOARD OF CONTROL


H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University'
H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture'
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor1
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
P. H. SENN, PH.D., Asst. VFV Leader
MRS. BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Asst. WLA Leader
HANS O. ANDERSEN, B.S.A, Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
W. W. BASSETT, JR., B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent'
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Poultryman2
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
ZACH SAVAGE, M.S., Economist'
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Assistant in Land-Use Planning2
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee

MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee

A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent
1Cooperative, other divisions, University of Florida.
SOn leave.











CONTENTS

Page
Report of Director .....................-.. .................... ..... ........- 7
Financial Statement ......- .......................... ............ ...... ...... 8
Statistical Report ...................... .......... .......- .................... 8
Farm Labor .............................. ... ...... ......... ....... ......... 11
Conservation and Emergency Programs ............................................... 13
Editorial and M ailing .......................... ...... .............. ................ 14
County Agents' Activities .....................-. .............. ........ ........... 16
Agricultural Economics ............... ................... ........................ 16
Farm Management ......................................... 16
M marketing ............................... ............. ........................... 17
Agronomy ............................ ........................................ 18
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Poultry ....................... ................... 19
Animal Husbandry ................... ........................... 19
Dairying ................... ............... ...... ...... ......... ........ ....... 20
Poultry ..........:.............. ............... .. .............................. .................... 21
Boys' 4-H Clubs ....................................... .................. ............ 22
Farm Forestry ............... .......... ...... ................................ 23
Soil Conservation .......................... ................... ........ ................ 24
Home Demonstration W ork .......................................................................... 26
Clothing and Textiles ....................................................................... .. 31
Food, Nutrition and Health ............................................................ 32
Gardening and Food Conservation ..................... ................ ....... 34
Home Improvement ...................... ................................ 37
Negro Farm Demonstration Work ......................................................... 39
Negro Home Demonstration Work ........................................... 40
Negro Statistical Report .......................................... ......... 40







[3]



















Hon. Spessard L. Holland
Governor of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agri-
cultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida,
for the calendar year 1943, including a fiscal report for the year ending
June 30, 1943.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR,
Chairman, Board of Control







Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord-
ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS


HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua............Loonis Blitch..................Gainesville........Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker.................J. M. Kennedy.................Macclenny ........................................
Bay....................M. B. Miller*................Panama City ..........................................
Bradford........... L. T. Dyer. -----.....................Starke ........................................................
Brevard............T. L. Cain.........................Cocoa......................Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward...........B. E. Lawton--...............Ft. Lauderdale........Miss Jo S. Tippins
Calhoun.............W. W. Brown ................Blountstown............Mrs. Mary Bridges
Charlotte..........N. H. McQueen..............Punta Gorda ............................................
Citrus................0. M. Maines.................Inverness............Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Clay........... ............................ Gn. Cve. Spg...Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird
Columbia..........Guy Cox...........................Lake City....Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
Dade..................C. H. Steffani.................Miami......................Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.)...J. L. Edwards---..............-- Miami........................Miss Edna L. Sims
DeSoto..............W. L. Woods-----...................Arcadia ........................................
Dixie..................C. L. Dickinson...............Cross City .......
Duval................A. S. Lawton...................Jacksonville............Miss Pearl Laffitte
D-ival (Asst.)..G. T. Huggins----.................Jacksonville....Miss Mildred J. Taylor
Escambia..........E H. Finlayson............. Pnsacola..............Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden............Henry Hudson ---................Quincy.....................Miss Elise Laffitte
Gilchrist...........A S. Laird......................Trenton ........................................
Glades...............F. D. Yaun...------...................Moore Haven ....... ----..................
Gulf .................J. B. White.....................-- Wewahitchka........Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
Hardee..............E. H. Vance.............-.......Wauchula ........................................
Hernando.........C. D. Newbern................Brooksville .................................
Highlands........A. M. Bissett-----..................Sebring ................................. ..
Hillsborough...Alec White......................Tampa ................ ..................
Hillsborough...J. 0. Armor (Asst.)......Plant City ............. ....................
Hillsborough....(West)..............................Tampa........Mrs. Caroline M. Boogher
Hillsborough... (East).. ....................Plant City............Mrs. Irene R. Harvey
Holmes.............A. G. Hutchinson...........Bonifay..............Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River....M. A. Boudet-----..................Vero Beach ........................................
Jackson...........J. W. Malone...................Marianna..............Mrs. Alyne C. Heath
Jefferson...........E. N. Stephens................Monticello........................Mrs. Ella Loeb
Lafayette.-.......J. T. Oxford....................Mayo ....................................
Lake..................R. E. Norris.................... Tavares................Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee.....................C. P. Heuck.....................Ft. Myers .....................................
Leon..................J. G. Kelley.....................Tallahassee..Miss Bertha N. Hausman
Levy..............T. D. Rickenbaker.........Bronson...........Mrs. Frances J. Jones
Liberty.............J. S. Alexander.................... ................
Madison............S. L. Brothers.................Madison..........Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee............Ed. L. Ayers...................Bradenton............Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion..............A. D. Baillie, Jr..............Ocala......................Miss Allie Lee Rush
Martin.............-B. L. Gittings.................Stuart .. ........................ ......
Nassau.............J. D. Coleman, Jr..........Hilliard .............. ......................
Okeechobee.......C. A. Fulford.................Okeechobee ...............................
Okaloosa...........F. W. Barber.................Crestview ........................ ..........
Orange............K. C. Moore....................Orlando..............Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola.............J. R. Gunn ------......................Kissimmee................Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach.....M. U. Mounts.................W. Palm Beach............Miss Olga Kent
Miss Mildred Johnson, Asst.
Pasco................J. A. McClellan, Jr........Dade City................Mrs. Essa D. Shaw
Pinellas............J. H. Logan.....................Clearwater..-.....--. Miss Tillie Roesel
Mrs. Eileen Hammock, Asst.
Polk -----...................W. P. Hayman................Bartow........................Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam.............H. E. Westbury..............Palatka..........Mrs. Opal W. Middleton
St. Johns..........H. E. Maltby..................St. Augustine........Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie...........E. W. Stephens...............Fort Pierce................Miss Mary Dixon
Santa Rosa......E. D. McCall...................Milton....................Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole...........C. R. Dawson ................. Sanford....................Mrs. Ouida Wilson
On military leave since October 14.







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS-(Continued)
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Sarasota...........W. E. Evans...................Sarasota ...................................
Sumter..............Carl Hendricks...............Bushnell ...................................
Suwannee.........S. C. Kierce....................Live Oak................Miss Louise Taylor
Taylor ...........D. D. McCloud................Perry...........................Mrs. Ruth Elkins
Union...............Harry J. Brinkley .......Lake Butler ..................................
Volusia..............F. E. Baetzman... .........DeLand..................Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Wakulla............N. J. Albritton................Crawfordville ............... ............
Walton..............Mitchell Wilkins-............DeFuniak Springs ...........................
Washington ....K. A. Clark....................Chipley ........................................




NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua..........................................Otha W Nealy................................Gainesville
Columbia .....................................McKinley Jeffers.............................Lake City
Gadsden........................-..............Russell Stephens------....... .......... Quincy
Hamilton--...........................----N. H. Bennett--- ----..... .. ..... White Springs
Jackson................................... Thomas A. Harris............................Marianna
Jefferson--..................................... M. E. Groover................................Monticello
Leon............................................Rolley Wyer, Jr....... .............Tallahassee
Marion-----........................................ Eugune P. Smith..................................Ocala
Sumter........................................Alonzo A. Young................................Bushnell
Suwannee................ ....-----......- Alphonso L. Greene..........................Live Oak
COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua-................................-.. Mary Todd McKenzie....................Gainesville
Columbia.........................-----Ozella Sansome................................----Lake City
Duval............................... ..... Ethel M. Powell-----................-...Jacksonville
Gadsden........................................ Diana H Spencer.................................Quincy
Hillsborough........................... Sudella Ford...................................... Tampa
Jackson ---.................... ........... Doris Groover................................... Marianna
Leon..................................................Maude K. Mumford-... ----.......Tallahassee
M adison............................................Althea Ayer................................... M adison
M arion..............................................Idella R. Kelly ..............Reddick
Putnam............................................Lee Ella Gamble ..........................Palatka





















[6]









PART I-GENERAL


REPORT OF DIRECTOR

Wilmon Newell, Director to October 25, 1943
A. P. Spencer, Director from November 1, 1943

Wilmon Newell, Florida Agricultural Extension Service director from
1921, died at his home in Gainesville, October 25, 1943. Arthur P. Spencer,
for many years vice-director and more recently associate director, was
chosen to succeed Dr. Newell by the State Board of Control, effective
November 1, 1943.
Personnel changes during the year became much more numerous than
customary, partly due to workers entering military service and in part
because positions elsewhere had been offered at higher salaries. Changes
on the headquarters staff took place less frequently than among the
county agents.
Fiscal resources continued substantially the same in 1943 as for the
immediately preceding years, except as regarded the compensation given
county agricultural and home demonstration agents. On July 1 a $25,000
sum from a State continuing appropriation voted by the 1941 legislature
was made available to raise the salaries paid these people. County com-
missioners also supplied additional funds in many instances, so that all
the field agents received enlarged salaries.

PLANS AND PROGRAMS
Plans of work previously agreed upon were carried out, so far as con-
ditions would permit. Modifications had to be made, however, in almost
every section of the program, on account of influences exerted by the war
situation.
Cooperation with Federal agencies required more time and effort than
heretofore, since nearly all the emergency units dealing with farm angles
depended upon the Agricultural Extension Service for reaching rural resi-
dents with the messages of production and conservation.
Production goal committees set up among the district agents and staff
specialists and having membership representation by other agricultural
agencies dealt with livestock, poultry, dairying, agronomy, forestry, home
gardens, commercial truck crops and nutrition. Breakdowns into county
units gave the farm and home agents definite information on the output
expected from their territories. Results obtained equalled or exceeded
the aims, except on peanuts for oil and in the number of farm gardens.

RECRUITING FARM LABOR
Responsibility for handling the labor shortage problems affecting Flor-
ida farmers most seriously has been largely placed with the Agricultural
Extension Service by the several federal agencies having a part in the
replacement endeavor.
Supervisors for emergency farm labor operations in 7 Southern states
came to Florida late in October, on invitation from the Extension Service,
and spent three days obtaining first-hand information regarding the needs
existing for hands and the accommodations they would be provided.








8 Florida Cooperative Extension

Farm labor placement centers for white workers have been established
by the Extension Service at 10 places in the fruit and vegetable areas,
with housing facilities taking care of from 25 to 500 persons. Negroes
from Bahama and elsewhere find quarters at 8 camps provided by the
War Food Administration, the capacity of which ranges between 400
and 800.
REPORTS AND STATISTICS
Activities directed by the staff specialists with the Florida Agricultural
Service have been reported on at great length from the sundry divisions
and the results reflected therein will be found in condensed form on pages
immediately following.
Projects given major attention during peace years necessarily have
been greatly changed under the stress of wartime emergencies. Under-
takings were not altogether abandoned in any instance, however, which it
was felt had a continuing value to farmers.
Coverage and scope entering into the accomplishments are best indi-
cated through the statistical summaries which also follow, based for the
most part on data taken from the reports submitted by the county agri-
cultural and home demonstration agents.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT

For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1943

RECEIPTS

Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Federal ...............-$200,645.82
Capper-Ketcham, Federal ..------------............... ---.............. 27,417.72
Clarke-McNary, Federal ..... ---- ------.............. ............. 1,620.00
State- Salaries .. ......... .......................... 54,214.00
Operating .............. .... .. --.... ................. 43,070.00
Continuing Appropriation .---------.............. .........--- 30,000.00
County Appropriations ...................------......... ...... 142,504.99
$474,472.53

EXPENDITURES
Smith-Lever-Bankhead Jones, Federal ........................$200,645.82
Capper-Ketcham, Federal ... ................ ... .............. 27,417.72
Clarke-McNary, Federal ...................-........ .... --1,620.00
State .................................... .... ...........- -- -- 88,126.91
Continuing Appropriation ...-..........................-............. 5,000.00
County Appropriations by County Boards .............. 142,504.99
Balance carried over ...... ..... ............- ............. ... 9,157.09
$474,472.53

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Months of service (agents and assistants) ..................................... ...... 1,161
Days of service: In office-14,144; In field-15,033; Total ................ 29,177
Farm or home visits made ............................... ........... 49,170







Annual Report, 1943 9

Different farms or homes visited .......................------ ..............-..-- ..-- .... 26,834
Calls relating to extension work: Office-283,669; Telephone ............173,138
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth ........................ 5,847
News articles or stories published ..................... .. .. ..-.............. 5,926
Bulletins distributed ................................................ ...............................156,071
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ............................................................ 572
Training meetings held for local leaders of committeemen:
Number ..............................................-------.. ... 956
Total attendance of men and women .-----.................... ............ .......... 10,712
Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber ........................................ .. ..... ............ ..................... 6,950
Total attendance .............................................................. 114,171
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber .................... ...... ...................................... 1,204
Attendance .................... ------- .............- 16,491
Tours ........................................................ ..... .--- --.........- ... 133
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ............ 411
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ............................ 8,696

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE

Total number of farm s ....................................................................... .... 65,036
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricul-
tural program .............................. .. .................... ..... ......................... 35,776
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from
home demonstration program .......................................... -------............. 16,190
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year .................................................. 6,681
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for the first time this year .----................... 5,164
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled ........................................ 8,525
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program ............................................... ..................... ..... 21,525
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of home
dem onstration program ......................................................... ......... 20,050
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ............................ 4,330
Different farm families influenced by some phase of extension pro-
gram ........................... ---- .. ......... .... ............................................ 41,836
Other families influenced by some phase of extension program ........ 33,760

CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT
Communities conducting war work .................................. ........--- 844
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program ........................ 1,831
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian
defense, and other war work ....................................................... ... 4,338

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group .......----------................ ................ 847
Unpaid ........................... ......... .. ..... ...-.....- ....... .. 702
Paid ................................................ ............. ...... 145
Communities in agricultural planning ............................................... ... 149
Members in community agricultural planning ........................................ 476
Planning m meetings held ...................................................................... .. .. 953
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstra-
tion workers ......................... .... .. ..................... 1,809








Florida Cooperative Extension


Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen .....-..................................... 2,179
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 3,636
CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work ................ ...................--.. ..-.....- ...... .... 4,341
Communities in which work was conducted ...---..................................... 2,545
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ............................................... 1,795
LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work ................................---- ....---- ................... 4,433
Communities in which work was conducted ......--................................ 2,105
Voluntary committeemen and leaders .............................. ......... 851
Breeding and improvement organizations ............................................... 50
Farmers assisted ...............-.........---- ... ------ .-..................... 1,544
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to w ork ................................... .. .................................. 895
Communities in which work was conducted ....--.......-........................ 769
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ........................................... 542
Farmers assisted in soil management .......-.........----..............-- ........ --- 20,887
Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation ................. 6,978
FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work ............................... ................ ................... 1,269
Farmers assisted ....... ----.....-................................ 27,706
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to w ork ...................................................... ................. 346
Communities in which work was conducted .......................................... 364
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .............................. .................. 292
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted ................................ 549
MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work ......................................... ...................... 2,078
Communities in which work was conducted ...........----.....................--..... 2,308
Established cooperatives assisted ........................................ ............... 56
New cooperatives assisted in organizing ....-.................... ............... --14
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted
during the year (established and new) ........................................$16,843,547
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year ................$20,359,110
HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to w ork .................................................... .......... ................. 1,331
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................... 1,204
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ....................................................... 598
Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification ................ ...... ......................... 24,849
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to w ork ............................................... ................................ 5,251
Communities in which work was done .................................................... 2,157
Families assisted: In improving diets-14,526; food preparation-
11,842; T total ............................................. ................ ......................... 26,368
Families assisted with food preservation problems ............................ 39,392







Annual Report, 1943


COMMUNITY WORK
Days devoted to work ....................................................... ..................... 2,017
Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing,
family economics, parent education and community life ............ 1,389
Families assisted in home management, clothing, family economics,
parent education and community life ................................................ 71,199
SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ........................................ ..................... 6,036
Projects completed by girls ................. :--.......... .... ......................... 25,589
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ............................................ 847
Boys completing fruit and garden projects ............................................ 1,493
Boys completing dairy and poultry projects ........................................ 1,609
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ........................................ 29
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ................................ 288
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .................................... 1,429
Girls completing fruit and garden projects ............................................ 4,972
Girls completing dairy and poultry projects ........................................ 1,993
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects .................... 4,331
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects ............ 1,418
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings and
room improvement projects ............................... ............................. 7,028
Girls completing food preservation projects ........................................... 3,032
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-3,885; Non-farm-982; Total .................................... 4,867
Girls: Farm-6,390; Non-farm-3,558; Total .................................. 9,948
4-H club members having health examinations because of partici-
pation in extension program ......................... .................................. 1,852
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
School grounds and conducting local fairs .................. .............. 467

FARM LABOR

A. P. Spencer, Director
E. F. DeBusk, State Supervisor
R. H. Howard, Assistant State Supervisor
H. S. McLendon, Assistant State Supervisor
H. O. Anderson, Assistant State Supervisor
P. H. Senn, Assistant State Supervisor, Victory
Farm Volunteers
Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, Assistant State Supervisor,
Women's Land Army
A State Farm Labor Advisory Committee assisted with this program. It
consisted of H. G. Clayton, administrative officer, Agricultural Adjustment
Administration; C. D. Gunn, state conservationist, Soil Conservation Serv-
ice; L. H. Kramer, chairman, Florida USDA Wage Board and Agricultural
Committee, Florida Defense Council; J. A. Texada, Jr., state director,
Farm Security Administration; and Paul Van der Schouw, chief, Farm
Labor Supply Section, War Food Administration .
Farm labor was recruited from all available domestic sources and under
agreement with the Bahama Islands and Jamaica, two British provinces.
Domestic labor came from Florida and from other Southern states.

HOUSING PROVISIONS
Housing the workers brought into the State called for accommodations







Florida Cooperative Extension


meeting definite specifications intended to furnish healthful surroundings
and give adequate feeding facilities.
Quarters had to be furnished for approximately 5,000 persons because
the employers could not guarantee adequate housing which met the State
sanitary regulations.
Camps at key points in the chief crop-producing areas mostly supplied
the deficiencies.
WORKERS ENROLLED
During the year 1,153 workers from other states have been utilized for
longer or shorter periods. Recruiting within Florida for employment at
other points in the state did not produce notable results, mostly the hands
available preferring to come and go as they pleased.
Bahamas negroes, nearly all placed in the vegetable growing sectors,
numbered about 4,800 and their help saved many crops from wastage.
Jamaica furnished around 3,100 additional negroes, who for the most
part were assigned to the United States Sugar Corporation plantations.
Prisoners of war from Army internment camps could not be procured
during the period.

Fig. 1.-The Extension Service aided in obtaining domestic harvest
labor for deficit areas wherever possible. These boys from Virginia are
harvesting oranges in Orange County.


.r,







Annual Report, 1943


SURVEYS AND ANALYSIS
Studies devoted to the prevailing methods on farms in several sections
developed significant data regarding ways and means by which fewer
hands could do given amounts of work.
Labor-saving machinery helped the farmers fortunate enough to own
it in offsetting the scarcity of help. Sharing the equipment was practiced
in numerous neighborhoods, with results almost uniformly good.
Training the personnel engaged in the emergency farm labor activities
could not be done on any extensive scale because the Extension Service
inherited the supervision after the season was well advanced and itself
lacked manpower.
District conferences held at several points gave the state supervisors
opportunity to outline the plans before county agents, and considerable
time was also spent within the local units for similar purposes. Experi-
ence has been relied upon, however, as the best teacher.

CROPS AND AREAS SERVED
Flue-cured tobacco farmers required assistance early in June, and
county advisory committees were formed to supply it. Wives and chil-
dren of turpentine hands furnished many workers, having been hired with
consent from their husbands' employers. Cotton picking presented a some-
what less exacting problem, and was largely handled with the same type
of workers.
Peanuts brought on more serious labor shortages than any previously
encountered. One county had 70,000 acres to be picked. Negroes again
furnished many hands, their ministers in numerous cases appealing publicly
to the congregations for volunteers. Draft boards in some instances urged
4-F registrants to aid in saving this essential crop and the plea had a
good response.
Blueberries in Northwest Florida were saved, except on 1 place. Corn
snapping and cane syrup-making continued longer than customary, under
favorable weather condition. All in all, crop losses from lacking
labor proved relatively small, in the general farming areas. Fruits and
vegetables suffered more by frosts, freezes and floods than otherwise,
after the negroes came in from the West Indies.

WOMEN AND CHILDREN
Women's Land Army recruiting placed approximately 3,828 persons
in seasonal or year-round work. Farm women and girls employed in agri-
culture during the year are estimated at 30,000. Registration for 1944
was gotten well under way.
Boys and girls between 14 and 18 contributed notably to food produc-
tion, as Victory Farm Volunteers. Non-rural youths thus made available
exceeded 1,200. Placements were mostly in the immediate neighborhoods,
through school and other local agencies.

CONSERVATION AND EMERGENCY PROGRAMS

H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer
R. S. Dennis, Assistant Administrative Officer
Relations remained close between the Federal Agricultural Adjust-
ment Agency and the Florida Extension Service.
State committeemen in the former are James J. Love, chairman, Gads-







Florida Cooperative Extension


den county; C. S. Lee, Seminole, W. B. Anderson, Jackson; H. C. Brown,
Lake, with Extension Director A. P. Spencer ex-officio.
WARTIME OPERATIONS

State and county war boards, organized under United States Agricul-
ture Department supervision and representing the federal agencies active
in the field, handle virtually all wartime problems.
Assistance was rendered farmers in obtaining power connections, cop-
per wire, agricultural machinery, tubes, tires and gasoline, livestock
slaughter permits and like essential supplies.
Draft deferments for farm hands and support price details also received
attention, along with livestock feed difficulties, the container, fertilizer and
insecticide shortages and similar production handicaps.

CONSERVATION UNDERTAKINGS
Foodstuffs output enlargement furnished the basis for all the endeavor
in this connection. Payments to farmers for practices helping toward that
end approximated $2,250,000, about $400,000 more than in the preceding
period.
Materials made available through which the practices could be given
greater efficiency mostly consisted of seeds and plant foods. Terracing
service was also rendered in numerous instances.
Incentive payments to truck crop growers approached $850,000. Dairy
feed subsidies amounted to nearly $300,000 in the last 3 months of the year.

EDITORIAL AND MAILING

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Demands from the multiplying federal agencies dealing with agricul-
ture, for the dissemination of information regarding rules and regulations,
plus requests by farmers and growers seeking light thereon, vastly en-
larged the work in this department, but it was done without larger per-
sonnel.

PERIODICALS COVERAGE

Paper shortages forced the periodicals to reduce their size and editions,
thus rendering more difficult the task of obtaining space therein. Reader
interest was in a measure diverted by news of war activities. Briefer and
more timely stories were accordingly called for, sent out with greater
frequency.
Wire services maintained by the Associated Press and the United
Press took several important stories each week. Special features mailed
direct to daily papers supplemented these. Weekly newspapers, a few
dailies and some farm journals received the weekly clipsheet containing
eight to 14 items each issue. Agricultural periodicals with state, Southern
and national circulation carried more articles from this office than pre-
viously.
AGRICULTURE ON THE AIR
Radio played a more important role than ever, owing to restricted
travel and the fewer meetings held. Florida Farm Hour programs over






Annual Report, 1943 15

Station WRUF, Gainesville, every weekday at noon, furnished the main
reliance but daily farm flashes went to 14 other outlets, principally through
county agents.
Remote control broadcasts were staged twice from WRUF, in the
Farm Hour period. County and home agents gave 175 radio talks during
the year, mostly over stations in their territories.

BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS
Editions altogether enlarged more than 100 percent and the number
of new publications increased one-half.
Six bulletins contained 204 pages and 100,000 copies were printed.
Circulars in the same number included 54 pages and the editions totalled
151,000. Numerous record books and other materials were printed and
distributed.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES
A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
E. F. DeBusk, District Agent
Assignment to handle the farm labor emergency program took E. F.
DeBusk from his duties as district agent for southern Florida and in large
measure they were assumed by W. T. Nettles.
Farm agents in northern and northwestern Florida counties were met
with in small groups and plans made for meetings covering their terri-
tories, to promote enlarged foodstuffs production. Organization was per-
fected of the Florida Crop Improvement Association, to give the movement
assistance.
Farm machinery, fertilizer, insecticide and labor shortages became
particularly acute in the central and southern Florida counties, where
special crops predominate, and much attention was devoted to measures
for relieving them. Dairying conditions grew critical, intensified both
by hands scarcity and lack of feeds, thus calling for similar service.
County agents continued to devote much of their time to work connected
with the Agricultural Adjustment Agency and related federal agencies,
but carried on their demonstration work with juniors and adults as far
as possible under the circumstances. No annual state conference of agents
was held during the year.

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT
C. M. Hampson, Economist in Farm Management
Zach Savage, Economist in Farm Management
Assignments connected with current war effort and postwar planning,
plus several personnel changes, caused somewhat less to be accomplished
than normally in the longtime projects.
State-wide campaigns for enlarged foodstuffs production, and particu-
larly the Victory Gardens planting aspects, which were prosecuted as a
major Agricultural Extension Service undertaking, had direction through
a special committee that the farm management economist headed.
REGULATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
Regulations and restrictions placed upon agriculture by the sundry
federal agencies dealing with its problems, frequently issued and even
more often modified or changed, were filed and information based thereon
was supplied to interested farmers.
Situation growing out of the need for special activities in fields, gar-
dens and groves had recognition through assistance rendered several groups,
notably in determining the maximum wartime production capacity for
Florida and forecasting the status in Southeastern agriculture after the
1944 harvest.







Annual Report, 1943


CONTINUING PROJECTS

Management improvements were suggested to 128 farmers, averaging
8 apiece. Contacts made through county agents aided in giving the sug-
gestions local color. Concrete community endeavor for better livings
from farms continued in 1 county.
Income tax suggestions have been freely distributed by sundry methods
and the data proved to be helpful. Assistance in making out the federal
returns was received personally by more than 1,000 rural residents, from
county agents and the farm management specialists.
Record keeping increased and improved on many places, their owners
having found that the figures thus assembled proved a distinct advant-
age in computing the income levies. Farm record books have been fur-
nished to more than 2,100 additional applicants during the period.

MARKETING

V. V. Bowman, Marketing Economist to June 30, 1943
D. E. Timmons, Marketing Economist from December 1, 1943
Farm labor problems received major attention, the Marketing Econo-
mist (Bowman) having served as chairman for the committee which formu-
lated a 3-point plan of work. Later it was supplanted by the nation-wide
program.
Regional meetings dealing with the need for more farm hands were

Fig. 2.-Millions of field boxes of both oranges and grapefruit were canned
in Florida, a good part of them on government contracts.







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

attended at Baltimore and Memphis, and several conferences within the
state. Methods utilized in seeking enlarged labor supplies necessarily
underwent change from month to month.
RECORDS TABULATION
Sales records have been tabulated through the sixth successive year
on hogs sold by the Gulf Coast Marketing Association at Trenton, Gil-
christ County. Information furnished in the current statistics is more
complete than that compiled in previous seasons.
Steps toward grading the gum turpentine output sold on the State
Farmers' Market at Lake City had encouragement, and the move worked
out well. Cooperative selling has been discussed at several points with
dairying and truck crop groups, and contacts maintained that retained
the close relations between this office and the principal fruit organizations.
CITRUS CANNING REPORT
In connection with the Florida Citrus Canners Association, the Market-
ing Economist (Timmons) brought up to date the mimeographed report
covering developments bearing on the processing industry. Trends and
results from preceding years received analysis and a detailed summary
for the last season was prepared.
Hearings on proposed changes in the loading rules for fresh citrus sought
by the freight container bureau representing the carriers caused consider-
able concern among citrus factors. Aid was extended from this office
in compiling exhibits for use during the proceedings and the sentiment
against the proposals had been developed previously through interviews
with grove owners and shippers.

AGRONOMY
J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist
Emphasis was specially placed on work that tied in with the crop goals
set by the federal agencies. Practices previously recommended had to be
modified in some degree, as labor and materials became scarcer.
Field crops goals committeemen comprising the Extension Agronomist
and county agents distributed information concerning the vital need for
foods production, livestock feeds output and products affording oil and
other materials required by the war effort.

AIMS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Corn, alone or in combination with peanuts and velvet beans, was grown
on 747,000 acres of the 750,000 goal. Yields totalling 8,151,000 bushels
exceeded the previous season's by 20 percent.
Peanut plantings by themselves were sought on 250,000 acres. Farmers
responded by cultivating 267,000 acres in the crop. At year's end, however,
not more than 140,000 acres had been dug.
Hay and like forage products from 170,000 acres were needed to main-
tain livestock through the winter months but only about 143,000 acres went
toward attaining this essential purpose.
Upland cotton had a 40,000 acres mark, and the 43,000 acres grown
supplied approximately 15,000 bales. Staple length and quality improved.
Sea Island cotton acreage decreased and only 125 bales resulted, support
prices having been too low to be attractive.
Aims and accomplishments on other crops ran as follows: Sweet
potatoes, 27,000 and 26,200 acres; flue-cured tobacco, 15,200 and 13,600;






Annual Report, 1943


oats, 15,000 and 24,000. Sugarcane statistics are incomplete as this report
is compiled.
COVER CROPS AND GRASSES
Goals have not been set under these heads but activities directed toward
greater utilization received stimulation, with a generally satisfactory out-
come.
Blue lupine seed produced at the North Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station was distributed through the Extension Agronomist, on a
plan intended to build up the supply for subsequent seasons.
Carpet grass seed having been reserved for use at Army and Navy
bases, much less permanent pasture was sown than heretofore. Projects
for having seed saved within the state, of this and other pasture grasses,
took on encouraging proportions.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY
A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist
Livestock and poultry work was again dominated by the need for food-
stuffs in the armed forces and among civilian consumers. Goals for pro-
duction announced from the federal agencies at the Nation's capital applied
with particular force in these fields.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
Beef cattle in Florida have increased during the period and at the end
of the year had attained a new high mark.
Reports from county agents, government investigators and the livestock
markets indicated that the meats production goals had been met, despite
selling and slaughtering regulations which caused confusion and uneasi-
ness. Cattle in some sections lost 50 to 100 pounds per head before the
situation could be cleared up.
Feed shortages complicated the saving of the 1943 calf crop. Bulls
shipped into the state were fewer, owing to transportation handicaps, but
around 1,300 good animals were placed, compared with a 1,500 number as
the aim. Demands for home-bred sires far exceeded the available supply,
a single county taking more than 300.

SWINE AND WORKSTOCK
Swine numbers are known to have increased, though exact figures are
not obtainable. Pigs saved undoubtedly exceeded the number in any pre-
vious year.
Feed production for hogs at home has definitely increased and parasite
control was practiced by more farmers than previously. Marketing methods
also showed improvement.
Meats curing in cold storage plants decreased somewhat, erroneous
reports having been circulated concerning the government attitude thereon.
Information correcting the rumors was circulated from this office.
Rationing of trucks, tractors, tires and motor fuels and the difficulty
in procuring repair parts focused thought in the country districts on horse
and mule power for farming operations, through which the deficiencies could
be overcome.
Stallions in service were in wide demand and better mares were pur-







Florida Cooperative Extension


chased more widely for raising colts. Inoculations against sleeping sick-
ness increased, the Extension Animal Husbandman working closely with
veterinarians giving them.
FAIRS AND SHOWS

Regulations and restrictions in force caused the cancellation of all
shows except 2 and the livestock exhibitions at the fewer fairs held also
suffered from the wartime conditions.
February brought the Southeastern Fat Stock Show and sale at Ocala,
but only 167 animals went on the auction block. Quality remained good,
however, and the average weights and prices were higher.
In the October Range Cattle Show at the Arcadia State Farmers' Live-
stock Market, Brahmas mainly composed the exhibits, a few Angus, Devon
and Brown Swiss cattle rounding them out. Grass-fed animals filled the
pens, except for 1 small herd of halter-broken Brahmas which had received
some grain.

DAIRYING

Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman

Major problems confronting the Florida dairy industry included 2
especially difficult to handle, namely the labor shortage and the scarcity
in high protein feeds. Wage and price increases made the handicaps all
the greater.
Forecasts from government sources indicating that concentrated feed
for cows would be plentiful failed to be realized. Dairymen who bought
animals on the strength of these assurances found themselves in a serious
situation. Demand for milk increased meanwhile, as the Army camps
and Navy bases located in the state increased their populations.
Labor costs advanced over 75 percent in most areas. Feedstuffs ranged
from 50 to 75 percent higher. Ceilings on the output denied the producers
the right to charge prices covering their necessarily higher expenditures.
Subsidies proved only a partial remedy. Milk importations from other
states gained rapidly.

CHANGING CONDITIONS
Peak production in peacetime had been during the late winter and the
low mark was reached around July or August. Under the war situation,
supplies became short in every month and more dairymen upped their
output in the summer months, when pastures and forage crops helped
out. Goals could be met only through this change.
Dairy herds were dispersed and the animals sold because the activities
no longer broke even also brought about material modifications in owner-
ship and operation. All told, 300 to 400 dairies were involved in the trans-
actions. Herds averaged larger at the end of the period, and fewer
producer-distributors remained in business.
CALVES DISTRIBUTION
Florida entered the year with not many less than 110,000 cows in com-
mercial dairies. Calves offered for sale were purchased when 1 to 3 days
old and placed through county agents with adult or junior farmers.
Between 9,000 and 10,000 heifer calves have been distributed in this
manner. Baby animals could have been placed numbering 2,500 to 3,000
additional through 4-H club members alone, if they had been available.






Annual Report, 1943


ORGANIZED ENDEAVOR
Modified as required by the war influence, the Dairy Herd Improvement
Association effort was maintained. Three groups were combined into 1.
Cows on test approximated 1,250.
Work was continued with the Florida Jersey a.d Guernsey Cattle
Clubs, and the 2 registered sales they held recorded the highest average
prices of any year since the organization.
Cooperation was likewise extended the State Dairymen's Association,
which held its annual meeting at Gainesville. Relations remained close
and friendly with the Dairy Products Association and several local or-
ganized units.
POULTRY
N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
A. Woodrow O'Steen, Assistant Extension Poultryman
Poultry production goals higher than for the previous year set the pace
for the work in this department. Florida reached or exceeded the output
sought.
PRICE AVERAGES AND RANGE
Feed prices per 100 pounds of poultry ration in 1943 averaged 43 cents

Fig. 3.-Egg production helped to stem the meat shortage, and later
became a problem of adjusting to available feed supplies.







Florida Cooperative Extension


higher than for the preceding like period and 24 cents above the 1926-29
base level.
Egg quotations on the Jacksonville market averaged 13.3 cents per
dozen higher than the year before and exceeded the base period average
by 6 cents a dozen.
Hens in the heavy grades averaged 4.1 cents per pound higher in 1943
than for 1942 and the average on heavy fryers increased 2.7 cents per
pound.
Ceilings on eggs established during the previous year were not changed
to take into account the upward trends in feed prices nor to recognize the
other enlarged producing costs.
Surpluses developed during the spring of 1943 in several counties,
especially through the central and northern sections. Federal purchases
through the War Food Administration helped to relieve the situations,
though most poultrymen felt that the prices paid were too low. Buying
stations at 35 points took 9,038 cases.

EGG-LAYING TEST
Beginning October 1, 1942, and ending September 22, 1943, the Seven-
teenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test took place with 96 pens of 13
pullets each from 22 states. Florida breeders in 8 counties entered 14 pens.
Average output for the 1,242 pullets was 196.2 eggs per bird, with 202.2
points, which was considerably below the all-time high recorded during
the preceding test.
High fowl was a Single Comb White Leghorn entered by the Thomascello
Leghorn Breeders, Monticello, which laid 327 eggs for 358.60 points.
This pullet was high S. C. White Leghorn for the Nation, in all the official
egg-laying tests.

PROJECTS MAINTAINED

Raising healthy pullets, growing green feed, keeping calendar flock
records, culling practices and junior poultry work undertaken before the
war went ahead on a modified scale.
Farm brooders and finishers in small units, fashioned after models
developed by Extension poultrymen, aided the food for freedom program,
fully 1,500 having been built.

COOPERATING GROUPS
Relations remained on a cordial basis with the Florida Poultry Council,
State Poultry Producers' Association and Breeder and Hatchery Associ-
ation.
BOYS' 4-H CLUBS

R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
N. H. McQueen, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent
Returning to Charlotte County as farm agent October 15, 1943, N. H.
McQueen remained as state boys' club assistant on a part-time basis, and
undertook supervisory duties in about 10 southeastern counties.
Stress was placed on foods production. Boys alone grew out over
64,000 fryers for spring marketing, 14,000 more than their goal.
Club members bought more than 900 baby dairy calves and they pur-
chased 375 bred heifers, many of which are now giving milk.
Home vegetable gardens were expected to be aided by every 4-H







Annual Report, 1943


member. As projects in club work, they have been grown by above 50
percent of the boys.
CAMPS AND MEETINGS
Gasoline and tire shortages made it necessary to hold fewer club meet-
ings. Achievement Day programs were put on less frequently, for the
same reason.
Summer camps as resumed this year conformed with the wartime situ-
ation. Army physical tests in the simpler forms were given all boys
attending Camp McQuarrie.
District camps proved more successful than usual and the attendance
exceeded that for the last 3 preceding seasons in which they had been held.
Ration boards issued points sufficient for feeding the campers.
Facilities at the University of Florida having been taken over so ex-
tensively by the United States Army for training purposes, the annual
short course could not be held. Trips to out-of state points were also
abandoned.
CAMPAIGNS AND PROGRAMS
Mobilization Week was emphasized so far as possible. Conditions
peculiar to club project work in Florida rendered it difficult for national
plans to be utilized fully.
Time spent with county agricultural workers by the State Boys'
Club Agent brought good results. Two days a month each in 3 counties
demonstrated that the idea has large possibilities.
Long-time objectives remained in mind but chiefly had to be sidetracked
for the more immediate effort directed toward helping win the war.
Machinery has been set up, however, for use when the skies clear.

FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester
Timber shortages developing during the period caused concentration
on endeavors for relieving the scarcity, as a wartime duty, and some
curtailment became necessary in normal activities.
NAVAL STORES
Working farm timber for naval stores could be extended only in a
limited degree, because hands were lacking with which to carry it on.
Beginnings made will bring results later, it is felt.
Gum sales under competitive bidding at the Lake City State Farmers'
Market, in establishing which the Extension Forester cooperated, assured
farmers top prices and cash was paid at the platform.

TIMBER OUTPUT
Increasing the production of forest products needed for war purposes
occupied considerable time during the final six months in the period.
Meetings attended and publicity material prepared stressed the theme,
with special emphasis on pulpwood cutting. Wood for fuel, in country and
city, was also urged, to conserve fuel oils and coal.

TREE PLANTING
Planting forest trees was made a major project. Slash pine seedlings
in a 1,000,000 total donated by a Florida pulp mill had been made available






Florida Cooperative Extension


to farmers and landowners in 21 northeastern counties.
Farm agents received assistance from the Extension Forester in getting
the trees put out through their territories, their efforts placing 713,810,
or 71 percent, of which 4-H club members took 68,700. Distribution during
the coming winter will be more extensive and widespread.
NATIVE TREES

Contentions previously made by the Extension Forester that farm plant-
ings in Florida should utilize additional varieties of native trees took on
further importance as the need for diversified timber grew more apparent.
Red cedar, yellow poplar, white oak and black cherry perhaps offer
the greatest possibilities in this connection. Planting stock is not generally
to be had in quantity and willing specimens taken from the woods are
required.
Plantings for demonstration purposes have been made at the Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, and on the National Egg-Laying Test grounds,
Chipley, using all the above-mentioned varieties, in 1/-acre plots each,
plus longleaf and slash pine, swamp chestnut oak and sweet gum. A 4-H
club demonstration forest, using red cedar, white oak, yellow poplar and
black cherry, was started in Marion County.
CORK OAK PROJECTS

Cooperating with a cork and seal company in Baltimore, which supplied
acorns and seedlings, the Extension Forester assisted in testing the
adaptability of cork oak to various Florida soils and locations.
Eight seedling plantings were made under his direction and 50 acorns
apiece furnished to more than 50 chapters in the Future Farmers of
America. Farmers numbering 11, located all the way from Lake Okee-
chobee to Pensacola, also received acorns and seedlings.
Farm fish ponds development was also launched during the year by the
Extension Forester, as a means whereby home outputs of food may be
enlarged while affording rural families more attractive surroundings and
the setting for enjoyable recreation.

SOIL CONSERVATION

K. S. McMullen, Soil Conservationist
The Extension soil conservation program, which is conducted in close
cooperation with the federal Soil Conservation Service, has been adjusted
to render the greatest possible assistance to Florida farmers in meeting
production goals. An effort has been made to put soil conservation behind
food and fiber production to aid in production without impairing the soil.
The 136,000 acres of peanuts harvested for oil in 1943 presented a
serious conservation problem, and every effort was made to meet the situ-
ation. Planting of winter leguminous covers to restore organic matter
to the soil was widely advocated and practised.
SOIL CONSERVATION DISTRICTS
There were 14 soil conservation districts in Florida at the beginning
of the year, and organization of 5 others was completed during the year.
The districts and counties included are as follows: 1, Perdido River-
Escambia; 2, Choctawhatchee River-Walton and part of Holmes; 3, Orange
Hill-Washington and Bay; 4, Holmes Creek-Holmes and part of Jack-
son; 5, Chipola River-part of Jackson and Calhoun; 6, Yellow River-







Annual Report 1943


part of Okaloosa; 7, Gadsden-Gadsden; 8, Madison-Madison; 9, Ochlocko-
nee River-Leon; 10, Jefferson-Jefferson; 11, Oklawaha-Marion and part
of Sumter; 12, Istokpoga-part of Highlands; 13, Suwannee River-Su-
wannee; 14, Blackwater-Santa Rosa; 15, Santa Fe-Columbia; 16, Jumper
Creek-part of Sumter; 17, Volusia-Volusia; 18, Pinellas-Pinellas; 19,
Gulf-Citrus and Hernando.
Educational work in the districts is conducted through the office of
the county agent, who serves as secretary to the board of supervisors in
every district save one, in cooperation with district and work unit con-
servationists of the Soil Conservation Service.
Reports from 17 of the districts reveal that 75 educational meetings
were held with a total attendance of 2,520; 24 farm planning meetings
were attended by 280; 21 demonstrations were attended by 444; 6 tours
were attended by 104; 313 news stories were published on soil conservation
and district activities; and 37 programs were presented before civic clubs.
Each civic supervisor was supplied copies of all materials on soil con-
servation published by the Extension Service, Experiment Station, and
USDA. Ten districts were assisted in acquiring equipment. Election of
supervisors in each district was supervised by the Extension Soil Conserva-
tionist. One-day planning conferences were held in 15 districts.

CLASSES AND EXHIBITS
Classes taught at 4-H club camps for 2 weeks had 152 boys enrolled.
Study courses were supplied to vocational agriculture teachers throughout
the state.
Exhibits displayed during the spring flower and vegetable show held
by the Federated Circles of the Jacksonville Garden Club May 7 and 8,
in putting on which the Extension Service cooperated, attracted an esti-
mated 7,200 persons.
HARVESTING GRASS SEED
Seed became scarce for sowing Bermuda and carpet grass in pastures
after the available stocks had been taken over for military purposes.
Heading by request a state-wide movement for harvesting seed within
the territory, the Extension Soil Conservationist prepared the necessary
instructions, and fairly good results were obtained. Later the program
was expanded to include cover crop seeds.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART Ill-HOME ACTIVITIES

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent
Edith Y. Barrus, District Agent
Wartime conditions, which have controlled the activities of all individual
families, necessarily have affected home demonstration work during the
year. Major emphasis has been placed on food production and conserva-
tion, food preparation and use, nutrition, rationing, health and safety in
the home, safeguarding equipment and supplies, salvage, government in-
vestments and savings, farm labor, maintaining morale, leadership, and
community activities.
Volunteer war services have demanded considerable time from women
who still are not employed outside their homes. Many women are working
away from home, or are responsible for unfamiliar but important tasks on
the farm. This has limited the time women have available for such
customary responsibilities as 4-H leadership, and this in turn has affected
the home demonstration program.
Home demonstration agents have been flooded with requests for help
on gardens, poultry, food conservation and governmental regulations affect-
ing everyday lives, as townspeople have realized that they, too, can become
producers as well as consumers of food.
The home demonstration agents have endeavored to keep in close touch
with people in their own homes, so the program of home demonstration
work would continue to give its first service within those homes working
toward a long-time program, and not serve only to meet the emergencies
of war.
A total of 34,158 white families received direct help from county home
demonstration agents this year. The 42 agents and assistants made 17,047
visits to homes, visiting 9,987 different homes. They directed the work
of the 8,548 women enrolled in 343 home demonstration clubs, and the
9,671 girls enrolled in the 451 4-H clubs for girls.
FOOD PRODUCTION

Through the years home demonstration agents have urged production
of increased amounts of food at home so the family would be well fed.
4-H girls always have been enrolled in "productive" work in order to give
them instruction and to stimulate their interest in a better food supply.
For years, home demonstration women have related the canning budget
to the production of the home garden and orchard. Consequently when
the need for home food production became urgent as a part of the war
program and when food rationing served as a spur to Victory Gardeners
and Victory Canners, home demonstration agents and women were ready
to assume county-wide and state-wide leadership in these programs.
Home Gardens.-Wartime food production and conservation goals for
1943 have been met and in some instances overwhelmingly exceeded. Re-
ports indicate that Florida families, rural and urban, have grown more
Victory Gardens than ever before. In addition, considerable amounts of
food have been grown for local markets to further relieve transportation
difficulties and to afford the cash income needed by the farm woman and
4-H girl.







Annual Report, 1943


An extensive community canning program was instituted in counties in
the trucking areas to take care of the local surplus from commercial fields.
City and rural people cooperated in the endeavor to fill the home pantry
shelves of both groups. The city people happily effected a system of work
by which the busy farmer can have canned on a share-basis those products
grown by himself and needed by town and country people alike.
Home Orchards.-Reports show that 317 4-H girls and 819 home demon-
stration women started calendar orchards this year; 125,127 fruit trees
were added to orchards already started and 21,891 berry vines planted.
Home Poultry.-Poultry raising became popular with hundreds of city
and town families. Small home-made brooders and other poultry equip-
ment became known to many who had never seen them before. Feed for
large flocks, always an important factor for Florida families, became in-
creasingly so. The small home flock, more or less well managed, became
the source of meat and eggs for hundreds of families.
Home Dairying.-Club women and girls reported buying 2,032 family
cows this year, making a total of 10,763 cows owned by the present mem-
bership. Good calves were bought for distribution to 4-H members through
the cooperation of the county agents. An adequate supply of clean milk
is a great need in many rural homes.

FOOD CONSERVATION
In 1943 14 times as many containers of vegetables were filled as in
1938, an increase of 1,400% over 6 years ago and more than 400% over
last year. A 300% increase in meat canning (pork, beef, game, fish, and
poultry) is indicated for the same 6 years.
In the trucking areas of southern Florida a huge canning center pro-
gram developed. Converting the commercial surpluses from tomato and
vegetable fields into wholesome, ready-to-serve foods, became the concern
of the entire population -rather than allowing the produce to waste as

Fig. 4.-Victory Gardens by the thousands on farms and in cities -
helped to boost the country's food production. This garden is growing
at a county club camp.







Florida Cooperative Extension


had been too commonly done in the past.
Most immediate and impressive gains could be made through better
use of existing resources of commercial truck gardens and citrus groves,
eliminating waste through failure to use this food already produced, rather
than to use time, labor, seed, fertilizer, equipment and transportation
facilities to grow the food elsewhere.
Home agents gave general supervision to the canning centers. Total
containers filled in all centers of one county was 151,600. Of this about
14% was fruit, grapefruit and pineapple principally. Less than 1% was
fish, meat, or poultry, leaving 84% of all kinds of vegetables, including
tomatoes, green beans, "shell" beans, greens, squash, carrots, peas, lima
beans, corn, eggplant, sauerkraut and new potatoes. The 12 centers in
another county preserved over 171,000 cans.
FOOD USE, NUTRITION, FOOD PREPARATION, RATIONING
The war brought a challenge to Floridians to become, dietetically speak-
ing, more self-sufficient within our borders by using the abundance of our
available food resources more wisely and keeping good food from going
to waste. This bids fair to aid the long-time economy of the state as well
as contributing essentially to winning the war.
Nutrition.-The following summary highlights progress made in nutri-
tion: 18,179 families reported they had planned and produced their family
food supply in accordance with wartime needs; 4,304 families enrolled for
special help in budgeting and buying quality food wisely. Home demon-
stration agents gave 382 demonstrations on the use of meat alternatives
when meat rationing first was introduced in this country; 2,323 families
were helped with home butchering and meat curing and cutting and 1,411
with butter and cheese making; 14,018 families asked for help from the
home agents in using food alternates made necessary by food shortages.
In addition to their food program with home demonstration women and
girls, county home demonstration agents gave 371 nutrition courses spon-
sored by the Red Cross with 5,094 women and older girls enrolled. They
gave 19 canteen courses to 420 women.
Food Rationing.-A total of 8,991 families received direct help from
home agents on how to make necessary adjustments in their food plans
due to rationing. The food rationing plan was explained in detail and
methods of making the best use of food were demonstrated at regular
home demonstration and leader-training meetings and at county-wide meet-
ings where representatives of many organizations were present. Con-
sumers were urged to use fresh fruits and vegetables produced locally or
from Victory Gardens, thereby saving transportation and processed foods
for war needs.

HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE HOME
One important goal in all wartime home demonstration programs has
been to aid rural people to maintain or secure good health, both because
of the shortage of available medical care and so they would be able to do
the work required of them.
Health Examinations.-The real importance of immunization measures
against diseases caused 3,043 families to take such positive measures to
improve their health. Close cooperation with the State Board of Health,
county health units and state and county home demonstration offices,
exists now as always in working out plans for health instruction and
health service programs. The understanding and attitude of home demon-
stration club members has helped greatly in establishing in rural com-






Annual Report, 1943


munities the program of health services inaugurated through the public
schools in cooperation with the State Board of Health. Many women had
physical examinations during the year as a result of home demonstration
programs, and 1,811 4-H girls had health examinations by physicians in
order to care for their health properly or to correct defects.
Home Nursing and First Aid Courses.-During the year 1,890 4-H girls
in 18 counties enrolled in such courses arranged by the home demonstration
agent. Forty home nursing courses were given to women who agreed to
serve as neighborhood leaders in this work and 127 first aid courses were
conducted in cooperation with the American Red Cross, with an enrollment
of 2,266 women and older 4-H girls.
First aid kits for the home have been displayed at home demonstration
club meetings; lists of necessary articles for a complete first aid kit for
the home were distributed and instructions in first aid treatment were
given.
Home Sanitation.-The home improvement program contributed to the
health of the family by emphasizing home sanitation and kitchen improve-
ment. In all, 801 homes were screened; 417 toilets were installed; 1,117
homes were repaired; 177 heating systems were secured and 1,157 houses
and outbuildings were painted.
Fire Prevention and Safety.-Removal of fire and accident hazards
from the home was a state-wide project. A total of 182 courses in fire
prevention were given to 1,398 women and 2,017 4-H girls who agreed to
serve as leaders to urge their neighbors to observe better methods of
preventing fires in their homes; 5,615 other girls of 17 counties received
special instruction so they could help also; 3,856 families reported to the
home agents they had removed fire hazards from their rural communities.
Safeguarding Home Equipment and Supplies Salvage of Waste Equip-
ment.-Ailing sewing machines to the number of 259 were put into work-
ing order through instruction given by home demonstration agents.
Pressure cookers to the number of 1,828 were overhauled. Many forgotten
ones were discovered and put to work. The state Specialist in Food Con-
servation encouraged cooker clinics in many counties. All home demon-
stration agents were given instruction in adjusting gauges, etc., at a state
short course. Also, 1,963 unusable pieces of electrical equipment were
repaired at home; 1,157 homes and outbuildings and 51 fences were painted;
401 mattresses were made from home-grown cotton and 271 were renovated.
Fat Salvage.-The State Home Demonstration Agent served as state
chairman of salvage of fats and grease for the War Production Board and
the State Defense Council jointly. County home demonstration agents or
county agents were county chairmen.
Florida was the first state to exceed its quota in collection of waste
fats. For 5 months of the year Florida led the states of the Southern
Region in percentage of collection, exceeding its year's quota, 900,000
pounds, by more than 6 tons.
Salvage of Rubber, Tin and Scrap.-Women and 4-H girls have helped
with all drives. Volunteer leaders assisted in all drives. Usually the col-
lections were made under the supervision of other agencies, so no detailed
reports of their contributions has been made.

GIRLS' 4-H CLUB WORK
Home demonstration agents from 37 counties report they devoted 3,278
days, or an average of one-third of their entire time, to work with 4-H
club girls and older youth. This is less time by 243 days than they devoted







Florida Cooperative Extension


to 4-H club work last year. This decrease in time is due to the increased
demands made upon the home demonstration agents by adults from urban
and rural communities, and the special work necessary in wartime.
Enrollment.-Girls to the number of 9,671 enrolled in 451 organized
4-H clubs this year under the direction of white county home demonstra-
tion agents. Daughters in 5,671 different farm homes are enrolled in 4-H
clubs, 3,687 girls of non-farm homes were enrolled also, making a total
of 9,358 homes which have been served through 4-H club work for girls.
Home demonstration agents have conducted 3,138 method demonstration
meetings.
To extend 4-H work further, volunteer leaders have held 1,202 meetings
with a total attendance of 22,969. To train these 4-H leaders to reach
and develop 4-H club girls, home agents held 19 training meetings with
2,153 local leaders present.
Achievements of 4-H Girls.-Florida 4-H girls have developed keen
minds, skillful hands, happy hearts and good healthy bodies as they have
carried on their 4-H club work and achieved their wartime goals. The
greatest achievement of all has been the 4-square development of the
girls themselves. They are becoming responsible, well informed, skillful
and happy citizens and future leaders so much needed in their communities.
Food Production, Gardens, Orchards, Poultry, Dairying.-The Food for
Freedom program has been the foremost activity among all 4-H girls.
They have worked with their families and neighbors to produce more of
the food supply and to conserve the surplus for future use.
Club girls have helped to raise the poultry flock, dairy cows or other
livestock which they own alone or in partnership with some family member.
Thus Florida girls have earned as they learned to produce food during
this war year.
Food Conservation.-4-H girls canned 186,789 quarts of food during the
year. They have canned at home and helped to can at the community
centers.
Food and Nutrition.-4-H club girls enrolled in the food and nutrition
program learned about the basic 7 foods needed daily to keep families
strong. They found out how to get these foods by growing them at home
and they learned how to prepare food properly to save the food values
and prevent waste. Then they learned how to serve the colorful Florida
foods attractively so that the entire family would enjoy eating these foods
prepared well at home.
Many girls have taken over the responsibility of buying the family
food, thus learning about "ceiling prices" and the point rationing plan.
They assumed responsibility, too, for the preparation of family meals as
mothers worked at home or in essential war work .
Home Improvement.-4-H club girls have made many Florida homes
much happier, more attractive, more comfortable and orderly and certainly
more satisfactory to Florida families. Young 4-H girls have learned
useful skills as they have become good managers and better housekeepers.
They have taken over home responsibility for bed making, table setting,
and dishwashing as they helped in better home management.
Older club girls have been interested in the improvement of the living
room which helps to improve the morale of the entire family. They are
appreciating their home life with family members and friends now as
never before.
Clothing.-During 1943, 70 percent or 6,790 of the girls enrolled in 4-H
club work were enrolled in clothing demonstrations, 32,058 new garments
were made and 7,277 garments were remodeled.







Annual Report, 1943


Farm Labor.-4-H girls have helped meet farm labor needs by assist-
ing with work on their own farms and for their neighbors. They have
taught town boys and girls to do farm work well; many are active V. F. W.
members.
Short Courses and Camps.-For the second time in 32 years the State
4-H Short Course for Girls was not held in Tallahassee. Shortage of
transportation has affected all county-wide and state-wide activities.
Nearly all counties held county short courses or camps in an effort to give
special training to older girls as leaders and to recognize achievement.

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Joyce Bevis, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
Continued emphasis has been placed on conservation, such as remodel-
ing, renovating, mending, care and storage of clothing; buying only neces-
sary clothes and getting the best possible values for the money spent;
more and better home sewing to offset labor shortages and higher costs;
use of cotton goods for the general wardrobe and textile needs of Florida
rural families because of their suitability to Florida climatic conditions;
and helping people to understand and keep informed about new develop-
ments in government control and manufacturing, changes in style, and
local merchandising situations.
The Extension Service did not have a Clothing Specialist during the
first 6 months of the year, but county home agents and district and state
supervisors gave such assistance along these lines as they could.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR THE YEAR
More people are looking to the Extension Service for help in solving
the increasing problems of wartime. However, it is evident that physical
limitations will necessitate the training and utilization of more voluntary
leaders in various phases of home demonstration work if this additional
help is to be extended.
The following brief summary contains figures on principal accomplish-
ments by home demonstration club women and girls along clothing and
textiles lines, as reported to their home demonstration agents:
The clothing program was carried on in 366 of the 553 communities of
the state where home demonstration work is done. In these communities-
8,897 families were assisted with construction problems, an 18% in-
crease for this year.
7,676 families were assisted in the selection of clothing, a 10% increase.
8,021 families were assisted with care, renovation, remodeling, etc., a
52% increase.
1,976 families were assisted with clothing accounts and budgets, a 9%
increase.
440 families were helped with care and repair of sewing machines and
259 machines were put into working order.
27,393 garments were remodeled by home demonstration club members.
179,318 new garments were made by home demonstration club members.
132,915 new articles were made for the home, such as quilts, spreads,
draperies, curtains, etc.
18,914 accessories such as hats, bags, dickies, collars, etc., were made
by home demonstration club members.
401 cotton mattresses were made; 571 cotton mattresses were renovated.
25 counties reported that 7,071 families were doing the family laundry
for the first time.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Most of the counties reported that home demonstration club members
were devoting time to Red Cross sewing, such as altering and mending
uniforms for service men and making numerous articles for civilian use.

4-H CLUB PARTICIPATION

Home agents were assisted in developing the 4-H club program with
clothing and textiles at a statewide meeting, at district sessions of county
councils of junior home demonstration work, through visits to counties,
by judging exhibits at county achievement days, and through the prepar-
ation and distribution of such teaching aids as skits, check sheets, exhibits
and mimeographed material.
During 1943 70% (or 6,797) of the girls enrolled in 4-H club work carried
clothing projects. Of this total 70% (or 4,645) of the girls completed
their clothing demonstrations. Through these demonstrations 32,058 new
garments were made and 7,277 garments remodeled. Two counties, Orange
and Dade, reported that every girl enrolled in 4-H club work had chosen
clothing as one of her 4-H demonstrations.
Help was given to 4-H club work mainly through group instruction at
summer camps. Three different camps were attended by the Clothing
Specialist, where 8 home demonstration agents, 20 leaders, and 235 club
girls were aided.
FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Economist in Foods and Nutrition
In this phase of Extension work during 1943 emphasis was placed on
nutrition for preparedness and war, without forgetting the value of good
nutrition to both individuals and communities here at home.
The work with adults was divided into 4 phases as follows: (1) Nutri-
tion and physical fitness helping families keep physically fit through
good food habits and an adequate diet; (2) food preparation and meal
planning, including conservation of food values in cooking and other
handling; (3) producing the family food supply to provide the food that
protects physical fitness and to relieve commercial food supplies for civil-
ians with no facilities for food production and for war needs; (4) cooper-
ation with and understanding of wartime programs such as rationing,
ceiling prices and standarization of processed foods.
In addition to these 4 phases, the junior program particularly empha-
sized the need for securing and maintaining good health, and for all
individuals availing themselves of preventive health measures.

NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS

The approach used with all groups was to build on that which was best
in a diet pattern already in use and to suggest additions to the diet, rather
than the elimination of foods habitually used. The 7 basic food groups
and the yardstick for good nutrition, both emphasized by the United States
Department of Agriculture, were emphasized in Florida, forming the basis
around which diet recommendations were made here. The 7 basic food
groups are: (1) Green and yellow vegetables; (2) oranges, tomatoes and
grapefruit; (3) potatoes and other vegetables and fruits; (4) milk and
milk products; (5) meat, poultry, fish and eggs; (6) bread, flour and cereals;
and (7) butter and fortified margarine.
Demonstrations were established in homes in an attempt to improve
the health of each member of the family. Store exhibits of foods suggested
for use, along with recipes for their preparation, posters, newspaper stories,







Annual Report, 1943 33

and work meetings where groups prepared meals were effective means of
disseminating this information.
Records show that this phase of the program was conducted in 378
communities of 28 counties; 7,618 families in 36 counties improved their
diets during the year; 2,173 families in 33 counties were assisted with
child feeding problems; 204 nutrition instruction courses in 23 counties
were attended by 2,052 women; 282 women in 9 counties were certified as
nutrition aides; 4,560 families in 29 counties were assisted in preventing
common diseases; 3,043 people in 22 counties were immunized against
communicable diseases; and 2,019 families in 25 counties participated in
first aid or home nursing courses.
In the junior program, 1,590 4-H club girls in 16 counties enrolled in
the health, home nursing and first aid courses and 1,286, approximately
80 percent, completed the courses. In 8 counties 167 nutrition courses
were attended by 2,442 4-H club girls.

FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING
A total of 11,944 families in 37 counties were assisted with food prep-
artion and 588 voluntary leaders in 31 counties helped to make possible
this widespread assistance.
During the year demonstrations have been given showing the correct
food preparation principles for all groups of foods. Because of wartime
needs, particular emphasis has been placed on enriched flour, bread and
cereals, sugar, meat alternates and meat extenders, soybean products,
peanuts, sweet potatoes, and foods rich in vitamins and minerals that can
be secured locally or in adequate quantities.
Families adopting improved practices in food preparation are recorded
as follows: Baking 5,267 in 32 counties; meat cookery 6,714 in 32; vege-
table and fruit cookery 7,715 in 31; dairy products 5,613 in 33; poultry
products 5,899 in 32; and fats 5,677 families in 28 counties. Reports show
also that 4,304 families in 23 counties budgeted and bought food wisely
through quality, quantity and cooperative buying.
Menus for families with ration allowances and budgeted expenditures
were suggested as aids in meal planning. Homemakers have been helped
to streamline meal preparation, preparing fewer dishes at a meal; planning
nutritional balance over a longer period; sharing responsibility among
members of the family in food preparation; planning a lunch preparation
center in the kitchen; and exchange of labor in meal preparation with the
neighbors.
Leader training meetings have been held on a community or county
basis, as seemed best.
4-H CLUB TRAINING
The food, nutrition and health program for 4-H club girls was developed
along the same lines as the work with adults. Each member was encour-
aged to guard her own health and that of her community.
In addition to having health checks by nurses and physicians, each
girl enrolled in this work scored herself in food selection, health and
posture at the beginning of the year, made plans for improvement, and
scored herself again at the middle and end of the year. As her health
was checked the girl realized more and more the importance of well
selected, planned and prepared meals.
In menu demonstrations the girls discussed the use of available foods
for those which are scarce which can substitute for others.






Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD RATIONING
Food rationing, necessitated by wartime stringencies, called for wide-
spread educational efforts on the part of agents to help families under-
stand the best use of available foods. The Nutritionist has discussed
rationing at county-wide meetings where representatives of home demon-
stration clubs and many other organizations were present.

SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM
Home demonstration clubs were pioneers, many years ago, in efforts to
provide adequate hot lunches for school children, and have worked con-
tinuously on this problem. In more recent years assistance from federal
agencies has made school lunches possible in many schools where they
were not possible previously.
The Nutritionist and State Home Demonstration Agent served on the
advisory committee to the school lunch program, appointed by the State
Superintendent of Public Instruction. They outlined the assistance that
home demonstration agents and women had been to the program, and
suggested ways through which they could continue to serve.
Agents reported that during 1943 they actively assisted in 308 school
lunchrooms--helping to plan and initiate lunchrooms, surveying needs,
advising about balanced meals, furnishing recipes, menus and bulletins,
loaning home demonstration equipment, such as pressure cookers, giving
demonstrations in the preparation of canned foods, and encouraging home
demonstration members to cooperate.
Home demonstration clubs have donated food, 4-H club girls have
served in the lunchrooms at mealtime and aided in the production of
foods in school gardens.
SAFETY
An increasing effort has been made to help rural families provide safe
working conditions. Four thousand one hundred and fifty-one in 34 coun-
ties were assisted in removing fire and accident hazards.

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation
The wartime economy, with its ever greater concentration on food pro-
duction and conservation under increasingly adverse conditions, has brought
a number of new problems in this phase of Extension work. Rationing,
priorities and other changes necessitated by the country's all-out war
effort made both rural and urban people more anxious to produce and
conserve than ever before. Requests for help and instruction in producing
and conserving foods have been especially heavy from urban centers.
Work of the Economist in Food Conservation continues to include en-
couragement of increased efforts toward more and better quality gardens
and home orchards and assistance in providing larger quantities and better
qualities of conserved fruits, vegetables, meats fish and other food products
-frozen, canned, brined and dried.
The Economist in Food Conservation attended a workshop on canning,
freezing and dehydration methods directed by the Food Distribution Ad-
ministration. She conducted a short course or workshop for 12 Florida
home agents, in which up-to-date canning principles and practices were
discussed and demonstrated.







Annual Report, 1943


HOME GARDENS
The national Food for Freedom goals called for considerable increases
in home gardens during 1943, in both rural and urban areas. Most of the
Florida goals were met, some materially exceeded. Victory Gardens, both
large and small, were raised in a number estimated to exceed 150,000,
providing vegetables of good nutritional value for use fresh and in canning.
Home demonstration members grew 20,339 gardens in 1943, an increase
of nearly 2,000 over the year before. In addition, many products have
been grown for local markets, further relieving transportation congestion
and affording cash income to farm women and 4-H girls.
The Florida Extension Service set up a garden goals committee which
lent encouragement and assistance to the effort. Needed publications on
garden plantings and insect and disease control were printed and distributed
in large numbers. Food for victory pledge cards were distributed to the
number of 120,000.
Commercial concerns, civic groups, publishers, nurserymen and seeds-
men wishing to encourage the movement through advertisements and in
other ways were assisted.

CALENDAR ORCHARDS
The calendar orchard program, which has long advocated and encour-
aged increased plantings of fruits and berries, has not been neglected.
The longer time required for such plantings to come to bearing has tended
to make them secondary to gardens, which supply food in a very short time.
Florida farm families planted 15,127 fruits trees and 21,981 berry vines,
according to reports from county home demonstration agents.

Fig. 5.-Community canning kitchens were kept constantly busy during
the canning season to fill home pantries.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Increased earnings on the part of farm people call for larger plantings
of economic ornamentals -those which provide fruits or berries in addi-
tion to shade and beauty.
Under the leadership of home demonstration agents, farm families
throughout the state are pooling orders for fruit trees and berry vines
for planting during the winter of 1943-44.

WARTIME FOOD CONSERVATION
With Victory Gardens grown in larger numbers, with commercial fields
at times offering enormous surpluses of staple vegetables, with grapefruit
always available to the home canner at moderate cost in the citrus pro-
ducing areas, and with the war emergency stimulating a concerted educa-
tional drive for more food, canning the surplus became of vital interest
to town and farm people alike. Consequently, every available piece of
canning equipment was put to full use, and thousands of families preserved
food products by methods other than cannning.
Amounts of vegetables canned at home, as reported by home demon-
stration agents, increased 1,400 percent from 1938 to 1943, more than 400
percent in 1943 over 1942. From 1938 to 1943 a 300 percent increase
occurred in amount of meat canned at home. The agents' reports show
that home demonstration families during 1943 canned 10,611,103 fruits,
vegetables, pickles and relishes and marmalades and jellies. Also they
preserved 218,308 quarts of fruit juices and 448,666 quarts of meats of
various kinds.
In addition, they stored over 5 million pounds of vegetables by other
methods.
Additional statistics from the agents reveal that 7,568 families cured
7,158,496 pounds of meat; 5,979 families made 465,933 pounds of sausage;
6,269 families made 676,298 pounds of lard; 3,130 families made 80,309
pounds of soap at home; 184 families smoked 9,574 pounds of fish; and
426 families brined 5,915 quarts of vegetables.
Efficient, properly ventilated storage places for canned food supplies
are needed in many homes throughout the state, necessitating repairs,
structural changes or new buildings.
Canning Centers.-A huge community canning program was instituted
in the truck growing areas, and community canning centers have been the
means of getting thousands of cans of fruits and vegetables preserved in
counties throughout the state. City and rural people cooperated in the
endeavor to fill their home pantries with foods, effecting a system of
canning on shares at many of the centers. In this way the busy farmer
could produce the food, the city housewife could can it, and both could
share equally in its utilization.
Various methods of establishing and operating the canning centers
were followed, as best suited the occasion. However, in all cases the home
demonstration agent gave general supervision to the work, and in most
cases one or more home demonstration women supervised each center.
Strict supervision insured quality products, for both those who were can-
ning for themselves and those who were canning on halves.
Many other agencies, including vocational agriculture teachers and
supervisors, municipalities, counties, churches, business concerns and vari-
ous organizations cooperated to make the canning centers possible.
There is need for plans for satisfactory canning center structures and
for modernization of many existing structures, as well as for installation
of modern equipment when this can be obtained.







Annual Report, 1943 37

HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Home Improvement Agent
With first emphasis on food production and conservation as wartime
necessities, home improvement has naturally received secondary emphasis.
However, proper physical surroundings contribute to efficiency in all farm
operations and to the development of character in young people, and so
home improvement activities have been pressed as best they could under
the circumstances.
Now that farm families are receiving increased incomes they would
purchase home conveniences and improvements, but in most instances these
are unobtainable.
Mending what was on hand has been the order of the day, and women
and girls left on farms did much repairing of steps and fences, ceiled
rooms and papered walls, put on new roofs, painted and installed window
panes. The care and repair of equipment was emphasized by home agents,
and instructional helps on the subject were distributed from time to time.

BETTER MANAGEMENT IN THE HOME
Time saving, stressed for several years in home improvement work,
was a more important subject this year because more women and girls
were assisting with farm work outside of the home. Cutting minutes
from the time required for everyday tasks gives more time for added
duties or for recreation.
Better management in the home was taught to 4-H girls through team
demonstrations in dishwashing, table setting, bed making, room cleaning
and similar household duties.
The saving of money available now but which cannot be spent for new
home equipment especially through the purchase of War Bonds and
Stamps -to be spent later has been encouraged widely.

PHYSICAL EQUIPMENT
Few new houses have been built this year, due to inability to obtain
materials. Only 106 dwellings have been constructed where helps and
plans were furnished through this office. Materials for remodeling could
be more easily obtained, but scarcity of labor restrained this work. Only
652 homes were remodeled by home demonstration families.
Assistance was continued in the installation of sunshine water heaters,
as well as a few electric, kerosene and gas heaters. When it again be-
comes possible to extend electric lines through REA assistance there will
be wide demand for electricity in additional farm homes.

HOME SANITATION
Reports of malaria among our fighting forces in the South Pacific
has brought a fuller realization of the danger of this malady here at home.
More screening has been done in rural areas during the past few years
than ever before, and the need for screening for protection against mos-
quitoes and flies is not now as great as it once was. This year metal
screens were unobtainable for most homes, and new synthetic screening was
not available part of the year. However, 801 rural homes were screened
this year.
The hookworm hazard is becoming more clearly understood and appre-
ciated in rural areas. Coupled with running water in more homes, this







Florida Cooperative Extension


knowledge is advancing home sanitation. Agents report 302 sanitary
toilets installed during the year.
Cooperation was continued with the State Board of Health and county
units.
HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Exhibits of thrift furnishings were loaned to counties to be used in
conectinon with the girls' 4-H thrift room improvement and for women
with limited budgets for room improvement. Suggestions were given on
inexpensive slip covers, "pepping up" the house furnishings with sacks
which are tied and dyed or stenciled, and other ways of utilization.
Stress has been laid on improvement of the living room, making it into
a place where the neighborhood girls and boys could meet for games, music
singing, candy pulls, and such wholesome entertainment.
EXTERIOR BEAUTIFICATION
Grass plantings in yards nearly doubled this year, 7,969 such plantings
by home demonstration families being reported. Lawn plantings were
increased because soil preparation had been stressed in many homes, and
the soil was ready for planting. Foundation plantings reported numbered
1,068, whitewashed outbuildings 367, and whitewashed fences 60.
HOME INDUSTRIES AND CRAFTS
Home industries and rural crafts have declined this year, due in part
to the fact that women are doing more field work than formerly and in part
to the fact that farm families have more money to spend than in former
years for the purchase of needed items. However, this project was con-
tinued and has helped to develop the latent artistic talent and creative
ability in many women and girls.






Annual Report, 1943


PART IV-NEGRO WORK

FARM DEMONSTRATIONS
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
Negro farmers found themselves called on to produce more food crops
than previously, both for home consumption and to sell.
Local farm agents in 9 Florida counties continued to receive assistance
from the district office, and a tenth county was added before the year
ended.
PRACTICES FOLLOWED
Improved agricultural practices recommended by the Extension Service
were followed on 3,432 farms in the 10 counties, 991 having been reached
for the first time.
Home gardens had special stress, and the effort in this field was ex-
tended to include a large number of non-farm families which had not
hitherto grown all the vegetables needed.

WARTIME CHANGES
Manpower shortages affected negro farmers little less than their white
neighbors. Boys, girls and women accordingly did more field work than
customary.
Rationing and related regulations gave a further complicating factor
in the foods production program and agents were required to render much
assistance toward their correct interpretation.

MEETINGS AND EXHIBITS
Gas and tires scarcity forced numerous revisions in working plans.
Fairs took place in far fewer counties than formerly so exhibits had
lessened importance.
Annual agents' conference was held during October at the Florida Agri-
cultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, and supplied the local agents
with much information regarding their wartime duties.

SPECIALTY CROPS
Work with sweet potatoes and sugarcane for syrup carried on in pre-
vious periods proved that its worth was particularly pronounced under
war conditions.
Sugar refined from syrup at central plants not only supplied sweeten-
ing for family use but a source from which cash income could be secured
on an expanded scale.
Sales have been made in enlarging volume through the Florida Farm-
ers' Cooperative Association, which took steps to utilize facilities made
available at the Lake City State Farmers' Market for refining syrup,
grading and packing sweet potatoes and similar activities.

4-H BOYS' CLUBS
Boys enrolled in the 10 counties numbered 2,821, and 2,367 completed
their projects. These featured the customary aims, with added emphasis
on foods production.
State Short Course sessions had to be dropped, owing to the transporta-







Florida Cooperative Extension


tion situation, the higher living costs for club members away from home,
and related conditions.
County courses which were substituted reached more people than under
the old plan. Achievement Day programs in some cases took on a com-
munity rather than county-wide status.

HOME DEMONSTRATION

Beulah S. Shute, Local District Agent to June 30, 1943
Floy Britt, Local District Agent from July 1, 1943
Food production achievements by negro women amply rewarded the
effort to expand them which constituted the major endeavor.
Volunteer local leaders numbering 446 helped materially in obtaining
4,510 home gardens on farms or urban lots, with 91 calendar orchards
started and 1,815 fruit trees added to former plantings.
Foods conservation took a leading part in the program, 46 canning
centers reporting 171,657 containers filled and 12,860 pounds of dried fruits
and vegetables stored. Records which are incomplete show $32,279.21
worth of farm food products sold during the year.
DAIRYING, POULTRY AND MEAT
Milk cows purchased by negro farm families added 239 to the previous
total owned, raising it above 1,600.
Poultry raising reached its highest peak meanwhile, with nearly 100,000
chickens raised and over 375,000 dozen eggs produced. Home-made brood-
ers were widely used.
Meat was cured for 1,669 negro homes, in a quantity exceeding 250,000
pounds. Sausage made weighed 12,562 pounds and lard rendered 43,016.
Far fewer families bought meats.
DETAILS CONCERNING WORK
Local county home agents received assistance from the district home
demonstration headquarters in 25 calls, 25 home visits, 11 meetings, 4
camps and short courses, and 2 fairs and exhibits.
Following the annual agents' conference at Tallahassee in October,
the women workers remained over an extra day for special instruction by
state specialists in canning meats and vegetables and making peanut butter.
The number of negro women enrolled for home demonstration work
grew to 2,134 during the period. Girls enlisted in 4-H club activities
totalled 3,106. Investments in war bonds and stamps from the 2 groups
aggregated $6,658.49.
STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) ............................................. 199
Days of service: In office-1,570; In field-3,416; Total ................... 4,986
Farm or home visits made ........................................................................ 7,070
Different farms or homes visited ................. ................... 4,061
Calls relating to extension work: Office-14,001; Telephone .............. 5,039
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth ...................... 1,875
News articles or stories published ................................... .......... .. 213
Bulletins distributed ...............................................................................11,760
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ......................................................... 1







Annual Report, 1943 41

Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber .......................................................................................................... 134
Total attendance of men and women .................................................... 3,127
Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber .......................................................................................................... 735
Total attendance .......................................................................................... 8,589
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber ........................... ............................................. ............................. 314
A attendance ............................................. ................................................ 3,454
Tours conducted ........................... ......................... ................................... 35
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ............ 41
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ............................ 897

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total num ber of farm s ................................................................................... 8,613
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year and in past ............................................................. 3,432
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration
and agricultural programs ...................................................................... 2,350
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the
home demonstration program .................................................................. 1,377
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration
and agricultural programs this year .................................................... 1,440
Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension
program .......................................................... .................... ...................... 5,664
Other families influenced by some phase of the extension program .... 2,087

CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT
Days devoted to war agricultural work ................................................ 181
Communities conducting war work ........................................................ 176
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program ............................ 655
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian
defense, and other war work .......................................................... 544

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group ......................................... ...... 349
U npaid ..... .......................... ..... .................. ................... 345
P aid .................................................................. .................... .................... 4
Communities in agricultural planning ..................................................... 70
Members in community agricultural planning ........................................ 260
Planning m meetings held .................................................................................... 322
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w workers ......................................................................... ..................... 341
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ............................................ 755
Days of voluntary leaders or committeemen ............................................ 194

CROP PRODUCTION
Days devoted to work ...................................... ...................................... 922
Communities in which work was conducted .............................................. 1,054
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ....................... ............................ 1,060

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work .......................................................... ............. 595
Communities in which work was conducted ................................................ 693







Florida Cooperative Extension


Voluntary committeemen and leaders ...................................... 547
Breeding and improvement organizations .............................. 33
Farmers assisted ............................--..- .......... 6,275

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work .................................... ................................ 127
Communities in which work was conducted .................................-- 159
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ..................... ......... 27
Farmers assisted in soil management ...................... ....... ..... 869
Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation ...................... 1,444

FARM MANAGEMENT
Days devoted to work ............................... ............... ... ...... 200
Farmers assisted .................... ..... ...................... 4,061

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work .................................. ........... 40
Communities in which work was conducted ..................................... 74
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ......................... ..................... 62
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted .............................. 601

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work ............................................ ................. 780
Communities in which work was conducted ...................................... 1,076
Established cooperatives assisted ................... .... ............-......- 18
New cooperatives assisted in organizing ............................................ 18
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted
during the year (established and new) .................................. $ 13,414.00
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families
(not members of cooperatives) assisted during year ........ $2,950,684.00

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work .................................. .. .. ............ .... 307
Communities in which work was conducted ..................................... 394
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ....................................................... 272
Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification ...................................... 4,155

NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Days devoted to work .................................................. 1,095
Communities in which work was done ...................................... 720
Families assisted: Improving diets-1,888; Food Preparation-1,344;
Total ..................................... .. ...... ..... ........ ....... .... ............ 3,232
Families assisted with food-preservation problems ............................. 2,495

COMMUNITY WORK

Days devoted to work ...................................... ...... 422
Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing, family
economics, parent education and community life .............................. 449
Families, clubs and groups assisted in problems in clothing, family
economics, parent education and community life .............................. 9,878







Annual Report, 1943 43

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ...........................-.................. 4,610
Projects completed by girls ......-....................... ........................ 9,476
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ............................................. 1,121
Boys completing fruit and garden projects ....................................... 1,362
Boys completing dairy and poultry projects ..........................................- 572
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ........................................ 152
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects .............................. 324
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects .................................... 482
Girls completing dairy and poultry projects ...............................-.......... 887
Girls completing home gardens and fruit orchard projects .............. 1,378
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects .................... 1,051
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid ................................ 628
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvement projects ..............---... ........................... 1,581
Girls completing food preservation projects .................................... 1,035
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-2,596; Non-farm-225; Total ..................................... 2,821
Girls: Farm-1,609; Non-farm-235; Total ...................................... 1,844
4-H club members having health examinations because of participa-
tion in extension program ....... ................................ 1,062
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs .................. ... ..................... 1,238