<%BANNER%>
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Report of director and vice-di...
 Agricultural conservation
 Editorial and mailing
 County farm agents
 Agricultural economics
 Agricultural planning work
 Agronomy
 Animal husbandry, dairying and...
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citrus fruit culture
 Farm forestry
 Soil conservation
 Home demonstration
 Food, nutrition and health
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Clothing and textiles
 Home improvement
 Negro farm demonstration work
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00004
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1942
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00004
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Credits
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director and vice-director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Agricultural conservation
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Editorial and mailing
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    County farm agents
        Page 18
    Agricultural economics
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Agricultural planning work
        Page 21
    Agronomy
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Citrus fruit culture
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Farm forestry
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Soil conservation
        Page 36
    Home demonstration
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Home improvement
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Negro farm demonstration work
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Index
        Page i
        Page ii
Full Text
























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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director









1942 REPORT


FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL


EXTENSION SERVICE









REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1942
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1942








BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee
STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension'
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Acting Director
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor1
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor1
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
Cooperative Agricultural Demonstration Work
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist and District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
N. H. MCQUEEN, Assistant Boys' Club Agent
W. W. BASSETT, JR., B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent2
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Extension Poultryman'
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist
Cooperative Home Demonstration Work
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
Negro Extension Work
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

Part-time.
2 On leave of absence for Military Service.

[2]












CONTENTS
Page
Report of Director and Vice-Director ........................................ .............. 7
Financial Statem ent ............... ........ ........ ... ..... .............. 8
Statistical Report ................. ....... .... ----- ..........-.... 8

Agricultural Conservation ....... ............ -- ----- ..................... 12

Editorial and M ailing .......... ... .. ......................... ........... ..................... 15

County Farm Agents ........-................--- ..-----.......... ..... 18

Agricultural Econom ics .................................................. ...... 19
Farm Management ............-......--....---. -----. .........--.---- 19
M marketing ................................... ..... .... .. .... ..........- ----- 20
Agricultural Planning ................ ........................ ..... 21

A gronom y ........................................ .. ... .. .. .. ................. 22

Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Poultry ........................................ 24
Animal Husbandry .................... ................ .....---..--- ---- 24
Dairying ................ ......---- ... ----....-------.......... 26
Poultry .............................................................--........ 27

Boys' 4-H Club W ork ............................................................... ...... 30

Citrus Fruit Culture .--............................. .....---- .--------- 32

Farm Forestry ............ ..... ...... .... .......... ............................ 34

Soil Conservation ...............-... ..--.. ----...... .------------- 36

Home Demonstration .......-.....................------------------ 37

Food, N nutrition and H health .............................................. ......................... 43

Gardening and Food Conservation .............................. ..... ................... 46

Clothing and Textiles ............................ .......... -- ........ ....---- 50

Hom e Improvement ................................... ........... ........ .. 52

Negro Farm Demonstration Work .............................--- .... ....---.-- 55

Negro Home Demonstration W ork .. ..... ...................... ...................... 58

N egro Statistical Report .................................... ..... ................ 60





[3]




















Hon. Spessard L. Holland
Governor of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agri-
cultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida,
for the calendar year 1942, including a fiscal report for the year ending
June 30, 1942.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR,
Chairman, Board of Control







Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of
the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agricul-
ture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in
accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT
President, University of Florida







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua............Loonis Blitch...................Gainesville .... Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker........-.......J. M. Kennedy.............. Macclenny ..............................
Bay................... M B. Miller.................Panama City .................................--
Bradford.......... L. T. Dyer................. Starke .....................
Brevard............T. L. Cain....................Cocoa .................... Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward...........B. E. Lawton.............Ft. Lauderdale ........ Miss Olga Kent
Calhoun........ .... ........ ....Blountstown ........ Mrs. Mary Bridges
Charlotte..........R. A. Fulford........... Punta Gorda ...........................--
Citrus............... 0. M. Maines..................Inverness .......... Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Clay........................ ....... Gn. Cve Spg...Mrs. Elizabeth Starbird
Columbia........ Guy Cox......................Lake City....Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
Dade.................L. fl. Steffani...........Miami .................... Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.)..J. L. Edwards....... ....Miami ........... Miss Margaret Delaney
DeSoto.........-....E. H. Vance......--.......Arcadia -------...........
Dixie..............F. X. Brenneis...............Cross City .................................
Duval................A. S. Lawton...................Jacksonville .......... Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.).G. T. Huggins.............Jacksonville .... Mrs. Dorothea Calmes
Escambia.........E. H. Finlayson.............. Pensacola ............ Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden............Henry Hudson..............Quincy ................ Miss Elise Laffitte
Gilchrist........... A. S. Laird........... ...........Trenton ........................
Glades...............F. D. Yaun..... .. ............ Moore Haven .......................................
Gulf..................J. B. White...................Wewahitchka .... Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
Hardee ..............H. L. Miller....................W auchula .............................................
Hernando..........C. D. Newbern............ Brooksville .................................
Highlands........ L. H. Alsmeyer............. Sebring ........... .......................
Hillsborough... Alec White.......................Tampa.....
Hillsborough... J. O. Armor (Asst.)........Plant City ..............................
Hillsborough... (West).............................. Tampa .... Mrs. Caroline M. Boogher
Hillsborough... (East).........................Plant City ........ Mrs. Irene R. Harvey
Holmes.............A. G. Hutchinson..........Bonifay ............ Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson.............J. W. Malone........... Marianna ....... Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
Jefferson..........E. N. Stephens............... Monticello ........... Mrs. Ella Loeb
Lafayette........ J. T. Oxford....................Mayo.....
Lake..................R. E. Norris...................Tavares ............ Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee.....................C. P. Hueck.....................Ft. Myers ......... .....................
Leon.................J. G. Kelley...............Tallahassee ............ Miss Joyce Bevis
Levy.............T. D. Rickenbaker.......... Bronson ..... ........ Mrs. Essa Shaw
Madison ......... S. L. Brothers................. Madison .......... Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee...........Ed. L. Ayers.................. Bradenton ........ Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion.................... .............. ...... Ocala ............ Miss Allie Lee Rush
Nassau..............J. D. Coleman, Jr........... Hilliard ................................... .
Okeechobee......C. A. Fulford................ Okeechobee ........................................
Okaloosa.......... F. W. Barber .................Crestview ............. ...................
Orange.............K. C. Moore.................... Orlando ........ Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola............. J. R. Gunn......... ..............Kissimmee ............ Miss Albina Smith

Palm Beach.....M. U. Mounts.............W. Palm Beach..Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pasco.................J. A. McClellan, Jr.........Dade City ................................. .
Pinellas.............J. H. Logan............... Clearwater ............ Miss Tillie Roesel
Asst. Mrs. Eileen Hammock
Polk............-. W. P. Hayman...............Bartow ...--............... Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam.............H. E. Westbury ........... Palatka ............. Miss Opal Walker
St. Johns................................... ...... St. Augustine .... Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie.......... Myron M. Varn..............Fort Pierce ........... .....................
Santa Rosa......E. D. McCall...................Milton ......... Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole...........C. R. Dawson..................Sanford .............. Mrs. Ouida Wilson
Sarasota..........W. E. Evans............... Sarastoa ...-.....................-- ..
Sumter..............Carl Hendricks...............Bushnell ..... ... .............. ....................
Suwannee........-S. C. Kierce.....................Live Oak ............ Miss Louise Taylor
Taylor..............D. D. McCloud................Perry .................... Mrs. Ruth Elkins
Union........... Harry J. Brinkley..........Lake Butler ........ ..........................
Volusia.............F. E. Baetzman..............DeLand ........ Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Wakulla...........N. J. Albritton................Crawfordville .... .................
Walton....................... .... ... DeFuniak Spgs.....Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington.....K. A. Clark....................Chipley .......................................
[5]









NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua .........................................Otha W. Neaiy ............................ Gainesville
Columbia and So. Suwannee........McKinley Jeffers ........................ Lake City
Gadsden .......................................... Russell Stephens ................................ Quincy
Hamilton and No. Suwannee......N. H. Bennett ........................ White Springs
Jackson ..........................................Thomas A. Harris ........................ Marianna
Jefferson .......................................M. E. Groover ................................ Monticello
Leon ...............................................Rolley Wyer, Jr. .................... Tallahassee
Marion ............................................Eugune P. Smith ................................ Ocala
Sumter ............................................Alonzo A. Young ............................ Bushnell

COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua ..........................................Mary Todd McKenzie ................ Gainesville
Duval ..............................................Ethel M. Powell ...................... Jacksonville
Gadsden ........................................ Diana H. Bouie ................................ Quincy
Hillsborough ................................. Floy Britt ............................................ Tampa
Jackson ..........................................Sudella J. Ford ............................ Marianna
Leon ...............................................Maude K. Mumford ................ Tallahassee
Madison ..........................................Althea Ayer .................................... Madison
Marion .......................................... Idella R. Kelly .................................... Reddick
Putnam ........................................ Fannie B. Diggs ................................ Palatka


































[61











PART I-- GENERAL

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR
Wilmon Newell, Director
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director
Meeting the federal crop production goals principally occupied the Flor-
ida Agricultural Extension Service during 1942. Committees for the pur-
pose were set up within the organization and extended to represent county
and community effort.
Personnel changes in the period chiefly came about when county agents
resigned to enter military service or accept private employment at higher
salaries. Supervisory and specialist staffs continue as before, except for
the resignation of one marketing member and his successor's appointment.
Addition was made of a soil conservationist.
Financial support for the work from state and federal sources did not
materially differ from that available in the preceding 12 months, though
the demands upon the Extension Service increased greatly. Maintaining
efficiency grew more difficult as the duties multiplied and became further
varied. Counties in several instances helped out by raising their appropri-
ations.
RESULTS AND PROSPECTS
Output from Florida farms was materially enlarged during the crop and
livestock seasons, despite mounting difficulties about procuring fertilizer,
insecticides, labor, machinery, and transportation.
Contributions to the end thus achieved made by the Extension Service
workers have been freely acknowledged, alike by the rural people among
whom they labored and the government agencies charged with responsibility
for keeping up food supplies.
Conditions confronted during the time will probably take on added in-
tensity as the war situation develops. Rationing equipment and supplies
has given the problem new angles. Ceiling prices on farm products caused
a further complication concerning which apprehension is felt.
COOPERATION BETWEEN AGENCIES
Wartime conditions have created numerous new federal agencies dealing
with farming and almost without exception these make their field contacts
through Agricultural Extension Service offices and personnel. County
agents in particular have had their programs greatly enlarged as the in-
evitable consequence.
Calls have multiplied meanwhile from the groups previously existing,
asking assistance on an expanded scale in meeting their added responsi-
bilities. Plans for work that had been set up in the Extension Service along
the lines hitherto followed necessarily underwent shrinkage or side-track-
ing to some extent, because of these various demands.
Coordination between other federal and state units operating in different
but related fields has been promoted on numerous occasions during the year
under Agricultural Extension Service sponsorship. Endeavors in that di-
rection will almost certainly require even more time, as the war situation
increasingly affects the rural people. Losses of its own manpower to the
armed forces or essential manufacturing enterprises will be further felt by
the Extension Service at the same time, beyond question.







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORTS FROM SPECIALISTS

Projects previously started which have been continued during the period
covered in this report are briefly reviewed in the following pages, by the
specialists in each division. Attention is also paid in their findings to the
additional undertakings they have directed or helped to prosecute. Altera-
tions in the activities may be expected as the need and the opportunity
develop.
Financial statements and statistical summaries are presented immediate-
ly hereinafter.
EMPLOYEES JOIN ARMED SERVICES
Twelve employees of the Florida Extension Service, 3 from the state
staff and 9 county workers, had joined the country's armed forces by the
end of 1942. They are Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr., assistant boys' club agent,
D. F. Sowell, extension poultryman, and J. C. Bedsole, assistant leader in
land-use planning, and Stuart C. Bell, F. X. Brenneis, Miss Beulah Felts, T.
K. McClane, P. R. McMullen, A. M. McNeely, J. Raymond Mills, W. J. Platt,
Jr., and Marshall O. Watkins, county workers.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1942
RECEIPTS
Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Federal .............$202,029.95
Capper-Ketcham, Federal .......................... ................. 27,417.72
Clarke-McNary, Federal ................-........... ... ...... 1,620.00
State- Salaries .......... .......................... .......... 60,980.00
Operating ........ ................. ............................ 47,820.00
Continuing Appropriation ................- .........-............. 5,000,00
County Appropriations .....--............. .. ................ 142,504.99

$487,372.66
Special State Appropriation, $80,400.00, not made available
EXPENDITURES
Smith-Lever and Bankhead Jones, Federal ..............$199,366.53
Capper-Ketchum, Federal ............................................... 26,872.10
Clarke-McNary, Federal .......................................... 1,620.00
State- Salaries ......... ........................... ..... ......... 59,990.80
Operating ....................................... ............... 36,894.12
Continuing Appropriation .................. ...................... 5,000.00
County Appropriations by County Boards ................ 142,504.99
Balance carried over ................................................ 15,124.12

$487,372.66
STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) ............................................ 1,172
Days of service: In office-14,075; In field-15,780; Total ................ 29,855
Farm or home visits made ........ .......... ...................... 48,060
Different farms or homes visited .................... ............................... 25,427
Calls relating to extension work: Office-283,669; Telephone ........120,286
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth ........................ 6,503%








Annual Report, 1942 9

News articles or stories published ............................-- ..... .. ............ 6,074
Bulletins distributed ........... ................................. .... ................... 154,855
Radio talks broadcast or prepared ........................................................ 583
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
Number ....- --................... ............. ------------- ........- .....- .... 600
Total attendance of men and women .....................-- .......-.........8,632
Method demonstration meetings:
Number ........... ............ .. .... ..............................--.... 6,256
Total attendance ......................................................... .................... 75,683
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber ................................ .... .....................-........- 1,644
A attendance ............................................. ......................... 17,235
T ours ......................................................................... ........... .......... .......... 227
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ........ 302
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ....................... 9,374

SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms .......--................ ..- ...- .....-.--- .............. ...... 65,482
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricul-
tural program .....--- ...........-- -.............-- ..- ---... ---..... .....----- ...... 32,336
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from
home demonstration program .-----------....... -........ ....... ...------.... .. 16,426
Farms in which changes in practices resulted from agricultural
program for the first time this year .............-..........---- .......-.......... 7,777
Farm homes in which changes in practices resulted from home
demonstration program for the first time this year .................... 4,142
Farm homes with 4-H club members enrolled .................................... 8,560
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of the
agricultural program ........................................... .... ...................... 9,806
Non-farm families making changes in practices as a result of
home demonstration program .................................. ......... ........ 11,264
Non-farm families with 4-H club members enrolled ........................ 3,628
Different farm families influenced by some phase of extension
program ..............----- ---- --- -- ----.....-.......--.............. 38,945
Other families influences by some phase of extension program .... 21,468

CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT
Communities conducting war work ...................................................... 817
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program .................... 1,911
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian
defense, and other war work ............................ .......................... 4,500

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING

Members in agricultural planning group ..................................... --1,297
Unpaid ...................-------......... ---......- ........ ............... 978
P aid ............................................. .. .... ...... .......... ..... .. 319
Communities in agricultural planning ........................... ............... 283
Members in community agricultural planning .................................... 665
Planning meetings held ...........................................--.-----..........-- ..... 825
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demontsra-
tion w workers .................. ........... ...... ..... ............... ... 2,050
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen ....................................... 2,504
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 4,330








10 Florida Cooperative Extension

CROP PRODUCTION

Days devoted to work ........................................ 4,888
Communities in which work was conducted ....................................... 2,615
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ................................................. 2,282

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY

Days devoted to work .................... ...... .................... ................. 4,448%
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 1,838
Voluntary committeemen and leaders ............................................ 917
Breeding and improvement organizations ....................................... 68
Farmers assisted .......................................... 1,123

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Days devoted to work ........................................ 983
Communities in which work was conducted ...................................... 708
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ........................................ 515
Farmers assisted in soil management ...................................... 22,900
Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation .............. 6,500
FARM MANAGEMENT

Days devoted to work ........................ ............... 1,395
Farmers assisted ............... ............ ..... ...... .... .............. 28,808

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Days devoted to work ........................ .............. ................... 384
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 387
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .................................. 306
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted .......................... 596

MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION

Days devoted to work ...................................... 1,675
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 1,962
Established cooperatives assisted .............................. ................ 57
New cooperatives assisted in organizing products ............................ 17
Value of/sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during the
year (established and new) ................................... ............. $13,640,507
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not
members of cooperatives) assisted during the year ..............$13,423,811

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work .... ...................... .................................. 1,291
Communities in which work was conducted ............ ........................... 1,051
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ................................................. 725
Families assisted in house furnishing, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification ... ..................... ................... 20,847

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work ........................................ ....... 4,881
Communities in which work was done ..................... ................ 2,275
Families assisted: In improving diets-11,705; food preparation-
9,869; Total ........................................ 21,574
Families assisted with food preservation problems ......................... 18,291







Annual Report, 1942


COMMUNITY WORK
Days devoted to work ................... ........ ......................................... 2,620
Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing,
family economics, parent education and community life ............ 1,386
Families assisted in home management, clothing, family economics,
parent education and community life ............................................ 53,364

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ...................... ................. 2,826
Projects completed by girls .......... .......... ..................... 23,113
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ... ................................ 367
Boys completing fruit and garden projects ................................... 690
Boys completing dairy and poultry projects ..................................... 683
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ................................ 24
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ......................... 68
Boys completing beef cattle arid swine projects ................................ 707
Girls completing fruit and garden projects ....................................... 3,771
Girls completing dairy and poultry projects ...................................... 968
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects .............. 3,827
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid projects ........ 1,429
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishings
and room improvement projects ............................................ 6,979
Girls completing food preservation projects ...................................... 1,889
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm-3,733; Non-farm-678; Total .............................. 4,441
Girls: Farm-6,452; Non-farm-3,498; Total ......................... 9,950
4-H club members having health examinations because of partici-
pation in extension program ......................................................... 1,356
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving
school grounds and conducting local fairs ............................. 1,511







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION

H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge
R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor

The Florida Agricultural Extension Service plays an important part in
the work of the Agricultural Adjustment Agency in this state. The coun-
ty agent is secretary to the county agricultural conservation association.
In the county offices the AAA work and Extension work are carried on in
in the same offices. The State AAA Committee is composed of the following
members: James J. Love, Chairman, Gadsden County; C. S. Lee, Seminole
County; W. B. Anderson, Jackson County; H. C. Brown, Lake County; and
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension, ex-officio member.
During the year of 1942 the work of the Agricultural Adjustment
Agency and, consequently, the work of the county agents in connection with
AAA was greatly extended and broadened by the demands of the war effort.
A brief outline of the 1942 work follows.

USDA WAR BOARDS
The USDA War Boards are composed of representatives of all USDA
agencies active in the field. These boards were organized in 1941 under
authority delegated to the Agricultural Adjustment Agency by the Secre-
tary of Agriculture. The AAA State Administrative Officer is chairman of
the State War Board, the chairman of the AAA county committee is chair-
man of the county war board, while the county extension agent is secre-
tary. Other USDA agencies represented on the state and county war
boards in 1942 are: Soil Conservation Service, Bureau of Crop Estimates,
Farm Credit Administration, Forest Service, Rural Electrification Admin-
istration, and Farm Security Administration. These war boards have ren-
dered great assistance in carrying out the activities of the year.

AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION

The 1942 Agricultural Conservation Program attached particular import-
ance to: (1) Food and feed production to meet the necessary demands
of the war effort; (2) The most efficient and productive use of the avail-
able farm labor, land, equipment, and other production facilities; (3) The
conservation and improvement of soil resources to the end that future
production needs could be met. All of these objectives were substantially
accomplished.
Food and Feed Production.-Early in November, 1941, the State USDA
War Board established county goals for the production of needed crops, live-
stock, livestock products, poultry and poultry products. These goals in
practically all cases represented substantial increases and in some instances
phenomenal increases over past production. Some of these goals were again
revised upward in January of 1942.
The county USDA war boards in turn broke the county goals down to
individual farms and proceeded with a farm-to-farm canvass and sign-
up, securing pledges from the individual farmers to make every effort to
meet the goals assigned to the farm. A 1942 farm production that broke
all existing records rewarded their efforts. Table 1 gives the revised state
goals.







Annual Report, 1942 13

TABLE 1.-1942 REVISED STATE GOALS FOR PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS.

Commodity Unit Revised State Goal
I January, 1942

M ilk* .............................................. Pounds. 378,000,000
Eggs* ............................................ Dozen 18,750,000
Hogs* ........................................... Pounds 79,013,000
Peanuts* ........................................ Acres 273,000
Gardens ........................................ Number 61,500
Cattle and calves for slaughter Head 236,000
Oats ............................................... A cres 14,000
H ay ............................................... Acres 126,000
Irish potatoes .............................. Acres 32,000
Sweet potatoes ............................ Acres 20,000
Corn* .............................................. A cres 750,000
Commercial vegetables,
including market gardens ...... Acres 201,000
Chickens* ---................... Pounds 14% above 1941
Turkeys .......... ............................. Pounds 10% above 1941
Tobacco, flue-cured* .................... Acres 15,160
Cotton* ......................................... Acres 65,0001
Gum naval stores2 ...................... Units 118,000
Price support in effect.
1 Includes staples of 1%/ inches and longer.
2 Unit is 1 barrel (50 gallons) turpentine, and 31% barrels rosin. 500 pounds gross.
Preliminary crop reports indicate that the goal for peanuts harvested is
the only goal that was not substantially reached or exceeded by a good
margin.
Most Efficient Use of Available Land, Labor, and Equipment.-As a
means to obtain the needed essential production of food and feed crops and
to meet war crop goals, use was made of existing facilities, such as acreage
allotments for certain special crops, with payments to the farm for plant-
ing within the allotment, and marketing quotas for flue-cured tobacco, short
cotton, and peanuts for the edible trade. In the case of cotton and tobacco,
farmers were encouraged to plant even below their allotments and to use
the acreage, labor, fertilizer, and equipment thus released to produce more of
the needed food crops.
As a means of aiding in the most efficient use of production facilities,
such as farm machinery and equipment and farm transportation, war
boards were requested to ration farm machinery and assist farmers in pre-
paring applications and appeals in connection with certificates of war
necessity for farm trucks. The AAA and Extension county office personnel
have devoted a tremendous amount of time to these activities and the work
in this connection has been of untold value to the farmers and to the
consuming public. On the farm labor front the war boards, through the
AAA and Extension employees, have made every effort possible to bring the
labor needs of the farmer to the attention of the authorities through the
medium of regular reports and by other means.
Conservation and Improvement of the Soil.-Three means have been used
in 1942 to accomplish soil conservation and improvement. First, assistance
in the form of payments to farmers was offered to enable them to carry out
needed soil-building practices. These payments, on the average, are equal
to about one-half the cost of carrying out the practice. Many of these
practices also contribute directly to increased food and feed production.
The most important and widely used of the soil building practices applicable
in Florida are: the application of phosphate materials and potash to or
in connection with the seeding of certain soil-improving crops, the applica-







14 Florida Cooperative Extension

tion of limestone where needed, the seeding of winter legumes, establish-
ment of improved pasture by seeding or sodding, maintenance of improved
pastures, construction of terraces, growing and turning under green ma-
nure and cover crops, interplanting of certain legumes with other crops,
planting forest trees, and growing home gardens. Data are not yet avail-
able showing the results of this phase of the program for 1942, but careful
estimates indicate that at least 50,000 farmers took advantage of these pro-
visions and that the assistance given them for this purpose will total ap-
proximately $1,950,000.
Second, certain materials and seeds were made available to farmers
without the outlay of cash, being charged against the farmer's earned pay-
ment. The table below shows the kinds and amounts of materials and
seeds made available under this plan and the number of producers receiving
each.

Kind Quantity No. of Producers
Limestone ............................ 10,994 Tons .................1,425
Superphosphate ................... 3,940 Tons ..-................. 996
Austrian winter pea seed ....223,210 Pounds ................ 599
Oats ....... ................... ..... 2,952 Bushels .............. 120
Rye ..................... ................. 18 Bushels ................ 5
Forest trees ............................ 7,800 .............................. 4

This feature of the program has enabled many small farmers to carry
out soil-building practices on their farms which otherwise would not have
been possible.
Third, the provisions of the 1942 program required each farmer to de-
vote at least 25 percent of his cropland to non-depleting crops or erosion-
resisting uses as a condition of payment in connection with his cotton, to-
bacco, Irish potato or peanut allotment. Many of these non-depleting or
erosion-resisting crops also contributed to the production of needed food
and feed. They included peanuts hogged off, improved permanent pasture,
cowpeas, and fall-seeded small grains. Other practices, such as fall-seeded
winter legumes, green manure crops, kudzu, forest trees, and land ter-
raced, contributed to soil improvement and the storing of soil fertility for
use in future years. This provision affected approximately 20,000 farms and
required approximately 330,000 acres to be devoted to the specified uses.
Farmers on the average more than met these requirements.

MISCELLANEOUS ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Other activities carried out under the Agricultural Adjustment Agency
programs include: (a) The marketing quota program for cotton, tobacco,
and peanuts. In 1942 there were 12,320 farms eligible for cotton market-
ing quotas; 6,219 farms eligible for tobacco marketing quotas; and 9,389
farms eligible for peanut marketing quotas. (b) The Sugar Program in-
cluded 36 growers who planted approximately 33,600 acres of sugarcane
for sugar. The final harvested acreage figures are not yet available.
(c) Cooperation with the Agricultural Marketing Administration in their
price support operations for Florida crops and products. (d) Assistance
to farmers in securing essential material and equipment under priority and
rationing regulations. (e) Keeping county war boards and farmers in-
formed of the requirement of war-time regulations and restrictions affecting
Florida agriculture.







Annual Report, 1942


EDITORIAL AND MAILING

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor

Goals for the production of food, fiber and oil crops announced early in
the year by Secretary of Agriculture Wickard were the chief subjects em-
phasized by the Florida Agricultural Extension Service in 1942. In keeping
with this program, the Editorial Department lent encouragement and assist-
ance in the production of these needed items through the use of news stor-
ies, farm paper articles, radio talks, bulletins, posters, and other means.

MATERIALS PRINTED DURING THE YEAR

For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942, the Extension Service printed
4 new bulletins, 4 circulars, and numerous other materials of various kinds.
The 4 bulletins amounted to 264 pages of material, and the editions totaled
50,000 copies.

The following printed materials were issued during the year:

Pages Edition
Bul. 111 Swine Production in Florida .............-.....-.....-...... 60 15,000
Bul. 112 Avocado Production in Florida ................................112 7,500
Bul. 113 Papaya Culture in Florida ..................................... 36 7,500
Bul. 114 Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables ........................ 56 20,000
Circ. 60 Florida Farmers and Food for Freedom ................ 12 10,000
Circ. 61 Food for Home and Victory .................................. 16 20,000
Circ. 62 Making and Using Sauerkraut ........................... 8 10,000
Circ. 63 Grazing for Florida Livestock .................................... 8 12,000
M.P. 30 Soil Reaction as a Basis for Certain Land
Management Practices ...................................... .... 36 4,500
M.P. 1 Citrus Grove Record Book (reprint) ....................... 700
M.P. 10 4-H Livestock Club Record (reprint) .................. 12 6,000
Florida Calendar Flock Records, 6 issues, each .... 4 1,000
Final Report, 15th Florida National Egg-Laying
Test .......................... ............ ..... ... ... 24 1,500
Rules, 17th Florida National Egg-Laying Test .... 4 1,000
1942 Calendar ................... ......................... ...... 12 12,000
Food goals cards .................................. ................... 1 200
Office Cards, Defense Cooperation ....................... 1 250
Window cards-Plant Peanuts ........... .................. 1 1,250
Form 6 Agents' Monthly Report and Certificate of Service 2 5,000
Nutrition Score Sheet ................................ ............ .. 1 600
Hog Vaccination Record Book ...................................100 100
Group Credit Chart No. 1, 4-H Boys' Short Course 1 250
Group Credit Chart No. 2, 4-H Boys' Short Course 1 500
Victory Garden-4-H Boys' Record Book ............... 16 10,000
Florida 4-H Club Songs ................................. ....... 12 10,000
Agricultural News Service clipsheet, 42 issues,
each ................... ............ .. ... ............ ....... 1 900







Florida Cooperative Extension


MATERIALS FURNISHED PERIODICALS

Newspapers and farm journals published and circulating in Florida
continued to print copious quantities of materials released by the Extension
Service Editors. A special Food for Freedom section, an 8-page tabloid,
was printed and supplied to 41 cooperating (mostly weekly) newspapers,
which distributed a total of 50,000 copies as part of their regular editions.
The section was devoted entirely to food goals and their importance, with
hints on how farmers might enable themselves to reach the goals.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to carry
from 8 to 15 different stories each week to weekly and a few dairly news-
papers in Florida, and newspapers continued to use generously from it.
Two daily papers printed a farm questions and answers column weekly
during most of the year, the copy being furnished by the Extension Editors.
These printed questions and answers always resulted in a number of ad-
ditional queries being received by Experiment Station and Extension
Service workers.
Special stories to dailies were sent mostly through the press associa-
tions, but an average of at least one story a week was sent direct to one
or more newspapers. Skeleton stories occasionally were sent to county
agents to fill in and turn over to their newspapers.
Farm journals in Florida, the South and the Nation used more material
than ever before from Florida Extension Editors. Four Florida journals
printed 15 stories for a total of 532 column inches, 2 Southern journals
printed 9 stories amounting to 107 column inches, and 4 national periodicals
printed 10 articles totaling 176 column inches, all supplied by Florida
Editors.

RADIO MATERIALS AND BROADCASTING

The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF continued to be the principal radio
outlet for farm material from the Extension Service, although Farm Flashes
for five-days-a-week broadcasting were sent to 13 other radio stations.
County and home agents broadcast regularly, mostly weekly, over 5 or more
stations outside of Gainesville. The Florida Farm Hour was cut to 55
minutes near the close of this year.
A recapitulation shows that a total of 483 talks were made over WRUF
during the Florida Farm Hour's six-days-a-week schedule. Of these, 85
were made by Extension workers other than Editors, 139 by Experiment
Station staff members, 178 by the Editors, 26 by College of Agriculture
workers, 8 by the head of the Florida USDA War Board, 1 by a State Plant
Board staff member, and 46 by others. Due to the curtailment of travel,
more Farm Hour programs presented local talent this year than usual.
During December, 1941, 2 Florida Farm Hour programs were curtailed
so that WRUF could broadcast declarations of war in the United States
Congress.
In addition to the talks listed, Farm Flashes and home demonstration
copy from the USDA and transcriptions from the Farm Credit Administra-
tion were used on the Farm Hour. Cooperation was extended the Farm
Security Administration and other agencies.
From talks made by Extension workers a total of 55 Farm Flashes were
prepared and sent to the 13 other stations, which were furnished with a
7-minute broadcast for 5 days each week. This gave added distribution
to the material contained in the Extension talks.







Annual Report, 1942 17

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
This office continued to handle news releases and radio broadcasts for
the Florida USDA War Board and Agricultural Adjustment Administra-
tion. The State Plant Board, as usual, paid for the printing of 10 issues
of the clipsheet, and news material was disseminated for them.
With travel restricted, the Editors made few trips during the year.
However, the Editor did make a trip through western Florida, when he
snapped 75 pictures which have already been largely used in illustrating
articles and publications. In addition, he took a large number of pictures
close to Gainesville.
The Editor appeared before a class in the College of Agriculture for
6 periods of 1 hour each. The class consisted of 10 senior students in-
terested in Extension methods.
A magazine published in New York in Spanish and circulated in South
America printed 1 Florida Extension circular, with our permission, thus
giving the material circulation in South America.
Distribution of bulletins, printed materials and supplies continued to be
handled by the Mailing Room. Bulletins were sent principally to county
and home demonstration agents and on special request. About 5,000 people
were notified when each new bulletin was available.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY FARM AGENTS

A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
E. F. DeBusk, District Agent
Conferences, institutes and tours were nearly all dropped in the North-
western Florida district. Meetings held by volunteers for agricultural
work, in county or neighborhood units, largely took their place.
Farm agents in the territory played a constructive part in drives for
bond sales, gardens planting, scrap metal collection, and Victory pig rais-
ing. Rationing problems confronting farmers also had their attention,
and they helped overcome machinery, labor, fertilizer and like shortages.
Personnel changes presented particular difficulties in many counties.
Agents have been maintained in each one, nevertheless.
Organization of farmers by communities was accomplished in all units.
Gatherings attended by the District Agents, assembled to further that
purpose, brought out thousands of persons.
Ten or more supplementary jobs connected with prosecuting the war
were held by almost every county agent and the agents were also enlisted
in a dozen or more related tasks as high privates.
Production methods hitherto considered adequate underwent close
scrutiny and sustained marked improvement as the result, after the war
emergency conditions grew acute.
"Living-at-home" practices so long advocated by the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service showed their need more than ever and the previous findings
in reference thereto proved of the greatest value in procuring greater food
supplies.







Annual Report, 1942


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist


FARM MANAGEMENT

R. H. Howard, Extension Economist
C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist

Farm and grove record keeping assumed paramount importance with
increasing income tax levies, looming price ceiling threats and multiply-
ing rationing requirements affecting rural residents.
Tours hitherto conducted among farmers and growers had to be
abandoned when rubber and gasoline shortages developed, and the Ex-
tension Service messages were thereafter transmitted chiefly through the
public prints and by means of radio broadcasts.
Plant food elements used in fertilizers received special study at the
request of growers. Findings therefrom helped obtain better-balanced
ingredients and more liberal allowances for citrus groves under the regu-
lations of the several federal agencies which control the manufacture and
sale.
Farm and enterprise record books numbering about 2,000 were furnished
upon individual applications. Assistance in utilizing the forms from the
standpoint of income returns was extended freely. County agents and
the Farm Management Specialists worked together and separately in this
connection.
Grove records have been summarized in the Extension Service offices for
224 cooperating growers, and 78 others supplied by different bookkeeping
systems were included. Data from preceding years furnished the basis
for a paper read at the Citrus Institute setting forth trends in production
costs and returns.
Two cattle ranches located not far apart had detailed record accounting
set up under supervision from Extension Service Specialists. Similar di-
rection has been given 19 cooperators in a farm forestry project sponsored
by the State Forest and Park Service, for the first 12 months of the 5 years
it is to run.
SMALL FARM NEEDS

Low-income farmers in several counties have been assisted toward
employing better management practices, and the recommendations as
carried out are credited with substantially enlarging the output from their
acreage.
Land-use programs initiated in preceding years had the results reviewed
in manuscript form for early publication, these circulars to stress the re-
lation with the current endeavor to enlarge foodstuffs output.

OUTLOOK REPORTS

Attendance upon the 1942 annual farm outlook conference at Wash-
ington, D. C. enabled the Farm Management Specialist better to under-
stand the country-wide situation and depict it for Florida people.







Florida Cooperative Extension


MARKETING

D. E. Timmons, Marketing Economist to April 15
V. V. Bowman, Marketing Economist from July 1

Cooperation was extended the American Institute of Cooperation and
the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives, following the annual meet-
ings at Atlanta, January 6 to 16, in staging a Florida tour which started
from Palatka on the 18th and ended at Miami on the 22nd.
Investigations prosecuted from the Extension Service Marketing
Economist's office located and classified all fruit and vegetable canneries
in this state. District meetings with county agents held at 4 central points
informed them regarding the findings.
Federal orders and regulations growing out of the war situation which
deprived Florida growers and farm product processors of necessary ma-
terials required repeated studies, in which the data developed helped obtain
considerable modifications. Tin for canning furnished a typical example.
Substitutes for sugar previously used in gladiolus thrips control and the
molasses hitherto utilized for other insecticides also resulted from the
facts assembled.
Tabulations covering hog sales conducted by the Gulf Cooperative
Marketing Association, with headquarters at Trenton, served some 500
members. Prices were shown by grade and size, and the statistics likewise
indicated the number each individual offered. Auctions were held weekly
from early September until well into April. Lots brought in averaged about
9 head each, but a few farmers delivered 25 to 40 head.


SUMMER AND FALL EVENTS

Truck crop marketing problems engaged a conference held in Gaines-
ville, August 7, attended by representatives from numerous other federal
and state agencies and points as far away as New York, Columbia, Chicago,
and Atlanta. Data supplied by this office were utilized, and the minutes
of the meeting were distributed through it.
Tomato shipping methods designed to lessen expense and wastage, which
is occasioned by the practice of shipping green tomatoes, were discussed
at two meetings in key producing centers, Princeton, Dade County, and
Bradenton, Manatee. Information obtained during the discussion led to
experimental work on this problem and may cause trial shipments of more
nearly mature fruit in consumer containers.
Pecan auctions to supply the lack of an organized system for selling
were established at 4 State Farmers' Markets, Starke, Pensacola, Mari-
anna, and Lake City, through the cooperative efforts of the Agricultural
Extension Service, the State Marketing Bureau and other agricultural
agencies. Prices increased about 100 percent during the season, demand
continued active, and the weekly sales for the season had a volume ap-
proaching 300,000 pounds which returned growers around $54,000.
Participation in the annual Extension conference centered around farm
labor problems, occasioned principally by marketing labor peak require-
ments. Representatives of the United States Employment Service, Farm
Security Administration and the State Defense Council led discussions in
a program on farm labor arranged by the Extension Marketing Specialist.







Annual Report, 1942


AGRICULTURAL PLANNING WORK

V. V. Bowman, Leader in Land-Use Planning

County planning committees have been organized in 51 Florida counties.
These county committees have a total membership of 1,344 made up of the
following: 679 farm men, 183 farm women, 233 United States Department
of Agriculture agency representatives, 3 representatives of other federal
agencies, and 246 representatives of state and local agencies.
Counties in which mapping and classification work has been done, and
for which reports have been approved, are the following: Calhoun, Colum-
bia, Escambia, Glades, Hendry, Hillsborough, Jefferson, Lafayette Madison,
Palm Beach, Seminole, Volusia, Walton.
During the past year the work of the State Committee has been con-
ducted by the executive and sub-committees, maintaining contact with
other State Committee members by mail. Sub-committees which have
been particularly active include those on farm labor, forestry, and pro-
duction goals.
Meetings of both state and county agricultural planning committees
have made possible a better mutual understanding of the work and prob-
lems of the different agencies and of farm people whom they serve. A
closer coordination of programs has resulted.
During the present emergency War Boards and Defense Councils have
been made responsible for many of the functions previously assigned to
agricultural planning committees by the Mount Weather Agreement. This
work was discontinued June 30, 1942.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY
J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist

Special emphasis was given the projects that tied in with the crop pro-
duction goals set by the federal government. Extension Service agronomy
activities helped materially in obtaining the heavier plantings of peanuts,
corn, oats, hay, sweet potatoes and like products and the methods recom-
mended enlarged yields sizably.
Field crops goals committeemen appointed by the Extension Director in-
cluded the Agronomist and county agents through the regions where general
farming is followed. Placards, circular letters, news stories, radio talks and
personal contacts were utilized in carrying the message to the persons whose
cooperation was most necessary.
Specialists in other Extension divisions gave valuable assistance on mat-
ters pertaining to their work. Credit is particularly due the Animal Hus-
bandman and the Dairy Specialist for aid received in the pasture, forage
and similar livestock undertakings. Federal cotton experts helped on
the Sea Island cotton endeavor.
Upland cotton acreage reduction was advised but the production of
longer-stapled output urged. Results secured were gratifying and nearly
60 percent of the crop was 1 inch or more in length. Sea Island plant-
ings fell far below the goals, which were announced too late, along with
the supporting prices, and growers had become discouraged by poor re-
turns previously.

Fig. 1.-Peanuts were an important war crop in Florida during 1942,
and farmers raised a much larger acreage than usual.







Annual Report, 1942


Flue-cured tobacco acreage did not quite meet the allotted total. Under-
plantings were the general rule, lest penalties be incurred at marketing
time. Leaf quality turned out to be excellent, though the growing con-
ditions were not favorable early in the season. Extension Service methods
proved their value again, as demonstrated with plant beds construction and
management, fertilizers, spacing, and so on.

PRODUCING FEED FOR MORE LIVESTOCK

Corn, peanuts and velvet beans for food and feed exceeded last year's
production by 20 percent. Extension Service urging caused greatly ex-
panded plantings of hybrid seed corn. Peanuts "hogged off" sent more
swine to market from the state than ever before. Oats yielded about
the same as heretofore. Seed of varieties developed at the North Flor-
ida Experiment Station in a 3,000-bushel lot were distributed through
the Extension Agronomist.
Pastures were perhaps more widely maintained than in preceding
years, the Extension workers aiding with sundry suggestions. Oats and
lespedeza in combination formed a considerably larger acreage than
hitherto. Grass seed was saved and used on a bigger scale. Hay produc-
tion is believed to have picked up, the peanut contribution having been
more than doubled.
Sugarcane acreage increased and the further distribution of improved
varieties by county agents helped enlarge output, for both sugar and
syrup. Sweet potatoes suffered from an early summer drouth.
Soil cover and manure crops furnished the best showing seen for years,
especially in legumes, Extension workers and farmers joining to bring
this about. Blue lupine seed approximating 30,000 pounds went to farm-
ers through the Extension Agronomist, the sowings having been for supply-
ing their own needs next fall or for sale to other planters.
Meetings to launch the winter crops plan took place in every county
where the program applied, the Extension Agronomist receiving support
from the Soil Conservationist and interested federal groups. County
agents and the local committeemen for sundry projects took part.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY

A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist
Foods supply in the more substantial forms under mounting handicaps
kept these 3 closely-related lines of work to the forefront during the year,
and the preceding policies proved their worth anew amid the emergency
condition thus confronted.


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
Circular letters produced on an enlarged scale supplemented the spoken
word and personal contacts in reaching the farming public. Editions
ranged upward from a few score to 20,000 on the more than 2 dozen
different editions.
Meetings attended brought the Extension Service Animal Husbandman
in touch with representatives from other like groups, associated special-
ists and county agents and many livestock raisers. Cooperation was even
closer than hitherto between the animal husbandry workers and the ones
handling poultry and dairy products, food conservation, nutrition, and
related programs.
Talks delivered before key organization meetings by the animal hus-
bandman started with the address made in January at the State Cattle-
men's annual convention at Kissimmee, and this was supplemented by an
appearance at a fall session of the body's directors at Gainesville. Con-
ferences held with farm credit and security clients at several points gave
access to these United States Agriculture Department wards on a broad-
ened scale.
BEEF CATTLE BREEDING
Reports indicate that the state 'produced more than the 65,000,000 pounds
of beef the federal government had urged. Methods stressed by this
office helped materially in attaining the goal.
More than 1,800 home-raised breeding bulls were placed in Florida
herds. Over 1,800 purebred sires were brought from outside. Bulls were
winter-fed and heifers selected and culled as never before.
Pasture maintenance by cutting off weeds and briers enlisted 250
farmers, who worked around 250,000 acres. Grass lands fertilization
sizably increased. Sugarcane growing for winter feed multiplied and
mineral supplements were in greater demand. Parasite and disease con-
trol gained ground. Beef clubs are achieving greater popularity.

SHOWS AND SALES
Rubber and gasoline shortages caused cancellation of the Florida Fair
at Tampa and the Fat Stock Show and Sale in Jacksonville. Ocala
nevertheless held the second yearly Southeastern Show and Sale in
February. Results as compared with 12 months previous are reflected in
the following table:







Annual Report, 1942


1942
No. of cattle sold ................... ...... 337
Total weight (pounds) .................. 255,022
Average price per pound ................ 13.46
Average weight per steer ............. 756
Average price per head .................. $101.88
Total sales ........................................$34,336.21
No. club members exhibiting ........ 20
No. 4-H club calves ..................... 31
No. 4-H judging teams ......-........ 6
Price of grand champion steer...... 60c per lb.
FFA Members exhibiting ....-......... 36
No. FFA calves ............ ............... 41


1941
160
97,920
12.49
862
$107.66
$12,230.20
1
1
0
55( per lb.
10
10


HOGS AND WORK STOCK
Hog sales by the Gulf Cooperative Association have been expanded to
cover Bell and Newberry as well as Trenton, where they were larger
than heretofore. Auctions at several State Farmers' Livestock Markets
efficiently served the surrounding country, handling swine, cattle and
some other types. Victory Pig Sales took place at Live Oak, Madison,
Monticello, and Bonifay.


Fig. 2.-In response to goals for more hogs, requested by the United
States Department of Agriculture, Florida farmers increased their hog pro-
duction in 1942.

Slaughtering hogs for home use on farms gives Florida the pork
from nearly 250,000 head every year. Freezer lockers are gaining ground
slowly in the state. Negro farmers have shown no little interest in pro-
ducing their own supplies.
Horses and mules rated revived and upward appraisal when motor
vehicle fuels became scarce. Cattlemen and farmers raising colts for
replacement also increased. Stallions and jacks reached new highs, 11 of
the former having been on loan from the federal government.








Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING

By Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman

Milk on Florida farms for the families 12 months in the year afforded
a major objective fitting in with the general foodstuffs program.
"Share-Your-Cow" clubs organized in towns and villages took on in-
creased proportions. Treatment of family cows for Bang's disease and
tuberculosis received a forward impulse.
Dairy bulls and heifers sold at cooperative auctions added notably to
the potential milk output. Counties raising the stock profited from the
distribution as never before.
Visits from the Extension Dairyman to the areas where the work
was in progress helped him keep closely in touch with it and gave a
dependable check on the results secured.
Goals developed for milk production in 1943 brought together a state
committee on dairying, in forming which this office took a leading part.
Feed shortages introduced a deterring factor.

FEEDING CROP PRACTICES
Phosphates, lime rock, and like plant foods applied to farms in Flor-
ida have been perhaps more liberally utilized by dairymen than among
any other class of producers.
Pastures fertilized according to approved methods assisted greatly in
maintaining milk yields when imported feedstuffs became scarce. Clovers
and grasses thrived which had been practically unknown 10 years
previously.
Silo demonstrations in several sections again helped establish the feed-
growing system on a permanent basis. Corn and sorghum remained the
foremost crops for utilization as silage. Construction of new silos was
frequently reported by county agents.

ASSOCIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS
Herd testers have been difficult to obtain but the Dairy Herd Improve-
ment Association's effort was kept going. Jersey and Guernsey registered
herds went ahead with advance registry tests.
Florida Jersey Cattle Club members held their annual meeting at
Sandyloam Farms, West Palm Beach, February 27th. Guernsey Club
dairymen assembled on the same basis in Largo, September 25th.

SALES OF DAIRY ANIMALS

Dispersal sale held by the Sandyloam Farm owner, Hugh Dillman, on
June 9th, found buyers in the state for 67 registered Jerseys which brought
$11,995. Less than a dozen head went to outside buyers.
Sale sponsored every year by the Florida Jersey Cattle Club, this time
in DeLand on May 15th, was again a great success. Guernsey breeders
had their sale in connection with the yearly meeting of the Florida Club
at Largo.







Annual Report, 1942


POULTRY

Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
A. Woodrow O'Steen, Assistant Extension Poultryman

Data from official sources indicate that Florida enlarged her poultry
output to exceed the 1942 production goals. The poultry goals committee
of the Agricultural Extension Service sponsored a program for more eggs
and poultry meat. This committee received full cooperation from several
state agencies and associations.
Poultry work was conducted in nearly every county, emphasizing the
production and marketing of high quality poultry products.
Extension workers assisted in fostering the National Poultry Improve-
ment Plan, which is under the supervision of the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board.
Extension Poultrymen visited 39 counties, and also attended con-
ferences and meetings held by the Florida Poultry Council, the Florida
State Poultry Producers' Association and its local units, and the Florida
Hatchery and Breeders' Association.

EGG-LAYING TEST

The Sixteenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, started
October 1, 1941, and ended September 22, 1942. There were 86 pens of
13 pullets each from 19 different states and Cuba. Twelve pens were
entered by Florida breeders from 6 different counties. In the entire Test
there were 36 pens of heavy breeds and 50 pens of light breeds.


Fig. 3.-Answering a call for more chickens and eggs, Florida farmers,
aided by a salubrious climate, secured increased poultry meat and egg pro-
duction.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The average production for the 1,118 pullets in the Sixteenth Test
was 200.5 eggs per bird and 207.7 points. This is the highest average egg
production on record at the Florida Test.
The average feed consumption per bird for the 51 weeks was 110.89
pounds for the heavy breeds and 104.71 pounds for the light breeds. It
required 6.50 pounds of feed to produce a dozen eggs for the heavy
breeds and 5.58 pounds for the light breeds.
Practical feeding experiments are being conducted at the Chipley plant
in addition to the Egg-Laying Test.

RESULTS REPORTED
Extension recommendations were followed by 1,214 farmers in obtain-
ing better strains of baby chicks, 1,642 farmers in improving methods of
feeding, 1,354 farmers in controlling external parasites, and 1,748 farmers
in controlling disease and internal parasites.
Culling demonstrations in several counties gave satisfactory results.
Producers planned to grow more succulent green feed due to scarcity
of essential feed ingredients.
Calendar flock record keeping continued to make substantial progress.
Records for the past year showed an average egg production of 172 eggs
per bird. Mortality was the lowest during the past 4 years.
Increases in production of broilers were made principally around the
larger cities. In western Florida, in Walton County, commercially broiler
production has been expanded.

WORK WITH 4-H CLUBS
Forty-six poultry club members from 10 counties participated in the
annual 4-H Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest held in connec-
tion with the Central Florida Exposition in Orlando, Februray 23 to 28, 1942.
Twelve breeds and 18 varieties of poultry were entered in the Poultry
Show, representing a total of 337 birds. Ninety-three dozen eggs were
entered in the Egg Show.
Lester Kalach from Dade County was high individual judge in the
contest, and the boys from Dade County were the high team.
During the year 2,206 boys and girls were enrolled in 4-H poultry
club work and 1,265 completed their projects.
A 4-H poultry meat production contest was started November first.

OTHER ACTIVITIES
A breeders school was held in Gainesville with approximately 20 Flor-
ida poultrymen in attendance. Dr. C. W. Knox was the principal speaker.
Turkey work was continued in several of the counties in North and West
Florida, with particular attention to management, feeding and breeding.

MARKETING ASSISTANCE
The average monthly and yearly prices of poultry products for the
base period (Oct. 1, 1926-Sept. 30, 1929) and for the past 5 years (1938-42)
as quoted by the State Marketing Bureau in Jacksonville have been tabu-
lated and studied and sent to producers of the state.
The market reports on poultry and egg prices have been given over
Station WRUF daily.







Annual Report, 1942 29

PRICE FINDINGS
Egg prices in 1942 averaged 5.0 cents per dozen higher than in 1941,
the highest on record since 1929.
The average price of heavy hens in 1942 was 3.3 cents per pound above
the 1941 average, the highest price in a number of years.
The average price of heavy fryers in 1942 was 4.1 cents per pound above
the 1941 average, the highest average since 1930.
The poultry ration in 1942 was 37 cents per hundred higher than in
1941.
The egg-feed ratio continued to be more favorable than either the
hen-feed ratio or the fryer-feed ratio. However, the egg-feed ratio was not
as favorable in 1942 as in 1941.

EGG BUYING
The Extension workers assisted in the establishment of 6 egg buying
stations to handle surplus eggs, also in handling egg grading schools,
and inspection work. Approximately 12,000 cases were purchased by the
AMA from these 6 egg buying stations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
N. H. McQueen, Assistant State Boys' Club Agent

Illness kept the State Agent from his duties for 2 months. Before the
period ended the assistant was appointed, coming to his new duties from the
county agent's position in Charlotte County.
Adjustments became necessary along several lines after the United
States expanded its war front. Travel curtailment forced numerous coun-
ty agents to spend even less time on 4-H club duties than previously.

SHORT COURSE AND CAMP CHANGES
It was voted by the Extension staff to abandon the 1942 State Short
Course. This was a severe blow, as we have been depending upon the
enthusiasm of the older boys which is always generated by attendance at
Short Course to supply part of the club momentum.
It was also decided not to open our 3 district 4-H camps but to place
summer activities on a county basis. This was carried out with some
degree of success and 1,048 boys and girls attended county events in 1942
as against 1,228 boys and girls in 1941.

CONTESTS AND SCHOLARSHIPS
Due to war difficulties most of the state contests were cancelled. The
State 4-H Poultry Show was held as planned in Orlando the last of Febru-
ary.
The Dade County boys' team won the judging contest and were to
represent Florida at the National Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago.
When it was decided that no out-of-state trips be given the boys were given
a $50 defense bond each.
The Florida Bankers' Association increased from 3 to 5 the number of
$100 scholarships offered. These scholarships have been awarded at the
State Short Course. With the agreement of the Bankers' Association a
plan was set up under which an examination was given in all agents' offices
at the same hour and the papers were sent to the State Office for grading.
In 1941, Sears Roebuck and Company gave nearly $10,000 in Florida to
establish loan funds in most counties to assist boys in project work. This
is the best assistance ever offered boys' 4-H club work in Florida. All
counties have not used their fund but more are beginning each month.

MEMBERSHIP AND PROJECTS
There are 262 organized clubs in 49 counties; 175 voluntary leaders in
41 counties; and 4,611 members enrolled in 49 counties. We were able
to hold the membership about the same. There was a loss of but 72 in
number enrolled.
Statistics also reveal that 163 training meetings were held in 21 coun-
ties; 47 tours with 624 taking part were held; 31 achievement days with
2,693 attending were held; 25 county camps were held with 621 boys attend-
ing; and 345 meetings were held by clubs without agent being present.
There was a big increase in training meetings held-163 for 1942 against
25 for 1941. This is one of the most encouraging developments of the year.
The project work for 1942 showed some improvement in percentage
reporting. In 1942 there were 72 fewer enrolled and 213 more reported.







Annual Report, 1942


This raised the percent reporting from 48.7 percent for 1941 to 54.3 percent
for 1942.
4-H MOBILIZATION WEEK
Due to the illness of the State Boys' Club Agent, the entire Extension
staff took an active part in stressing and guiding 4-H work. The result was
that more effort was put behind the work than usual.
Contacts were made with every county agent in'the state regarding
mobilization week and plans for the week were made. Many counties
put on big rallies and parades. Nearly all civic clubs were told of our
program. The public was informed by radio talks and news stories and
editorials.
SPECIAL TASKS UNDERTAKEN
The College of Agriculture gave 10 boys 15 day-old quail chicks each
to raise and liberate. When sent by express the chicks arrived dead or in
a weak condition. Some were delivered by auto, but still the 150 miles
were too much for the day-olds. Finally, one lot of two weeks old chicks
was tried and these fared better.
The placing of day-old dairy heifers has been the project which has
given best results.
About 250 have already been placed and the goal for 1943 as set by a
committee of county agents is 1,400 to be placed.
Late in 1941 the Container Corporation of America offered slash pine
seedlings to club boys to plant on their home farms and 148,860 of these
seedlings were planted by club boys in 7 counties. The offer was repeat-
ed and 205,000 trees have been asked for by county agents for planting
by club boys in December, 1942, and January, 1943.

HELPING WIN THE WAR

A banner carried by a 4-H club group in a parade in Orlando said "We
are getting in the scrap, too". In every county where the boys have been
given an opportunity they have done their full part.
Practically every 4-H boy has some war stamps and many have bought
bonds. To encourage the buying of stamps we have changed the line on
our boys' 4-H record books which read "Every club member should have a
bank account. Have you one?" to read "Every club member should buy
war bonds and stamps. How many have you bought?"
At all summer events loyalty to our country and active participation
in the war effort was stressed. Prizes were given for the best 4 minute
talk by a club boy on the subject "Why I Am Glad that I Am an American"
at every camp.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist

In making adjustments in the Extension work early in the year to meet
the war emergencies, the Citriculturist was assigned the added responsi-
bilities of District Agent of 20 citrus producing counties of Centarl Florida.
Early in the year the war emergency made it necessary to modify
the adopted plan of work in citrus culture and to re-arrange the projects
of the whole extension program of the citrus area in the order of their im-
portance in the war effort. To accomplish the food production goals it has
been necessary to curtail activities on some of the long-time citrus culture
sub-projects. Inability to obtain certain nitrogenous fertilizer materials
has forced discontinuation for the time being of certain demonstrations in-
volving these materials and has necessitated other changes. The shortage
of machinery and labor brought about demands for many adjustments in
the whole grove management set-up. The demands of growers for
assistance from the Extension Service in making these adjustments has
been very great and has been met in a most helpful manner.

COVER CROPS AND FERTILIZERS
In an effort to meet the situation brought on by a shortage of nitrogen,
the use of legumes as summer cover crops has been emphasized throughout
the citrus area. In cooperation with the Agronomy Department' of the
Experiment Station test plantings of a relatively new and promising le-
gume, a species of Indigofera, were made in 14 counties this year. Many
favorable reports have been received from these plantings. The plant
seems to be more hardy than the crotalarias.
To make for higher nitorgen efficiency and thereby conserve nitrogen
the program of treating acid soil with dolomitic limestone has been carried
out with renewed emphasis. This limestone treatment is predicated on the
pH level of the soil as determined by systematic soil sampling.
Research and demonstrations have definitely established the fact that
nitrogen is usually wasted in fertilizing a grove with only nitrogen, phos-
phoric acid and potash. As a rule, greater production is obtained with
less nitrogen when ample quantities of soluble magnesium, manganese and
copper are included along with the NPK. In many instances boron and
iron should be added, too. To complete the nutritional program zinc must
be included but this is usually more effectively applied to the foliage as
a spray in combination with a sulphur insecticide or a copper fungicide.

PEST CONTROL METHODS
Early in the year the spraying and dusting schedules of the Better
Fruit Program, financed by the Florida Citrus Commission, were revised
by technical workers and copies were made available to all growers. Many
thousands were distributed through the county agents' offices.
The shortage of labor made it necessary for a good many growers to
substitute sulphur dusting for spraying in rust-mite control. This was
done without appreciable sacrifice of quality or appearance of the fruit.
However, the rust-mite problem has been more difficult to handle because
of the dry summer and fall, accompanied by unusually warm weather.
The labor shortage also has been a serious handicap in the matter
of scale control. Unfavorable weather conditions added to the problem.
This combination of conditions has caught a good many growers with
too many scales in their groves at this time, and it may have an adverse







Annual Report, 1942


effect on production next year. The Extension Service has rendered every
assistance possible to growers in making adjustments to meet these un-
usual conditions.
Nutritional spraying and spraying for melanose control in the spring
were done with little interruption and the results have been highly satis-
factory. Better nutrition of citrus trees generally, resulting from foliage
applications of copper and zinc and the addition of magnesium, manganese
and copper to the fertilizer mixtures, has resulted in marked improvement
of the interior quality of the fruit.

IRRIGATION DEMANDS
Florida is still (December) in its worst fall and winter drought since
1907. This drought began back in the summer at a time when a reserve
is usually built up in lakes and ground water. Irrigation has been needed
generally over the area during the last 4 months; a few light rains have
given only temporary relief. Since the fruit shipping season opened with
relatively high prices, all irrigation equipment in the state has been brought
into operation and the demand for additional equipment has increased
as the drought advanced.
Because of the scarcity of material it has been necessary to make the
equipment in the hands of the growers go just as far as possible in meet-
ing the needs. To that end growers have been assisted in developing plans
for keeping portable equipment in more continuous use and thereby cover
the greatest possible acreage.
At this critical time the type of portable irrigation plant developed
and demonstrated by the Extension Service several years ago is in general
use and has been the means of saving many thousands of boxes of fruit
in this drought.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester

Fire protection on farm woodlands occupied a prominent place in the
Extension Forester's calendar of work and much time was devoted to it.
Discussions at county agents' meetings, farmers' meetings, 4-H club meet-
ings, businessmen's meetings, personal visits with county agents and farm-
ers, circular letters, posters, radio talks, news releases, personal letters, and
bulletins distributed to farmers, 4-H club members, and school children, all
helped in bringing the need for more widespread fire protection on farm
woodlands before many people.
More than 5,000 farmers protected over 180,000 acres and restocked 10,-
000 acres with young trees. Timber produced because fires were kept out
totalled in excess of 9,000,000 board feet and was worth fully $45,000.
Aggregate accrued forest values due to fire protection ran above $65,000.

TIMBER STAND IMPROVEMENT
Farmers were assisted in removing cull trees, worked-out turpentine
trees, and low-value species, as well as thinning timber stands and prun-
ing limby trees where this was necessary. Assistance was given in estab-
lishing a basis for benefit payments to farmers for removing undesirable
trees from their woodlands. Aid was also extended to the Project Foresters
in both the Norris-Doxey Farm Forestry and the Forest Farming Projects
in establishing improvement cutting demonstrations on farms.
According to county agents' annual reports and information in posses-
sion of the Extension Forester's office, 84 farmers were assisted in a timber
stand improvement program.

PLANTING SEEDLINGS
One million free slash pine seedlings were made available this year to
farmers, 4-H club members, and vocational agricultural students by a local
pulp mill. The Extension Service, through the county agents, distributed
620,760 of these seedlings, and the balance were handled by the State Forest
Service.
Red cedar plantings for gully erosion control and for supplying fence
post material were extended. As in previous years the supply of red cedar
planting stock was far short of the demand.

MARKETING FOREST PRODUCTS
Requests from farmers to county agents, and to the Extension Forester,
for advice and assistance in marketing forest products have increased dur-
ing the past year. Farmers were given training in estimating standing
timber and in determining what products their trees can be converted
into for highest values and largest profits. Whenever possible war needs
were given first consideration in the marketing of timber.
Through farmers' meetings, personal letters, bulletins distributed, radio
talks, and farm visits, farmers were urged to work their timber for gum in
order to meet naval stores production goals, and to market available trees
for lumber, crossties, poles and piling, pulpwood, crate material, and shuttle-
blocks, as might be needed in the war effort and consistent with good forest
management.
Assistance in marketing forest products was given to 215 farmers in
25 counties.







Annual Report, 1942


4-H CLUB ENDEAVORS
Forestry club work was carried on by instruction during 4-H club
camps, other 4-H club meetings, and by personal visits to club members.
According to county agents' reports and other records, 45 club members
were enrolled in 4-H forestry work in 1942 in 9 counties and 148,860 forest
trees were planted by club members.
The Extension Forester attended four 4-H club summer camps during
which instruction in forestry was given to 251 club members.

RURAL EMERGENCY FIRE PROTECTION
Leadership in this project was assigned to the Extension Forester.
A State Committee consisting of Extension workers was appointed.
A project outline and plan of work was developed early in the year.
The committee held a number of meetings during which plans and pro-
grams were initiated and materials prepared for carrying out a state-
wide campaign for fire prevention and control in farm homes, pastures,
fences, and outbuildings, crop lands, and farm woodlands.
It is felt that the educational work done this year in rural fire pre-
vention has contributed substantially towards preventing fires in farm-
ing areas, thereby helping to conserve material resources needed in the
war effort as well as in maintaining public morale at this critical time.

TIMBER-GRAZING-GAME
To meet a long-felt need for a feasible and practical plan for the com-
plete use and proper development of the state's extensive cut-over land
areas, an outline statement was prepared setting up the essential features
of a state-wide, coordinated, timber-grazing-game program. It is esti-
mated that, in whole or in part, it will provide the most constructive
use for more than 75 percent of the state's land and when it becomes
widely adopted will undoubtedly return millions of acres of tax-delinquent
land to private ownership and tax-paying status.

STATE DEFENSE COUNCIL
Cooperation with sundry war-time federal agencies along similar lines
was supplemented by assistance to the State Defense Council in develop-
ing an organization for fire prevention and suppression in forest areas,
both for timber protection and to prevent forest fire smoke, which mingles
with fog, from interfering with operations of the armed flying forces or
making coastwise shipping more hazardous.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL CONSERVATION

K. S. McMullen, Soil Conservationist

Four soil conservation districts were organized, 1 annexation was com-
pleted, and 2 additional districts and 1 annexation were started.
From April 21st to May 15th program planning conferences were held
in 11 of the older districts. These conferences were arranged through the
cooperation of the State Soil Conservation Advisory Committee. They
were attended by all agricultural workers, district supervisors and AAA
committeemen of each district. Plans for individual conferences were
arranged by the local county agent and Soil Conservation Service repre-
sentatives.
DETAILS OF THE YEAR'S EFFORT

During the year covered by this report 4 districts have completed
organization-Oklawaha, Istokpoga, Suwannee River, and Blackwater, One
annexation has been completed-2 townships of northern Sumter County
have been added to the Oklawaha District. These districts were organized
on a county basis; except that the annexation mentioned has been added to
Oklawaha and the Istokpoga District constitutes only a portion of High-
lands County.
Districts or annexations to districts now in process of organization but
not completed include Bay County-petitioned as annexation to Orange
Hill District; Sumter County-petitioned as all of Sumter County except
that portion lying within the Oklawaha District; Columbia County-peti-
tioned as one district.
As a result of the district program planning conferences held during
April and May in 11 of the older districts, which the vocational agri-
culture teachers attended, and programs on conservation furnished by
Soil Conservation Service technicians to vocational agriculture classes,
a request was made of the State SCS office and the Extension Service by
the vocational agriculture teachers for a course of study in soil con-
servation. The State office of the Soil Conservation Service and the State
Vocational Agriculture Department cooperated with the Extension Soil
Conservationist to develop the course of study, with a committee of voca-
tional agriculture teachers making the final revision.
A two weeks field trip was made with the Assistant State Boys' 4-H
Club Agent, contacting 36 clubs in 12 counties (territory served by soil
conservation districts). Talks on conservation were given to each of these
clubs. Two weeks were also devoted to teaching a course in soil conserva-
tion at 2 4-H club camps.
Special programs growing out of the war emergencies were prosecuted
among peanut farmers. For getting more winter cover crops out, par-
ticularly legumes planted, county conferences proved highly helpful in
these directions.
MEETINGS ATTENDED

State extension service soil conservationists, including the Florida
specialist in this field, held a conference for the Southern region at Mem-
phis, May 20-22, 1942.
Alabama successes with a special conservation program were studied
by the Florida Extension Conservationist in Auburn, June 22-26, 1942.






Annual Report, 1942


PART III- HOME ACTIVITIES

HOME DEMONSTRATION
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy Belle Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent

During 1942 Floridians literally lived close to the war, by reason
of the extensive military developments within the state. The presence
of many thousands of men in uniform, and the construction of vast camps
to house them, changed community life into new patterns. Great changes
came into the home life of Florida farm families as their young men were
called into the armed forces.
Many of the older men went into defense work and rural girls and
women, not usually employed away from their homes, took jobs elsewhere
in defense work or in other employment. Many women worked in the
fruit and vegetable canning or packing plants, often to replace the men who
were no longer available. Women and girls took charge of the farming
duties on the small farms.
Labor was scarce and the fact that the men in military service assigned
funds to their parents or wives which permitted them to live comfortably
without the customary personal labor was a real factor in the family life
of both white and negro families.
All of these things affected food production. Costs of commodities
increased while the supply available diminished. Transportation difficul-
ties cut down the number of tourists, although this was compensated for
to some extent by families of service men. Transportation regulations
also kept rural families from traveling far from their homes.
As these and other changes took place rapidly in farm, home and
community life, the program of home demonstration work was adjusted to
meet the situation as well as possible with the resources at hand. Plans
were organized so that a larger number of people could be assisted in prac-
tical ways; 42,421 rural and urban families reported that they received
help from the home agents during the year. An increase of more than
1,000 was made in the number of visits to homes and farms, over the year
before, with 14,803 visits reported. In spite of the many handicaps due to
transportation and labor shortages, and the consolidation of some clubs,
the number of home demonstration clubs increased by nearly a hundred.

FOUR-H CLUBS
The importance of 4-H work with girls was realized, but sometimes
this work got crowded out of its proper place in the program by the in-
sistent claims for other uses of the agent's time, which seemingly could
not be denied. The State Short Course was not held for the first time
in 30 years. Instead, 30 county 4-H short courses were conducted, using
the State Short Course Scholarship funds to strengthen the County 4-H pro-
gram. No out-of-state trips were made by 4-H girls. Six winners of first
honors in state contests each received $100 War Bonds instead of the trips.
All 4-H programs directed the attention of the girls to the help they
could give their families during war days. Many girls selected and pre-







Florida Cooperative Extension


pared the family meals because their mothers were employed outside the
homes. They helped with drives for salvage and for war stamp sales. They
helped with the 4-H club work of younger girls.
In all, 9,769 girls were enrolled in 478 clubs in 37 counties. In 4-H
club work, shifts in population took toll of the membership as well as of
the 4-H leaders. In replacement, new enlistments came from communi-
ties not heretofore reached. The emphasis in projects was for increased
production and facility in basic household skills.
Miss Ethyl Holloway, District Agent, prepared a handbook for 4-H
club girls and a mimeographed circular for use in connection with Na-
tional 4-H Mobilization Week. Seven state-wide contests were conducted
to promote interest in the phases of 4-H Club work. Records were sub-
mitted from 25 girls in 8 of the counties and in 7 contests, highest honors
went to 5 girls.
Club work was discussed at the annual conference of agents, and plans
were laid for further strengthening and improving it. Record books and
club projects were simplified, with emphasis given to recognition for the
work done by the girls to help their families as a war service, rather than
to the detailed projects followed in other years.
Florida 4-H club girls continued to give excellent accounts of them-
selves as they became capable young women and useful citizens. Some
became members of the WAACs and WAVES and kindred service groups.
Some served as teachers and in federal and state offices. Hundreds became
busy homemakers. The College 4-H Club at Florida State College for
Women in Tallahassee had a membership of 50 former 4-H girls in college.

NEIGHBORHOOD LEADERS
Tire and gasoline restrictions required the home agents to make many
changes in organization to meet the increased requests for their help.
Here the value of the training in organization given the home demonstra-
tion women and 4-H girls through the years became evident. Neighbor-
hood leaders, to the number of 4,500, about half of them women and girls,
were prepared to help their communities, and they welcomed the chance
to do so as a patriotic service. The plan was to make the neighborhood
lines small enough so that the homes were within walking distance of
each other.
The neighborhood leader system achieved excellent results. Home dem-
onstration women voluntarily took over such responsible jobs as supervis-
ing community canning centers, club programs, method demonstration in
cooking, canning, sewing, refinishing furniture and other skills.
The neighborhood leaders greatly expedited all war programs. They
carried timely information on gardening, fat salvage, rubber salvage, scrap
metal, war stamps and bonds, sugar and gas rationing, price control, fire
prevention, announcement of meetings with state and county workers to
outline future work, regulations about farm truck permits, and notifica-
tion of the schedule of services of the Tuberculosis Trailer Clinic. They
manned sugar rationing stations, used their homes as equipment and supply
posts for canning equipment, attended canning training meetings, and
taught canning to others.
CONFERENCES
Five district conferences were held early in the year for home demon-
stration agents and two for negro workers, to give the agents the best
possible understanding of national situations and the relationship of war
to their work.







Annual Report, 1942


An annual conference of all Extension agents was held in Gainesville
in October. State staff members attended two regional Extension con-
ferences. The negro agents were given special training, particularly in
health.
Thirty-one county home demonstration councils continued to function
and a three-day meeting of the executive committee of the council was
held to adapt programs to needs.
ADAPTING ALL PROGRAMS TO WAR NEEDS
Home food production and conservation and family nutrition received
first consideration. Girls and women reported that they grew 22,026 home
gardens, started and enlarged home fruit orchards with 19,725 fruit trees
and 38,012 berry bushes. More than 6 million pints of fruits, vegetables
and meats were canned for home pantries. Fifty community canning cen-
ters were operated in 23 counties with 47,744 families canning regularly.
The amount of food conserved by canning was at least 4 times as much
as in any previous year.



































Fig. 4.-Reports from home agents indicate-that Florida farm families
canned more delicious, wholesome, home-raised vegetables and fruits in
1942 than ever before.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Business firms and many civic clubs helped this program of a better
family food supply through their fine support given the agents. One manu-
facturer of canning equipment and supplies held "cooker clinics" with the
agents to put all steam pressure cookers of every make in good order for
the canning season. One merchant gave garden seed, potato seed and
vegetable fertilizer to be used by the negro home agent to encourage more
home gardens.
The clothing and textile program shifted its emphasis to home sew-
ing, better selected and made work clothes, and care and repair of cloth-
ing. The home improvement program stressed every-day good house-
keeping. Home and community sanitation programs resulted in the
screening of many homes and the installing of water, lighting, sewage
and heating systems, and the remodeling of a number of dwellings. Time-
saving schedules and fire prevention work were directed by the Clothing
Specialist.
Health and its importance in war days was a definite part of all pro-
grams. The relation of food to health was taught in the 159 nutrition
courses given by the home demonstration agents in addition to their usual
foods and nutrition program. Improved health measures were reported
through health examinations, immunization, first aid and home nursing
courses, removal of fire and accident hazards in the homes. The fact that
1,290 dairy cows were bought for family use tells us one of the most import-
ant health stories for the children of these families.
Cooperative community activities were encouraged, partly for economic
reasons but also to maintain good community life. Canning centers, school
lunchrooms and community club houses or rooms were the main achieve-
ments in cooperative community activities.
The share-the-meat program, the securing and training of volunteer
leaders, and better urban-rural cooperation, are some of the other com-
munity measures in which home demonstration work engaged during the
year. Thirty-three white agents and 6 negro agents held 231 meetings to
train 2,408 neighborhood leaders, who visited 28,475 farm families in the
share-the-meat program.
The request for bulletins increased until 11,247 more were distributed
than last year, totalling 78,552. Agents supplied their local newspapers
with 12,341 news articles compared with 2,241 in 1941.
Through all these different phases of home demonstration work ran
the over-all determination to emphasize the importance of fine family liv-
ing in a "live at home" program, with thrift, careful planning, and better
methods of doing the daily tasks brought out by demonstrations, through
meetings, leaflets, bulletins, and through neighborhood leaders.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
There was close cooperation between the home demonstration office
and other state and federal agencies. Meetings of 4-H clubs were held
in the public schools in many instances. Cooperation in organizing voca-
tional agricultural courses in food production and conservation was given
by all agents. Home economics teachers were supplied with all printed
material they requested. School lunch workers were taught how to use
surplus food commodities issued to them. Forty-four school or community
grounds were improved and beautified by home demonstration clubs.
Nutrition discussions were given by the agents or specialists before
the State Tuberculosis Association and agents assisted with the Christmas
seal sales in all counties. State and county home agents directed the in-
fantile paralysis drive among rural people at the request of the state
chairman. The State Board of Health gave help through local health







Annual Report, 1942


units. Works Projects Administration aided in school feeding programs
and community gardens. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration
cooperated in the cotton mattress program, which was concluded during
the year. The agricultural goals of the AAA were outlined before all
home demonstration councils and clubs. Directly associated with the War
Boards through the Director of Extension, the home demonstration agents
and the neighborhood leaders assisted the USDA War Boards in assign-
ments such as farm truck registration and machinery repair projects.
The Surplus Marketing Administration furnished commodities to coun-
ty home agents to use in food demonstrations to teach people to use the
food to best advantage. This taught better preparation of food for nu-
trition and thrift in cookery. The Farm Security Administration was given
cooperation through subject matter bulletins, pressure cookers clinics, and
with instructions on cooking and canning vegetables, given in one instance
to migrant labor camps in the Everglades.
The State Agent was chairman of the State Defense Council's Home
Garden and Food Conservation Committee. She was a member of the
general state salvage committee and was state chairman for the salvage
of fats and grease for the War Production Board. Under the plan of the
Office of Price Administration for rationing sugar, the agents worked out
improved canning budgets and prepared instruction sheets and sugar-
saving recipes. Some agents served as community rationing officers.
Information on inflation control was disseminated through the agents
by letters, talks and discussions. The women cooperated by spending
their money for war stamps and bonds. The significance of the price
ceilings was demonstrated in the form of playlets.
Under state and county defense councils, state, district and county
Extension workers and specialists served actively in nutrition and food
conservation, gardening, housing, recreation, care of children and many
other things relating to civilian defense.
The state agent served on the state advisory committee of War Savings.
Women and girls were encouraged to save for specific purposes after the
war. The Red Cross was helped by the establishment of nutrition and
canteen courses in all home demonstration counties. First aid and home
nursing courses were given by the agents in many counties. The USO
was helped in its recreation program. Civic and county organizations were
given aid whenever possible.

REPORT ON PERSONNEL
Home demonstration work in Florida experienced a great loss in the
death December 12, 1942, of Miss Clarine Belcher, State Clothing Special-
ist. She had been associated with the work since 1931, and had served as
agent in two counties before joining the state staff. Her service in the
home demonstration program was of high quality always.
There were 38 home demonstration agents, 4 assistant agents and 9
negro agents in the work. Some changes were made in personnel during
the year. New agents were appointed in Marion and Levy counties be-
cause of resignations. The Clay County agent joined the WAACs and
was succeeded be a new agent. Two counties, Hamilton and Walton, with-
drew their appropriations for maintaining home demonstration work, stat-
ing that it was due to the reduction of available county revenues. One
additional local home agent was appointed for negro work in Jackson Coun-
ty. At least 10 counties made increased appropriations for salaries or for
needed equipment or office facilities. Lack of clerical help handicapped all
agents. High wages elsewhere took many employees from the county
offices.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SPECIAL PROGRAMS IN COUNTIES

Specialists from the state staff were assigned to work with the dis-
trict and county home demonstration agents in developing a state-wide
program in fire control and prevention. The mattress program was closed
out with a total of 32,379 mattresses made and 16,041 comforters; 8,500
mattresses were made in 1942.
Repair and care of home equipment received more attention than be-
fore. With travel restricted, "homemade recreation" became more in
demand. Four-H girls were trained as recreation leaders.

HOME INDUSTRIES
Development of marketable products from the resources of the farm
and home always has been an important activity for many home demon-
stration women and girls. No special effort was made to emphasize this
program during 1942, but the income received from cash sales was reported
as $528,813.88. This included baked products, canned goods, fresh vege-
tables and fruits, poultry, eggs, dairy products, rugs, and miscellaneous
articles.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH NEGROES
Work with negro families grew during the year and an increased
amount of time of state and county workers was given to strengthening
this work. The negro home agents gave useful assistance to the rural
and town negroes. The work in home demonstrations was directed by the
state agent with immediate supervision given by the local district agent
to the nine local agents who work with negro farm families.







Annual Report, 1942


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Nutritionist

The war did not suddenly change or materially alter the food, nutrition
and health program. It did re-emphasize the importance of keeping in-
formed as to changing conditions, accomplishing the objectives and
making necessary adjustments. There was a concerted effort to extend the
program to all people and to mobilize every educational method for in-
forming all groups on home food problems. The Nutritionist was respon-
sible for keeping rural people, both white and negro, informed of situations
and, through county home demonstration agents, helped them make
necessary adjustments. This called for constant adjustments in food
programs and intensified the use of local leaders, demonstrations, nutri-
tion courses, school lunch programs, posters, publications, motion pictures,
filmstrips, news articles, radio, circular letters, personal contacts and
other educational means in close cooperation with other agencies.
The Nutritionist participated in training leaders and preparing demon-
strations to be used throughout the counties as a part of the county 4-H
short courses. Four-H club camps as such were cancelled this year in
many counties. In other counties the schoolhouse was used for housing
and instructions for short periods. Likewise, out-of-state trips were can-
celled but records of state winners in the food preparation and other
state contests were submitted and national awards of War Bonds were
presented to the winners in place of funds for the trips.
The plans for travel by the Nutritionist were adjusted and in many
instances curtailed. The policy of members of the staff traveling together
was followed. Many demands from the nutrition committees in the various
counties, the Parent Teachers' Association, Works Progress Administra-
tion, school lunchrooms, as well as from the county home demonstration
agents, for assistance in preparation of exhibits, plans for nutrition work
and subject-matter material, were met during the time the Nutritionist
spent in the office.
The program was adjusted to assist in planning for the production of
an adequately balanced family food supply and the meal planning included
adjustments due to food shortages or surplus foods. Emphasis was
placed upon the use of peanuts, honey and syrup and locally produced
foods in season. The packed lunch as a part of a balanced day's diet for
both school children and defense workers, and better methods of food
and preparation, quantity and quality buying and time adjustments were
of necessity a part of the program. The place of the homemaker in the
price control system and her responsibility to keep informed about ceiling
prices and how and why they differ in different shops, the dangers of hoard-
ing of essential foods, and adjustments necessary because of the rationing
programs became an integral part of the program.
Included also were community adjustments such as community plan-
ning for producing and using local resources; group feeding at school and
in defense areas; emergency group feeding as in evacuation or epidemics;
the use of marketing facilities and delivery systems to conserve time, labor,
tires and gasoline; sharing of labor and equipment; and group care and
feeding of children while mothers and older children work.
Adjustment in the method of work included more emphasis on train-
ing' agents and leaders and more extensive use of leaders; a greater use
of result demonstrations; more method demonstrations on proper prepara-
tion of every day locally produced foods as well as alternatives for rationed
foods; more careful planning of meetings, demonstrations and travel in







Florida Cooperative Extension


order to make better use of time, travel and materials by agents, leaders
and others; the use of volunteer leaders and all other channels to reach
people; information of available food supplies and the best use of food
preparation and food preservation equipment on hand.
The adjustments in materials included the preparation of simply worded
publications with large print, news letters of timely information, radio
broadcasts, filmstrips and motion pictures. Materials on quantity cookery
for camps, short courses and large groups were also prepared.

VOLUNTEER WAR WORKERS
The Nutritionist was 1 of the 2 home demonstration workers appointed
to serve on the steering committee of the Agricultural Extension Service
to help formulate a plan for the Florida volunteers for agricultural war
work. While at the National Outlook Conference she was a participant
in the workshop group for neighborhood leaders. She trained volunteer
war workers in the counties in connection with regular home demonstra-
tion work, emphasizing use of enriched bread and flour, vegetable and
meat cookery, use of meat alternatives, wise use of sugar and alternatives,
ceiling prices and food planning.

WORK WITH FAMILIES IN THE COUNTIES
The work with adults in the counties this year was divided mainly into
3 phases-nutrition and defense, food preparation and meal planning, and
the family food supply.

NUTRITION AND DEFENSE
The work with nutrition and defense consisted on an analysis of how
well-fed were the people of Florida. Discussions, graphs, posters, charts,
filmstrips, motion pictures, questionnaires, surveys or quizzes and pamph-
lets, circulars and bulletins, interest sheets and food check sheets were all
used to answer the questions.
In addition to regular home demonstration work planned around "The
Nutrition Yardstick", nutrition courses for women and for 4-H girls,
canteen courses, first aid courses, and home nursing courses were given
during the year. Eleven home demonstration agents were certified Red
Cross nutrition instructors and a large number of agents were chairmen
of county nutrition committees, Florida Defense Council. A "kitchen
course" in nutrition and a series of 6 lessons on food selection and cooking
were conducted in many counties.

FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING
The food preparation and meal planning phase was approached through
building health with the right foods properly prepared and attactively
served and the use of foods in season which were locally produced and
available in adequate quantities. Better baking demonstrations and con-
tests were a means of promoting the use of enriched flour, whole wheat
flour and breads. Also, demonstrations centering around the theme "Get
the Good from Your Food" through correct principles of cookery were
used.
Vegetable plate demonstrations using large groups of vegetables grown
in the garden from which meals were planned, prepared and served by
committee groups were excellent means for showing the principles of plan-
ning meals and preparation of vegetables. Similar demonstrations on
milk, poultry and poultry products were used.








Annual Report, 1942


Short courses on sugar rationing and baking were held in some coun-
ties. The use of meats and meat alternatives was demonstrated through
the use of meat charts and recipes, food preparation and meal planning
demonstrations, using actual foods or pictures cut from magazines. "Vic-
tory Specials" were featured in the food preparation and meal planning
program, as they were announced.

THE FAMILY FOOD SUPPLY

Helping make America strong by producing and eating health-building,
strength-giving foods was emphasized in this phase of the work. It was
pointed out that the first line of health and national defense is through
abundant supplies and proper use of the right kinds of food. Emphasis
was placed upon planning to produce enough food to meet the family's
need and to have a surplus. Along with this program went an educa-
tional program to show the producer his responsibility to use only his
quota of the rationed foods, even when he produced surpluses.
In a November survey by the nutrition goals committee reports from
11 counties located from Escambia to Dade stated that the farm families
in all counties had consumed a more adequate diet.

WORK WITH 4-H CLUBS

Many adjustments and changed procedures became necessary in the
4-H club program. The 7 point program for victory in 4-H club work was
adapted to include:
Four-H Club members making themselves strong by eating every day
the foods that make for good growth and physical fitness; caring for their
teeth; getting plenty of sleep; working for good posture; having yearly
health check-ups correcting physical defects and taking part in health im-
provement and physical fitness contests; 4-H members helping make their
families strong by taking some definite part in planning, producing, pre-
serving and storing the family food supply; 4-H members helping to make
their communities strong by demonstrating to neighbors and community
groups how to produce, preserve and store protective foods; planning meals,
preparing protective foods correctly, and buying foods wisely.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES

Cooperation with other agencies included assistance to the United
States War Boards in educational work in connection with the Food for
Freedom program. The Nutritionist and all specialists assisted with vo-
cational home economics and agriculture, Farm Security, Surplus Market-
ing, Works Progress Administration school lunch, and Parent-Teachers
Association child feeding programs. The State Board of Health and the
State Tuberculosis Association and Medical and Dental Associations co-
operated with the food, nutrition and health program by providing health
examinations, illustrative material and subject-matter material.
The American Red Cross provided instructors for nutrition, first aid,
canteen and home nursing courses. In professional organizations such as
the Florida Home Economics Association and Florida Dietetics Associa-
tion, the Nutritionist participated in the activities and served on educa-
tional committees. She was a member also of the Florida Defense Coun-
cil's advisory committee on nutrition.







Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Specialist in Gardening and Food Conservation
Adjustments necessary to meet war conditions effectively presented
many problems in 1942, yet progress was made. The fact that the war
effort had already assumed an important place made farm and urban
families more and more receptive to the live-at-home ideal, long advocated
by the home demonstration agents. Home gardens and orchards and con-
serving the surplus from them, presently patriotic in appeal, made tre-
mendous gains.
Early in the year the Service's agricultural goals committee, consisting
of both men and women, the division of home gardens and community
services and the State Nutrition Committee of the State Defense Council
(all of which the Specialist in Food Conservation served), set up state-
wide goals and activities. These all achieved remarkable compliance and
cooperation throughout the state. The organization, cooperation and inte-
gration of these state-wide agencies as well as community and neighbor-
hood leadership, simplified subject matter, and other factors all working
to the same end, increased and intensified the program.

OBJECTIVES IN FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSERVATION
The central objectives that motivated home demonstration work in
Florida in the past remained fundamentally sound in days of total war.
"Life at home" was found to be the same bedrock on which to build the
program of state and national defense.
The gardening and canning program was carried on more extensively
by women and girls than ever before and became a vital part of the Food
for Freedom campaign. A generous supply of foods grown, canned and
utilized by the newest knowledge of nutrition and canning technology was
the great objective of the war-time year, to the end that the supply of
home-produced foods would make the drawing upon the critical commercial
supply unnecessary.

METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Records showed a heartening increase in the number of gardens grown.
It was conservatively estimated that the number of farm home gardens
was nearly doubled during 1942. The number of fruit trees and berry
vines planted also showed a healthy increase.
The Extension Service, early in the year, set the goal of a "home
garden for every farm family in Florida" and made plans for its realiza-
tion, and checked progress at seasonal intervals. The AAA lent financial
and other support. The State Defense Council, through its garden chair-
man, Miss Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration 'Agent, encouraged
and assisted the garden and canning program in every county in the state.
Farm security clients were required to grow gardens of sufficient size to
yield an adequate surplus for canning. Vocational agriculture and other
teachers promoted school gardens and the larger farmers contributed land
for subsistence gardens for their laborers and made more home gardens
available to their own farms. The Nation-wide nutrition program,
stressing the need for more fruits and vegetables in an adequate diet,
greatly benefited production. The Red Cross, through many nutritional
and canteen classes, further emphasized the important place of garden-
fresh products in the diet. In addition, every woman's journal, every
farm publication, every magazine, every newspaper, played the same in-
sistent warning note.







Annual Report, 1942


Fig. 5.-Florida farm families raised almost twice as many home gar-
dens in 1942 as in 1941, in response to the war-time need for more food
produced at home.

The radio also had a big part in making and keeping the citizenry gar-
den conscious.
In addition to the emphasis on gardens, the consensus of opinion was
that the Nation's need for adequate nutrition could not be well met without
greatly increasing home orchards. Pooled orders were placed during the
year in the state for additional plantings in orchards already established
and for new ones to be planted.

FOOD CONSERVATION
War conditions gave the food conservation program a great deal of
emphasis among both rural and urban families in every county. Requests
for assistance came from home demonstration members and non-members
alike, and from negroes as well as white people.
Reports were made of the many new canning centers established to
meet the need for saving the farmers' surplus crops, particularly in the
large commercial trucking areas, such as Palm Beach, Broward, Manatee
and Seminole counties. The majority of these plants were equipped with
the needed canning facilities by the county commissioners. These county
officials in some instances also paid the salary of a supervisor. Seminole
County had 4 centers where more than 2,000 people used the facilities and
where, within the season, 36,500 containers of fruit, vegetables and meat
products were canned.
In Duval County centers were operated at full capacity under the su-
pervision of both paid and volunteer workers. In one month 18,054 con-







Florida Cooperative Extension


tainers were filled in eight centers. The central and largest plant, located
in Jacksonville, remained open from 8:00 A. M. until 10:00 P. M. during
the height of the season. With the knowledge acquired at these canning
centers, many women preferred to work at home with pressure cookers
and can in smaller amounts from their own gardens. This practice was
encouraged because it gave additional people access to the canning kitchen
-besides conserving gasoline and tires.
In Manatee County large and small farmers alike had at times a great
surplus. Usually these surpluses occurred when the farmers were the
busiest. These products canned on shares benefited many families who
had no opportunity of either producing or securing vegetables, enabled
them to obtain food for themselves by canning on shares, and at the same
time saved an equal amount for the busy farmer and his family. In one
trucking area fully 75% of the canning was done on a share basis from
these crop surpluses.
Canning for market was less prevalent than in previous years, in spite
of the increase of home canning. However, Gadsden County women re-
ported sales of $2,044.74 from their fine quality canned goods.
Sugar rationing did much to educate the people to the more whole-
some use and value of other sweets-home produced cane syrup, brown
sugar and honey. Home demonstration agents assisted their local ration-
ing boards in many ways. Some furnished tables of amounts of sugar
needed for canning sub-tropical fruits, especially for guavas. Other agents
helped to issue sugar ration cards and gave out information on recipes for
using sugar substitutes at the same time.
The Share-the-Meat campaign promised considerable educational value.
Already many farm and home agents were presenting programs on recom-
mended practices for butchering, curing and canning of meats in order to
secure a better balance of quality meat products for the days ahead. State
Extension and county workers alike encouraged farmers to put up meats
for their own use and to butcher, cure and can larger amounts for sale
to neighbors and townspeople. Increase in this practice would help re-
lieve the pressure on transportation to send hogs and cattle to the cities
and to bring the meat back to town.
A 5-jar Can for Quality contest was held this year with a business firm
again contributing $100 in cash as awards. The menu that accompanied
the 5 jars required thought and background information in order to serve
meals that were healthful, attractive and well balanced.
Early in the year and during the late spring and early summer months
considerable canning was done for use in the school lunch program. In Cit-
rus County the agent reported that over 2,000 containers were filled to be
used in 2 school lunch rooms in the county. The county commissioners gave
the Lecanto Club permission to use a plot of land owned by the county and
loaned them $125 to start their garden. This indebtedness to the board
was paid by a portion of canned products to the other school lunch room in
the county.
The WPA loaned pressure cookers and helped in extending the canning
program to needy families. The equipment was used mainly in homes
where neighborhood groups canned together, with some club or individual
assuming responsibility for the care of the cookers.
Salvage of Glass Containers.-Jars were collected from thousands of co-
operative urban homes, storerooms, and garages. Many fine glass contain-
ers were thus easily secured for those needing them, for the cost of a new







Annual Report, 1942


vacuum seal top or a new rubber. The Florida home canner is equally as
familiar and as skilled in the use of glass as tin in the pressure canner.
Refresher Courses in Canning.-Early in the year all over Florida home-
makers became interested in making plans for the production and conser-
vation of their own food supply. Refresher courses were then asked for,
particularly to be given to those who were to have charge of neighborhood
groups, and in all canning centers. Many home agents taught such classes.
Losses of vitamins and other nutrients occurring in harvesting, preparation
and preservation, and the improved methods of preventing these losses,
were emphasized in the home demonstration canning groups.

4-H CLUB WORK FOR GIRLS
Reports indicate that leaders and older club girls gave invaluable assist-
ance to home agents in developing the 4-H program, in making it contribute
directly to the home food supply. Many of the girls took over the family
canning as their mothers were taking over other productive work on the
farm, in grading and packing sheds, or in commercial canning plants. One
county reported more than 25 girls who came to 3 defense centers to learn
more about canning. Another county reported the enthusiasm of club girls
in the Victory Garden campaign. One club member reported 600 jars
canned with the aid of her mother. A total of 9,415 cans was reported by
the club members in Escambia County.
Taking in the whole state, home demonstration women and 4-H club
girls canned more than 6 million pints of fruits, vegetables, meats and fish.
Fifty community canning plants were operating in 23 counties. Much can-
ning was done at home also. The amount of food conserved in 1942 was 4
times as great as that canned in any previous year. The farm families and
many urban dwellers ate their own canned products and had the satisfac-
tion of knowing that they were eating good food, tastefully and nutritiously
prepared, and, at the same time helping their country in the Fight for Free-
dom.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Clarine Belcher, Specialist (Deceased)

CLOTHING WORK ADJUSTED TO WAR-TIME
Clothing the family suitably proved to be an even greater responsibility
of the homemaker in times of war than in peace days. Many changes were
experienced in the clothing and textiles program in 1942 because of war-
time needs and priorities for unusually large amounts of textile supplies.
The clothing program in all its parts was related closely to economic
conditions. With women spending more time in the kitchen in food prepara-
tion and in the garden in food production it became important that home-
makers have suitable and durable clothes to withstand the wear, and to be
easily cared for, as well as to conserve the textile materials not readily re-
placeable.
The establishment in the home of many wardrobe and household textile
demonstrations according to a regular planned outline was well under way.
These extensive demonstrations of improved clothing became a definite
part of activities of hundreds of women and girls. Working for more satis-
factory dining-room and kitchen textiles was a means of unifying the pro-
grams with the food preparation work. The relation of clothing and tex-
tiles to health and personal appearance and the resulting effect on morale
were stressed.
Due to the war, people were in a receptive mood for all practical in-
formation and were anxious to work and contribute their efforts to the
clothing and textile program. Cottons supply the bulk of the textiles con-
sumed by Florida rural families, consequently the rise in the price of cotton
goods due to the demand for cotton work clothes and fabrics by the Army
and defense workers greatly affected the clothing program of the home and
family. Resourcefulness and conservation of supplies were developed as a
result of shortages and higher prices. Better home management and better
planning of household activities resulted in providing rural women with
more time and energy to sew for their families. Families to the number
of 7,574 were assisted during the year with their sewing problems, 6,912
in selection of clothing an'd textiles, and 5,247 in the care, renovation and
remodeling of clothing.
Good habits of clothing care were emphasized, as the Florida climate
offers disadvantages to textiles in insects, moulds, and heat. Coat making,
remodeling, and renovation received special emphasis.
An exhibit of work clothes for Florida women was made up, consisting
of a field suit, jumper slack suit, princess coverall apron, culottes, belted
coverall apron, surplice coverall apron, food preparation dress, and surplice
house dress. This was a very popular exhibit all over the state, and was
modeled for many cooperating civic groups as well as home demonstration
meetings.
MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE YEAR:
During the year two state-wide meetings for all agents and five district
meetings for training county agents in clothing and textile work were held.
Assistance was given in all 67 counties of the state in encouraging farm
people to use the services of action agencies of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture. Coordination of project activities with co-workers and repre-
sentatives of other government agencies in the counties was planned. Circu-
lar letters, news articles, exhibits, posters, filmstrips and other Extension
means were used to spread the knowledge of proper methods with clothing
and textiles.







Annual Report, 1942


In all 38 counties employing home demonstration agents, work was
done through organized committees of rural and urban people in studying
the situation and developing programs. Background information and other
specialist aid was given planning committees and the U. S. Department of
Agriculture war boards. Plans were developed to help with 4-H clubs and
older youth, and training was given to 4-H judging and demonstration
teams. Leaders were also trained in subject-matter and Extension methods,
including group discussions.
The Clothing Specialist was assigned responsibility for assisting in de-
veloping the fire prevention program for the home, and she served as a
member of the state committee responsible for this project. This special
material was prepared, supplied, and distributed through the Extension
Service.

VOLUNTEER LEADERS-CONTINUATION OF THEIR TRAINING
Training of volunteer leaders was one of the important methods used to
develop the clothing work with both women and girls. The county short
courses for 4-H club girls were used to give intensive training in clothing
and textiles for the girls.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
In addition to these activities, close cooperation was given to related and
interested agencies. The Specialist served as head of the textiles section of
the State Home Economics Association and provided information to mem-
bers of the professional groups on trends and situations in textiles under
war conditions. An exhibit was made before the State Federation of Gar-
den Clubs, showing suitable garden work clothes. The Farm Security Ad-
ministration was aided with subject matter and illustrative material such
as the exhibit of the girl's low cost wardrobe, and the exhibit of work
clothes for women. Assistance to the State Defense Council was given by
serving on the State Advisory Committee on Consumer's Interests.

SOME STATISTICS ON THE CLOTHING PROGRAM
Over 4,000 families were assisted with consumer-buying problems, and
many more in making buying decisions or other adjustments in family liv-
ing. Also, 2,934 families were assisted with "making versus buying" de-
cisions. Almost 2,000 were assisted with the buying of clothing and a
similar number were assisted with house furnishings and equipment. Over
1,800 were helped in their clothing accounts or budgets, and slightly under
1,000 were recorded as providing recommended clothing, furnishings, and
play equipment for children during the year.






Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home improvement

ADJUSTMENTS MADE
Much mending, repairing and painting were done during the year, there
was some remodeling, but there was little building of new houses. Many
who had looked forward to having electric lines extended to their homes
had to be disappointed, but the fine patriotism of our rural people put their
preferences into the background when they realized that steel, wire and
copper for electric lines were needed in the war effort.
To strengthen the nutrition program, more comfortable, healthful, con-
venient and sanitary kitchens were set as goals to help the family in the
better preparation and selection of food. More community meetings were
held in the home, and oftentimes in the kitchen. Seeing a demonstration in
the home in the early stages and watching its improvement is one of the
best ways of teaching a whole neighborhood and community.
All agencies at work in the state had a unity of purpose. Most of the
rural people had timely information through the press, radio, circular letters
and leaflets.

BETTER MANAGEMENT UNDER WAR CONDITIONS
The planning and management of many farm activities fell into the
hands of the women, since the men had gone into defense work and the older
boys had gone into service. The study of what and when to buy, the care
of all equipment and the knowledge of what was available, all were import-
ant in home improvement work for many Florida homemakers.
Keeping up the morale by neat, attractive homes, with simple beauty
about, renewed the interest of 4-H club girls in doing their required work,
and continued to be an important goal. Home sanitation inside and outside
the house was stressed more than ever for health, and it was all interpreted
as a part of the contribution of home management in winning the war.
Better management of time was stressed more than ever. Home demon-
stration club members were urged to keep track of what was ordinarily
done, and by study and discussion many short-cuts were evolved and more
work was undertaken. Weekly and seasonal plans were made, and adjust-
ments .were made in relation to the war.
Thrift in rejuvenating furniture and making new furniture enabled many
home makers to invest savings in war stamps and bonds for future spend-
ing. Many paid debts and taxes with money from the pay envelope sent
home by the defense workers, many of whom were getting more money
than they had ever had.

4-H CLUB WORK. IN HOME IMPROVEMENT
More emphasis was put on helping 4-H club girls from 10 to 14 years
of age in home improvement during the past year. They were made to
think that through the part they did joyously, in following a systematized
plan with the daily chores, such as dishwashing, table setting and every-
day good housekeeping, they were doing their bit in the home and for Uncle
Sam. Ninety-five percent of the 4-H club members, both white and negro,
in the state helped with the scrap drive and the buying of war stamps.
They did additional work in Victory Gardens and helped to provide more
food. Four-H club members were urged to plant more fruit trees, nuts
and berries as a part of home beautification.






Annual Report, 1942 53

Better housekeeping in attics and closets was one way of getting waste
paper, rags, metal and rubber for the scrap drive. Also, many learned to
make thrift house furnishings.
Fire fighting and the placing of the necessary fire-fighting equipment in
cases of fire in the home was studied and planned for and convenient re-
ceptacles were made for holding fire-fighting equipment.

ADULT WORK

Many women and girls, white and negro, took over the entire work in
the home and garden; they also did much additional work on the farm, in the
groves, and in the packinghouses. Many families made work schedules for
all members. Short-cuts in laundering, house cleaning, cooking, and other
daily tasks were encouraging to see. Also short-cuts for saving time and
labor were studied by individuals, and results of their practice were told
in the club meetings.
Food preparation in saving time and energy was studied in connection
with the emphasis on the improved kitchen for sanitation, health, comfort,
convenience and beauty. It will not be long before the inconvenient, un-
sanitary and ugly kitchen will be as obsolete as the fly brushes of other
days. It is not uncommon now to see an electrified kitchen in rural areas
in all parts of Florida.

WOMEN ON THE ALERT
Women of the rural sections were much better informed than many
leaders thought. They were eager to do all that was asked of them in
winning the war. They listened to the radio, read the daily papers, and
took more magazines than in previous years.
"Living at home" was almost a game dictated by circumstances, but
always fascinating and full of satisfaction. Better nutrition was coming
home to the farm family in its emphatic needs, for our fighting men have
to be fed correctly both in the army and out of the army.

REPORTS FROM COUNTIES
Excerpts from the home demonstration reports on home improvement
work in counties in widely separate sections of the state are used here to
give an idea of the home improvement undertaken throughout the state in
1942.
In Madison County homes were remodeled, several were painted outside,
running water was installed, bathrooms were built, improved treatment was
given windows in a large number of homes, and home furnishings were
bought by a number of families.
In Holmes County a great improvement in yards was noted. Grass was
planted, new fences and walks were added. Kitchens had the lead among
home improvements in the county. Water and sinks were installed, cab-
inets built, tables and other practical conveniences added. Linoleums were
added to cover worn floors.
Incomes from war industry jobs provided money for improvements in
Pinellas County. Rural electrification helped to add water pumps and water
systems, refrigerators, electric irons, electric appliances. A few families
secured the necessary materials to add a bathroom, a sleeping porch or bed-
room.
In Santa Rosa County rural electrification helped to provide improve-
ments of the same sort. Also 60 poorly constructed wooden homes were re-
modeled and made into brick veneer homes. Many rural women painted







54 Florida Cooperative Extension

their homes and remodeled their kitchens. New furniture was purchased
and 100 women improved their yards.
Alachua County made many improvements in homes and yards. One
new home was built, 28 rooms painted, 13 porches improved, and a large
number of other varied improvements were made.
In Dade County many homes installed electricity for the first time, re-
pairs and improvements were made, and new furniture was made or pur-
chased. Many pieces were repaired or refinished and rooms and floors were
repainted. Labor-saving equipment was bought. Household budgets and
better planning of the use of time and leisure and the improvement of kit-
chens were reported by many.
Home improvement was more widespread than for many years in Cal-
houn County, on account of increased incomes in the families. New roofs,
new screening, new pumps or kitchen sinks, new kitchen cabinets were built.
Houses were ceiled and more progress was made in yard beautification than
heretofore.
Hillsborough County reported improvement of working spaces in the
homes, especially in the kitchens. Repainting furniture and refinishing
linoleum, the addition of electric refrigerators, cabinets, stoves, ice cream
freezers, and many labor-saving devices took place in the homes. Homes
were painted and yards beautified.







Annual Report, 1942


PART IV -NEGRO WORK

NEGRO FARM DEMONSTRATION WORK
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent

The negro farm demonstration work, supervised by the Local District
Agent, was performed by nine local farm agents. The agents worked in the
following 10 counties: Alachua, Columbia, Gadsden, Hamilton, Jackson,
Jefferson, Leon, Marion, Sumter, and Suwanee. The agent of Hamilton
County worked in northern Suwanee, while the agent of Columbia County
worked in southern Suwanee.
According to reports from the agents, 2,695 farms followed the practices
of the agricultural program as set up by the Extension Service; of this
number, 1,037 were reached this year for the first time. Non-farm families
to the number of 1,276 were'reached during the year, and they carried out
recommended practices in improving their homes and in producing food at
home.
The Farm Management Specialist and other Extension specialists assist-
ed in emphasizing the food production program. Plan sheets were sent out
through the local agents to the farm families in the 10 counties, as a check
and re-check system on the important foods to be planted and what foods
had already been planted. In all, 8,336 farm families were reached through
this method.
Much emphasis was put on the home garden, stressing increase in size,
better location, planting more varieties of vegetables, and having enough to
feed the family, with a surplus for canning.
Health standards of rural negroes were raised during the year. Fami-
lies became more interested in guarding the health of their family members
when they realized the low health status of men drafted for enlistment.
The improvement of family diets, sanitary conditions, and general health
practices were some of the main points in the health program.

RESPONSIBILITIES, PLANS, WORK
County and home visits were more carefully planned to save gasoline
and rubber. Trips were not taken to farms when letters of information
could answer the need. Agents scheduled meetings and trips to share and
save in transportation.
Labor shortages, due to the large number of men and boys taken into
service, caused many adjustments in carrying on farm work. The local
agents spent much time giving demonstrations in the use of farm tools and
machinery. Younger boys, women and girls carried on the farming. In
some cases young people and women were hired from the city to help dur-
ing harvest time.
The State Short Course was not held for 4-H club members. Instead, a
county short course was held in each county worked by a local agent.
Achievement day programs were held in each community in the counties
instead of the former county-wide achievement day. County fairs were not
held in most of the counties. Instead, exhibits were staged at the commun-
ity achievement days.
The agents assisted farm families in making out applications for sugar,
gasoline and oil and aided them in carrying on their live-at-home programs,
thus adjusting in the best way to the rationing system. Farmers were en-







56 Florida Cooperative Extension

courage to grow more sugarcane and produce more meats and vegetables
in order that the Nation would be amply supplied to carry on the war.
Since building materials were not available, the importance of making
general repairs with old materials was stressed. The agents also empha-
sized the wise use of family income and the investment of surplus earnings
in war bonds and stamps.

NEIGHBORHOOD LEADER SYSTEM
The neighborhood leader system was inaugurated under the leadership
of the nine local agents. Farm folk, ministers, teachers, business men and
professional workers, 539 in number, were enrolled as volunteer war work-
ers under the neighborhood leader system. In a short while this system
was organized in each county and training meetings were held for these
leaders. Much needed war-time information and activities were speeded
through the help of these leaders. They helped in rationing, salvage and
other defense activities.

COOPERATION OF STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES
The agents told the farm families of other helpful agencies while carry-
ing on their Extension work. They cooperated with the AAA program to
a great extent. A number of farmers used more soil-building crops and in-
creased their garden acreage through the agents' and the AAA influence.
The Farm Security Administration assisted low-income farmers. The
agents assisted the farmers in securing FSA loans when advisable and en-
couraged them to keep up the standards required by the FSA.
The Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College rendered assistance to
the Extension Service by the use of faculty members in giving lectures and
instructions at special meetings and at county meetings. Services of the
Rural Electrification Administration were used to advantage.
The Florida State Marketing Bureau gave much assistance to both
agents and farmers. The State Experiment Station, State Plant Board and
State Board of Health were all of invaluable assistance in carrying on the
year's work.
All war agencies were given wholehearted cooperation by the District
Agent and the local agents. All were represented in some phase of defense
work and in the sale of stamps and bonds. A fine response was made also
in the collection of scrap iron, rubber and aluminum. The Leon County
agent reported the collection of 22,970 pounds of scrap through rural fami-
lies.

MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS

Victory gardens to the number of 5,271 were reported by the agents. The
aim of a "family milk cow" in every farm home was instrumental in causing
472 negro families to buy their first milk cows. Although many do not have
milk cows, the number of families who do have their own supply of milk for
home use increased greatly. Poultry production increased and farm fami-
lies began to can poultry for home use. More feed was also grown for poul-
try.
Peanuts were grown for oil to help in the vegetable oil needs during
the war. The agents reported that 4,657 farmers cooperating in their work
planted peanuts.
Meat supplies were improved and increased. Swine and beef cattle were
raised and much meat was canned at home.







Annual Report, 1942 57

Sweet potatoes were grown by many farmers, the "Copper Skin" Porto
Rican variety proving one of the most widely used. Some farmers planted
other varieties.
Sugarcane for syrup yielded 343,700 gallons in the 10 counties. Much
was grown to sell in stalks for chewing purposes, also.
Increased production for livestock feed over previous years was carried
out this year. Corn, peanuts, hay, oats, rye and potatoes were grown, thus
cutting down the expense of purchasing feeds. Pastures were given more
attention to provide green feed for livestock also.
An interracial cooperative was set up at the Farmers' Market in Chip-
ley. This contained a refining plant for syrup and a grading and packing
plant for sweet potatoes.

4-H CLUBS
The enrollment of 4-H club boys showed a decrease over last year be-
cause the labor shortage caused many boys to fill the vacancies on farms.
In spite of this, 1,568 boys completed their projects. Corn, peanuts, home
gardens, swine production, poultry and dairying were the major projects.
Many of the boys carried several projects, with special interest being shown
in food and feed crops.








Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Beulah S. Shute, Local District Agent
Helping the agents and farm families make adjustments to the war-time
program was the foremost plan for 1942 among negro home demonstration
agents. Other endeavors included cooperating with federal, state and other
organizations in spreading information designed to aid in the war effort to
the mass of rural people.
The number of home visits was cut down and more effort was made to
have rural families pool their transportation. The neighborhood leader
system helped to overcome the handicap caused by the tire and gasoline
shortage.
FACTORS AFFECTING COUNTY EXTENSION WORK
The usual State Boys' and Girls' Short Course was postponed and in its
stead individual county short courses were held. As the 4-H club girls grew
older they were guided into channels where they could serve best. Some
were able to attend college. Others were fitted into employment. Most of
the girls married and were able to use their 4-H club training in establish-
ing their homes. Agents gave specific training in household service for
many girls.
Adjustments in home management were necessary, for women and girls
were needed in busy seasons and were often transported from the villages
to the fields at daybreak and returned after sundown. Special demonstra-
tions were prepared for the girls and boys who were left in charge of the
young ones and the house, while the parents and older sisters were in the
fields. Children from 10 to 15 years old earned good money picking beans,
peanuts, cotton, and other crops.
Educational work on the wise spending of money was difficult to make
effective, but, with constant talk and attempted guidance of the older folk,
girls were persuaded to use their money for better clothing, home improve-
ment, health improvement, and the purchasing of war stamps.
The labor shortage on the farms and the increased cash income were
factors with which the agents dealt by using their influence to help the
families make sensible adjustments to meet the future. The need was em-
phasized for the home production of food and feed; the utilization of cotton;
improved nutritional habits; and getting the neighborhood leader system
established.
Of the 9,758 negro farmers in counties served by home demonstration
agents, more than 50% were full owners, 40 negro men were farm man-
agers, and 4,303 were tenant farmers. Poor family nutrition was found
among all of these groups. During the year many families learned to eat
more beneficial foods. Meal planning suggestions with cookery demonstra-
tions served to bring up-to-date information on preparing nutritious food.
Surplus commodity foods were used in some demonstrations in the schools
by agents and 4-H club girls.

SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE YEAR
The cotton mattress program was continued in 2 counties, completing
mattresses which had been ordered through the Surplus Commodity Corpor-
ation. The textile and clothing program centered around the economical
use of fabrics, the remodeling of clothing, and information about the new
fabrics on the market.
Home gardens to the number of 3,990 were grown by women and 4-H
club girls, who canned 53,737 quarts of fruit and 165,896 quarts of vege-







Annual Report, 1942


tables. Quantities of pork, beef and poultry also were canned and 1,744
families were assisted by the agents in curing 159,801 pounds of meat.
Better housing was brought about by the screening of many homes and
by other sanitary measures. Homes were repaired and beautified in various
ways and home grounds were improved.
Fats, oils, and scrap metal were collected by women and girls. Women
volunteer war leaders numbering 354 served their communities. Bonds and
stamps were purchased by clubs, by councils and by individual girls and
women.
PERSONNEL AND METHODS
There were 9 counties served by local agents. Although the counties did
not assist with the agents' salaries in most cases, they did give financial
assistance in other ways, such as furnishing office space, part-time clerical
help, fuel, and telephone. Cooperation on the part of the agents with the
school boards and the other county offices was found in every instance. In-
dividuals sympathetic with Extension work greatly aided the program and
helped it to move onward in spite of handicaps due to travel complications.
One new local home agent was added to the staff. The home agents were
called together several times during the year for training meetings. Two
agents' conferences were held at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
College in Tallahassee. Group meetings were held in conveniently located
centers. Three agents went to the Tuberculosis Institute in Jacksonville.
One agent attended a training meeting in Atlanta, Georgia.
Field equipment was assembled for demonstrations. A kit was provided
for food demonstrations, including a sauce pan, a sharp butcher knife, a
food chopper, a small oven, a dishpan, a rolling pin, a grater, and a biscuit
cutter. The agents were supplied with these kits which enabled them to
help 2,363 families in learning better ways of preparing food.
The agents kept daily diaries from which they compiled their monthly
reports. Home records were kept by many women and girls.
The District Agent aided the agents by addressing meetings and furnish-
ing bulletins and other literature. When mimeograph machines were not at
the disposal of a local agent, important programs and letters were mimeo-
graphed in the District Agent's office. Newspaper publicity was frequently
prepared by the District Agent. Exhibits were placed, short courses and
camps organized and demonstrations prepared and given by the District
Agent.
GARDENS, ORCHARDS, THRIFT ACTIVITIES
In addition to the large number of gardens reported from the nine coun-
ties, there were 225 home orchards begun; 247 families bought milk cows;
125 schools were helped with the lunchroom program; 8 health or nutrition
clinics were organized. The tendency to sell eggs and butter before home
needs were supplied was lessened. Demonstrations were given to make
some of the wholesome but unattractive foods appealing to children.
Demonstrations were given by all agents on home canning. Handicrafts,
health and physical fitness, health facts about adolescence, and educational
motion pictures were some of the programs stressed in the different com-
munities. Movies were shown on "Fighting Fire Bombs", "Let My People
Live", and "Goodbye, Mr. Germ".
The gathering and curing of Spanish moss brought $1,500 to rural
women. Demonstration women and 4-H girls owned 49,126 hens and the
eggs from these were a source of cash income. Bleached feed bags were
dyed and made into attractive garments. The bags were also used for bed-
ding, table linens, curtains, towels and slip covers. Some thrifty girls saved
the strings obtained from traveling the bags open, and used them for crochet







60 Florida Cooperative Extension

cotton, making towel edging, smaller table mats, and crocheted lace. Ci-
vilian coats and suits of husbands and brothers in the Army and Navy were
remodeled into clothing for the women and girls, or cut down for younger
brothers.
COOPERATION EXTENDED AND RECEIVED
All negro agents received instruction from AAA officials at a 1-day
meeting. Cooperation was extended to county, state, and federal organiza-
tions whenever possible. Agents going into homes found needy cases and
reported them to county welfare boards. The agents assisted county tu-
berculosis associations in fighting this disastrous disease. A fine spirit of
cooperation existed between the local home agents and the Jeanes teachers.
They assisted each other with school lunch activities, exhibits, and other
rural life problems. The slight overlapping of the Farm Security Admin-
istration with the Extension program caused some confusion in 1 county
but adjustments were made and the work goes on.
In all of her work the District Agent enjoyed the assistance of the spec-
ialist and the district agents of the State Home Demonstration Office. The
State Home Demonstration Agent always had time to guide and counsel
the Local District Agent, despite her own increased war-time program.
STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Months of service (agents and assistants) ........................................... 211
Days of service: In office, 1,640; In field, 3,560; Total ........................ 5,200
Farm or home visits m ade ............................ ........................................ 8,404
Different farms or homes visited ............................................................. 4,072
Calls relating to extension work: Office, 14,001; Telephone ................ 4,486
Days devoted to work with 4-H clubs and older youth ........................ 1,917
News articles or stories published .......... ........................................... 242
Bulletins distributed ----..... -------...-------.................... .. ... 9,629
Radio talks broadcast or prepared .......................... ................................ 3
Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
N um ber ..................... .................................. ................................... 149
Total attendance of men and women ......................................... 4,302
Method demonstration meetings:
N um ber -................................. ................................ .... 907
Total attendance ........................ .......... ............................................12,474
Meetings held at result demonstrations:
N um ber ................-- .... .................................... .................................. 829
A attendance --............................................................. 4,196
Tours conducted ........- -......................................................... ..... 19
Achievement days held for 4-H, older youth and adult work ................ 40
Encampments, leader meetings and other meetings ................................ 1,288
SUMMARY OF EXTENSION INFLUENCE
Total number of farms ........ ........... ............................ ... 8,885
Farms on which changes in practices have resulted from agricultural
program this year and in past ................................................................ 2,695
Non-farm families making changes as result of home demonstration
and agricultural program s ............................. .................................... 2,169
Farm homes in which changes in practices have resulted from the
home demonstration program ................................................................. 1,702
Farm homes in which changes have resulted from home demonstration
and agricultural programs this year ........................ ...................... 1,742








Annual Report, 1942 61

Different farm families influenced by some phase of the extension pro-
gram ................. ............................. ..... 5,213
Others families influenced by some phase of the extension program .... 2,155

CONTRIBUTION TO WAR EFFORT
Days devoted to war agricultural work ............................................... 204
Communities conducting war work ............................................ ............. 216
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen in program .......................... 269
Days devoted to food supplies and critical war problems, civilian de-
fense, and other war work .......................................- 1,080

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Members in agricultural planning group ..................................... 294
U npaid ............. ...... ............................................. 284
P aid ....................... ....................................................... 10
Communities in agricultural planning ................................ ...... 108
Members in community agricultural planning ................................... 183
Planning meetings held ............................................ 546
Days devoted to planning work by county and home demonstration
w workers ........ ......................................................... 321
Unpaid voluntary leaders or committeemen .................... ---...............------- 500
Days of voluntary leaders or committeemen ............................ 649

CROP PRODUCTION

Days devoted to work ............................................. 955
Communities in which work was conducted .......................................... 1,153
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ...................... ....----- 872

LIVESTOCK, DAIRYING, POULTRY
Days devoted to work .. .... .... ...................................... 669
Communities in which work was conducted .................................. 771
Voluntary committeemen and leaders .................... ............... 571
Breeding and improvement organizations .......................................... 166
Farmers assisted ....................................-..... ....... 6,562

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Days devoted to work ........................................ 134
Communities in which work was conducted .............. ................... 185
Voluntary local leaders and committeemen ....................................... 92
Farmers assisted in soil management ................................ 1,126
Farmers assisted in forestry and wild life conservation ........................ 2,558
FARM MANAGEMENT

Days devoted to work ............... ................................... 181
Farmers assisted ......................................--- --- ...... 5,695

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Days devoted to work .--.................. -----..-------------- 80
Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 109
Voluntary leaders and committeemen ............................................... 177
Agricultural and non-agricultural groups assisted .............................. 447







Florida Cooperative Extension


MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION
Days devoted to work ................ ................................. .................. 6 622
Communities in which work was conducted ............................................ 1,114
Established cooperatives assisted .......................... .................. 11
New cooperatives assisted in organizing ............................................ 10
Value of products sold or purchased by cooperatives assisted during
the year (established and new) ................... .....................$375,952.00
Value of products sold or purchased by farmers or families (not mem-
bers of cooperatives) assisted during year ................................$659,119.00

HOUSING, FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENT
Days devoted to work ......................... ...................... 279
Communities in which work was conducted .....-.................................. 358
Voluntary leaders and committeemen .................................. 254
Families assisted in house furnishings, surroundings, mechanical
equipment, rural electrification .............. .......... ....................... 8,481

NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Days devoted to work ........................................... 1,182
Communities in which work was done ................................................. 922
Families assisted: Improving diets, 2,301; Food Preparation, 2,375;
T otal ........ ............... .................................................. 4,676
Families assisted with food-preservation problems ................................ 4,997

COMMUNITY WORK
Days devoted to work ............................. ............................................ 565
Communities in which work was done in problems in clothing, family
economics, parent education and community life ........................ 495
Families, clubs and groups assisted in problems in clothing, family
economics, parent education and community life ..........................14,411

SUMMARY OF 4-H CLUB PROJECTS
Projects completed by boys ........ ..................... ... ................. 2,914
Projects completed by girls ....... ....... ..........................17,011
Boys completing corn and peanut projects ...................................... 793
Boys completing fruit and garden projects ........ ......--......... ................ 634
Boys completing dairy and poultry projects .......................................... 312
Boys completing cotton and tobacco projects ...................................... 93
Boys completing potato (Irish and sweet) projects ............................ 171
Boys completing beef cattle and swine projects ................................... 497
Girls completing dairy and poultry projects ................................... 1,573
Girls completing home gardens and fruit orchard projects ............ 2,648
Girls completing food selection and preparation projects ...................... 1,679
Girls completing health, home nursing and first aid ............................ 1,287
Girls completing clothing, home management, home furnishing and
room improvement projects ........................... .......... ................. 3,781
Girls completing food preservation projects .......................................... 1,141
4-H Membership
Boys: Farm, 1,724; Non-farm, 186; Total ................................ 1,910
Girls: Farm, 1,927; Non-farm, 481; Total .............................. 2,408
4-H club members having health examinations because of participa-
tion in extension program .. .............................. ................. 958
4-H clubs engaging in community activities such as improving school
grounds and conducting local fairs .............................................. 890











INDEX


AAA, 12, 13, 17, 46, 60
Agencies receiving cooperation, 7,
40, 45, 51, 56
Agents, list of, 5, 6
Agricultural economics, 19
Agricultural News Service, 16
Agronomy, 22
American Institute of Cooperation,
20
Animal husbandry, 22, 24
Associations, 18
dairy, 26
Auctions, 20
Austrian winter peas, 14
Avocadoes, 15

Beef cattle, 24
Belcher, Clarine, 50
Bowman, V. V., 20
Boys' club work, 30
Broiler production, 28
Bulletins, 15

Calves, 13
Camping, 30
Cattle, 13, 19
breeding, 24
Chickens, 13
Citrus, 32
Clayton, H. G., 12
Clothing, 50
Club work, 28, 35, 45, 49, 57
boys, 30
girls, 37, 52
Clipsheet, 16
College of Agriculture, 16
Commercial vegetables, 13
Conferences, 18, 19
Conservation, agricultural, 12
food, 46, 47
soil, 13, 36
Contests, club, 30
Cooperation with other agencies, 7,
40, 45, 51, 56
Cooperatives, 20
Corn, 13, 22, 23
Cotton, 13, 14, 22
mattresses, 58
County planning committees, 21
Cover crops, 32
Cowpeas, 14


Dairy specialist, 22
report, 26
sales, 26
DeBusk, E. F., 18
Defense Council, State, 35
Dennis, R. S., 12

Egg-Laying Test, 27
Employees in armed forces, 8

Family food supply, 45
Farm Flashes, 16
Farm Hour, 16
Farm management, 19
Farmers' organizations, 18
Fat stock shows, 24
Feed, 12, 23
Feed crops, dairy, 26
Financial statement, 8
Fire protection, 35
Flock records, 28
Food, 12, 18, 23
conservation, 46, 47
Forest trees, 14, 34

Game and timber, 35
Gardens, 13, 58, 59, 66
market, 13
victory, 15
Girls' club work, 37, 45, 52, 69
Gladiolus thrips, 20
Goals, state, 13
Grazing, 15
Grove records, 19
Gum naval stores, 13, 34

Hay, 13, 22
Hampson, C. M., 19
Health, 43
Hogs, 13, 20
Home demonstration work, 37
with negroes, 42, 58
Home improvement, 52
Home industries, 42
Howard, R. H., 19

Improvement, home, 52
Industries, home, 42
Institutes, 18
Irrigation, citrus, 33

Journals, farm, 16






ii

Land-use programs, 19, 21
Limestone, 14
Living-at-home, 18


Mailing room, 17
Management, farm, 19
Mapping counties, 21
Market gardens, 13
Materials printed, 15
Marketing, 20, 28
forest products, 34
Meal planning, 44
Meat sharing, 48
Metal, scrap, 18
Mobilization week, club, 31
Moore, Virginia P., 52

Naval stores, 13, 34
Negro home demonstration work,
42, 58
Negro work, 55
Nettles, W. T., 18
Newell, Wilmon, 7
News Service, Agricultural, 16
Noble, C. V., 19
Nutrition and health, 43

Oats, 13, 14, 22, 23
Orchards, 59

Papayas, 15
Pasture, 22, 23
Peanuts, 13, 14, 22, 23
Periodicals, 16
Personnel changes, 18, 41, 59
Pest control, citrus, 32
Pine planting, 31, 34
Poultry, 27
Prices, egg and poultry, 29
Printed materials, 15


Index

Rationing, 48
Record keeping, farm and grove, 19
Rye, 14

Sales, cattle, 24
dairy, 26
Salvage, container, 48
Scale control, 32
Scholarship, club, 30
Shipping tomatoes, methods, 20
Short course, 30, 55, 58
Shows and sales, 24
Sikes, Anna Mae, 43
Soil, 13, 14, 23
conservation, 36
Spencer, A. P., 7, 18
State Committee, AAA, 21
State Defense Council, 35
Statistical report, 8
Negro, 60
Sugarcane, 23
Sweet potatoes, 13, 22
Swine, 15, 23, 25

Textiles, 50
Thrift work, 59
Timber-grazing-game program, 35
stand improvement, 34
Tobacco, 13, 14, 23
Tours, 18
Trips, 17
Truck crops, 20
Turkeys, 13

USDA, 16

Velvet beans, 23
Victory gardens, 15
pigs, 18
Volunteer war workers, 38, 44, 51, 56


Quail raising, 31 War boards, 14, 17, 21, 45
County, 14
Radio, 16 War contributions, 31, 39, 44, 50, 52
Ranches, 19 WRUF, 16