<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Report of director and vice-di...
 Agricultural conservation
 Editorial and mailing
 Agricultural planning
 County agents' activities
 Agricultural economics
 Agronomy accomplishments
 Animal husbandry, dairying and...
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citrus fruit culture
 Farm forestry
 Soils
 Home demonstration work
 Food, nutrition and health
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Home improvement
 Activities with negro farmers
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00003
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1941
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00003
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Credits
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Report of director and vice-director
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Agricultural conservation
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Editorial and mailing
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Agricultural planning
        Page 21
    County agents' activities
        Page 22
    Agricultural economics
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Agronomy accomplishments
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Citrus fruit culture
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Farm forestry
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Soils
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Home demonstration work
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Home improvement
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Activities with negro farmers
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Index
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
Full Text
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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director












1941 REPORT

FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL

EXTENSION SERVICE












REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1941
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1941










BOARD OF CONTROL


H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale
W. M. PALMER, Ocala N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallaha-see


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension'
A. P. SPENCER, M S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RuBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent and AAA Administrative Officer
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLLN L. BROWN. B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF,, M.AGR. Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A.. Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Economist and Leader in Land-Use Planning
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Assistant Leader in Land-Use Planning
J. R. GREENMAN, B.S.A., State Representative, B.A.E.
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

MARY E. KEOWN, M.S. State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E.. District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK

A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

'Part-time.












CONTENTS
Report of Director and Vice-Director ...........

Financial Statement ..--... ------..

Statistical Report, Men and Women. .


Agricultural Conservation -----.---...............


Editorial and Mailing ..........- -...................


Agricultural Planning -......------- --.............._.


County Agents' Activities -........ --........


Agricultural Economics ......

Farm Management Activities ---.---

Marketing Activities ........----..-----


Agronomy Accomplishments .....--..--


Animal Husbandry --. ----- .


Dairying -. -- .....-


Poultry --- ..-


Boys' 4-H Club Work ---- ...------ ..


Citrus Fruit Culture .....-----------.......


Farm Forestry --.......-- --------------...


Soils ..-.. ...


Home Demonstration Work -----......---


Clothing and Textiles ..---------------.-


Food, Nutrition and Health ..--------...


Gardening and Food Conservation ..---


Home Improvement ..-......-.-------. -..


Activities with Negro Farmers --......--


Negro Home Demonstration Work ...-.

Statistical Report, Negro Work -...


-------.----. 23

. ------.. --- ... 23

--- --------.- 25


- -------.---..... 27


-----.- .....-............. 30


-----.----..-- 31



----------- .. 34
....-- --------.-------------------------------- ------ 34




--.... ..........----- ..................-- .........-- 40


.-----. ............42


----.-.-..-----. 44


.-----. -----............. 50


--.....---.---- ... 52


-..-. ------ ................. 55


-- --- 57


-- 59


. 61

--- 63


8
-.----------------......... 8

.---.---- 10

.-..-----... 10


...----.-....... 16


.--.-----... 18


------- 21


------..- 22


--------------------

--------------------

--------------------








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Hon. Spessard L. Holland
Governor of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agri-
cultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida,
for the calendar year 1941, including a fiscal report for the year ending
June 30, 1941.
Respectfully,
H. P. ADAIR,
Chairman, Board of Control










Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of
the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agricul-
ture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in
accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida








Annual Report, 1941


COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua .-.........Loonis Blitch---------.. Gainesville -_... Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker... ....... J. Raymond Mills---.Macclenny -..------......... -
Bay -- -.....M. B. Miller ..---.------ Panama City -... ------
Bradford.....- L. T. Dyer----------- Starke.
Brevard-...--_. T. L. Cain. --------- Cocoa- ----..-...----...- Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward...-..B. E. Lawton ------.--- Ft. Lauderdale--.....---- Miss Olga Kent
Calhoun...-........G. T. Huggins ------- Blountstown-Miss Mary Henrietta Reed
Charlotte..........N. H. McQueen ----- Punta Gorda. ---.... -------------------
Citrus .......... Ben L. Gittings--..- Inverness.--.....---. Mrs. Doris R. Turner
Clay- --------. ---------Green Cove Spgs.__-_Miss Beulah Felts
Columbia....Guy Cox --..----.. Lake City --- Miss Elizabeth Dickenson
Dade.....------....C. H. Steffani ---.. Miami-....-. --.------....Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.).-.I. L. Edwards--..------Miami..----....Miss Margaret Delaney
DeSoto ...__ E. H. Vance-------------Arcadia .............. ....----__
Dixie ........----- D. M. Treadwell -----Cross City..------.... --.......... ---
Duval.......------ A. S. Lawton -----------Jacksonville -- Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.).-Frank M. Dennis---- Jacksonville --.. Mrs. Dorothea Calmes
Escambia ..-...E. H. Finlayson------Pensacola..--..---Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden--........ Henry Hudson-.-------- Quincy---....--------Miss Elise Lafitte
Gilchrist.-.........A. S. Laird -------------- Trenton -....-_....
Glades --..........F. D. Yaun-----------. Moore Haven ------
Gulf --..---. J. B. White ---------------Wewahitchka --- Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
Hamilton ..---- J. J. Sechrest ----------- Jasper ..--..-....-----.Miss Lillian Bradley
Hardee ..------- H. L. Miller ------- -- Wauchula ---------
Hernando -..-C. D. Newbern--------- Brooksville
Highlands ... L. H. Alsmeyer------- Sebring -
Hillsborough -Alec White----.---..---- Tampa -..........----- -----------
Hillsborough--J. O. Armor (Asst.)- Plant City
Hillsborough (West) ..-------- Tampa ....-----.... Miss Allie Lee Rush
Hillsborough_- (East) -..--------------------. Plant City ............... Miss Irene Riley
Holmes ----..-----S. C. Bell ----------- Bonifay--..-..---- Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson .-------.. I. W. Malone.---.------ Marianna-...-.... Mrs Bonnie J. Carter
Jefferson....- E. N. Stephens- -------- Monticello--. Miss Ella M. Faircloth
Lafayette... J. G. Kelley*----------- Mayo --------
Lake .-......----R. E. Norris.------------ Tavares.... .------. Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee .....------. .-. P. Heuck ------------ Ft. Myers .....-- ....-----------------.
Leon -..._---- T. G. Kelley ------------- Tallahassee -- .- Miss Joyce Bevis
Levy __ .--- T. D. Rickenbaker. Bronson -....-Mrs. Wilma R. Mitchell
Madison ....---- 3S. L. Brothers ---------- Madison ----- Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee-..----.. Ed. L. Ayers .--..--.... Bradenton .------ Miss Margaret Cobb
Asst. Mrs. Ida Cooper
Marion ---...--.. Marshall O. Watkins Ocala --- Mrs. Kathryn Parrish
Nassau .......-----Julian H. Wallace..Hilliard ---
Okeechobee .--C. A. Fulford ---......- Okeechobee -----
Orange-...........K. C. Moore..-....--.- Orlando .--... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola...------. J. R. Gunn ---...._- Kissimmee ---Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach.-_.M. U. Mounts. ....---.W. Palm Beach -.Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pasco---......--..... A. McClellan, Jr.-.Dade City ---- ------
Pinellas -........J. H. Logan --......__ Clearwater.. -- Miss Tillie Roesel
Asst. Miss Eileen Coil
Polk -..-..---.._.--- W. P. Hayman ..-....Bartow .......---------- Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam ----.... H. E. Westbury---. Palatka _..-----------Miss Opal Walker
*Transferred to Leon.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
St. Johns- ....P. R. McMullen----..-St. Augustine .----_ Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie ...--Myron M. Varn --...Fort Pierce....-----------........-
Santa Rosa...-John G. Hudson--.. Milton ---Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole ......-C. R. Dawson.---------- Sanford --Mrs. Ouida Wilson
Sarasota -...---W. E. Evans------------ Sarasota ------
Sumter--........ Carl Hendricks-------Bushnell ---------
Suwannee ... S. C. Kierce---..----------Live Oak --- Miss Louise Taylor
Taylor ----.-... D. D. McCloud--------Perry ------- Miss Manilla Wells
Union ..----- Harry J. Brinkley..Lake Butler -------------
Volusia ..--.... F. E. Baetzman -----.DeLand __-------Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Wakulla ..-....N. J. Albritton--------Crawfordville ---
Walton --..-- John G. Hentz, Jr.--DeFuniak Springs_-Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington..-Fred Barber ..---------. Chipley ---------------------



AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION

H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge ....------.. Gainesville
James J. Love, Chairman, State Committee .....------.Quincy
Walter B. Anderson, State Committeeman .__-------- Greenwood
Chas. S. Lee, State Committeeman --................------ Oviedo
Harry C. Brown, State Committeeman ...._-..... ..... ---Clermont
A. P. Spencer, State Committeeman ex-officio .....-------- Gainesville
E. Owen Blackwell, Asst. Field Officer and State Accountant _Gainesville
Mrs. Minnie P. Carr, Statistical Assistant........ ------- Gainesville
R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor ................-Gainesville



ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION

COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Brevard --- Clifford R. Boyles .-..-.---------..Cocoa
Columbia ....----------- Mrs. Gussie Calhoun. --- Lake City
Dade .....-.------------ -- Edward A. Little.---....----.-.. --Homestead
DeSoto ..---...... ------.----...Wm. L. Woods -....--------------.Arcadia
Escambia .-----......---------.----.. Clarence R. Walker ------Pensacola
Gadsden -------------Ernest G. Smith Quincy
Gilchrist ........- -----------Harley M. Moore .....---------.. Trenton
Hamilton--- Lawrence W. Burnham ------ Jasper
Hardee ...........-------------Miss Eleanor M. Glorious -.... Wauchula
Hillsboro .......-----------------.Alfred D. Rothwell --------Tampa
Jackson .-....-------------------- Jack E. Donald.--....--. --------..Marianna
Jefferson .... ----------. Franklin W. Smith --- Monticello
Lake ... ---------- Ralph Adams ------......--.Tavares
Lee .....------..-------- .------ Miss Beulah H. Goodrich ..--Fort Myers
Levy ---.------------ Daniel D. Faircloth Bronson
Madison .--.. -----.---- Daniel G. McMullen ...------... Madison
Jarion .....-------..... Chas. E. Buhl ...-- -------------..- Ocala
Okaloosa ------------- Sumter W. Senterfitt ....------ Crestview
Orange -Bernard J. Sullivan -----------. Orlando
Palm Beach ----------------------. N. Walker Brown ..----.- West Palm Beach
Polk .__........----------- .--T. H. McRorie ------ Bartow









Annual Report, 1941


COUNTY
St. Johns -----.--
St. Lucie .....
Sumter .----...
Volusia -----.
Walton -......---
Washington -


NAME ADDRESS
-------Stanley M. Thrift --------- St. Augustine
-- ~~~.---- C. van der Lugt --- Fort Pierce
-- Lee Bourauardez Bushnell
.........------..Orwin A. Morse --- ...-... ----.. -----.DeLand
.-........-..---.-Arnold G. Hutchinson _DeFuniak Springs
-.-..-..-- Rex Yates _____-------_.. -----Chipley


NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua --------------..... Otha W. Nealy .~_.----Gainesville
Columbia and So. Suwannee ..McKinley Jeffers ......... .... -- Lake City
Gadsden -----.. ......---.---- Russell Stephens ..----Quincy
Hamilton and No. Suwannee. N. H. Bennett --......--- .... White Springs
Jackson -- -- ------- Thomas A. Harris ---- Marianna
Jefferson ..----- .....-----M. E. Groover ...... Monticello
Leon. ..---------------Rolley Wyer, Jr. ---.....-..----- Tallahassee
Marion ..............----------Eugene P. Smith ---.-----...................-- Ocala
Sumter ...---............--............ ---Alonzo A. Young .----.............. Bushnell

COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua ....---. ...-------.. ------.Mary Todd McKenzie....---.. --Gainesville
Duval ..... .----------..--Ethel M. Powell ------. Jacksonville
Gadsden.... ------Diana H. Bouie ......------.-- Quincy
Hillsborough ------..--- Floy Britt -....-------- -- ...Tampa
Leon ---------.. --------Maude K. Mumford ...--..--. ... Tallahassee
Madison ----------...............--_ Althea Ayer .---.. ....-- ..... ..Madison
Marion ...........------_---...--_ Idella R. Kelly .....--------- Reddick
Putnam ...---.....................----- ...Fannie B. Diggs ...-------- Palatka










REPORT FOR 1941


PART I.- GENERAL

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR
WILMON NEWELL, Director
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director

Uncertainty as to crop control and war preparations have modified
all Agricultural Extension Service plans during the calendar year 1941.
Foods and feeds needed for lease-lend demands, emphasis on nutri-
tion and diet, organization to meet competition, and appeals for coopera-
tion with government action agencies while Extension funds remained
at former levels combined toward giving the problems greater com-
plexity.
Operations continued without material change in the educational
field, however, and 15 members of the county Extension personnel en-
rolled for the annual short course at the College of Agriculture in the
University of Florida, conducted for three weeks during June and July.
One representative from the Agricultural Extension Service served
on a committee to draft regulations under the law enacted in the State
Legislature governing the seeds and plants offered for sale. Workers
in Extension, including county agents, became eligible for the retirement
benefits provided by a 1941 act.
Receipts, disbursements, offset requirements, etc., are reported in
the financial statement prepared from the audit by H. W. Gilbertson of
the Federal Extension Service.


Fig. 1.-Fifteen agents enrolled for the special county agent short
course at the University of Florida College of Agriculture in June
and July.








Annual Report, 1941


The Florida Legislature approved an increase of 5 percent over ap-
propriations of preceding years, effective July 1, 1941.
County financial support was enlarged in some instances. Areas
having agricultural importance all now have Extension agents except
two counties.
CHANGES IN PERSONNEL
Changes in county agent personnel have been caused by leaves of
absence to enter the military service and resignations to enter other
service at higher salaries. The county home demonstration personnel
changes have resulted from resignations to accept other positions and
marriage. In the state staff one assistant district agent resigned to be-
come a member of the State AAA staff. The Extension Poultryman and
Assistant 4-H Club Agent were granted leave of absence to enter upon
military duties.
The Assistant Leader in Extension Land-Use Planning was assigned
to other temporary duties, due to reduction of Bureau of Agricultural
Economic cooperative funds, and later was granted leave of absence
to enter military service.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
The Director of Extension is a member of the Florida U. S. D. A.
Defense Board and county agents act as secretaries of the county USDA
war boards. Also other members of the Extension Service serve on ad-
visory committees of the State Agricultural Defense Committee.
Provision was made in the 1941-42 budget for an Extension Soil
Conservationist to be appointed on a cooperative basis, and for forestry
work affiliated with the United States Agricultural Department agencies
concerning that field.
Agricultural Adjustment Act administration placed additional re-
sponsibilities on the assistant officers in the larger counties. Service
on the state A. A. A. committee was rendered by the Extension Service
Vice-Director and County Agent Leader.

ACTIVITIES OF THE SPECIALISTS
Projects were not added during the year but, because-of the defense
situation, plans underwent alterations that involved practically every
field in which specialists are engaged.
Details concerning the more important features of the staff activi-
ties are given in the reports from the several specialists, condensed for
publication in the pages of this report which follow.
Under war conditions the situation will change but the farmers and
growers of Florida will respond in full measure to war needs, and make
sacrifices for defense.
Taking all into consideration, the Extension Service will hold a
prominent place in educational matters dealing with production and con-
servation. This office will intensify every effort to meet defense and
war requirements.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1941
RECEIPTS
Federal Smith-Lever ... ..-------------... .$ 63,968.10
Bankhead-Jones, Federal ---------- 120,447.93
Capper-Ketcham, Federal -...--------.-- ...-.............. 26,555.74
Further Development -----------------------.. .... 8,462.00
Clark-McNary ____ ....-----------------.............- 1,620.00
State-Salaries ------..-----. ----.... --..- ....... 65,681.68
Operating ........-.... ---. ............. ..... 51,494.76
Special-County Agent Appropriation ----...... ..... 80,400.00*
4-H Club Work Appropriation ---..- --.--. -. 4,003.39
Commissioner of Agriculture --......----- ..- 5,000.00
County Appropriations ...-......--..-..-..- ......._ ...._ 130,658.84


EXPENDITURES
Federal Smith-Lever --------..-..-......---
Bankhead-Jones, Federal ----. ...--............---
Capper-Ketcham, Federal --.........-- .....----
Further Development ..---- -----.............. ..........
Clarke-McNary --.-...-.------.- ----.-...-...
State-Salaries --------- ---- ---. --- ..........
Operating -...-------------.------......------- --.... ...
Special County Agent Appropriation -.............
4-H Club Work ----------__-_... ...-- ...... ... -....
Commissioner of Agriculture ------------- ........
County Appropriations by County Boards ....--...-
Unexpended balance reverting to State Treasury .-


$558,292.44


$ 63,968.10
120,447.93
- 26,555.74
8,462.00
1,620.00
56,083.76
39,461.19

1,846.26
5,000.00
130,658.84
104,188.62


$558,292.44
STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Days service rendered by county workers ........ --.... ...... 29,032
Days in office ---..-.... --..-... ..---..... ... .... 12,932
Days in field __. .__.-------.. -------- ---- --.- .... 16,100
Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily_ 3,128
Number paid employees assisting Extension program --..... 453
Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work- 313
Members in such clubs .........---------- ---..---...---... 8,014
4-H clubs -- -------------------------------- 754
4-H club members enrolled -... ...... ----------....... 14,901
Different 4-H club members completing --...-..--.... --.------- 8,958
4-H club teams trained ----.--- .. .--- -..------ ---------- 610
Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 15 years of age and older ..-.... 13
Members in these groups .-----------------.......----. '589
Farm or home visits made .....- .. ...--------------.-----...----- -- 45,795
Different farms or homes visited --......--------...---... 26,221
Calls relating to Extension work .......-.. ---------------.. 402,094
News articles or stories published and circular letters-------~.. 10,263

*Not made available from State Treasury.








Annual Report, 1941


Number individual letters written..----- -----------. 117,447
Bulletins distributed ..------.---------------------------- 134,007
Radio talks ---------------------- 468
Extension exhibits shown --..---..---.------.------------- 499
Training meetings held for local leaders.. ---- 500
(Attendance ------ 6,004
Method demonstration meetings held -------- 11,550
(Attendance 161,749
Meetings held at result demonstrations ..------.... --..------------3,056
(Attendance ------- 26,077
Farm tours conducted -...--.-------.--. ---------- .285
(Attendance --- 9,620
Achievement days held ..---------.-- ...... .. 163
(Attendance .....---..- ----....- 82,972
Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) --..--.. 96
(Attendance ------.--- 3,615
Other meetings ..._---........----.---- -- ..... 4,760
(Attendance ....-----------....- 189,775

CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted .-----......----- 518
Result demonstrations conducted ----..-------..-- 170
Meetings held .....-.------------------------ 144
News stories published and circular letters ....----------------- 153
Farm or home visits made ---_--... --....- -- ------ 796
Office calls received ......-------.....---- --- ----.. 6,053
4-H club members ._.-----......---... -----.---------- 836
4-H club members completing ....-..-------..-------- 241
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 341
Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 7,307 Bu.
Farmers following better practices recommended .......--....... 11,218

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted.... ...._--------_.. 1,485
Result demonstrations conducted ...---....... ..-----------.. 959
Meetings held --....-... ..------------------------ 874
News stories published and circular letters ...... ----------- 798
Farm or home visits made .-....-....------------------ 4,189
Number office calls received -...-... ---------- ----...-.-. 29,783
4-H club members enrolled ---------------- 355
4-H club members completing .....-------... .-- 149
Yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing-
(Seed, pounds ..------- ...- ... 81,419
(Forage, tons ....-- -- 664
Farmers following better practice recommendations .....------- 14,022

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
.Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was
conducted -.................--- ------------ .- 395 226 117
Result demonstrations ...--......--------. 185 78 41
Meetings held ...--. .--------- -------- 242 158 84
News stories published and
circular letters written ------ -- 139 237 17








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Farm or home visits made ----------. 1,096 725 488
Office calls received ...--...-......... ---- 3,802 18,819 11,957
4-H club members enrolled _------.. 223 139 22
4-H club members completing -.............. 85 35 5
Acres in projects by 4-H club
members completing .------..... 62 30 7
Yields by 4-H club members
completing ------------------................ 6,629 Bu. 23,361 lb. 491 Ib.
Farms following better practices -..... 4,849 10,586 5,057
FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted ...---------._..........__ 2,619
Results demonstrations conducted --..---- -----.... ..-__...... 9,895
Meetings held ---------------- ---- 2,972
News stories published and circular letters issued ......----... 1,317
Farm or home visits made .......-------------. 8,940
Office calls received ..--.--------.. ----------------- .. 29,779
4-H club members enrolled -- ---- ------------------.. 7,168
4-H club members completing .. ....--------------------------- 4,564
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,084
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 23,126 Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices ------................ 50,826
FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted -...------..---.... 647
Result demonstrations conducted .---..... _..-------------------- 443
Meetings held ----------------------------------------------- --- .. 578
News stories published and circular letters issued ------. .... 279
Farm or home visits made ........------------------------ 1,348
Office calls received -..--...... -----------------.. ----- 8,279
4-H club members enrolled .--------------.-----------------. 322
4-H club members completing --...--...--.- .._..-------.---- 138
Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting with
small trees -.-----..-..- --------..-------------------------- 1,343
Acres reforested --------------------------- --------- 9,105
Farms adopting better forestry practices ---.-----...-. ....... 5,210
Farms adopting soil conservation practices ---...__-----_--- __ 2,716
Acres involved _......-------.--------- ------------.. 230,654
Land clearing -.. --..--......- ----- -----.... ... ------- 395
Acres involved .---......------------..- --- ------. 27,615
Farmers adopting better machine practice ..___..-. .----------- 1,710
Number machines involved ....... ------------------ 1,325
Farmers adopting better building and equipment practices... 6,260
Building and items of equipment involved _..----....... ------ 8,186
POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted ...------- ----.. ------. 692
Result demonstrations conducted --..--.....------ .--.. ------- 2,061
Meetings held ...------------- ---- --.- 955
News stories published and circular letters issued ..- ..------ 449
Farm or home visits made.... .. ----------------.-.. 2,866
Office calls received ... -------------- -- 7,758
4-H club members enrolled -....--- ------------------- 2,269
4-H club members completing 1...........---------------- 1,236
Number chickens raised ---....- -----------------..-- ---- 62,111
Number colonies of bees ......-------------..... --------------------- 194
Families following improved practices in poultry raising -. 21,182
Families following improved practices-bees ...--._..-------- 1,497







Annual Report, 1941


DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted ._......------.-----... 1,505
Result demonstrations conducted ..--._...-__.... ... -- 2,051
Meetings held ......--............------------- -....-.------- 1,682
News stories published and circular letters issued -------------- 973
Farm or home visits made ....-........ ----------- 10,148
Office calls received ..... ---------...------- 29,028
4-H club members enrolled ...---------- ..2,020
4-H club members completing -----........ _... ..--------.. 1,061
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members com-
pleting ----..--- ... .....--- 1_.......... .-. 1,742
Farmers obtaining better breeding stock _._..---.__.----_. 1,845
Farmers using other improved livestock practices -- -- 26,841

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work was conducted .......---------- 1,540
Result demonstrations conducted -------..--......-......--- 1,373
Meetings held -.._----..-... --...... ....... ...........--- -....-- 1,013
News stories published and circular letters issued --- 577
Home or farm visits made -.. -----...-..... ------------ 2,012
Office calls received -..--.... --..-- ...... 18,532
4-H club members enrolled --------...----... 29
4-H club members completing -..--..-......._.----------__ 22
Farmers keeping account and cost records ...----....... ------- 418
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts .........-- --------- 432
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ..--.-- 4,713
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year- 11
Farmers making business changes resulting from economic
surveys .. --...... ---....---.. ---..------------------ 12,463
Families assisted in getting established ...._-_.......--------.-- 1,164
Marketing groups organized or assisted ..... --------------- 101
Individuals affected by marketing program ..--- --- 6,743
Organizations assisted with problems ...-....-...--------------.. 360
Individuals assisted with problems ....... -------------- 9,722
Value of products sold by all groups organized or
assisted -----.. ------..... ---... ...........- ------- -- $9,382,009.00
Value of products sold by individuals (not in
organizations) .-.............- ------------------- 2,575,922.00
Value of supplies purchased-all associations --..-.- _---- 343,983.00
Value of supplies purchased by all individuals .--------- 822,112.00

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted --------- __ ... .. 1,018
Result demonstrations conducted --......--...---------------- ...8,551
Meetings held --..-- ..-....-------... .....------------ --- 4,124
News stories published and circular letters issued.....-------. 698
Farm or home visits made ----..... ---..-... --------- 2,226
Office calls received --.....-- ---.....- 8,853
4-H club members enrolled --..-.....---- ---... --------...- 8,058
4-H club members completing ----------.. ------ .. ----..---..------_ 5,815
Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members 114,700
Dishes of food prepared, meals served and vegetables and
fruits stored and dried -------------- ------ ------------ 9898,981
Families adopting better practices as to foods ......--- ---- 25,349
Schools following recommendations for school lunch --..---_-- 241
Children in schools following lunch recommendations .---_ 53,468







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs .-- 1,800,966
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved ...--...----- $464,151
Families readjusting family food supply..---.... _..----.-------- 4,575

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted ......------- --- ------ 181
Result demonstrations conducted .--.....---..-------------- ..--- 444
Meetings held ....-..........------------------------------ 110
News stories published and circular letters issued --- 30
Farm or home visits made ... ....------ .- -........ 207
Office calls received-..- ...-----... _--- ------------...----- --- 465
4-H club members participating ----.----------.----.--- 61
Families following child-development plans --------......---------. 3,949
Different individuals participating in child-development pro-
gram --------- ----.--------------...-----------.---.----...--. 1,168
Children involved in child-development program-......--- ...... 2,657

CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted---...---.. .----- 539
Result demonstrations conducted ----...-------.... ------- 3,000
Meetings held --------------.----------------------------...--- 3,372
News stories published and circular letters issued_- -. 374
Farm or home visits made ..----...._-..... --------.------- 1,129
Office calls received ...--------. ---------------------- .. 5,165
4-H club members enrolled ------.----.. ---------------- 7,725
4-H club members completing ........------------------ 5,254
Articles made by 4-H club members completing ..------------.. 35,316
Individuals following better clothing practices ....... --------- 30,665
Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing
requirements ------... .- ------------------.. 7,306
Savings due to clothing program -...--- ----.. -----.--------.. $123,764

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted -------------------- 1,207
Result demonstrations conducted --...--..-... ----------.-------- 6,525
Meetings held ......----------.--.... --------.-----.--...----------.-.-- 3,112
News stories published and circular letters issued ..... ------ 435
Farm or home visits made ... ----------- ..1,693
Office calls received .---.....-------.-------------------. 9,740
4-H club members enrolled ---.....-----..... --------------- 3,074
4-H club members completing ____ .......--------------------. 2,145
Projects conducted by 4-H members completing -...- ..--.---- 14,504
Families following better home-management practices --..... 23,721
Estimated savings due to home-management program ..--.. $43,146
Families improving household furnishings -----._.___- .. ---- 19,223
Savings due to house-furnishings program-..-..--...- ---... -- -- $91,875
Families following handicraft practices -------......------.. .. ---- 1,911


HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted --------.._.... ......
Result demonstrations conducted --------------......
Meetings held ------------------------__ -----------------------------
News stories published and circular letters issued.....---
Farm or home visits made-..--..... --..--......-....... ..
Office calls received .....---. ......---------


427
1,579
617
114
441
1,132







Annual Report, 1941 15

4-H club members enrolled .....--...---.......----------- -----. 2,607
4-H club members completing .--..--......---...--.------------- 2,047
Additional 4-H club members participating ----_. 3,493
Individuals having health examination ~.....------------------- 3,328
Individuals adopting health measures_ ....... ------ 15,582
Families adopting health measures __...... -------------- 3,396

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted --_ --------- 949
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting.----..---.-- 1,200
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or commit-
teemen ..------ .... ......-- --------- ----- ------- ---- 3,224
Meetings held .............-------......- ---------------- ------- 1,106
News stories published and circular letters issued ------ 1,314
Farm or home visits made .___.....--------------.-- 1,920
Office calls received -------............ .-------------------.----- 7,464
Communities assisted with community problems ---. ------- 948
Country life conferences .......--......-----.....------------- ---- 111
Families following recommendations as to home recreation_ 1,424
4-H clubs engaging in community activities ....------- 194
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or oth-
er relief agency ............-....---------- ------- 2,470







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION
H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge
R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor
A. E. Dunscombe, Fieldman
The Florida Agricultural Extension Service cooperates closely with
the Agricultural Adjustment Agency in agricultural conservation work in
this state. In most cases county agents are county representatives of the
AAA. The State Committee is composed of the following members:
James J. Love, Gadsden County; C. S. Lee, Seminole County; W. B.
Anderson, Jackson County; H. C. Brown, Lake County; and A. P. Spencer,
Vice-Director of Extension, ex-officio member.
Agricultural Conservation.-In 1941 particular emphasis was again
placed upon soil conservation and soil improvement. One very important
change in the program made to keep pace with changing conditions was
the removal of requirements which tended to restrict the planting of de-
pleting food and feed crops and the substitution of a requirement that
a special allotment farm must have a minimum percentage of the crop-
land devoted to erosion-resisting crops and land uses. Emphasis has also
been placed upon the maintenance and further improvement of the per-
manent pastures established under previous programs, and 110,324 acres
were put under the maintenance work during the year.
During the year the payments to farmers under the 1940 program
were completed. These payments amounted to $2,103,033 for the con-
servation program and were made to 47,716 persons.
In the program year 1941 there were 49,447 farms participating.
Payments under the agricultural conservation features are now being
made and it is expected that they will total approximately $2,200,000,
since 39,626 applications totaling $1,787,727 have already been certified.
Cotton and Tobacco Parity Programs.-In 1941 both cotton and to-
bacco parity payments were made. Cotton parity payments to 11,117
farms totaling $183,537.18 and tobacco parity payments to 5,767 farms
totaling $70,880.97 have been certified, with payments approximately 98
percent complete.
Sugar Program.-In 1941 payments to Florida producers for partici-
pating in the 1940 Sugar Program were made to 38 producers, the amount
paid being $636,450.18. Applications covering their 1941 participation
are now being prepared.
Marketing Quotas.-Marketing quotas for cotton and tobacco were
continued and marketing quotas for payments were placed in effect after
a favorable vote by producers. There were 12,553 farms eligible for
cotton marketing quotas, 6,250 farms eligible for tobacco marketing
quotas, and 9,720 farms eligible for peanut marketing quotas in 1941.
Supplementary Cotton Program.-Another feature added to the pro-
gram in 1941 consisted of provisions for issuing cotton stamps, redeem-
able in cotton goods, to participating cotton farms. These stamps were
earned by reducing the 1941 planted cotton acreage below the smaller
of the allotment or the 1940 planted acreage. Florida farms participating
in this feature numbered 5,687 and received $125,995.25 in stamps.
Cotton Mattress Program.-The cotton mattress program, begun in
1940, was continued and practically completed in 1941. This program








Annual Report, 1941 17

was the means of furnishing a total of 31,963 mattresses to 26,505 low-
income farm families not otherwise able to obtain them.
Food for Freedom and USDA War Boards.-The Agricultural Ad-
justment Agency was given the responsibility of organizing the Food for
Freedom Program. In cooperation with the Agricultural Extension
Service and other USDA Agencies, Food for Freedom goals were worked
out for each county in the State. In December an effort was made with
notable success to contact every farmer personally and secure his pledge
for production. The goals for some crops involved large increases over
previous production, the goal for peanuts, for example, represented an
increase of approximately 320 percent over the previous year's crop.
The USDA War Boards are composed of representatives of all
USDA Agencies in the area. The chairman of the State USDA War
Board is the AAA Administrative Officer and the chairman of the County
USDA War Board is the County AAA Committee Chairman. These War
Boards render great service in connection with the crop production goals,
making surveys and securing information regarding needed materials,
facilities, and services. They also render assistance in connection with
priority needs and, in fact, at all points where war-time regulations and
restrictions affect agriculture with the end in view of using the available
land, labor, equipment, and materials to the best advantage for the
Nation.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


EDITORIAL AND MAILING
J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Revelations by records of Selective Service boards that the coun-
try's young manhood was entirely too high in percentage of physically
unfit for military service centered attention on the nutritional problem,
and so Extension Service information during the year emphasized nutri-
tion, food production, and conservation.
BULLETINS AND OTHER PRINTED MATTER
New bulletins issued during the year numbered five and totaled
224 pages in length. In all, 84,500 copies were printed. Ten new cir-
culars also came from the presses and totaled 48 pages of printed mat-
ter, with 280,000 copies issued. Considerable numbers of record books,
window cards and other materials were printed.
In furtherance of the plan suggested by the USDA Extension Ser-
vice to emphasize nutritional information, the Florida Service prepared,
printed and distributed 30,000 copies each of seven 4-page circulars
relating to various phases of the subject.
Following is a list of the printed material issued during the year:
Pages Edition
Bul. 106. The Fruitful Papaya-How to Serve It ..---..... 20 12,000
Bul. 107. The Florida Home Garden ......-----.......--------- 16 20,000
Bul. 108. Pickles and Relishes _-.............. ------------ 64 25,000
Bul. 109. Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Flori-
da Fruits --. -------------- 96 20,000
Bul. 110. Livestock Shows and Fairs .---------------------... 28 7,500
Circ. 50. Portable All-Purpose Poultry House -----------8 20,000
Circ. 51. Fit as a Fiddle .... ---------- 4 30,000
Circ. 52. Feed the Family First ---------- 4 30,000
Circ. 53. Gather Health from Your Own Garden ...---.---- 4 30,000
Circ. 54. Can and Save-Can and Have -------------- 4 30,000
Circ. 55. Your Poultry and Egg Supply ------------------ 4 30,000
Circ. 56. The Good Family Cow Helps Fill the Health Cup 4 30,000
Circ. 57. Meat-Wholesome, Nutritious .--------------..... 4 30,000
Circ. 58. Take Good Care of Your Mattress .....-------. 4 25,000
Circ. 59. Green Feed for Poultry in Florida ------.--- 8 25,000
Circ. 18. Boys' 4-H Club Officers and Their Duties (re-
print) ......._. ----.......-.. ... .. .. ... .... 8 6,000
M. P. 21. Record of Gardening and Perennial Plantings 20 10,000
M. P. 2. Florida Poultry Record Book for Commercial
Flocks (rep.) --........-----..........--- ......---------- --- 48 1,500
Secretary's Record Book (boys') ---.... ....- 28 1,000
Outline and Record, Clothing Program for 4-H
Club Girls ...._...---------- ..----... ----- 16 15,000
Record Book for Secretary of 4-H Clubs (girls') 32 2,500
Florida Calendar Flock Records, 7 issues, each.- 4 1,000
Final Report, 14th National Egg-Laying Test 20 1,500
Rules and Regulations, 16th National Egg-Lay-
ing Test ....---..--------------.---........ 5 1,000
County Land-Use Planning .......------------..--- 4 1,000
Calendar, 1941 ..........----------- ... .. 12 12,000'
Printed letters to cotton families, two, each ..-. 1 5,000
Window cards, West Florida Farm and Home
Institute ---..............-------------.- 1 300








Annual Report, 1941


Window Cards, Poultry Institute ---..--.-..........._ 1 300
Window cards, North Florida Farm and Home
Institute -----... --..-.. -__ _----- ........._. 1 250
Coop cards, 4-H Poultry Show ----. _.......-__._- _... 1 1,000
Hog Vaccination record books ----..___.-... -- ..... 102 100
Covers for "A Study of Celery Farming on the
Everglades Organic Soils" ----................ ........... 1 1,000
Covers for "Hardee County Citrus Survey" _..... 1 1,000
Program, 1941 Boys' 4-H Short Course ...--........ 8 400
Agricultural News Service, weekly, 42 issues,
each ---------.... -- --------.---.- ---------------------. ..... .... 1 900
NEWSPAPER AND FARM JOURNAL RELEASES
News releases were more numerous during 1941 than in other recent
years. Weekly papers continued to be served by the weekly clipsheet,
Agricultural News Service, which carried from 8 to 13 or more stories in
each issue. Dailies and radio were served through Associated Press and
United Press and through direct mail stories.
Press associations released over their wires an estimated average of
three or more stories a week from this office.
Mats and newspictures were distributed from time to time. Two
dailies carried special columns each Sunday devoted to questions and
answers on farming subjects. Another large daily has a special page
devoted largely to agricultural subjects and natural attractions.
Considerable expansion was apparent also in the amount of material
from this office which was used by farm journals with Florida, Southern
and national circulation. Florida papers were supplied regularly with
copies of radio talks made by Extension and Experiment Station staff
members, and they used from 3 to 10 of these each month.
Of articles written by the Editors, records show that 3 Florida mag-
azines carried 23 for a total of 658 column inches; 1 Southern journal
printed 15 which totaled 231 column inches; and 8 national magazines
printed 11 articles which amounted to 287 column inches. The grand to-
tals include 12 periodicals, 49 articles, and 1,176 column inches of copy.
A Fazenda, a magazine published in Portugese for distribution in
Brazil and possibly other South American countries, with our permis-
sion and giving credit to the Florida Agricultural Extension Service,
printed Bulletin 104,'Beef Production, in one of its issues during the
year.
RADIO MATERIALS AND BROADCASTING
The Florida Farm Hour, from 12 to 1 p. m. each week day over
WRUF, broadcast 313 programs during the year, each including three or
more speaking parts in addition to market reports read by the announc-
er. Most of the speakers were from the College of Agriculture, either the
Experiment Station, Agricultural Extension Service or teaching division,
but over 100 of the 1,000 speaking parts were by people not connected
with the institution.
Extension workers, exclusive of Editors, made 96 talks on the Farm
Hour, Experiment Station staff members delivered 144, and Farm
Flashes from the United States Department of Agriculture were pre-
sented on 117 occasions. A daily feature, Farm News Highlights, was
presented by one of the Editors on every broadcast day, and regular
broadcasts were made once each week by another Editor and twice each
week by the third Editor.
The Farm Hour presented 11 remote control broadcasts during the
year. These came from a Grand Island (Lake County) citrus grove, the
Eustis Fair, Trenton hog show, High Springs peanut plant, Chinsegut








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Hill sanctuary and West Central Florida Experiment Station near
Brooksville, the Gainesville Sun, University poultry plant, dairy prod-
ucts laboratory, the Agricultural Fair in the new gymnasium, a college
classroom, and from the Central Florida Breeder-Feeder Cattle Show at
Snow's auction market in Gainesville.
Among "guest stars" appearing on the Farm Hour during the year
were Dr. John McBride of Tulane, noted bird lecturer and authority on
Joel Chandler Harris' works, Dr. Harry W. Titus of the USDA, Gardy
Neptune, Haiti student, Dr. Lai Yung Li of China, Dr. P. H. Rolfs, Otto
Schrader, Brazilian student, R. M. Field of Chicago, president of the
American Mixed Feed Manufacturer's Association, Dr. Arthur Peterson
of Washington, secretary of the American History Society, and Dr. J. A.
B. Nolla of Rio Piedras, P. R., director of the Puerto Rican Experiment
Station.
Farm Flash copy for five daily broadcasts each week was sent to
from 9 to 12 other radio stations in Florida. This copy was sent mostly
through county agents in towns having radio stations.
All the suitable Flash material from the USDA Radio Service was
forwarded, together with additional local material. Twenty-eight Ex-
tension, 35 Experiment Station and 15 College of Agriculture talks made
over WRUF were rewritten as Farm Flashes and forwarded, as were 33
flashes prepared wholly or in large part by the Editors.
Two transcriptions on the Food for Freedom campaign were made
and one was broadcast over WJAX, WCOA, WFLA, WIOD, WDBO and
WFTM, the other over WCOA, WDBO and WFTM.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
Cooperation was continued with the Florida Fat Stock Show and
Sale, held in Jacksonville February 25 and 26, the Editor serving as
chairman of the committee on publicity. He also assisted the Central
Florida Breeder-Feeder Cattle Show in Gainesville.
This office handles all informational material for the Agricultural
Adjustment Administration and USDA Defense Board, making frequent
releases to newspapers and over the radio. The Extension Editor at-
tended regional conferences called by the Triple A at New Orleans and
Memphis.
Frequent news releases were made for the Soil Conservation Ser-
vice, Agricultural Marketing Service, Farm Security Administration,
State Plant Board and other organizations, and time was given practic-
ally all of them on the Florida Farm Hour.
MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
The Editor attended 13 meetings and numerous conferences, the
meetings having an attendance of 1,916 people. He spoke before the fall
meeting of the State Press Association in Ocala.
He conducted a news writing training course each day during the
week's Girls' Club Short Course in Tallahassee, with an enrollment of
31. In addition, he had one class each day for other girls and leaders
attending the course, and a total of 175 received this brief training. Two
news writing training classes were held in as many counties during the
year, total attendance being 32.
The Editor judged home demonstration exhibits at the Gainesville
arid Alachua community fairs.
On request, assistance has been rendered to county agents in obtain-
ing motion picture, filmstrip or slide projectors, and also in securing
motion pictures, filmstrips and slides, as well as still cameras. The Editor
made a motion picture of the various activities of the boys at the 25th
Annual Boys' 4-H Club Short Course.








Annual Report, 1941


AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
V. V. Bowman, Extension Leader in Land-Use Planning
J. C. Bedsole, Assistant Extension Leader in Land-Use Planning
Conferences at out-of-state points attended by the Extension Leader
in Land-Use Planning took place at Memphis and Atlanta and dealt re-
spectively with defense problems and rural electrification.
Planning meetings held in the several counties resulted in interested
and sometimes spirited discussion by farmers with agricultural workers
on farm problems.

ORGANIZATION DETAILS AND RESULTS
Communities and neighborhoods were delineated in six counties.
County reports were completed in Hillsborough and Palm Beach counties
and that of Seminole County was revised. Planning work was initiated
and county reports prepared in Glades, Hendry, Calhoun, and Volusia
counties.
Some of the activities and specific accomplishments of county plan-
ning committees were: a cream route established, a state market with re-
frigerator services obtained, a movie projector purchased for use, at
community meetings, a rural telephone line built, a new AAA provision
secured, a survey of Kreamer Island with a view of dyking secured.
Two county planning committees have sponsored applications for soil
conservation districts, three have recommended legislation allowing for
the expansion of sugarcane acreage in the Everglades, one has pointed
out the need and applied for a migratory labor camp, another has been
actively working for the eradication of the Texas fever tick. Ten county
committees made estimates on minimum costs of tenant-purchase farms.
Preparation and distribution of the "Unified State Agricultural Pro-
gram to Meet the Impacts of War" by the State Committee represent the
first attempt at a joint statement of the outstanding state-wide agricul-
tural problems by the different agencies concerned. Final approval of
this document was given during the meeting of the State Land-Use
Planning Committee of May 21-22, 1941.
The Executive committee of the State Land-Use Planning Committee
and agency heads located in Gainesville, at a meeting March 3, 1941,
agreed to establish trained workers' councils in all counties of the state
which have a sufficient number of workers to warrant an organization.
At this time 40 such councils have been organized.
On October 11, at a meeting of five agencies, the Joint Committee
presented a plan for assignment of counties to agency district workers
for the purpose of organizing and assisting county agricultural planning
committees throughout the state. This plan was agreed to and at meet-
ings in Gainesville November 24 and Tallahassee November 26 instruc,
tions were given to district workers in this planning work by members
of the Joint Committee. At the end of the calendar year 28 county
planning committees had been organized.
The State Committee has voted, by mail, to substitute the words
"Agricultural Planning" for the words "Land-Use Planning" in the
names of state and county committees and wherever used in referring
to this activity.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


PART II.-MEN'S WORK


COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES
A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent
Supervisory duties of the District Agents were expanded by the de-
fense plans and the need for additional training among county agents.
In the north and northwest Florida district two county agents re-
signed and several transfers took place.
An annual joint conference covering all counties in the area was
attended by approximately 250 agricultural workers from sundry agen-
cies, Federal and State. Meetings with the county agents of the terri-
tory assembled in small groups were conducted by the Supervising
Agent.
Assistance was given the county agents by the Supervising Agent in
making contacts with the farmers of their sections through community
and like gatherings.
County agents continued to work in cooperation with the various
United States Agriculture Department action divisions, such as the
Agricultural Adjustment Administration. Office space and local direc-
tion for the endeavors was supplied in numerous instances.
Foodstuffs production for home use and defense purposes received
emphasis in all the operations through the North and Northwest Florida
District, where general farming is the ruling practice. Stress is addition-
ally to be placed on "foods for freedom" in the activities as planned for
the coming year.

EFFORTS ON SPECIAL CROPS
Dairying, fruit growing, livestock raising, poultry keeping and truck
crops production, as found in the different parts of the Central and South
Florida district, had special attention during 1941 in the light of the
country's need for enlarged foods output.
Field and demonstration meetings, grove tours, and similar means
for keeping in touch with individual farmers were relied upon even more
extensively than heretofore. Interest in the objectives sought to be
attained was obviously increased by the war situation.
Information based on cooperative research findings was transmitted
through the District Agents to the county agents, who passed it along to
the public. Reports presented on the following pages by the Extension
Service Specialists recapitulate the wide range of the activities in this
direction.
Federal operations in the agricultural field look on phases requiring
even greater contributions from the county agents of the Central and
South Florida district. Attempts at coordination met with some success
and on the whole the county agents were able to function more efficiently
and with lessened expenditures of time and labor.








Annual Report, 1941


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist


FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
R. H. Howard, Extension Economist
C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist
Considerable time was devoted to projects already under way, to
helping other specialists and agents with various farm and home manage-
ment problems, and to developing new projects. A new project dealt
with range cattle management and business records, in the hope that
some of the more important management practices that make for success
or failure will be revealed. Fifteen record books were placed with
cattlemen.
CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
During the year 315 grove accounts were summarized. Cooperating
growers were supplied a summary of their grove costs by principal
operations, returns from fruit sold, and net returns to growers, together
with a summary of all grove records by counties and for the state. In-
vestigations conducted at the request of the industry, based upon grove
records covering a 9-year period and discussed at the annual Citrus
Growers' Institute, disclosed that net returns per acre are as large for
small groves as for large ones, Table 1. However, it was found that the
kind of living or amount of net income from a grove depended to a
large extent upon the kind and extent of efficient management practiced.
Upon other occasions analyses of factors affecting profitable returns
have been made for the industry. Grove management tours were held
during the year in cooperation with the Extension Citriculturist and the
Citrus Experiment Station.

COST OF PRODUCING CELERY IN THE EVERGLADES
For the third consecutive year a study of costs incurred in growing,
harvesting, and preparing celery for market by operations, as well as
returns received, was made. Results of this work were issued in mimeo-
graphed form (Celery AE3, May 1941). Conclusions drawn were that
celery was a profitable enterprise for the muck soil of the Everglades
and that the area had some comparative advantages over celery farming
on sandy soil.

ECONOMIC INFORMATION AND OUTLOOK
Following attendance at the annual national outlook conference, in-
formation was disseminated to Florida farmers and growers to help
them plan their business in the light of prospective supplies and demand..
Commodity situations and outlook material prepared and released during
the year also touched upon effects of the war on Florida farming.
The Farm Management: Specialist exhibited representative material
used in Extension economics work at an educational fair for the student
body, faculty and farmers, as shown in Figure 2.










TABLE 1.-AVERAGE COSTS AND RETURNS FOR FLORIDA CITRUS GROVES OVER 10 YEARS OLD, CROPS MARKETED 1931-32 TO 1939-40.

Size of Groves
Items 10 Acres 10.1-20 20.1-30 30.1-40 40.1-80 80.1 Acres
& Under Acres Acres Acres Acres & Over

Number of groves .....------~..------------- 947 522 161 148 106 135
Total acres of groves --------- 7,288 8,453 4,166 5,469 6,602 34,899
Average acres per grove ............----------- 8 16 26 37 67 258
Average age ..------------------- ----- 18 18 19 14 19 14
Percent trees grapefruit ------- 40 23 21 19 28 37
Boxes harvested per acre ...------------.-- 194 181 170 169 166 111
Valuation per acre .. -------------------- $589 $623 $618 $570 $614 $402

Cash cost:
Labor, power, and equipment -- $ 25.26 $ 25.20 $ 28.31 $ 26.00 $ 27.24 $ 17.25
Fertilizer and amendments .----------- 29.86 26.90 26.32 26.11 23.56 17.38
Spray and dust materials ------ 5.15 4.77 4.40 4.27 4.37 3.18
Taxes -------------- 7.10 6.44 5.74 5.15 5.85 4.12
Miscellaneous __ ---------- 1.62 1.96 3.38 2.17 3.04 1.30
Total cost per acre excluding interest and -
owner's supervision _-- ---- $ 68.99 $ 65.27 $ 68.15 $ 63.70 $ 64.06 $ 43.23
Returns per acre from fruit -. ---- 120.77 123.76 129.92 119.86 113.77 61.98
Net returns per acre to owner ---- 51.78 58.49 61.77 56.16 49.71 18.75
Net returns per grove to owner --- -- $414.24 $935.84 $1,606.02 $2,077.92 $3,330.57 $4,837.50
Percent return on valuation --------------- 8.8 9.4 9.9 9.8 8.1 4.6






























Fig. 2.-This display was one of many exhibits used to illustrate the
nature of the work done by several departments in the College of
Agriculture.

4-H CLUB ACTIVITIES

The Farm Management Specialist cooperated in teaching the import-
ance of club records, how and what information should be kept, method of
summarizing, and interpreting the strong and weak points in manage-
ment of their enterprise. One special 4-H club record book was pre-
pared and supplementary forms were prepared for another book to meet
changed conditions. Approximately 1,000 4-H club boys and girls were
reached directly or indirectly through the work of the Farm Manage-
ment Specialists during the year.

FARM AND HOME MANAGEMENT STUDIES
Simple record books were distributed to 50 Negro farmers and 20
went to white farmers. Others were supplied to county agents and
sundry cooperators.
Farm management surveys on a localized basis proceeded in Jeffer-
son and Columbia counties. Recommendations on 202 subjects were made
to 31 farmers in six other counties. Seventy-four percent of the recom-
mendations were carried out in a creditable manner.
Assistance was given in conducting community contests for the pro-
duction of food and feed, and an economic study of tobacco practices
was made.
MARKETING ACTIVITIES
D. E. Timmons, Marketing Economist
Citrus marketing schools in progress at the beginning of the year
were concluded. Sponsored by Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., in cooper-
ation with the Extension Service and teaching division of the College of
Agriculture, they were held in five sections of the state, each school con-
sisting of 10 classes. The Extension Marketing Economist taught two,
the Extension Citriculturist two, and the head of the Agricultural Econ-
omics Department one.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


For the fourth successive year county agents in citrus counties were
brought together for instruction in citrus production and marketing.
Speakers on marketing included representatives of the Florida Citrus
Exchange, State Citrus Commission, State Inspection Service, general
crops section of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, local pur-
chasing office of the Surplus Marketing Administration, four trade asso-
ciations, and members of the Extension Service.
Cooperation was continued with the Florida Council of Farmer Co-
operatives. The annual meeting at Atlanta in January 1942 of the
American Institute of Cooperation received special attention.

LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY
Statistics continued to be assembled on hog prices at several selling
points in the state. Studies sought to determine the economic effect of
the Texas fever tick quarantine in some infested territory.
Contacts made with Army purchasing agents at Florida camps con-
cerning poultry and poultry products buying were reported on to the
fourth annual Poultry Institute at Camp McQuarrie in August.

PURCHASING PLANS
Marketing specialists from the Florida Extension Service joined
representatives from other Southern states in recommending the plans
under which the Federal Surplus Marketing Administration inaugurated
a buying program with citrus and pecans.
Organization activities within Florida took on enlarged form as the
problems associated with surplus output grew more serious.
Cooperative and official agencies dealing with marketing questions
consulted freely with the Extension Marketing Economist and he was
called into numerous conferences on the subject.

ARMY PURCHASES OF LOCAL PRODUCTS
During the year an Army buying center was established in Jackson-
ville, and the Marketing Economist contacted and offered cooperation
to those in charge. The Army buyers have asked for information as to
the time of year when local produce is available, source of supplies, and
volume produced.
Information has been disseminated to prospective sellers, telling
something of Army purchasing division regulations and suggesting things
that seemed advisable if they wished to make sales to the Army.
As a result of these contacts a number of local commodities, hereto-
fore unknown to the Army purchasing agents, were placed on the menus.







Annual Report, 1941


AGRONOMY ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Conforming with current conditions, factors and trends, the Extension
Service agronomy undertakings were concentrated on the field crops
promising the greatest food production and the activities among other
government agencies bearing most directly thereon.
Projects set up and goals established are summarized in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-AGRONOMY PROJECTS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS.


4- 44 W *44 43) 4- 4
1-4 U22 1


Z P4 P ZUUPA Z Ei pU >p P

Soil Conservation 2,000 8 2 12,000 4,000,000 A.
Agricultural
Conservation 200 64 650 43,000 1,750,000 A.
Corn methods
and culture 200 25 5,000
Oats 25 25 750
Pasture 1,000 20 1,000 125,000 A.
Peanuts 100 20 1,200
Peas and other
legumes 500 1,200
Sweet potatoes 150 20 2 500 2,000 A.
Cotton 1,000 20 4 5,000 Imp. Assn. 25
Flue-cured tobacco 140 10 3,500 .


PEANUTS AND CORN STRESSED
Farmers were urged to use two bushels of peanut seed per acre and,
therefore, space them from 6 to 8 inches in 30-inch rows when planted
solid, and use a proportionate amount when interplanting. This would
increase their feed from 30 to 60 percent and give an increase of that
amount of pork per acre, since peanuts are the principal feed on which
Florida pork is produced.
Demonstrations were established again this year showing the value of
planting white and yellow Florident corn-also Florida W-l, a hybrid.
These corns were produced by the Florida Experiment Station, and the
last two were released this year. These Florident corns produced 20%
more per acre with the same fertilizer and other cultural practices than
the average corn grown by the farmers. The hybrid produced 40% more.
There will be much more of these corns planted next year throughout
the northern part of the state.
Spacing demonstrations again were conducted throughout the whole
peanut area. In all Northwest Florida the results were about the same
as shown in previous years. Last year on 12 demonstrations where soil
types were the same and runner peanuts were grown, when spaced 12
to 14 inches only 735 pounds peanuts were produced but where they were
spaced 7 to 8 inches 1,245 pounds per acre were produced-an increase
of approximately 45 percent.







28 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

OATS AND PASTURE WORK
Under the direct supervision of the Extension Agronomist 3,000
bushels of new seed oats were distributed. Oat production demonstra-
tions were established in every North Florida county from Suwannee to
Escambia. These were placed with people having combines or with
farmers who can get the use of a combine next spring for harvesting
them.
By the use of a combination of one ton lime per acre, 500 pounds
superphosphate and 150 pounds muriate of potash, White Dutch and Hop
clovers have been successfully grown by the Agronomist at the Experi-
ment Station on similar flatwoods lands and on other lands that hold
moisture well. Some has been made to grow on Tifton and heavy phases
of Norfolk soils. Demonstration clover pastures have now been estab-
lished in practically every county in the state.

UPLAND COTTON IMPROVEMENT
For the second time this year cotton improvement associations have
been organized in the short cotton area. The cotton variety demonstra-
tion work of the years before continued to stimulate interest in this
work. As a result there were seven one-cotton improvement associations
organized there last year and reorganized this year. The three cottons
used were Stoneville, Dixie Triumph, and Cleveland Big Boll. Total
acreage in these associations was 3,837.5 and the membership was 265.


Fig. 3.-This exhibit trailer was used to carry the message of better
forage and feed crops to the public.








Annual Report, 1941


The result is shown below in the U. S. Classification report on staple
lengths:

1939 1940 1941

Shorter than 7/8 13.7 3.0 0.3
7/8 24.0 15.8 6.5
29/32 10.0 14.0 6.4
15/16 17.7 21.5 11.4
31/32 13.9 17.9 15.6
1 11.1 13.1 24.3
1 1/32 3.8 5.8 15.5
1 1/16 3.8 1.5 6.4
1 3/32 0.8 0.2 2.3
1 1/8 1.0 0.9
1 5/32 0.3
1 3/16 and longer 0.2 7.2 10.1


SEA ISLAND SEED PROGRESS
The Extension Agronomist started a movement to have all seed
treated before being bagged and shipped to purchasers. From 35 to 49
seedlings were grown from each 50 seed when treated and only four or
five from each 50 untreated.
The Extension Agronomist secured a treating machine for the grow-
ers to use. A certified seed cooperative has been formed and all seed
were treated before shipment. Since that time the Inspection and Cer-
tification Service is requiring all seed to be treated before shipment.
The certified seed cooperatives are now purchasing a treating machine.
Organization of Sea Island cotton improvement associations has been
continued. There were 22 functioning this year having 950 bales, or
60% of the crop, from all over the belt classed by the U.S.D.A. Classing
Service.
SUNDRY WORK IN AGRONOMY
Flue-cured tobacco, sugarcane and sweet potatoes received attention
from the Extension Agronomist during the year, further carrying out
the demonstrations previously begun.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY
A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist
Recognizing in these three kindred lines the greatest opportunity
Florida has to produce major "foods for freedom," the 1942 endeavor was
attuned with the country-wide need and the world call for meats, dairy
products and poultry output.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
The Extension Animal Husbandman issued Circular 57, "Meat-
Wholesome and Nutritious." In addition, he prepared a letter, "Meat,
the Backbone of National Defense," and sent each county agent 200 or
more copies which they, in turn, sent to farmers in their counties. In
many cases agents made additional copies and sent them to their mailing
lists.
Governor Holland appointed the Extension Animal Husbandman as
a member of the Advisory Committee for Livestock to work with the
State Defense Council. At a recent meeting of the State Defense Council
in Lakeland the Extension Animal Husbandman outlined and made
definite recommendations on how livestock men can attain the 1942 goals
and help in national defense.
The Extension Service and Triple A called three district meetings of
all agricultural workers and representatives to discuss and outline plans
for meeting goals in agriculture as set up by the Secretary of Agricul-
ture. The South Florida meeting was held at Sebring on October 30
with about 89 people attending; the Central Florida meeting was held at
Gainesville on October 31 with about 100 people attending; and the West
Florida meeting was held at Marianna on November 4 with about 125
people attending. The Extension Animal Husbandman attended all
three of these meetings and outlined plans of attaining the goals in beef
cattle and hogs.
Conferences held in cooperation with county agricultural agents and
livestock organizations covered the entire animal husbandry field and
occupied much time.

BEEF CATTLE BREEDING
The goal for 1941 was placed at 1,000 good bulls. We have records of
there having been 850 bulls placed in the state this year. This office has
kept in touch with bull sales in this and other states, has kept in contact
with bull breeders and bull dealers, and has kept county agents and
cattlemen advised as to where to find bulls.
Our goal for 1941 was to get 300 cattlemen to winter feed bulls so as
to put them in good condition for breeding. Records show that 363 cattle-
men fed out 2,180 bulls in 1941.
One problem showing up in pasture development is that, when land
is fenced and improved pastures are put in, there is a tendency to over-
crowd the grazing area. This office is calling attention to the fact that
pasture can be over-crowded to the point that production is curtailed.
Many calls are made on this office for sample premium lists. To
meet this demand, the Animal Husbandman prepared Extension Bulletin
110, "Livestock Shows and Fairs."








Annual Report, 1941


This year there were creditable beef cattle shows at Quincy, Gaines-
ville, Kissimmee, Arcadia, and Tampa. The Quincy show was tops,
showing highest bred Hereford and Angus cattle. Gainesville had a
feeder and breeder show, selling 306 feeder cattle. In Kissimmee 160
head of range cattle were shown, along with 55 head of cow horses and
colts. At Arcadia the show was strictly a range show, the first to be
held there. At the Florida Fair at Tampa, 11 men showed purebred
cattle-Herefords, Angus, Devons, Shorthorns, and Brahmas. Two fat
stock shows took place, one in Ocala and one in Jacksonville. At the
Jacksonville show 186 cattle were shown and at Ocala 160, with the
grand champion at Ocala bringing 55c and the grand champion at Jack-
sonville bringing 55%c per pound.
A purebred beef cattle parade was arranged in cooperation with the
press and other agencies in the state. Headed by the Florida State
Highway Patrol, it began at Graceville the morning of June 24, coming by
way of Blountstown, Quincy, Tallahassee, Monticello, Madison, Jasper,
Lake City, Gainesville, Ocala, Inverness, Bushnell, Dade City, Lakeland,
Bartow, and ending at Kissimmee on the afternoon of the 27th. During
this time the group visited 31 herds of purebred cattle, travelled about
700 miles, and saw more than 1,000 head of purebred animals. The Ex-
tension Animal Husbandman conducted the parade and delivered it to
the county agent in each county.

HOGS, HORSES AND MULES
Activities with hogs were scarcely less extensive than with beef
cattle, and in basic plan largely duplicated the latter.
Production of workstock at home was encouraged and favorable re-
sults were obtained, all things considered.

DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Dairy work was carried on in all except a dozen of Florida's 67 coun-
ties. Feeding and pasture demonstrations took place from the Alabama
line to the lower East Coast.
Family cows received more attention than ever from Florida farmers
and the Extension dairying effort, feeling largely responsible for this in-
creased interest, rendered further help.
Dairymen were encouraged to grow more roughage, releasing rail-
road and motor truck facilities previously employed for bringing in feed,
to be used for war purposes. Cooperation received was generally ex-
cellent.
PUREBRED STOCK SALES
Election as secretary for the Florida Guernsey and Jersey cattle
clubs gave the Extension Dairyman renewed opportunity for assisting
in this work.
Sales of registered stock were held again by both organizations, the
Guernsey Club sponsoring two during the year, and each participitated
in the dairy cattle show at the Florida Fair, Tampa.

FAIRS, SHOWS AND TOURS
The Extension Dairyman cooperated with the Pinellas County 1941
show in which 54 dairy animals were shown with more than 8,000 people
in attendance.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Educational shows with dairy cattle were held in Broward, Dade,
Duval, Jackson, Suwannee, Columbia, Lake, Lee, and Madison.
Five county dairy tours were arranged by county agents in Pinellas,
Duval, Volusia, Okaloosa, and Escambia counties.
The usual annual conference of the State Dairymen's Association
was held in Gainesville on July 24. One hundred and twenty-five
dairymen attended this conference.


POULTRY KEEPING
Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
D. F. Sowell, Extension Poultryman*
E. F. Stanton, Supervisor Egg Laying Test
Twelve percent more eggs, 14 percent more chickens and 10 percent
more turkeys for slaughter is the defense production goal in Florida for
1942 which its Extension poultrymen are seeking to have attained.
During the period from December 1, 1940, to November 30, 1941,
poultry extension work was conducted in practically all counties in the
state.
The Florida National Egg-Laying Test completed its 15th year in
operation on September 22, 1941, and the 16th started on the first of
October.
Since June, 1941, feed prices are higher than a year ago, and the
average yearly 1941 price of 100 pounds of feed was approximately 10
cents higher than the price in 1940.
The average price of eggs for 1941 is about 4.5 to 5 cents a dozen
higher than in 1940 and in fact it has been estimated that it will be the
highest since 1930. The average price of heavy hens was about 4 cents a
pound higher in 1941 than 1940, the best price during the past 5 years.
The average price of heavy fryers for 1941 is about 1 cent a pound
higher than in 1940.

EGG-LAYING TEST
The Fifteenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, started
October 1, 1940, and ended September 22, 1941. There were 96 pens
of 13 pullets each from 21 different states. Twenty pens were entered
by Florida breeders from 11 different counties.
Average egg production for the entire test was 194.8 eggs per bird,
valued at 201.1 points; 184.3 eggs and 192.1 points for heavy breeds and
205.4 eggs and 211.1 points for the light breeds. This production is
based on the original number of birds sent to the test.

POULTRY INSTITUTE
The Fourth Annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie,
August 18-22, 1941. All state agencies, The Florida State Poultry Pro-
ducers' Association, the Florida Poultry Council and commercial or-
ganizations cooperated.
Over 250 people registered during the week, with about 100 spending
the entire period.

*On leave at end of year for military service.








Annual Report, 1941


DEFINITE RESULTS OBTAINED
During the past year Extension recommendations were followed by
2,991 families in purchasing baby chicks, 3,384 in chick rearing, and
3,352 in sanitation for diseases and parasite control.
Tabulations show that 656 poultry buildings were erected or im-
proved during the year.
During the year extension recommendations were followed by 2,955
families in production feeding.
An organized, improved breeding plan was followed by 1,192 fam-
ilies last year.
Also, 340 record books were distributed during the fall of 1941
for producers to enter their flocks in the 17th year of record keeping,
which started on October 1, 1941.

JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
The annual state-wide 4-H Poultry and Egg Show and Judging
Contest was held in connection with the Central Florida Exposition,
Orlando, February 24 to March 1, 1941. Forty seven club members
from 9 counties participated in the show. Twenty-five judges parti-
cipated in the judging contest.
The Dade County 4-H judging team, which was high at Orlando,
represented Florida in the National 4-H Poultry Judging Contest in
Chicago. The judges are scored into 3 award groups known as the
Blue, Red and White award groups. The Florida team placed two in
the Red and one in the White award group.
During the year 2,233 boys and girls were enrolled in poultry club
work and 1,245 completed their projects.

MEETINGS AND MISCELLANEOUS
During the year 256 poultry meetings were held other than dem-
onstration meetings, 214 stories issued, 195 circular letters sent to poultry
cooperators, and 35 radio talks were given over WRUF.







34 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
Expansion plans made when Wilmer Bassett, a Payne fellow,
started as assistant boys' club agent with the New Year were interrupted
when he was called to service 10 days later.
County farm agents devoted 1,020 days to work with club boys in
their territories, or 17 days per county, and spent 462 days attending
4-H club camps and short courses.
Of the 13,845 boys available for 4-H club activities in areas where
county agents are employed, 4,682 members were enrolled-including
some girls in production projects for counties which have no home
demonstration agents.
County agents who took the subject of 4-H organization and meth-
ods during the short course for Extension workers at the College of
Agriculture showed improved results in their home handling of the
problems involved.

MEETINGS AND COOPERATION
County -agents doing club work were visited at least once during the
year by the State Club Agent. Meetings for training in leadership num-
bered three. Sample demonstrations were prepared for the use of club
members and utilized by some county agents.
Plans worked out for financing 1,000 boys in livestock projects will
cover their 1942 operations and the prospects for success are bright.
Products reported during the current period by boys who under-
took projects had a value of $95,129.91.

SHORT COURSE AND SCHOLARSHIPS
The theme of the 1941 boys' short course was "National Defense."
This was the 25th short course held at the University of Florida.
On Thursday night there was a man or boy on the stage who had been
present at each of the 25 short courses. The man representing the
first short course was the father of the one representing the 20th.
One innovation for 1941 was a course in "Foods and Strength"
given by the Extension Nutrition Specialist. Miss Anna Mae Sikes did
a wonderful job and sent 150 boys who attended her classes home with
a real idea of how food of the right kind builds strength.
In 1941 we were able to give 6 boys $100.00 scholarships put up by
Florida Bankers' Association, due to the fact that three awarded in
past years were not used. The Florida Fat Stock Show awarded a
$100.00 scholarship. The Hastings Potato Growers' Association gave a
$250.00 scholarship to the outstanding boy in St. Johns, Flagler and
Putnam counties.
JUDGING AND DEMONSTRATION CONTESTS
Nine counties were represented at the 1941 4-H beef cattle judging
contest held in connection with the Florida Fat Stock Show at Jackson-
ville, February 25, 1941. The Sumter County team of B. F. Dixon, G. C.
Perry and David Leigh won first. Teams from Lake, Columbia, Alachua,
Baker, Marion, Madison, Suwannee and Holmes counties finished in that







Annual Report, 1941


Fig. 4.-This picture of a 4-H boy receiving first aid treatment
during the Short Course received national recognition.

order. B. F. Dixon of Sumter was high point judge and won the gold
medal offered by the Florida Fat Stock Show.
Seven teams competed in the State 4-H Poultry Show at Orlando.
The team of Dade County boys composed of Jack Luffman, Truman
Bryan, and Joe Scales won the contest and represented Florida in the
National 4-H Poultry Judging Contest at Chicago. The Florida Chain
Store Association and the Central Florida Exposition financed this trip.
The winning team in the state dairy demonstration contest was from
Alachua County and was made up of Stanley Rosenberger and Arthur
Spencer, Jr. They took part in the 4-H dairy contest at the National
Dairy Show in Memphis. The Kraft-Phoenix Cheese Corporation made
the trip possible.
STATE 4-H CLUB SHOWS
The state poultry show at the Central Florida Exposition has grown
to a point where the fair management has turned over the poultry build-
ing to 4-H show and does not allow any other poultry to be entered.
The state pig club show which has been sponsored by the Leon
County Fair was not as large as in the past but animals were of better
quality. Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo gave a trip to the
National Club Congress at Chicago to the club member showing the
champion barrow. Tom Cannon of Suwannee County finally won the
grand championship, but John Folsom of Leon was so close that money
was raised for another trip.
The baby beef show at Jacksonville will not be held in 1942 but
was a success in 1941. The Fat Stock Show gives a $100 scholarship to the
champion beef club member. Sidney Allen of Suwannee County won
this.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
The trip to the National 4-H Camp is the best of all out-of-state trips.
Edward Bradley of Leon County and Jack Dyer of Union County were
the 1941 Florida boy delegates. The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad made
one of these trips possible.
Five boys attended the National 4-H Congress in Chicago. Truman
Bryan, Jack Luffman and Joe Scales of Dade County were the winning
poultry judging team. They took part in the national poultry judging
contest. John Folsom of Leon County and Tom Cannon of Suwannee
County attended as champion and reserve champion in the fat barrow
project.
For the first time Florida has had the opportunity to take part in
the monthly 4-H broadcast on the National Farm and Home Hour. The
entire 4-H delegation to Chicago returned by way of Washington on De-
cember 6 and put on the 4-H part of that day's Farm and Home Hour
program. Alice Smith of Brevard County, Louise Davis of Citrus Coun-
ty, John Folsom of Leon County and the State Boys' Club Agent were
on the program.
For the first time Florida 4-H club boys were represented at the
Danforth Youth Foundation Camp. Stanley Rosenberger of Alachua
County took the trip to Michigan.

CAMPS IN SUMMER
Camps were run about as usual. John Shipp was director at Camp
Timpoochee and at Cherry Lake. Carl Hendricks ran Camp McQuarrie


'[H DEFENSE "


Fig 5.-This boys' 4-H club exhibit at the Alachua community
fair emphasized patriotism and feed production.








Annual Report, 1941 37

successfully. We were able to get an R. E. A. line into Camp Timpoo-
chee, which was a big help. Since the close of the camping season the
auditorium at McQuarrie has been ceiled. This should make the build-
ing cooler for the two big institutes held there annually.
At the Boys' Short Course an attempt was made to give a true pic-
ture of why things are as they are. Agriculture's part in defense was
explained. The theme was carried through at all summer camps. At
each camp, each week a four-minute speaking contest was held on the
subject "Why I Am Glad That I Am An American."

DEFENSE AND PATRIOTISM
In a material way, defense gardens were pushed in several counties.
This will be emphasized more in 1942. 4-H boys assisted in the old
aluminum drive in several counties.
The 4-H citizenship ceremonial was put on before four groups dur-
ing the year.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist

FERTILIZING AND CORRECTING SOIL ACIDITY
Objectives in the work on fertilization have been (a) to reduce the
fertilizer cost in producing a box of fruit by increasing the yield through
more complete and more efficient fertilization, and (b) to improve the
internal quality of early oranges by more complete fertilization-the
inclusion of magnesium, copper and manganese in the fertilizing pro-
gram.
During the year, 6,041 soil samples were taken from 4,240 citrus
groves aggregating 46,510 acres. Liming recommendations were fol-
lowed on 4,146 groves involving 48,177 tons. Dolomitic limestone was
used almost entirely, 17,900 tons of which were obtained as grant-in-
aid, at a saving of $1.00 to $3.00 per ton to the grower. Magnesium has
been supplied very largely through the use of dolomite, applied primar-
ily for changing the soil reaction to a more favorable level.
The total number of growers reported following recommended fer-
tilizing practices in the various counties is 2,374. These recommended
practices were supported by 121 method demonstrations in the proper
application of fertilizer, and by 152 result demonstrations of complete
and economical fertilizing programs for specific conditions and varieties.

COVER CROPS AND IRRIGATION PRACTICES
Reports show that 6,371 growers were assisted in improving their
cover crops on 120,400 acres. As a whole, the results in cover-crop pro-
duction have been only fairly satisfactory.
The severe spring drought gave opportunity to demonstrate the
value of efficient irrigation plants, and to "cash in" on investments in
irrigation equipment. Records show that 105 growers were assisted eith-
er in the installation of new irrigation plants or in improving old plants.
Costs, results, and various phases of grove irrigation were discussed in
an all-day tour of groves of a cooperator, attended by 51 growers.
Analyses of irrigation costs in some groves reveal a relatively high
labor outlay, because too much is needed to operate the plant. This is
increasing the cost too much as the price of labor advances. In these
groves we shall recommend changes, resulting in added investment in
equipment, to reduce the amount of labor used. This is a type of service
needed in these days of declining fruit prices and advancing labor cost.

PEST CONTROL MEASURES
Growers are now more willing to spray for melanose. Spray
schedules put out by the Florida Citrus Commission under the direction
of the Better Fruit Committee are used and are reported to be very
helpful. Reports show that the Extension Service distributed about
8,000 copies of this schedule this year. In addition, 1,383 growers were
assisted in adjusting and improving their melanose control program.
Results in melanose control this year have been very satisfactory.
As a whole, the job of rust mite control has been well done. Rec-
ords show that our men gave assistance to 1,100 growers in the control
of this pest.
Scale and whitefly control the Extension Service sought to integrate
into an economical grove management plan. Growers served along that
line during the year numbered 1,545.







Annual Report, 1941


Demonstrations covering spray equipment and its proper use proved
very effective and in several instances were given on grove tours ar-
ranged by county agents.
Thirty-seven tours participated in by more than 600 growers were
conducted to demonstrations in the various counties and to the Citrus
Experiment Station. A very successful all-day tour by 50 growers was
conducted to the groves of a cooperator in grove management.
Records show that 2,485 grove visits by agents were made in 24
counties. These visits were made at the request of growers for assist-
ance with their problems. More than 9,000 office calls were reported.
MEETINGS AND TRIPS
In all, 495 meetings were held in 23 counties. These were educa-
tional meetings in which various phases of citrus production and mar-
keting were discussed. A large number of filmstrips and slides made
by county agents and the Citriculturist were used in these meetings.
The seventh annual growers' institute was held at Camp McQuarrie,
Lake County, in August. The institute ran through four days, with an
average daily attendance of 150. About 50 families spent the nights at
the camp and enjoyed the evening programs of entertainment.
The Citriculturist spent several days in early December (at no ex-
pense to the Extension Service) in the Chicago and Cincinnati markets,
contacting buyers on the auctions, and wholesale and retail dealers. The
report was that decay was only slightly more than usual, and was not
great enough to be a major factor in price declines.


Fig. 6.-Vetch grew fairly well in this demonstration conducted by
the Soil Conservation Service in the heart of the citrus belt.








40 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester
The goals for the year in timber stand improvement have not been
reached. However, it is felt that some progress has been made, and oc-
casional instances, accidentally discovered, in which farmers have taken
definite action towards improving their woodlands lend encouragement
to the educational work, and might indicate that results may be more
far-reaching than has been apparent.
Goals set for planting forest trees and for the encouragement of
natural reforestation have, in most counties, been reached or exceeded.
The ultimate objective of complete fire protection on all farm forest
lands is gradually being attained and goals set for the year have been
reached and probably exceeded.
Progress has been made towards reaching the ultimate objective
of having the thousands of Florida farmers who have the opportunity
work their own timber for gum.

MARKETING AND EROSION CONTROL
More farmers' meetings, demonstrating proper marketing of timber,
were held than were planned, but the number of farmers participating
in this phase of the program was not as large as desired.
Some progress has been made towards obtaining more widespread
recognition of the importance of growing forest trees on farms as a
means of erosion control, but this work has only been started and much
yet remains to be done.

PULPWOOD CUTTING PRACTICES
The ultimate objective of having the farmer grow fully stocked
stands of timber from which only thinnings, defective trees, or other
timber which cannot be kept or converted into more valuable products
may be sold for pulpwood is slowly being realized.
Goals for the year in this phase of the program were not reached,
but it is felt that noteworthy progress has been made.
Some progress has been made towards having each farm forest
provide for the internal needs of the farm for wood products before
production for market is considered.

4-H CLUB AND OTHER RELATIONS
Much groundwork in 4-H forestry club work has been laid during
the year, and it is believed greater progress will follow.
The Extension program for farm forestry has been integrated with
other projects, such as the Triple A program, S. C. S., Norris-Doxey, and
Naval Stores Conservation Program in several ways.

MEETINGS AND ATTENDANCE
County-wide demonstration meetings were held in 20 counties. The
county agent presided, and the demonstrations were conducted in the
woods.
Pictures, slides, and filmstrips bringing out the need for timber
stand improvement were used as an aid in teaching during indoor meet-
ings, at fairs and exhibits, and in teaching 4-H club groups.








Annual Report, 1941


Total attendance of farmers during the above 20 county-wide meet-
ings -.. _______..__..------_____ .._ _... ---__. __ ......__.._ ..- 465
Total attendance of extension leaders and other agriculture workers
during leadership training meetings ... .-- ....--- ......__. 161
Total attendance of 4-H club members _....-_.....----.-----. ....-.--___. 249

Total number of persons reached .....- .-.---_.. .- __--..-.-- -.....-...- 875

STATISTICS AND TYPICAL RESULTS
Slash pine has been planted on 1,342 farms. According to county
agents' annual reports, 6,188,680 trees were planted on 9,101 acres in 35
different counties.
Pruning and thinning of forest trees was demonstrated by the Ex-
tension Forester before 24 different groups of farmers in 22 counties.
The Extension Forester was able to reach 844 persons directly with
a message on the need for fire protection on farm woodlands.
Sound marketing of farm timber was demonstrated during 26 field
demonstration meetings held in farm woods in 26 counties.
Pulpwood cutting demonstrations in 22 counties brought out 2,074
persons.
Forestry instruction was given during 4-H club camps and other
group meetings to 603 4-H club members.

COOPERATIVE ENDEAVORS
The Extension Forester cooperated with the Agricultural Conserva-
tion program in a number of different ways. Two new practices recom-
mended were included in the 1942 A. C. program. One was a benefit
payment for planting farm windbreaks, and the other for improving a
stand of forest trees by removing defective trees, or low value species.
The latter practice is to be tried out experimentally in 3 selected coun-
ties.
Close cooperation was maintained throughout the year with the
Florida Forest and Park Service.
The Extension Forester has cooperated with representatives of the
U. S. Forest Service in several projects.
The Seaboard Air Line Railway, in cooperation with the U. S. Forest
Service, Florida Forest and Park Service, and State Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, scheduled 10 one-day stops of an educational forestry dis-
play train in Florida during October. County agents in 25 Florida coun-
ties cooperated in bringing farmers out to visit this train. The Exten-
sion Forester devoted 8 days to this project, and 12,375 people visited the
train while it was in Florida.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


SOILS
R. V. Allison, Soil Conservationist
The principal field contacts in Extension work in soils during the
year continued to be with Soil Conservation District and special project
activities. This has been largely in cooperation with the Soil Conserva-
tion Service, most attention being given to the Everglades project where
the need for an effective soil and water conservation program consti-
tutes one of the most serious agricultural problems to be found in the
entire State.
Principal progress in the Everglades project has been in survey
phases of the work, notably in the reconnaissance soil survey. A large
section of the Everglades proper has been surveyed and the outstanding
soil differences have been delineated on a map. For the first time in
the course of our work in the Everglades we are about to know what
soils and soil conditions make up the area, where they are located, and
how extensive they are.
In other sections of Florida four additional soil conservation dis-
tricts were established during the year by the Soil Conservation Board
-three in West Florida and one in Marion County. The former, Gads-
den, Yellow River, and Madison, represent an aggregate area of 1,182,-
720 acres and comprise the whole of Gadsden, most of Okaloosa, and all
of Madison counties, respectively. The Ocklawaha District includes all
of Marion County, an area of 1,054,080 acres.
The Sand Hill Demonstration project (15,500 acres) in the citrus belt
near Haines City was established especially for the study of irrigation
relationships and the adaptability and value of cover crops. Through-
out soil conservation work the scope of the activity is steadily being ex-
panded beyond the original concept of the term. We are now coming to
regard the conservation of the soil as including the development and
complete protection of its productive ability rather than merely safe-
guarding it against the washing or blowing of surface materials.

SOIL TESTING
The greater number of soil samples, by a considerable margin, re-
ceived for testing were taken in connection with the A. A. A. liming
program initiated during the past year. More than 11,000 samples,
largely from eight counties, have been involved in this program to date.
These have been from citrus areas for the most part. By this compari-
son of the soil in the middle and under the trees continuation of the
strong trend of a higher acidity under the trees was noted. However,
as earlier, numerous instances are found where the reaction is approxi-
mately the same and still others where it is appreciably more alkaline
under the tree than in the middle, in some cases the difference being
greater than a full pH. This condition has suggested the desirability of
continuing the test from both locations for the time being, especially
where a striking difference has been found in either direction in the
past.
As usual, a large number of miscellaneous samples also were re-
ceived during the year with requests for all sorts of analyses and in-
formation as to fertilizer requirements, etc., that could have been better
answered, in most instances, by the county agent working on location
without any soil analyses whatsoever. However, these samples are
regularly examined for reaction and in many instances helpful informa-
tion and advice given from this standpoint.








Annual Report, 1941 43

FARM MANURES
The second question most commonly asked in the routine corres-
pondence of the year has been in regard to the use of poultry and other
manures. Commonly, the recommendation is the sprinkling of acid phos-
phate or colloidal phosphate over the dropping boards or on the accumu-
lating litter at the rate of 150-200 pounds per ton to conserve nitrogen,
reduce odors, and bolster the naturally low content of such material in
this important element. The inquiry is usually included as to how
manures can be supplemented with other fertilizer materials to make a
balanced mixture from every standpoint. The answer commonly is that
instead of actually mixing nitrogenous and potassic materials with the
manure the supplement might better be made by using a somewhat
lighter dressing of a complete fertilizer for the soil and plant under con-
sideration than would be used in the absence of an application of the
manure. In deciding upon the composition of this supplementary dress-
ing the average composition of poultry manure (.5 percent nitrogen, .25
percent phosphoric acid, and .5 percent potash) should be kept in mind
as well as the amount of phosphatic material used in connection with its
accumulation and storage.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


PartIII. Women's&Girls' Work

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent, North and West Florida
Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, Southwest Florida
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent, East Florida
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement
Isabelle S. Thursby, Specialist in Food Conservation
Anna Mae Sikes, Specialist in Food, Nutrition and Health
Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
War-time conditions controlled the program of home demonstration
work in 1941. The establishment of more than 20 military units within
the state brought many new families here and affected housing condi-
tions of the local people, their food supplies and family and community
life generally. With the young men of rural families entering military
service and with increased opportunities for employment for both men
and women, it has been necessary to make many unusual adjustments
in family living.
Home demonstration workers have been given definite assignments
in the work of state and county defense councils. Those in charge of
new national programs developed or enlarged to meet war-time situa-
tions, such as the cotton stamp plan, the nutrition program, the school
lunch program, the mattress program and rural housing developments,
have looked to home demonstration workers for information or leader-
ship in carrying out these programs. Supervisors of home demonstra-
tion work have been kept busy aiding county home agents to make the
necessary adjustments in their county plans to meet these situations,
while subject matter specialists have extended their aid to an increas-
ingly large number of both farm and non-farm people.

PERSONNEL AND GENERAL ORGANIZATION
The experience and training of the home agents and their familiar-
ity with county and state conditions peculiarly qualify them to give such
needed help but with no increase in personnel this year in either state
or county offices it has not been possible to meet all the needs. In-
genuity and resourcefulness, better training of agents in service, use of
local leadership and fine cooperation from other agencies have been the
means used to carry on the extensive program of home demonstration
work in 1941.
Girls to the number of 10,221 are enrolled in 495 4-H clubs, and 8,249
women belong to 325 adult home demonstration clubs which meet regu-
larly at least once each month. The 38 home agents assisted 28,840
white farm families and 16,126 additional families living in towns or
urban communities. The Negro agents worked with 7,245 Negro farm
families. County home demonstration agents have made visits to 7,161
farms and homes and through 31,078 telephone calls, 2,241 press articles
and 187 radio talks, supplied timely information to the general public.
Negro agents have made 4,027 farm and home visits.
Members of the state staff gave some help to 11 of the 29 counties
not employing home agents by supplying publications, through corres-
pondence and with direct aid for specific needs such as the mattress








Annual Report, 1941


program. The Negro district agent gave time to work in nine counties
not employing agents.
Premanency of tenure of personnel is an indication of sound pro-
grams in the counties. One agent (Orange County) completed 25 years
of continuous service this year while 13 other agents have served 10 or
more years in their counties. All counties have maintained appropria-
tions this year with at least 7 counties increasing their appropriations
in order to extend the program further in the counties.
Surveys made in the state, especially in areas such as Bradford and
Union counties, adjacent to the great army camp, Blanding, show great
need for enlargement of the home demonstration program to meet home
and community needs there.

LOCAL LEADERSHIP AND RESPONSIBILITY
Without the large number of girls and women trained in previous
years in skills and in organization the present services of the home dem-
onstration program could not be effective. Of the 30,223 community
meetings arranged under the direction of the home agents, 14,070 were
held by volunteer local leaders, 312 adults served as volunteer leaders
for the 4-H club girls, in this way making it possible for the 4-H club
program to increase somewhat in spite of the additional demands on the
time of the agent herself. There were 239 training courses held for these
local leaders.
Thirty county councils made up of representative home demonstra-
tion women and an equal number for 4-H girls helped to carry out the
program of work decided on by the women and girls enrolled. The
State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work maintained their
scholarship fund, keeping three girls in college, and financed one of the
Washington Camp scholarships. It sent a representative committee to
join with home demonstration women of other Southern states in a con-
ference with the Secretary of Agriculture, asking for his aid in increas-
ing the services of home demonstration work to more people in the
national nutrition program. The State Federation of Women's Clubs
approved this request at their annual meeting.
The State Short Course for 600 4-H girls selected as outstanding club
members in their counties was a training school for these young local
leaders. The state councils for both girls and women held their annual
meetings in the form of training schools to enable them to carry out
their state-wide plans more effectively.
The home demonstration clubs recognized the great need of per-
manent community centers for recreation and instruction and to hold
local interest in community affairs in the present unsettled times. At
least 12 county home demonstration agents report their clubs or coun-
cils have built community houses to serve as such centers, reporting a
total of 20 new buildings or rooms.. Duval County reports 11 of its.J15
adult home demonstration clubs own their own buildings.

WAR-TIME SERVICES AND DEFENSE ACTIVITIES!.,
State and county defense committees were organized early in the
year, and all home agents participated actively. The State Agent was
made chairman of the State Committee on Home Gardens and Food Con-
servation and has organized the entire state with county and community
chairmen following definite plans for a defense program in food pro-
duction through gardening and orchards and storage of surplus food







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


crops through canning, refrigeration, etc. The two food specialists and
the state agent are members of the State Nutrition Committee of the
State Defense Council and have helped to organize a statewide nutrition
program and to train volunteer leaders. Nearly all county home dem-
onstration agents have become certified Red Cross nutrition instructors
and given such courses when other instructors were not available.
The Clothing Specialist serves as a member of the Consumers' In-
terests Committee of the State Defense Council, the state agent is a mem-
ber of the State Salvage Committee and the Marketing Committee of the
Division of Agriculture.
Home demonstration agents and members of organized clubs have
helped in carrying out plans to meet the agricultural goals set up un-
der the War Board, particularly in home gardens and in the general nu-
trition program.
In line with national and state-wide defense needs a state-wide
nutrition program emphasizing food production and its proper selection,
cookery and serving, has taken first place in all home demonstration
work. The following facts show the extent of this work reported this
year:
Home demonstration members have bought more than 1,200 fam-
ily milk cows this year and reported using 370,000 chickens raised at
home as a part of their family food supply. More than 600 planned
home orchards were planted while 14,600 trees and 26,000 vines other
than grapes were added to home orchards started in previous years.
Club girls reported growing 4,169 home gardens while the women re-
ported 4,037 gardens grown; 1,148 families grew new vegetables this
year. Saving and storing food through canning in order to supplement
the fresh vegetables and fruits from the garden and orchard reached
large proportions in spite of the unfavorable growing season.
There were 980,817 quarts of fruit and vegetables and 108,090
quarts of pork, beef, game, fish and poultry canned, while Florida fruits
were made into 491,636 quarts of marmalades, preserves and jellies.
Citrus fruit and other cultivated fruits as well as wild berries have
been made into nearly 17,000 gallons of fruit juices and more than a
thousand gallons of vinegar. Four-H club girls stored 114,073 quarts of
canned and preserved foods as a part of their families' food supplies.
Farm families cured more than 200 tons of meat and made more than
40 tons of sausage from home-grown meats, and made 138,476 pounds
of lard.
Community food needs have been given much attention, particular-
ly through the school lunch program. Agents report they have helped
train women to manage rural lunchrooms and in other ways have giv-
en direct help to lunchrooms serving more than 40,000 school children.
One home agent reports that vegetables to the value of at least $1,000.00
were supplied the community school lunch by the home demonstra-
tion women and girls from their home gardens.
Community canning centers have been operated in nearly all coun-
ties. Training courses in canning and gardening have been given in all
organized counties to volunteer leaders.

IMPROVED HEALTH AND BETTER FAMILY LIVING
In addition to serving as a vital agency of home defense, the im-
proved food supply produced at home and stored in their own pantries
through their own enterprise and work has made it possible for more
than 20,000 Florida women and girls to enjoy definitely better physical








Annual Report, 1941


health. No estimate can be made of the improvement of morale brought
about through this physical fitness and the sense of security enjoyed
by these thrifty farmers. A general improvement of quality is noted
throughout the state in results achieved and in methods used. Better
livestock has been secured; more than $8,800 was invested by home
demonstration club members in improved poultry equipment alone.
Household equipment has been bought generally through the state as a
result of the growing appreciation of quality standards and the need
for saving time and labor. More than 3,328 girls and women report
they have had health examinations and corrected their physical defects
through medical attention.
The home demonstration program always has emphasized the need
of home management in order that the family may not suffer when the
homemaker is called on to help with rush farm duties. This year 3,524
women enrolled for work in "everyday good housekeeping" and 1,496
families planned their food budgets for the year.
Home demonstration agents have encouraged rural families to make
their homes and communities the centers of recreation and training in
good citizenship. Twenty-four clubs reported establishing libraries with
subscriptions of 37 magazines taken for these libraries and 8,255 maga-
zines and newspapers subscribed to by home demonstration club mem-
bers.
Five counties have bought motion picture equipment so that timely
information and entertainment can be carried to local community
groups.
Holmes County reports five recreational meetings held regularly in
every community by local people, both young and old. Home agents
and their trained recreation leaders have helped with recreation pro-
grams for the soldiers and sailors in camps, Escambia County having
organized an excellent program at Pensacola.
A total of 152 achievement day programs and more than 300 com-
munity exhibits of successful achievements spread useful information
to more than 13,692 people. Homes and home grounds were improved
as a matter of thrift and also to make home surroundings more attrac-
tive for the family to enjoy. More than 700 homes were painted and 408
outbuildings and 217 fences painted or whitewashed. Over 628 families
beautified their home grounds according to a definite plan of landscap-
ing. More than 50 sunshine water heaters were installed and 466 homes
screened.
With the increase in rural electrification 1,650 families installed
electricity in their homes, one county (Gadsden) reporting that two.
thirds of the total number of rural homes wired belonged to the families
of home demonstration women.
The cotton mattress program made it possible for 28,724 families to
be certified for mattresses and thus to secure better health through bet-
ter rest in their sleeping hours. The agents gave considerable time to
teaching principles of mattress construction with the result that more
than 2,400 old mattresses were renovated and a great deal of furniture
was re-upholstered. This mattress program among farm families of low
income brought the home demonstration agent into immediate touch
with many families not heretofore availing themselves of their help and
resulted in the enrollment of many of these women in the home demon-
stration groups.
A rural housing program set up under federal regulations was made
effective in 21 counties of western Florida, agents and state specialists
giving assistance in explaining terms and accepting applications. Help







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


was given in low-cost housing developments for both white and Negro
families in several urban counties, including Duval, Escambia and Dade.
A library collection of bulletins was supplied each of the 18 federal
housing projects in the state. Agents reported giving help to 928 fam-
ilies with individual house planning problems.
INCREASED FAMILY INCOME
Their training in better home management and their own native
ingenuity have helped rural women and girls use the resources of farm
and home to bring about better living for their families. They proved
themselves good business managers by increasing their cash incomes also
by turning into cash some of their home-produced and home-manufac-
tured salable articles. Women and girls from 29 counties reported their
cash sales as follows, although the amounts given do not show the com-
plete total for the state:
Fresh vegetables sold--..---.-------.---------...... $ 15,455.80
Fresh fruits sold .....--..... .- ...-.......-------- 11,498.89
Canned and preserved products sold ----......-- .. 11,426.80'
Poultry and poultry products sold ...--.-.-- ---..-......----. 119,422.26
Dairy products sold -__---------..............-----------. 26,092.43
Cooked foods and baked products ...... ------- .. 2,000.20
Other articles sold ---.--...._. ------.---..-.._. ..... .... 27,095.79

Total cash received ...........------------ --__.....$212,992.17
One county (Walton), where the average farm income is $250.00
or less per year, reported sales totaling $11,626.66. Another county re-
ports that gathering blackberries for wine brought more than $20,000
to farm people, although this amount is not included in the home dem-
onstration report.
4-H CLUB WORK FOR GIRLS
The general program as discussed above is planned and carried out
by girls as well as adults, because all phases of 4-H club work are
planned so the achievements of the girls will contribute to improved
family living. Enrollment of girls in 4-H work did not increase mater-
ially, due to other increased demands on the time and energies of the
agents. The home agents have received fine cooperation from the ad-
ministrators and teachers of the public school system.
In all, 10,221 girls are enrolled in the 495 organized 4-H clubs of the
37 counties with approximately 200 more girls enrolled as individual
demonstrators in counties not employing home agents.
The State Short Course attended by 453 girls from 36 counties
served as a training school for these youthful leaders who in turn as-
sisted with the 47 county and state camps for younger 4-H girls. Seven
former 4-H girls are employed as county home demonstration agents or
assistants.
The following comments selected at random from the county reports
indicate the scope of the 4-H program and the results achieved generally
throughout the state:
Jackson County reports 264 of the 318 4-H girls enrolled had home
gardens; Gulf County reported 4-H girls had secured 18 calves; Walton
reported progress of 4-H girls in home improvement demonstrations;
Suwannee told of the scholarships established for a 4-H girl by the
women selling at the curb market. Manatee County club girls won state
honors in the dairy team contest and went to the National Dairy Show
at Memphis. Marion reported that 4-H girls are helping other girls not








Annual Report, 1941


in 4-H clubs with their clothing programs. The small daughter of a
former state 4-H health winner rated highest in the health examination
given in one of the Marion County schools as a part of a nutrition study.
Polk County girls served as helpers in school lunchrooms. Palm Beach
County reports show how former 4-H club girls, now grown, retain their
contact with organized 4-H work, serving as 4-H leaders or as mem-
bers of home demonstration clubs. The proportion of young women
enrolled in demonstration clubs in the state increases each year.

SUMMARY OF ACHIEVEMENTS IN 1941
District agents and specialists list the following as noteworthy
achievements this year in home demonstration program:
Better food supply for the family, with increased home production.
Increased knowledge of nutrition.
Increased use of cotton. The cotton mattress program.
Appreciation of quality standards by rural people.
Better planned programs for communities and counties.
Increased use of local leadership.
Increased assumption of responsibility by local people.
Enlarged service to a greater number of people.
Fine cooperation with other agencies.
Active participation in state and national defense plans.
Special phases of the Home Demonstration program are reported
by the specialists.


Fig. 7.-Discussion groups, with a leader from the USDA, proved
of value to 4-H club girls and home demonstration women during the
short course.







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
In comparing the clothing and textiles activities and results for
1941 with those of 1940, although the agents report less time and effort
devoted to this phase of work there is a decided increase in the results,
among adults particularly. For example, 182 more result demonstra-
tions were conducted this year than last. The outstanding fact is that
there is a 68.4% average increase in 1941 over 1940 in the clothing re-
sults reported. Although there are about an equal number of volun-
tary leaders for the two years they gave 802 days more work this year.
The mattress making and comfort program have left less time for
regular organized work, the effects being felt particularly with the 4-H
club clothing program. The enrollment dropped from 8,376 to 7,711-a
loss of 665, although the number of completions increased.
Florida women and girls conserved $88,390 for their families and na-
tion as a direct result of the clothing program. In addition to this cash
saving, other important considerations are the education received and
the training in skills which resulted from the making of 24,338 articles
by the 4-H club girls alone. With over 9,000 women and girls improv-
ing their sewing practices, 32.3% more individuals budgeting their cloth-
ing expenditures, and 22.3% more using economic information in meet-
ing clothing needs, the homemakers are preparing for the rapidly rising
prices of clothing. Another way that the women and girls are meeting
this situation is through better care and making over of clothes. These
activities increased 12% this year over last. Resourcefulness was re-
quired by the 5,192 women and girls who renovated and remodeled
clothes more satisfactorily this year. Florida families are living in
homes made more comfortable and attractive by the addition of 32,359
textile furnishings.
All counties are participating actively in Red Cross sewing work, a
repetition of the first World War record. The Senior Councils of the
counties, and in some cases the Juniors, are sponsoring the program,
with each organized community club delegated its quota.

COTTON PROGRAM
Extension workers in the 17 cotton growing counties received plans,
posters and photographs, suggesting educational exhibits to be set up
by cooperating merchants. Six thousand four hundred and fifty-eight
families participating in the program received 58,122 letters giving sim-
ple hints on buying cotton household goods and clothes. The subjects
covered by the nine letters are sheets, towels, cotton curtains, overalls,
cotton hose, girls' and women's dresses, shirts, undergarments.
Artistic attractively colored posters were prepared and issued to the
38 county home demonstration agents who report using them at con-
sumer education meetings and exhibits. Actual samples of good and
poor buys of cotton goods displayed with these posters composed an
educational exhibit entitled "Can you judge quality when you buy" at
one of the county fairs.
Mattress and Comforters.-In 1941 the mattress making program,
with the addition of the comforter feature, helped approximately 28,724
families to obtain surplus cotton from which to make mattresses for their
own use.
To date 2,382 mattresses have been renovated. One county reports
that cotton stamps were used to purchase the ticking for this work.








Annual Report, 1941


Better Health Through Better Bedrooms.-Since more cotton tex-
tiles are used in the bedroom than in any other room, bedroom im-
provements through adding textiles furnishings received special em-
phasis this year.
Encouraging the making at home of curtains, draperies and slip
covers through method demonstrations and exhibits resulted in 11,588
homes adding some textile furnishings.
A state contest in "More Cotton for Better Bedrooms" further stim-
ulated interest. Although this contest was open to 4-H club members
only, 56 girls participated and some counties included the women.
By means of the 5,113 quilts, 1,902 bedspreads, 1,438 rugs, and 1,200
slip covers made this year, the homes become more satisfying. In addi-
tion to the savings made through home construction, many homemakers
have supplemented the family's cash income by making such textile fur-
nishings for sale, earning over $4,600.00.

BETTER WARDROBES
To demonstrate how to dress successfully at low cost, an exhibit of
a school girl's cotton wardrobe was made up. A satisfactory wardrobe
resulted for $10.00. Among the cotton fabrics used to develop the 16
outer and 4 undergarments, plus accessories, are corduroy, work cham-
bray, mattress ticking, unbleached muslin, unfinished lawn, and print-
ed and plain feed sacks. Such trims as shells, bamboo, crocheted and
spool buttons, added interest at no cost. Approximately 1,670 people
have seen this wardrobe modeled at community, county, district and
state meetings.
The state dress revue contest was held during Short Course with 25
counties entering contestants wearing suitable costumes for sport, school,
street, "best", and party wear. Clarice Journigan of Orange County
won the state dress revue contest wearing a simple low priced "best"
dress made of red and white polka dot rayon crepe. In the national
dress revue contest conducted at the 4-H Club Congress, she placed in
the red ribbon group.
To accomplish these results of the clothing and textile program re-
ported this year, 96 days were devoted to field, 160 days to office work,
and 32 days to travel. In the interest of better clothed rural people liv-
ing in more comfortable and attractive homes, the clothing specialist
presented clothing and textiles information at 26 adult and 23 junior
meetings, reaching approximately 2,100 club members. Other meetings
where clothing information was given included farm and home institutes,
agricultural workers' conference and Extension agents' conference, where
approximately 1,000 adults were reached.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Nutritionist

RESULTS FROM THE YEAR'S WORK
During the year, according to home demonstration agents' reports,
3,950 adult result demonstrations in 32 counties have been conducted in
food selection and preparation; 2,437 families in 33 counties have pro-
duced and conserved the home food supply according to annual food
supply budgets; 3,298 families in 32 counties have been assisted in using
timely economic information as a basis for re-adjusting family food
supply; 1,523 families in 28 counties budgeted food expenditures for a
year; 3,330 families in 31 counties followed food buying recommenda-
tions; 966 families in 3 counties followed recommendations for the stor-
age of home food supply; 5,386 families in 33 counties served better bal-
anced meals; 3,622 4-H club girls in 38 counties of the 5,332 in 38 coun-
ties enrolled in the food, nutrition and health program, or 67 percent,
have completed the "Healthy Living" demonstration.
Poultry raising and dairying were encouraged to supply farm fam-
ilies with milk and dairy products, eggs and meat and add to the family
income.
Home marketing of foods and food products has added considerably
to the family income during the past year. Some of the produce sold
to supplement family income are fresh fruits and vegetables, eggs, poul-
try and home-baked foods.

CORRELATING NUTRITION ACTIVITIES
At the completion of a study of "Health Practices and Conditions
with Special Reference to Food Habits in Eight Northwest Florida School
Communities" the specialist was conferred a Master of Science Degree
at the Florida State College for Women in January of this year.
One hundred and fifteen and one-half days were spent in actual
work in the field and 391/2 days were spent in travel. The other part of
the time was devoted to conferences, preparation of subject matter ma-
terial, special events, program planning, reports, etc.
The Nutritionist is a member of the State Advisory Committee on
Nutrition, Florida Defense Council, and served as chairman of the sub-
committees, activities and publicity, and is also a member of the sub-
committees, school lunch, and Negro education.
The Food and Feed Production Committee of the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service, of which the Nutritionist is chairman, prepared and dis-
tributed a series of defense circulars, "Good Food, Health and Strength."
In January the Nutritionist attended the Southwide Program held in
Atlanta for Southern agricultural workers which stressed plans for in-
creased production of food and feed crops. Following this meeting she
attended three district conferences and discussed with the agents the
present food and feed situation and implications of the present condi-
tions to Florida rural families.
In September the Nutritionist attended the Regional Agricultural
Conference called in Memphis, Tennessee, for Southern Agricultural
Workers by the Secretary of Agriculture where the "Food for Freedom
Campaign" was launched.








Annual Report, 1941


HOME DEMONSTRATION AND RELATED ACTIVITIES
The Nutritionist is a member of the Florida Home Economics Asso-
ciation and has been for the past 18 years. At present she is the State
Treasurer, a member of the executive board, and has just completed
two years as chairman of the Public Health Committee.
She attended the State Short Course held for Parent-Teacher's Asso.
ciation at the University of Florida in June and attended regularly the
Nutrition and Health division.
The Nutritionist attended the state meeting of the Parent-Teacher's
Association held in Tampa and arranged an exhibit showing the place
of home demonstration work in a nutrition and defense program. In
addition, she led the discussion on nutrition and health in the home fam-
ily section. Upon request she prepared a series of articles on nutrition
and health for the State Parent-Teacher's Association magazine.

SHORT COURSES FOR 4-H CLUB GIRLS AND BOYS
The theme of the Annual Short Course this year was "Defending
Home and Community Through 4-H Club Work." The food, nutrition
and health phase was planned around "food and national defense."
Two afternoons were devoted to food preparation team demonstra-
tions given by the county winners. Girls giving the team demonstra-
tions were participating in the state food preparation and dairy teams
contests. Florida dairy food preparation team from Manatee County
placed third at the National Dairy Show in Memphis.


Fig. 8.-Club girls at short course received pointers about the dairy
cow and her value in furnishing food for the family.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


In addition to the specialized course in food preparation and meal
planning, all girls attended a general nutrition group. This group ob-
served animal feeding demonstrations (white rats) showing that "food
makes a difference."
This was the first year that the specialist had opportunity to assist
with the Boys' 4-H Club Short Course. The first part of the discussion
centered around food for defense and need for good strength and health.

COUNCIL AND INSTITUTES
The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work held its
state meeting at the time of Annual 4-H Girls' Club Short Course. The
Nutritionist assisted in planning for this work and presented the food,
nutrition and health program at a morning session of the council.
Two institutes for farm men and women were held in Northwest
Florida. The Nutritionist assisted with general management and took
part on the program, discussing foods needed for health and strength
and their preparation and utilization.

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS' CONFERENCE
During the month of July two-day conferences for all trained agri-
cultural, home economics workers from related fields were held at the
District 4-H Club Camp sites. The specialist attended two conferences
in Northwest Florida and took part in the discussions and led the pro-
gram on nutrition for health and defense.

HEALTH ACTIVITIES
Health of all members of the family always has been a vital consid-
eration of the Florida food, nutrition and health program through its
work with better food supply and sanitation in and around homes to
prevent infection, or to clean up unsanitary conditions. The Nutritionist,
home demonstration agents and club members cooperate with health
agencies at all times.
In 32 counties 3,956 women reported improved health habits; 1,703
persons reported having health examinations by a physician and 2,556
immunized against typhoid, diphtheria and smallpox; 466 homes in 31
counties were screened; 559 families installed sanitary toilets.








Annual Report, 1941


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

Phases of work for women and girls have been conducted during the
current year in all home demonstration counties in the state in coopera-
tion with the home agents. In the 10 special counties in the three dis-
tricts where the economist works more closely and where she makes
from two to three calls during the year, a comprehensive and detailed
plan of gardening, canning and related activities is carried out.
The goal for the year, as in previous years and in line with defense
preparedness, is a satisfying live-at-home program for every farm
family.
HOME GARDENS AND ORCHARDS
Records submitted on gardening activities for the current year show
34 counties reporting 4,037 year-round gardens with a cash valuation of
$15,455.82 vegetables sold. And 1,148 homes report growing new vege-
tables for the first time.
FOOD CONSERVATION
Reports for the current year show that canning continues to be a
major activity of interest in home demonstration work. It had been
feared that, due to the heavy demands of the cotton mattress program
on the time of the agent, canning and other phases of work would suffer.
It would seem, however, that food conservation has forged ahead-evi-
dently under the power accruing from the experience of previous years


Fig. 9.-This enticing exhibit of food products canned at home by
members of a home demonstration club was featured at a community fair.


AiJ~









Florida Agricultural Extension Service


and also because of the urgent call, of state and national defense, to save
all surplus food.
The following table shows the summarized results in food conser-
vation for 1941:
FOOD CONSERVATION, 1941


Fruit canned ---------... ---------
Vegetables canned --.--...-....-.-------....-----
Pickles made --------
Relishes made --...--.. .....---------- -
Pork canned ...-------.---.--...-..--------
Beef canned .-........ ---------..-.....--
Game canned .--------. -
Fish canned -----..-...- ------. --
Poultry canned ------.---...-..-----.------
Marmalades made .---.-..-.
Preserves made .. ------ ------
Jellies made _.......-------.............. --
Number of gallons vinegar made ---
Number of gallons of fruit juices canned -.
Number of families that cured meats ---
Pounds cured -----. _.........--- .----
Number of families that made sausage -.
Pounds made -.....- ----..... --....----
Number of families that made lard ---
Pounds made .-------...-............-----


--.---- 398,226
---- 582,591
48,595
.---...... 26,847
--- 45,227
-- 49,150
1,291
1,504
---- 10,918
----.- 143,087
.-- 208,591
---- 139,958
1,024
16,709
3,615
.------ 408,900
4,319
.---- 81,216
------- 43,072
-....--- 138,476


quarts
quarts
quarts
quarts
quarts
quarts
quarts
quarts
quarts
quarts
quarts
quarts


THREE JAR CAN-FOR-QUALITY CONTEST
Twenty-six counties enrolled in home demonstration work entered
their winning exhibits in the Three Jar Can-for-Quality Contest.
The Hazel-Atlas Glass Manufacturing Company again contributed
$100 in cash that was used as awards for achievement in the contest.

HOME CANNING AND CURING OF MEATS
Out of the facts and figures gleaned from reports it is seen that
home canning and curing of meats is increasing on Florida farms.
Reports show 3,615 families cured 408,900 pounds of meat; 81,286
pounds of sausage made; 138,476 pounds of lard rendered; 49,150 quarts
of beef and 45,227 quarts of pork canned.

4-H CLUB WORK FOR GIRLS
In gardening and in canning 9,501 girls enrolled. Out of this num-
ber 6,250 are reported as completing the demonstration as set up.

ANNUAL SHORT COURSE--4-H CLUB CAMPS
At the Annual Short Course at Florida State College for Women the
first week of June, the Economist presented to the 500 prize winning
girls, their home agents and attending local leaders, the food conserva-
tion program. Assistance was given by college girls, majors in home
economics, and agents who were particularly skilled in certain items
of food preservation that seemed to be of most value and interest to the
club girl at this time.
Another institution under the direction of a trained personnel is the
4-H club camp at Camp McQuarrie. The Economist attended this camp
when groups from four counties were enrolled.








Annual Report, 1941


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement

Projects undertaken in 1941 included: Exterior beautification, im-
provement in all rooms of the house, planning time and its use, wise
buying of all home conveniences and equipment, home sanitation, hous-
ing, the remodeling of old houses and planning new houses, and family
relationship. This latter is a comparatively new project.
Compiled report on the projects undertaken the past year by the
women and girls in home management, house furnishings, and beauti-
fication of the home grounds disclosed the following results:

HOME MANAGEMENT
1. Number of homes practicing everyday good housekeeping 3,524.
2. Number of families assisted with house-planning problems 928.
3. Number of families studying house plans and blueprints before
buildings started 311.
4. Number of sunshine water heating systems installed 50.

HOME FURNISHINGS
1. Number of porches that have been improved 1,034.
2. Number who have removed tin cans and replaced with porch
boxes 509.
3. Number of following articles made this year: Curtains 5,402,
bedspreads 1,902, quilts 5,311, luncheon sets 2,027.

BEAUTIFICATION OF THE HOME GROUNDS
1. Number of houses whitewashed 39, painted 701.
2. Number of outbuildings whitewashed 186, painted 222.
3. Number of fences whitewashed 143, painted 74.
4. Number homes making complete improvement to paint or white-
wash, or to plant grass, or start foundation plantings 1,091.

THRIFT
The following report show results accomplished in this phase of work:
1. Number who have used mill-end lengths of cotton fabrics for
house furnishings 561, number of yards 6,131; number who have
used jute material, such as crocus sack material, 657, number
yards 3,426.
2. Number who have utilized waste material, such as sacks, 3,421.
3. Number of barrel chairs made 54, box furniture made 567.
4. Number of hooked rugs made 351, raveled rugs 242, braided rugs
525, crocheted rugs 601.
5. Number cotton mattresses made 16,200, number moss mattresses
79, number mattresses renovated 2,382, number rugs made 1,438,
number rugs sold 66.

RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROGRESS
Rural electrification has grown by leaps and bounds all over the
state, and as a result 1,651 families have installed electricity for the








58 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

first time during the past year, and 607 different appliances have been
reported as purchased by these families.

RURAL HOME ADVANCE STEPS
With all the governmental agencies at work with the farm families,
a definite swing-back of the pendulum to the farm home has taken
place. The following figures indicate that more thought has been given
to the rural home through the help given them by all agencies:
There were 992 homes establishing lawns, 1,372 families planted
shrubbery and trees to frame the house, 527 families made walks, drive-
ways, fences, etc., 995 families painted or whitewashed buildings, 175
new homes were built and 443 houses remodeled, 154 sewage systems
were made according to plans furnished from the State Board of Health,
233 installed water, 1,139 lighting systems were installed, and 3,524
homes practiced a more systematic plan for keeping cleaner and more
orderly houses.








Annual Report, 1941


Part IV. Negro Extension Work

ACTIVITIES WITH NEGRO FARMERS
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent

Changes in farm agents took place for two counties, one by resigna-
tion and the other a transfer.

MEETINGS HELD AND ATTENDED
The annual conference of Farm and Home Agents was held at the
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, December 11, 12, and 13,
1940.
The third day of the conference the agents attended and participated
in the Annual Farmers' Conference of the Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical College.
The twenty-third annual State 4-H Club Short Course for Negro
boys and girls convened at the Florida A. and M. College, May 27-31,
1941. This short course offered instruction to a total enrollment of 253
4-H club boys and girls, men and women leaders, together with nine men
agents and eight women agents.

FAIRS AND EXHIBITS
Five counties were represented at the Florida State Fair, Tampa,
Florida, February 4-15, as follows: Leon, Jefferson, Hamilton, Columbia,
and Alachua.
Through the assistance of county commissioners in Leon, Gadsden,
Duval and Madison counties, an exhibit of Florida grown copper skin
sweet potatoes, sugarcane and sugarcane syrup was displayed in Atlantic
City during September and October.

TYPICAL PROJECT RESULTS REPORTED
In Jackson County the agent reports that nearly every farmer grow-
ing peanuts received a fair profit. Many of them, using good seeds, got
$90.00 per ton. In Hamilton and northern Suwannee farmers received
$70.00 per ton for peanuts and $12.00 per ton for peanut hay.
One farmer of Rockhill community, Jackson County, planted 10
acres of the improved certified copper skin Porto Rican sweet potatoes
and harvested an average of 200 bushels per acre for the 10 acres planted.
In Alachua County 25 growers bedded 125 bushels of this variety in
the spring. In Hamilton County 175 farmers planted 200 acres of sweet
potatoes, with 30% using the improved variety.
During October farmers of Hamilton and northern Suwannee shipped
one carload of chewing sugarcane to Detroit. It contained 14,568 stalks
and netted them $291.36.
In Sumter County most Negro farmers killed from one to 10 hogs
for home consumption. Cold storage plants at Webster, Center Hill,
Bushnell and Wildwood have more than 16,000 pounds of meat in curing
for Negro farmers.
In Columbia and southern Suwannee one farmer sold 100 hogs av-
eraging 181 pounds for $1,448.00, and one sold 75 hogs averaging 150
pounds for $731.00; another sold 80 hogs averaging 160 pounds for $896.00.








60 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

In Columbia County 7,000 pounds of turkeys were sold on the 1940
Christmas market, amounting to $1,120.00.
In Hamilton County 130,257 pounds of tobacco was sold by Negro
farmers, amounting to $29,307.82, and in northern Suwannee 73,855
pounds were sold, amounting to $16,314.90.
In Hamilton County T. G. Philpot, Negro dairyman, received from
his milk and milk products during the year, $1,963.91.

BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
Clubs in 10 counties numbered 122 and enrolled 1,937 boys, 1,117
carrying their projects to completion, a sizable increase over last year
all around.
Peanut projects were carried on by 399 boys in the 10 counties
supervised, with 253 completing. Projects devoted to corn enrolled 564
boys, 306 completing.
Home gardens enrolled 447 and 253 completed; sweet potatoes 162
and 139; swine 183 and 142; poultry 244 and 125.








Annual Report, 1941


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Beulah S. Shute, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

Group meetings in 20 counties stressed food needs. Results reported
were as follows:
2,158 gardens planted. [
427 families grew new
vegetables.
45 families started cal- B i
endar orchards.
753 fruit trees were" ..' i
added to orchards.
260 berry vines were
added.
593 families used fruits I *
from their own orchards.
114 families added a .
milk cow this year. ^-L Z-?,^" '_^f.., ,
1,372 family milk cows .- .
are owned.
20,723 chickens were
consumed at home. Fig. 10.-Home gardens to supply fresh
consume45,334 dozevegetables to farm families have been
45,334 dozen eggs were stressed as never before.
consumed at home.
1,095 families cured 108,023 pounds of meats for home use.
1,057 families made 15,153 pounds sausage.
866 families made 34,220 pounds lard.
827 families sold vegetables valued at $6,032.35.

CANNING AND MAKING JUICE
24,435 quarts of vegetables were canned in eight counties.
17,563 quarts of fruits.
1,891 gallons of fruit juice were canned.
3,469 quarts of pork canned.
2,036 quarts of beef were canned.
26,882 containers jams, jellies, marmalades were made for the year.
Activities prosecuted also covered the fields of clothing, health and
home improvement.

MEETINGS OUT OF FLORIDA
A group of agricultural workers, representing seven organizations
working among rural Negroes, met at Tuskegee Institute February 14
and 15. During the same time, the regional meeting of vocational home
economics and agricultural teachers was in session at Tuskegee. The
District Agent was elected to serve as a board member of the association.
The Annual Institute of Negro T. B. Workers was held at Durham,
N. C., June 9-14, 1941. This Agent was selected by the Florida State Tu-
berculosis Association to receive a scholarship to attend the institute.

MEETINGS WITHIN THE STATE
Two days-July 21-22-were spent at Bethune-Cookman College as
a consultant in nutrition and health for the W. P. A. working conference.








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


The Interracial Conference of Christian Women of Jacksonville
again invited the Local District Agent to address their group on June 18.
During the period March 25 to April 15 agricultural and home eco-
nomics meetings were held in 11 counties.
A series of 20 nutrition meetings were held in the spring of the year,
in 11 different counties, attended by a total of 806 different adults.

WOMEN AND GIRLS AT SHORT COURSE
Enrollment at annual short course included 120 girls and 36 women.
Contests, awards and winners were as follows:

Contests Winners Award
Bread Judging Ophelia Ford-Marion County Small medal
First: Helen Johnson, Madison County Small medal
Dress Making Second: Nelis James, Hillsborough County 4-H plaque
First: Florence Hunter, Leon County Medal
Bread Making Second: Dessie Ingram, Hillsborough County 4-H Plaque
First: Beatrice Tompkins, Madison County Medal
Poultry Judging Second: Sarah Harden, Gadsden County 4-H plaque
First: Bessie Jackson, Madison County Medal
Health First: Ella Mae Banks, Gadsden County Medal
Posture Second: Lou Wilma Todd, Leon County Medal
First: Hillsborough County Pennant and
Song song books
Second: Duval County Song books








Annual Report, 1941


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Total days service rendered ___..__ ------------ 4,971
Members in Extension associations or committees... 892
Communities in which Negro Extension program has been
planned ---....-...... _.----------.-..---------- 210
Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home
demonstration work .......------------. 88
Members in such clubs or groups ..---- ...------------------ 1,575
4-H clubs .---........-....-.......-----------........-. 235
4-H club members enrolled .----.----------- 4,298
4-H club members completing --.__.......... ------------- 2,872
4-H club teams trained .....-.. -----..... ---------- 82
Farm or home visits .........-..-.. ------------.. 7,468
Different farms or homes visited ------------ ---------- 3,791
Calls relating to Extension work -------_- 14,281
News articles or stories published and circular letters issued 645
Letters written --.---------- 10,502
Bulletins distributed .-------------- 8,966
Extension exhibits -----~...--. ----------...------------ 46
Meetings held .......-----------------... ---------- 2,819
(Attendance) 33,002
Achievement days and encampments -------..~...--- 47
(Attendance) 25,010
Homes and farms influenced by program ----- -- 9,926
Homes with 4-H club members enrolled ------ 2,637

CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted ---- 302
Result demonstrations conducted .. --------- 29
Meetings held .. .---------- -------------------- 114
News stories published and circular letters issued--- 39
4-H club members enrolled -- -------- 795
4-H club members completing __ _------------ 526
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 664
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing -- 4,586

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted ---- 497
Result demonstrations conducted -------- 82
Meetings held -.......------.........----------------------- 142
News stories published and circular letters issued--- 69
4-H club members enrolled -- 564
4-H club members completing ..--..-------..------------- 387
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 727
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 10,209








64 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS

Sweet Potatoes
Potatoes
Others Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was conducted 176 90 75
Result demonstrations conducted ..------........ 41 7 10
Meetings held --..........---------------.----------...-. 90 33 21
News stories published and circular letters 37 17 13
4-H club members enrolled..-.......-----..---... ....... 210 42 28
4-H club members completing...------......----...- 160 26 16
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H members 116 79 6
Yield of crops grown by 4-H members -.. 5,117 bu. 26,100 lb. 38,570 lb.

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, and BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GARDENS
Communities in which work was conducted .........----------- 721
Result demonstrations conducted --------....-..--.. ..... 1,543
Meetings held -...-........... _------- ...~~~-..-.-. 489
News stories published and circular letters issued -..---_..-- 114
4-H club members enrolled .. -- --.. .---- ... ..... 3,006
4-H club members completing -.... -------~.... ___--_.-._ 2,012
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 309
Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing ..... 31,141 bu.

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted .-...-------......... 121
Result demonstrations conducted ..--- ....--.....--......--- 106
Meetings held .....-------_... -----........... ---------....-.... ._ 146
News stories published and circular letters issued..--..-- ....--. 14
4-H club members enrolled ............. -----------. 37
4-H club members completing --..-------..------..------. 18
Terracing and drainage, farms ........------------...-..- 32
Acres .............--------------------... 235
Land clearing practices..--- -----------........ ......---- 56
Acres ------------------------------------. ...... -..---......- 704
Better equipment practices ....-----.--....... ----------- 339
Buildings erected or improved .-..-----.... ...------- ..532

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted -----.... 186
Result demonstrations conducted ................. --- 417
Meetings held .....-..-.......-.------....... -----------------. 215
News stories published and circular letters issued-.....------ 36
4-H club members enrolled ...-----... ----.. -----.........- 1,101
4-H club members completing ----..--------------.......----------- 759
Number units in projects conducted by 4-H club members
completing--------- ..-.....----- .-------.-.... 94,072
Families following better practices for poultry .....--..--_-_--- 6,283








Annual Report, 1941


DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted -.------ ---- 380
Result demonstrations conducted .......--------_.-_.- 454
Meetings held -- -........ -------------. 2__ 219
News stories published and circular letters issued --_ 83
4-H club members enrolled _... ----------~_. 774
4-H club members completing .------- --- 586
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members com-
pleting .......___......._ .__ __.. .. __ ... __ .. 512

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Result demonstrations conducted .._--_--.___...____ .---_.... 129
Meetings held --...-- __ ------------_-. 110
News stories published and circular letters issued ._.- 36
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments..-_.-. 570
Families assisted in getting established ----_-- ~_- 71
Individuals affected by marketing program_ --- -- 454
Organizations assisted with problems--_. __-----__... 232
Individuals assisted with problems .---. __-------__-_ -- 1,603
Value of products sold by association and individuals .---.--_-$354,419.00
Value of supplies purchased by organizations and individuals 78,916.00

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted --- 292
Result demonstrations conducted ---------- 1,303
Meetings held ---------------- -------- ---------- 366
News stories published and circular letters issued.--- 35
4-H club members enrolled _--------- 2,829
4-H club members completing -----~__ -_- 2,044
Families adopting improved food practices _---- ....._- -----_ ... 9,395
Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school
lunch ----..... ...... --- ---------- ------- ---- ---- -... 188
Children involved .....-----------....-. ..__ -....... 6,381
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ..--..- 87,673
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved _--- $21,007.00

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted ..----...._--------- 104
Result demonstrations conducted ---------------------- --.------. 188
Meetings held .-----.................------ ------------------------ .67
News stories published and circular letters issued..------.__.. 5
4-H club members enrolled.------------------.------- 807
4-H club members completing _.. ------------- -_-----------.-_..-.. ..- 591
Other 4-H club members who participated ---------.__----.-----.- -- 577
Families adopting better child-development practices ---..-- 3,409
Individuals participating in child-development program----- 896
Children involved ..------ ------ -------- .--.. .... 2,134







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted -__ ----
Result demonstrations conducted ---.---_-......_--.........._....
Meetings held --..------ -----.-..-.....
News stories published and circular letters issued----
4-H club members enrolled............--------...........-
4-H club members completing --------------. ....-...... _..._...... .....
Articles made by 4-H club members....... .-----_ ..-...-
Individuals following better clothing practices ........-------.. .
Savings due to clothing program --__--_--. ------..-..---


11
1,828
1,246
6,044
9,424
$5,992.00


HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS


Communities in which work was conducted ----.....---------.--
Result demonstrations conducted ------_______..........__-----....
Meetings held .-------....---------------------- ...........
News stories published and circular letters issued -----
4-H club members enrolled________-----------_
4-H club members completing --___. --...... ----.....-----
Units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing
Families adopting improved home-management practices --
Savings due to home-management program ..___- -......---------
Families making improvements in house furnishings ---...
Savings due to home-furnishings program---.. --_. --------
Families following recommendations regarding handicraft -

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted _..---------
Result demonstrations conducted ...-_.____ ------- ----- -_...
Meetings held --_________-----__-___ -----------
News stories published and circular letters issued---
4-H club members enrolled --.--_. --___ ------------..
4-H club members completing -----... -----..-____
Individuals having health examinations ......------- .-
Other 4-H club members who participated --------
Individuals adopting better health habits ---- -----------
Families adopting better health habits--.....----........


289
1,328
526
32
3,093
1,989
11,986
9,123
$9,921.00
4,974
$8,568.00
1,225


218
564
175
31
2,253
1,514
1,177
2,524
8,871
2,356


EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Meetings held ...---.....--.. ..--------_. -------------.. 279
News stories published and circular letters issued -. ~- 107
Communities assisted with community problems ----..........--- 662
Training meetings conducted for community leaders-.......-_..... 87
Families following recommendations as to home recreation 834
4-H clubs engaged in community activities.....----- -----........ -----. 75
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or
other relief agency -.......--------......--....... 304












INDEX


Agents' activities, 22
Agents, county and home demon-
stration, 5
district, 22
Negro, 7
Agricultural Adjustment Adminis-
tration, 6, 16
Agricultural conservation, assist-
ants in, 6
payments, 16
report, 16
Agricultural economics report, 21
Agricultural planning, 21
Agriculture, College of, 8
exhibits, 23
Agronomy report, 27
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and
Poultry report, 30
Army buying of local products, 26

Bedrooms, cotton for better, 51
Beef cattle breeding, 30
parade, 31
shows, 31
Board of Control, 2, 4
Boys' 4-H club meetings, 34
4-H club report, 34
scholarships, 34
short courses, 34
Broadcasts, radio, 19
Bulletins and printed matter, 18

Cattle parade, beef, 31
Celery producing costs in Ever-
glades, 23
Citrus cover crops and irrigation,
38
culture, report, 38
fertilizing and soil acidity cor-
rections, 38
grove costs, 24
grove management, 23
grove records, 23
Growers' Institute, 39
marketing schools, 23
meetings and trips, 39
pest control, 38
Clothing and textiles report, 50
College of Agriculture, 8
exhibit, 23
Comforters, mattresses and, 50
Contests, home canning, 56
judging and demonstration, 34
Cooperation with other agencies, 9


Cooperatives, Council of Farmer,
26
Corn, peanuts and, 27
Cotton and tobacco programs, 16
Cotton for better bedrooms, 51
mattress program, 16
program, supplementary, 16
Sea Island, 29
upland, 28
Council of Farmer Cooperatives,
26
Councils, home demonstration, 45
County agents, annual conference,
22
short course, 8
work on special crops, 22
County and home demonstration
agents, 5
Negro, 7
County Councils, home demonstra-
tion, 45

Dairy cattle sales, 31
Dairying shows and tours, 31
Defense, wartime and, 46
Defense Board, U. S. D. A., 17, 20
Defense Council, State, 30
Director and Vice-Director, report
of, 8
District agents, 22
Dress Revue, state contest, 51

Editorial and mailing report, 18
Egg-Laying Test, 32
Exhibit, College of Agriculture, 23

Farm journals, newspapers and, 19
Farm forestry report, 40
Fat stock shows and sales, 31
Feed crops, forage and, 28
Financial statement, 10
Florida Farm Hour, 19
Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale,
20
Florida National Egg-Laying Test,
32
Food conservation statistics, 56
Food for Freedom, 17, 52
Forage and feed crops, 28
Forestry, display train, 41
farm, 40
meetings, 40









Index


4-H club camps, 36
state shows, 35
trips, 36
Furnishings, home, 57

Gardening and food conservation,
55
Gardens and orchards, 55
Girls' 4-H clubs, 44, 48
short course, 52
Grove, accounts and tours, 23
costs, citrus, 25
Growers' Institute, Citrus, 39


Hogs, horses and mules, 29
Holland, Governor Spessard L., 30
Health and living, 46
Health improvement, 54
Home demonstration councils, 45
personnel, 44
report, 44
scholarships, 45

Home grounds, 57
Home improvement, 57
Horses, hogs and mules, 31

Income, farm family, 48
Institute, Citrus Growers', 39

Junior poultry work, 33

Land-use planning meetings, 21
Legislature of Florida, 8, 9
Livestock and poultry selling, 26


Management, citrus, 23
farm, 23
home, 57
Manures, farm, 43
Marketing, 25
Marketing home food products, 52
Marketing quotas, 16
schools, citrus, 23
timber, 40
Mattresses and comforters, 50
Mattress program, cotton, 16
Meat curing, home, 56
Men's work, report, 22
Motion pictures, short course, 20
Mules, hogs and horses, 31


Negro boys' 4-H club work, 60
canning and juice making, 61
county and home demonstra-
tion agents, 7
Extension meetings, 59
Extension report, 59
fair exhibits, 59
home demonstration meetings,
61
home demonstration report, 61
projects, typical, 59
women's and girls' short
course, 62
work, statistical report, 63
Newspapers and farm journals, 19
Nutrition and health report, 52
Nutrition conference, 52

Oats and pastures, 28
Orchards, gardens and, 55
Outlook information, 23

Parade, beef cattle. 31
Pastures, oats and, 26
Peanuts and corn, 27
Personnel, changes in, 9
Pictures, motion, short course, 20
Poultry Institute, 32
Poultry work, junior, 33
Pulpwood cutting, 40

Radio materials and broadcasting,
19
stations cooperating, 20
Station WRUF, 19
Rural electrification, 57
Rural home advances, 58

Scholarships, home demonstration,
45
Sea Island cotton, 27
Short course, boys' 34
county agents, 8
girls', 52
motion picture, 20
Negro women's and girl's, 62
Soil conservation districts, 42
Soil testing, 42
Soils report, 42
Staff, 2
State Defense Council, 30
State Press Association, 20
Statistical report, 10
Negro work, 63








Index


Sugar program, 16
Supervisory duties, 22
Supplementary cotton program, 16
Surplus purchasing plans, 26

Thrift endeavors, 57
Timber marketing, 40
Timber planting, 41
Tobacco programs, 16
Train, forestry display, 41


United States Department of Agri-
culture,
Defense Board, 20
War Boards, 17
University of Florida, 8
Upland cotton, 28

War boards, U. S. D. A., 17
Wardrobe improvements, 51
Wartime and defense, 46