Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of control
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Report of director and vice-di...
 Editorial and mailing
 Agricultural conservation
 County agents' activities
 Agricultural economics
 Agronomy accomplishments
 Animal husbandry, dairying and...
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citrus fruit culture
 Farm forestry
 General home demonstration...
 Clothing and textiles
 Food, nutrition and health
 Home improvement
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Activities with negro farmers
 Negro home demonstration work

Report Florida agricultural extension service
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00002
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1940
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00002
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director and vice-director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Editorial and mailing
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Agricultural conservation
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    County agents' activities
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Agricultural economics
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Agronomy accomplishments
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Citrus fruit culture
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Farm forestry
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    General home demonstration work
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Home improvement
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Activities with negro farmers
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
Full Text

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(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)




JUNE 30, 1940

H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale
W. M. PALMER. Ocala N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension'
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor1
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RuBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, State A.A.A. Administrative Officer.
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S.A., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR. Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PHD., Agricultural Economist'
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Leader in Land-Use Planning
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Assistant Leader in Land-Use Planning
J. R. GREENMAN, B.S.A., State Representative, B.A.E.
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'

MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LucY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIXES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent



REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR...................... .............. 7
Financial Statem ent ........................................................... 11
Statistical Report .................................................. 11

E DITORIAL AND M AILING .......................................... ............................ 17

AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION ............ .................................... 21

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES .............................................. 26

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ................. ................................ 28
Farm Management Activities ................................... .............. 28
M marketing ............ .......................................... 29

AGRONOMY ACCOMPLISHMENTS ................ ............................ 32

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY ............................. 36
Animal H usbandry ................. .......... ............................... 36
D airying .............. ........................ ......... ....... ........ 38
Poultry K keeping ............................................... .............. 41

BOYS' 4-H CLUB W ORK ....................................... ......... ............. ... 47

CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE........................... ................................ 52

FARM FORESTRY ............................................................... 56

GENERAL HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ............................................ 60

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES ......................................... ................... 67

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH ...................................... ............. 71

H OME IMPROVEMENT ............................................ ................. ....... 75

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION ......................................... 7

ACTIVITIES WITH NEGRO FARMERS ............................... ........... 80

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK .............................................. 82

N egro Statistical Report............................... ............ ...... 84


Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Hon. Fred P. Cone
Governor of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agri-
cultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida,
for the calendar year 1940, including a fiscal report for the year ending
June 30, 1940.
Chairman, Board of Control

Hon. H. P. Adair,
Chairman, Board of Control
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of
the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agricul-
ture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in
accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
President, University of Florida

Annual Report, 1940 5

Alachua --._. Fred L. Craft --_-.._- Gainesville--. Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker _... __- J. Raymond Mills .Macclenny _.----_--------------------.
Bay--------... M. B. Miller--..- Panama City....-----------------
Bradford ---_ T. K. McClane Starke .. --------..--------
Brevard .__-- T. L. Cain __....- --- Cocoa -- ----....---.... Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward ---. B. E. Lawton.-----_ Ft. Lauderdale-...------....Miss Olga Kent
Calhoun --. John G. Kelley* .. Blountstown Miss Mary Henrietta Reed
Charlotte --.. N. H. McQueen -.-Punta Gorda _..--------.--....-----....
Citrus ..------.Ben L. Gittings --Inverness ..-- Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Clay....------_. ----------- Green Cove Spgs.-__Miss Beulah Felts
Columbia --. Guy Cox ---------- Lake City ...-... Miss Margaret Alford
Dade -------- C. H. Steffani -. Miami .--- Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.).J. L. Edwards..-- Miami .. Asst. Miss Margaret Delaney
DeSoto -..-. E. H. Vance --...--.. Arcadia -.-------_.....--------
Dixie ._...--. D. M. Treadwell Cross City-------
Duval ---__.. A. S. Lawton ------ Jacksonville ---.... Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.)Frank M. Dennis_- Jacks'ville, Asst. Mrs. Dorothea Calmes
Escambia ---- E. H. Finlayson Pensacola ._-------... Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden ----- Henry Hudson -... Quincy .. --...... ...Miss Elsie Laffitte
Gilchirst .---- A. S. Laird ..------ Trenton -- -----
Glades-..__ _F. D. Yaun..-_----- Moore Haven..........---------------
Gulf -----. E. R. Nelson ---... Wewahitchka -.Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
Hamilton --- J. J. Sechrest Jasper. --__ Miss Lillian Bradley
Hardee ...----H. L. Miller a-----u Wauchula--------
Hernando .--C. D. Newbern----- Brooksville ---
Highlands -L. H. Alsmeyer Sebring ...-------- -- --.. --
Hillsborough-Alec White ----Tampa .---- ..-.---.----
Hillsborough (West) --- Tampa -------Miss Allie Lee Rush
Hillsborough (East) ----- Plant City ----- Miss Irene Riley
Holmes-...-. S. C. Bell ..---_----Bonifay ..--__---. Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson -..... J. W. Malone ----- Marianna ----..- Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
Jefferson --. P. R. McMullen --- Monticello ..---.. Miss Ella M. Faircloth
Lafayette -- J. G. Kelley.---...- Mayo ---------
Lake -----.. R. E. Norris ------- Tavares .....--------Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee ...-----.. C. P. Heuck -------Ft. Myers ------
Leon .....-----K. S. McMullen -. Tallahassee ----- Miss Joyce Bevis
Levy -- ---T. D. Rickenbaker Bronson __.---__ Miss Wilma Richardson
Liberty------ Bristol .---.....----------.--
Madison ...--. S. L. Brothers .--. Madison ...----- Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee ---.- Ed L. Ayers ....--- Bradenton -----.. Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion ------ R. A. Startford ---- Ocala .... Miss Kathryn Riddle
Nassau-....- Julian H. Wallace- Hilliard ....---------
Okaloosa .. John G. Hentz, Jr. Crestview ---------------.......
Okeechobee. -C. A. Fulford ..--_- Okeechobee --......---------- ---------
Orange -__-.... K. C. Moore-.....-. Orlando ....------. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola ..---.-- J. R. Gunn ._---- Kissimmee .-----. Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach.__M. U. Mounts --.-- W. Palm Beach .Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pasco...---..---. J.A.McClellan,Jr.-.. Dade City....------
Pinellas ...-...-J. H. Logan --. -_-- Clearwater ..------. Miss Tillie Roesel
Asst. Miss Eileen Coil
Polk .--_.---.--.W. P. Hayman -.--- Bartow -- ------Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam.-..-------H. E. Westbury ....- Palatka .--------Miss Opal Walker
St. Johns--------Loonis Blitch ----- St. Augustine ---.. Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie --------Myron M. Varn -.- Fort Pierce....... --------... ------
Santa Rosa._ -John G. Hudson .- Milton --- Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole ..---- C. R. Dawson---__... Sanford ...-----. Mrs. Reva D. Andrews
Sarasota...---W. E. Evans ....-._. Sarasota .......... -- -------
Sumter- ........- W. J. Platt, Jr...--. Bushnell ..------------------------------
Suwannee-------S. C. Kierce--..._-.. Live Oak -... ..------- Miss Louise Taylor
Taylor.------ D. D. McCloud .- Perry------.--- Miss Manilla Wells
Union ..---.---L.L. T. Dyer_ ...... ----Lake Butler....--. --.-----------...
Volusia------------ F. E. Baetzman ..- DeLand .......--- ---.Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Wakulla .......-N. J. Albritton: .-- Crawfordville--........-Mrs. Pearl Penuel
Walton-.....-- Mitchell Wilkins. -DeFuniak Springs..Miss Eloise McGriff
Washington._- Fred W. Barber ....- Chipley ...........-..------- --------

*Transferred to Lafayette.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge- --..-.............Gainesville
James J. Love, Chairman, State Committee......--.._...... .... Quincy
Walter B. Anderson, State Committeeman ...-__.. -..... Greenwood
Chas. S. Lee, State Committeeman .............-- .....Oviedo
Harry C. Brown, State Committeeman....__ _.........__ ...__ Clermont
A. P. Spencer, State Committeeman ex-officio ...-............ ...Gainesville
E. Owen Blackwell, Asst. Field Officer and State Accountant...Gainesville
Mrs. Minnie P. Carr, Statistical Assistant .................----------.... Gainesville
R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor -....----...__-- ..... Gainesville
Alachua ----- _-----_-----Harry J. Brinkley .....--------...... Gainesville
Columbia ----- Mrs. Gussie Calhoun..-----......L-- ake City
Dade ----_ ----- -- Edward A. Little -........--------- ..Homestead
DeSoto .--. -------. Wm. L. Woods .--..... _.._._--. _........Arcadia
Gilchrist ---------- ------Harley M. Moore .......------..----........Trenton
Hamilton --_---- ------ Lawrence W. Burnham....--.............Jasper
Hardee -------- Miss Eleanor M. Glorious -..._-. Wauchula
Hernando -----------Leon W. Miller .....----.............Brooksville
Jackson -- ---------- Jack E. Donald ..----..-..-..-............. Marianna
Lake ---------------------George T. Huggins ---- --Tavares
Lee ....-------.---..-------- Miss Beulah H. Goodrich-.......Fort Myers
Levy ------------ Daniel D. Faircloth----...........----Bronson
Madison -------- ------Daniel G. McMullen ---..-..............---. Madison
Manatee ----- ---- -- Arthur M. McNeely.---... ---.........- Bradenton
Okaloosa ------R. C. Lipscomb .......---------.........- Crestview
Orange --.. __....____.__-_Bernard J. Sullivan....---........ _--.Orlando
Palm Beach .._.-___ Mrs. Mary McCarley __West Palm Beach
Pasco-._..---___.----------- Seth C. Sparkman -...............__ Dade City
Polk...........----------- ---T. H. McRorie, Jr .-------....................------ Bartow
Santa Rosa .--- -----------Charles N. Clymore ......-------------.....Milton
Seminole -___.. -- ----------Geo. C. Means..---------. Sanford
Union -- ------- -------Grady Brannen -------..............._-- Lake Butler
Volusia -------------------Orwin A. Morse ...----....--.....------.... --..DeLand
Walton -- _------ Arnold G. Hutchinson ..DeFuniak Springs
Washington --.--__..-- ----.------. Rex Yates...--...-....-- ..---__.----. Chipley
Alachua-- ................--...... Frank E. Pinder ..-.-.....- .... Gainesville
Columbia and So. Suwanee .. McKinley Jeffers------ ...... -- Lake City
Gadsden ..-- .. ..-------Russell Stephens ...-___.._ _.. ... ..Quincy
Hamilton and No. Suwannee__N. H. Bennett .----.. ..__.. _-White Springs
Jackson-.- -- 0-- O. W. Nealy ----------...------........Marianna
Jefferson ------ ------- M. E. Groover. -----...-----. Monticello
Leon-----_.. ----- -. ---.-- Rolley Wyer, Jr..--..---_--- ... ..Tallahassee
Marion ---------- -- Eugene P. Smith ---------------. Ocala
Sumter..---- --------- Alonzo A. Youhg........- ---.. .....Bushnell
Alachua .----_. -----..--_ ------Mary Todd McKenzie -_--...Gainesville
Duval -------- ----.Ethel M. Powell __-_... .. Jacksonville
Gadsden -- Diana H. Bouie_ --_ .---- -.Quincy
Hillsborough --.. Floy Britt .-----. -_ .- --- Tampa
Leon .. --... -. Maude K. Mumford.__.. .. .Tallahassee
Madison .... .--- _-_ ----- Althea Ayer -_---... __..... Madison
Marion.. ------------ -----Idella R. Kelly. ---- Reddick
Putnam -.......-------- --_------ Fannie B. Diggs .--.--. .. ..----- Palatka

Annual Report, 1940



Wilmon Newell, Director
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director

Opportunities broadened and responsibilities widened in the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service during 1940, but the plans and the per-
sonnel previously utilized underwent few major modifications. Coop-
eration was continued with other State and Federal agencies, that the
needs of the farming population might be more fully supplied.
Conservation activities expanded and the Extension Service again
served as the main collaborating State body in connection with-the ad-
ministration of the Federal Agricultural Adjustment Act. Several addi-
tional Soil Conservation Districts completed their organization in com-
pliance with the Florida law.
Coordination of State and county agricultural planning and educa-
tional programs was undertaken in association with the Federal agen-
cies operating in that direction and included special duties by the Vo-
cational Agriculture teachers.
County Extension agents assisted the Federal Rural Electrification
Administration, the Federal Surplus Commodities Corporation, the Fed-
eral Feed and Seed Loan project and the Federal Crop Reporting Board.
State groups worked with included the Department of Agriculture,
the Livestock Sanitary Board, Marketing Board and Board of Health,
also sundry organizations of fruit and vegetable growers, livestock pro-
ducers and poultry raisers.
County appropriations for Agricultural Extension now average about
$2,000 each, ranging from $800 to $10,000 a year. In the instances where
the larger sums are provided, clerical assistance, equipment and operating
expenses are more liberally supplied. Assistant Extension agents are
employed in three cases, and paid with county funds.
With one exception, the Negro work is paid for in all counties with
State and Federal Extension appropriations. Demand has increased for
Negro agents and their number could be profitably enlarged if the
funds were available.
State and county appropriations combined equal some 50 percent
of the total Extension budget. Increases authorized by the 1939 Legis-
lature did not become available during 1940, owing to the condition of
the State general revenue fund.
Specialists prosecuted the several phases of Extension work during
1940 on much the same basic plans as formerly.
Publications and publicity activities covered the distribution of
bulletins, news stories and radio broadcasts on an expanded scale. Lit-
erature originating in the United States Department of Agriculture was
extensively made available to Florida farmers.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Boys' 4-H club camps constituted a factor of greater importance
than ever in the work with young people. Supervision was provided
from the State Extension funds for properly conducting camps which
served 42 counties and were attended by 1,364 4-H club representatives.
Beef cattle raising received more encouragement from farmers
and land owners than in any preceding period and the Extension live-
stock specialist was much in demand. Fencing pastures containing culti-
vated grasses made excellent progress, the Agricultural Conservation
activities assisting materially in that direction. Farmers who raise hogs
exhibited renewed interest in home curing of meats, according to
the methods long recommended by the Extension Service.
Dairymen also took part in the improved pastures movement. Clov-
ers proved increasingly popular where soil conditions were favorable.
Plans for eradicating Bang's disease went ahead successfully and many
herds were found to be entirely free. Grade heifers secured from com-
mercial dairies were distributed through several County Farm Agents.
Dairymen in 24 counties enrolled in six cow-testing associations, involv-
ing 3,639 cows. Direction for the endeavor was supplied by the Ex-
tension Dairy Specialist and the County Agents.
As heretofore, Extension agronomy effort was principally devoted to
the general farming areas though on pastures it became State-wide in
nature. Tobacco problems grew acute as regarding marketing, and acre-
age was generally reduced. Sea Island cotton output was reduced below
that of immediately preceding years, boll weevil infestations and several
other factors having lessened the yields. Prices proved satisfactory and
an increased acreage appears certain for 1941.
Citrus growers had another unprofitable season and industry con-
troversies grew more widespread. Production costs must be still further
lowered, if grapefruit and oranges continue their current course and the
Extension Citrus Specialist has recommended the practices that will
help attain this end. Farm Management and Marketing Specialists also
devoted much time to the citrus situation. Grove owners' associations
took a prominent part in the Florida Council of Farmer Cooperatives.
Poultry division undertakings followed two principal lines, one
dealing with farm flocks and the other pertaining to commercial yards.
Farm flock records collected by the Extension poultry specialist over
a period of years furnished the basis for selection and feeding recom-
mendations. The National Egg Laying Test at Chipley has also supplied
valuable information for fourteen years. Contests along lines which
appealed to 4-H club members included one of special importance at
the Central Florida Exposition in Orlando.

Land-Use planning has in a measure supplanted the work on farm
management problems handled by the Extension Service Agricultural
Economics specialists. Land-Use planning is set up as a project closely
correlated with Agricultural Economics. The Extension Service has taken
the initiative in getting the programs underway in the counties.
The Land Grant College BAE Committee is made up of three mem-
bers representing Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Florida Ag-
ricultural Experiment Station, and the U. S. Department of Agriculture

Annual Report, 1940

BAE Representative. This committee, with the assistance of county and
home agents and district agents, has taken a leading part in preparing
for community and county programs and analysis of problems.
Other agencies assisting were: Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, College of Agriculture, State College for Women, State Plant
Board, State Highway Department, Florida Forest and Park Service,
State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Live Stock Sanitary
Board, U. S. Public Roads Administration, Southern Forest Experiment
Station, Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Soil Conservation Ser-
vice, Farm Security Administration, State Department of Agriculture,
State Planning Board, Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engin-
eering, Rural Electrification Administration, Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, Bureau of Biological Survey, and Farm Credit Administra-
The farmer members consisted of three women and six men rep-
resenting different important agricultural production areas of Florida.
The programs are in progress in 11 counties having Extension agents.
The unified county program is carried on in Columbia County.
Production cost records on citrus, potatoes and celery have been
kept as usual. Findings disclosed thereby increase in value with every
added year. Data collected in this field have found usefulness in the
conservation plans. Supervision for the Agricultural Economics work
comes directly from the College of Agriculture, thus coordinating Ex-
tension and Research information.
Both the Marketing Specialist and the Farm Management Special-
ist have extended further cooperation to the State Cirus Commission,
Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated, and like organizations. Market-
ing endeavors also were made with respect to other perishable com-
modities. Educational endeavors attempted in nearly all the organized
groups more and more rely upon the Extension Service for the means
whereby they may be made effective.
Farm Forestry is another of the newer Extension Service projects.
A former county agent is in charge and his work has been increasingly
productive of results. Gum farming has been advocated as a dependable
source of cash farm income. Forestry activities are to be emphasized and
enlarged, in close connection with Land-Use Planning, and the various
conservation movements.
On the State staff are the home demonstration agent, three district
agents and four specialists. These work with 38 county home demonstra-
tion agents and three assistant agents.
County home agents were helped with 226 meetings, attended by
11,348 persons.
For the first time in Florida, regularly organized courses were of-
fered at the State College of Agriculture for home demonstration agents
in service. Sixteen home agents took the couse, all except two receiving
graduate credit.
In addition to the 16 agents who studied in the summer courses,
two agents received credit for courses given by the University General
Extension Division. Four county home agents attended the International
Live Stock Exposition and 4-H Club Congress in Chicago. The nutrition
specialist completed work for her master's degree.
Result demonstrations held at 2,157 places had a total attendance of
24,970. In 26 counties, tours took the agents to the yards, gardens and

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

poultry flocks of many demonstrators. Home agents from 38 counties
reported 15,677 home or farm visits, reaching 8,121 different places.
Home demonstration agents served directly 23,432 farm families
during the year, and 12,705 families not on farms. In addition, 2,674
other Florida rural people volunteered without pay for a total of 4,814
days to help extend home demonstration in their communities.
Thirty of the 37 counties having home demonstration agents were
represented by county council members at the State Council during the
Short Course in June. Senior councils are functioning in 33 counties.
Thirty-two new club buildings or rooms have been secured in the last
12 months.
County home demonstration agents devoted an average of one-
third of their time to work with girls, which they direct in their terri-
tories. Girls between 10 and 20 years old enrolled in a total number
of 10,577. Eighty-four public achievement programs held by the 4-H
girls had an attendance of 12,423.
Two winners of first honors in the State work also took the high
rank in National competitions. Catherine Barnes, St. Johns county re-
ceived a scholarship fund of $400 for achievement in foods and nutri-
tion. Marie Fletcher was awarded a $200 cash scholarship for national
honors in canning and food conservation.
Annual Short Course for Florida rural girls at the Florida State
College for Women was attended by 463 girls and 37 leaders, and all the
home demonstration agents.
Registration for the College 4-H Club at the Florida State College
for Women totaled 73.
The State Agent served on a national committee studying research
needs of home economics extension work. She is councillor for the
American Home Economic Association and member of the Placement
Board for the American Dietetic Association.

Negro agents are employed in 14 counties with nine farm agents and
eight home agents. Headquarters for the District Agents are at the A.
& M. College, Tallahassee.
The Negro program continues to deal primarily with maintenance of
food, feed and supplies. Home agents have carried on a program of
thrift and better living standards,- and have contributed particularly
in nutrition, health and home improvement.
Through county exhibits and fair exhibits much educational work
has been done in keeping with the Negro home demonstration agents'
The Negro men's work continues to be a production program, em-
phasizing family living. This naturally involves all phases of agricul-
ture suited to the area, including the production of farm crops and live-
stock that contribute to the income.
Negro 4-H club work has met with ready response and this program
has general approval.

Annual Report, 1940

For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1939
Federal Smith-Lever ---- -- $ 63,968.10
Bankhead-Jones, Federal ------- 120,447.93
Capper-Ketcham, Federal --------- ------ 26,555.74
Further Development --8,462.00
Clark-McNary --.---.---....------- --- 1,620.00
State-Salaries ...... ---------.----------.-----.. 55,800.00
Operating ------ ----44,808.00
Special-County Agent Appropriation -- 80,400.00*
4-H Culb Work Appropriation ...-- ---- .. 3,000.00
Commissioner of Agriculture ----___..-.._ 5,000.00
County Appropriations --___--- 130,658.84

Federal Smith-Lever _$-----.--- $ 63,968.10
Bankhead-Jones, Federal -------_- 120,447.93
Capper-Ketcham, Federal _.---- ---------_ 26,555.74
Further Development ------- 8,462.00
Clarke-McNary _-. ------------- 1,620.00
State-Salaries -- ------- --45,918.32
Operating ... ------- 38,121.24
Special County Agent Appropriation -----
4-H Club Work -__--.-- 1,996.63
Commissioner of Agriculture. __.. ------...--- -- 5,000.00
County Appropriations by County Boards --....... 130,658.84
Balance carried forward-State Appropriations .97,971.81

Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
Days service rendered by county workers. -------- 29,1521/4
Days in office ............ .......---------------. -------------- -.... .. 13,681
Days in field _..---____--_.. ..._____..------- 15,4711/4
Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily- 2,699
Number paid employees assisting Extension program.. _-- 527
Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 319
Members in such clubs ----. ----........---- --_ __ ... 8,051
4-H clubs .........----..... --------- -----... ..... 761
4-H club members enrolled .---........_....._ ---- .. 14,937
Different 4-H club members completing ---....---. ---_-.-- 9,349
4-H club teams trained---.-----.---..----------- ---------- 705
Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 15 years of age and older..------ 7
Members in these groups ----------- ---------------.---- _----..... 537
Farm or home visits made.----------.-..-. --------..----.----... 50,993
Different farms or homes visited ......------... --_..--..------. 27,658
Calls relating to Extension work --_.-------------.------------- ----... 385,698
News articles or stories published and circular letters ..-- 6,356

*Not made available from State Treasury.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Number individual letters written ..-----_._.----------------.. 121,504
Bulletins distributed ......----......----.----.--------. 123,038
Radio talks .-................-- ------------------ ----------------- 569
Extension exhibits shown .-_... ------------------------ 509
Training meetings held for local leaders ...---------------.--- 391
(Attendance ---------- 7,421
Method demonstration meetings held._ ------------- 11,762
(Attendance -------... --------..- 171,954
Meetings held at result demonstrations ........-----------------. 3,906
(Attendance .-------... --------_-. 37,727
Farm tours conducted ---........--- ------ ------ 363
(Attendance _--.-- ---------... 10,370
Achievement days held ...-------------------------------- 152
(Attendance .--- --------- 68,299
Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.)..- 94
(Attendance ---- --------- 4,634
Other meetings ----....------------ ------ --- ---- 4,701
(Attendance ---------- 188,311

Communities in which work was conducted ------- ---- 455
Result demonstrations conducted .------------------ 198
Meetings held ............------------------------.--- 164
News stories published and circular letters ---------. 66
Farm or home visits made ---..----....--------------_--- 907
Office calls received...............--------------- ----- 5,081
4-H club members ...........--------------------- 519
4-H club members completing-------... ----- ------ ------- 283
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members
completing --. --------.... -----------------------.------. 4824/
Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members
completing -------------------------------- ----.. ------. 85,786/ Bu
Farmers following better practices recommended...---_ --- 11,856

Communities in which work was conducted ...--------_-----. 1,529
Result demonstrations conducted ..._------_......._----------..- 1,089
Meetings held ---------------.....-----------....------..-----.-----.------- 1,116
News stories published and circular letters ..-----------------. 797
Farm or home visits made........ ----------------- 4,204
Number office calls received ...------.-------.-------------. 25,257
4-H club members enrolled ...------..--------.. .- 352
4-H club members completing ..--------_._... _-----.------------ 215
Yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing-
(Seed, pounds ...-------- --------- 96,259
(Forage, tons --------------- 94%
Farmers following better practice recommendations .--.---- 11,459

Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops Cotton Tobacco

Communities in which work was
conducted --------------------------
Result demonstrations -----.------.----------..


227 157
85 45

Annual Report, 1940

Meetings held .-------.------. 308 399 159
News stories published and
circular letters written .--- -___.. 155 296 215
Farm or home visits made ---_ 1,128 603 852
Office calls received ...-------- 5,243 17,891 15,611
4-H club members enrolled -_ 255 84 18
4-H club members completing -_----- 98 45 13
Acres in projects by 4-H club
members completing ----83 431/2 16
Yields by 4-H club members
completing ---- ------ 8,5111/Bu. 35,521 1b 14,851 lb
Farms following better practices__ 540 9,744 7,006

Communities in which work was conducted ...---- ---.-.-- -- 2,786
Result demonstrations conducted.. ___--- ----_-- 9,393
Meetings held --------- --------------------------- 3,486
News stories published and circular letters issued .--------- 1,401
Farm or home visits made ...---- -.__ .... ....... 10,500
Office calls received ..... -------- 32,801
4-H club members enrolled __-----... .. ---__.. -_.. .---- 8,321
4-H club members completing.. ..- --------- ------- 5,015
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members
completing ---- ---- ------- -- 1,4893
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members
completing --._--__------.----_----- 89,785 3-5 Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices ..---_-...-----. 53,475
Communities in which work was conducted_ --_ 613
Result demonstrations conducted .- .... ~_ --._ -- 632
Meetings held -------------.----------- --.-----. 536
News stories published and circular letters issued --_--..... 325
Farm or home visits made ..--_ .----_ ...----- ----- .... 1,409
Office calls received -.....---.....-- .----------- ------ 9-- 9,346
4-H club members enrolled .---_ ---------- 629
4-H club members completing...--------...---------- 233
Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting
with small trees --.------_--------.--- .-- ..-...-- 7,261
Acres reforested ..-------.....-------- ...--__ .........- 6,228
Farms adopting better forestry practices ._---_... ------ 5,566
Farms adopting soil conservation practices --_--------------- 1,385
Acres involved ..-.--------.. ..._.--------- --------- 108,154
Land clearing .......... ---------- --______--. 355
Acres involved ----... -_.... -------- ----- 39,253
Farmers adopting better machine practice .--.----._------------ 879
Number machines involved.---------.----------.-.------ .... 1,150
Farmers adopting better building and equipment practices 6,689
Building and items of equipment involved..- ------... -__ .. 7,310

Communities in which work was conducted ----- 711
Result demonstrations conducted --..-......._..._----------- 1,984
Meetings held ----.------ --.--.--------- ----------- --.---. 1,369
News stories published and circular letters issued----...... 507

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Farm or home visits made ..... .... .. ....... .. 3,652
Office calls received ...------. ----. -- --.------- -8,806
4-H club members enrolled --... .....----- --..------..-- 2,491
4-H club members completing ----_- -------------- 1,318
Number chickens raised .- --- ----..--.... 665,554
Number colonies of bees_-__.. -- ----- -- 62
Families following improved practices in poultry raising 21,738
Families following improved practices-bees-- --- 1,708
Communities in which work was conducted ----.--- 1,532
Result demonstrations conducted.........--------..... ------- 1,932
Meetings held ... ---------- ------- -------- 1,858
News stories published and circular letters issued ...----.. 934
Farm or home visits made -------_----~__--__ -------- 9,507
Office calls received ------ ------- 33,585
4-H club members enrolled ...------.... -- ------------. 2,175
4-H club members completing--_.... --------------- 1,251
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members
completing -_----- ....... ............. ..... 3,085
Farmers obtaining better breeding stock -..-__ ...- ....__ 2,278
Farmers using other improved livestock practices ---_.. -- 27,706
Communities in which work was conducted .-____. ---- 1,472
Result demonstrations conducted .. ----.......----..._...- ...-- 1,036
Meetings held .... ...-------...--------... ... ..--..- .....----------------_ 935
News stories published and circular letters issued ---__._- 657
Home or farm visits made ..-. .....----..-------_. ..----_--.------- 2,690
Office calls received...-.....-----_ ----------.......24,599
4-H club members enrolled .....-----_..----.--- --------------- 9
4-H club members completing ...--------... _------- --.. --------- 6
Farmers keeping account and cost records ..------------___. 503
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts -- --------- 585
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments -. 4,329
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year 5
Farmers making business changes resulting from
economic surveys ..---_--...._.-.......- -------... .. 11,897
Families assisted in getting established ....-----_-- -------- 1,403
Marketing groups organized or assisted ..--.----------------_ 163
Individuals affected by marketing program .----------------- 8,095
Organizations assisted with problems .---.----__._-----___ .- 365
Individuals assisted with problems ..----.-..___-__--------__ --- 11,471
Value of products sold by all groups organized or
assisted --------------------------.. ------$4,826,714.51
Value of products sold by individuals (not in
organizations) ------- 2,157,726.87
Value of supplies purchased-all associations ..--_---- -- 329,760.50
Value of supplies purchased by all individuals ...----.---.---- 870,933.69
Communities in which work was conducted...---._____---- 2,106
Result demonstrations conducted .----... ----------------8 8,783
Meetings held ...- ---..........--------...... .. _... 4,069
News stories published and circular letters issued --_------... 791
Farm or home visits made .......- -__.___. __ 3,029

Annual Report, 1940

Office calls received .--..----.. ---------------------------- 12,519
4-H club members enrolled .--.....-- ----- ------------------ 7,606
4-H club members completing ..-_ ----- ---------------- ---- 5,315
Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H
club members ----.------------- 145,328
Dishes of food prepared, meals served and vegetables
and fruits stored and dried -.----.----------------.- 206,722
Families adopting better practices as to foods .- --- 17,038
Schools following recommendations for school lunch ..--_-- 220
Children in schools following lunch recommendations .--... 43,032
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs .2,138,891
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved ------..$562,857.53
Families readjusting family food supply ...--------------------- 4,544

Communities in which work was conducted.. ----- 193
Result demonstrations conducted _______ ......... ------- 619
Meetings held ---..--.....-------------------------------- 180
News stories published and circular letters issued ........- 45
Farm or home visits made..---.--..--------....---------------.-- 275
Office calls received .....-----..--... ---------------------- 465
4-H club members participating--.-- __------------ 140
Families following child-development plans .---....--_.--..---. 2,674
Different individuals participating in child-development
program .----. ----.. ------------------------- -- ------ --- 1,412
Children involved in child-development program __ 3,008
Communities in which work was conducted ------ 562
Result demonstrations conducted ---------- -------- 2,969
Meetings held --...........---------------------------- -----------. ---- 2,896
News stories published and circular letters issued .----_.--- 396
Farm or home visits made ...-.--...-....------------ 1,272
Office calls received .--- .......--------------------- ------ 5,990
4-H club members enrolled .----......- ----..----- 8,440
4-H club members completing .----------- 5,590
Articles made by 4-H club members completing ------- 34,861
Individuals following better clothing practices --- 25,026
Families assisted in determining how best to meet
clothing requirements .... .------.-.-- ------- .- 3,545
Savings due to clothing program. .---_----------- $73,269.81
Communities in which work was conducted ---------- 1,241
Result demonstrations conducted -~_ ------ -- 6,075
Meetings held ..... -------......... ---- -- .......... .. 2,750
News stories published and circular letters issued ___..- 468
Farm or home visits made.- -- __ ----_ 1,729
Office calls received .--.. ---.__ ------_ 8,945
4-H club members enrolled.-__-- ----------- 3,369
4-H club members completing -...--_-...__ ---.._......... _..... 2,223
Projects conducted by 4-H members completing -----............ 13,321
Families following better home-management practices ... 16,632
Estimated savings due to home-management program .... $50,232.00
Families improving household furnishings..__...._______----------- 13,408

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Savings due to house-furnishings program...--------------- $43,765.43
Families following handicraft practices....------_.-----.. ----. 1,824

Communities in which work was conducted --.------- 457
Result demonstrations conducted _--_ -- -- -- 1,153
Meetings held _---.. -___----- --___ -------.---------. 600
News stories published and circular letters issued .---.--. 138
Farm or home visits made--~__- ---- 619
Office calls received ..-------.--- .-------------- .5,578
4-H club members enrolled --~~__..-- 2,455
4-H club members completing ..-.__...-----.-....--.---__ .. 1,754
Additional 4-H club members participating ..- --... ---... 3,372
Individuals having health examination .._--.---.-_--...---- 3,907
Individuals adopting health measures___..--------__.. .. .... 17,713
Families adopting health measures.------------... ...---....-. 4,522

Communities in which work was conducted ........ ... 956
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting ....----..--. 1,012
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or
committeemen ___.------_____.__-----.....__ ..___... 2,712
Meetings held .--.---------- ------------ --.......---.... 1,270
News stories published and circular letters issued ..-........ 1,359
Farm or home visits made ------------...___ ..- ------........ 2,456
Office calls received __-- -----.__.....-___-_------___ ..._. 6,790
Communities assisted with community problems ..-_--........... 1,355
Country life conferences ------..----- -__---.---_---_ -____. 110
Families following recommendations as to home recreation 1,288
4-H clubs engaging in community activities -...- ...._.__.. 179
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross
or other relief agency .._..__- .._ _____ 3,360

Annual Report, 1940

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
With the Nation during 1940 centering its attention on defense, it
is but natural that Extension activities should be given a defense tempo.
Informational activities have endeavored to show how the programs al-
ready under way with Extension Service direction are serving the
Nation's defense requirements as well as its peacetime needs, and to
step up nutrition and other phases of farm life and work where de-
ficiencies have been shown.
While three editors, one stenographer and two mailing clerks have
been employed continuously during the year, with additional help in
the mailing room from time to time, these workers have given only
about two-thirds of their time to work for the Extension Service, the
remainder being devoted to duties of the Agricultural Experiment
While only three new bulletins and one circular were printed during
the year, they had a total of 196 pages, and 68,000 copies were printed.
Two new miscellaneous publications, totaling 56 pages and 6,000 copies,
were very similar to bulletins and circulars in content. Five old mis-
cellaneous publications, totaling 96 pages and 45,000 copies and being
mostly record books for 4-H club use, were reprinted. Other issues
included window cards, dodgers, a calendar, and various miscellaneous
Following is a list of publications issued during the year ending
June 30, 1940.
Pages Edition
Bul. 103. Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables -- 52 20,000
Bul. 104. Beef Production in Florida ..---------. 36 20,000
Bul. 105. An Economic Study of Commercial Poul-
try Farming in Florida -------....---- 96 8,000
Circ. 49. Making Cotton Mattresses at Home ....- 12 20,000
M. P. 28. Florida Citrus Costs and Returns -...--. 32 3,500
M.P. 29. The 1940 Farm and Home Outlook for
Florida ......------...... .-- ------ 24 2,500
M. P. 15. 4-H Club Food Preparation Guide and
Record (rep.) _----__ ~~ 24 5,000
M. P. 16. 4-H Club Baking Guide and Record
Book (rep.) ----------------------- 20 5,000
M.P. 18. Poultry Club Record Book (rep.) ---..... 16 20,000
M. P. 20. 4-H Club Girls' Canning Guide and Re-
cord Book (rep.) ----------------------------...--------.. 16 5,000
M. P. 21. Record of Garden and Perennial Plant-
ings (rep.) --..------------------.........____. -------- 20 10,000
Requirements and Records of Home
Improvement for Florida 4-H Club
Girls (rep.) .._--_.. -----___..--- ----... 12 10,000
Poultry Record Book ______-------_--.___... .. 28 1,500
Announcement and Rules, 15th Florida
National Egg-Laying Test ---------------------. 5 1,000
Final Report, 13th Florida National Egg-
Laying Test -----------.. ------------......_.._.... 20 1,500

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Window Card-Raise Healthy Pigs ------ .-- 1 800
Window Card-4-H Poultry Work ..---- -- 1 2,000
Window Card-Poultry Institute, 1939---- -- 1 200
Dodgers-Cherry Lake Farms Institute --- 1 1,000
Program, 1940 Boys' 4-H Short Course...- 8 400
Calendar, 1940 -__ __------- 12 12,000
Manuscripts for the publications were prepared by the authors,
checked by others, edited in this office, and sent to the printer. All new
issues were distributed to county and home demonstration agents and
libraries immediately on delivery, and on request after that. More than
50,000 copies of new and old Extension Service publications left the
shelves during the year. Demand for bulletins is so great that it is dif-
ficult to maintain a supply.


Informational materials were constantly sent to newspapers, both
weekly and daily, to farm papers circulating in this territory, and to
other journals related to agriculture and rural life. Generous use was
made of these materials by the publications receiving them.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was continued. It
was distributed principally to weekly newspapers, farm papers, and
county and home demonstration agents. However, it was sent to a few
dailies on special request. It carried from seven to 15 articles each
week reporting progress, giving timely information, and reviewing the
Special stories for dailies, when of immediate interest, were released
over the wire service of the Associated Press. When more in the nature
of time copy they were mimeographed and distributed direct to the
papers. While these mimeographed releases were made sporadically, it
was the endeavor to make them at least once each week.
Assistance was rendered to Gainesville correspondents on some of
the larger state dailies on numerous occasions. Special materials for a
farm page in one daily were supplied from time to time. Questions and
answers copy was sent weekly to one large daily throughout the year
and to one weekly for a short time before the year closed.
News mats were distributed an average of nearly twice a month
throughout the year. A majority of these were supplied by the Agricul-
tural Adjustment Administration and other agencies, since Extension
funds for the purpose are very limited.
Farm journals not only cooperated by printing Florida releases but
sought them on a number of occasions. The summary shows that 10
different magazines carried 49 different Florida articles supplied by the
Extension editors, totaling 1,228 column inches. Of these, four national
journals carried 8 articles for 89 column inches, one Southern periodical
carried 12 articles for 121 inches, and five Florida papers printed 29
articles totaling 1,018 inches.
In addition to these materials written by the editors, Florida papers
in particular printed dozens of articles by other members of the Ex-
tension Service, Experiment Station and College of Agriculture staff and
forwarded by this office. Copies of many of the radio talks made by
staff members were given additional usage in this way.

Annual Report, 1940

The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF from 12 to 1 p. m. went on the
air every week day during the year, continuing a program begun in
1928. The station rendered excellent cooperation at all times. A re-
capitulation shows that Extension workers-specialists and agents-made
91 talks, with cooperators, both adult and junior, appearing frequently.
In addition, at least one of the Extension editors appeared on the program
daily and two or three of them appeared frequently.
The programs were supervised and staged by the Extension editors,
but utilized staff workers of the College of Agriculture, Experiment
Station, United States Department of Agriculture, and other agencies and
individuals. On numerous occasions interviews, transcriptions, and even
dramatizations were used for variety and effectiveness.
In so far as practicable, the weekly schedule included the following
general topics: Monday, horticulture; Tuesday, entomology and ques-
tions; Wednesday, 4-H club, home demonstration and other general sub-
jects; Thursday, dairy and poultry; Friday, livestock; and Saturday,
news reviews.
Eight remote control programs were staged, one each from DeLand,
Fairbanks, Chinsegut Hill (Brooksville), the University poultry plant,
herbarium, and nutrition laboratory, and two from the special agricul-
tural exhibit train.
Two other broadcasts, from stations in Orlando (30 minutes) and
Tampa (15 minutes) were given from this train while it was on the road.
Microphones were carried into the train in each case.
Farm Flashes were sent for five days each week to county agents
cooperating with seven different radio stations in the state. The majority
of these flashes were supplied in mimeograph form by the USDA Radio
Service, checked here, and forwarded. When suitable USDA material
was not at hand local material was employed. Sixty local flashes were
sent, 24 being based on talks by staff workers and 36 on material pre-
pared by the editors.
Both county and home demonstration agents having broadcasting
stations accessible made extensive use of them, several with regular
weekly broadcasts.

The editors handled publicity for the special agricultural exhibit
train, previously mentioned, which was a cooperative undertaking be-
tween the College of Agriculture, State Department of Agriculture, and
Atlantic Coast Line and Louisville and Nashville railroads. Leaving
Gainesville November 7 it displayed in two or three towns each week
day through December 4.
In addition to radio broadcasts direct from the train, other radio
broadcasts over WRUF and through Farm Flashes called attention to
it in advance of its departure. Every newspaper in counties where the
train was to stop was supplied with from three to six special articles
and illustrations pertaining to the train. The clipsheet carried releases
concerning the venture for several weeks in advance, and during the
train's trip.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

The newspapers were especially generous in using materials rela-
tive to the train, several of them running special pages in its honor just
prior to its arrival in town. They provided their own reporters to cover
the visit of the train to their cities.
Cooperation was extended the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale
also, the Extension editor being chairman of the committee on publicity.
He supervised printing of the catalog, and handled both news and radio
releases concerning this event, which was staged in Jacksonville Feb-
ruary 27 and 28.
Cooperation was extended various divisions of the United States
Department of Agriculture, including the Agricultural Adjustment Ad-
ministration-for which frequent releases were made, the Agricultural
Marketing Service, the Surplus Marketing Administration, and others.
The Extension editor accompanied a photographer from the USDA
Extension Service on a trip through seven counties during the week of
June 24. More than 125 excellent pictures of farm and home activities
were secured, with the help of white and colored county and home
demonstration agents. Many of the pictures have been widely used
During annual Girls' 4-H Club Short Course at State College for
Women in June the editor gave intensive training in news and radio
writing to 32 selected girls, and held general classes attended once by
125 others.
Boys attending their short course at the University of Florida were
assisted in issuing a little mimeographed news sheet each day.
The Extension editor was present at six meetings, with an attendance
of 365 people, during the year.

Annual Report, 1940

H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge
R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor
A. E. Dunscombe, Field Man
Assigned to the Federal Agricultural Adjustment Act Administra-
tion from the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, the foregoing
were cooperated with by a State Committee comprising the following:
James J. Love, Gadsden county
C. S. Lee, Seminole county
W. B. Anderson, Jackson county
H. C. Brown, Lake county
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension,
ex-officio member
Stress was placed upon the wider adoption of conservation prac-
tices during the 1940 endeavor. Soil-building projects sponsored by the-
Agricultural Extension Service were employed to good advantage in
this connection. County committees operating under the Adjustment
Administration and farm agents worked with the utmost harmony to-
ward the desired ends.
Committees and agents are especially to be commended for excellent
results as follows:
Highlands, Orange, Osceola, Charlotte, and Hillsborough for out-
standing pasture establishment and maintenance work; Highlands,
Volusia, Lake, Orange, Polk, and Hardee for greatly increased use of
limestone; Jackson, Leon, Holmes, Okaloosa, and Escambia for increased
use of winter legumes; also Jackson, Madison, and Lafayette for their
pine planting programs; and Jefferson, Suwannee, Lafayette, Alachua,
Leon, Madison, Hamilton, Columbia, and Union for increased crotalaria
During the first half of the year 1940 payments were made to the
farms participating in the 1939 program. The Agricultural Conservation
payments thus made were for (a) compliance with acreage allotments
for special crops and (b) carrying out approved soil-building practices
on the farm. Additional payments (parity payments) were also made
to cotton farms complying with the farm cotton acreage allotment and
marketing quota provisions.
Through the use of the community and county committeemen in the
program a large group of well informed local farm leaders is being de-
veloped. Each year greater numbers of retiring county committeemen
are being replaced by men coming up from community committeemen
and many of these men are constantly looking for ways in which the
program can be of the greatest benefit to their communities and their
Prior to the beginning of the performance work the county per-
formance supervisors and administrative assistants were brought to-
gether in groups of from four to six for intensive instruction lasting two
days. The county supervisors and administrative assistants in turn held
training schools for their farm reporters, followed by a written examin-
ation. Only reporters who made satisfactory grades were employed.


Payments in Payments in Total ACP Payments Parity Payments
Connection Connection Increase in
County with Special with Soil- Small
Crops Allotments Building Payments No. of Amount No. of Amount
Practices Farms Farms
Alachua ___ $. 8,714.00 $ 35,616.78 $ 4,740.00 670 $ 49,070.78 10 $ 228.89

Baker _-__ -_
Bay --._____.__- _
Bradford --
Brevard --_____......
Broward -~__ ~___..
Calhoun .--_- --- --
Charlotte -
Citrus ___----
Clay -----_____ -----.
Collier ---
Columbia --------

DeSoto ---. ..-
Dixie --_-----_--------___
Duval -----
Escambia -
Flagler ..----_ __..... -
Gadsden --
Gilchrist .
Glades -----
Gulf -----
Hamilton ___
Hardee -------- --
Hernando -- -- --
Hillsborough -----......
Holmes -
Indian River ------.













253.12 'i
422.03 &

2,182.14 <


15,307.25 "

933.16 4


Jackson -- ---
Jefferson _____..
Lafayette ___-
Lake --
Lee ----....----- --
Leon --__ --
Levy __ ----
Liberty ----------
Madison _.__....--.
Marion --
Martin --
Nassau ....---..- __--
Orange ------. -
Osceola ----
Palm Beach ....------.
Pasco --- --
Pinellas ---
Polk --
Putnam --
St. Johns
St. Lucie -----
Santa Rosa ----
Sarasota -__ --
Seminole ----
Sumter ----
Suwannee ---
Taylor -- -
Union ----
Volusia ---
Wakulla .--.-____
Walton ---- .
Washington --

69,805.00 43,439.37
7,555.00 32,901.65
2,187.00 10,311.36
2,439.00 64,588.26
4,684.00 11,870.78
11,667.00 31,354.02
2,277.00 40,286.98
21,057.00 31,709.57
15,563.00 27,624.63
1,122.00 52,948.13
152.00 4,327.90
16,102.00 6,586.94
1,980.00 5,316.57
5,521.00 92,349.39
206.00 42,873.53
69,895.00 33,034.64
18.00 39,905.29
5,431.00 157,553.16
6,945.00 16,481.73
13,544.00 9,310.64
3,577.00 17,837.25
30,737.00 6,331.28
3,119.00 16,192.96
33,004.00 12,514.88
6,072.00 25,402.10
11,502.00 46,425.26
351.00 4,793.12
1,974.00 11,233.95
2,774.00 24,467.31
97.00 3,416.69
17,187.00 15,007.70
9,813.00 8,163.68
$587,794.00 $1,581,966.45



















24 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

In making these farm checks, aerial photographs were used in 13
entire counties and in portions of 7 others. Plane table maps and chain
sketches were used in the areas for which photography was not available.
For compliance with the provisions of the sugar program, Florida
sugar producers were paid a total net payment of $592,525.61 for 1939.
The acreage planted on these farms was 27,296.9 acres. The acreage har-
vested for sugar was 20,080.8 acres.
The work of establishing acreage allotments for farms under the
1940 program began in November 1939. The acreage allotments for cot-
ton and tobacco were completed and the farm operators notified of their
allotments prior to the marketing quota referendum for these crops on
December 9, 1939.
During the 1940 program year the following materials were made
available to producers in Florida as conservation materials (grants of
aid): Austrian winter peas, triple superphosphate, 20% superphosphate,
dolomitic limestone, and standard ground limestone. These materials
were purchased by the AAA through standard Government procedure
and furnished to farmers participating in the program in lieu of an
equivalent amount of cash payments. This has enabled many farmers
to use these materials who would not otherwise have been able to do so.
Requests for these conservation materials were executed in the
county office and submitted to the State office for approval. A check
was made on all requests submitted to this office to determine if the
producer making the request for the material was eligible to receive a
payment in 1940 sufficient to cover the cost to the Government of the
material requested.
In 1940 marketing quotas were in effect on both cotton and tobacco,
being approved in the referendum on December 9, 1939.
The tobacco marketing quota for the farm was the entire production
from the allotted acres. This change in the quota provisions reduced
the complaints and dissatisfaction very greatly and resulted in a very
smooth operation of this phase of the program. Two review committees
were set up to handle appeal cases. These committees completed their
work and rendered decisions on all cases coming before them prior to
the planting season.
There were 38 indicated violations reported. Of this number, all
except six or eight are either trivial or technical violations only. Less
than 60 farms in the entire State harvested tobacco in excess of the
farm marketing quota.
Cotton quota work in 1940 proceeded in a satisfactory manner with
very few complaints or violations. There were no cases to come before
the review committee.
The cotton mattress program was begun early in 1940. This pro-
gram is carried on cooperatively between the Agricultural Extension
service, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, and the Surplus
Marketing Administration. Its purpose is twofold: (1) to provide deserv-
ing farm families in the low income group with adequate and comfort-
able cotton mattresses, and (2) to remove surplus cotton from trade
The program was operated in 1940 in 28 counties in Florida. Cotton
and ticking for mattresses was delivered through the Agricultural Ad-

Annual Report, 1940 25

justment Administration offices in the various counties on the basis of
approved applications for these materials filed by low-income farm
families. The making of the mattresses is under the direction and super-
vision of the county home demonstration agent.
Under the provisions of the Sugar Program 1940 proportionate acre-
age shares of 25,139.1 acres of sugar cane for sugar have been estab-
lished in four counties for 41 farms. The acreage planted for harvest in
these four counties is 30,466.3.
Work was started on the next year's program earlier than in any
past year. Before January 1, acreage allotments for 1941 had been es-
tablished on cotton, tobacco, potatoes, commercial vegetables, and celery
farms, and the farm operators were notified of the 1941 acreage allot-
ments for their farms.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent
A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent
In the North and Northwest Florida Agricultural Extension Service
district, Gulf County had a farm agent during 1940 for the first time.
Central and Southern Florida district operations covered the same terri-
tory heretofore handled in this division.
District agents found greater and greater need for supervisory
work, covering the entire range of Extension undertakings.
Farming in the North and Northwest Florida sections deals mostly
with staple crops and the Extension endeavor is largely concentrated
Two farm institutes were conducted, 17 farming tours, 17 tobacco
grading demonstrations and one tobacco market inspection referendum.
Soil conservation districts were formed in 8 of the 12 counties where
they are needed. Federal Agricultural Adjustment Act administration
functioned in all the counties.
Coordination of the several government agencies, including agricul-
tural adjustment, farm security, vocational teaching and rural electrifica-
tion was sought at a series of conferences.
Cotton variety tests were continued and showed that the leading
varieties yielded 200 pounds of seed cotton more per acre than the old
Land-use planning work was inaugurated in five counties.
The story of what a better land-use program means in one county
illustrates what it will mean in many. In this county there are 465,000
acres of cut-over land that is adjudged to be no good for agricultural
purposes, another 150,000 acres of good agricultural lands that should be
in farms, yet is actually cut-over land. There is another 50,000 acres in
farms not in cultivation or pasture-may be suited or may not be-and
only 30,000 acres in cultivation. Yet all the efforts of all agencies work-
ing in that county have been "funneled" down on the 30,000 acres. All
know the 30,000 acres cannot pay all the taxes and otherwise support
all of the 695,000 acres within the county. All the acres within the county
must be put to work again, each acre being devoted to the thing for
which it is best suited.
County fairs conducted in the district were larger and better attend-
ed than had been held previously. Exhibitors generally received help
from county agents in preparing their displays.
Pasture exhibits were shown in four counties, which the District
Agent assisted the county agents to prepare and stage.
Camps of 4-H club members at Timpoochee proved outstanding
summer events.
Membership on the Florida committee of the Federal Farm Se-
curity Administration is held by the supervising agent for the North
and Northwest Florida District and he appeared on the annual confer-
ence program.

Annual Report, 1940

While the Central and Southern Florida district includes substantial
areas where general farming is extensively practiced, it has more terri-
tory in which special crops dominate and the work during the year was
planned accordingly.
Farm record keeping became of increasing importance because so
many fruit and vegetable growers operated on reduced margins. Records
obtained and summarized totaling 3,081 covered citrus, vegetables, po-
tatoes and dairying.
Pasture and forage activities took long strides forward. Aid from
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration gave a great impetus to
this work. Around 100,000 acres were planted to pastures, mostly with
carpet grass and about 1,000 acres in clover. Beef cattle production and
dairying both benefitted hugely from the pasture improvement plans.
Truck growers experienced adverse weather conditions during the
early part of 1940, in addition to the poor prices. Small growers seemed
to fare better than the larger ones. Extension Service aid has un-
questionably helped the little producers to survive and they again re-
ceived special attention from the county agents of the district.
Freezes destroyed much citrus fruit and the war situation ruined
the export market. Meetings in which the Extension Service took a
prominent part sought further to bring about coordinated marketing.
At Camp McQuarrie the Citrus Institute held the most widely attended
meeting in its seven years' history.
Summarized as in previous years, the supervisory activities in the
Central and Southern Florida District disclose that the district Agent
accomplished the following:
Made 164 visits to county agents for consultations, suggestions and
promotion of plans of work.
Made two visits to counties having no county agents to work with
committees on agricultural problems.
Held or took active part in 58 meetings with over 12,000 farmers and
others to give educational information, promote special features of Ex-
tension work and discuss plans of work.
Held 12 meetings with county commissioners adjusting misunder-
standings, getting appropriations, placing new county agents and dis-
cussing plans of work.
Made four radio talks on timely agricultural subjects, in addition
to making two talks over special farm hour broadcasts from farms and
other places.
Worked with county agents in conducting 14 farm tours to carry
lessons of better practices to farmers.
Held program building conferences with county agents in planning
program of work.
Made 20 addresses to organizations on agricultural information and
the promotion of agricultural Extension work.
Assisted in holding 4-H club camps with 26 counties with an at-
tendance of over 6,000 boys and girls.
Director of citrus and poultry institutes at Camp McQuarrie for
two weeks.
Spent one week in 4-H Short Course work, and one week in annual
Spent 76 days in office attending to correspondence, working out
plans for promotion of work and making out monthly and annual re-

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

R. H. Howard, Extension Economist
C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist
V. V. Bowman, Extension Leader, Land-Use Planning
J. C. Bedsole, Assistant Extension Economist
Normal development took place in nearly all the projects under
way when 1940 began and the land-use planning program underwent
considerable expansion during the year.
Growers record keeping on the Extension Service plan went ahead
for the eleventh marketing season. Production costs shrank in the mean-
while from above one dollar to 44 cents, excluding owner's supervision.
Grove accounts summarized during the period since the work began
have been in accordance with Table 2.
1930- 1931- 1932- 1933- 1934- 1935- 1936- 1937- 1938- 1939- 1940-
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40* 41**
Lake --.---- 39 61 88 86 105 109 97 87 70 67 66
Polk ------- -17 59 80 82 82 80 71 84 104 112 115
Orange ---....---- 46 42 48 44 60 59 57 51 43 42 44
Highlands .. 12 35 44 37 42 40 37 38 34 36 36
Others -__--__ 5 12 8 14 36 38 38 45 41 47 49
Total --__. -- 119 209 268 263 325 326 300 305 292 304 310
Estimate, based upon number of cost records completed as of August
31, 1940. Fruit receipts will not be available until the crop of 1940-
41 has been sold.
**Accounts started.
An economic study of the Dade County potato industry was continued
for the sixth consecutive season. Twenty-two enterprise records were
obtained, concerning more than 60 percent of the total potato acreage
in the section.
A cost of production survey of celery was again made. Marketing
outlay figures were secured from packinghouse books.
An Extension Economist attended the annual outlook conference at
Washington, D. C., as heretofore and new plans were made thereafter
for disseminating the information in Florida.
Farm record books in two classes were furnished by the Extension
Service. One went to 57 county agents and 176 vocational agriculture
teachers. The other was received by 170 Negro farmers.
Two State Committee meetings and numerous county and com-
munity gatherings took place during the year.

Annual Report, 1940

Programs have been planned and are operating at various stages in
Columbia, Escambia, Jefferson, Lafayette, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Semi-
nole and Walton counties.
A land-use exhibit was furnished upon request for the Slash Pine
Forest and Farm Festival at Lake City. A similar display was supplied
the Florida Fair in Tampa by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Four surveys have been made during the year, 11 since the be-
ginning of the project. Three preliminary reports have been accepted
during the year by the State Committee, a total of six to date. One
additional report has been reviewed by the State Committee, but is to
be revised slightly before final acceptance. Still another report has
been accepted by the county committee, but with requests for a few
minor revisions. Reports for the remaining three counties are in manu-
script form and have not yet been released by the Joint Land Grant
College--BAE Committee.
There are now eight county land-use planning committees with
elected officers and three that are without organization. All but one of
the county committees were organized as a result of land-use planning
activities. Seven counties are now pursuing one or more projects selected
by the county committees. The membership of the county committee
varies from 14 to 40, the majority of which is farm men and women.
There are now 191 farm men and women serving on county committees.
Florida was host to a traveling conference of land-use planning
specialists from Washington and elsewhere. Plans for the tour within the
state were under the direct supervision of the BAE representative. More
than 150 people took part in the conference here. Probably the most
significant thing coming out of the conference was the statement of H. R.
Tolley, chief of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, that he was quite
satisfied after six such conferences that moving large numbers of
farm people because of their present unsatisfactory locations was an
The Extension Leader and State BAE representative conducted land-
use planning discussions in the following seminars: Soils, animal hus-
bandry, horticulture, and agricultural economics.

D. E. Timmons, Marketing Specialist
As marketing problems became intensified, the Extension Service
activities in that field took on renewed importance.

Outlook information was supplied in meetings with county agents,
growers and organization groups at numerous times during the year.
County agents were called together at Winter Haven for the annual
marketing school.
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., and the College of Agruculture (Exten-
sion Service and Teaching Division) are cooperating in a series of mar-
keting schools. Several preliminary meetings were held in working out
plans for conducting these schools. A committee from Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., met with representatives of the Extension Service and
College of Agriculture, Teaching Division, and developed a general
program for these schools. It was finally decided that these schools

30 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

would be held in five districts and that grower leaders from various
parts of the district would be selected to attend these schools and they
in turn would hold classes in their respective communities. It was also
thought advisable to limit the number attending the class to 12 to 18 in
order that full discussion could be given to the topics presented. These
schools are now in progress and classes meet once every two weeks. They
are being held in Leesburg, Lake County; Orlando, Orange County;
Vero Beach, Indian River County; Bartow, Polk County; and Tampa,
Hillsborough County. There have been three meetings of these classes
and attendance to date has held up to about 85% of those registered.
Several county agents and Smith-Hughes teachers are attending the ori-
ginal classes. Several grower leaders have already started classes in
their communities and are being assisted in holding these community
classes by county agents and Smith-Hughes teachers.

In addition to Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., the Extension Marketing
Specialist has cooperated closely with sundry other trade and producer
groups. Among these were the Florida Citrus Commission, the Florida
Canners Association, the Florida Citrus Producers Trade Association, the
United Growers and Shippers League and the Federal Surplus Market-
ing Administration.
The Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie was attended and a re-
port made on the meeting of the National Institute of Cooperation.
Copies of the summary of the mimeograph report of the meeting of
this Institute were supplied those attending. A revised mimeographed
report on citrus canning in Florida was prepared and copies were sup-
plied to growers.

Time could not be devoted to the problems of vegetable growers
in the proportions that would have been desirable, owing to the extra-
ordinary demand from other interests for Extension Service marketing
State Farmers' Markets requested assistance in enlarging the volume
handled through their facilities. Conferences were held with numerous
managers and directors seeking to work out plans for the end desired.
Local auction markets for livestock offered new difficulties. Sani-
tary conditions regarding handling, treatment in auction yards and such
problems became so acute it was thought advisable to hold a meeting
to discuss these problems. The first meeting was held in Ocala, April
12, 1940, of auction market managers, packinghouse representatives, co-
operative sales managers and transportation officials to see if a plan
looking toward a more satisfactory handling of sales throughout the
State could be worked out. Another meeting was held in Gainesville
and several committee meetings have been held since then. Representa-
tives of the Extension Service, State Marketing Bureau and State Live
Stock Sanitary Board attended these meetings. Committees were ap-
pointed to work out recommendations with reference to decreasing
bruising in hauling and while in yards. They also are working on plans
for sanitary recommendations for auction yards.

Annual Report, 1940

Work on this project was continued from last year. The Extension
Service Marketing Specialist, as secretary, was active in the preparations
for and the conducting of the organization and first membership meet-
ing of the Council in Lakeland, June 7, 1940. He was asked to continue
as secretary in the formation activities of the council. Agricultural or-
ganizations represented included the Agricultural Extension Service,
Farm Credit Administration, Florida Citrus Producers Trade Associa-
tion, Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., Farm Security Administration, Agri-
cultural Marketing Service, Florida State Marketing Bureau, Florida
State Agricultural Marketing Board, Florida Citrus Commission, Ag-
ricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural Adjustment Administration,
Florida Citrus Control Committee and United Growers and Shippers.
At the completion of this meeting, the membership of the Council had
advanced to include 27 cooperatives. At the time of writing the mem-
bership numbers 28.
The council cooperated with the Farm Credit Administration in their
annual stockholders meeting. Its president appeared on the program
explaining the purposes and aims of the council and a number of its
members discussed the topic of importance of reserves to a cooperative.
Representatives of the council have been asked to appear before county
agents and seminar groups and as indicated in the purposes of their
organization they are working toward a better relationship between edu-
cational institutions and the cooperative marketing organizations.
Watermelon Marketing Agreement.-The watermelon marketing
agreement was temporarily suspended during the past watermelon
marketing season. An effort has been made to keep in touch with wa-
termelon growers and shippers and see whether they were interested
in the agreement being continued or permanently discontinued.
Celery Marketing Agreement.-The celery marketing agreement has
not been in effect for some time and there does not seem to be demand
for another agreement.
Citrus Marketing Agreement.-A grade and size citrus marketing
agreement is in effect and this year will probably determine whether
or not growers will be satisfied to continue it.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist
Maintaining and increasing soil fertility continued to be a principal
aim in the Extension agronomy endeavor. Six additional soil conserva-
tion districts were sponsored in water-eroded sections. Four are already
fully organized and the other two will soon be functioning.
Croplands terraced during the year ran around 1,000 acres. More
acres were cultivated on the contour system than ever before.
Green manure and cover crops on vegetable, grove and general farm
lands approximated 1,000,000 acres. Tonnage was smaller than usual,
owing to summer and fall drouths.
Winter legumes, such as Austrian peas and vetch, occupied a com-
paratively small acreage. Corn and other crops were intercropped with
summer legumes on about 350,000 acres.
To these cover crops and legume pastures there has been applied
25,000 tons of superphosphate, 20,000 tons of basic slag and approxi-
mately 80,000 tons of ground limestone this year.
Soil conserving practices were followed on approximately 40,000
farms, 75 percent of the places participating in the Federal program.

To again stimulate the farmers' interest in growing feed, the Dis-
trict Agent and Agent in Animal Husbandry assisted county agents in
conducting a series of meetings in their respective counties just prior
to planting time. These meetings were followed up by sending circular
letters to a large part of the producers, calling their attention to the in-
creased gains secured by interplanting their corn with peanuts and
properly spacing their peanuts. Another letter was sent calling their
attention to the amount of seed needed for planting an acre of peanuts
spaced properly. Again placards remained placed in county agents' of-
fices and other places where farmers assembled often, calling attention
to the benefit of these practices.
More landplaster and dolomite have been used during 1940 on or
under peanuts in the Northwestern part of the state to make them fill out
than ever before. The Extension Service persuaded the fertilizer dealers
to stock it last year. They continued to stock it this year. On many
different tests results were recorded showing solid peanuts again in-
creased in yield. These tests were made on land that had shown signs
of need.
In 1935 the Extension Service began a very definite program to
teach producers the value of and how to get larger peanut yields. By
spacing runners 6 to 8 inches and Spanish 4 to 5 inches in the drill
they could secure a 30 to 50 percent increase for only additional seed
cost. At that time they were growing approximately 45,000 acres with
an average yield of 525 pounds per acre. Acreage and yield have both
grown steadily since that time. During 1940 they have harvested ap-
proximately 90,000 acres which produced an average of 725 pounds per
acre. It should be noted that this has been accomplished through
teaching alone, without subsidy or coercion, and contrary to the usual
results of lowering the yield per acre while acreage was expanding. On
this basis alone this lesson is now worth annually a quarter of a million

Annual Report, 1940

dollars to the growers of the original 45,000 acres and on 90,000 acres its
value annually is one-half million dollars.

The planting of velvet beans among the corn and peanuts for
grazing during the winter was increased this year and suitable weather
made an excellent feed crop.
Sorghum has been grown about as usual by the dairymen and oth-
ers for silage. Some grow corn. There has been but slight increase.
Very little sugarcane was grown, put up as dry forage or ensiled this
fall because of stubbles killed last winter.
Farmers made the largest number of plantings of Napier grass to
provide grazing and silage that have ever been made in one year.
The production of legume hay has been increased in Florida this
year, and the quality of it is excellent. There are 50,000 tons of peanut
vine hay on hand and a good production of the finest peavine hay the
state has ever produced.
Alyce clover produces a high quality hay that is easily cured and
some of the lighter soils were producing fair tonnages where conditions
were right. It appeared to need fertilizing. The county agents attempted
by demonstrations established on all soil types to determine its adapta-
tion and then by comparative fertilizer demonstrations to determine
what fertilizer or corrective soil treatments were practical.

Pasture tours retained their popularity. Farmers not only again at-
tended them by the hundreds but they were taken part in by U.S.D.A.
officials, chambers of commerce officers, bankers, merchants and others.
During the years 1936 to 1940 there has been an expansion in pas-
ture acreage throughout the state; however, the larger part has been
in Central and South Florida. Much of it has been range-partly wood-
land-in its natural state fenced up. Power rotary brush and palmetto
cutters have been brought into use for destroying the native vegetation,
such as palmetto, gallberry, and myrtle. Highlands and lowlands, hills
and hammocks, loams and muck lands, as well as prairies, have been
turned into pasture. Farm visits, personal calls, demonstrations, circu-
lar letters, and AAA payments have all been used in promoting and
helping in this development. As a result hundreds of farmers and cat-
tlemen have converted acres of these lands into permanent pastures.
The record by years is as follows:
1936- 1,635 1938-62,189 1940-140,000 approximated
1937-30,990 1939-88,179 Total-322,993

County agents arranged and supervised a number of exhibits re-
lating to pasture and feed crops at numerous county fairs and at the
State Fair in Tampa. Hays, grains and forage and pasture crops were dis-
played to advantage.
Both county agents and the State staff participated in arrangements
for showing the special Livestock, Forage Crops and Forestry special
exhibit train which was shown in 53 towns of 42 counties along the
lines of the Atlantic Coast Line and Louisville and Nashville railroads

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

iS~.~bl*e 'L

Fig. 1.-Part of the forage crops display on the special agricultural
exhibit train which toured Florida from November 7 to December 4, 1940.

from November 7 to December 4. A good part of one car of this train
was devoted to exhibits of hays, grains, grasses, clovers, and other forage
an:l feed crops, and proved of interest to the 62,268 visitors.
To test out strains and varieties produced by the breeders more re-
cently, the Extension Agronomist for the second year arranged with
the breeders to furnish seed of their most promising strains or varieties
and with and through the county agents 18 variety comparative demon-
strations were established. Although the weather was somewhat unfav-
orable for cotton production the tests came through. The yields were
better this year than last.
For the first time this year cotton improvement associations have
been organized in the short cotton belt of the area. The cotton variety
demonstration work of the year before stimulated an interest in this
work. These demonstrations gave the county agents confidence in the
production of some of the better longer staple varieties. As a result
there were seven one-cotton improvement associations organized, rep-
resenting 1,563 acres.
The Sea Island cotton acreage is smaller than it was in 1937 and
1938, but a little larger than in 1939. It is scattered over a large area.
Congress two years ago provided for grade and staple service for
one-variety cotton communities. Thirteen of the 14 county one-variety
Sea Island cotton community organizations set up in 1939 were contin-
ued and several hundred bales have been graded by the classes of the

Annual Report, 1940

BAE grade and staple service. This service has been of much value, it is
believed. They will all be approached concerning the use of certified
seed for their 1941 plantings.
The Extension Service has kept its production and harvesting pro-
gram well before the producers for the last four years. Through meetings,
by personal contacts and circular letters, the producers have been ad-
vised to use 12 bushel of seed per acre, the use of kainit and muriate of
potash in their fertilizers in the central part of the state where the soil
carries a high phosphatic content, proper spacing, and the most desirable
time of planting. The farmers are learning better how to do the job of
producing and handling.
The Extension Service by the same methods brought to the at-
tention of the growers the benefit to be derived by proper preparation-
picking, sorting, and drying-before taking it to the gin. The ginners were
also told what it meant to them to see that it was dry before ginning.
The reports received from graders indicate that the producers and
ginners have done a better job this year in preparing cotton for gin-
ning than last year. More growers followed these recommendations in
1940 than ever before.
Just a few weeks before the market opened the Tobacco Section of
the BAE again assisted the Extension Agronomist and county agents in
holding many grading demonstrations throughout the flue-cured to-
bacco growing area. These meetings were attended by a great many
of the flue-cured growers of the state, and did much good. Again this
year the Extension Service undertook to detect and assist farmers in
control of blue mold. These demonstrations taught many farmers there
is an effective method of control. The Service was ready to assist this
year but the blue mold did not appear.
The Extension Service conducted a referendum this spring to de-
termine whether growers desired compulsory inspection on the Live
Oak market. The county agents having attended markets last year
where such inspection was being done and saw how farmers could, and
were using such properly, informed farmers what it was, how it would
work, and how they could us it, by circular letters and community
meetings with a result that the producers approved it by a big ma-
jority. There were approximately 5,000,000 pounds inspected on the
Live Oak market this year and a good educational job done.
Oats, sweet potatoes and sugarcane were other crops with which
the Extension Agronomist concerned himself, much the same as pre-
There has been very close and extended cooperation with the
Agricultural Conservation Associations, Soil Conservation and Farm Se-
curity Administrations. The work with the AAA has been in setting up
and recommending soil conservation practices to the State Committee, at-
tending meetings and explaining the Triple A provisions to the growers,
and sending communications to growers and urging them to use the
assistance offered them in putting good soil conserving practices into
use. The principal cooperation the Agronomist has given the soil conserv-
ation districts has been in helping to formulate the agronomy features
of their programs. He has kept Farm Security workers and vocational
agricultural teachers fully acquainted with the best practices to be fol-
lowed in the production of field crops.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist

Extension Service activities in these three closely related fields took
on additional importance during 1940, with the state-wide movement
for better beef and pork, higher quality milk and butter, and more eggs
and poultry products in the first grade.

Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
Beef cattle possibilities in Florida are attracting widespread atten-
tion and the Animal Husbandman answered many letters from invest-
ors and others who wanted information on the subject.
Fairs, sales and shows played a more important part than ever in
building up confidence among Florida farmers that they can produce
beef and pork as good as any that the country furnishes.
Breeding stock selection made further and substantial progress in
the period covered by this report. Feeder stock from Florida was bought
by cattlemen in other states more numerously than ever before.
A further result of selection has been demonstrated at the Florida
Fat Stock Show where this year 67 steers, or 24 percent of the cattle in
the show, graded choice and 92, or 35 percent, graded good, whereas in
former years medium and common grades predominated.

The first Florida feeder cattle show was sponsored by the Alachua
County Livestock Association and held in Gainesville on October 2,
1940. A total of 315 head were on exhibit. Included were a few purebred
breeding animals from local herds that were good representatives of
the breeds. The steers were graded by weight and quality and shown as
singles, pens of three, pens of 10, and carlots of 15. The entire show was
a decided improvement in grade, quality, and size over the average of
eight and 10 years ago. Alachua County furnished approximately 70
percent of the feeder cattle finished out for the Florida Fat Stock Show
where 279 finished steers were on exhibit.
On October 30 the Osceola County Livestock Association put on a
feeder show in connection with their range cattle. This was the first
attempt made to hold this class of show in the Kissimmee Valley. Most
of the steers showed Hereford and Brahman blood.
In a two days' conference at Camp Timpoochee, the Extension Ani-
mal Husbandman instructed county agents, vocational teachers, and
Farm Security workers with reference to hogs, beef cattle and work-
stock. At Lake City, he instructed Farm Security supervisors in hog
work and meat supply. At both Camp Timpoochee and Camp Cherry
Lake Farmers' Institutes, he outlined swine production and home meat
supply with reference to better living and national defense.
The Extension Animal Husbandman served on a committee to work
out plans and ethical methods of operating livestock auction markets.
He met with a committee of the State Chamber of Commerce on policies
relating to cattle development and forestry work. He attended meetings
of Southern extension directors and district agents at Auburn, Alabama.

Annual Report, 1940

Again the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale at Jacksonville proved a
huge success. Held on February 27 and 28 for the sixth consecutive year,
the event constituted an outstanding step in cattle industry progress.
The grand champion steer was a Florida bred and raised Hereford
that graded prime; weighed 1,155 pounds; dressed 67.01 percent; age 19
months; bred by T. D. Matthews; fed out by George Duke; sold for 50
cents per pound. The reserve champion was a Florida raised steer that
graded choice and sold for 32 cents; weighed 675 pounds; dressed 64.75
percent; age 11 months; bred and fed out by A. L. Jackson.

1940 1939 1938 1937
No. of cattle sold ---- 279 408 177 535
Total weight (lbs.) 225,580 304,425 144,010 455,180
Average price per lb. $0.1011 $0.1014 $0.1071 $0.0972
Average weight per
steer (pounds) -- 808 746 813 832
Average price
per head _----- $81.78 $75.68 $87.17 $80.94
Total sales .-__.---.---$22,817.62 $30,879.02 $15,429.45 $43,302.77
No. of exhibitors --- 63 58 12 50
No. club boys
exhibiting --_--- 49 81 23 21
No. 4-H club calves. 83 94 39 32
No. 4-H judging
teams 12 11 10 7
Price of grand champ-
ion steer -_--___.. 50c 57c 56/2c 321c
No. of Florida counties
sending cattle --- 10 15 10 16

In further pushing the "Raise Healthy Pigs" campaign, an impressive
poster was prepared and distributed. Circular letters were also exten-
sively utilized as heretofore. Practically every county agent in the hog
producing areas reported increased interest along that line.
Hogs shows were held during 1940 at Bonifay, Bushnell, Jay, Lake
City, Live Oak, Marianna, Ocala, Quincy, and Tallahassee. Activities
with 4-H clubs increased the supply of purebred and high grade swine.
There are 60 meat curing plants in the State. One was built at
Webster. The one at Williston burned last season and was rebuilt this
season. The one at Madison was overhauled and the capacity doubled.
There is no doubt but there is being more meat cured in cold storage in
Florida than was the case last year or any year before. Four plants
in one county are reported to have cured 1,100,000 pounds. Twenty-three
plants report four million pounds cured last season.

As previously, this endeavor sought to enlarge the Florida output
of horse and mule colts. Objections that the animals could not stand
heavy work have been gradually overcome.

Fig. 2.-This farm mare with her mule colts is helping to supply
good work stock on the farm.

Counties are numerous in which the farm agents reported increased
breeding of workstock. Horses and mules home-raised furnished exhib-
its for numerous shows and attracted general attention.

Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Family cows were again a first concern in the 1940 Extension dairy
plans. Between 42,000 and 43,000 milk cows supplied rural homes during
the period.
Dairy animals furnishing milk to city and town residents numbered
from 68,000 to 72,000. About 14,000 farmers produced milk as market
Lack of winter grazing crops and storage forage is a problem that
prevents the spread of farm dairying in Florida. With the Triple A pro-
gram gradually cutting down cotton acreage and other soil depleting
crops and with the Soil Conservation program and other programs fur-
nishing financial aid to help farmers change their type of farming, we
are getting a changed attitude toward old style farming in Florida.
County agents are beginning to understand thoroughly the purpose of
the Triple A in offering aid in forms of fertilizers, pastures, and soil
building crops, which is building the foundation for farm dairying in
many counties of Florida.
Thirty to 40,000 tons of blackstrap molasses were produced last year
in the sugarcane growing sections of the State. The storage of grass and
legume silages treated with blackstrap molasses offers an answer to
some of the forage problems confronting dairymen, not only in Florida
but throughout the entire Southeast.

The cooperation of various agencies including the Agricultural Ad-
justment Administration, Soil Conservation Service, Production Credit
Associations, and others with the county agents has advanced feed
growing demonstrations in 1940. Extreme cold weather in early 1940

Annual Report, 1940

with limited rainfall in September, October, and November were serious
handicaps to overcome. This cold weather killed probably 80 percent of
the forage canes and Napier grass plantings in North and West Florida
and probably 60 percent of the forage canes, Napier grass, and Para
grass plantings in South Florida. County agents are busy re-establishing
these plantings in various parts of the state. These grasses are adapted
to types of soil where sod grasses and many forage crops do not grow
successfully. Unfavorable weather in 1940 reduced the results of winter
grazing crops. However, with better practices of fertilization and man-
agement, dairymen are continuing to seed winter grazing crops of oats
and rye.
Annual reports of county agents show that more than 70 percent
of the counties in the state having county agents are conducting demon-
strations in winter clovers of White Dutch, California Bur, Persian, and
some of the other varieties, including Black Medic and Hop in certain
counties of the State.
Silos in the State were practically all filled during 1940. Yields of
hay from peanuts, peavines, soybeans and kudzu were probably the
largest in 10 or 15 years. Sorghum silage once more proved the most
satisfactory for general use throughout Florida.
Close cooperation of county agents and Farm Security workers has
resulted in the addition of about 2,700 family cows during 1940. The
purchase of baby calves from market milk dairies has proven a very prac-
tical method of placing family cows on farms. These calves usually
cost about $3.00 each and are delivered to the farmer for less than $5.00
each. A common practice is to grow out these calves for the first few
months on a nursing cow, using from two to four calves per cow. This
method of growing the family cows with the farmer on the farm seems to
prove popular with a large number of low-income farm families.
Counties doing outstanding work along this line are Pasco, Hernan-
do, Sumter, Volusia, Duval, Baker, Columbia, Suwannee, Alachua, Un-
ion, Holmes, Hamilton, Jefferson, Lee, Madison, Nassau, Okaloosa,
Osceola, Washington, Pinellas, Hardee, and Wakulla.
In the family cow program, agents are giving more attention
to Napier grass and forage canes (and Napier grass and Para grass in
the southern section) as feeds adapted to dry soil types where many
rural people are located.
The group of 4-H club boys attending the State Short Course in
Gainesville in June gave evidence of very substantial improvement in
the type of boys doing 4-H club work, although there probably are not
as large numbers enrolled in club work as in former years. There are
34 county agents who have club boys enrolled with 4-H club calves.
Trips to the National Dairy Show offered each year by a large cheese
manufacturing concern have done much in creating interest among
farm boys in growing dairy heifers. This demonstration contest for
choosing the winners is held at the time of the 4-H club conference in
June in Gainesville.
Dairy herd improvement association testing was done in 25 coun-
ties representing all sections of the State.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

The wages paid dairy herd testers are $5.00 a day and board. Thirty
cows are the minimum with 15c per cow additional up to 40 cows as a
maximum day's work.
There are 13 dairies doing official Advanced Registry and Register of
Merit testing with 135 cows on test. The number of herds on official
test is being increased each year.

The Florida Guernsey Cattle Club and the Florida Jersey Cattle
Club each conducted an annual sale in 1940. The Guernsey sale had 33
animals at auction in Largo. Through the splendid cooperation of Coun-
ty Agent J. H. Logan, his dairymen, the Kiwanis Club, county commis-
sioners, and others, this was a very successful sale.
The Florida Jersey Cattle Club held its annual sale at DeLand. The
county agent, in cooperation with the Chamber of Commerce, Kiwanis
Club, dairymen, and other leaders in Volusia County, staged a very
successful sale.
The Florida Guernsey Cattle Club, in cooperation with the Georgia
Guernsey Cattle Club, held a sale at Quitman in September 1940. It was
agreed that, in 1941, this joint sale be held at some point in North
The Guernsey Cattle Club field day was held in early May at Vero
Beach with W. E. Sexton as host. Mr. Sexton presented an interesting
demonstration in the growing of grade Guernseys at his farm and in
the production and growing of pasture and silage crops. This field day
was very helpful and interesting to dairymen from the Lower East Coast.

The State Live Stock Sanitary Board and Dr. T. H. Applewhite,
inspector in charge of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry at Jackson-
ville, conducted the Bang's disease eradication program and other dis-
ease and parasite control work.
Thirty percent of the counties are definitely doing parasite control
work. Some counties are making real progress. Duval, Broward, Palm
Beach, Leon, Pinellas, Orange, and Volusia counties are giving parasite
control work careful consideration in their dairy program.

The Extension Dairyman cooperated with the Pinellas County show
in which 47 dairy animals were shown with more than 15,000 people in
attendance. The dairy show in January in Pinellas County is one of the
feature educational contacts our dairymen have in that area.
Duval, Holmes and Jackson counties held educational shows with
dairy cows. The Duval County show has been a regular event and serves
a valuable purpose as an educational exhibit for the milk consumers of
that area.
The one-day dairy show at Bonifay created wide interest with the
townspeople and farmers in Holmes County. A judging contest with
4-H club girls and boys and Smith-Hughes boys created wide interest
among junior club members. The display of butter, cheese, milk, cream,
and other milk products in the women's department served a valuable
purpose in arousing the interest of farm women in the educational fea-
ture of the one-day dairy show. County Agent Bell reported 1,100 peo-
ple in attendance at the educational judging during the day.

Annual Report, 1940

Joe Malone arranged one of the best county exhibits we have ever
seen of different pasture and forage crops in an educational lay-out at
his county fair in Marianna in November, 1940.

The annual meeting of the State Dairymen's Association held at
Gainesville on October 7 and 8 was well attended by representative
dairymen from all parts of the state. One hundred and seven dairymen
attended this meeting and a very valuable paper on records and herd
improvement work was given by J. A. Arey, Extension Dairyman of
North Carolina. Members of the Agricultural Experiment Station staff,
including the dairy and agronomy section, were most generous in their

Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
D. F. Sowell, Extension Poultryman
E. F. Stanton, Supervisor Egg-Laying Contest

Extension Poultry Specialists visited 38 counties during the year,
assisting. farm and home demonstration agents.
A poultry exhibit was arranged in connection with the operation
of the agricultural train making 53 stops in South, Central, and North-
west Florida. Over 68,000 people viewed the exhibit.
The hatchery industry is responding to the National Poultry Im-
provement Plan. During the past year approximately 57 percent of the
hatching capacity of Florida was operating under the rules and regula-

The Fourteenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, started
October 1, 1939, and ended September 21, 1940. There were 96 pens of
13 pullets each from 23 different states. Breeders from 10 different
counties entered 19 pens.
The average egg production per bird was figured on the basis of the
original number of birds and was 192.9 eggs for a value of 197.3 points.
This is an increase of 9.5 eggs and 12.3 points above the record made
the previous year.
October 1, 1940, the fifteenth test started, with all available pens

Monthly prices for poultry rations for each of the last five years
compared with the 1926-29 base period are indicated in Table 4.
Daily prices on eggs and poultry meat are quoted by the State Mar-
keting Bureau, at Jacksonville, Tampa and Miami. The quotations on the
Jacksonville market have been tabulated and studied over a period of
years and sent to cooperators.
The average monthly and yearly prices of poultry products for the
base period (October 1, 1926-September 30, 1939) and for the past five
years (1936-1940) are tabulated in Tables 5, 6, and 7.

42 Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Base Period
Month 1926-1929 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940

October 2.78 2.43 2.28 1.88 2.09 2.02
November 2.72 2.48 2.12 1.85 2.10 2.06
December 2.72 2.57 2.06 1.85 2.15
January 2.73 2.12 2.77 2.12 1.93 2.19
February 2.77 2.10 2.67 2.13 1.94 2.19
March 2.78 2.12 2.62 2.10 1.93 2.17
April 2.78 2.11 2.71 2.06 1.95 2.19
May 2.81 2.11 2.76 2.03 2.00 2.23
June 2.85 2.10 2.72 1.99 2.01 2.16
July 2.90 2.23 2.65 1.99 1.94 2.09
August 2.87 2.42 2.51 1.94 1.89 2.04
September 2.84 2.43 2.37 1.89 2.05 1.99
Average 2.80 2.27 2.52 1.99 2.00 **2.12

**11 months' average


Base Period

1936 1937

38.4 38.1
41.9 39.6
43.4 38.0
33.5 29.4
31.2 27.5
23.5 25.1
22.9 25.5
24.1 24.2
25.7 25.8
31.9 30.1
34.0 33.0
37.5 37.2
32.3 31.1

1938 1939 1940





*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.

Annual Report, 1940


Base Period
Month 1926-1929 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940

October 28.1 19.6 18.7 20.2 16.9 18.5
November 26.9 19.6 20.3 21.0 17.9 17.8
December 26.5 18.7 20.7 21.2 15.3
January 26.6 20.0 18.7 20.1 21.4 16.2
February 27.1 19.9 19.3 19.0 20.7 16.7
March 27.9 19.5 18.6 19.9 20.4 17.5
April 27.6 20.3 18.5 19.7 21.1 17.5
May 27.0 20.8 19.0 19.0 19.3 17.1
June 25.7 20.5 19.5 19.3 18.8 16.2
July 24.5 20.9 16.8 19.4 17.8 15.5
August 25.2 20.7 16.0 18.7 18.2 16.1
September 27.0 20.2 17.5 20.2 16.9 16.5
Average 26.7 20.1 18.6 19.8 18.7 16.9**

*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.


Base Period
Month 1926-1929 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940

October 33.8 21.2 27.1 22.9 22.0 19.6
November 34.9 20.5 26.7 23.0 23.3 18.8
December 36.2 20.0 27.7 23.6 22.1
January 38.3 25.5 22.3 25.8 23.4 22.0
February 39.1 25.6 24.3 24.6 21.6 21.8
March 41.0 27.0 24.1 27.2 21.9 22.8
April 42.7 27.2 27.0 27.8 24.8 22.6
May 39.9 25.7 24.1 24.0 22.0 24.3
June 37.2 23.5 25.3 21.8 21.8 23.2
July 32.4 23.1 25.5 20.5 22.5 21.4
August 30.8 22.6 24.5 21.6 21.9 20.5
September 32.7 22.3 25.8 22.9 21.0 21.5
Average 36.6 23.7 25.4 23.8 22.4 21.7**

*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.


Changing feed prices and poultry product prices have a direct in-
fluence on the profits that may be expected and also on the type of
poultry extension work that can be undertaken.
Table 8 shows the relationship of feed to poultry products for the
past five years (1936 1940). The base period used is the 3-year average

Florida Agricultural Extension Service


RATIO Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Eggs to feed 94 119 100 103 109 108 113 99 92 78 81 87
Hens to feed 96 96 92 97 100 108 110 98 87 80 80 75
Fryers to feed 86 86 87 84 83 85 92 87 81 72 65 58

RATIO Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Eggs to feed 66 83 86 93 86 84 90 90 94 83 88 96
Hens to feed 72 74 71 71 71 80 70 72 78 82 96 103
Fryers to feed 60 64 63 67 61 72 87 92 95 99 99 101

RATIO Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Eggs to feed 91 101 95 103 121 114 124 115 115 94 96 111
Hens to feed 97 91 95 96 97 107 114 109 112 106 115 116
Fryers to Feed 86 82 87 88 83 84 91 103 104 100 97 94

RATIO Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Eggs to feed 94 101 101 106 110 100 119 106 85 76 77 75
Hens to feed 113 109 104 109 100 103 109 109 88 80 87 73
Fryers to feed 86 79 77 83 77 83 103 108 89 87 83 77

RATIO Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

Eggs to feed 85 99 86 90 94 96 110 106 102 90 84
Hens to feed 76 78 81 80 80 83 88 90 87 92 87
Fryers to feed 71 71 72 67 77 82 92 94 95 90 79
The egg-feed ratio in 1940 was more favorable than either the hen-
feed ratio or the fryer-feed ratio
The Third Annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie,
August 19 to 24, 1940. The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association
held its annual meeting, and the Florida Poultry Council held its sum-
mer meeting during the Poultry Institute. The various State agencies
and poultry associations cooperated with the Agricultural Extension
Service in developing the program and in making arrangements for a
large attendance.
A greater number of poultry raisers spent the entire week this year
than during either of the other two institutes.
Extension recommendations were followed by 2,859 families in
purchasing baby chicks, 3,733 in chick rearing and 3,784 in sanitation for
disease and parasite control.
Production feeding practices had observance in 3,254 families and
an organized, improved breeding plan was followed by 1,119 families.
Poultrymen keeping calendar flock records culled 35 percent of their

Annual Report, 1940

Cooperation in the National Poultry Improvement Plan was again
extended through the State Poultry Service Veterinarian.
Turkey special work was done during the year in eight Central and
North Florida counties.
Other than demonstrations, a total of 343 poultry meetings were held
in the 12 months.
During 1940, 423 poultry buildings were erected or improved.
A 10' x 12' portable all-purpose poultry house has proved satisfac-
tory to a large number of poultrymen. This house is used to brood 250
day old chicks, grow the pullets from these chicks to maturity, and house
85 layers.
The cost of building this house is $35 to $50, depending upon the
cost of material. This makes a complete unit at a low cost that the
average farm family, in need of additional income, can afford to build.
Since the house is a complete unit, it makes expansion of the poultry
project easy and practical.
Poultry work with 4-H club boys and girls is carried on in every
county which has an agricultural extension agent.
Record books have been distributed to all members enrolled in the
poultry, numbering 2,465. Projects were completed by 1,301 club mem-
bers. Poultry raising was taught at the Girls' and the Boys' 4-H Club
Short Courses and the 4-H camps.
To stimulate interest in poultry work and record keeping, a State-

Fig. 3.-Scene in the poultry car of the special agricultural ex-
hibit train which toured Florida from November 7 to December 4.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

wide 4-H Club Poultry and Egg Show and Judging Contest is held at the
Central Florida Exposition in Orlando in February of each year.
Five hundred birds and 112 dozen eggs were exhibited last Febru-
ary. The 45 club members participating in the judging contest were
required to judge five classes of exhibition birds, select two classes of
breeders and judge two classes of eggs.
The winning teams to date have been as follows: Alachua County
boys in 1937; Pasco County boys in 1938; Lake County boys in 1939; and
Dade County girls in 1940.
Each of these teams has represented Florida in the National 4-H
Poultry Judging Contest at the National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago.
During October 1940, 450 record books were distributed to Florida
Summaries of the monthly reports, together with feed, egg and poul-
try prices were sent cooperators each month. The records run from
October 1 to September 30. The sixteenth year's record was started
October 1. 1940.

1939- 1938- 1937-
1940 1939 1938
Number of farmers .__._. ___.._ 24 27 25
Average number birds __ _-...... .... 15,735 12,574 11,189
Average No. birds per farm..__ 656 466 448
Average No. eggs per bird ---_._-- 176 175 160
Average percent culled ...- ...._ 35 37 56
Average percent mortality _._._--- 17 16 21
Flocks Classified According to Size

25-250 251-500 Over 500
Birds Birds Birds
Total number of flocks
1937-38 ---...-------....-...... ..... ---_.......... 8 8 9
1938-39 ---....-----...... ------ -----..----- 12 6 9
1939-40 -- ------------ 6 7 11
Average size of flock
1937-38 _______..... ..... ... .-------.. ... 104 279 902
1938-39 -....... .........---- ----------120 277 1,052
1939-40 ---.... --.. __--- .------------------159 288 1,160
Average number eggs per bird
1937-38 ..............------........-...- --- ...... ..162 186 152
1938-39 _---___.......... --_.--- --......---... 158 177 178
1939-40 .___.------__....-------------.. ____..---.. .. 184 182 175

With the increase in interest in broiler production in many sections
of the State, broiler record books were prepared during the summer of
1940. Approximately 100 record books have been distributed to pro-
ducers. The great majority of books are located in Dade and Duval
counties. Plans are being developed to study costs and returns in pro-
ducing broilers and factors affecting returns.

Annual Report, 1940

R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
In counties which have Agricultural Extension Service agents, 5,080
club members were enrolled, mostly boys, of 15,299 boys available.
Clubs reported during 1940 numbered 259, one less than in the pre-
ceding year, but some improvement developed in the local leadership.
Project work was less satisfactory on the whole than at one time,
largely because county agents could devote so little time to 4-H club
activities. The average time spent on club work including attendance at
camp and short course was 9.7%, or an average of 29 days per year
per agent. Of the 29 days spent on boys' club work by agents, 9 days
were spent attending camps and short course, leaving but 20 days for
club work in the county.


0 1939 1940 0
x C Reports Reports

S.c No. % No. % .*
o `6 C; Cd
z -z

P. Beach**
St. Johns
St. Lucie**


197 196
88 66
59 20
52 63

- 1

+ 3
- 4

78 60 -18

232 130 -102
83 86 + 3
23 26 + 3
108 131 + 23
477 479 + 2
41 69 + 28
43 42 1
220 200 20
13 + 13
60 53 7
39 61 + 22

75 37
2 3
7 35
9 14

36 54
39 31
25 60
146 74
12 75

35 58

60 46
34 40
15 57
69 53
381 80
45 65
42 100

180 90



- 6;

- 4

- 3

45 75 50 94 +19
20 51 28 45 6


6,207 2,297 2,106 -192 1,466 63.7 1,29061.2 -2.5

Florida Agricultural Extension Service


o 6

Bay 202
Calhoun 150
Dixie 267
Escambia 1,094
Gadsden 848
Gulf 70
Holmes 1,786
Jackson 2,517
Jefferson 444
Lafayette 434
Leon 368
Liberty 184
Madison 856
Okaloosa 1,067
Santa Rosa 1,240
Suwannee 1,433
Taylor 545
Wakulla 233
Walton 1,313
Washington 1,051


S 0
44 + 27

13 27
126 + 11

24 + 24
87 59
130 -254
12 59
45 + 29
55 3

66 32
48 16
74 6
225 28
22 7

76 29
116 + 55

1939 1940
Reports Reports
No. % No. % aH

14 82 16 36 -46
0 0
25 62 9 68 + 6
81 70 54 42 -26
0 0
0 0 13 54 +54
29 20 35 40 +2
24 6 19 14 + 8
42 60 6 50 -10
12 79
40 70 29 52 -18

43 43 39 59 +16
26 40 13 27 -13
29 36 21 24 -12
94 37 70 31 6
25 90 17 77 -13

60 59 52 68 +8
12 10 +10

DISTRICT 17,184 5,616 1,554 1,163 -391 544 35 405 34 1
Charlotte 148 30 12 16 + 4 12 100 13 80 -20
Citrus 239 79 80 + 80 54 67 +67
Glades** 130 26 12 7- 5 0 0
Hernando 459 92 20 22 + 2 16 80 15 67 -13
Highlands** 654 131 2 1- 1 2 100 -100
Hillsboro** 3,944 789 172 163 9 124 72 123 76 + 4
Lake** 2,491 498 673 325 -173 486 72 260 80 + 8
Lee** 508 102 62 58 4 21 34 28 49 +15
Manatee** 1,158 250 72 135 + 63 135 100 +100
Orange** 3,111 620 183 91 92 81 44 68 74 +30
Osceola** 537 117 7 7 7 100 -100
Pinellas** 766 152 14 7 7 50 50
Polk** 4,020 804
Sarasota 180 36
DISTRICT 18,435 3,787 1,228 898 -330 756 61 696 78 +17
Southwest 18,345 3,787 1,228 898 -330 756 61 696 78 +17
Northwest 17,184 5,616 1,554 1,163 -391 544 35 405 34 1
Southeast 22,662 6,207 2,297 2,106 -192 1,466 63.7 1,29061.2 -2.5
STATE 58,191 15,612 5,080 4,167 -913 2,766 54 2,391 57 + 3
**Counties where many farm families live in towns.



Annual Report, 1940

Table 10 shows the estimated number of boys available for each
county of the three Extension Service districts, the enrollment last
year and this, the percentage of reports for the two periods, with the
gain or loss computed under each heading.
The 1940 short course was held at the University of Florida June
3 to 8. The theme of this short course was "Earth Is the Mother of Us
All." The theme was developed without regard to present government-
al programs but as a basic part of agriculture and nation building.
In 1940 there were 8 scholarships awarded under the supervision of
the State Club Agent. Three of $100.00 each were given by the Florida
Bankers' Association and were awarded on an examination given at
the short course. The Florida Fat Stock Show gave a $100.00 scholar-
ship to the boy carrying a fat steer project who scored highest on a
score card furnished by the Florida Fat Stock Show. Local businessmen
in Sumter County contributed $100.00 for a scholarship to an outstanding
boy in that county. When two boys tied on the examination given, a sec-
ond scholarship was awarded. The Hastings Potato Growers' Associa-
tion gave a $250.00 scholarship to the outstanding 4-H boy in St. Johns.
Of the 19 scholarships given in Florida by Sears, Roebuck and
Company 14 were awarded to 4-H club boys.
Two state 4-H judging contests and one state 4-H demonstration
contest were held in 1940.
Twelve counties were represented by teams of three boys each in
the beef judging contest held in connection with the Florida Fat Stock
Show in Jacksonville, February 27. The Alachua County team of Ernest
Denton, Clayton Emerson and Luther Harrell stood first. The following
counties also had teams entered: Baker, Suwannee, Pasco, Leon, Lake,
Bradford, Madison, Sumter, Marion, Columbia and Nassau. J. E. Yarbor-
ough of Baker County won the medal for high point man.
Fourteen county teams competed in the state 4-H poultry judging
contest held at the Central Florida Exposition in Orlando, February 22.
The first prize in this contest was a trip to the National 4-H Club Con-
gress in Chicago to represent Florida in the National 4-H poultry
judging contest. A team of three Dade County 4-H club girls won the
contest and took the trip to Chicago. D. F. Sowell, Extension Poultry-
man, had charge of this contest.
Two boys from Orange County, Richard Trevarthen and Grady
Martin, won the dairy demonstration contest and competed in the Nation-
al Contest at the National Dairy Show, placing in the red award group
The trip was given by a large cheese manufacturer. County Agent K. C.
Moore accompanied them to Harrisburg, Pa. Teams from Alachua, Pas-
co, Hillsborough, Marion and Union counties competed in this contest.
Jack Dyer of Union County won the Thomas E. Wilson gold watch.
Jack has been in club work for seven years. He has done good project
work in a consistent way and has been a leader in his county.
The highest quality of project work is in poultry, baby beef and
swine. The Florida Fat Stock Show features 4-H club steers and 83
were exhibited in 1940. Sidney Allen of Suwannee County exhibited the
champion 4-H steer. Sidney finished nine steers for the show. He got
45c a pound for his club champion, which gave him a profit for his work.
The state poultry show at the Central Florida Exposition continues
as a big factor in 4-H poultry work in South and Central Florida. In

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

1940 over 400 chickens were shown. Through this show a large hatchery
has developed a plan for aiding 4-H members to get a big start in poul-
try at a reasonable expense. Dade County 4-H boys have sent chickens
to the state show for the past two years and the project work has im-
proved in both size of project and quality as a result.
The State Pig Club Show was sponsored by the Leon County Fair As-
sociation and was held in Tallahassee November 6. The number of exhib-
its was below last year. The quality was as high. To encourage the pro-
ject the Commissioner of Agriculture gave a trip to the International
Live Stock Show and 4-H Club Congress to the boy showing champion
barrow. J. P. Folds of Leon County won the trip this year.
The trip to the National 4-H Camp is the best one offered in
Florida. David Littleton of Lake County and Glen Davis of Escambia
County represented Florida boys at the 1940 camp. The Atlantic Coast
Line Railroad made the trip possible for David Littleton.
In 1940 Camp Timpoochee, named after an old Indian chief who
lived in the Choctawhatchee country, had 22 buildings. Camp Timpooch-
ee will accommodate 140 club members with bunks and mattresses. A
first class kitchen, dining room and a fine auditorium have been built.
The camp is equipped with sanitary sewerage and electric lights and the
bay offers safe swimming. Camp Timpoochee is also used one week
each summer for a farmers' institute.
Camp McQuarrie, in the Ocala National Forest, now takes
care of 100 people at a time. It completed the seventh year of opera-
ton with 1940. After the summer camping program has ended, a Citrus
Institute and a Poultry Institute are held at McQuarrie every season.
A third camp came into existence when the Cherry Lake 4-H Club
Camp was established and it is now on a solid basis, with quarters that
accommodate 100 people.
Florida 4-H camps, owned, operated, and controlled by the Florida
Extension Service, are equipped to handle 340 campers at a time. The
total value of these camps is in excess of $50,000 and the larger part
of this amount was donated.
Fig. 4.-Studying food preparation and making posters was one of
the most absorbing activities of these 4-H club girls attending Camp

Annual Report, 1940

E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist
With cooperation from other State agencies interested and the in-
dustry organizations, the Extension citrus project went forward in the
following counties: Brevard, Broward, Dade, DeSoto, Hardee, Hernan-
do, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion, Orange, Os-
ceola, Pasco, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, Seminole, St. Lucie,
Sarasota, and Volusia.
Producing better fruit at lower cost and marketing it efficiently
remained the major problems and the Extension activities in the citrus
field continued to deal with these questions.
Research having shown the association between low fertilizer effi-
ciency and excessive soil acidity, soil sampling and testing are primary
steps in the program.
During the past year 6,200 soil samples were taken from 3,460 citrus
groves aggregating 39,896 acres. This was done largely under the AAA
program. Liming recommendations were followed on 3,420 groves, in-
volving 44,164 tons. Dolomitic limestone was used almost entirely, much
of which was obtained as grant-of-aid. Assistance was given 1,749
growers in adjusting their grove fertilizing programs to liming practice
and higher soil reaction. One county agent reports that this adjustment
results in a saving of $35,000 to the growers of his small county in the
cost of fertilizing their groves. Summarizing the results reported from

Fig. 5.-County Agents conducted numerous demonstrations in which
citrus trees were treated with different fertilizer elements. This one
received dolomite.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

several counties, it is noted that the fertilizer cost has been reduced
13% by adjusting to the new program, the yield has been increased
24% and the total production cost per box has been reduced 20%.
Manganese, zinc, and copper have been applied both in the fertilizer
and as foliage applications. Reports from 67 demonstrations show an
increase in yield of 55%, with an increase of only 3% in the amount
of fertilizer used, and a reduction of 39% in the total cost of production.
The internal quality of the fruit was much improved by the inclusion in
the fertilizing program of all nutrients needed.

Crotalaria has grown less satisfactory as a cover crop because as
a rule it does not do well on the same land season after season. Weeds
and grasses of the volunteer type have been extensively relied upon as
a substitute.
Through the AAA program the volunteer cover crop has been
materially improved. On certain soil types the production of adapted
legumes has been increased. The practical demand for a better legume
cover crop is greatly stimulated by demonstrated results. In 21 groves
where the cover crop had been mainly crotalaria for two years, the
yield has been increased 64% and the total production cost per box has
been reduced 23%. This improvement can be properly credited to the
legume cover crop.
Reports show that 9,371 growers were assisted in one way or an-
other with their cover crop practices, and that this service affected
140,500 acres. As a whole, accomplishments have been fairly satisfact-
ory. Research is needed to overcome the difficulty in growing crota-
laria or to find a better legume.
Assistance has been given to 166 growers in adjusting the culti-
vation of their groves to the minimum, resulting in very material direct
savings on operating cost with no sacrifice of yield, but appreciable im-
provement in quality of fruit produced. Since the main objective in this
project has been to show the ill effects of excessive cultivation, the
present trend in reducing operating costs is leading to more conservative
practices in this operation.

The need of irrigation was almost State-wide during the unprece-
dented drought period of October to December, inclusive, this year. The
drought gave a good many growers opportunity to "cash in" on their
investments in irrigation equipment. Records show that 117 growers
were given assistance either in the installation of new plants or in mak-
ing adjustments in operation of plants for higher efficiency. One
county-wide all-day irrigation meeting was held.
Production records of the Extension Service, covering a period of
five years, show a 20 percent average increase in the yield of irrigated
groves over non-irrigated. The average cost of irrigation per acre was
$5.68. The irrigation cost per box was 3.2 cents. The total cost of pro-
duction was 7 cents per box less on the irrigated groves, and the re-
turns per box were 15 percent higher.
Demonstrations are under way bringing out the savings that can
be effected by interplanting where space permits-planting a tree in
every space where there is room for one to grow. This can be done
where irrigation water is available at reasonable cost of application. This

Annual Report, 1940

closer planting, when supplied with water as needed, results in a higher
yield per acre and a lower production cost per box. This is the secret of
high yield per acre and relatively low unit cost of production in Pales-

Investigations conducted under Extension Service auspices dis-
closed that relatively few grove owners still use full strength copper
sprays for melanose control. These sprays build up the scale popula-
tion, it had been found.
Melanose control is increasingly approached indirectly by protect-
ing the citrus trees from drought by irrigation and maintaining high
vitality through proper fertilization and other cultural practices. Rec-
ords show that 463 growers were assisted in melanose control, includ-
ing many who were assisted in developing culture programs and prac-
tices for better tree condition.
Growers as a whole are eager for the latest spray and dust sched-
ules, for information on improved spray and dusting machines, for
timely information on rust mite infestations and for suggestions on
ways and means of reducing the cost of rust mite control. During the
year, extension workers rendered assistance to 1,021 growers along
the lines indicated, and the results apparently have been very satis-
-factory. The 1940 spray and dust schedules were revised in December
1939, and more than 8,000 copies were distributed to growers through-
out all of the citrus-producing counties.
In their fight on scale 300 growers were assisted in more timely and
more efficient oil spraying. Approved spray schedules were supplied to
8,000 growers in the Better Fruit Program published and distributed
by the Florida Citrus Commission. In spite of all of the well directed
efforts, it has been a "bad scale year" and much damage has been
done. The drought of October to December, inclusive, has been an im-
portant contributing factor.
Frenching in the chronic and acute form has largely disappeared
from the groves of the State under intensive foliage applications of
zinc. Need exists for a more satisfactory and economical method of
supplying the zinc needs through the soil.
Bronze leaf, a foliage sympton of magnesium deficiency, has been
extensively brought under control by the almost universal use of
dolomite, frequently supplemented by magnesium sulfate and more late-
ly by seawater magnesium.
The influence of magnesium on the yield of citrus fruits and conse-
quent production cost is seen in the records of 31 groves where dolomite
has been used for the last three years in building up from a very low soil
reaction level and supplying a pronounced deficiency of magnesium.
The yield has been increased 67 per cent and the cost per box of pro-
ducing the fruit has been reduced 40 percent by the treatment.

In all, 453 meetings were held in 24 counties. Most of these were
educational meetings in which timely citrus production or marketing
problems were discussed. An increasing number of filmstrips and film-
slides, made by the Citriculturist and several county agents, have been
used in meetings, apparently with good results. Twenty tours of growers
were conducted in and from the various counties to demonstrations and
to the Citrus Experiment Station.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

A total of 3,098 grove visits were reported from 24 counties. This
is an increase of 17 percent over the previous year. These visits were
made at the request of growers for assistance with their various grove
The sixth annual Citrus Institute was held at Camp McQuar-
rie, Lake County, late in August. The attendance was larger than the
previous year, averaging about 100 a day for the four days. Various
subjects along the line of citrus production and marketing were dis-
cussed by representatives of the Extension Service, the Citrus Ex-
periment Station, Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated, the Federal
Farm Credit Administration, the Florida Citrus Exchange, the Florida
Citrus Commission, Florida Citrus Producers' Trade Association, and
Serving as director of five cooperative citrus organizations in Flor-
ida, the Citriculturist was able better to maintain contacts with the
growing shipping interests.
He was also a member of the State Citrus Commission better fruit
advisory committee and occupied a similar relation to the National
Fruit and Vegetable Committee of the American Farm Bureau Federa-
Market surveys made on a trip through the Eastern Seaboard cities
during the early part of the current selling season enabled the Citricul-
turist to obtain first-hand information about the fruit demands of dealers
and consumers alike.

Annual Report, 1940

L. T. Nieland, Extension Forester
Phases of the Farm Forestry Extension activities previously under-
taken received additional emphasis during 1940.
Participation by the Extension Service in the Norris-Doxey farm
forestry and forest farming projects established in Florida during the
year in cooperation with the State Forest Service, Soil Conservation
Service, and U. S. Forest Service, has occupied a part of the Extension
Forester's time which had previously been allotted to other farm forestry
activities in the annual plan of work. This has not, however, caused any
serious interruption of the farm forestry extension program.
Improvement cutting, pruning, and thinning demonstrations were
held as a part of a series of nine one-half day farm demonstration
meetings scheduled in nine different counties. County agents, repre-
sentatives of the State Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment
Station, and the Extension Forester assisted in the demonstrations. The
demonstrations were held in the woods, taking care to select timber
stands which were representative and appropriate for the types of
improved practices demonstrated.
Exhibits featuring the above timber improvement practices were
prepared and displayed in a forestry, agronomy, and livestock train
which toured the State for 30 days during November and December.
Farm hour radio talks, newspaper releases, circular letters and per-
sonal letters were also used to call attention of farmers to the need for
timber stand improvement. In addition talks were made by the Exten-
sion Forester at farmers meetings, a State meeting of Negro Extension
agents, and before the annual meeting of county agents. Cooperation in
this phase of the program was extended by representatives of the
Schol of Forestry at the University of Florida.
According to county agents' annual reports for this year, 530 farm-
ers :n 26 counties carried out some form of timber stand improvement,
suc. as removal of defective or low value trees, thinning, or pruning.
A feature of the year's work was the introduction by the Extension
.,roster of planting red cedar on farms for fence posts, pencil wood,
,.-binet wood and Christmas trees.
Gratifying progress was made in the planting of forest trees on
:arms and goals in most counties were reached or exceeded. County
agents' annual reports show that 712 farmers in 37 counties planted
4,807,60) forest trees, or a little over 7,000 acres. Most of the plantings
were sl ish pine, but 16,000 red cedar trees were also planted on farms.
In i arriving at the value to Florida farmers of these forest plantings,
the annual income from planted slash pine, according to figures pre-
pared oy the Florida Forest and Park Service, is estimated at $2.01 per
acre per year over a 40-year period. Thus the 7,000 acres planted this
year would, over a period of 40 years, add $562,800.00 to the income of
these 712 farmers, or an average of $790.00 additional income per
farm due to this year's forest plantings. Since it is reasonable to be-
lieve that at least one-half this acreage would qualify for the triple
A benefit payment of $7.50 per acre, an additional $26,250.00 was
therefore, earned by these farmers. This would increase the total in-
come from forest plantings made during the year to $589,050.00.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Progress in this field has been steady and fundamental, though
not spectacular.
County agents reported a total of 3,638 farmers in 35 counties as
protecting their forest lands from fire during the year. Although the
acreages involved were not given, an estimate can be obtained by mul-
tiplying the average acreage of woodland per farm in Florida, which is
35 acres, by the total number of farms on which fire protection is prac-
ticed. This would indicate that 128,330 acres of farm woodland are now
under fire protection. Considering that timber grows faster, and that
natural reforestation is accomplished through fire protection, it is clear
that these 3,638 farmers are well on their way towards realizing the
possible annual income of $2.01 per acre per year, which on these farms
would mean a total yearly income from forest land of over $250,000.00.
Educational methods employed throughout the year stressed the
folly of destructive cutting of timber for pulpwood.
A field demonstration was held in cooperation with the Southern
Pulpwood Conservation Association and reached a large number of
people in eight counties. Newspapers gave this event liberal coverage.
The demonstrational work in Lafayette and Suwannee counties in
gum farming done during the previous year, was followed up with ad-
ditional meetings and many individual farm visits by the county agents
and Extension Forester. An experienced man in naval stores produc-
tion was finally employed as manager by the 21 farmers who decided
to work their timber, on a 10% of gross sales basis, plus $1.00 per barrel
for transporting each barrel of gum to market. The local production
credit association and bank furnished all credit necessary for purchase of
equipment and installation of cups and gutters on trees to be worked
for gum. The production credit loans were to be repaid from net re-
ceipts basis, 60% to production credit and 40% to the farmer. The bank
loans were on a basis of 50% of the net receipts to the bank and 50%
to the farmer. A seven-year lease on the farmer's turpentine timber was
taken by the local manager to safeguard his interest, and as security
for the money borrowed to start the operation. The farmers, under this
set up, were in effect a cooperative, but were not incorporated, or un-
der a cooperative agreement as a group.
In spite of the difficulties encountered in this phase of the farm
forestry program, interest in gum farming, due largely to the efforts
expended, is increasing. County agents reported 118 farmers assisted
in better practices in connection with their turpentine timber.

County agents in 16 counties reported giving assistance to 235
farmers in the better marketing of their timber crops during the year.
While this number is small in view of the large number of farmers in the
State in need of such assistance, nevertheless, progress has been made
inasmuch as this is the first time such a concerted effort was made to
help the farmer with his timber marketing problem. Additional proof
that farmers are becoming aware of the need for more advantageous
marketing of their timber may be found in the increasing requests for
assistance in marketing received by the Extension Forester during the

Annual Report, 1940

The Extension Forester conducted demonstrations with, and gave
class work instruction in planting, pruning, fire protection, improvement
cutting and tree identification to 234 4-H club members during the year.
Talks before 8 different groups of 4-H club members were made with a
total attendance of 712. Altogether a total of 946 4-H club members
were reached with a message on farm forestry.
The number of counties in which farm forestry activities were
reported on by county agents this year are more than double those of
last year. In other words 51 out of the 59 counties in which county agents
are employed, reported work done in farm forestry. Demonstrations were
held by the Extension Forester in two of the counties having no county
agents, making 53 counties out of the total of 67 in the State in which
some educational work in farm forestry was done.
"Lightwood" is rapidly becoming depleted and in some communities
it is already scarce. Special attention will hereafter be given the re-
sulting problem by the Extension forestry workers.
Farmers will be urged to conserve the present supply of "light-
wood", saving the parts suitable for fence posts and using only the
crooked short pieces for fuel.
Planting of red cedar will also be advocated as a future source of
good fence posts.
In areas where good fence post material is not available, assistance
will be rendered in treating pine sapling posts with wood preservatives.
Some work already has been done under each sub-division of the
lightwoodd" problem, with promising results.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

R. V. Allison, Soil Conservationist
Planned Extension work in soils, as in past years, has continued on
a much too limited scale when considered in connection with the serious
need that exists in this field. This has been due to the fact that no
funds whatsoever have been provided for this phase of the work since
the department was reorganized and an Extension project was written
nearly four years ago.
However, the usual number of soil samples have come in for ex-
amination and the usual amount of correspondence has been received
and answered regarding the samples and other inquiries falling in this
field. Unfortunately, most of the samples are rather poorly taken and
prepared for shipment. All too characteristically an insufficient amount
of material is sent, the quantity falling as low as a single teaspoonful in
some instances!
Steady effort is being made to have soil samples and related mater-
ials and inquiries submitted through the office of the County Agricul-
tural Agent, as he is usually in a much better position to give requisite
advice by examining a field situation directly than any laboratory ex-
amination of an isolated soil sample can afford. Where there is actually
a real prospect of benefit from laboratory examination he will then be
in a position to inform the grower how the sample should be taken and
prepared for shipment; also to make sure there are full notes accom-
parying the materials.
For the most part only soil reaction (pH) is determined on miscel-
lanr eous soil samples of this type that are sent in.
In contemplating the application of finely ground limestone or dol-
omite as a desirable operation for adjustment payments in the national
Soil Conservation Program, it occurred to the administration that it might
be well to check up the soil of individual fields or groves before the
lime is applied to see if there is a definite indication of need. By way
of initiating the work, a cooperative arrangement was set up whereby
the county agents in several counties send in pairs of soil samples from
citrus groves that had been taken, "A" from the middles and "B" from
under the trees. By the close of the year several hundred samples had
been received, along with a field sheet for each pair carrying a consid-
erable amount of data on grove condition, cover crop, earlier soil treat-
ment with lime, if any, etc.
The reaction value of these samples has not only showed a consider-
able variation on the same soil type but also confirmed the trend that
had been observed earlier, namely, the higher condition of acidity under
the trees. An analysis of the tests and supplementary information on
the greater number of samples that will be received during the coming
year should yield information of considerable practical value.
Considerable progress has been made in practical soil conservation
work both in West Florida and in the Everglades area.
In the former area six additional districts with an aggregate area
of about 3,250,000 acres were established by the Soil Conservation Board

Annual Report, 1940

during the year and soil survey and other preliminary work coincidental
with the early development of the districts were gotten under way.
Notable progress has been made during the past few years in laying
the ground work in popular opinion and understanding for a rewater-
ing of the open Everglades, the only sound basis of soil conservation in
that great area. Particular emphasis has been given the program by the
initiation of a soil and water conservation project in that area by the
Soil Conservation Service about two years ago.
In view of the fact that rewatering is the only possible approach
to effective conservation of the unused soils of the extensive central
glades area, the development of an educational program in this field is
exceedingly important and especially so since several other highly vital
benefits will accrue if a carefully planned soil and water conservation
program is developed along these lines. An even more intensive con-
servation program is needed for cultivated organic soils in that area and
elsewhere in the State.
Excellent cooperation has been had from the county agricultural
agents in developing the program in this South Florida area; also from
the officials of the Soil Conservation Service. Much work remains to be
done and it is hoped that an even more comprehensive educational pro-
gram may be developed as soon as a definite and tangible plan of de-
velopment for the Everglades area as a whole can be laid out to serve
as a sure and permanent basis for such a program. This, of course, must
await the completion of the physical surveys that are now in progress.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service



Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy Belle Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent
Increased efficiency was sought during 1940 by further following
the methods previously proved to be productive of results and by adopt-
ing new practices when the opportunity offered.
For the first time in Florida regularly organized courses were of-
fered in the State College of Agriculture for home demonstration agents
in service. Two courses were given-Principles of Horticulture and
Methods of Home Demonstration Work. The courses were selected by
vote of all county home demonstration agents; their content was recom-
mended by committees of the state staff, each committee made up of
district agents and specialists. Miss Gladys Gallup of the Federal Ex-
tension office taught one course and Mr. C. E. Abbott, a member of the
College of Agriculture faculty, taught the other. The State Home Dom-
onstration Agent spent the entire three weeks at the College of Agricul-
ture and together with district agents and specialists, served as discus-
sion leader to apply the general instruction to Florida conditions affect-
ing the program of Home Demonstration Work.
Sixteen county home demonstration agents took the courses, all
except two receiving graduate credit; three home demonstration agents
from other states enrolled for the course in methods; two home super-
visors of the Farm Security Administration registered for Horticulture;
a member of the faculty of the College of Agriculture audited the course.
The State Home Demonstration Agent, three district agents and four
specialists make up the personnel of the State staff who work with the
38 county home demonstration agents and 3 assistant agents to develop
the program of home demonstration work in Florida. Home demonstra-
tion workers share responsibility with the men staff members for
strengthening and enlarging the services of the Agricultural Extension
District Agents are responsible with the State Agent for the general
supervisory program; specialists supply accurate subject-matter informa-
tion and help develop efficient methods of aiding rural people. Spe-
cialists in Food Conservation, Nutrition, Home Improvement and Cloth-
ing are employed as a part of the State home demonstration staff.
Home demonstration work serves the Negroes of Florida generally
through its general program and directly through the work of a Negro
district agent supervised by the state agent and 8 local home agents.
Members of the State staff report they have given assistance in every
organized county in the State and in many which do not employ county
home demonstration agents. They report helping home agents with 221
meetings attended by 11,348 persons.

Annual Report, 1940 61

All demonstrations require careful planning and hard work to
make them successful as the 2,024 families who reported producing their
year-round food supply according to a careful plan, can testify.
The demonstrator who establishes a careful demonstration in her
home is the most effective teacher to her neighbors; 2,157 meetings were
held at result demonstrations attended by 24,970 people. The 107 tours
reported in 26 counties included visits to many of the yards, gardens and
poultry flocks of the demonstrators.
Home agents from 38 counties report they made 15,677 home or farm
visits this year, visiting 8,121 different farms.
The home demonstration agents of Florida served directly 23,432
farm families last year and 12,705 families not on farms. But the home
demonstration program was able to serve hundreds of others through
the help given by community leaders. The demonstrators, both women
and girls, are real leaders who teach by the successful work done in their
homes. In addition to these, last year 2,674 other Florida rural people
volunteered their services without pay for a total of 5,814 days to help
extend the home demonstration program to others.
Forty-six camps were held for 3,390 women and girls where leaders
were trained. The State Short Course is a training school for the 463
girls and 37 local leaders attending; 208 meetings were held by the
home agents specifically to train the volunteer leaders. Leaders or
chairmen for specific activities such as gardening, home improvement,
Fig. 6.-Members of the Home Demonstration Council in one county
(Pinellas) were able to secure an excellent camp site. Above is shown
one of the double cabins which they use, and in which 4-H club girls
also camp.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

etc., in the adult clubs are selected from the women in the community
who have conducted successful demonstrations in their homes. Reports
show the number of older 4-H girls or former club members serving as
local leaders for groups of younger girls increased this year by 55 per-
cent. Seven hundred and eighty-six council members acted as leaders.

Senior councils are organized in 33 counties with a membership made
up of two representatives from each organized home demonstration club.
The councils make plans for county programs of work and furnish lead-
ers who are capable of assuming responsibility along with the agent for
planning and developing home demonstration work generally in the
county. Councils are growing in number. Their organization helps the
agent reach more people. The 844 women who are members of the
county councils are seeing beyond the immediate needs of their own
homes and families, to the needs of their community, county, and state.
The State Council, made up of two delegates from each county coun-
cil, meets annually and works out a program of work to meet State-wide
needs, which they recommend to county councils. The State Council
maintains a loan scholarship fund for 4-H girls and helps finance the
Rural Youth Conference. The Council has done a great deal to encourage
record keeping by club members through its record book contest. Through
its membership the Council helps with State and county Land-Use Plan-
ning programs, with the State Agricultural programs, etc.
Similar councils for 4-H girls operate in the counties and on a state-
wide basis.

Fig. 7.-This community youth center and home demonstration
building at Madison serves both youth and adult members of home
demonstration clubs.

Annual Report, 1940

County home demonstration agents devote an average of one-third
of their time to girls' work which they direct in the counties. The 4-H
program is made both educational and productive of results of economic
value by means of established demonstrations in the homes and through
organized club groups and county-wide organizations. The total number
of girls between 10 and 20 years old enrolled in this work was 10,577.
One girl in each four enrolled is 15 years old or older, and approximately
one-fifth of the girls enrolled have completed more than three years of
club work.
Eighty-four public achievement programs were held by the 4-H
girls with an attendance of 12,423 people.
The quality of work done by Florida 4-H girls can be judged some-
what by the fact that winners of first honors in the State in two of our
phases of work also won first honors in national competition. Catherine
Barnes of St. Johns County received a scholarship fund of $400 for
achievement in foods and nutrition work and Marie Fletcher received
a $200 cash scholarship for national honors in canning and food conserva-
tion. Eight outstanding girls were awarded state honors and received
scholarships to the International Live Stock Show and National Club
Congress through the interest of business firms who furnished the State
office with funds for these awards. These girls made fine records in
canning, food preparation, clothing, home beautification, rural electrifi-
cation and poultry.
A team of three girls from Dade County won first honors in the
State Poultry Judging Contest, competing with boys and girls from the
entire State.
Each year requirements for attending the Short Course are raised
but the number in attendance continues to grow to the maximum per-
mitted to attend; 463 girls and 37 leaders with all home demonstration
agents attended. The program for Short Course is planned so the girls
will be trained to return to their counties able to help the younger girls
with their club work. The Short Course also trains the agents in the
best methods of presenting instruction to girls and local leaders. In-
structors for the Short Course are highly skilled and contribute their
knowledge to the girls largely because of their interest in the program
and belief in it.
The College 4-H Club at the Florida State College for Women as-
sisted with the program. Courses for local leaders were given with
37 attending.
The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work and the
State Junior Council both held their annual meeting at the time of
the state Short Course. The State Junior Council as a body presented
their detailed report to the entire Short Course body and assisted with
the final program of the Course.
Three hundred and twenty-eight older 4-H girls now serve 4-H
clubs as local leaders in many communities.
This club functions at the Florida State College" for Women through
the membership of former 4-H girls from the different counties of
Florida who now are enrolled in college. Membership at the opening of
the college year totaled 73 girls. They are registered in the various
divisions of the college, with 31 in the School of Home Economics.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

High honors on the campus have been won by 4-H club members.
Nine of the 64 seniors selected last year to live in the Senior Hall (which
was an honor that could be earned only by a four-year record of stability
and trustworthiness) were members of this 4-H club. Three of the four
girls representing the different classes this year were members of the
College 4-H Club.
The conference for members of the College 4-H Club at the State
College for Women and the Agricultural Club of the College of Agricul-
true of the University has been held for two years, with plans made for
a third conference to be held next March.

Club girls in Florida have received generous awards for their
achievements in 4-H work. Acknowledgement of these awards is made
below, expressing the great appreciation of all home demonstration
workers for this encouragement to the work of Florida 4-H girls:
463 Scholarship trips to State Short Course, valued at $4,044.00, given
by boards of county commissioners, school boards, Rotary, Kiwanis and
Pilot clubs, federated clubs, women's clubs, P.-T. A., chambers of com-
merce, tourist club, ladies aid, banks, village improvement association,
Model Land Company, fair associations, Junior and Senior Councils, D.
A. R., Business and Professional Women's clubs, and many individuals;
8 scholarship trips to International Live Stock Show and National Club
Congress, valued at $925.00, given by Montgomery Ward and Company,
Chicago Mail Order Company, Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corp., Westing-
house Electric Company, Servel, Inc., Central Florida Exposition, Table
Supply Stores of Miami, and Winn-Lovett Company, Jacksonville; col-
lege scholarship to 4-H girl, valued at $400.00, given by Servel, Inc;
college scholarship to 4-H girl, valued at $200.00, given by Kerr Glass
Manufacturing Corp.; college scholarship to 4-H girls, valued at $350.00,
given by State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work.

Women and girls always have shown great interest in home market-
ing. Two major problems have hindered full development of a state-
wide program-lack of standardized articles worthy of the approval of
the Home Demonstration Office and lack of information about markets
and marketing. Reports, however, show the following cash income re-
ceived from cooperative and individual effort in home industries enter-

Sold Sold
Articles cooperatively individually Total
Dairy products _..------------ $ 2,166.59 $ 30,616.80 $ 32,783.39
Fruits and vegetables --- --- 3,082.00 30,364.51 33,446.41
Poultry and eggs --_ 7,738.00 110,865.04 118,603.04
Baked foods, etc.--- --- --- 236.00 12,241.63 12,477.63
Handicrafts ----- ---- 20.00 5,847.85 5,867.85
Other farm products ----- 600.00 3,608.00 4,208.00
Other home industries .--------- 314.00 3,707.13 4,021.13
Totals __-_________--___--$14,156.69 $197,250.96 $211,407.55

These figures show the farm garden and poultry flock along with
the cow provide most of the marketable products.

Fig. 8.-Many home demonstration club women learn handicraft
arts, then make articles which they are able to sell and supplement the
family income.

In March the State Home Demonstration Office was informed of the
plan of the federal government to supply sufficient cotton and ticking
to farm families of low income to make 50-pound mattresses. The home
demonstration staff of the Extension Service was designated to direct
the educational program, organize the plan, and teach the people how
to make mattresses; A. A. A. was to check the eligibility of the recom-
mended families; while cotton was supplied by the Federal Surplus
Commodities Corporation. After a general conference of cooperating
agencies, the State home demonstration staff held a training school for
the white and Negro agents of the three counties first designated to
receive the cotton. Eventually the 39 county workers got this training.
One district home demonstration agent was designated to act as chair-
man of the project. Eight different sets of educational information on
mattress making and care for general distribution by agents and 15 gen-
eral instruction letters to all agents about sources of securing supplies,
etc., were written. Members of the State Council of Senior Home Dem-
onstration Work and all local leaders at the Short Course were given
training in mattress making and agreed to assume responsibility for se-
curing volunteer leaders to help with instruction. Negro home demon-
stration agents and farm women were given training at the Negro Short
In 35 counties, 4,270 women reported improved health habits; 2,833
persons reported having health examinations by a physician and 3,251
were immunized against typhoid, diphtheria and smallpox; 553 homes in
33 counties were screened; 941 families installed sanitary toilets; 2,024

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

families in 32 counties reported they produced and canned their year's
supply of food according to a nutrition plan; 4,990 homemakers followed
definite plans in serving better balanced meals. A most important con-
tribution was made toward good health by the 1,273 families in 34 coun-
ties that improved their child feeding practices.
At the annual Short Course examinations were given 4-H girls as a
part of the State-wide health improvement contest for 4-H girls. Posture
was emphasized in all adult and junior work as contributing to health.

County home demonstration agents report they gave help in plan-
ning 132 new homes and remodeling 424 homes and 963 farm buildings.
The installation of 500 lighting systems and 226 water systems along with
74 heating plants in the homes of the home demonstration club members
shows the interest being developed in improving homes in the State.
Suitable storage facilities for home and farm supplies continue to be
a problem in Florida rural homes which needs more study. Four hun-
dred eighty-nine homes were screened and 1,705 installed sanitary
During 1940 the home demonstration agents in 31 counteis devoted
170 days to dairy work in 270 different communities. Fifty-eight volun-
teer local leaders in 10 counties assisted with this work.
There were 801 women and 354 girls enrolled for home dairy dem-
onstrations. Home demonstration women report securing 430 family
cows this year.
The general emphasis on the need for an enlarged nutrition program
for national defense finds other organizations in Florida looking to the
Home Demonstration Office for help because the Extension Service is
the only agency working throughout the State which employs trained
foods and nutrition workers. Requests for help on nutrition problems
have been made to the Office of Home Demonstration Work by work-
ers of the school lunch program, Social workers, Farm Security Admin-
istration home supervisors and Federated Clubs for Women.
A series of district meetings has been planned for January to decide
on definite work to be done in all organized counties along lines of the
defense program. In addition to making plans for extending the nutri-
tion program, work on citizenship and good Americanism with 4-H club
members and youth generally will be included.
It is likely no decided changes need to be made in the present pro-
gram of home demonstration work to permit it to serve as a defense
measure. Some adjustments in plans will be made and emphasis given
to certain specific activities. The 4-H program and work with older girls
will be enlarged; probably the agent will not be able to give as much
time as usual to organized club work in order to leave her -time free to
give other services within the county. A program of nutrition will be en-
larged, including more attention to home gardens and orchards, poultry
and dairying, and to canning. The mattress program will be enlarged to
help use a surplus crop but especially to teach useful lessons in health
and home making.

Annual Report, 1940

Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
Again in 1940, as in the past, the home demonstration clothing and
textiles program has continued to work for better clothed people living
in homes made more attractive by the use of modern textiles, with some
progress noted. In general the program has remained the same, conducted
with similar methods to achieve the goals, although the emphasis has
changed in some cases.
Work for increasing cotton consumption occupied a prominent place
in the clothing and textile program this year. Although Florida's produc-
tion of cotton is below that of other Southern states, the cotton situa-
ti6n influences business conditions and consequently the living conditions
of the entire south.
With the entire clothing and textile program encouraging more
consumption of cotton, attention has been given to new and unusual
uses, more satisfactory old uses, and the cotton mattress program.

Fig. 9.-These six 4-H club girls are proud of the cotton dresses
which they made and wore at the Short Course.

68 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Perhaps the construction of a corduroy suit in the specialized cloth-
ing course conducted at Short Course has done more to create interest
in new uses of cotton than any other one activity.
Cotton in the girls' wardrobe provided a timely theme for the
public dress revue program presented to entertain the entire group at-
tending the Short Course. Interesting cotton costumes were featured in
the classes for sport, school, travel, best, and party wear.
A cotton accessories exhibit showing both home-constructed and
ready-to-wear garments interested the 463 girls attending the annual
State Short Course. Such items as play shoes, washable purses which
could be made at home, hose, gloves, and hats were exhibited.
One hundred and fifty farm men and women from 7 north Florida
counties attended Cherry Lake Farm and Home Institute last August,
and listened attentively to a discussion of the cotton uses in the home.
To standardize the method for making cotton mattresses, to serve as
chairman of the committee to prepare the printed directions, and to de-
velop good practices in care, have been the Clothing Specialist's re-
sponsibility in this program. Home demonstration agents have guided
the work in their counties.

Wardrobe planning continued to be featured in the specialized
course offered to the 45 Short Course girls particularly interested in
clothing. Demonstration V, "The Well Dressed Club Girl for Street and
Travel", was developed by planning, selecting, making, and wearing a
tailored suit of cotton corduroy.
Training was given to girls presenting 15 team demonstrations dur-
ing the major clothing class of Short Course. The team members vol-
unteered, selected their subjects which were the techniques used in the
making of the corduroy tailored suit, and prepared their talks and il-
lustrative materials.
Two hundred ninety-seven leaders gained satisfaction in serving
the 8,376 4-H club girls conducting clothing demonstrations this year.
Of the 918 days' assistance given by the local leaders, the greater part
of the time was devoted to the teaching of sewing methods.
The 37 leaders representing 23 counties at Short Course have a bet-
ter understanding of the clothing and textile program.
The Dress Revue, which combines several teaching methods, was
used as a means of motivating and teaching clothing work in 37 counties.
Again the State Dress Revue was conducted with a noticeable im-
provement in the costumes modeled. Of 63 girls entering, 34.9 percent
were awarded the blue ribbon, 41.2 percent the red, and only 25.3
percent the white ribbon. This merit system is used to classify the
group based on judging by competent judges. Improvement in the qual-
ity of design, fabric, and workmanship resulted in placing 22 girls in the
blue ribbon group with only 5 points' difference in the highest and
lowest scores.
Joan Dirr of Manatee County was awarded the trip to the National
4-H Club Congress to represent Florida in the National Dress Revue.
She modeled her light weight chartreuse wool spring suit and striped
blouse which were well made. Black and white combination shoes,
purse and panama straw hat completed the ensemble.

Annual Report, 1940

Clothing demonstrations have been particularly popular with the
8,376 rural girls enrolled in 4-H clothing club work throughout Florida.
The latest reports show that the 4-H club girls completing their clothing
work made over 11,583 dresses and 28,731 other garments. Over 1,100
of these girls kept clothing accounts; over 2,000 followed recommenda-
tions in the care and renovation of clothing, and 1,235 assisted their
mothers in the construction of garments for their younger brothers
and sisters, making an estimated saving of $20,252.00.
More satisfactory clothing was the result of 1,117 women and girls
budgeting their clothing expenditures, with 1,746 keeping clothing ac-
counts. Through wise buying 1,564 women dressed their families bet-
ter at less cost.
The families of 6,527 women and girls made a better appearance
and found their clothes giving better service through practicing better
Rural women and girls to the number of 9,063 received help in
making clothing. The juniors made 40,314 articles of which 11,583 were
dresses. At least one-third of the $73,073.81 saved due to the clothing
program can be accounted for by home sewing.
Opportunities were offered by achievement days for measuring the
results from the clothing and textiles work.
Of the demonstrations completed by the 4-H club girls many were
in clothing. Of the 4 senior and 4 junior achievement meetings at-
tended, 3 were used to complete the county's intensified clothing work
for the year. The exhibits included wearing apparel modeled in dress
revues, and household textiles.
Demonstrations in grooming and selection of accessories and dis-
cussions on clothing storage and care interested the adult group. The
chief assistance given was judging the clothing work and the dress
revues, which was done publicly in 6 achievement day programs.
Junior and senior club members, parents, county officials and lead-
ing men and women in the county composed the group who attended
these achievement days.
Visits to the homes of rural people developed information having
great value. Visits were made to 8 honor girls to view their demon-
strations in their homes. Five of these girls had completed wardrobe
demonstrations following the plan as outlined in the 4-H girls' clothing
Government agencies, Federal and State, uniformly exhibited the
utmost disposition to cooperate with the clothing and textiles effort.
Related commercial agencies have supplied valuable help by making
possible educational shopping tours, furnishing exhibits, donating prizes,
and furnishing speakers. One firm cooperated in demonstrating the
sewing methods and furnishing the necessary labor to make the corduroy
suit as a part of the clothing instruction at Short Course.
Membership is maintained in professional organizations. The State
Home Economics Association held two meetings, one in the spring and
the other in the fall; and the Association of Florida Extension Workers,

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

two, which were attended. It was the privilege of the Clothing Spe-
cialist to be present at two of the district meetings of the Home Econo-
mics Association, and at one to present a discussion of the outlook for
clothing and textiles with the expected effect of the national defense
Friendly relations exist between the Home Demonstration Depart-
ment and the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, which maintains an
attitude of helpfulness. Special assistance to their programs has been
given on three occasions; two talks at monthly meetings, and sugges-
tions for consumer education programs which were made to the county
Effort has been made to keep the clothing and textile program
abreast of the times. A good source of help has been the study of
available subject matter materials. Information is obtained from recent
publications, the Clothing and Textile Division of the Bureau of Home
Economics, and clothing programs in other states. The information
gained from the part-time attendance at the Extension Methods Course
conducted this summer at the University of Florida has proved valuable.
Timely and useful illustrative materials were exhibited at the
annual Short Course, the Agents' Conference, and whenever possible
in the counties.
Two Florida 4-H club girls who attended the 14th National 4-H
Club Camp in Washington, D. C., June 12 to 20, were accompanied as
their leader by the Clothing and Textiles Specialist.
Advantage was taken of the trip for making visits to the offices of
sundry Federal agencies that have helped the work in Florida so fre-

Annual Report, 1940

Anna Mae Sikes, Food Nutritionist
Food, nutrition and health Extension work for 1940 was the most
comprehensive during the quarter-century period it has been under de-
The present programs for national defense have made necessary ad-
justments and additions to the work as originally planned. In addition,
changes of home demonstration agents have further modified the work
for 1940 in some of the counties.
The Nutritionist devoted her annual leave to graduate study in nu-
trition work under the direction of Dr. Mary Swartz Rose. In addition,
she completed seminars in adolescent, adult, and vocational homemaking
education and a master's thesis on Health Conditions and Food Habits
of Rural School Children in Northwest Florida. This work completed
the requirements for a master of science degree.
During the past year, according to home demonstration agents' re-
ports, 2,024 families in 32 counties have produced and conserved the
home food supply according to annual food supply budgets; 3,592 adult
result demonstrations in 33 counties have been conducted in food se-
lection and preparation; 2,866 families in 33 counties have been assisted
in using timely economic information as a basis for readjusting family
food supply; 1,486 families in 30 counties budgeted food expenditures
for a year; 2,941 families in 30 counties followed recommendations
for the storage of home food supply; 4,990 families in 35 counties served
better balanced meals. 3,357 4-H club girls in 37 counties of the 4,939
in 38 counties, or 68 percent, have completed the "healthy living" dem-
An analysis of the summary of the reports of county home demon-
stration agents for food, nutrition and health work for the past five
years reveals some interesting information, such as the decreased in-
terest in baking among adults in 1939, immediately following the dis-
continuing of the baking contest, and the returning interest during
1940 even though the contest was not resumed. Another point to be
noted is the increased interest in dairy work during 1939 which might
be attributed to the dairy school held during the annual Agents' Con-
ference the previous fall. The continuous rise in interest in school lunch
indicates a gradual understanding of child food needs; however, the
sudden increase in 1940 no doubt is due to the Works Progress Ad-
ministration's school lunch program. The increased interest in the
planned family food budgets during 1940 and the decreased work on
food-buying the same year may be attributed to the emphasis on food
production programs.
Method demonstrations have been extensively used in planning the
family food supply by working out yearly food needs of the family,
using both foods and food models with charts and pictures for illustra-
tions. All day meetings with demonstrations in food preparation and
meal planning, also school lunches where the lunch of each individual
has been scored, have been another effective means of work. Summer
camps have offered an opportunity for method demonstrations on food
preparation and health improvement. Leadership training and small
group meetings have been extensively used. Either all-day or half-day

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

meetings have been valuable means for developing leaders for both
adult and junior groups. Often these meetings took the form of covered
dish luncheons. One especially helpful type of meeting was meal plan-
ning where the participants used small cards and worked out meals.
This was followed by keeping records of their meals for a week and
another discussion meeting to note improvements.
In addition to the general methods used for developing the food,
nutrition and health program the work has been adapted to the present
demands due to the national defense program. Special emphasis has
been placed upon the importance of producing the food supply in order
to secure the best returns for food value and to assist in providing for
emergency demands in defense concentration areas. Also assistance has
been given in the preparation of foods for market and the establishment
of local food markets and food services.

Demonstrations by the Nutritionist in food preparation and meal
planning were given as means of leadership training in order to raise
standards. Often these have been all-day meetings devoted to instruc-
tion in factors which have a direct or indirect bearing on good health.
This has been followed at the noon hour by a practical demonstration
on complete or well balanced meals, using local products. Usually the
leaders brought part of the lunch and the lunch was scored in order to
bring out points that were demonstrated. The agent with the assistance
of these trained leaders duplicated the demonstration before their local
groups. Similar meetings have been devoted to method demonstrations
in food preparation with special emphasis on standards and table service.
Florida's hot school lunch program has been expanded to 940 of the
State's 2,044 school centers and is participated in by 80,989 public school
children. This program is being supplemented by a cold lunch program,
intended to serve those schools that are without facilities for serving a
hot noon-day meal.

At the beginning of the demonstration each girl made a definite
check on her health and posture, using a chart and score furnished by
the nutritionist, to note necessary improvements and to enlist means of
making these corrections. Another check was made at the end of the
year to note improvements. Demonstrations in food selection, good
posture, contests, both county and state, exhibits, etc., served as means
of motivation and teaching. Often younger club girls enrolled in this
demonstration continue it through their club work in coordination with
other demonstrations.
Junior work included selection and preparation of foods, meal
planning and table service. Some of the activities of the 4-H girls along
this line have been individual and team food preparation demonstrations,
judging of products, making recipe files, food scrap books and exhibits.
Baking and judging baked products was planned for girls who had
completed at least three years of food preparation work and were 14
years or older.
Under the head, "The Young Homemaker", the needs and interests
of the older 4-H club girls were considered. Some of the activities have
been assisting with the family food supply demonstrations, planning
parties, entertaining assisting with younger members of the family and

Annual Report, 1940

At the Florida Dietetic Association, of which the Extension Nutri-
tionist is a charter member, she presented a paper on the Florida Family
Food Supply Plan.
Membership is also held in the Florida Home Economics Association,
of which the Nutritionist is state secretary and treasurer-elect and state
chairman for the public health committee.
Four-H club girl leaders from each county were given special train-
ing in food, nutrition and health, and they in turn acted as demonstra-
Two former college 4-H club girls present at Short Course assisted
with food preparation and meal planning demonstrations. One of these
4-H club girls is now Dean of the School of Home Economics in a College,
and the other a teacher in a vocational high school. In addition, two
college 4-H club girls assisted in the laboratory.
A dairy course was added to the food, nutrition and health work at
Short Course this year.
Three of the national winners to the 4-H Club Congress in Chicago
had also completed outstanding demonstrations in food preparation work
and had previously received state recognition.
The State Council of Home Demonstration Work met at the annual
4-H club Short Course. The program was so arranged that all general
meetings were attended by both groups. The Nutritionist assisted in
planning for this work and presented the food, nutrition and health pro-
gram at a morning session of the council and, assisted by county repre-
sentatives, gave illustrations of how the work had been developed in
their respective counties.
The Nutrition attended the three district camps and gave intensive
work on food preparation and meal planning; she was assisted by 4-H
club girls who had received this training at short course. Four-H club
teams in food preparation, health and posture work were training by the
Nutritionist. As a part of the instruction 4-H club groups prepared
cookies, salads, candies, etc.. to be served at the banquet held the last
night of camp for special guests, such as boards of county commissioners,
county school boards and representatives from the State staff. In addi-
tion to specialized instruction the Nutritionist assisted with general man-
agement and routine of the camps.
Girls were visited at their homes before the State winner was select-
ed in the demonstrations which began during the Short Course.
At the annual Agents' Conference, the Nutritionist participated in
each discussion, presented factual information, and gave recommenda-
tions for using the available resources.
The Nutritionist was the representative from the State Home Dem-
onstration Office to the National Outlook Conference in Washington,
D. C. Upon her return to Florida she prepared a summarized Farm
Family Living Outlook report and each county worker was furnished
with a copy of same.

74 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Educational exhibits, tours to scenes of outstanding achievement and
county fairs have been important factors in stimulating interest in the
development of the program. Charts and graphs in color were used to
show district and county food production and consumption needs. Ex-
hibits of planned yearly food supply with charts showing methods for
determining food needs for the families of different age groups have
been arranged. Posters of recent publications and photographs of recom-
mended food preparation methods and wise buying information have
been used successfully with groups.

Annual Report, 1940

Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement
In the 1940 home improvement plans for adults, the main aims were
better household management, planned homes, enlarged exterior beau-
tification, and wise buying.
Under the head of better household management, time, income and
expenditures, buying and care of equipment, and provision of storage
spaces for food and clothing received the principal attention.
Yards, gardens, orchards, grazing lots, fences and outbuildings, trees,
vines and shrubbery, walks and drives all had a part in the effort for
exterior beautification.
Closely related was the endeavor devoted to home sanitation. Rub-
bish and tin cans were gotten rid of by the home demonstration women
who took up this phase. Mosquito breeding places were sought out and
Houses were planned more carefully than ever before, it is believed,
whether they were erected anew or remodeled, water supplies in both
kitchen and bath room were generally furnished. Heating facilities
installed added much to the comfort of numerous premises.
While 695 new homes built and remodeled is not great, however, 232
families studied and consulted the best authorities, making plans in the
family groups where health, comfort, convenience and beauty were con-
Families reported as having installed electricity for the first time
numbered 988. Cooperation with the Rural Electrification Administration

Fig. 10.-This tidy home of a Negro home demonstration club member
shows what can be done with a place without excessive expenditures.
This Madison County woman followed a long-time home improvement

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

was extended directly by the home improvement division in the home
demonstration work.
Relations were also maintained on a cooperative basis with the Farm
Security Administration, from which some rural families obtained funds
for building new houses or remodeling old structures.
Bulletins on new and remodeled houses have been studied and ap-
preciated. In the new houses that have been built there has been better
construction and planning for more satisfied living. More rooms for
comfort and privacy of all members of the family, more attractive de-
signs, more light and running water have been noted. Sinks, built-in
cupboards, storage space, working units arranged to save time, and
heights of working surfaces to suit the workers have added to convenience
and efficiency in the home.
Reports from the home agents indicate that 132 dwellings were con-
structed according to plans furnished, 424 were remodeled, 225 water and
175 sewage systems were installed, 74 heating and 500 lighting systems
were placed into operation in the homes of demonstrators.

Rural people are constantly striving for better homes better managed.
Home agents report that during 1940, 1,090 kitchens were rearranged or
improved for convenience, 1,898 families followed recommendations in
obtaining labor-saving equipment, 874 families adopted recommended
laundering methods, 2,268 families adopted recommended methods in the
care of the house, 2,543 were assisted in adjusting home making to gain
a more satisfactory standard of living, 1,308 were assisted in using time-
ly economic information as a basis for readjusting family living, 706
budgeted expenditures in relation to income, and 1,295 families followed
recommended methods in buying for the home.

There were 6,361 girls enrolled in some phases of 4-H home improve-
ment work, such as house furnishings, home management, handicrafts,
exterior beautification and home sanitation. Requirements for their work
have been outlined by years. Through 4-H demonstrations by girls in
the family, often the entire family becomes interested in improving the
home and its surroundings.

Annual Report, 1940

Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

National defense gave new meaning to the Florida Extension long-
time program in food conservation which as hitherto stressed all-year
gardens and calendar orchards, with a well rounded canned products
supply properly stored.
Club members in 27 counties participated this year in this contest.
The three jars, with menu built around the jars, which won first place
in the county were brought to Annual Agents' Conference in October,
as in the past. There they were exhibited and again judged.
The cash awards, an incidental part of this contest but greatly appre-
ciated by those participating, were contributed by the Hazel-Atlas Glass
Manufacturing Company.
Families which reported canning according to a budget totalled 2,024.
Two thousand, six hundred and twenty-seven girls enrolled in can-
ning during the current year.. They reported 126,391 quarts filled and
34,510 containers of jelly, jam and other products canned.
Ball Brothers Company again generously cooperated by offering
cash awards to those winning first, second and third places, in the first,
second and third canning demonstrations.
In the third to fifth years in canning, as heretofore, the older girls
must have canned the requirements of that particular year's work, sub-
mit record, exhibit and story on the club's or the county's achievement
day. The exhibit consists of five jars-a meat, two vegetables, a fruit
and a pickle or relish-which are used for an emergency meal, the menu
for which accompanies the containers. The emergency meal winning
first place in the county is brought to the Annual Short Course held at
Florida State College in Tallahassee. Here the meals are set up, county
by county, in interesting, colorful array, each by its menu.
These meals and the girls' records are further judged and scored
and the five rating highest are then given the privilege of further add-
ing to their records through the summer months. In October these girls
may resubmit their records and another emergency meal. Then, from
these five the winner is selected for the National 4-H Club Congress
trip sponsored by the Kerr Glass Manufacturing Company.
Marie Fletcher of Gadsden County was selected to represent Florida
at the Congress in 1940. At Chicago she was awarded a regional scholar-
ship. Marie, in her nearly eight years of club work, has completed 31
projects. During her five years in canning she has canned more than
4,147 containers.
Reports from home agents continue to prove that the adoption of a
county flower 12 years ago has had an interesting and colorful "spread
of influence". Beautification so greatly needed in Florida, could be
extended if every club home in every county planted generously of its
adopted perennial and its annual. The county annual is reported grow-
ing in 3,178 homes, and the county perennial in 1,527 homes.
Many of the home demonstration club women now are either coop-
erating with the State Garden Club and are assisting with the flower

78 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

shows sponsored by this organization or have charge of the flower shows
of the county and are extending beautification projects of various kinds
and in various ways.
At State Short Course, for the first time, daily instruction was given
in beekeeping. Mr. Robert Foster, apiary inspector with the State Plant
Board, had charge of the instruction and made the course very interest-
ing to the girls. Miss Albina Smith, agent in Osceola, an erstwhile
keeper of bees herself, supplemented the instruction with attractive
demonstrations on the use of honey.
Stimulating interest in the all-year garden and the home orchard
adapted to the varied soil and climatic conditions and arousing interest
in proper cultural practices constitute a definite part of the program of
the Economist in Food Conservation. It is realized that preparation, util-
ization and conservation can follow only where there is production, also,
the higher the quality of the produced foods, the higher the quality of
those conserved.
Farm families have been encouraged to keep something growing in
their gardens throughout most of the year, rather than having only
spring and fall gardens. Information on planting requirements for cold
and warm season crops has been made available for all sections of the
State. In many cases home demonstration club members consider the
home garden as one of their most valuable assets, but on the whole
production of fruits and vegetables for home consumption by farm
families is entirely inadequate.
Records submitted on gardening activities for the current year show
3,842 year-round gardens planted, with a cash valuation of $22,245.84
for vegetables sold. Seven hundred and fifty-one homes report growing
new vegetables for the first time.
Records from 4-H club girls reveal that 4,543 were enrolled in gar-
dening projects and 2,832 completed their demonstrations, submitting
records and stories. Tomato growing, which was stressed when work
with girls was first begun in 1910, is still an important part of the pro-
Both gardening and canning demonstrations with adults and juniors
are planned with the thought that eventually they will become a part
of the planned family food supply.
Number of quarts of:
Fruit canned ------------.------------.------......... 913,550
Vegetables canned ...........- -------------------.. 1,039,290
Pickles made ------------------------------ 85,965
Relishes made --------- ------------.------ 29,380
Marmalades made ....---- ----------------.. 38,330
Preserves made __--------_---_ --------------____. 81,360
Jellies made ......-----------------------.- 52,502
Number of gallons of vinegar made ...._--------------------. 741
Number of gallons of fruit juices canned --------....- __- 13,499
Number of quarts of meats canned:
Pork ...---..-...---------- .------------. 62,180
Beef .------------. ------.- -------....._...-- -. 49,636
Game ...----------------... ........ ... ------------------ 889
Fish -------___-----..........---... --- ......... ._ 2,429

Annual Report, 1940 79

Poultry ............. ------------------14,242
Number of families that cured meats ---__- ~~ 2,747
Pounds cured ..... ---------- ---... 539,117
Number of families that made sausage ------------- 2,554
Pounds made ....------------------------- 100,138
Number of families that made lard ...------.... -----------... 2,724
Pounds made -----------------------. 171,820
Number of families that made soap --.---_--- --- 1,169
Pounds made _- ____----- ----_------- 16,302

Florida Agricultural Extension Service



A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
Nine local farm agents worked 10 counties during the period. Home
agents covered four counties additional. Altogether, Extension Service
agricultural assistance was given to Negro farmers in 18 counties.
Annual Agents' Conference, combined with the Annual Farmers'
conference, took place at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Col-
lege, Talahassee, December 7, 8 and 9. Local farm agents were also
convened in a special conference at Live Oak on January 19 and 20.
Boys' and Girls' Short Course for Negro 4-H club members was held
at the Agricultural and Mechanical College from May 28 through June 1.
'Total attendance reached 336.
At the Florida Fair in Tampa the local farm agents arranged ex-
hibits of grain and forage, grasses, meats, home-canned products,
cotton, tobacco, pecans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, and sugarcane syrup.
Florida products from the counties worked by the local farm and
local home demonstration agents were displayed during the National
Negro Exposition in Chicago from July 4 to September 11.
Sugarcane, sugarcane syrup and sweet potatoes were shown in the
Florida Pavilion at the New York World's Fair, for the last half of
In Alachua County one farmer in each of the 15 communities work-
cd, planted five acres of cowpeas during the fall of 1939, which were
turned under during the late winter of 1940. The land was planted in
corn during the spring of 1940. The average yield reported was 37
bushels to the acre, or 11 bushels more than last year.
In Columbia County the local agent reports an increase in Sea Island
cotton as a result of recommended practices of insect control and good
seed selection.
In Gadsden County 30,000 pounds of tobacco were sold, bringing
$4,325. The North Florida Experiment Station cooperated with the agent
in giving information on the control of the blue mold.
In Sumter County 120 farmers planted 1,250 acres in cowpeas and
velvet beans, all of which will be turned under this fall and winter. The
land will be planted in some other crop during the spring of 1941.
In Leon County four purebred boars were placed in four different
communities and 35 good brood sows were placed in 10 different com-
In Hamilton County one Negro farmer, George Philpot, owns and
operates the only Negro dairy we have record of in the State, with all

Aiinual Report, 1940

modern equipment. During the year he maintained 12 Jersey cows and
sold 6,322 gallons of whole milk, amounting to $2,828; 2,530 gallons of
skimmed milk amounting to $500; Butterfat amounting to $135. After
deducting feed and labor cost, Philpot realized a profit of $1,207.80.
In Jackson County much work was done in the production of sweet
potatoes. There are two flue-heated beds among Negro farmers of that
county for the purpose of supplying the farmers with pure certified seed
potatoes. The Porto Rican variety is used in this county mainly this
year. Negro farmers this year sold sweet potatoes amounting to $300
on the early market. From the hotbeds over 200,000 potato draws were
Twelve counties became active in supplying sweet potatoes and all-
told 1,860,000 plants-of- the pure Puerto Rican variety, were distributed,
obtained from Louisiana. Negro and white members compose the West
Florida Sweet Potato Growers' Association, formed during the summer
as the first organization of the kind in the state.
Four-year demonstrations with sweet potatoes and sugarcane, started
in 1937, were completed during the last 12 months, proving highly suc-
Four-H club work for Negro boys is conducted in 10 counties. Clubs
this year numbered 113, with 1,844 members, 945 of whom completed
their projects.
On corn, 653 boys were enrolled in 159 communities and 597 com-
pleted, raising 16,877 bushels on 1,083 acres.
Of the 63 boys who started cotton projects, 53 completed, for 16,840
pounds on 47 acres.
Sweet potatoes enrolled 111 boys, 85 completing with 4,383 bushels
on 631/2 acres.
Home and market gardens, peanuts, poultry and swine constituted
other activities in which the 4-H club Negro boys made good records.
Seven achievement days had a total attendance of 9,944. Ten en-
campments brought out 610 persons. Four boys' 4-H club tours were
taken part in by 146.
Marketing sweet potatoes and sugarcane was studied in Chicago
during their vacation periods by the local farm agents of Leon and Jef-
ferson counties. New York markets received similar study by the Col-
umbia and Hamilton agents during their vacations in the midsummer.
Late in the fall the Local District Agent visited the New York mar-
ket, following the close of the World's Fair, when the season for chewing
cane was at its best.
One carload containing 13,000 stalks was shipped to New York by
10 Negro farmers in Hamilton County.
Business men in their respective communities assisted the local farm
agents from Columbia, Jackson, Leon, and Marion counties to visit
several Alabama and Louisiana institutions, where they obtained highly
valuable information on sweet potatoes and sugarcane.

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Beulah S. Shute, Local District Home Demonstration Agent
Local home demonstration agents served eight counties, reaching
1,529 women and 2,338 4-H club girls, representing 2,718 farm families.
Raising the standards of living among Florida rural Negroes was
the chief aim in all the undertakings during 1940.
Farm owners, numbering 6,792, were found better off in this respect
than the 5,972 tenant farmers, but under both classifications much re-
mains to be accomplished.
Plans hitherto developed were followed without any major diversion
and a change of agents took place in only one county.
One local home demonstration agent attended the agents' short
course at Tuskegee Institute during the summer.
All agents were present at the State Short Course for Boys and
Girls at Tallahassee in June and they attended other meetings called by
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and like agencies.
Planning conferences were held in each county where the work is
active. Demonstrations were arranged for in every community covered.
Gardens raised on 1,789 farms included 459 of the year-round type,
planted by adults. Market gardens operated by 355 individuals sold
produce bringing $4,947.37.
Families owning their own milk cows aggregated 688, while 1,803
produced meat supplies at home, canning 5,675 quarts. Game and fish
for home use were canned in 603 quarts.
Altogether a total of 49,594 containers of food was canned by home-
makers, including vegetables 13,713 quarts, fruit 7,149, juice 2,809. Jellies,
jams and marmalades were prepared in 17,448 containers.
Fig. 11.-Demonstrations throughout the State were held for both
colored and white families interested in making new cotton matresses,
and thousands of them were made.

Annual Report, 1940

Assistance was extended to 361 families in house planning problems.
Seventeen constructed new residences, 121 screened against flies and
Local home demonstration agents took on the cotton mattress pro-
gram with enthusiasm, though it meant added work. Alachua, Madison,
and Putnam counties used a central working place with families coming
in constructing their mattresses under the direction of agents and leaders.
In Hillsborough, Gadsden and Leon counties, mattresses were con-
structed in the various communities. Besides providing the Negro homes
with 1,072 well constructed cotton mattresses, the mattress program did
many other good things for the rural people. It brought about added
cooperation with other groups; white and colored agents planned to-
gether, in the counties where there were both agents. More families
were reached by the Extension agents. Whole families worked together.
Neighbor helped neighbor.

The 22nd Boys' and Girls' Annual State Short Course was held at
the Florida A. & M. College, May 28 to June 1, 1940. A program of in-
struction was planned which would prepare those attending for better
work in their home counties.
A total enrollment of 320 girls and boys with their leaders attended
the Short Course. Of that total 188 were girls and women and 132 were
boys and men.
Alachua, Hillsborough and Gadsden counties held encampments for
women and girls. Instruction in various phases of the extension work,
handicraft and recreation was incorporated in the daily programs. This
privilege was enjoyed by 184 women and girls.
Duval County homemakers enjoyed a day on the St. Johns river.
Addresses by Extension officials, leading citizens; games and contests
provided instruction and entertainment.
Over 5,000 Alachua County Negroes gathered at Archer for their
annual Farmers' Day program. Educational exhibits, addresses, games
and contests were featured.
Putnam County families enjoyed a day of recreation on one of the
lakes in Interlachen community. Leon county rural people to the num-
ber of 283 picnicked at Campbell's Lake.
The Youth Center in Hillsborough County continues to develop. This
year, electric lights, and 30 new army cots were added for camping pur-
poses. The grounds were beautified by a group of 30 men. Over 400
cuttings and shrubs were planted.

84 Florida Agricultural Extension Service

(Men and Women)
Total days service rendered---..---... --.....--.......... ----- -- --- 4,8191/2
Members in Extension associations or committees --._-.--. -- 721
Communities in which Negro Extension program has been
planned ._...-------------------------------------------------- 219
Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home dem-
onstration work _.------.......-------- ---------------- 88
Members in such clubs or groups -.....--------- --.--........- 1,529
4-H clubs .....--- ---.---------.---- ------ ------ -- 234
4-H club members enrolled .....------------- 4,182
4-H club members completing ------.....----------------- 2,756
4-H club teams trained .. ------.....-- ------------ 97
Farm or home visits ....-......--- ----------------- 6,645
Different farms or homes visited --...----...------------..-- 3,138
Calls relating to Extension work _..... --..------------- 12,882
News articles or stories published and circular letters issued. 628
Letters written --...... ....------------ -------- ----- ------ 10,527
Bulletins distributed -..-.....--------.. ---------- ----- --------- 8,376
Extension exhibits ..--........----------------------- ------ 66
Meetings held ........-------------------------- ------ 2,594
(Attendance -- ----- 41,935
Achievement days and encampments _.-------_. .------------_. 59
(Attendance --- 49,831
Homes and farms influenced by program -----..----------------- 7,916
Homes with 4-H club members enrolled -.-.-.. .--------- 2,230
Communities in which work was conducted .---- 336
Result demonstrations conducted ------------- 60
Meetings held ..........--------------------------------- --- -- 74
News stories published and circular letters issued---- 44
4-H club members enrolled ..--.....------------.-----..---..-- 888
4-H club members completing .--- .....---..---.........------------- 821
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,191
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing --. 18,646
Communities in which work was conducted _------ 490
Result demonstrations conducted ......... ...--------------- 81
Meetings held ....--..--. ----- ---------------- 775
News stories published and circular letters issued -- 24
4-H club members enrolled -.....---------------------- 493
4-H club members completing ------ 336
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 4081/2
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 5,192
Sweet Potatoes
Others Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was conducted_ 233 83 70
Result demonstrations conducted ----- 28 6 7
Meetings held .--------------------- --------- 89 56 20

Annual Report, 1940

News stories published and circular letters... 44 14 14
4-H club members enrolled ............. 131 63 47
4-H club members completing __....... ___-... 97 53 25
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H members 67.5 47 20
Yield of crops grown by 4-H members --__--. 4,593 bu. 16,840 lb. 20,672 lb
Communities in which work was conducted ..-----.-_ -- ....- 840
Result demonstrations conducted -_____.. ___. ____..____... 1,492
Meetings held ...-_ ...-.... ___ ..... ..-.. .. .. 593
News stories published and circular letters issued .--_-...._ .. 73
4-H club members enrolled __-- --- _...... _.-.---._ 3,005
4-H club members completing .._.... ..---------------------.-- 2,170
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 551
Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing_.... 11,387 Bu.
Communities in which work was conducted 139
Result demonstrations conducted 98
Meetings held _-.. __ ---- _..__.._ ..._--- ---...- -- 82
News stories published and circular letters issued .... ___ 13
4-H club members enrolled _.-. -__-.... .__.__ 115
4-H club members completing -- ___..... ..... ._ __.___ 14
Terracing and drainage, farms -__-..- .... ..--------_ ----. 26
Acres ..--------.. ---------.. -........--.---645
Land clearing practices --__-_... --__ --------..--..-.. 42
Acres ___.. --------... ---... ---- --- ---- 219
Better equipment practices ......-- -_-___ __.__. ...... -- 550
Buildings erected or improved .._.__....__ -._....__-__------ 778
Communities in which work was conducted----------- 286
Result demonstrations conducted .----.__.-----..-....- 401
Meetings held ------ -- ..... .. .. 190
News stories published and circular letters issued -_ ..- 23
4-H club members enrolled ....--_--._-----_---....---- ...... 1,047
4-H club members completing _....----___......._-_-....-...-..... .--.. 802
Number units in projects conducted by 4-H club members
completing .......-.------- ----- --------- ------ .-.-. --. 90,850
Families following better practices for poultry ..---.------..... 4,154
Communities in which work was conducted ...........------- ---.-_ 392
Result demonstrations conducted -..._.... -..............._ .... 358
Meetings held ....--. --- ----------...- -------------.-----....-.----.... 211
News stories published and circular letters issued-..--....-----_ 80
4-H club members enrolled ----.----------------.. --. 685
4-H club members completing -__ -----.. .......--....--.-. .. 536
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members com-
pleting ..-------------------- ------------ -- 682
Result demonstrations conducted .----_ ---.-----------..--- 8
Meetings held --------.--------- -------- ---.------------------ 55
News stories published and circular letters issued.---.....--. 35
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments--.. 361

Florida Agricultural Extension Service

Families assisted in getting established-...--....-.................. 52
Individuals affected by marketing program _-----..---...._.. --368
Organizations assisted with problems -----....--......----------------... 192
Individuals assisted with problems -------..... -------.. ....-.....-.... 942
Value of products sold by association and individuals ...... --$288,538.66
Value of supplies purchased by organizations and individuals 80,767.53
Communities in which work was conducted -----_......__......__ 337
Result demonstrations conducted ._.....- --------.__._ ---. 919
Meetings held -___.----.-___ _-----__-------..---- 356
News stories published and circular letters issued ..--....------ 19
4-H club members enrolled ____-------. ---------------------- 2,927
4-H club members completing_ ----........---- ---------------- 2,131
Families adopting improved food practices --......------.-------.. 7,393
Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school
lunch ........... ................ ..---....---.-------- 113
Children involved ----- ---------- --------------- ------------------------ 3 ,3,657
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ---... 50,714
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved --___-..... $ 13,623.60
Communities in which work was conducted _..--........._---_... 130
Result demonstrations conducted _-----... ........__-----__... 154
Meetings held ---------...........---.....---.. .....____ _. 121
News stories published and circular letters issued --_.___-_-_. 6
4-H club members enrolled ---.-----..-----.---..--..... 960
4-H club members completing ----......---.... -.___ _------- 626
Other 4-H club members who participated ----.....-------------. 460
Families adopting better child-development practices ------_ --- 2,235
Individuals participating in child-development program ...--_ 831
Children involved ...-----... --...... ____... ----------. _.. 1,178
Communities in which work was conducted ....------. -------- 151
Result demonstrations conducted ...... ..-------_-... -__ 415
Meetings held __ ------------...........-----.... 192
News stories published and circular letters issued ..-- .....------ 8
4-H club members enrolled ....-----_.. -------..--------..... 1,954
4-H club members completing _-_.. ------.---.. --..... 1,237
Articles made by 4-H club members .- .........--------__ .... 3,902
Individuals following better clothing practices -.---...------- 11,424
Savings due to clothing program .---.-_... --- --- ~ ___-- _$ 6,963.40
Communities in which work was conducted __..____.____ 353
Result demonstrations conducted ._---------____-- --__ ___...--. 1,012
Meetings held -----_ -------------__-- -------------._ -------------- 324
News stories published and circular letters issued ...--------_- 15
4-H club members enrolled .--..--.. -----___ ---.--- _. 3,487
4-H club members completing ..--.-------_.--- ----------- 2,969
Units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 10,693
Families adopting improved home-management practices_ 8,840
Saving due to home-management program ...______------$ 5,059.00
Families making improvements in house furnishings --... .. 4,426
Savings due to home-furnishings program .._.---____ __ 4,469.00
Families following recommendations regarding handicraft __ 447

Annual Report, 1940

Communities in which work was conducted ----------._..... ..
Result demonstrations conducted ...__-------- ---.... -
Meetings held --_ ----_-_. -------__-.---_--- ..
News stories published and circular letters issued ......._-__
4-H club members enrolled ----....... -- ------
4-H club members completing _-___-__ __ ..__ _-_
Individuals having health examinations ....--------------------
Other 4-H club members who participated ---.-..--- .-
Individuals adopting better health habits ----_ ------ ..----------
Families adopting better health habits __-.----..... ----------


Meetings held -_. ____.-----_ --- ._-_ _. .....---- 296
News stories published and circular letters issued------- 114
Communities assisted with community problems.__-- 839'
Training meetings conducted for community leaders .--------- 82
Families following recommendations as to home recreation 1,009
4-H clubs engaging in community activities ..-----.. ------..... -. 100
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or
other relief agency -- --..------------ ------. 533.


Acreage allotments and marketing
quotas, 21-25
Agents' activities, 26-27
Agents, county and home demon-
stration, 5
Negro, 6
Agricultural Adjustment Adminis-
tration, 6
Agricultural conservation, assist-
ants, 6
Agricultural conservation report,
increasing conservation practices,
participation payments, 21-23
1940 program, factors in, 24
Agricultural economics and land-
use, 8
Agricultural economics report, 28-
citrus grove management, 28
citrus marketing, 29-30
cooperation with other market-
ing agencies, 30
Florida Council of Farmer Co-
operatives, 31
land-use planning, 28-29
marketing agreements, 31
outlook conference and record
books, 28
potato and celery studies, 28
traveling conference, 29
vegetables and livestock market-
ing, 30
Agronomy report, 32-35
corn and other feed crops, 32
exhibits, 33
flue-cured tobacco, 35
hay, forage and sorghum, 33
miscellaneous activities, 35
permanent pastures, 33
Sea Island cotton, 34-35
upland cotton tests, 34
Animal husbandry report, 36-46
cattle club sales, 40
dairying, 38-41
feeder cattle, 36
Florida Fat Stock Show and
Sale, 37
swine, work for improved, 37
typical meetings attended, 36
workstock program, 37
Boys' 4-H club work, report, 47-51
camps, 50-51
contests, 49
dairy program, 39
enrollment statistics, 47-49
forestry work, 58
national camp, 50
poultry program, 45-46
scholarships, 49

short course, 49
state 4-H club shows, 50
Broadcasts, radio, 19
Broiler production, 46
Bronze leaf, 54
Buildings, poultry, 45
Bulletins, 17
Calendar flock records, 46
Cattle club sales, 40
Cattle shows, feeder, 36
Celery and potato studies, 28
Celery marketing agreement, 31
Citrus fruit, 52-55
bronze leaf, 54
costs and returns, 28
cover crops, 53
cultivation, 53
fertilizing, 52-53
frenching, 54
grove management, 28
growers' institute, 55
irrigation, 53
marketing, 29
marketing agreements, 31
meetings, tours and visits, 54-55
melanose, 54
rust mite, 54
scale, 54
Conservation activities, agricultur-
al, 21
Cooperatives, Florida Council of
Farmer, 31
Corn and other feed crops, 32
Cotton mattress program, 65
Negro, 83
Cotton promotion work, 67-68
Cotton, Sea Island, 34
Cotton tests, upland, 34
County Agents' activities, 26-27
effort on special crops, 27
with general farmers, 26
County and home demonstration
agents, list of, 5
Negro, 6
Dairying, report of, 38-41
cattle club sales, 40
disease and parasite control, 40
fairs and shows, 40-41
feeding, 38-39
4-H club program, 39
herd improvement testing, 39-40
home dairy work, 39
state association meeting, 41
Demonstration agents, county and
home, list of, 5
Negro, 6
Director's report, 7
Dress revue, 68
Economics, agricultural, 8, 28


Editorial and mailing report, 17-20
farm broadcasts, radio, 19
news service, 18
publications, 17
special and miscellaneous
activities, 19-20
Egg-Laying Test, Florida National,
Electrification, rural, 75
Exhibits and shows
cattle, feeder, 36
dairy fairs and shows, 40
4-H club shows, 50
Florida Fat Stock Show and
Sale, 37
hog shows, 37
pasture and feed crops, 33
State 4-H club shows, 50

Farm forestry, 56-59
fire prevention, 57
4-H club forestry work, 58
future prospects, 58
gum farming, 57
improvement of timber stands,
marketing timber, 57
net results, 58
planting trees on farms, 56
pulpwood cutting methods, 57
Feed crops, 32
Feeder cattle shows, 36
Fertilizing citrus, 52-53
Financial statement, 11
Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale,
Florida Council of Farmer Coop-
eratives, 31
Florida National Egg-Laying Test,
Flue-cured tobacco, 35
Food conservation and gardening,
Food, nutrition and health, 71-74
accomplishments, 71
food conferences, 73
exhibits and tours, 74
food selection and preparation,
4-H club camps, 73
junior work, phases of, 72
methods utilized, 71-72
State Short Course, 73
Forage, hay and sorghum, 33
Frenching, 54

Gardening and food conservation,
canning contest, 77
county flowers, shows and fairs,
gardening and perennial planting,

girls' canning demonstrations, 77
summary, food conservation, 78-
Girls' 4-H club work, 61, 62, 63,
64, 69, 70, 72, 73, 76, 77
camps, 61, 73
canning demonstrations, 77
clothing club, 69
club camp, national, 70
college club, 63, 64
councils, 62
home improvement, 76
junior work, phases of, 72
State Short Course, 63-73
Grove management, 28
Growers' institute, 55
Gum farming, 57

Hay, forage and sorghum, 33
Health, food and nutrition, 71-74
Herd improvement testing, 39-40
Hog improvement program, 37
Hog shows, 37
Home dairying, 39, 66
Home demonstration activities, 9,
Home improvement, 75-76
4-H girls work, 76
home management, 76
improved housing, 76
rural electrification, 75
Housing progress, 66
Irrigation advancement, 53
Land-use, 7, 28-29
Marketing activities, 29-31
citrus, 29
cooperation with other agencies,
Florida Council of Farmer Co-
operatives, 31
livestock, 30
timber, 57
vegetables, 30
Marketing agreements, 31
Marketing quotas and acreage
allotments, 24-25
Melanose, citrus, 54

National defense and food, 66
National Egg-Laying Test, Florida,
Negro Extension work, 10, 80-87
boys' 4-H club work, 81
camps and picnics, 83
cotton mattress program, 83
fairs and exhibits, 80
farm home improvements, 82
home demonstration work, 82
meetings, 80
plans and personnel, 82


terminal market studies, 81
typical project results, 80-81
State Short Course, 83
statistical report, 84-87
News service, 18
Nutrition, food and health, 71-74

Outlook conference, 28

Pasture and feed crop exhibits, 33
Pastures, permanent, 33
Potato and celery studies, 28
Poultry, report, 41-46
broiler production, 46
buildings, 45
calendar flock records, 46
continuing activities, 44-45
egg, hen and fryer indices, 43-44
Florida National Egg-Laying
Test, 41
junior poultry work, 45-46
ration and product prices, 41-43
ration index, 43-44
Third Annual Institute, 44
Publications, 17
Pulpwood cutting methods, 57

Radio broadcasts, 19
Ration and product prices, poultry,
Ration index, poultry, 43-44
Reforestation, 56-59
Revenues and resources, 7
Rural electrification, 75
Rust mite, 54

Scale control, 54
Scholarships, 4-H clubs, 49, 62, 63,
Sea Island cotton, 34
Shows and exhibits, 33, 36, 37, 40,

Soil conservation district work,
Soil cooperation with AAA, 58
Soil testing, 58
Sorghum, forage and hay, 33
Specialists and relationships, 7


Statistical report, 11-16
Negro, 84-87
Swine improvement program, 37

Terracing, 32
Textiles and clothing, 67-70
Timber marketing, 57
stands, improvement of, 56
Tobacco, flue-cured, 35
Traveling conference (land-use),
Tree planting on farms, 56

Vegetables and livestock, 30
marketing agreements, 31

Watermelon, marketing agreement,
Women's and girls' demonstrations,
achievement days, 69
awards and prizes, 64
camps and short course, 61-62
clothing and textiles, 67
college 4-H club, 63-64
cooperation received, 69-70
cotton mattress program, 65
cotton promotion work, 67-68
demonstrations and visits, 61
dress revue programs, 68
food, nutrition and health, 71-74
4-H club out-of-state trip, 70
4-H club work for girls, 62-63
gardening and food conservation,
health in rural families, 65-66
home clothing demonstrations,
home dairying, 66
home improvement, 75-76
home visits made, 69
housing progress, 66
information and exhibits, 70
marketing statistics, 64
method demonstrations, 68
national defense relations, 66
personnel and administration, 60
senior councils for women, 62
State Short Course, 63
Workstock program, 37