<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Board of Control
 Table of Contents
 Letter of transmittal
 Credits
 Report of director and vice-di...
 Editorial and mailing
 Agricultural conservation
 County agents' activities
 Agricultural economics
 Agronomy accomplishments
 Animal husbandry, dairying and...
 Boys' 4-H club work
 Citrus fruit culture
 Farm forestry
 General home demonstration...
 Clothing and textiles
 Food, nutrition and health
 Gardening and food conservatio...
 Home improvement
 Activities with negro farmers
 Negro home demonstration work
 Index














Report Florida agricultural extension service
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075773/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report Florida agricultural extension service
Running title: Annual report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida States College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla. The Service
Creation Date: 1939
Publication Date: 1939-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: University of Florida, Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1939-
Numbering Peculiarities: Report of general activities for ...with financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30; report for 1939 called also: Silver anniversary report.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- .
General Note: At head of title: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 46387223
lccn - 2001229382
System ID: UF00075773:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Board of Control
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 4
    Credits
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of director and vice-director
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Editorial and mailing
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Agricultural conservation
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    County agents' activities
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Agricultural economics
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Agronomy accomplishments
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Animal husbandry, dairying and poutry
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Boys' 4-H club work
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Citrus fruit culture
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Farm forestry
        Page 64
        Page 65
    General home demonstration work
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Clothing and textiles
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Food, nutrition and health
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Gardening and food conservation
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Home improvement
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Activities with negro farmers
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Negro home demonstration work
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Index
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
Full Text













COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




SILVER ANNIVERSARY REPORT

FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL

EXTENSION SERVICE

1939


REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1939
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1939







BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. TERRY, Chairman, Miami
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
W. M. PALMER, Ocala
H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville
C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Live Oak
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extensionl
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor'
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager1
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist1
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist1
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Asst. Economist, Farm Management
RUBY BROWN, Asst. Home Economist
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationisti
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

'Part-time.









CONTENTS
PAGE

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR ..................-.......... -- ...-.... 7

Financial Statement -........... ...........-...........---- .. 12

Statistical R report .................... ........... ........................................ 12

EDITORIAL AND MAILING .........-------- --........ -- .-.....---......-------- 17

AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION ........................................................... 21

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES ................................................................ ..... 24

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS .....................- .--- .... ................... .. 26

Farm M management Activities ..................-......... .... ..................... 26

Land-U se Planning ............................................. ...................... 28

M marketing .........................----- ..........- -........ ---- ....- ....- ...-- 29

AGRONOMY ACCOMPLISHMENTS ,..........--........ --------...-..---- ....... 32

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY -........--........... ..................... 37

Anim al Husbandry .................................... ......... .......... .... ---- 37

D airing ....................... ......----------- --.......... .. ............... -- 41

Poultry K keeping ..................... ...... .......... ................ ................. 43

BOYS' 4-H CLUB W ORK ........................................................................... 50

CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE .....................----.......------. --. .----.. ...--... 59

FARM FORESTRY .-.......--- .........--... --.. ----...-------.......... 64

GENERAL HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK .........---.--.............-- .................... 66

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES ....................... ...........---................................. .-- 76

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH ............................................ .................... 79

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION .............................................................. 83

HOME IMPROVEMENT ....................---...--... ----.... ...................... ..................... 86

ACTIVITIES W ITH NEGRO FARMERS ........... ........ ............ .... ................ 88

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ........................ ........-.......-... 91

Negro Statistical Report ........................... .. .. ...-- .....-- ..-- 93


[3]






















Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for
the calendar year 1939, including a fiscal report for the year ending June
30, 1939.
Respectfully,
R. P. TERRY,
Chairman, Board of Control


Hon. R. P. Terry,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the
director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord-
ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
JOHN J. TIGERT,
President, University of Florida





COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua.................Fred L. Craft.........Gainesville..................Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker......................M. D. Futch............ Macclenny ............................ .......
Bay....................E. R. Nelson...........Panama City ..............................
Bradford...............T. K. McClane.........Starke ........
Brevard................... L. Cain...............Cocoa ............................ Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
Broward...................B. E. Lawton...........Ft. Lauderdale .................... Miss Olga Kent
Calhoun.-............ G. Kelley..............Blountstown ................ Miss Eloise Chapman
Charlotte.................N. H. McQueen......Punta Gorda .....................................
Citrus....................Ben L. Gittings.....Inverness .......... Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Clay ............... .....- ............Green Cove Springs........ Miss Beulah Felts
Columbia............ Guy Cox...................Lake City ........... Miss Ruth Durrenberger
Dade..........................C. H. Steffani..........Miami ... ................... Miss Eunice Grady
Dade (Asst.).......J. L. Edwards..........Miami ..................... Miss Margaret Delaney
DeSoto..................E. H. Vance............A rcadia .................. ...........
Dixie...................... D. M. Treadwell.....Cross City ................. ......
Duval.....................A. S. Lawton...........Jacksonville .................... Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.)..........Frank M. Dennis...Jacksonville ........... Mrs. Dorothea Calmes
Escambia..................E. H. Finlayson.....Pensacola ................... Miss Ethel Atkinson
Gadsden.................Henry Hudson........Quincy ..................... Miss Elise Laffitte
Gilchrist............... A. S. Laird.............Trenton ........... ..................... ........
Glades & Hendry....G. C. Hodge.............Moore Haven ................................
Gulf ......................................-... Wewahitchka ...... Mrs. Pearl Whitfield
Hamilton................J. J. Sechrest .........Jasper ..............
Hardee........ ......... H. L. M iller............W auchula ................. ...........
Hernando.................C. D. Newbern ... ..Brooksville .......... ..........
Highlands...............L. H. Alsmeyer .....Sebring ..... .. ... .... ................ .....
Hillsborough............Alec White..............Tampa ................................... ......
Hillsborough (West) ..............................Tampa ............... Miss Allie Lee Rush
Hillsborough (East )................... -Plant City ................. Miss Irene Riley
Holmes................... M. B. Miller...........Bonifay ........... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson...................J. W. Malone......... Marianna ................ Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter
Jefferson...................P. R. McMullen....Monticello .......... Mrs. Ruby Brown Braswell
Lafayette..................D. H. Ward............Mayo ..... ......... ..--......
Lake............... ..........R. E. Norris............Tavares .................... Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee.............................C. P. H euck..............Ft. M years ................. .............
Leon...... .......... S. McMullen...... Tallahassee .............. Miss Rosalie L. Wolfe
Levy ............ ........T. D. Rickenbaker.Bronson .................. Miss Wilma Richardson
Liberty .... ... F. D. Yaun...............Bristol ........... ..................
Madison... ..........S. L. Brothers ........Madison ................... Miss Bennie F. Wilder
Manatee...................Ed L. Ayers............Bradenton ................ ....Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion.....................R. A. Stratford......Ocala .......................... Miss Kathryn Riddle
Nassau......................J. Raymond Mills...Hilliard ........
Okaloosa................John G. Hentz, Jr...Crestview .........
Okeechobee..............C. A. Fulford.......... Okeechobee... .........................
Orange............K. C. Moore............Orlando ................... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola-...................J. R. Gunn................Kissimmee ................. Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach.............M. U. Mounts..........West Palm Beach .... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pasco...................... J. A. McClellan, Jr..Dade City .................... ......... .......
Pinellas.....................J. H. Logan.............Clearwater ...................... Miss Tillie Roesel
Miss Margaret Alford, Asst.
Polk........................W. P. Hayman.......Bartow .............................. Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam....................H. E. Westbury......Palatka .... Mrs. Josephine Nimmo Arbogast
St. Johns................Loonis Blitch...........St. Augustine .............. Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie...................Myron M. Varn... Fort Pierce ...... ........ .......
Santa Rosa..............John G. Hudson......Milton ................... Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole..............C. R. Dawson......... Sanford .................... Mrs. Reva D. Andrews
Sarasota .................W E. Evans............Sarasota ... ........... ..
Sumter......................W J. Platt, Jr.......Bushnell ......... ...................
Suwannee..............S. C. Kierce............Live Oak ..................... Miss Louise Taylor
Taylor...................D. D. McCloud.......Perry ........ .......... ...... Miss Floy Moses
Union........................L. T. Dyer.............Lake Butler ...................... ...............
Volusia.:.............-....F. E. Baetzman......DeLand .................. Mrs. Gladys Kendall
Wakulla.................. N. J. Albritton.......Crawfordville ................ Mrs. Pearl Penuel
Walton......................Mitchell Wilkins....DeFuniak Springs ........ Miss Eloise McGriff
W ashington..............Fred W Barber....Chipley .... .. ...................... ....










AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension................................ Gainesville
H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge ........................... Gainesville
James J. Love, Chairman, State Committee ........................................ Quincy
Walter B. Anderson, State Committeeman ................................. Greenwood
Ralph B. Chapman, State Committeeman ........................................ Sanford
Harry C. Brown, State Committeeman ............................................ Clermont
E. Owen Blackwell, Asst. Field Officer and State Accountant .... Gainesville
Mrs. Minnie P. Carr, Statistical Assistant ........................................ Gainesville
R. S. Dennis, State Performance Supervisor .................................. Gainesville

ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION
COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Alachua.....................................Harry J. Brinkley................................Gainesville
Brevard........................................Clifford R. Boyles.......................................Cocoa
Columbia-...................................Mrs. Gussie Calhoun..............................Lake City
Dade.................... ...................... Edward A. Little-....................--.....Homestead
Escambia.....................................Bryan C. Gilmore................................Pensacola
Gilchrist--................................. Harley M. Moore......................................Trenton
Hamilton .................................. Eugene N. Stephens.................................. Jasper
Hardee....................................... Miss Eleanor M. Glorious....................Wauchula
Hillsborough............................Marshall Watkins............................Plant City
Holmes ---............... ---.................. Leon W. Miller.........................----.......... Bonifay
Jackson.......................................Franklin W. Smith..............................Marianna
Lake.......................................George T. Huggins................................. Tavares
Lee-...........................................Miss Beulah H. Goodrich................ Fort Myers
Levy.......................................Daniel D. Faircloth..................................Bronson
Madison---................................. Julian H. Wallace ------------...............................Madison
Okaloosa-................................... Stuart C. Bell .................................... Crestview
Palm Beach................................Mrs. Mary McCarley................West Palm Beach
Polk ................................... ..... Lewis S. Maxwell.. -- --...............................Bartow
Santa Rosa...............................Charles N. Clymore............................... Milton
Union................................ .... Grady Brannen.................................Lake Butler
Volusia ---.......................................Orwin A. Morse ..................................DeLand
Walton................................... Arnold G. Hutchinson............ DeFuniak Springs
Washington................................Alex D. Sapp ............................................ Chipley

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua...................................Frank E. Pinder.................................Gainesville
Columbia and So. Suwannee....McKinley Jeffers....................................Lake City
Gadsden -----------................................. John P. Powell............................................Quincy
Hamilton and No. Suwannee...N. H. Bennett................................White Springs
Jackson-................................. -0. W. Nealy............. .........................Marianna
Jefferson-..............----............... E. Groover........... -------...................... Monticello
Leon... ....................................Rolley Wyer, Jr................................Tallahassee
Sumter................................ Alonzo A. Young.....................................Bushnell

COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEM. AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua ............................... Mary Todd McKenzie........................Gainesville
Duval.......................-...........--Ethel M. Powell..............................--Jacksonville
Gadsden.................................... Diana H. Bouie........................................... Quincy
Hillsborough............................Floy Britt.......................--.. .............Tampa
Leon-......................--------... --.Alice W. Poole.................................Tallahassee
Madison .................................Althea Ayer..............................................Madison
Marion... --------..................................... Idella R. Kelley........................................ Reddick
Putnam........................................Fannie B. Diggs....................................-...Palatka


[6]









REPORT FOR 1939


PART I-GENERAL


REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR

Dr. John T. Tigert,
President, University of Florida
SIR: I submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension
Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report
embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1939,
and a summary of activities for the calendar year 1939.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director

Florida Agricultural Extension Service activities completed their 25th
year in 1939. Effective July 1, 1914, following the passage of the Smith-
Lever Act, the organization was instituted at the University of Florida,
under approval from the United States Department of Agriculture and the
State Board of Control.
During the entire quarter of a century the Agricultural Extension
Service has definitely sought to improve rural living standards, through
larger and more dependable farm incomes. "Living-at-home" practices
have been consistently advocated, that Florida farmers might become self-
supporting from the lands they cultivate.
In the beginning seven projects were reported as follows: 1, Admin-
istration, 2, demonstration work for adult farmers, 3, boys' 4-H corn club
work, 4, home economics, 5, hog cholera educational work in cooperation
with the Bureau of Animal Industry, 6, silo construction, and 7, disease and
insect control of horticultural crops.
For the current year the Extension Service is operating under 16 differ-
ent projects; of these "land use", soil conservation and forestry have been
added since 1938.
In 1914 the State Board of Control was headed by Hon. P. K. Yonge
as chairman, and Dr. A. A. Murphree served as president for the University
of Florida. P. H. Rolfs was made Agricultural Extension Service director
and the supervisory staff, in addition, was as follows: C. K. McQuarrie,
state agent, Miss Agnes Ellen Harris, assistant state agent for home
demonstration work; A. P. Spencer and E. S. Pace, district agents, and G.
L. Herrington, boys' club agent. Only Spencer, now vice-director, has been
in continuous service throughout the 25-year period.
When the first year of Agricultural Extension Service work in Florida
came to an end, 40 percent of the counties had agreed to cooperate finan-
cially in employing county agents. During 1939, 60 of the 67 counties pro-
vided funds for farm and home demonstration agents. Crop diversification
and the formation of boys' and girls' clubs were early objectives. Corn
and pig clubs were organized among boys and the girls were urged to join
tomato and vegetable clubs. In the intervening period the Extension Ser-







Florida Cooperative Extension


vice has reflected the changing conditions in Florida and United States
agriculture. While the World War was under way, from 1914 to 1918,
emergency food production was of paramount importance, becoming more
so after this country entered the conflict in 1917. Federal Department
of Agriculture specialists were assigned to the state in increased number,
working with and through the Extension Service.
Modifications in the program which started with 1919 and continued
until 1930 brought, reconstruction policies into the foreground. Additions
included agricultural economics, with farm management and marketing
studies being undertaken in a limited way. Agricultural Extension Service
activities became better co-related with the research facilities of the State
Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture.
Findings for which they were responsible reached the farming population
through the county agents. From 1930 to 1933 the nation's agriculture was
entering the depression period. Lending agencies, Federal, State and
private, furnished funds designed to tide things over. Emergency measures
were again resorted to along sundry lines, in the Agricultural Extension
Service field. County appropriations underwent 25 percent reductions.
Salaries had to be cut and numerous workers were released.
Beginning with 1933 the agricultural adjustment era was reached.
Duties falling upon county farm and home demonstration agents became
immediately enlarged. Boards and committees for the numerous relief pro-
posals were almost altogether set up under their supervision. Personnel
was gradually increased under additional appropriations from Federal,
State and county sources but between 1933 and 1936 much of the Extension
work as formerly conducted was necessarily neglected. Since the latter date
the situation has been improved and the Extension Service agents have been
relieved of much detail work placed under them during the earlier stages
of crop restrictions, benefit payments and the like. At the end of the
quarter century the Florida Agricultural Extension Service was receiving
cooperation from a greater number of counties than at any previous time
in its history. In a number of counties the work had been expanded to
cover the needs of both white and Negro farmers and their families.

REVIEW OF 1939 ACTIVITIES
Changes in personnel and plans were relatively few during the year.
Programs followed had been shaped to conform with other Federal and
State work affecting agriculture. Aims sought to be accomplished by all
these agencies dealt as heretofore with the ways and means whereby farms
and groves might be made to return the owners larger .incomes and afford
their families more comforts. In Florida, as elsewhere, the Agricultural
Extension Service continued to act as the channel through which contacts
were made with the rural population.
Price declines took place during the 12 months on sundry products,
further complicating an already serious situation. Citrus fruits, cotton,
tobacco and hogs fell to new low levels in Florida. Relief from the con-
ditions thus brought about was extended by several Federal agencies dealing
with loans, grants and benefits. In greater or less degree, all these worked
in close cooperation with the Agricultural Extension Service, though calling
on county farm and home agents not so frequently in a manner that inter-
fered with their primary purposes.
Agricultural Adjustment Act administration in the field was more and
more turned over to assistants by the county agents, giving the latter re-
newed opportunities for educational work. Farm Security Administration
activities ranked next among the federal groups in demands on the
Extension Service. Rural electrification undertakings in the state also







Annual Report, 1939 9

received continuing attention. Contacts were made with the regional office
in Atlanta, since no representative was stationed in Florida. Farm and
home agents in the promising territories helped to organize the electric
cooperatives which farmers join who wish the service extended to their
places.
PROJECTS ADDED DURING THE YEAR
A specialist to supervise the farm forestry program has been added. It
is the plan to enlarge this service, cooperating with Clarke-McNary and
Norris-Doxey programs. Florida has large areas of land that can be more
profitably used for forestry than for any other purpose. This work is
"coordinated with the State and Federal forest services, the Soil Conservation
Service, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and the forestry
division of the College of Agriculture.
To date only one soil conservation district has been established and
placed on a working basis. This comprises an area of the rolling lands of
western Florida and is in a general farming area. Three additional dis-
tricts have been petitioned for and will be in operation during 1940. An
amendment to the State Soil Conservation Districts Law was necessary in
order to proceed in a legal way and this has been largely responsible for
delay. The Soil Conservation Districts Law as now set up provides that the
State Board of Control constitutes the State Conservation District Board
and this board in turn has appointed the Director of Extension to serve
as administrator in affairs affecting the soil conservation districts. It is
proposed that the Agricultural Extension program administered by the
county agents in the respective counties should be largely the basis for
the educational work necessary and in each case working in coordination
with representatives of the Soil Conservation Service who have been
assigned for technical work in these districts.
The land-use program has been set up and is proceeding. It was
necessary to lease office space, since the University was already over-
crowded. Programs and personnel were provided in accordance with the
recommended procedure, working under the direction of the economics
section. The Extension Service emphasized the home management feature
and an experienced county home demonstration agent was employed to
assist. This, however, was discontinued as of June 20, due to a reduction
of funds for personnel services. We believe that the home management
phase of this work is of sufficient importance to be reinstated and we will
make an effort to do so if funds are available. Farm management specialist
was placed in charge of this service and works closely with the district
agents in selecting counties and formulating procedures in the counties.
Since July 1 the Bureau of Agricultural Economics has assigned a repre-
sentative. A committee consisting of a representative of the economics
section of the Extension Service, the Experiment Station and the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, serves as a directing body in formulating and
carrying out the program.

COOPERATION WITH STATE INSTITUTIONS
Relations have become closer and closer between the Extension Service
and the State Agricultural Experiment Station system in the College of
Agriculture at the University of Florida. Cooperation likewise has been
on an enlarging scale with the Florida State College for Women, where
the Home Demonstration Department headquarters are located.
Other State agencies that the Extension Service utilizes in forwarding
its purposes include the Department of Agriculture, the Marketing Bureau,
the Agricultural Markets Board, and the Citrus Commission. Chambers of







10 Florida Cooperative Extension

Commerce at several points have enlisted the Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice in developing their plans. A notable instance was supplied by the
Jacksonville organization in promoting the Florida Fat Stock Show and
Sale as an annual event.
Federal and State endeavor has continued for reviving the Sea Island
cotton industry, the Extension Service doing its full share. In the section
of Florida where long staple cotton was once an important crop there is
little tendency to increase on account of boll weevils and unfavorable
weather conditions. There is, however, a tendency to expand in the citrus
area. The outcome is still uncertain but undoubtedly there will be a larger
acreage planted in 1940, due to an increased price per pound paid in 1939,
and because of a reduction in revenue that may be expected from tobacco,
and with the lower price of hogs there will be a tendency to decrease
pork production.

BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUB WORK
The type of programs carried on by 4-H clubs has varied considerably
in the past five years. There has been no marked change in general pro-
cedures as to organization and membership, but because of the enlarged
agricultural programs, supported from Federal funds, the type of work
has been influenced by this condition. Additional responsibilities placed
cn county agents have made it necessary to delegate much of this to
assistants, also to persons who serve voluntarily.
The Vocational Agricultural Department has programs now in practically
every agricultural community of importance. Most of the boys with possi-
bilities for constructive 4-H club work have been brought into the vocational
agricultural program and supervised in an extensive way by the teachers.
This vocational program is no longer confined to the public schools but
extends its work out on the farms, and has programs similar in purpose
to the extension 4-H club program. This has not caused serious confusion in
administrative matters, but adjustments should be made, otherwise duplica-
tions of efforts are bound to result.
This situation is not as conspicuous with home demonstration agents
because of the fewer vocational departments in the public schools that would
enter into 4-H club work for girls. Because of this condition with the 4-H
club boys, the membership from year to year does not materially increase
and the 4-H club program can be expanded in so far as to include additional
subject matter that cannot be provided otherwise.
It was reported in 1938 that this department had made a special effort
to establish three 4-H district camps. This has served a useful purpose in
providing a place for community programs and cooperation between
counties. The facilities at the camps are being gradually added to and our
State Legislature has made a limited allotment of funds for their mainten-
ance and upkeep. To make a camp successful there must be a definite and
well planned program. Our specialists assist at these camps and provide
most of the subject matter given.
Each camp has a director with sufficient assistants to properly conduct
the affairs of the camp. Gradually other divisions of the State and Federal
Government have expressed their interest and offer their services in carry-
ing out health and recreation programs, wildlife and other programs of
general interest to rural people. Our camps are conducted between June
15 and September 15 and our plan is to use these properties for farm and
home meetings which are supervised by the district agent.
The growth of the College 4-H Club for girls which had an increase in
membership of nearly 50 freshmen this year at Florida State College for
Women alone, is one of the best evidences of encouragement given rural







Annual Report, 1939


young people to study together to recognize community and state needs.
More than 50 of these college girls assisted with the annual Short Course
for 4-H Club Girls, with the women's council meetings, and with county
camps.
The State Short Course for 4-H Club Girls was attended by 538 club
girls and leaders from the 37 organized counties. All home demonstration
agents attended the Short Course and council meetings. Fifty summer
camps or short courses were held in the counties last year with an attend-
ance of 1,631 girls and 409 adults. The general theme of the state and
county short courses has been "the contribution of 4-H club girls to better
family living," with the young people themselves analyzing their work in
the light of improving rural life.
Results in 4-H club work with girls show great improvement in quality
of work done and understanding 'on the part of the girls, of the relationship
of their activities to better living on the farm.
A worthy Florida 4-H girl received highest award in the Southern States
for her general foods and nutrition records, receiving a $400.00 college
scholarship.

DIVISIONS OF WORK AND RESOURCES
Gradually home demonstration work has become more involved in the
enlarged agricultural programs. Special courses have been provided at the
College for home demonstration agents, dealing with agricultural production
that applies particularly to the homes. The College of Agriculture is offer-
ing special courses to extension agents with credits leading toward advanced
degrees. These courses can be undertaken by only a part of the group on
account of distances from the institution and other conditions that would
interfere.
The Negro work is operating in 14 counties with a total of 17 agents.
Four of these have both agricultural and home agents. The expenses for
this work are carried by the Extension Service with State and Federal funds.
In two cases the counties are appropriating small amounts. This is sub-
stantially the same number of persons as have served in the past and the
programs are very similar.
All sources of revenue remain as of 1938. Federal funds assigned to the
Extension Service remain practically the same. State funds approved by
the 1939 Legislature were practically doubled, a larger part of which was
intended to relieve expenditures by counties. However, to date this increase
has not materialized due to a depleted condition of the State Treasury, so
the state funds available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940, remain
practically the same as of 1939.
County appropriations in support of county and home demonstration
work show a slight increase. Of the 67 counties in the state, 60 have
made financial provisions for extension work. At present all agricultural
counties with one exception are now cooperating, 58 of these with county
agents, and 36 with both county and home agents. The budget for the year
beginning July 1, 1939, shows an increase over 1938 but the larger area to
be served does not permit any substantial expansion.
Reports summarized in the following pages give in more detailed form the
accomplishments under the heads touched on herein and cover the activities
in divisions concerning which this review contains no mention. In most
cases, statistical data are appended, further setting forth the coverage
attained in the Florida Agricultural Extension Service plans. Attention
is directed to the comprehensive manner in which the interests of agricul-
ture in the State have been given attention in laying out the programs.







12 Florida Cooperative Extension

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1939
RECEIPTS
Federal Smith-Lever .......................... ................$ 63,968.10
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal .................... 5,179.03
Bankhead-Jones, Federal............................ .... 111,332.87
Capper-Ketcham, Federal ........................ 26,555.74
Additional Cooperative, Federal -............................ 12.400.00
State Appropriation .. ........ .... .................... 87,700.00
County Appropriation ................................ .......... 118,121.74
Egg Laying Contest, Sales .... ............................ 6,120.00
Continuing Appropriations ............................... 5,000.00

$436,377.48
EXPENDITURES
Administration ........ ........... ...................$ 13,972.29
Publications, printing -..... ............... .................. 11,487.22
County Agent Program .................................... 187,384.72
4-H Club Program (Boys) ...................................... 8,627.17
Home Demonstration Program ............ ................. 137,115.74
Dairy and Animal Husbandry ................................ 8,434.50
Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work) .... 32,009.81
Citriculture .................................................................. 4,973.14
Poultry Husbandry ............... ............................ 4,519.16
Extension Schools .................................... ....... 266.20
Agricultural Economics .............. ......................16,936.14
Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ....................... 10,651.39

$436,377.48

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Days service rendered by county workers ........................ 29,075
Days in office ...... ...................................... 13,301.5
Days in field ... ................................................ 15,773.5
Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily ....... 1,987
Number paid employes assisting Extension program ........... 745
Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 310
Members in such clubs .. ................. ........................ ......... 7,163
4-H clubs ............... ......... ....... ....................... 763
4-H club members enrolled .....-................ .............. 15,815
Different 4-H club members completing .................................. 9,616
4-H club teams trained ..-- ......................... ............. 547
Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 15 years of age and older ........ 11
Members in these groups .......... ............................ ................ 494
Farm or home visits made --..... ................................... 50,836
Different farms or homes visited ............................. ....... 26,283
Calls relating to Extension work ......................................... 354,666
News articles or stories published and circular letters ........ 6,434
Number individual letters written ................................... 103,493
Bulletins distributed ................................................. 124,560
Radio talks ............. ........ ............ ............ ........ 314
Extension exhibits shown ............................ .......... 553
Training meetings held for local leaders .......................... ........ 360
(Attendance ........................ 6,020
Method demonstration meetings held .-..........................-.... 12,146
(Attendance ................. 192,080







Annual Report, 1939


Meetings held at result demonstration ..............................
(Attendance ............
Farm tours conducted .................. ................. .........
(Attendance ....................
Achievement days held .... .......... .................
(Attendance ...............
Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) ............
(Attendance ............ ......
Other meetings .......... .....--.. .........----.....
(Attendance ..................

CEREALS

Communities in which work was conducted .............................
Result demonstrations conducted ................................---...
Meetings held ....................--...-.........-------...---.......---
News stories published and circular letters ................................
Farm or home visits made ....................................
Office calls received ................. ............. .. ... ...........
4-H club members .................... ...... ......... ...
4-H club members completing ................ ................
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing
Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing
Farmers following better practices recommended ..................


LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS


Communities in which work was conducted ...............................
Result demonstrations conducted ..................... .............
M meetings held ...... ..... .................-..-- --. ------ --. ----------..--
News stories published and circular letters ............................
Farm or home visits made .....................-........ .......
Number office calls received ................. ...... ................
4-H club members enrolled ...... .. ............. ..... .........
4-H club members completing .......................................
Yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing-
(Seed, pounds ....................
(Forage, tons ....................
Farmers following better practice recommendations ............


POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS


Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops
Communities in which work was
conducted ....................................... 394
Result demonstrations ......................-- 168
Meetings held ..........................---. ....--.. 266
News stories published and
circular letters written ............... 162
Farm or home visits made ................... 620
Office calls received ............................. 4,361
4-H club members enrolled ................. 306
4-H club members completing ............ 171
Acres in projects by 4-H club
members completing ........................ 100
Yields by 4-H club members completing 11,561 Bu.
Farms following better practices ........ 4,682


Cotton Tobacco


270
71
425

392
753
21,456
116
50

64A-
28,849 Lb.
7,844


152
50
211

340
1,601
13,619
27
16

181o
19,813 Lb.
8,017


3,566
40,414
247
9,129
153
39,952
104
4,772
4,313
201,141


495
219
172
87
1,064
4,824
630
338
555%1
9,4972 Bu.
10,228


1,443
1,146 .
882
906
4,308
22,592
S356
207

102,391
257%
37,205







14 Florida Cooperative Extension

FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS

Communities in which work was conducted ........................ 2,797
Result demonstrations conducted .... ............................ 10,223
M meetings held .............................. ........................................ 3,567
News stories published and circular letters issued ................... 1,776
Farm or home visits made .............................................. 10,573
Office calls received ..................................... .... ..... 36,225
4-H club members enrolled .......................................... 9,257
4-H club members completing ............... ............................ 5,301
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,320
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 36,932% Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices ................. 50,338

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 618
Result demonstrations conducted ...................................... 637
M meetings held ............................................................ .................. 558
News stories published and circular letters issued ............... 341
Farm or home visits made ...... .............. ............................... 1,697
Office calls received .......... ............. ....... .................... 5,991
4-H club members enrolled ....... ........ ............ ............... 390
4-H club members completing ..................................................... 263
Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting
with small trees ...................................... 210
Acres reforested ----------................................... .................. 6,002,
Farms adopting better forestry practices ......................... 4,139
Farms adopting soil conservation practices .............................. 1,359
Acres involved .... ................. ........................ 283,517
Land clearing .... .. ........................ ........... 357
Acres involved ....--........................... ....... ... 42,906
Farmers adopting better machine practice ................................ 1,251
Number machines involved ............................................................ 1,204
Farmers adopting better building and equipment practices .... 4,945
Building and items of equipment involved .............................. 7,435

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 759
Result demonstrations conducted ....................................... 1,957
M meetings held -- ... .- .....- .. ................................. 1,231
News stories published and circular letters issued ................ 578
Farm or home visits made ................... ............................. 4,416
Office calls received ............ ..... .................. 9,257
4-H club members enrolled ................. ...................... 2,519
4-H club members completing ....................................... 1,572
Number chickens raised -.........-.................................... 68,712
Number colonies of bees .................................................... 208
Families following improved practices in poultry raising .... 19,932
Families following improved practices-bees .......................... 1,271

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted ............................... 1,543
Result demonstrations conducted .............................................. 1,961
Meetings held --...... -- .. ................................. 1,764
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 1,767
Farm or home visits made ............ ............................. 13,508
Office calls received ........ ....................... .................... 28,224
4-H club members enrolled ..-..................... .................. 2,275
4-H club members completing .......................................... 1,252







Annual Report, 1939


Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members
com pleting .............. .................. .. .... ............. 3,407
Farmers obtaining better breeding stock .................................. 2,321
Farmers using other improved livestock practices ............. 31,706

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 1,503
Result demonstrations conducted ............................................. 1,120
M meetings held ................................................................................. 1,028
News stories published and circular letters issued ................... 813
Home or farm visits made ................................. ...... 2,867
Office calls received ...............- ...................... ....-- ...- ........- 27,737
4-H club members enrolled ...........-.............................. 26
4-H club members completing ...........................--....--. 3
Farmers keeping account and cost records ....................... 506
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts ................ 671
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ........ 4,103
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year .... 7
Farmers making business changes resulting from economic
surveys .... ....... ..... .. ... ... .. ............. 11,515
Families assisted in getting established ................................. 10,204
Marketing groups organized or assisted .............. ................ 151
Individuals affected by marketing program ..................... 10,662
Organizations assisted with problems ...................................... 512
Individuals assisted with problems ......................................... 11,390
Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted $4,196,628.50
Value of products sold by individuals (not in organizations) 1,609,271.27
Value of supplies purchased-all associations ........................ 91,378.83
Value of supplies purchased by all individuals ................... 593,955.86

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 1,093
Result demonstrations conducted .................- ..............- 8,513
M meetings held ...................................... --. ............ ................ 4,315
News stories published and circular letters issued ................ 929
Farm or home visits made ................................. ... ....... 3,452
Office calls received ................ .......... ... .... ........... ......... 12,056
4-H club members enrolled ......... ......................... ..... .. 7,044
4-H club members completing ................................................ 4,953
Containers of food prepared and.saved by 4-11 club members 94,776
Dishes of food prepared, meals served and vegetables and
fruits stored and dried ........................... ........... 75,148
Families adopting better practices as to foods .................... 11,344
Schools following recommendations for school lunch ................ 144
Children in schools following lunch recommendations ............ 34,260
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ....2,454,672
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved .............$......323,963.99
Families readjusting family food supply ................................... 4,469

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conduct ......................... 211
Result demonstrations conducted ........................................ 608
M meetings held ....................................... ........ ------. .......... 245
News stories published and circular letters issued .............. 60
Farm or home visits made .............................. ........... 367
Office calls received ........................ ... ....... ... ...--. --.. ... ... 721
4-H club members participating .......... ........-......... 375
Families following child-development plans ...................... 2,694
Different individuals participating in child-development
program .................... .. .-- ..-- ---------............ 939
Children involved in child-development program ................. 1,947







16 Florida Cooperative Extension

CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted .......................... 570
Result demonstrations conducted -.............................. 2,824
Meetings held .......................................................................... 2,777
News stories published and circular letters issued ..... ....-.. 530
Farm or home visits made ........... .............................. 2,162
Office calls received ......... ......................-............... 5,405
4-H club members enrolled ........ ..... ........ 8,250
4-H club members completing ..................... ......................... 5,950
Articles made by 4-H club members completing ................. 38,853
Individuals following better clothing practices .................... 31,907
Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing
require ents ....... ....... ............. ..... ........................... 5,576
Savings due to clothing program ............ ................... $73,215.36

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted ...................... 1,278
Result demonstrations conducted .......................... .......... 5,758
Meetings held ....... ................ ................ .......... 2,210
News stories published and circular letters issued ............ 504
Farm or home visits made ........................................ 2,295
Office calls received .......................................... 4,152
4-H club members enrolled ..................... .............. 3,625
4-H club members completing ............. ........................... 2,657
Projects conducted by 4-H members completing ................. 17,030
Families following better home-management practices ........ 15,665
Estimated savings due to home-management program ........ $43,608.54
Families improving household furnishings ............... 12,267
Savings due to house-furnishings program .................. $31,630.50
Families following handicraft practices ..--..................... 2,675

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted ....................... 400
Result demonstrations conducted ........................................ 985
Meetings held .................... ........................... 756
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 122
Farm or home visits made ........................................... 893
Office calls received ......... ................... .... ........................ 1,231
4-H club members enrolled .... .................................... ........ 2,573
4-H club members completing ....................................... 1,799
Additional 4-H club members participating ........... ........ 4,314
Individuals having health examination ..---......--............. 3,682
Individuals adopting health measures .............. ................. 19,364
Families adopting health measures .... .................................. 3,410

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 927
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting --.............. 849
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or
comm itteem en ........................... .................................... 2,117
Meetings held ....-..-............................ ............. 1,376
News stories published and circular letters issued ......... 1,481
Farm or home visits made .-...... ............................. 2,962
Office calls received .- ....-.. ........... ........................... 6,582
Communities assisted with community problems ............... 1,317
Country life conferences ..................... .................. 98
Families following recommendations as to home recreation .... 1,607
4-H clubs engaging in community activities ........................ 155
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross
or other relief agency .......... .................. ........... .......... .. 1,414







Annual Report, 1939


EDITORIAL AND MAILING
J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
The three editors and three clerks and stenographers in the Editorial
and Mailing Department are employed jointly by the Agricultural Extension
Service and the Agricultural Experiment Station. On the whole, they devote
probably a little less than 50 percent of their time to the Station, a little
more than 50 percent to Extension, although there is no hard and fast
division of time.
No changes in type of work or its character and relationships have
occurred during the year. The Editors work with materials for both adults
and juniors.
BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS
Manuscripts for bulletins, circulars and miscellaneous publications are
prepared carefully by the authors, and are then checked by Experiment
Station specialists in the field covered by each bulletin, as well as the
Vice-Director of Extension and others. When the manuscripts reach the
Editor they have been thoroughly checked for accuracy of subject matter.
The manuscripts are then edited and revised from the standpoint of com-
position and sent to the printer. Proofs are checked always by the Editor
and usually by the author as well.
The following bulletins and other materials were printed during the year:


Bul.
Bul.
Bul.
Circ.
Circ.

Circ.
Circ.
Circ.
Circ.
Misc.

Misc.

Misc.
Misc.
Misc.
Misc.

Misc.

Misc.

Misc.


Title Pi
100. Preserving Florida Citrus Fruit -....... .........--..
101. Hog-Lot Equipment for Florida ..........................
102. Roses in Florida ........................... .... ... .. -
45. The First Canning Demonstration ..................-.........
46. Thrift Room Suggestions for Florida 4-H
C lub girls .................... .... ......................
47. Caring for the W ardrobe .......-....... .. ..-........
48. The Well Dressed 4-H Club Girl ............ ..............
42. Fundamentals in Home Sewing (Reprint) ............
43. The Florida 4-H Club Uniform (Reprint) ............
. Pub. 26. Florida Citrus Costs and Returns,
Seventh Annual Summary ....................
. Pub. 27. The 1939 Farm and Home Outlook for
Florida ........................ ............... ........
Pub. 1. Citrus Grove Record Book (Reprint) .....
Pub. 6. 4-H Crop Club Record (Reprint) ............
Pub. 10. 4-H Livestock Club Record (Reprint) ........
SPub. 12. Florida Egg Quality Program-Suggestions
to the Consumer (Revised) ....................
. Pub. 13. Florida Egg Quality Program-Suggestions
to the Producer (Reprint) ....................
. Pub. 15. 4-H Club Food Preparation Guide and
Record (Repr.) .................................
.Pub. 20. 4-H Canning Guide and Record (Reprint)
Calendar, 1939 ...............................................
Final Report, 12th Florida National Egg-
Laying Test .................... ... ..................
Annual Report, 1938 ........................................
Program, Boys' 4-H Short Course ..............
Credit Group Chart No. 1 .................. .........-
Exhibit Card, 4-H Poultry Club .................
Covers for Small Farm Record Book ..........


ages
44
20
24
20

20
20
36
28
20

32

24
46
12
12

8

8

24
16

20
120
8
1
1


Edition
25,000
12,000
20,000
20,000

20,000
25,000
20,000
25,000
20,000

3,500

2,500
1,000
20,000
15,000

25,000

12,000

25,000
25,000
12,000

1,500
2,000
400
200
1,000
1,000







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

Announcement and Rules, 14th Florida
National Egg-Laying Test ...................... 5 1,500
Window Cards advertising Florida Poultry
Institute ........ ........ ............... ...... ..... 200
M ailing Slips ................. ...... .. ............... 25,000
Milk Record Sheets ....... .............. ... ............. 2,500
Cards for Negro Agents' offices .................... 50
Agricultural News Service (weekly
clipsheet) .............................................. 1 44,200

Thus it is seen that three new bulletins, amounting to 88 pages, were
printed during the year, with 57,000 copies being run; four new circulars
aggregated 96 pages, with 85,000 copies, while two reprinted circulars
totaled 48 pages and 45,000 copies; 6,000 copies were run of two new
miscellaneous publications which totaled 56 pages, while 123,000 copies
were printed of seven old ones, 126 pages.
Copies of all new bulletins and circulars were distributed immediately to
county and home demonstration agents and libraries. They were sent on
request after that.

SERVICE TO NEWSPAPERS AND FARM JOURNALS
All weekly and a few daily newspapers in Florida were served by a
weekly clipsheet containing from eight to 12 or more items relating to
agricultural work and recommendations by the Extension Service, Experi-
ment Station and other agencies. Newspapers reprinted this material
generously, showing a keen interest in agriculture and its problems.
Daily newspapers were further served through special releases direct
to one or more papers and through releases over the wire and mail services
of the Associated Press.
Farm journals, national, Southern and local, have been generous in the
use of copy sent out by the Extension Editors during' the year. From
copy written by the Extension Editors, five national farm periodicals printed
13 articles totaling 313 column inches, two Southern journals printed 17
articles totaling 179 column inches, and four Florida periodicals printed 17
articles totaling 482 column inches. This gives a total of 47 separate
articles and 974 column inches.
In addition, dozens of copies of radio talks and other articles prepared
by staff members of the Extension Service and Experiment Station were
forwarded to Florida farm periodicals and were printed by them.

TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING AND RADIO WRITING
AND DELIVERY
On request of home demonstration agents the Extension Editor con-
ducted two one-day training courses for reporters in girls' 4-H clubs, with
a total attendance of 74 girls, and one for reporters of women's home
demonstration clubs, with an attendance of 18 women. A special class for
reporters was conducted for the week of the Girls' 4-H Short Course at
Tallahassee, with an enrollment of 16 girls. Newspapers receive and
use more material where such courses have been conducted.
During November the Editor arranged a series of six district schools
for county and home demonstration agents interested in preparing and
delivering radio talks and conducting regular radio programs. The in-
struction was given by John C. Baker, extension radio specialist with the
United States Department of Agriculture, and served to stimulate and
make more effective the radio work of agents. These six schools were
attended by 42 agents.






Annual Report, 1939


RADIO PROGRAMS
Radio broadcasts continued to be an important means of carrying
timely information to Florida farmers and rural women. Some agents used
this medium regularly, others sporadically during the year. As a result of
the radio schools conducted in November, at least three additional programs,
weekly or more often, were inaugurated.
The Florida Farm Hour each week day at noon over WRUF, Gainesville,
continued to be an outstanding and appreciated service with a large follow-
ing. This program is directed by the Extension Editors and employs
speakers from the Extension Service, Experiment Station, College of
Agriculture, State Plant Board, other agencies, and farmers and farm
women.
Extension workers, including county and home demonstration agents,
made 446 talks on the Farm Hour during the year. Only 12 of these were
made by home demonstration workers, since their staff headquarters are
not in Gainesville. This included 313 daily broadcasts of farm news high-
lights, a very popular feature, by the Extension Editors and 121 talks by
Extension staff workers and county agents. Total talks for the year were
1,004, an average of slightly more than three each week day.
In addition to farm news highlights, regular features included the
farm question box each Tuesday, and weekly news and editorial snapshots
each Saturday. Generally Monday programs are devoted to horticulture,
Tuesday to insects, Wednesday to general material, Thursday to dairy and
poultry, Friday to livestock, and Saturday to news.
Special industry broadcasts by remote control created widespread
interest. One from Brooker was devoted to tung oil and a tung mill, one
from Leesburg to the Watermelon Festival, one from Jacksonville to clover
and pastures and the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale, one from Starke
to a strawberry market, one from Trenton to a swine show and sale, one
from Bradenton to the new Experiment Station laboratory there, and one
from the Dairy Products Laboratory on the University campus to the work
of that unit.
A special 4-H club broadcast, one-half hour in duration, was staged from
the studios of WTAL in Tallahassee four days during Girls' Club Short
Course in June.
Farm Flashes, in cooperation with the USDA Radio Service, were sent
to six stations for five days each week. On some of these stations the
flashes were broadcast regularly, on others sporadically. Talks made by
Extension workers over WRUF were revamped into flashes in 24 instances,
and 200 copies were sent. The Editors prepared and sent an additional 54
flashes, for 420 copies.

SILVER ANNIVERSARY
The 25th anniversary of the Florida Extension Service was widely
publicized in newspapers, farm journals, civic and other meetings, and over
the radio. One national farm publication, circulated largely among
specialists, county agents and teachers of agriculture, carried a detailed
review of the accomplishments of 25 years in Florida. Florida farm
journals and newspapers gave wide usage to special stories, clipsheet
articles, and press service reports on the celebration. Two of the state's
largest dailies carried special pages in which the work was reviewed, and
16 weeklies issued special Extension Anniversary sections or editions.
The 25 years of work were dramatized over the radio in one program,
and other programs carried news and reviews of the history and accomplish-
ments.







20 Florida Cooperative Extension

A check of about half of the 50 Florida dailies and 125 weeklies-all that
are received on our exchange desk-reveals that more than 5,000 column
inches of space was devoted to news and editorial matter concerning the
Silver Anniversary.
Talks on the anniversary before civic clubs, 4-H achievement days and
other groups, arranged largely under the direction of the Editors, were
made in 54 instances, covering nearly every county where agents are
employed.
MISCELLANEOUS
The Editor attended five meetings, with total attendance of 136, and
spoke at one of them. Assistance was rendered to the Agricultural Adjust-
ment Administration, Soil Conservation Service, State Forest Service, and
other state and federal agencies in conducting their publicity in Florida.
The Extension Editor was publicity chairman for the Florida Fat Stock
Show and Sale held in Jacksonville in early March, and handled both news
and radio releases concerning this event, both before it was staged and
while it was in progress.







Annual Report, 1939


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION

H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge
R. S. Dennis, Performance Supervisor
A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant

In addition to the foregoing personnel, assigned from the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service staff, a State Committee functioned, composed of
the following farmers:
James J. Love, Quincy, Gadsden County, Chairman
Ralph B. Chapman, Sanford, Seminole County
W. B. Anderson, Greenwood, Jackson County
H. C. Brown, Clermont, Lake County

Growers participating in the program are organized into county Agri-
cultural Conservation Associations, which elect community committeemen.
County farm agents serve as the local administrative officers. County
Association treasurers are bonded.

PAYMENTS FOR PARTICIPATION
Payments made to farmers for 1938 participation are indicated by the
table which follows:

Number of Net
Farms Reporting Payment

Cotton ............... .......... ....... 8,762 $ 230,387.66
Flue-cured tobacco .............................. 3,989 57,506.22
Peanuts ........... ..... .... ............. ... 3,012 37,216.54
Potatoes ................ ... .................. 464 93,446.02
Type 62 tobacco ............................ 87 26,448.06
Type 45 tobacco ......................... .. 157 2,088.17
Soil-building practice payment ........ 34,657 1,879,339.41
Increase in payment ................... 36,064 324,737.91
Number of assignments .................. 511
Amount paid assignees ................. 129,173.93
*Total net payment actually paid
farmers participating ............... 2,510,841.49
Number of interested persons .......... 41,051

*As of December 19, 1939. A number of adjustment applications not included have
since been paid.

ACREAGE ALLOTMENTS IN 1939
On December 10, 1938, farmers voted in regard to marketing quotas on
cotton and tobacco for 1939. Marketing quotas were approved for cotton,
disapproved for tobacco. Acreage allotments for 1939 for both commodities
were issued prior to the referendum. Tobacco allotments were in effect
for 1939 under the Conservation Program even though there were no market-
ing quotas.
Acreage allotments for all special crops in Florida for 1939 were as
follows:







Florida Cooperative Extension


Number of Acreage Normal
Crop Farms Allotment Yield

Cotton ......................................... 13,202 89,720.4 165 pounds
Flue-cured tobacco .................... 5,338 14,525.1 897 pounds
Type 62 tobacco ....................... 173 2,278.9 1,010 pounds
Peanuts .................................... 3,826 46,634.0 639 pounds
Commercial vegetables ........... 7,167 190,469.0
Celery ..................................:. .... 296 5,972.4 480 crates
Total soil-depleting crops ..... 16,854 812,468.5


The number of counties for which acreage allotments and normal yields
were established are as follows: Cotton, 28 counties; flue-cured tobacco,
33 counties; type 62 tobacco, three counties; peanuts, two counties; com-
mercial vegetables, 33 counties; celery, five counties; total soil-depleting
crops, 39 counties.
After completion of the work of establishing acreage allotments for
special crops, about 10 percent of the farms under worksheet were re-
constituted and acreage allotment had to be re-determined for these farms
as they were operated in 1939. It was necessary to re-determine allotments
for approximately 3,500 farms for 1939.

COTTON MARKETING QUOTAS
Cotton marketing quotas were approved in a referendum held December
10, 1938, for the marketing year August 1, 1939, to July 31, 1940.
Cotton marketing quota work has been carried out this year with a
considerable reduction in the number of farms planting cotton and a sub-
stantial decrease in the number of over-planted farms as compared to 1938.
Preliminary figures indicate a production of 4,746,794 pounds of lint cotton.
This is slightly less than 40% of the 1938 production. Cotton farms in
Florida in 1939 planted 57,850.1 acres. The actual average yield was 82
pounds per acre.
Congress provided for cotton price adjustment payments to all farms
receiving a cotton acreage allotment for 1939. The rate per pound was
established at 1.6 cents on the normal production. To date 12,208 cotton
price adjustment applications have been audited and certified to the
General Accounting Office for the amount of $228,378.22. Only a few
applications remain in the State Office and it is estimated that the total
payments will amount to approximately $230,000.

PERFORMANCE AND EDUCATIONAL WORK
During 1939 photographic material was delivered for the following
counties: Bradford, Hillsborough, and portions of Palm Beach, Glades,
Hendry and Dade. Under contract at present are: Marion, Gilchrist,
Seminole, and portions of Levy and Manatee. In addition to the above,
photographs were purchased for Orange County, which was not flown
under AAA contract. Plane-table and chain sketch maps were brought up
to date on thoSe farms in the 1938 Program and new maps made for
those participating for the first time in 1939.
Final compliance records show that there were 45,334 farms checked.
The tilled acreage in these farms totalled 2,366,329. The labor cost of
checking together with the cost of computing the acreage in the county
office amounted to 51/2 cents per acre. Since regulations provided that all
farms on which cotton and tobacco were grown had to be measured, it
was necessary to measure 941 farms which were not signed up under the
Conservation Program.







Annual Report, 1939 23

Meetings have been held throughout the year for farmers, committee-
men and others to acquaint them with the provisions of the program. A
number of counties have held farmer-business men's meetings which have
proved highly successful in getting the plans explained and understood by
both groups. Many of the farmers' meetings have been attended and par-
ticipated in by the Administrative Officer and the two Assistant District
Agents and all three have assisted in training meetings for County Agents
and Committeemen.

PRELIMINARY WORK FOR 1940
Acreage allotments and quotas for cotton and tobacco in 1940 have been
established for all farms growing these two crops in 1939. Notices of
1940 quotas were mailed to farm operators prior to the referendum held
for these two crops on December 9. Results of the referendum show that
marketing quotas will be in effect for cotton and tobacco in 1940. Final
figures in regard to acreage allotment and production will not be available
until after determinations have been made for reconstituted farms in 1940.
To date acreage allotments for commercial vegetables, celery, potatoes
and peanuts have been established and work is in progress on establishing
total soil-depleting allotments for the 1940 Conservation Program.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART II-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES
A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent
A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent
North and Northwest Florida counties numbering 20 are included in the
Agricultural Extension Service district covering that section. General
farming predominates.
In the Central and Southern Florida district are 39 counties having
farm agents. Agricultural operations in this territory are widely varied, the
more northerly area principally growing staple crops while farther south-
ward the chief interest is with citrus fruits and vegetables.
DISTRICT OPERATIONS
Personnel limitations again hampered the work in northern and north-
western Florida. Funds available remained under pronounced restrictions
and but few counties increased their appropriations. Farm agents had
numerous additional duties placed upon them by the cooperative activities
with Federal and other State undertakings.
Operations in the northern and northwestern Florida counties employed
educational means and methods which can be summarized as follows:
Definite well planned result demonstrations, based on best research data
available.
"Spring planning meetings" where results from result demonstration
data, and research or survey data were given farmers and improved
practices were recommended to them to be incorporated into their farm
plans for 1938.
Method demonstrations and other timely Extension meetings for advanc-
ing the farm program.
Farm tours where a cross-section of the Extension program of the
county was shown being worked out in the field through demonstrations.
Circular letters to call attention to a well balanced farm program, to
results of previous demonstrations and to get to farmers timely information
on projects in the program, such as pastures, peanuts, oats, summer and
winter legume cover crops. Thousands of copies of such letters were pre-
pared and sent out from the State office, others by agents from the county
offices.
Newspaper articles were written and published.
Signs or placards placed on demonstrations, or in offices and other places
of meetings urging farmers to follow up the best practices known.
In some places exhibits were made in order to put results before the
farmers. These exhibits were placarded with slogans and legends to teach
improved practice.
Charts were used in presenting subject matter to farmers and business
men's groups. Information bulletins were sent to farmers at opportune
time.
Tobacco grading demonstrations were held, where the various grades of
flue-cured tobacco were demonstrated to growers.
Radio talks and field meetings were again used.
In practically every county in the district, a program was conducted in
commemoration of the 25th anniversary of Agricultural Extension Service.







Annual Report, 1939


Most of the papers issued special editions or pages in cooperation with it.
Central and southern Florida district counties faced varying conditions
during the year. Citrus growers suffered from over-production, lack of
coordinated marketing and prices below the amounts expended upon their
groves. Vegetable area farmers did somewhat better than during the
preceding season and took new courage. Progress of a very satisfactory
nature was made in livestock industry development and improvement.
The one program that has attracted state-wide attention has been im-
proved pasture work in this district. The big problem now is to keep
dairymen and cattlemen from attempting to develop pasture on land useless
for permanent pasture. The investment in machinery and equipment for
building pastures in flatwoods land covered with saw palmetto is one of the
most interesting developments in a decade.
Reports show there have been this year around 50,000 acres planted in
improved pasture grasses in the district, which included clover and carpet,
Napier, para, and other grasses. They show also around one-half million
pounds of grass seed and clover planted in the district this year.
In addition to a number of pasture tours in the different counties through
the fine cooperation of the county agents in the district, the first state-wide
pasture tour over the central and southern end of the state was held. More
than 500 people attended the tour which lasted four days. Cattlemen,
business men, bankers, and representatives of practically all agricultural
agencies working with farmers were present. Representatives from the
AAA at Washington and the Federal Land Bank from Columbia were
among those in attendance.
How widespread and far-reaching Agricultural Extension Service work
in Florida has become is shown by the department activities described in
the reports which make up this volume. Ways and means utilized for
obtaining contacts with farmers and others interested are reflected in the
following summary of the supervisory endeavors carried on by the District
Agent in the Central and Southern section, during the 1939 period:
Made 152 visits to county agents for consultations, suggestions and
promotion of plan of work.
Made four visits to counties having no county agents to work with
committees on agricultural problems.
Held or took active part in 62 meetings with over 9,000 farmers and
others to give educational information, promote special features of Ex-
tension work and discuss plan of work.
Held 14 meetings with county commissioners adjusting misunderstand-
ings, getting appropriations, placing new agents and discussing plans of
work.
Made six radio talks on timely agricultural subjects in addition to
making four talks over special farm hour broadcasts from farms and other
places.
Worked with county agents in conducting 15 farm tours to carry
lessons of better practices to farmers.
Held program building conferences with county agents in planning
program of work.
Held four special educational meetings with county agents and other
farm agencies on permanent pasture building.
Made 18 addresses to organizations on agricultural information and the
promotion of Agricultural Extension work.
Assisted in holding 4-H club camps with 23 counties with an attendance
of over 6,000 boys and girls.
Director of citrus and poultry institutes at Camp McQuarrie for two
weeks.
Spent 115 days in office attending to correspondence, working out plans
for promotion of work and making out monthly and annual reports.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist
R. H. Howard, Extension Economist
D. Gray Miley, Assistant Extension Economist
Specialists comprising the Farm Management staff divided their energies
during 1939 between the continuation of work previously begun, the
development of new projects and general assistance to farmers bearing on
their current problems.

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
The United States volume of production of citrus fruits has increased
about 50 percent since this phase of farm management work was begun in
an effort to assist growers find ways and means of reducing the unit cost
of production. As a result of the citrus grove records used as a basis for
the citrus management study, more information has been secured and made
available to the industry. The cost of producing fruit in the average
Florida grove was better than $1.00 per box marketed in the 1930-31
season. Cost of production for the 1939-40 crop will probably be less than
$0.60 per box marketed unless frost or other hazards prevent marketing
a large portion of the supply.
At the beginning of the 1938 cost year, September 1, the specially pre-
pared citrus record books were mailed out to the old cooperators and
others requesting them, for keeping grove accounts and related information
pertaining to grove operations. County farm agents supply cooperating
growers with self-addressed envelopes in which to mail the carbon copies of
their monthly accounts direct to the county agents' offices.
The number of citrus grove accounts summarized since the beginning of
this work is shown in Table 1, which has been used as a basis for the
management study.

TABLE 1.-SUMMARY OF THE NUMBER OF CITRUS RECORD ACCOUNTS,
BY COUNTIES, FROM 1930-31 TO 1939-40
(1930- 1931- 1932- 1933- 1934-11935- 1936- 1937- 1938-* 1939-t
Counties | 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Lake ..............I 39 61 88 86 105 109 97 87 89 85
Polk ........... 17 59 80 82 82 80 71 84 84 96
Orange ............ 46 42 48 44 60 59 57 51 68 71
Highlands ...... 12 35 44 37 42 40 37 38 40 40
Miscellaneous 5 12 8 14 36 38 38 45 60 70


Total ........... 119 209 268 263 325 326 300 305 341 362
*Estimate, based upon number of cost records completed as of August 31, 1939. Fruit
receipts will not be available until the crop of 1939-40 has been sold.
tAccounts started.
There will be more than 300 complete grove cost records supplied for
the 1938-39 season. Receipts will not be available until the entire crop
produced is marketed next summer. Thus the citrus management study is
based upon a crop-year basis, which includes parts of three calendar years.








Annual Report, 1939


DADE COUNTY POTATO STUDY
Continuation of the economic study of the Dade County white potato
industry for the fifth consecutive year was made at the request of growers.
The results of this survey, including data covering the previous four
years, were mimeographed and returned to growers. Each grower who
cooperated by keeping fairly complete and accurate records and furnished
same also received his individual business analysis in order that he might
compare his operations as to profitable and unprofitable practices with the
average of all growers' records.
Upon the completion of this study and summarizing the records, the
county farm agent held a meeting at which time the findings were dis-
cussed. The discussion was devoted to the presentation of factors affecting
profitable management as revealed by the records over the period of years
as well as current economic problems in the industry, factors affecting the
price of early potatoes, and the outlook for the 1940 potato crop.
DAIRY FARM ACCOUNTS
This project was undertaken at the request of the dairymen in the
Jacksonville area. For the past four or five years there has been an
attempt to regulate the price and grades of milk. To do this, accurate
information about the costs involved in producing milk is necessary.
The 16 dairymen previously taking part and two new cooperators
started another set of records on July 1, 1938. The work was carried on in
the same manner as during the previous year except that the dairymen
were asked to keep a supplemental record of the quantity of the different
kinds of feed fed. Twelve of the records were completed and summarized.
The cost of producing a unit of milk separate from the cost of marketing
was obtained. The costs per hundredweight for the two years were as
follows:
Production Marketing Total
Cost Cost Cost
8 Retail dairies 1st year ........... $3.226 $2.018 $5.244
5 Retail dairies 2nd year ......... 3.029 2.378 5.407
8 Wholesale dairies 1st year ...... $2.716 $ .390 $3.106
7 Wholesale dairies 2nd year ...... 2.534 .420 2.954
Average 16 dairies 1st year ........ $2.938 $1.146 $4.084
Average 12 dairies 2nd year .... 2.710 1.150 3.860
FARM RECORD BOOKS
Farm record books of two kinds are supplied by the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service. One book is intended for those who desire to keep detailed
records by enterprises. The other book is arranged for chronological entries
only and provides for monthly and annual summaries. It is intended for use
on small farms.
Twenty of the first named books were distributed to farmers in the
Everglades who had found vegetable farming unprofitable and were chang
ing to beef cattle as a major enterprise. Seventeen of the farmers are
completing their records which will be summarized and analyzed during
January 1940. One hundred seventy-seven more books were furnished upon
request to county agricultural agents and farmers. The vocational agri-
culture teachers of the state have adopted the book for use for adult
projects during 1940.
The other record book was distributed to 159 Negro and 127 white
farmers. The Negro record keepers were supervised and it is expected that
about 95 complete records will be collected soon for summary and analysis.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fifty out of 80 books distributed under this plan last year were completed
and most of the same 50 farmers started the records again in 1939. Meet-
ings were held in Negro communities to discuss the economics of differences
in farm management practices as they were disclosed by the records.

DEMONSTRATIONS AND SURVEYS
Thirty-three record books were placed in Jackson, Union and Hills-
borough counties during the year. Thirty-two of the records were completed
by the farmers, then summarized and analyzed by the project leader. Farm
layout and soils maps were prepared for each farm and the maps and
analyses were delivered to the farmers individually.
A rather comprehensive schedule prepared by the Agricultural Eco-
nomics Department of the University was used in interviewing 69 farmers
living within the Soil Conservation project area in Jefferson County and
an equal number of farmers living outside the area, but near to the project.
A record of the 1937 farm business was secured from 138 farmers. Records
were secured of the 1938 farm business from 70 of the same farmers, again
evenly divided between those living within the project area and those
living without. It is hoped that records of the same 70 farmers may be
secured for the 1939 crop year.

ECONOMIC OUTLOOK INFORMATION
Following the National Outlook Conference held in Washington, D. C.,
in October of 1938, in cooperation with the Extension staff, College of
Agriculture, and Experiment Station, the Florida Farm Outlook for 1939
was prepared and published. Approximately 2,000 copies of this report
were distributed among farmers and agricultural workers.
A summary of the situation and prospective outlook for agricultural
crops and livestock grown in Florida was presented in more than 100
meetings.
The Annual Outlook Conference in Washington was attended again this
fall by a representative of the Extension staff.

LAND-USE PLANNING ACTIVITIES
This project became active in Florida during February of this year,
although groundwork had been laid during the years 1935 to 1938, inclusive.
It is conducted in cooperation with the United States Department of Agri-
culture and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Counties are selected by the State Land-Use Planning Committee with
recommendations that the intensive land-use planning survey be made in
those counties if their technical agricultural workers find the work a feasible
current undertaking. When a decision has been made to start the project
within the county, the project leader and one or more District Extension
Agents meet a called group composed of all representatives of Federal and
State departments of agriculture who work regularly within the county.
At this meeting, the project is explained rather fully and a county com-
mittee of farm men and women is selected to represent every community
in the county and all of the major agricultural enterprises.
These farmer representatives along with the technical agricultural
workers compose the county committee. This committee arranges for two
series of meetings to be held in all communities. Land-use maps are made
and descriptions of each land-use area are written with recommendations
regarding projects which might be attempted as a program for the im-
provement of rural conditions. The maps and'manuscripts prepared for







Annual Report, 1939 29

each community are combined into a county report for acceptance by both
the county and state committees before it is considered by the project leader
to be a correct report of the county.
Preliminary reports have been prepared for Escambia, Jefferson, Madi-
son, Lafayette, Columbia, Seminole and Pinellas counties. The reports
for three of the counties have been accepted by the county and state com-
mittees. The remaining four reports will be reviewed by the county com-
mittees in the near future. A program based on a preliminary report has
been developed and considerable work has been accomplished in Lafayette
County. Columbia and Jefferson counties have selected projects and the
programs are being developed at this time.
Members of the project staff have appeared on various state and regional
conference programs. Agents from several of the counties where the
project is being pursued have appeared also.
The project leader conducted a land-use planning course during the
University Summer School Session for which graduate credit was given.
One-fourth of the vocational agriculture teachers of the state completed
the course.
A study of reports of land-use planning progress made in Alabama,
Georgia and North Carolina in November showed Florida to be leading
among the four states in cooperation secured from various agricultural
agencies, number of programs planned based on county land-use reports,
and number of items included in the reports.

MARKETING ACTIVITIES
D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing

CITRUS MARKETING
Outlook and educational meetings were held in the principal citrus
producing counties in cooperation with the citrus specialist, Department
representatives from Washington, county agents and Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc. As was the plan for the previous year, the principal meetings were
held during the spring.
The American Fruit and Produce Auction Association furnished the
Extension Service a movie film on auction markets. This picture, with
explanations, has been shown in a number of places during the current
season.
A number of the meetings of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., were
attended, especially state directors' meetings and committee meetings.
At most of the meetings of representatives of this organization, special
data were presented which the Extension Economist in Marketing had
prepared.
One of the most important experiments ever attempted in a commodity
was tried in grapefruit this year; that is, the fixing of a minimum price
which growers must receive for their fruit. The authority for this approach
was a state law permitting the Florida Citrus Commission to determine a
fair price that growers must be paid for their fruit. The enforcement was
in the hands of the State Department of Agriculture. A number of meet-
ings in connection with this experiment were attended and information
supplied on the cost of production and marketing citrus fruits.
The Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., in their original efforts to secure a
marketing agreement practically demanded one which included volume
prorate. The final agreement put into effect did not include volume prorate
and in order for the representatives of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
to understand why it was not thought advisable to include volume prorate







30 Florida Cooperative Extension

in the present agreement many conferences have been necessary with them
and with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration on this question.
The Citrus Committee of the House of Representatives, State Legislature,
requested information which was furnished them on costs of marketing,
including picking, hauling, washing and polishing citrus fruits.
It has been thought advisable to work very closely with the Florida
Canners' Association. Their annual meeting, as well as monthly and called
meetings, were attended and two demonstrations were given on the condition
of grapefruit sections canned from various grove properties.
For some time it has been felt that a larger citrus growers' list should
be assembled, if notices of educational meetings and other circular inform-
ation were to be gotten to them promptly. The Florida Citrus Exchange
and the Florida Canners' Association requested such a list, as well as a
number of other organizations and individuals. The compiling of this
list was done in cooperation with the Agricultural Adjustment Administra-
tion and the Experiment Station.
The question of price differentials by grade and size has been raised a
number of times and a demand for figures on differentials of price between
grades and sizes has existed for some time. Because of this fact it has been
thought advisable to tabulate grade and size prices that these data may be
of assistance to those whose job it is to make recommendations concerning
grades and standards. Three years' data have been tabulated already and
current prices on grades and sizes are being kept up to date.

VEGETABLE MARKETING

In April a trip covering a week's time was made to southern Florida
to the truck crop areas for the purpose of making moving pictures of the
marketing of Florida vegetables.
In June and again during October several days were spent in working
with potato, celery, and other vegetable growers and shippers to learn
from them the prospective supply of these crops, attitudes with respect to
credit and toward cooperative marketing.
By invitation, the annual meeting of State market managers and direc-
tors was attended. Statistics were compiled and other information secured
in personal work with potato growers. Attention was also given to bean
marketing plans.

LIVESTOCK MARKETING

Records were assembled for bringing up to date the statistics showing
the prices of hogs by grades and sizes at the cooperative markets in the
state.
In October the "Ups and Downs of Prices of Beef Cattle and Hogs"
was presented to the county and state workers of the Farm Security
Administration at their annual meeting in Gainesville.
Contact with the Gainesville Auction market has been constantly main-
tained as the local management has requested it.

WATERMELON CONTROL COMMITTEE

The Extension Service was again asked to hold meetings for growers to
name delegates to district meetings for the purpose of nominating grower
members of the Watermelon Control Committee.
The meeting of the Watermelon Control Committee in Jacksonville
was attended at-the request of the Control Committee Manager.







Annual Report, 1939


There has been established a U. S. No. 3 grade of watermelon and copies
of grade regulations have been sent to agents in watermelon counties for
distribution to their farmers.

COOPERATIVE COUNCIL WORK
At the request of a number of cooperative marketing organizations in
Florida, a meeting of all types of Florida agricultural cooperatives was
called in Orlando in November to discuss the formation of a State Cooper-
ative Council. Prior to the meeting contacts were made with a number of
other cooperatives to determine their interest also.
The Extension Economist in Marketing was elected temporary secre-
tary for the proposed state cooperative council. Mr. C. C. Campbell, elected
temporary chairman, appointed an organization committee of 11 members.
This organization committee met in Lakeland and, using other state co-
operative council articles of incorporation and by-laws, made up a proposed
set for Florida. These proposed articles of incorporation and by-laws
were mimeographed and sent out by the secretary to the active mailing
list of fruit, vegetable, dairy, livestock, and all other types of farm co-
operatives with a request for suggestions or comments. The work in secur-
ing a charter for this organization is being continued.

WORK WITH OTHER GROUPS
Motor truck transportation studies were continued through 1939.
Flue-cured tobacco marketing control and grading problems called for
considerable work during the year.
For some time Extension representatives have been interested in obtain-
ing more satisfactory grades and standards for Florida fruits and vege-
tables. Complaints have been received from growers, shippers and citrus
fruit canneries as to grades and standards. Numbers of conferences were
attended during the year where grades and standards were discussed.
Grades and standards of Persian (Tahiti) limes were recently establish-
ed by the Department of Agriculture and the Extension Service has made
these available to growers and shippers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY ACCOMPLISHMENTS
J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist
Agronomy has so many phases in Florida agriculture that many divisions
of the Agricultural Extension Service utilize its approved practices when
prosecuting their endeavors. Field crops afford perhaps the broadest oppor-
tunity for farmers to benefit from agronomy research and demonstrations.
Examples showing the trend of activities along this line are found in the
following statement of accomplishments during 1939:
In the rolling land area of the State some terracing has been done and
contour culture practiced for several years. These practices received
emphasis in 1937 and again in 1938 and 1939. Terracing engineers have
been trained in every county where needed. In some counties power
machinery was used in building terraces. In one county a terracing
association was organized which bought and operated the machinery. In
two others the Boards of County Commissioners supplied it, and in another a
private concern supplied machinery and contracted to build the terraces.
In other counties farmers built their terraces with their own horse-drawn
implements. As a result of these efforts there were 21,594 acres of land
on 725 farms terraced during the 1937 season. During the 1938 season
there were terraces constructed on 19,510 acres on 720 farms. In 1939
1,238 farms constructed 5,424,040 feet of standard terrace.
As terracing is done, contour listing and contour culture are being
increased. More will be done this year than ever before. Strip-cropping,
though not popular, is also being done to some extent.
To add humus and nitrogen, catch plant food elements as they are
dissolved in the soil, and prevent the washing away the soils of some of the
Florida lands, either summer or winter cover crops are being used
extensively.
Crop rotation for soil improvement and disease elimination was carried
out pretty generally throughout the State. On the vegetable lands it is
a crop of vegetables and then one or more cover or green manure crops
grown and turned into the land. In the southern and eastern part of the
general farming belt it was a combination of peanuts for grazing and corn
or velvet beans and corn, or both velvet beans and peanuts along with
corn, on the same land. In among this combination in many fields was one
or both of the legumes, crotalaria or beggarweed. Many farmers of this
area let part of their crop land lie idle and grow up to native vegetation
in a two or three year rotation.
In the northwestern counties of the State the combination of corn,
peanuts, and/or velvet beans is now generally practiced. Nearly 70 percent
of the crop land in this entire area was devoted to some combination
in which at least one legume was grown. On the. level lands of this part
of the state the farmers say their land is improving under this system of
management. Watermelons and peanuts for nuts are never grown one
year after another, but only one crop in three to eight is taken off the
same land. Cotton seldom follows cotton. Austrian peas and hairy vetch
have been planted on a small percentage of our cotton and commercial
peanut land.

CORN, PEANUTS AND VELVET BEANS FOR FEED
To again stimulate the farmers' interest in growing feed the District
Agent and Animal Husbandman assisted county agents in conducting a
series of meetings in their respective counties just prior to planting time.
These meetings were followed up by sending circular letters to a large






Annual Report, 1939


percentage of the producers calling their attention to the increased gains
secured by interplanting their corn with peanuts and properly spacing their
peanuts. Another letter was sent calling their attention to amount of seed
needed for planting an acre of peanuts spaced properly. And again placards
remained placed in county agents' offices and at other places where farmers
assemble often, calling attention to the benefits of these practices.
The practicability of such a program has been shown in that hogs are
now being marketed from every county in the northern half of the state
where peanuts are grown.
More landplaster has been used during 1939 on or under peanuts to
make them fill out in northwestern part of the State than ever before.
The Extension Service has persuaded the fertilizer dealers to stock it. On
four different tests where results were recorded solid peanuts were increased
200 percent. These tests were made on land that had shown signs of need-
ing land-plaster.
Increasing the stand of peanuts when interplanted with corn shows
the same percentage increase of production as when planted solid.
This last winter the North Florida Experiment Station released a cross-
bred corn, Florident White. Approximately 400 bushels of this corn seed
were distributed through the county agents' offices of 15 counties. This
corn did well and most farmers were well pleased with it. There were a few
plantings of hybrid grown also last year.

SPACING PEANUTS AS A COMMERCIAL CROP
Spacing demonstrations again were conducted throughout the whole
peanut area. In all northwestern Florida the results were about the same
as shown in previous years. Last year on seven demonstrations where soil
types were the same and runner peanuts were grown, when spaced 12 to
14 inches only 871 pounds peanuts were produced, but where they were
spaced from 7 to 8 inches, 1312 pounds per acre were produced-an increase
of approximately 50 percent. More farmers are turning to this practice
every year.
In undertaking to show which fertilizer or soil corrective materials are
more effective in the production of peanuts, comparative demonstrations
were conducted again this year but no complete records are available.

HAY AND OTHER FORAGE CROPS
The planting of velvet beans among the corn and peanuts for grazing
during the winter was probably slightly increased, but bad production
weather completely destroyed this crop in the western part of the State.
Sorghum has been grown about as usual by dairymen and others for
silage. Some grow corn. There has been but slight increase.
There has been sugarcane grown and ensiled this fall. Some has been
put up as dry forage also.
There have been the largest number of plantings of Napier grass to
provide grazing and silage that have ever been made in one year.
Production of legume hay has been increased in northern Florida this
year, but the quality is poor.

PERMANENT PASTURE DEVELOPMENT
Power rotary brush and palmetto cutters have been brought into use
for destroying the native vegetation, such as palmetto, gallberry, and myrtle.
Highlands and lowlands, hills and hammocks, loams and muck lands, as
well as prairies have been turned into pasture. Farm visits, personal calls,
demonstrations, circular letters, and AAA payments have all been used in







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 1.-So rapid is the advance in improved pastures, and so expansive the acreage being see(
that airplanes are being used for seeding pastures in Florida. The first pasture grass seed ever sc
by plane was near Brighton in 1924.


Fig. 2-- Para grass, especially suitable for lowlands of southern Florida, has been started
on a considerable acreage by cattlemen. This picture shows vegetative plantings being
made on a large scale.

promoting and helping in this development. As a result it appears now
that hundreds of farmers and cattlemen have converted or are now engaged
in converting 60,000 acres of these lands into permanent pastures this
year by seeding and 3,656 by vegetative plantings.
Another phase of this pasture development involves the establishment
of White Dutch, Persian, Hop and other clovers on both grass sod,
cultivated land, and virgin sod. By the trial and error method, utilizing







Annual Report, 1939 35

everything available, White Dutch and Hop were successfully grown three
or four years ago by a dairyman on flatwoods near Jacksonville. By the
use of a combination of one ton lime per acre, 500 pounds superphosphate
and 100 pounds muriate of potash it has now been successfully produced
by the Agronomist at the Experiment Station on similar lands and on
other lands that hold moisture well. Some has been made to grow on
Tifton and heavy phases of Norfolk soils. During the fall of last year
hundreds of tests and demonstrations were established in the State.
Demonstration clover pastures have now been established in practically
every county in the State. This appears to be a real step forward in
pasture development in Florida.
On the lighter soils of the State where pasture is needed, as well as
soiling crop and silage, Napier grass fed cafeteria style has seemed to give
the answer. Hundreds of thousands of canes have been planted the past
year establishing pastures of this grass.
Many field meetings and circular letters were again used this year to
teach growers successful methods of handling these plantings. To this
was added pasture tours. The last one covered eight or 10 counties and was
attended not only by hundreds of farmers, but by Chamber of Commerce
officials, bankers, Washington AAA officials and representatives of the Farm
Credit Administration.
OATS TO MEET GRAIN SHORTAGE
There is a very short supply of grain feeds in the State this year
because of a very unfavorable production season. This is particularly true
in the western part of the general farming area. This grain supply on
many farms will be exhausted by January. None, without conserving it,
will have feed to produce another crop without buying it and supplementing
it with other pasture and feeds.
To encourage and assist the farmers to meet this situation the Extension
Agronomist joined the county agents and the livestock specialists in getting
seed dealers to stock Hastings 100 Bushel and Nortex seed oats. They held
a series of from three to six meetings in each county advising the farmers
to plant the rust-resistant varieties and telling them how to fertilize the
crop in order to insure a real crop. Thousands of circular letters also were
sent to all farmers, properly advising them. Oats, they were told, will
mature in May-two months before corn-this will help to meet the short
feed situation. As a result the largest oat crop ever in the history of that
area has been planted, even though cash was the shortest it has been for
years. The rust-resistant varieties were used by large numbers. Nearly
all seedsmen stocked the recommended varieties.
UPLAND COTTON SEED TESTS
To test out strains and varieties produced by the breeders more recently,
the Extension Agronomist arranged with breeders to furnish seed of their
most promising strains or varieties and with and through the county agents
11 variety test plots were established. Although the weather was most
unfavorable for cotton production the tests came through. The yields were
very low.
SEA ISLAND COTTON
The Experiment Station and the Extension Service have continued to
provide a source of pure seed. It is no longer needful for growers to go
to the islands off the coast of Georgia and South Carolina and buy pure
Sea Island cotton seed. By cooperating with growers in an area where no
other cotton is grown, by ginning where no other cotton is ginned, and by
roguing thoroughly every off-type plant that could be found by going







Florida Cooperative Extension


over the field from two to five times, they have now on hand 1,600 bushels
of pure seed yet to be sold to the producers.
Again the Extension Service cooperated with the State and WPA in a
boll weevil control campaign. The State Government through Commissioner
of Agriculture Nathan Mayo made available thousands of gallons of syrup
and many thousands of pounds of calcium arsenate to be applied by pre-
square mopping method as outlined by the WPA Entomologist.
The Sea Island cotton acreage is smaller than it was in 1937 and 1938.
It is scattered over a large area.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Another practice survey was conducted in December 1939. Such
practices as quantity and quality of fertilizer used; number stalks set per
acre; soil types; varieties; and treatment of land the year before; these
were all studied. The study showed that quantity of fertilizer varied with
soil types, that a fertilizer analyzing 3 percent nitrogen, 8 percent phos-
phate, and 8 percent potash was the most profitable among those used. It
was also shown that medium land in rotation with native vegetation was
safest to use and produced best tobacco. The Bonanza variety proved again
its adaptability to more soil types and conditions. Five to six thousand
stalks per acre was a good stand.
By personal contact and in meetings, shifts in fertilizer practices were
secured again this year. On the lighter soils of Lafayette, Suwannee,
Columbia and Alachua counties, 1,200 pounds of 3-8-8 was recommended
rather than a smaller amount or lower analysis. On the heavier soils of
Madison and Hamilton counties many were persuaded to use a smaller
quantity or less nitrogen in their fertilizer. Some farmers used only 1,000
pounds of a 2-8-8 and produced a higher quality of tobacco.
Just a few weeks before the market opened the Tobacco Section of the
B. A. E. assisted the Extension Agronomist and county agents in holding
approximately 50 grading demonstrations throughout the flue-cured tobacco
growing area. These meetings were attended by a great many of the flue-
cured growers of the state, and did much good. Again this year the
Extension Service undertook to detect outbreaks and assist farmers in
control of blue mold. This time they demonstrated the use of paradichloro-
benzene in its control. Many demonstrations were conducted with most
effective results in most tobacco counties.
An exhibit of Government standard grades of Florida tobacco has been
t assembled for use at fairs, meetings, and other places to acquaint farmers
better with them.

SUGARCANE AND SWEET POTATOES
Approximately 65 percent of the farmers of northern Florida grew a
small acreage of sugarcane for producing syrup for home use. The old
Louisiana Purple has been almost eliminated by mosaic and nematodes.
Cayana 10 took its place on most of these farms. The last few years POJ
varieties have made appearance on a great many farms. The last three or
four years hybrids produced or multiplied by the Florida Experiment Station
have been introduced. This last spring 40,000 stalks of planting material
from the North Florida Experiment Station were distributed to hundreds of
these farmers. The varieties were 951 and 762.
Another crop used on many northern Florida farms is sweet potatoes.
Many have become diseased. This year there were hundreds of thousands
of draws imported from South Carolina points. These were of the Louisiana
strain of Porto Rico. The production of these will be used as seed on other
farms in 1940.







Annual Report, 1939


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, DAIRYING AND POULTRY
A. L. Shealy, Animal Industrialist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
Beef cattle, hogs and workstock receive attention from the Agricultural
Extension Service Animal Husbandry Department. Cooperation was main-
tained through the period with agencies having similar aims. Information
was distributed by personal visits, correspondence, circular letters, news-
paper articles, radio talks, tours and meetings. Factual material and
experimental data founded on College of Agriculture research furnished the
basis.
Beef cattle raisers fared well during the period. Prices have been
favorable, grass in most sections was good and the outlook improved. Busi-
ness and financial interests came to better understand the livestock industry.
Demand for breeding stock was measurably enlarged. Interest in pasture
development reached new heights.
Land for grazing purposes was sought, thousands of acres having been
bought and fenced.
BEEF CATTLE ACTIVITIES
In respect both to adult farmers and 4-H club members, this work
stresses production and fattening cattle for market. Since the annual calf
crop is the key to success, a slogan has been made of the phrase, "Get a
calf crop."
Bulls for herd improvement are of primary importance. In our 1939
plan of work we set as our goal the placing of 1,000 bulls in the State and
the getting of 10 new farmer-breeders to establish a purebred herd. The
goal for placing the bulls has been reached, and instead of 10 new men
establishing purebred herds there are 14.
One of the factors in herd management, controlled breeding and getting
a calf crop, is the winter feeding of bulls, having them come through the
winter in a good healthy, strong condition ready for the spring breeding
season. Many cases are reported of an increase in the calf crop and an
increase in the number of early calves as a result of winter feeding bulls.
Herd management in Florida demands that calves be dropped during
the early spring months. This year there are 198 men practicing controlled
breeding and having calves dropped in the early spring, whereas, a few
years ago calves came along at almost any time of the year. This dropping
of calves in'early spring has cut down materially on screw worm infestation
of young calves.
Selection of heifer calves from good breeding cows and sired by good
bulls is closely allied with controlled breeding. We set a goal at the be-
ginning of last year to have 10,000 heifers selected for replacement. Our
records show that 153 different cattle owners have selected 17,730 heifer
calves and are growing them out for herd replacements. Not all of these
heifers will be used for replacement in their herds; many of them will be
sold to go in other herds as replacements. Most of the 9,000 cows and
heifers purchased for replacement were from well managed herds.
Calf crop output has increased from the 30 to 50 percent obtained under
non-control conditions to 60 to 85 percent when the control methods are
followed, as shown by reports from 17 counties. Records disclose more








38 Florida Cooperative Extension

than 21,000 fat calves sold to local and out-of-the-State packers. Cull cows
found their way to the butchers in 15,000 cases while 41,000 steers were
marketed. In many cases the steers became diverted to the feed lots of
Virginia, North Carolina and Ohio, where they were fattened on corn.

FINISHING STEERS FOR MARKET
Statistics indicate that Florida cattlemen are feeding more steers every
year, utilizing velvet bean and corn fields. In the current 12 months, 5,600
animals were run in the bean fields while 3,200 occupied feed lots.
Many acres formerly in rough grasses, palmettos, bushes, and weeds
are now being planted to carpet, Bahia, Bermuda, Para, and other grasses
and lespedeza. Records coming into this office show that approximately
100,000 acres of pasture land have been prepared this season. Large areas
of the muck and wet lands that were too damp for other grasses have
been cleared and put into Para grass. Approximately 12,168 acres have
been put into Para grass this year and 466 acres into Napier grass.
The Extension Service and State Cattlemen's Association sponsored a
four-day beef cattle and pasture tour from Gainesville through central
and southern Florida from October 31 through November 3. Business men,
representatives of the Farm Credit Administration, bankers, representatives
cf the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, railroad representatives,
teachers, and cattlemen were invited to get, first-hand, a cross-section of
beef cattle and pasture development.


Fig. 3.-Prime steers are now being produced in Florida. This one was grand champion
at the Florida Fat Stock Show.







Annual Report, 1939


FLORIDA FAT STOCK SHOW AND SALE
This annual event continued to be a major factor in developing the
State's livestock industry. Sponsorship again has been furnished by the
Agricultural Extension Service working jointly with the Jacksonville
Chamber of Commerce, the State Marketing Bureau and the chief railroads
serving the territory.
Results obtained from the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale this year in
comparison with the three preceding seasons are graphically revealed in the
summary of reports contained in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-SUMMARY REPORT OF ANNUAL FAT STOCK SHOW AND SALE,
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, FEBRUARY 23 AND 24, 1939, WITH COMPARISON
OF 1936, '37, '38 SHOWS.


Number of cattle sold ......................
Total weight (pounds) ...............
Average price per pound .........
Average weight per steer, pound
Average price per head ..................
Total sales ....................................... -
No. of exhibitors ......................
No. of Georgia exhibitors ...............
No. of club boys exhibiting .........- .
No. 4-H club calves ......................
No. of 4-H judging teams ..............
Price of grand champion steer ....
No. of Florida counties sending
cattle ................ .. .. ..-..................


1939 1938 1937 1936


408 177 535 636
304,425 144,010 445,180 461,303
.1014 .1071 .0972 .0712
746 813 832 725
$75.68 $87.17 $80.94 $51.50
530,879.02 $15,429.45 $43,302.77 $32,860.93
58 12 50 71
0 0 2 3
81 23 21 18
94 39 32 18
11 10 7 9
57 1 561/2e 321/2 32<
15 10 16 18


Marketing facilities again disclosed an increase, livestock auctions having
been opened during the year at five additional points, raising the total
now operating to 10. Extension Service endeavor has continued for helping
producers understand the classes of cattle most in demand at the various
markets.
OTHER WORK WITH BEEF CATTLE
Associations of cattlemen, state and county, are kept in touch with
on sundry matters vitally affecting the livestock industry in Florida. At
present 26 county groups are officially affiliated with the State Cattlemen's
Association.
Florida Fair officials received assistance in further building up the beef
cattle exhibit. Animals shown have vastly improved since the displays
were resumed three years ago and exhibitors with whom contacts have
been made are preparing even better stock for next spring's show.
Boys in the 4-H clubs have been accorded the attention the significance
of their work with livestock entitled them to receive.
Each year the Extension Animal Husbandman, in connection with the
county agents, has helped select steers for 4-H boys to feed and has advised
with them on feeding and handling animals.
In June, during the Short Course at Gainesville, the Extension Animal
Husbandman instructed 150 boys in the selection and judging of beef cattle.
This same work was continued at Camp McQuarrie and at Camp Timpoochee
with other boys.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SWINE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
Raising hogs for both home use and market is urged under this head,
with special help made available to farmers concerning home curing of
meats.
Diseases and parasites of swine have been greatly reduced in areas
where demonstrations were conducted in raising healthy pigs. Cooperation
was forthcoming for several scores of these demonstrations.
Feed and forage crops are outlined in connection with the movement
for growing healthier pigs. Feeds represent 85 percent of swine production
costs and are accordingly important. Peanuts interplanted with corn are
advised as an economical source for good hog feed.
Developing of farmer-breeders and placing of purebred boars is largely
responsible for the improvement in quality of market hogs. More than
400 boars and 200 purebred sows have been placed on farms this year.
Fat hog shows and sales were held in six counties during the season.
Fat barrows entered at these events proved that the quality of Florida swine
is on the up-grade. The Extension Service feels very encouraged over these
reports of improvement of market hogs, for it shows that our work is
bearing fruit. "Raise large litters of healthy pigs on home-grown feeds
and protect them against parasites and diseases," shall continue to be our
"hog song", backed up by demonstrations.
Extension Service animal husbandry workers have consistently pointed
out that it is poor business to sell corn in the fall rather than feed it to
hogs. This year one of the best demonstrations reported so far took place.
County Agent Brothers of Madison County recommended that his farmers
feed their corn through hogs rather than sell it. Seven different farmers
followed these recommendations. One man fed 708 hogs and sold on two
different dates. The first sale netted a profit of $3.28 per hog and the
second sale, $3.51 per hog. This feeding was done on concrete floors using
corn, protein, and mineral supplements.

CURING MEAT FOR THE HOME SUPPLY
Consistently, the Agricultural Extension Service has sought to persuade
farmers that they will profit by producing, slaughtering and curing meats
for their home use. Progress has been manifest along that line during
the present year.
. Working closely with cold-storage meat curing plants has helped in
reaching more producers and in improving the meat curing practices follow-
ed at the plants. Vast quantities of meat are cured at the 60 under
operation, some privately owned and others under ice company control.
This year 38 of them reported 5,000,000 pounds.
The Florida Meat Curing and Cold Storage Association was organized
last year. At its initial meeting various questions were discussed and
especially questions that concerned the business and mechanical end of meat
curing. One of the items discussed was storing cured meats. Out of this
discussion has come a request that the Extension Service, with the help of
the Experiment Station representatives, work out plans for storing cured
meats from April through August. The various members of the association
agreed to follow our suggestions on this experimental work of storing
meats.
WORKSTOCK ON FLORIDA FARMS
Recognition that replacement costs for mules and horses are too great
in Florida is the foundation of the Agricultural Extension Service effort








Annual Report, 1939


concerning workstock. Farmers are urged to raise colts and thus reduce
the required outlay in keeping up the supply of animals.
Breeding stock was located for buyers in different sections during the
year. Information was supplied on handling and feeding and about break-
ing home-raised colts. Demonstrations as to selecting work animals and
brood mares were given in seven counties.
Colt shows took place at three rural trading centers, each event having
a good attendance. Parades of horses and colts staged under direction of
the Animal Husbandry Department in the Extension Service literally "stole
the show" on every occasion.
Demonstrations in riding horse colts held nine times in one county had
good results. Cattlemen are more and more using home-raised animals in
handling their herds. Mule colts have been bred in several localities, with
excellent returns.

DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Dairy work as carried on in the Agricultural Extension Service during
1939, through county farm agents and with cooperation from sundry organ-
ized groups, utilized the following methods of getting information to
farmers: Personal visits, farmers' meeting-(a) community and (b) field-,
news stories, radio talks, motorcades to demonstrations, method demonstra-
tions, adults and juniors, result demonstrations with adults and juniors,
circular letters, county and state dairy meetings, personal letters, and 4-H
dairy club demonstration teams.

FEEDING AND PASTURE WORK
Forage demonstrations in 1939 exceeded those of any previous year.
Grasses were introduced into about 85 percent of the counties reporting
dairy work.
Acreages of oats, rye and like winter grazing crops were quite generally
increased. Clovers became much more widely grown on dairy farms. Duval
county took the leadership in this activity.
Pastures and forage crops received fertilization more extensively. In
Duval County about 1,095 acres were seeded to clovers fertilized with a ton
of limestone, about 500 to 600 pounds of superphosphate, and 100 to 150
pounds of muriate of potash per acre with probably 75 to 100 pounds of a
soluble nitrogen fertilizer per acre.
Field days held in Duval, Volusia, Leon, Gadsden, Bay, and various
other counties showing results of fertilizing pastures for dairy cows
created wide interest among farmers. Fertilization of forage crops and
adaptation of forages to soils extended from Dade to Escambia counties
with more than 80 percent of the county agents reporting demonstrations.
In some instances, extremely dry weather hampered the success of winter
clovers.
Minerals added to the rations for cows gave further excellent results
in increased milk yields. Estimates are that around 235 mineral troughs
were constructed in 1939, as the result of demonstrations showing their
value.
HOME ASPECTS OF DAIRYING
Reports from about 37 county farm agents showed enlarged interest
in this field. Pasco County went to the forefront with some 73 baby calves
bought from dairies in Hillsborough and Pinellas counties as the nucelus for
family cow herds.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Duval County listed 74 dairy heifers with 4-H club members. Volusia
cooperatively purchased 45 calves and placed three registered bulls. Heifers
and bulls were also taken by Bay and Columbia counties. Suwannee and
Lafayette brought in a carload of high grade Jerseys from Tennessee.
Home demonstration agents have been active during 1939 in placing
dairy heifers among their 4-H club girls and assisting in getting more
forage produced for the family cow by distribution of Napier grass and
other improved grasses. Practically all of the 37 county farm agents
reporting family cow work are looking after the proper feeding practices
to see that the right kind of forages with mineral supplements are provided.

DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT

Dairy herd improvement associations remained in the formative stage
but the area covered and the influence exerted both increased during 1939.
The monthly summaries show progress in reducing feed cost per 100
pounds of milk over a period of time. In summarizing, we find that we
are getting a return of from $3.00 to $5.00 for each dollar spent for herd
testing through the adjustments of feeding practices, culling, and other
improvements that are being made.
Official testing has grown gradually. Two registered Guernsey and
three Jersey herds were on advanced registry test. All are making credit-
able records and achieving noteworthy progress.
Farm Agent Lawton of Duval County established his goal some years
ago to place registered sires at the head of every herd in the 100 dairies
in his county. He has succeeded in this endeavor. He now reports that
Duval dairymen have nine registered Jerseys and Guernseys with dams of
a production record above 800 pounds of fat, 27 registered bulls with dams
of a production record above 400 pounds of fat, and three proven sires
in the county. In 1939 12 dairy farms in Jacksonville continued the dairy
farm records started the previous year.

DAIRY BREED CATTLE CLUBS

Definite work was organized in 1939 with the Florida Jersey Cattle Club
and Florida Guernsey Cattle Club, of which the Extension Dairyman is
secretary.
During 1939 each breed club put on a sale of registered cattle, 22 in
the Guernsey sale and 32 in the Jersey sale. A sales committee, including
the field representative of each club, the president of each club, and the
Extension Dairyman, helped select the animals to go in each sale.
The Guernsey sale was held in Largo in late March, with consignments
from some of the best representative breeders of Guernsey cattle in the
South. This representative lot of good animals sold for a fair price as com-
pared with other sales in the South. These animals were distributed
throughout the peninsular and central sections of Florida.
The sale of registered Jerseys on May 26 set a mark in Florida as one
of our most successful registered Jersey sales. The Florida Jersey Cattle
Club was successful in having one of their members, Marcus A. Milam of
Miami, named a director of the American Jersey Cattle Club.
The two breed associations were instrumental this past year in getting
appropriations for Bang's disease eradication and tuberculosis work re-
newed in the Florida Legislature and they have been successful in getting
a purebred show of dairy animals at the Florida Fair. They were active
in having the Florida Milk Control Law re-enacted and have been serving
the dairy industry in various ways in developing the dairy business in
Florida along a practical line.







Annual Report, 1939


FACILITIES AND MARKETING
Florida dairymen are cooperating with the municipal and State milk
inspection departments in the building of better dairies. iSeveral hundred
thousand dollars have been spent in 1939 in the building of better dairy
barns and dairy houses in all of the dairy centers of Florida.
Farm agents in Jefferson and Leon counties have been active in working
with the Negro agents in the farming sections of these two counties to
develop the production of milk to be sold to the cheese plant at Thomasville.
Production for the creamery at Chipley has been planned by the farm
agents in the three counties which compose the immediate territory.

SILOS AND BULL PENS

Demonstrations on the savings in milk yields on dairy farms having
shade and shelter provided in Bay, Volusia, Duval, Dade, and other sections
of the State have proven the need for increasing the number of sheds.
Where these sheds are provided there is greater conservation of stable
fertilizer. In the Panama City area cattlemen use shelters in the summer
months when dog flies trouble the animals. They serve as a shelter during
the day and the cows are grazed on pasture during the night. They have
also proven profitable in sections of the East Coast affected with epidemics
of mosquitoes and horseflies at certain seasons of the year.
The introduction of safety bull pens has been slow but is gradually
gaining ground.
TRIPS, TOURS AND EVENTS
In 1939 the Extension Dairyman visited the registered Jersey sale held
at Athens by the Georgia Jersey Cattle Club and visited pasture and forage
crops enroute to Athens. In August he made an educational tour through
Tennessee and North Carolina, visiting dairies and studying forage and
pasture conditions.
Pasture and forage crops tours were conducted in Bay, Duval, Volusia,
Pinellas, and Manatee counties. These demonstration tours are of great
value in developing the forage growing programs.
The annual State Dairymen's Association meeting was held at the Uni-
versity in June 1939, and was attended by about 87 representative dairymen
from all sections of Florida.


POULTRY KEEPING

Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
D. F. Sowell, Extension Poultryman
E. F. Stanton, Supervisor Egg-Laying Contest

Projects mainly formulated and developed in the 1939 Agricultural
Extension Service poultry undertakings related to quality production, im-
proved marketing and organization activities. Record keeping was also
stressed.
Visits to 40 counties made by the Extension Poultrymen during the 12
months enabled them to give farm and home demonstration agents first-
hand assistance in the plans best calculated to yield results in the different
territories.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING TEST
The Thirteenth Florida National Egg-Laying Test, Chipley, started
October 1, 1938, and ended September 21, 1939. There were 96 pens of 13
pullets each from 21 different states. Florida breeders from 10 different
counties entered 21 pens.
The average egg production per bird was figured on the basis of the
original number of birds and was 183.4 eggs for a value of 185 points.
This is an increase of 1.6 eggs and 4.2 points above the record made the
previous year.
The Fourteenth Contest was started October 1, 1939, with all available
pens filled.

FEED PRICE COMPARISON

Feeds utilized by commercial poultry producers continued to be mostly
bought from outside sources. Price comparisons are therefore important, as
indicating how profit margins rise or fall with the fluctuations.
The poultry ration as used in this report to illustrate price changes is
composed of equal parts of a mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds
shorts, 100 pounds yellow corn meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100 pounds
meat scraps-55% protein, and 25 pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and a grain
mixture (100 pounds cracked yellow corn and 100 pounds wheat).
The poultry ration prices for the base period (1926-29) and the years
1935, 1936, 1937, 1938 and 1939 are listed in Table 3 with indications of
prices being slightly higher for December 1939.

POULTRY PRODUCT LEVELS
Daily prices on eggs and poultry meat are quoted by the State Marketing
Bureau at Jacksonville, Tampa, and Miami. The quotations on the Jack-
sonville market have been tabulated and studied over a period of years and
sent to cooperators to assist them in making plans for the future.

TABLE 3.-MONTHILY PRICE OF POULTRY RATION.*
SBase I
Month Period 1935 1936 1937 1938 T 1939
1926-29

October .............. 2.78 2.18 2.43 2.28 1.88 2.09
November .......... 2.72 2.16 2.48 2.12 1.85 2.10
December ............ 2.72 2.14 2.57 2.06 1.85 2.15
January ......... 2.73 2.34 2.12 2.77 2.12 1.93
February ......... 2.77 2.32 2.10 2.67 2.13 1.94
March ................ 2.78 2.32 2.12 2.62 2.10 1.93
April .................. 2.78 2.31 2.11 2.71 2.06 1.95
May .................... 2.81 2.32 2.11 2.76 2.03 2.00
June .................. 2.85 2.28 2.10 2.72 1.99 2.01
July ................ 2.90 2.22 2.23 2.65 1.99 1.94
August ............. 2.87 2.15 2.42 2.51 1.94 1.89
September .......... 2.84 2.13 2.43 2.37 1.89 2.05


Average ........-.. 2.80 2.24 2.27 2.52 1.99 2.00

*Price based on quotation Jacksonville, Florida.







Annual Report, 1939


TABLE 4.-MONTHLY PRICES OF NO. 1 (GRADE A 24 OUNCE) WHITE EGGS*
(CENTS PER DOZEN).
Base
Month Period 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
1928-29
October ............... 56.4 39.3 38.4 38.1 36.3 32.4
November ......... 57.0 37.0 41.9 39.6 36.8 33.9
December ........... 52.0 40.6 43.4 38.0 40.1 30.9
January ............. 45.9 35.8 33.5 29.4 32.5 30.8
February ........... 34.3 31.8 31.2 27.5 26.6 24.3
March ............... 31.0 23.0 23.5 25.1 22.2 21.6
April ................... 29.4 24.9 22.9 25.5 22.3 21.9
May ................... 28.8 26.3 24.1 24.2 25.0 22.6
June ................... 32.3 26.8 25.7 25.8 25.7 23.0
July ................... 36.6 31.5 31.9 30.1 31.5 29.1
August ............... 42.1 35.6 34.0 33.0 32.8 29.6
September ......... 47.5 I 39.0 37.5 37.2 36.3 28.8
Average ..............1 41.1 32.6 32.3 31.1 30.7 27.4
*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.

TABLE 5.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY HENS* (CENTS PER POUND).
I Base
Month I Period 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
1 1926-29
October ................ 28.1 21.0 19.6 18.7 20.2 16.9
November .......... 26.9 21.7 19.6 20.3 21.0 17.9
December ............ 26.5 20.6 18.7 20.7 21.2 15.3
January .............. 26.6 17.5 20.0 18.7 20.1 21.4
February ............ 27.1 17.8 19.9 19.3 19.0 20.7
March .................. 27.9 18.3 19.5 18.6 19.9 20.4
April .................... 27.6 18.0 20.3 18.5 19.7 21.1
May .................... 27.0 18.0 20.8 19.0 19.0 19.3
June ............... 25.7 18.7 20.5 19.5 19.3 18.8
July ............... 24.5 18.2 20.9 16.8 19.4 17.8
August ............. 25.2 18.4 20.7 16.0 18.7 18.2
September ......... 27.0 19.3 20.2 17.5 20.2 16.9
Average .............. 26.7 | 18.9 20.1 18.6 19.8 | 18.7
*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.

TABLE 6.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY FRYERS* (CENTS PER POUND).
Base
Month Period 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
1926-29
October .............. 33.8 22.4 21.2 27.1 22.9 22.0
November .........- 34.9 23.2 20.5 26.7 23.0 22.3
December .......... 36.2 23.2 20.0 27.7 23.6 22.1
January ............. 38.3 21.5 25.5 22.3 25.8 23.4
February ............ 39.1 24.3 25.6 24.3 24.6 21.6
March ................ 41.0 26.1 27.0 24.1 27.2 21.9
April ................... 42.7 25.9 27.2 27.0 27.8 24.8
May .................... 39.9 26.4 25.7 24.1 24.0 22.0
June ................. 37.2 23.1 23.5 25.3 21.8 21.8
July .................... 32.4 21.2 23.1 25.5 20.5 22.5
August ................ 30.8 20.3 22.6 24.5 21.6 21.9
September .......... 32.7 21.0 22.3 25.8 22.9 21.0
Average ............ 36.6 1 23.2 23.7 25.4 23.8 I 22.3
*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.







46 Florida Cooperative Extension

TABLE 7.-RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO EGG, HEN, FRYER
INDICES.

1936


Ratio g -d o


Eggs to feed ...... 94 119 100 103 109 108 113 99 92 78 81 87
Hens to feed ...... 96 96 92 97 100 108 110 98 87 80 80 75
Fryers to feed.... 86 86 87 84 83 85 92 87 81 72 65 58

1937


Ratio I


Eggs to feed ..... 66 83 86 93 86 84 90 90 94 83 88 96
Hens to feed ...... 72 74 71 71 71 80 70 72 78 82 96 103
Fryers to feed.... 60 64 63 67 61 72 87 92 95 99 99 101

1938


Ratio I !


Eggs to feed ...... 91 101 95 103 121 114 124 115 115 94 96 111
Hens to feed ...... 97 91 95 96 97 107 114 109 112 106 115 116
Fryers to feed.... 86 82 87 88 83 84 91 103 104 100 97 94

1939


Ratio $ r .


Eggs to feed .... 94 101 101 106 110 100 119 106 85 76 77 75
Hens to feed ..... 113 109 104 109 100 103 109 109 88 80 87 73
Fryers to feed.... 86 79 77 83 77 83 103 108 89 87 83 77


RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO EGG, HEN
AND FRYER INDICES

Changing feed prices and poultry products prices have a direct influence
on the profits that may be expected and also on the type of poultry
Extension work that can be undertaken.
Table 7 shows the relationship of feed to poultry products for the past
four years (1936, 1937, 1938 and 1939). The base period used is the three-
year average (1926-1929).








Annual Report, 1939


GROWING HEALTHY POULTRY
To aid in this direction the "Grow Healthy Chick and Pullet" program
has been stressed with special emphasis placed on disease-free chicks and
clean land.
During the year Extension recommendations were followed by 2,653
families in purchasing baby chicks, 3,730 in chick rearing and 3,168 in
sanitation for disease and parasite control.
Green feed recommendations have been presented giving crop, variety,
amount of seed per acre, distance apart in the row and planting dates.
Results indicate that producers feeding succulent green feed throughout
the year had greater egg production, lower mortality and greater returns
per bird.
Extension recommendations were followed by 2,720 families in production
feeding.

CULLING DEMONSTRATION
Most commercial poultrymen are experienced in culling but many culling
demonstrations have been held to benefit the small flock owners and the
beginners. Flock owners have been advised to follow a systematic culling
schedule, and to replace culled stock with healthy pullets which are bred to
lay.
During the year 987 families have followed an organized, improved breed-
ing plan.
CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
Florida poultrymen are supplied with record books by the Agricultural
Extension Service. About 20 percent of the record keepers submitted
monthly reports which were summarized. These summaries, together with
feed, egg and poultry prices, were sent the cooperators each month. The
Calendar Flock Records run from October 1 to September 30.
During October 1939, 375 record books were placed in the hands of
poultrymen, more than twice the 156 books distributed in October 1938.

MEETINGS AND EXHIBITS
The Second Annual Poultry Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie,
August 28 to September 2, 1939. This institute was more successful than
the one held during the summer of 1938.
The Florida Poultry Producers' Association held its annual meeting, and
the Florida Poultry Council held its summer meeting during the Poultry
Institute.
Florida's World Poultry Congress Committee was organized in 1938 and
developed plans for full participation in the 7th World's Poultry Congress
and Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio, July 28 to August 7, 1939.
The entire Extension organization, all State agencies, poultry associa-
tions, and commercial organizations worked together and prepared a
program for full participation.
Outstanding accomplishments were a full membership quota, the high
F. F. A. judging team and winning of Egg Meal Menu Contest and $1,000
by Mrs. Homer Hixson, Gainesville.
The State 4-H Club Poultry Show at the Central Florida Exposition is
the outstanding feature of the junior poultry work. There were 795 birds
and 85 dozen eggs exhibited. The birds and eggs were of good quality,
and the 4-H members were justly proud of their achievements. Fifteen








Florida Cooperative Extension

TABLE 8.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORD SUMMARY.


1938-1939 1937-1938


Number of farmers ...................... 27 25
Ave. no. birds ................................ 12,574 11,189
Ave. no. birds per farm .............. 466 448
Ave. no. eggs per bird ................ 175 160
Ave. percent culled ...................... 37 56
Ave. percent mortality .............16 21

FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE
25-250 251-500
Birds Birds

Total number of flocks


1936-37 ...........................
1937-38 ...........................
1938-39 ........................

Ave. size of flocks
1936-37 .................---..........
1937-38 ............................
1938-39 ....................

Ave. no. eggs per bird
1936-37 ..........................
1937-38 ............................
1938-39 ....---....................


1936-1937


43
19,987
465
169
45
18



Over 500
Birds


15
9
9

965
902
1,052

168
152
178


teams were trained for the poultry and egg judging contest. Houston
Means, George Macy and Frances Broome were the three individual high
judges who won trips to the World's Poultry Congress and participated in
the National 4-H Judging Contest. George Macy was rated excellent and
the other two members good.
During the year 2,360 boys and girls were enrolled in poultry club work
and 1,470 completed their projects.

POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
Fifteen counties have active local poultry associations which are organ-
ized into the Florida Poultry Producers' Association. One new county
unit was formed during the year and one old one became inactive.
Eight of the county associations have used the educational program
outlined by the Agricultural Extension Service. Egg and poultry shows
were sponsored by eight of the local groups and in one a chick exposition
also was staged.
Activities of the State Association included the second annual Poultry
Institute held at Camp McQuarrie and the State Egg Show which took
place at Tampa during the Florida Fair. Poultry Extension work was
otherwise cooperated with efficiently by the State organization.
Egg quality demonstrations at their local county fairs were put on by
several county associations. Florida Poultry Council support for the
endeavor toward improving the egg output had cooperation from all the
State farm service agencies. Egg candling and grading demonstrations
took place at numerous adult and 4-H club meetings.







Annual Report, 1939


NATIONAL IMPROVEMENT PLANS
In Florida the National Poultry Improvement Program is supervised
by the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. Breeders and hatcheries taking
part increased, the Extension Service assisting to bring about this end.
There were 34 hatcheries, 81 White Leghorn breeders, 47 Rhode Island
Red breeders, 22 Barred Plymouth Rock breeders, 87 New Hampshire
breeders, and 33 breeders of other breeds, cooperation in the program
during 1939.
A 'Northeast Florida Baby Chick Association was organized to include
all counties in the northeast corner of the State. Plans were made to
include other counties as soon as it is deemed advisable. Hatcherymen
must cooperate with the National Poultry Improvement Program to be
eligible for membership.

CONTINUING POULTRY WORK
Vaccination against fowl pox was practiced more generally than ever
before. Many poultrymen have been taught to vaccinate without outside
help, and others depend on feed salesmen. In 1939 the county and home
demonstration agents assisted in the vaccination of over 100,000 pullets.
Suwannee, Gilchrist and Levy counties have been active in turkey work.
In these counties turkey production is an important farm enterprise.
Reports indicate that egg production was increased by artificial lights
on a larger scale than heretofore, among owners of both farm and com-
mercial flocks.
Farmers who did not have electric power used oil lanterns as a source
of light for the all-night lighting system. Most farmers who have electric
power use the morning lights, but there are a few who use all-night lights.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent

State-wide programs could not be undertaken in this department, owing
to the wide variations in Florida agricultural conditions. Complications
were further introduced by the large number of citrus and truck crops
growers who live in towns. One delegate to the National Camp in 1939
did his club work on vacant lots in the Miami suburbs.
County farm agents found themselves less and less with time for 4-H
club endeavors. Of the 55 agents during 1939, 16 or about 30 percent had
under 10 boys reporting. In some instances it was indicated that interest
could not be aroused while other agents explained the duties connected with
administering the Agricultural Adjustment Act and related federal activities
had taken precedence.
Table 9 shows the amount of time given to boys' club work by Florida
agents as summarized December 1, 1938. This table does not give all time
spent in club work, as some work was done by the soil conservation
assistants.
The average time per county agent spent on club work was 7.3%; 43%
of the time spent by agents on club work was in attending camps and short
courses. This leaves but 4.2% of agents' time in working on club work in
the counties.


TABLE 9.-PERCENT COUNTY AGENT'S TIME
Percent
Southeast Days Days to Time to
District Worked Club Club
Work Work

Alachua .............. 307 34 11
Baker ................. 293 44 15
Bradford ............ 309 1 16 5
Brevard ............. 303 34 11
Columbia ............ 296 25 8
Dade ................... 568 (2) 186 33
DeSoto ................ 293 17 4
Duval ...........-.. 585 (2) 48 8
Gilchrist ............ 289 10 3
Hamilton ............ 307 1 -
Hardee ............... 307 35 11
Levy .................... 303 0 -
Marion ............. 300 31 10
Nassau ............. 269 31 10+
Okeechobee ...... 302 17 5
Falm Beach ........ 300 38 13
Pasco ................ 309 96 31
Putnam ............... 288 19 6
St. Johns ............ 306 20 6
Seminole ........... 307 0 -
Sumter .............. 295 33 11
Union ............... 306 18 6
Volusia ............ 285 19 6


TOTAL ........... 7,410 772 10


DEVOTED TO CLUB WORK.
Club Visits [
Meet- to Club Percent
ings Mem- Reports
Held hers Secured

93 5 47
9 144 34
17 21 32
36 37 50
8 49 71
227 224 46
16 0 50
46 2 69
14 0 60

27 24 42

59 71 26
27 38 6
12 7 56
62 19 72
82 309 87
17 32 82
11 13 100

6 95 88
18 64
16 25 46


803 1,115 62







Annual Report, 1939


Southwest
District


Charlotte ............
Glades & Hendry
Hernando ............
Highlands ............
Hillsborough ......
Lake* ..................
L ee ....... ...........
Manatee .............
Orange ..............
Osceola ...............
Pinellas ...............
Polk ......................
Sarasota ..............


TOTAL ..............


Days
Worked


302
310
303
292
269
292
286
305
298
308
291
277
308


3,841


Days to
Club
Work

15
6
4
2
41
8
13
5
39
0
13




146


Percent
Time to
Club
Work

5
2
1
7
15
2
4
1+
13
0
4




4+


Club
Meet-
ings
Held

15
17

4
84
1
16
10
44

11




202


Visits
to Club Percent
Mem- Reports
bers Secured

67 84
9
15
75
97 71
3 83
36
1 0
100 70






283 64


*Club work done by an assistant.


Northwest
District


Bay .....................
Calhoun ...........
Dixie ..................
Escambia ...........
Gadsden ..............
Holmes ..........
Jackson .............
Jefferson ..............
Lafayette ............
Leon ........... ...
Liberty ............
Madison .............
Okaloosa ..............
Santa Rosa .....
Suwannee ............
Taylor ...................
Wakulla .............
Walton ..............
Washington ........


TOTAL ............


Days
Worked


272
302
303
304
306
299
296
306
307
297
287
311
291
291
306
305
309
309
294


5,694


Days to
IClub
I Work


51
0
171/2
28
2
11
4
7
7
22
9
40
24
21
25/2
19

27
17


Percent
Time to
Club
Work

18
0
5
9
14
5
1+
2
2
7
3
12
8
7
8
6

9
5+


5+


Club
Meet-
ings
Held

29
0
6
30
1
1

0
4
25
3
26
11
35
15
20

24
22


252


Visits
to Club Percent
Mem- Reports
bers Secured

133 90
0 33
44 68
7 60
0 0
4 75

3 30
0 100
35 35
0 0
78 60
53 47
36
34 43


53
1 9


392 41


*Club work done by an assistant.






Florida Cooperative Extension


ENROLLMENT STATISTICS FOR 1939
In the counties where county agents are employed there were 15,296
boys available and 4,125 club members (mostly boys) enrolled. This gives
us about one out of four available boys enrolled, which is the national
average.
Table 10 gives enrollment in each county. The table shows the enroll-
ment and reports per county for 1938 and 1939 as well as number of farms
in county and estimated number of boys available. The goal of 5,000
members set for the year is shown to have been reached.
Goal set on reports was 60 percent; as the following table indicates, it
was not fully attained. A gain to 54 percent from 53 was registered. Table
11 gives counties which secured 60% or more reports. This list of counties
will be placed on the 4-H honor roll for 1939.
These 23 county agents out of 55 had 39% of available boys in State
and 56% of enrollment and secured 76% of all reports received. Six
counties where 4-H boys are employed had 13% of available boys in State
and 35% of enrollment and secured 46% of all reports received.

PROJECTS PROGRESS AND METHODS
County agents were furnished with definite recommendations for project
work. This was done in an attempt to assist agents in getting definite
instructions to club members.
In December 1937 and January 1938, the State Boys' Club Agent pre-
pared a rather voluminous looseleaf Boys' 4-H Club Guide. In this guide
almost everything having to do with boys' club work in Florida was put in
shape for easy reference by the county agent. The agents interested in
club work reported that it was the most valuable addition to club work
that had been made in years. Each year loose sheets are sent to county
agents to substitute where changes have been made or for including where
subject covered is new.
Talks were made before 15 luncheon clubs, four farmers' and business
men's clubs and over 100 school talks were made by State Boys' Club
Agent. Monthly radio talks over WRUF were given on club work.
The project work with poultry and livestock showed some improvement
again in 1939. The number and quality of baby beef shown at the Fat
Stock Show increased. A club boy exhibited the grand champion pen of
three. The State Pig Club Show did not bring out quite as many entries
as last year, but all were of high quality. The State Poultry Show was the
best and largest we have held.

4-H CLUB CAMPS
The three district camps were improved by the addition of enough
mattresses to furnish one for every bed. Seats for the auditorium were
built for each camp. New equipment was added for kitchens and general
efficiency of camps was improved.
Every county but one having boys' 4-H club work was represented at
camp in 1939. A change was made in type of camps held at Timpoochee.
In the past joint camps have been held there. In 1939 it was decided to hold
boys and girls camps separately. The results varied.
We were pleased that again we were able to allow Alabama counties to
use the facilities of Camp Timpoochee. We are not using Camp Timpoochee
and Cherry Lake long enough to justify the money invested. We hope
that the use of these camps can be extended. Camp McQuarrie operated
continuously from the second week in June through the second week in
September.







TABLE 10.-BoYS AVAILABLE FOR CLUB WORK AND ENROLLMENT AND REPORTS BY COUNTIES, 1939.


Number
County White


Alachua .............
Baker ...............
Bradford ...........
Brevard .........
Columbia ......
Dade .................
DeSoto ..............
Duval ...............
Gilchrist ...........
Hamilton ..........
Hardee ...............
Levy ...................
Marion ................
Nassau ..........
Okeechobee .......
Palm Beach ......
Pasco .............-
Putnam ...........
St. Johns ..........
Seminole .........
Sumter .......
Union ................
Volusia .........


TOTAL South-
east District


I


21,786


Farms

1,301
419
796
686
914
1,587
435
1,021
518
633
1,471
726
1,886
565
259
1,037
1,237
808
472
942
928
523
2,572


Number
Boys
Available

434
139
265
131
321
317
87
340
172
211
300
242
628
155
52
207
412
269
157
188
309
174
514



6,024


1938
Enroll-
ment

210
38
69
54
56
99
119
185
25
0
105
0
75
102
25
141
431
28
61
15
180
47
26



2,091


1939 Gain
Enroll- or
ment Loss

197 -13
88 +50
59 -10
52 2
64 + 8
123 +24
97 -22
193 + 8
20 5
0 0
78 -27
0 0
232 +157
83 -19
23 2
108 -33
477 +46
41 +13
43 -18
0 -15
220 +40
60 +13
39 +13



2,297 +206


62 1,466


63.7 + 1.7


1938 Reports I 1939 Reports
Number I Percent Number I Percent

101 47 63 32
13 34 34 38
22 32 10 17
26 50 16 30
40 71 46 72
46 46 37 30
59 50 50 51
128 69 120 62
15 60 10 50
0 0 0 0
45 42 50 64
0 0 0 0
20 26 136 60
6 6 50 60
14 58 20 84
103 72 78 72
371 87 399 84
23 82 33 80
61 100 43 100
7 47 0 0
160 88 206 93
30 64 45 75
12 46 20 51


----


Gain
or Loss
Percent

--15
+ 4
-15
-20
+ 1
-16
+1
--7
-10
0
+22
0
+33
+54
+26
-3
2


+ 5
+11
+5


1,302











TABLE 10.-BoYs AVAILABLE FOR CLUB WORK AND ENROLLMENT AND REPORTS BY COUNTIES, 1939-Continued.


County


Bay ................
Calhoun ..........
Dixie ...........
Escambia ..........
Gadsden ..............
Holmes .............
Jackson ..........
Jefferson ............
Lafayette ..........
Leon .................-
Liberty ..............
Madison .............
Okaloosa ............
Santa Rosa ........
Suwannee .......
Taylor ..............
Walton ................
Wakulla .............
Washington ......


Number
White
Farms

202
150
267
1,094
848
1,786
2,517
444
434
368
184
856
1,067
1,240
1,433
545
1,303
233
1,051


TOTAL North-
west District 17,114


Number
Boys
Available

68
47
89
563
282
595
835
148
145
122
62
285
322
413
474
109
434
78
350


5,591


1938
Enroll-
ment

80
6
16
130
0
92
343
61
25
53
16
91
93
78
195
32
138

90


1,539


I 1939 I Gain
Enroll- or 1938 Reports
ment Loss Number | Percent

17 -63 72 90
0 -6 2 33
40 +24 11 68
115 -15 79 60
0 0 0
146 +54 70 75
on 1 no 1


1,554


-t41
+10
--9
+5
+ 1
+7
-19
+ 2
+58
--3
-33

-29



+15


40
18
25
19

54
44
28
85

74

8


iz
30
100
35

60
47
36
43

53

9


632 41
i


1939 Reports
Number I Percent


14
0
25
81
0
29
24
42
12
40
0
43
26
29
94
25
60

0



544


82

62
70

20
6
60
79
70
0
43
40
36
37
90
59

0



35


Gain
or Loss
Percent

--8
0
-6
+10

-55
6
+18
-21
+30
0
-17
--7
0
--6
+90
+6

9






TABLE 10.-BoYS AVAILABLE FOR CLUB WORK AND ENROLLMENT AND REPORTS BY COUNTIES, 1939-Concluded.
Number Number 1938 1939 Gain I Gain
County White Boys Enroll- Enroll- or 1938 Reports 1939 Reports or Loss
Farms Available ment ment Loss Number | Percent Number I Percent Percent

Charlotte ............ 148 30 19 12 7 16 84 12 100 +16
Glades and
Hendry .......... 346 69 64 12 -52 6 9 0 0 9
Hernando ........ 459 92 18 20 + 2 16 80 +80
Highlands .......... 654 131 20 2 -18 15 75 2 100 +25
Hillsborough .... 3,944 789 124 172 +48 89 71 124 72 + 1
Lake .............. 2,491 498 421 673 +252 352 83 468 72 -11
Lee ...................... 508 102 36 62 +26 13 36 21 34 2
Manatee .............. 1,155 251 67 72 + 5 -
Orange ................ 3,111 620 124 183 +59 86 70 81 44 -26
Osceola ............ 537 117 0 7 + 7 0 0 7 100 +100
Pinellas .......... 766 152 14 +14 7 50 +50
Polk ............ 4,020 804 3 0 3 3 102 0 0 -100
Sarasota ........... 180 36 0 0 0 0 0 0


TOTAL South- I
west District 18,324 3,681 896 1,229 +333 580 64 756 61+ 3

District


a


o
;?
k
co
03
co







Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 11.-COUNTIES SECURING 60% REPORTS.
Boys Number Number Percent
County Available Enrolled Reports Reports

Columbia ......................... 321 64 46 72
Duval .............................. 340 193 120 62
Hardee ............................ 300 78 50 64
*Marion ............................ 628 232 136 60
Nassau .......................... 155 83 50 60
Okeechobee ................ 52 23 20 84
Palm Beach ...................... 207 108 78 72
*Pasco ............................... 412 477 399 84
Putnam .............................. 269 41 33 80
St. Johns ........................ 157 43 43 100
*Sumter ............ ................. 309 220 206 93
Union ................................ 174 60 45 75
*Bay .................................... 68 17 14 82
Dixie .................................. 89 40 25 62
Escambia ........................ 563 115 81 70
Jefferson ....................... 148 71 42 60
Lafayette ...................... 145 16 12 79
*Leon ......................... 122 58 40 70
Taylor .......................... 109 29 25 90
Charlotte ................... 30 12 12 100
Hernando .......................... 92 20 16 80
Hillsborough .................. 789 172 124 72
*Lake ............................. 498 673 486 72


TOTAL ............................. 5,977 2,847 2,103 73

*Counties where former 4-H club boys were employed.
6 Counties
23 Counties where
55 with 60% 4-H Boys
Counties Reports Employed
Average number boys available per county .... 278 259 339
Average number boys enrolled per county ...... 92 123 279
Average percent available enrolled per county 33 47 82
Average number reports per county ............. 50 91 213
Average percent reports per county ................ 54 73 75

SHOWS, EXHIBITS AND CONTESTS
The 1939 State Pig Club Show was held at Tallahassee and was spon-
sored by the Leon County Fair. Fewer pigs were shown but the quality
was excellent. County Agent K. S. McMullen again handled all details.
The State Poultry Show is growing. The first year we filled but 1/4 of
the building. In 1939 we filled the entire building. Over 400 birds were
exhibited by club members. The State 4-H Poultry Judging Contest is
held in connection with this show. The Central Florida Exposition sponsors
this contest.
The biggest improvement was made in the baby beef exhibit at the
Florida Fat Stock Show. The number of exhibits increased over 100%.
A 4-H entry was grand champion pen of three.
Beef cattle judging contest is held in connection with this show. Eleven
teams competed in 1939, four more than in 1938. Bradford County had
the winning team, whose members received scholarships to short course.
The state poultry judging contest is somewhat different than the usual
in that the winning team is selected on the entire poultry club records of the






Annual Report, 1939


participants. The winning club member in this contest was given a $100.00
scholarship. The winning county team also represents Florida in the
National 4-H Poultry Judging Contest in Chicago. Lake County boys'
team won in 1939 and Joe Busby also of Lake County is now in college on
his $100.00 scholarship.
In 1939 six counties sent teams for the dairy demonstration. Alachua
County members won and were awarded the trip to San Francisco. At
the last minute one of the Alachua County team could not go, so the
second team from Pasco County went. They won second in the Southern
Division.
TRIPS OUT OF THE STATE
Florida was represented by two boys at the 1939 National 4-H Camp,
Everette Davis of Escambia County and Jack Prator of Pasco County.
The Pasco County dairy demonstration team went to the National Dairy
Show.
A team of two boys and one girl represented Florida 4-H club work at
the judging contest held in connection with the World Poultry Congress at
Cleveland.
Three boys attended the 4-H Club Congress from Florida. The state
champion barrow was shown by a girl this year. Joe Busby, Henry Swanson
and Billy Lorenz of Lake County made this trip.

STATE BOYS' SHORT COURSE
This is the big event of the club year. Many boys have received the
inspiration to go to college by attending a short course. Only boys winning
a trip in their club work can attend.
The 1939 short course was held at the University of Florida May 29 to
June 3. We were not successful in getting representation from every
county. Some were unable to come because of conflict with school
examinations and some county agents failed to secure any scholarships for
prizes.
STATE WINNERS IN PROJECT WORK
Meat Animal Production.-Sidney Allen of Suwannee County won the
gold watch offered by Thomas E. Wilson.
Baby Beef.-Lonnie Howell of Holmes County showed champion 4-H
steer. Sidney Allen of Suwannee County showed grand champion pen of
three. Leroy Fortner of Alachua County won the $100 scholarship given
by Florida Fat Stock Show to outstanding boy in beef project.
Fat Barrow.-Eloise Boyles, a pig club girl from Suwannee County,
showed grand champion barrow at State Pig Club Show and won the trip
to Chicago.
Breeding Pig.-Jack Dyer of Union County showed the grand champion
breeding pig and also reserve champion barrow.

SCHOLARSHIP WINNERS
National 4-H Fellowship.-Wilmer Bassett, former 4-H club boy and
assistant agent in Lake County, won this $1,000 fellowship and is now in
Washington.
Bankers' Scholarship.-Zeke Bagley of Jackson County, Benjamin Wood-
hall of Duval and Harry L. Collins, Jr., of Lake won the three bankers'
scholarships. Woodhall and Collins entered college in September.
Lake County Scholarship.-Claxon Parker won the scholarship con-
tributed by the Lake County bankers. Parker entered college.







58 Florida Cooperative Extension

Fat Stock Show Scholarship.-Leroy Fortner of Alachua County won
this scholarship. He is a sophomore in college.
Central Florida Exposition Scholarship.-Joe Busby of Lake County won
this award and entered the University of Florida in September.
Sumter County Scholarship.-This was won by Billy Sharpe.
United States Sugar Corporation Scholarship.-This, the most valuable
scholarship offered, was won by Dan Roberts of Alachua County. He is
expected to take some line of work in college which will fit him to be of
assistance in the sugar industry of Florida.
Sears, Roebuck Scholarship.-For the past two years a 4-H club boy
has won the special scholarship given to the freshman of those receiving
Sears, Roebuck scholarships who made the highest grade in college work.
Russell Peeples won in 1938 and Arthur P. Ellis for 1939. The majority of
those awarded these scholarships are 4-H club boys. The Extension Service
does not have a part in the awarding of the Sears, Roebuck scholarships.
Kraft-Phenix Cheese Company Scholarship.-By winning second in the
Southern Division in the contest at San Francisco David Boatwright and
Maxie Bryant of Pasco County won $100 scholarships.

OTHER CONTRIBUTORS TO CLUB WORK
The Atlantic Coast Line gave a trip to the National 4-H Camp.
The Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company gave $150 toward expenses of
taking poultry judging team to Chicago. This was given through the
Florida Chain Store Association.
The Central Florida Exposition at Orlando sponsored the State Poultry
Show and contributed several hundred dollars in prizes.
The Leon County Fair Association sponsored the State Pig Club Show
and contributed the cash premiums.
The Florida Fat Stock Show sponsored the State Baby Beef Show and
contributed prize money.
Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo contributed money for trip
to Chicago for girl who showed champion barrow. Mr. Mayo also con-
tributed heavily to the various local fat stock shows at which 4-H club
boys won nice premiums.
The service clubs, boards of county commissioners, and business men
in the State contributed 300 short course scholarships as well as many of the
awards at the county contests.

OTHER EXAMPLES OF GOOD WORK
One of the finest pieces of club work in Florida was turned in by County
Agent J. A. McClellan when on four days' notice he whipped his dairy
demonstration team into shape and won second in the contest at San
Francisco. Pasco County was awarded the cup as having best 4-H club
work in the state for 1938-39.
We are using the radio to publicize club work. The State Boys' Club
Agent made nine talks over WRUF, the University of Florida Station. He
also talked over WDBO at Orlando and WTAL at Tallahassee. During
short course the radio is used daily. The opening program is broadcast
and four boys appear on the farm hour each day.
On National Achievement Day 4-H club programs are put on not only
over the four stations of the NBC but also from Orlando, Ocala and
Gainesville. Some of the agents use their local stations several times
during the year.
In 1988 Baker County built the first county 4-H club building for boys'
work in Florida. This year Lake County completed a club building.







Annual Report, 1939 59


CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist
Citrus Extension work was conducted during the year by the Citri-
culturist and farm agents in 26 counties. Assistance was received from
district agents; members of the Experiment Station staff; the Federal-
State Horticultural Protection Service; specialists of the Extension Service
of the United States Department of Agriculture; representatives of the
Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Farm Credit Adiministration,
and the State Plant Board. Very constructive cooperation was received
from Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated; the Florida Citrus Commission;
the Florida Citrus Exchange; production managers of cooperative associa-
tions; and field representatives of fertilizer and insecticide companies.

PROBLEMS CONFRONTING INDUSTRY
The primary problem of the Florida citrus industry, which directly
confronts the Extension Service, is to bring about still further reductions
in the cost of producing citrus fruits so that they can be sold at a price
within reach of more consumers in the low income groups and which will
return to the producer some profit on production cost. At the same time
the quality of the fruit, particularly the eating quality, must be maintained
at a high consumer standard to further strengthen demand and increase
consumption.
It is therefore imperative that every unnecessary expenditure in both
production and marketing be eliminated, that the efficiency of every essential
operation be maintained at the highest possible degree, and that a high
consumer standard of quality be established and rigidly maintained in both
production and marketing.

FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS
Four hundred records show that yield is the most important factor
in determining net returns on production expenditures, as long as returns to
the grower can be maintained at a level above cost of production. Yield
and unit cost of production are largely determined by the fertilizing practice
end soil management.
Results of 21 demonstrations involving 480 acres impress the importance
of using a completely balanced fertilizing program. In these demonstra-
tions, where magnesium, zinc (on foliage or soil), copper and manganese
were included in the fertilizing program as needed, average results, in
comparison with comparable check groves in which these "secondary
elements" were not added where needed, are summarized in Table 12.
TABLE 12.-RELATION OF BALANCED FERTILIZER TO YIELD, PRODUCTION
COST, FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY*, AND PLANT FOOD APPLIED.
Yield Production Fertilizer Lbs. N, P2Os &
Treatment per Acre Cost per Box Efficiency KO0 Applied
Boxes Cents Percent Per Acre
Secondary
elements
not added 111 68 12 262

Secondary
elements
added ...... 172 41 18 270

*Percent of plant nutrients in the fertilizer recovered and removed by the crop.







60 Florida Cooperative Extension

Research points out that a higher degree of efficiency of the fertilizer
applied can be obtained by maintaining the soil reaction of the naturally
acid soils within the range of pH 5.5 to 6.2. In 45 demonstration groves of
1,000 acres, in which the soil reaction was maintained within the range
of pH 5.5 to 6.2 by the use of dolomite, average results in comparison with
check groves in which the pH fell below the standard are given in Table
13.

TABLE 13.-RELATION OF PH TO FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY, PLANT FOOD
APPLIED, YIELD AND PRODUCTION COST.
Fertilizer Lbs. N, P20, &I Yield Production
Efficiency K20 Applied per Acre Cost per Box
Percent Per Acre Boxes I Cents
Range of pH
5.5 to 6.2 17 251 151 39
Range of pH
below 5.5 12 287 122 47


Soil acidity tests were made on 1,563 groves, representing 32,000 acres,
and instructions were given growers for maintaining the desired pH.

EFFECTS FROM COVER CROPS
Effects of a definite cover crop program in the production of citrus are
found in the records of 26 demonstration groves, summarized in Table 14.
In these groves, involving a total of 590 acres, a continuous effort has been
made to increase yield and net returns, and lower cost of production, by
making full use of cover crops that produced the greatest tonnage of
organic matter, and by maintaining the optimum pH for the cover crop.

TABLE 14.-RELATION OF COVER CROP TO YIELD, PRODUCTION COST AND
FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY.
Marketing Production Yield Fertilizer Lbs. N, PsOs &
Year Cost per Box per Acre Efficiency K.O Applied
Cents Boxes I Percent Per Acre

1936-37, Av. 56 108 9 339
1937-38, Av. 41 131 12 309
1938-39, Av. 32 215 16 380


CULTIVATION AND IRRIGATION
Forced economy in production is gradually correcting the evil of exces-
sive cultivation. The limited operating budget presents the opportunity to
impress the facts of direct waste and ill effects of too much cultivation. In
efficiency analysis of production operation it has been pointed out that high
efficiency in fertilizing will not tolerate excessive cultivation. Furthermore,
nutrient deficiency diseases are aggravated by excessive or improper
cultivation. These facts have been further established this year by 110
demonstrations in 20 counties, and have been emphasized in 81 news stories
and radio talks.








Annual Report, 1939 61

Growers have been handicapped in equipping for grove irrigation be-
cause of low price of fruit. The portable irrigation plant developed and
demonstrated by the Extension Service in 1934-35 has proved highly valu-
able to many growers during the droughts of the last two years. Six
cooperative associations have built portable units and have irrigated the
groves of many of their grower members. Seven commercial operations
and grove caretakers have added to their equipment portable irrigation
units and are doing custom irrigation.
Demands upon the Extension Service to assist growers with their
irrigation problems have been very heavy during the past year. In addition
to 201 growers assisted in purchasing irrigation equipment for 4,000
acres, 177 growers were assisted in making improvements in old plants to
render them more adequate or to make possible their operation at lower cost.

MELANOSE, STEM-END ROT AND SCALE CONTROL
As fruit prices decline and the margin of difference in prices by grades
narrows, profits on measures designed for melanose control primarily be-
come questionable. Therefore preventive measures, which affect control of
stem-end rot also, are being stressed in the whole culture program.
The fact has been forcefully emphasized in 57 demonstration groves, 1200
acres, that the most effective melanose control or prevention results from
the cultural practices which promote high tree vitality, such as ample water
supply, conservative cultivation, and adequate fertilization, including mag-
nesium, copper, zinc and manganese. It is also noted that a cultural
program thus maintained results in an appreciable control or prevention
of stem-end rot.
Extension work on scale control emphasizes the economic importance
of going back in the culture program and removing as far as possible the
necessity for the practices which result in an increase in the scale popula-
tion. It has been demonstrated that the preventive measures for melanose
control, when carried out, greatly lessen the need for copper sprays; and
that substituting for the sprays soil applications of copper, manganese, and
in many instances zinc, removes dreaded causes of scale increase. Nine
method demonstrations in the proper technique of applying oil sprays were
conducted in six counties, and were attended by 166 growers. The oil sprays
schedule of the "Better Fruit Program" was made available to all growers
and about 9,000 copies were distributed.

CONTROL OF RUST MITE AND FRENCHING
It is necessary to keep ever before growers improvements in rust mite
control measures developed by research and to re-impress the fact that
fruit is in danger of rust mite discoloration as long as it is on the tree.
This has been done in 62 grower meetings in 20 counties, by radio, press
articles, and grove visits. Spray and dust schedules have been distributed
to more than 10,000 growers. In 19 demonstration groves an average saving
of 1 cent a box on 57,000 boxes was realized on rust mite control by more
careful timing of the applications of dusting sulfur and by using more
material per tree at an application.
Frenching, a zinc deficiency disease of citrus trees, has been a topic
for discussion in 207 grower meetings in 26 counties during the year. Film
slides in natural colors were projected in most instances, and every detail
of the disease and corrective measures were discussed.
The fact that zinc has just as important a place in citrus tree nutrition
as potash, phosphorus or nitrogen is brought out in the average results of
14 demonstration groves and summarized in Table 15. Results of these







Florida Cooperative Extension


groves were compared with the average of 14 comparable groves, receiving
practically the same treatment, but with zinc deficiency untreated.
The cost of supplying the zinc needed was approximately 1/ cent per
box.

TABLE 15.-EFFECT OF ZINC DEFICIENCY ON YIELD, PRODUCTION COST AND
FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY.
Yield Production Fertilizer Lbs. N, P20, &
Treatments per Acre Cost per Box I Efficiency KIO Applied
Boxes Cents Percent Per Acre

Zinc deficient 121 55 13 263

Zinc applied 167 40 20 236


BRONZE LEAF CONTROL
Bronze leaf is a foliage symptom of magnesium deficiency. To main-
tain an available supply of magnesium in the acid soils in the most
economical and most practical manner, the soil pH must be maintained
around 6.0. This can be done in the citrus grove most safely by the use
of dolomite which at the same time supplies magnesium slowly. For
correcting a deficiency of magnesium in an advanced stage and for supply-
ing the nutrient on soils of a high pH, magnesium sulfate is used to supple-
ment or replace dolomite. Thus it is seen that soil acid tests are essential
in establishing a basis for proper treatment. During the year, 1,900 such
tests were made in 25 counties, representing 30,160 acres.
The importance of correcting magnesium deficiency, of maintaining the
optimum soil reaction, and of maintaining an adequate supply of magnesium
in the soil, may be seen in the records of 31 groves, summarized and
averaged in Table 16. In 1935-36 all of these groves exhibited symptoms
of magnesium deficiency in varying degrees and the soil pH was generally
below the optimum. Dolomite was applied annually during the last three
years, in rates of 500 to 1,000 pounds per acre, supplemented by the use
of magnesium sulfate in a few instances of advanced degrees of deficiency.
The total cost of supplying the magnesium and correcting soil acidity
averaged $2.20 an acre per year.

TABLE 16.-THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM ON YIELD, PRODUCTION COST
AND FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY.
Marketing Yield Production I Fertilizer Lbs. N, P2zO &
Year per Acre Cost per Box Efficiency KLO Applied
S Boxes Cents Percent Per Acre

1936-37 ...... 112 61 10 314
1937-38 ....... 131 52 13 285

1938-39 .... 219 31 19 326


MEETINGS, TOURS AND VISITS
Assistance has been given Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated, by
speaking at meetings of growers' county units and in state meetings, on
problems of production and marketing, also by working with the program







Annual Report, 1939


committees of community and county units, as well as the State organiza-
tion, in preparing .appropriate educational programs.
Much time has been devoted to attending meetings of directors and
conferences with representatives of various organizations which have to
do with the citrus industry in its different phases. In this manner the
Extension Service has been drawn closer to the organized element of the
industry.
During the year 297 educational meetings were held with growers in
24 counties. Eleven tours of growers were conducted to demonstrations
and to experimental plots of the Citrus Experiment Station. A tour from
one county was attended by 125 growers. Grove visits reported by farm
agents numbered 2,369.
The fifth annual Growers' Institute was held at Camp McQuarrie, Lake
County, in early September. About 300 growers enrolled from 11 counties.
Various phases of citrus production and marketing were discussed by
representatives of the Extension Service, the Citrus Experiment Station,
Florida Citrus Growers, Incorporated, and commercial organizations.
The Citriculturist served on the advisory committee to the Better Fruit
Committee of the Florida Citrus Commission. This advisory committee
compiled the material and prepared for publication the spraying and dusting
schedules of the Better Fruit Program for 1939. He made two trips to
the markets, visiting principal cities in Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia,
and West Virginia. The purpose was to obtain first hand information on
dealer and consumer reaction to grades, sizes and processing treatments.






Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM FORESTRY
L. T. Nieland, Extension Farm Forester
Improvement of farm timber stands, marketing forest products, fire
prevention in wooded areas, reforestation practices and activities with 4-H
club members continued to be the main undertakings in this work.

TIMBER STANDS DEMONSTRATIONS
Sixteen method demonstration meetings were held in 16 northern Florida
counties. These meetings were held in the woods where correct methods
could be demonstrated on typical stands of farm timber. Advance publicity
was provided by the county agents through newspaper articles and circular
letters to farmers. Farm Security Administration county supervisors were
invited to participate and to invite their clients. Vocational agricultural
instructors and their students were also invited. Representatives of the
Naval Stores Control Program, U. S. Forest Service, State Forest Service,
Southern Forest Experiment Station, and Bureau of Chemistry and
Engineering assisted the county agents and Extension Forester in conduct-
ing the demonstrations. Each of these agencies presented some feature
of the program. Pulpwood cutting, pruning, turpentining (gum farming),
improvement cutting, thinning, planting, and fire prevention methods were
demonstrated. A form of round table discussion followed.
A total of 427 farmers attended the 16 farm forestry demonstration
meetings conducted in 16 different farm woods; 255 farmers and farm
women attended four other meetings before which this subject was discussed.
One hundred seventy 4-H club boys were given instruction in farm timber
stand improvement work while at camp, and during the annual short course.
Fifty members of civic clubs and 55 county agents received the benefit of
some information on this subject. Upwards of 60 individual farm visits
were made during which this was discussed and demonstrated. Altogether
1,017 persons were contacted with reference to farm timber stand improve-
ment work.
MARKETING FARM TIMBER
In addition to the 1,017 farmers and others receiving instruction in
better marketing of farm timber, an additional 120 farmers in 29 counties
were assisted in more conservative and advantageous cutting and marketing
of their forest crops, making a total of 1,137 persons who received the
benefit of this teaching program. It is reasonable to expect that many
of these farmers will discuss the lessons learned with others, thus extending
the effects of the educational work.
In the two adjoining counties of Lafayette and Suwannee farmers having
stands of pine timber of turpentine size are, as a result of this educational
program, organizing themselves into a two-county gum farming producers'
unit, the first of such enterprises in the State.

PREVENTION OF FIRES
Methods underwent something of a change in this field during the
period, to give the work more aspects of the positive approach than had
been presented formerly. Stress was placed on sundry phases of woods
improvement that cannot be accomplished without protection against fires.
In addition to the 1,017 farmers, 4-H club members, and business men
who attended the group meetings previously mentioned, and who received
instruction in fire prevention along with other information, an additional






Annual Report, 1939 65

70 individual farm visits were made by the Extension Forester in 21
counites during which advice and assistance in forest protection was given.
Thus the total number of persons reached with a direct message on fire
prevention was 1,087.
Upon request, an address on forest protection and conservation was pre-
pared and delivered by the Extension Forester before the women's club of
Dade City (Pasco County). Thirty-two members were present.

REFORESTATION ENDEAVORS
The need for reforestation of depleted and under-stocked timber stands
was stressed in all group discussions and demonstration meetings with
farmers, 4-H club members, county agents, and others. Areas of poor, steep,
or wet lands unsuited for cultivation were pointed out, during farm visits,
as desirable locations for farm forests. Ten method demonstrations in
correct planting were given before groups of farmers in 10 different
counties. Many individual farm demonstrations in proper planting were
also given.
According to the county agents' annual reports, farm forestry work was
included as part of the county agent's program of work in 22 counties.
Although it is known that more forest trees were planted in other counties
which are not reported, eight counties reported that 1,247,300 trees were
planted with the assistance of county agents. Although not all farms
planting forest trees were listed, the reports showed 1,838 acres were
planted on 85 farms.
Counties in which outstanding results in forest tree planting were
secured are Walton, Jackson, Liberty, Union, Suwannee, Wakulla, DeSoto,
and Polk.
FORESTRY IN 4-H CLUBS
Assistance was given in setting up the 4-H club forestry educational
exhibit at the Lake County Fair in Eustis.
A class containing 23 advanced 4-H club boys received special instruction
from the Extension Forester during the annual short course at the Uni-
versity of Florida.
Lecture-demonstrations during the Short Course for Girls at Florida
State College for Women were attended by about 450 4-H club members.
Two weeks spent in teaching forestry at Camp McQuarrie reached a
total of 189 youths.
In a group meeting at Lake City, with the agricultural agents from
nine counties present, plans were developed for 4-H club forestry work in
northeastern Florida.
Forestry clubs in the Lake County 4-H club organization were addressed
twice, about 45 members having turned out on these occasions.
All told, the Extension forestry program was presented to 707 young
people during 1939.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART III-WOMEN'S AND

GIRLS' DEMONSTRATIONS

GENERAL HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy Belle Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent
Ethyl Holloway, District Home Demonstration Agent
The ultimate objectives of the home demonstration program have
changed little. To make use of the resources of the farm, farm home and
the community to the end that family incomes may be increased; to teach
better practices and higher standards; to develop leadership among rural
women and girls; and to improve family living and rural life are objectives
which have constantly guided the trained workers and responsible home
demonstration women and girls in program determination. Progress made
in attainment of these general objectives is more or less intangible.
The most valuable results of an educational program cannot be tabu-
lated. Brighter outlook, changes in attitude, improvements in family living,
development of rural leadership, learning of skills and quality standards,
are intangible results noted in all counties where home demonstration work
is conducted. The inspirational value to others of the examples of enrolled
girls and women is increasingly evident in terms of better rural living. A
greater development and use of the agricultural resources of the State
can be traced directly to the instruction and guidance given to consumers
in country and urban areas by home demonstration workers. The economic
value of the home demonstration program can be only partially tabulated
in terms of thrift in the home, actual increases in cash income and in wise
conservation of food and health.

OBSERVANCE OF 25 YEARS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Anniversary of twenty-five years of home demonstration work in Florida
was celebrated with special programs in each of the 37 organized counties.
All the programs were scheduled to fall within a week or two of the
anniversary date of the passing of the Smith-Lever Act and many of them
were tied up with county-wide 4-H club achievement days. Men and
women agents worked together in planning observation of this epochal
event. Where Achievement Day programs were not held, the occasion was
in the nature of a rally or picnic at which public spirited people joined
with Extension workers to make the event one of significance. Each mem-
ber of the State staff appeared on county programs on more than one
occasion.
PERSONNEL
The personnel in home demonstration work consists of one state agent;
three district agents; four specialists-in food conservation, nutrition, tex-
tiles and clothing, and home improvement; and 37 county home demonstra-
tion agents and three assistant agents employed in 36 counties. The work
of the local Negro district agent and eight Negro county home demonstra-
tion agents is directed by the state home demonstration office. Men
specialists located in Gainesville, particularly those dealing with poultry,
dairying and editorial work, assist with the home demonstration program.







Annual Report, 1939 67

Selection and Employment of New Agents.-One of the big personnel
problems this year has been selecting and employing new agents to fill
vacancies. The requirement for completion of a four-year college course
in home economics has been rigidly adhered to in employing new workers,
but a second need is for assistant agents who can be given experience under
the direction of capable agents and placed in counties as new positions
open. Three assistants are now at work.
Continued training for home demonstration agents in service to enable
them to keep abreast of the requirements expected of them is one of the
greatest needs of home demonstration work. Stress of work in the counties
makes it practically impossible for agents to do as much reading of pro-
fessional literature as they would like, nor can arrangements be easily
made to obtain extended leave for study. This need is partially met in
Florida through work done with subject-matter specialists in home demon-
stration work and agriculture, through short courses, and through district
and state conferences of Extension workers.
Technical information relative to agricultural subjects prepared by
Extension specialists, the State Plant Board and Experiment Station is sent'
directly to home agents, who use it for reference. Studies done by other
governmental and related agencies which come across the desk of the State
Home Demonstration Agent are made available on request to the field staff.
If conditions in the counties are such that they can be away, agents are
given opportunity to attend professional educational meetings in and out
of the State, such as those of the Educational Association, Home Economics
Association, and American Dietetic Association.
Additional professional training was made possible for all agents by
(1) one state conference, (2) four district conferences, and (3) four short
courses. In addition, arrangements were made for two home demonstration
agents to study for a short period at Florida State College for Women and
plans have been discussed and recommendations made for summer courses
on agriculture for active and prospective agents.
Assistance in counties was increased. Full-time stenographers were
secured in two counties; short-time assistance from State funds was given
to 18 counties; small increases were made in budgets in 11 counties; new
work rooms were secured in three counties, better office quarters in six.

IMPROVEMENT IN ORGANIZATION

Emphasis has been placed on the following points in 1939: (1) Clubs
have been consolidated to save time and travel; (2) work has been planned
to delegate all possible responsibilities to individuals or to other organiza-
tions; (3) special effort has been made to coordinate work of home demon-
stration agents and other governmental agencies to avoid duplication of
effort; (4) long-time and immediate goals have been based on needs and
determined by rural people; (5) plans for use of specialists' time have
been improved, resulting in better service to counties, and in better
coordination of all phases of the general home demonstration program.
This year every organized county in the State has received at least seven
days'aid from specialists, and though no cash has been saved from reduced
travel, there has been saving in time and individual effort; (6) emphasis
on quality of work undertaken has resulted in increased demonstration
value of all enterprises. Quality work is emulated. Exhibits, records and
reports of demonstrations show the improvement, and increased interest
manifested in exhibits of all sorts reflects appreciation of the high standard
attained.







68 Florida Cooperative Extension

PROGRAM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
Analysis of county needs with farm women and men thinking along with
the workers has taken place in nine counties. Subsequent planning for a
home demonstration program to meet these needs has included the same
group.
Program planning and development has been participated in by women
and girls through State and county .councils in 32 counties. Farm women
were named to membership on State and county land-use committees.
Home demonstration workers.have long made use of all available factual
data in determining county programs. Census figures, reports from the
State Department of Agriculture, research studies done on agriculture
and related subjects, social studies, educational reports and our own Ex-
tension reports are sources used. However, it has become apparent that
we need to obtain more facts from farm people directly and through research
for use in developing a practical program. In this connection all record
books for individual demonstrators have been revised during the year with
a view to unifying and as far as possible simplifying them. Committees
of home agents have worked with state supervisors and specialists in
these revisions.
One agent this year undertook a special study in her own county (Gads-
den) to get factual data for guidance in program making.
In determining programs the -objective always foremost is a program
to serve all members of the family. To achieve this requires that men
and women Extension agents plan together to dovetail all demonstrations
and enterprises in the home and farm to one common need.
Analyzing county needs is undertaken in the individual counties and
follows different procedures. Getting an expression of needs from farm
families through community meetings held for the purpose is becoming a
more prevalent custom. In all the organized counties it has long been
customary for home demonstration agents to work with representatives
of home demonstration clubs in county-wide council meetings to determine
and plan programs. At such times, the factual data referred to are reviewed
together with current outlook material.
Program planning begins likewise in the county and represents the
combined thinking ,of members of home demonstration club groups and the
agent. Four important factors are considered in making plans: Correlation
of all phases of home demonstration, work to fit family and community
needs; special attention to be given to the phase which will receive extra
help from the specialist assigned to the county; planned assistance from
specialists; coordination with other governmental service programs.
A four-year plan for the assignment of specialist assistance in the
counties on a progressive schedule from year to year has made it possible
for all counties to be'served equitably and all agents receive the training
and assistance needed. District agents and specialists now work with
county home agents to determine and develop unified county programs
before any specialist's work is begun.
This plan has developed general recognition of the need for long-time,
well wounded county and State plans with immediate objectives set up
from year to year. The program thus,attained has steered away from over-
emphasis of any one phase to the neglect of other important needs.
Program Development.-In developing-the program, use has been made
of all Extension teaching methods and procedures, of the training of the
specialists, of the organized groups of home demonstration women and
girls, and of trained volunteer leadership.







Annual Report, 1939


Work of the specialists in program development is significant. They
are responsible for four points in each of the counties assigned for special
work: (1) to acquaint the county home agent with recent reliable subject
matter information and efficient Extension methods-in short, train the
agent professionally; (2) to help the agent develop efficient methods for
carrying on the program by assisting her with work with individuals and
with organized communities; (3) to assist the agent in training volunteer
local leaders; (4) to aid the agent in the establishment of result demon-
strations, both in individual homes and on a community-wide basis.
To further integrate the various phases of work into a well balanced
program, the specialists agreed last year that their plans would emphasize:
(1) planning, (2) production, (3) conservation, and (4) utilization. Dis-
cussions at monthly state staff meetings and analysis of situations observed
in the counties while on field trips helped to guide the work of all staff
members.
In developing the program in the State, special effort has been made to
establish outstanding demonstrations in the homes with accurate records so
that others might be inspired to improve their own practices. Emphasis
has also been put on improvement of quality on all work done. Club pro-
grams have been planned for continuity in the phase of work being
emphasized in the county. Local leaders have been invaluable in program
development, keeping behind demonstrations, prompting the work and
assisting with method demonstrations at meetings, setting up exhibits, etc.
Tours have proven most effective in stimulating interest in result demon-
strations.

COUNCILS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FOR
GIRLS AND WOMEN
County and State councils of home demonstration work, composed of
representative rural women and girls, are important factors in making
plans for unified programs, and also for training real leaders capable of
assuming responsibility for carrying out these plans successfully. Four
new county councils for women have been organized this year, making a
total of 32. There are 31 county councils for girls in the State. Each
council met quarterly and operated under a definite plan of work with
specific goals adopted by the council members for the county. County
programs followed recommendations of the State council for State-wide
work as far as practicable.
Junior and senior State councils held a joint session for the first time
during the 1939 State Short Course. At this time the junior council
members stated their purposes and objectives, presented their program of
work, and made a progress report of work being done in the counties. A
significant result of this meeting has been the increased number of home
demonstration women who have been inspired to volunteer for service as
local leaders.
The State Council of Senior Home Demonstration Work provided loan
scholarships for two former 4-H club girls now in the College of Home
Economics, Florida State College for Women. As a part of their scholar-
ship program, the council helped to meet the expenses of other worthy
college 4-H club members in attending the Rural Youth Conference.
The State Council has conducted for years a record book contest for
county councils to interest the women in keeping a record of results of
county council work and evaluating progress made. Seventeen books were
submitted in 1939, and the Dade County Council received first honors.
Leadership training meetings held in every county by the home demon-
stration agents assisted by the specialists and district agents were attended







Florida Cooperative Extension


by more than 3,300 leaders, girls and women. County and state councils
held training meetings for local leaders so they might learn to serve more
intelligently. The number of volunteer leaders increased considerably this
year, indicating that the women realize their own responsibility for extend-
ing the home demonstration program.


Fig. 4.-One county council of women's home demonstration work provided a rest room
at a state fair as a community service which was much appreciated.

The number of older 4-H club girls and former 4-H club girls serving
as leaders is greater than last year, showing that the interest gained as
girls in matters of rural living carries over into their mature life.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
Excellent relationships exist between home demonstration workers and
representatives of other organizations in the State. Reports show that
agents have cooperated with county. health units, Farm Security Admin-
istration, Rural Electrification Administration, National Youth Administra-
tion, homemaking groups of Works Progress Administration, child welfare
units, women's clubs, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, parent-teacher
groups, school principals, fair organizations, Florida Public Health Associa-
tion, State Poultry Council, and Florida Beekeepers' Association.
In the counties where the REA has been developing lines, the home
demonstration agents have done what they could to promote interest in
the program, and have correlated the home demonstration program in home
improvement to emphasize selection and use of electrical equipment.
A total of 411i days was devoted to cooperation with other agencies.
Former home demonstration agents served this year as chairmen of
the Division of Home Demonstration and of the Department of American
Home in the State Federation of Women's Clubs. County home demonstra-
tion agents were presidents of the State Dietetic Association and the State
Home Economics Association.







Annual Report, 1939


School executives and teachers have given generous cooperation, recog-
nizing the established place of home demonstration work in the educational
program of the State. Home agents assist in furthering general educational
programs in the counties and help specifically with such things as hot
school lunch programs, cooperation with parent-teacher associations,
beautifying the school grounds, etc.
The fine help given by the press of the state is appreciated and has
enabled us to increase our service to many people.
Cooperation of County Boards.-County commissioners and county
school boards showed their approval and continued support of the program
of home demonstration work and their recognition that the work has grown
during the year by increasing the financial budgets for the work in 11
counties. Three counties-Dade, Duval and Pinellas-provided sufficient
funds for employing assistant home demonstration agents. New or im-
proved offices were secured in six counties, new work rooms in three
counties.

COOPERATION WITH THE NATIONAL FARM PROGRAM
The Federal Agricultural Adjustment Administration made provisions
for men and women district supervisors of the Cotton States to attend a
conference in Washington in February 1939 to which a representative was
sent from this State. The purpose was to get basic information relative
to: Training needed by Agricultural Adjustment Administration county
personnel; work done by home agents and demonstration members toward
better farm living; and the contribution which the Agricultural Adjust-
ment Administration can make to farm problems. Throughout the year
State and county home demonstration workers have put emphasis on the
economic and educational value of this phase of the national program.
The State AAA Administrator appeared on State Council meeting pro-
grams and set forth the purpose and scope of this work. During the year
similar programs have been given in the counties where home demonstra-
tion councils are organized. Home demonstration agents have made use
of statistics available from Agricultural Adjustment Administration work
sheets when determining program emphasis, as well as in program develop-
ment.
Land-use planning has become a specific part of the county Extension
organization in several Florida counties and in all the counties has given
emphasis to the trend for analysis of county needs by trained workers
and farm people working together.
The land-use program was presented to the members of the State
Council of Home Demonstration Work at their annual meeting. The State
home demonstration agent is a member of the State land-use committee
and the three farm women members of the State committee are home
demonstration women.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH 4-H GIRLS
Throughout this report the work of the 4-H girls and the adults has been
discussed together because home demonstration supervisors are responsible
for the development of plans of work for both. County home demonstration
agents devoted approximately one-third of their time to work with girls.
Enrollment.-Total enrollment of girls in 4-H club work increased this
year and quality and scope of results improved greatly. Enrollment of girls
by phases of home demonstration work is as follows: Gardening, 4,693;
poultry, 1,395; foods and nutrition, 4,447; clothing, 8,697; home beautifica-
tion, 1,762; home orchards, 571; dairying, 243; food conservation, 2,576;







Florida Cooperative Extension


home management, 1,181; house furnishings, 1,654; handicraft, 652; home
health and sanitation, 2,573 girls.
The percentage of enrollment of the 10,664 girls by years in club work is
as follows: First year, 43.1%; second, 24.9%; third, 14.2%; fourth, 8.7%;
fifth, 5.1%; sixth or over, 4.1%. In age groups 20 percent of the entire
membership is at least 15 years old, indicating that rural girls are remaining
as club members for longer periods or returning as members after dropping
out for a time. One hundred older 4-H girls and former club members
married or employed now serve as volunteer leaders for 4-H girls' clubs;
42.75% of all leaders for 4-H clubs are former club members.
Cooperation with Adult Programs.-Councils of senior home demon-
stration work actively sponsor 4-H club work for girls in the counties and in
the State. All senior clubs devote at least one program each year to 4-H
club work, presented by the girls. The senior clubs furnish many Short
Course and camp scholarships. The State Council provides loan scholar-
ships for club girls in college. The transition to membership in senior
groups has come readily for mature 4-H club members because of this inter-
exchange of interest and mutual understanding.
State Short Course.-The State Short Course attended by 538 girls and
leaders and all home demonstration agents continues to be the outstanding
event of the 4-H club girl's year, and affects the year's program in 4-H club
work probably more than any other event. All State year-round contests
are headed up at this time; instruction is based on club requirements and
projects. Council and club organization is taught. A popular innovation
the past two years was the presentation of 4-H club girls as main speakers
on the general assembly programs.
Too much praise cannot be given the assistance rendered the Short
Course by the members of the College 4-H Club who remain after college
closes to help with the Short Course and they in turn receive valuable
training in organization of community work.
State Short Course scholarships are given by business men and women
and civic organizations. Rotary, Kiwanis, Lions Clubs, Federated Clubs,
P.-T. A., chambers of commerce, boards of county commissioners and
school boards, as well as interested individuals provided most of the scholar-
ships this year.
Camps.-Camps for 4-H girls really are county or district short courses.
In most counties the "Short Course girls" assist with instruction of the
younger girls and know when they come to Short Course that this will be
their responsibility. The 2,400 girls and leaders attending these camps,
over 500 girls at the State Short Course, and nearly 100 women who
attended the Senior Home Demonstration Council meeting, all received
special training fitted to relieve the agent of many details of the programs
in the communities.
The number of encampments for women decreased this year. The
decision to do this was made by the women to release more of the agent's
time for other necessary work. Attendance at the girls' camps increased
by 200.
The 134 Achievement Day programs and exhibits also served as a means
of giving considerable useful information to the 47,266 people attending
them.
Contests.-Contests as such do not give any cause for concern in our
educational program in Florida because we do not establish any county
or State contest which is not an integral part of the year's program. This
year State-wide contests were conducted in poultry, canning, clothing, and
nutrition. Awards are given to the State office by interested business
organizations. A general plan is made and followed for all contests so







Annual Report, 1939


that all awards are given on approximately the same basis of work done
and are commensurate in amount with effort expended and results achieved
by the club members. Many girls are honored in each contest by featuring
community and county winners rather than state winners only.
College 4-H Club.-This organization began its 14th year with the
opening of the Florida State College for Women in September. Member-
ship consists of approximately 100 girls who formerly were club members in
the counties. Its purpose is to encourage other 4-H club girls to enter
college; to develop an appreciative interest in college life; to promote the
program of 4-H club work in the State; and above all, to give the members
a greater appreciation and better understanding of their responsibilities
and opportunities for improving rural living in Florida. The club develops
a regular study program during the year. Its members participate actively
in campus life and hold offices in other clubs and classes. One of their
most valuable services is given during the annual 4-H Short Course and at
county camps where they serve as group leaders or instructors for the
younger girls. Four past members of this club now serve as agents or
assistant agents in Florida and show the value of the training received in
their 4-H club work and this college club.
Rural Youth Conference.-For the second consecutive year the members
of the College 4-H Club and the young men of the Agricultural Club of the
University of Florida have jointly arranged a Rural Youth Conference
which was held on the campus of the University. A week-end so spent
provides a fine social experience for both the young men and women,
acquaints them with the State educational institution, and contributes to
their cultural development in college life. The conference program planned
and carried out by the young people on the subject "Using Our Opportuni-
ties and Resources for Better Rural Living in Florida" has proved far-
reaching in its effect on the attitude of these young people regarding
their responsibilities and opportunities.
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Recreational activities have received new impetus. Two recreational
training camps were held for adult leaders, and 75 training meetings were
conducted by community leaders. Libraries were started and improved,
pageants and plays presented, and club houses or community centers were
built.
The development of local leadership in rural communities, encourage-
ment of family recreation and guidance in a program of community recrea-
tion was emphasized during the year. To this end:
75 training meetings were conducted for community leaders.
358 community groups were assisted with programs of activities.
185 communities developed recreation according to recommendations.
1,283 families followed recommendations as to home recreation.
95 community or county-wide pageants were presented.
37 community houses, club houses or community rest rooms were
established.
32 communities were assisted in providing library facilities.
52 4-H club encampments were held with 1,631 club girls in attendance.
2 sectional recreational training camps for adult leaders were held
through the cooperation of the National Recreation Association.

HOME INDUSTRIES AND MARKETING
Industries developed affected individuals rather than community groups.
Home products were standardized and assistance was given in securing







74 Florida Cooperative Extension

markets and packaging marketable products. Roadside markets were
operated by women and girls and many sales made by individuals.
Marketing.-The need for standardization of all marketable home pro-
ducts and establishment of standard prices as a means of increasing or
supplementing the income has been emphasized by home demonstration
workers for a good many years. During the past year agents have concen-
trated their efforts on standardizing a few articles that could be made well
at minimum cost of time and money. Native products and surplus food
products have been featured. Recently developed State markets have given
impetus to the marketing program already underway. The following
results are reported:
803 4-H club members received instruction in marketing.
946 individuals were assisted with marketing problems.
157 farmers were assisted in developing supplemental sources of income.
497 club members were assisted in standardizing products for market.
Products sold:
Fresh vegetables .................... ........................$ 24,657.22
Fresh fruits ...... .............................. .......... 6,904.87
Poultry and eggs ............................................ 88,788.40
Dairy products ............... .......................... 28,360.18
Food products .................. ............................. 15,617.14
Canned goods .................... ............. ....... 6,476.42
Miscellaneous .......... .................... ........ 18,904.49

$189,708.72

HEALTH DEVELOPMENT
A positive health program was recognized as a necessity and was pro-
moted by home demonstration agents, farm women and girls to the extent
that:
2,583 4-H club members were enrolled in special health projects.
1,799 4-H club members completed a special health demonstration.
4,353 4-H club members participated in some definite health improvement
work.
3,630 4-H club members and others had health examinations on recom-
mendations of extension workers.
5,343 individuals improved health habits.
3,794 individuals improved posture.
946 adopted better home-nursing procedure.
946 sanitary closets were installed.
1,143 families followed recommended methods of controlling flies,
mosquitoes and other insects.
12,835 individuals adopted recommended positive preventive measures
to improve health.

POULTRY AND HOME DAIRYING
Encouragement of other productive phases resulted in 2,060 poultry
demonstrators in the state who reported:
199,191 chickens raised in 1939.
1,712,767 dozen eggs produced at home.
211,504 dozen eggs used at home.
279,299 dozen eggs sold to supplement family income.
11,583 quarts of chicken canned for family food budget.







Annual Report, 1939


There were 5,209 home dairy demonstrators and they reported:
585 milk cows added during the year.
2,125 families used standard quota of milk daily.
1,133 homes adopted improved practices in home dairying.
21,998 pounds of surplus butter sold.

ACTIVITIES OF COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
County home demonstration agents with the help of State workers super-
vised definite programs in the counties. They developed county plans of
work, as rural people indicated their needs and desires, holding 6,714
meetings with an attendance of 236,373. They directed the activities of
1,157 volunteer leaders; held 8,741 method demonstration meetings with
a total attendance of 162,229. They distributed 65,584 bulletins and carried
on extensive correspondence, writing more than 29,900 personal letters and
1,866 circular letters.
Negro home demonstration agents directed 213 volunteer leaders; held
1,480 method demonstration meetings with an attendance of 26,355; dis-
tributed 3,761 bulletins; wrote 2,688 individual and 138 circular letters.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK WITH NEGROES
The number of Negro agents remains the same but the quality of work
done improved noticeably. The Negro district agent, guided by the State
agent, gives close supervision to the counties. An annual conference and
a Short Course attended by 309 girls served as training meetings. The
Negro agents assisted with a series of one-day farm and home institutes for
Negro farm leaders from 47 counties to secure important data on farm
living in Florida.
The 1939 program was planned around the theme, "Supplying the Needs
of Florida's Rural Negroes," with foremost aims of supplying the Negro
family with adequate food, shelter and clothing. Other major problems
worked on during the year were home sanitation, healthful living, and home
ownership.
There were 2,528 girls enrolled in 123 clubs; 1,446 women enrolled in 83
clubs. Negro agents report work directly with 2,853 Negro families of the
5,518 Negro farms reported in the 1935 census, or 51 percent. One-sixth
of the entire enrollment of girls have been in club work more than four
years; 2,441 of the 2,528 Negro club members are in school.
Progress was noted in the food conservation program for the year, which
resulted in 35,502 quarts of food being canned by the homemakers and 4-H
club girls. A program for health and home sanitation received ,emphasis
during the year with 193 families installing sanitary closets gQr,outhouses,
and 82 dwelling houses being screened., From the records compiled, 2,463
Negro families improved health as a result of the health and sanitation
program. Home marketing of garden, orchard, and farm produce together
with handicraft resulted in cash sales amounting to $59,912.08 during the
year. This money was spent largely for food, clothing and house furnishing.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
Purpose of the clothing and textiles program is to assist rural women
and girls in establishing in their homes demonstrations in careful planning,
wise selection, skillful making and efficient care of clothing and textiles
for the family and the home.
Rural women and girls learn much that is cultural as well as practical
through participation in the clothing program. Artistic clothing and home
furnishings offer the opportunity for development of self-expression and
appreciation of beauty. Pride, satisfaction and self-assurance are qualities
developed among both women and girls from presenting an attractive
personal appearance.
With continued low cash income for Florida farmers, and clothing and
textiles taking fourth place in the family pattern of spending, all economies
are encouraged. The buying of ready-to-wear garments and articles on an
increased scale has necessitated consumer education in the clothing and
textile program. Wise selection is emphasized.
Of the 10,223 rural women and girls who received help in making cloth-
ing, the juniors made 31,543 articles, of which 7,198 were dresses. Although
the trend is towards buying more ready-to-wear articles, home sewing
continues to hold an important place, and the clothing work is among the
most popular with 4-H club girls.

CORRELATION WITH OTHER PROGRAMS
A unified program for better family living is the goal of the Agricultural
Extension Service, and the clothing and textiles work is correlated with
other activities with this end in view. The clothing and textiles program
contributes to better family relationships through a fair apportionment
of the money available for clothing between members of the family, and
through the pride and satisfaction engendered by being attractively dressed.
Home Management.-Taking inventories, making plans, and keeping
accounts of expenditures and other features of wise home management are
encouraged in all wardrobe and household textiles demonstrations. Selec-
tion and use of sewing equipment, apportionment of money to be spent on
the wardrobes of members of the family, and efficient care of clothing and
textiles also blend with home management.
Health.-Proper selection of shoes and undergarments is stressed as
important in developing correct posture and avoiding fatigue. Good groom-
ing is used to emphasize the need for good health and food habits. Sani-
tation, protection from disease and control of body temperature and
moisture are among the clothing factors which contribute to health.
A successful method demonstration on shoe selection was developed and
presented to adult and older junior groups. It included a discussion of the
health, aesthetic and economical aspects of footwear, and concluded with
the group judging four pairs of shoes on display.
The use of more cotton continues to be a part of the clothing teaching
for health as well as economy. Cotton use was encouraged in sewing
courses, exhibits of new fabrics, finishes and costumes, and in-consumer
education through the study of fabrics.
Improvement in health and food habits has resulted from demonstrations
in good grooming and the bodily measurements for pattern selection.
Interest in the individual's physical condition was increased through 60
pattern alteration demonstrations.








Annual Report, 1939


Home Improvement.-The relationship of the clothing and textiles pro-
gram to home improvement is expressed through home furnishings. At-
tractive and adequate textiles required for the various rooms of the home
are constructed as one part of the 4-H club girl's clothing work. Through
the establishment of household textiles demonstrations in the home by
women, further unity is added. Principles of art as learned in dress are
applied successfully to home decoration.
The Farm.-The clothing and textiles program bears a direct relation-
ship to some of the agricultural programs. In the study of proper land
use, specific information about clothing practices within the counties has
been determined and used in program planning. Cotton, the principal textile
used for Florida wear, is of prime import in the AAA program.

BEAUTY IN TEXTILES
The satisfaction which comes to the individual as a result of wearing
artistic clothing and living in attractive surroundings justifies the time
devoted to the aesthetics of the clothing program. The principles of color,
line and design are learned and applied to everyday living by home demon-
stration club members. In the 59 dress revues conducted this year both
women and girls who modeled outfits which they had constructed, and
those who viewed them, learned effective methods of improving the artistic
aspects of clothing.
Sixty-nine girls were chosen from the 725 modeling in 28 county revues
for girls to represent their counties in the 13th annual State Dress Revue
held during Short Course. A quarter century of clothing and textile work
in Florida was featured in a simple pageant celebrating the Silver Anni-
versary of Extension work.
Clothing work by rural women and girls today expresses more careful
planning through harmony in color design and texture. This is partly a
result of 38,345 individuals receiving help in clothing selection during the
past six years.

ECONOMY IN TEXTILES
Extending the farm income through economical clothing and textiles
practices remains as important today as in the past. To improve further
the management of the clothing dollar, skillful sewing and efficient care
have been emphasized. Rural women and girls to the number of 946
received help from the Clothing Specialist in wardrobe planning, making
an inventory, a three-year clothing plan, and keeping records.
Through this year's program 2,395 individuals have been assisted in
keeping accounts of clothing expenditures, as compared with 1,822 last
year. There was an increase of 203, to 1,148, in number of rural women
and girls budgeting their clothing money. This year's savings resulting
from the clothing program are estimated at $73,815.78, due in part at least
to 2,068 families following clothing buying recommendations made by the
agents.
The clothing program has had its part in increasing satisfactions obtain-
ed from cash spent on this essential item of family living. Helpful hints
on buying household textiles have been prepared and distributed to club
members. Information on buying wardrobe items has been included in a
recent publication for junior members. Twenty exhibits of good and poor
buys have been displayed, and 35 method demonstrations on better buying
have been presented.
Clothing judging is another activity encouraged in the 4-H club girls'
work. A clothing judging contest is conducted during Short Course to
develop appreciation and judgment of clothing qualities.







78 Florida Cooperative Extension

Construction continues to be an important feature of the work, since a
saving is realized from home sewing. Remodeling and renovating clothing
continues to be an economical practice for rural families.

CARE OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Efficient care is essential to economical and artistic clothing. Since better
cleaning and storage practices are urgently needed among rural families,
all possible aids for developing this part of the program are employed.
Improvement is being made gradually, as indicated by exhibits of better
laundered clothing and increasing numbers and improvement of storage
facilities.
Laundry demonstrations have received greater emphasis this year,
particularly methods used with rayons and fine cottons.

A 4-H WINNER
Elsie May Knott of Volusia County was awarded the trip to the National
Club Congress in Chicago as State clothing winner. In addition to her
outstanding clothing work, Elsie May has conducted a well rounded pro-
gram, including profitable canning and poultry demonstrations.







Annual Report, 1939


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist
The plan for food, nutrition and health work in Florida took into
consideration the relationship that existed between all phases of family
living and farm enterprises. The general program developed was based
upon the needs of the people themselves, the physical, climatic, and economic
conditions in the various farming areas. The plans were made using factual
information, and, through state, county, and community program planning
conferences and councils, all activities were integrated in order that a
unified program could be developed to meet the farm and home needs.
Through this cooperative planning it was possible to furnish interested
farm people with reliable information and to assist them to recognize their
own problems, and, in this way, to help them develop a program through
their own efforts which met their individual and family needs and conditions.
The food, nutrition and health work for 1939 was a continuation of the
fundamental program of planning, providing, conserving and utilizing the
family food supply necessary to meet nutritional needs. No outstanding
changes in the program were made but the plans were adapted to meet
changing situations and the varying conditions of the individual farm
families according to income levels and dietary needs of the different areas
in the state.

PLANNING, PROVIDING AND UTILIZING FAMILY FOOD SUPPLY
Since food needs represent one of the primary demands made on the
family income the goal for each farm family was the production as far as
practical of an adequate food supply. For the past five years women and
girls have worked towards achieving this goal. Both the home location,
the soil conditions, and the status of the family were considered in making
the food supply plan.
It was recommended that each farm family plan, produce, and conserve
the year's food supply based on nutritional requirements in order to safe-
guard the health of the family and to insure a satisfying distribution of the
cash income to meet the needs and desires of the family. This included the
live-at-home idea, every farm family to have dairy cows, year-round garden,
calendar orchard, backyard poultry flock, home produced meat supply,
cereals, syrup, sugar, etc., where practical and possible.
This program also included the planning and wise buying of foods which
could not be economically produced, as is very often the case in specialized
farming areas. Since in these specialized areas the families are potential
consumers rather than producers, emphasis was placed on wise buying,
selection, preparation, and better use of the foods purchased. Demon-
strations have been given and exhibits in wise buying of foods have been
arranged by the Nutritionist and home demonstration agents. The home
demonstration women following this work have made definite studies,
collected, and discussed this information in groups.
A special effort was made this year to have a greater number of more
adequate records from individual demonstrators. In some counties those
who did not keep records were asked to write a story which included certain
specific information.

FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING-ADULTS
It was recommended that each farm family appreciate the importance
of standards in food selection, preparation and meal planning necessary







ri
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Fig. 5. -Home gardens and canned products enable Florida farm wjmen to provide their families with adequate and nourishing foods.


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Annual Report, 1939


for building and maintaining health, since utilizing the foods that are
produced is equally as important as their production. A garden of vege-
tables, a pantry of canned products, or a yard full of poultry cannot
improve family health unless they are properly utilized. Demonstrations
by the Nutritionist and home demonstration agents in food preparation and
meal planning were given as means of leadership training in order to
raise standards.

HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL NEEDS
It was recommended that each farm family have an understanding and
appreciation of the outward signs of good health and nutrition and a
knowledge of proper selection and preparation of foods necessary to
growth and health. This was done through a physical check of individuals
to determine physical needs other than food and by cooperation with other
health agencies. Discussion and method demonstrations of factors neces-
sary for good nutrition, including adequate food, preparation and uses of
classes of food have been given to stimulate interest and build a back-
ground for planning and providing the family food supply. Meetings were
held at which club members appraised their family diets to see how they
met the health needs of the family.

WORK WITH GIRLS
Special attention was given in the 4-H club program to helping the
girls understand the necessity for farm and home cooperative planning,
because the farm women of the future need to understand the parallel
between animal nutrition and human nutrition, the relation of a balanced
food supply to the health and prosperity of the farm family, and the inter-
dependence of farm and home management while they are still in the
formative age.
HEALTH IMPROVEMENT

At the beginning of the demonstration each girl made a definite check
on her posture, using a chart and score furnished by the agents to note
necessary improvements and to list means for making these corrections.
Another check was made at the end of the year to note improvements.
Demonstrations in food selection, good posture, contests, both county and
state, exhibits, etc., served as means of motivation and teaching. Often
younger club girls enroll in this demonstration and continue it through
their club work in coordination with other demonstrations.
Splendid cooperation of other agencies such as school nurse, county
nurse, county health units and civic clubs has greatly assisted this demon-
stration. Through this work very often the entire family realizes the need
for positive health.

FOOD PREPARATION AND MEAL PLANNING-GIRLS
In addition to continuing the health improvement and posture work
this demonstration included selection and preparation of foods, meal
planning, and table service. Activities included individual and team food
preparation demonstrations, judging of products, making recipe files, food
scrapbooks and exhibits.
As a means of stimulating and motivating this program, community,
county, and state food preparation contests were conducted. These were
natural developments within the program and not unrelated activities.
At the annual Short Course the five girls scoring highest in the State food







Florida Cooperative Extension


preparation contest continued their work and added to their demonstrations
and records during the summer. From this group one girl was selected to
represent Florida at the National 4-H Club Congress. This year Catherine
Barnes of St. Johns County won this out-of-state trip and was one of
four regional winners of $400 scholarships.

BAKING AND JUDGING BAKED PRODUCTS
This demonstration was planned for girls who have completed at least
three years of food preparation work and are at least 14 years old. It
is a continuation of the health improvement, food preparation and meal
planning demonstrations and the activities are somewhat similar. Girls
satisfactorily completing at least three years' requirements are eligible
to participate in bread baking and judging contest which offers an out-of-
state trip.
THE YOUNG HOMEMAKER
The needs and interests of the older 4-H club girls are planned for in
this demonstration. Some of the activities are assisting with the family
food supply demonstration, planning parties, entertaining, assisting with
younger members of the family and self-improvement.

SUMMARY OF STATISTICAL REPORT
All counties participated in the feeding the family and healthy living
programs. In each of the intensive counties demonstrations were establish-
ed. Each community is working on at least two of the feeding the family
programs. Each county entered at least one girl in each of the four phases
of the food, nutrition and health work at 4-H Club Short Course and all
counties included some of this work at 4-H club camps.
During 1939 club women adopted improved practices in food preparation:
a. baking, 1,629 women in 34 counties; b. meat cookery, 1,379 women in
29 counties; c. vegetable cookery, 2,793 women in 33 counties; d. dairy
products, 1,887 women in 31 counties; e. poultry products, 1,502 women in
29 counties. Also 5,522 families served better balanced meals in 35 counties;
2.464 families improved home packed lunches according to recommenda-
tions in 34 counties; 146 schools followed recommendations for hot dish
or school lunches in 23 counties; 1,098 families followed recommended
methods of child feeding in 34 counties; 1,128 families planned family food
budgets for year in 32 counties; 2,296 families followed food buying recom-
mendations in 28 counties; 1,878 families followed recommendations for
storage of home food supply in 31 counties; 2,578 families assisted in using
timely economic information as basis for re-adjusting the family food
supply in 32 counties; 4,359 individuals improved health habits according
to recommendations in 32 counties; 1,789 individuals adopted recommenda-
tions for corrective feeding in 30 counties; 2,721 individuals improved
posture according to recommendations in 27 counties; 12,835 individuals
adopted recommendations for positive preventive means to improve health
in 31 counties; 779 families adopted better home nursing methods in 24
counties.
Statistics for juniors reveal that 4,447 4-H club girls enrolled in 36
counties; 3,164 4-H club members completed in 36 counties. Dishes of food
products prepared 65,932 in 35 counties; meals planned and served 22,128
in 35 counties; 494 4-H club girls from 37 counties attended method demon-
strations in the healthy living program at Short Course.







Annual Report, 1939


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation
Statistics and all other recent factual information show that the large
majority of the Florida farm families do not have the supply of fruits
and vegetables, meats and fishery products that soil, climate and unusually
fine water resources warrant and which optimum health requires. In order
that the farm family have a more balanced and healthful year-round food
supply, the promotion of all-year gardens, permanent and varied fruit and
berry plantings and their adequate cultivation, and the preparation and
conservation of the surplus products according to the latest canning
methods have received in 1939, as in past years, the active support of the
Economist in Food Conservation. For what shall it profit the farm family
to gain from cash crops and lose it all in having to purchase needed foods
and feeds at prices far above what it would have cost the family to
produce them?

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
Promotion of all-year gardens, permanent fruit plantings adapted to the
varied soil and climatic conditions and areas, and their improved cultivation
compose a large part of the program of the Economist in Food Conserva-
tion, since preparation and utilization can follow only where there is
production.
All agents endeavor to interest farm women and girls in extending the
gardens throughout the year and in establishing calendar orchards wherever
soil and other conditions permit, realizing as they do the urgent and funda-
mental need for more home produced fruits and vegetables in the diet.
Records submitted on gardening activities for the current year show
36 counties reporting 3,888 year-round gardens planted, with a cash valua-
tion of $24,657.22 for vegetables sold, and 781 homes growing new vege-
tables.
THE FLORIDA CALENDAR ORCHARD
The home fruit supply from year to year, so records show, with the
desire for general improvement of the home surroundings and development
of a better rounded diet, slowly takes on more adequate proportions. Like-
wise, records show how the orchard directly and indirectly makes a contri-
bution to the family income. However, the fact remains that hundreds of
homes in Florida have no fruit except that which is purchased, or at the
best, there is a great lack of variety. The need for more fruit plantings
and more variety is still being convincingly demonstrated when working
on the canning budget. The problem of increasing the family fruit supply
is necessarily a long-time objective. In the northern and western counties
the fig, peach, pear, plum, persimmon, pecan, muscadine and bunch grapes,
blueberries, strawberries, youngberries and other berries grow with very
little persuasion. The satsuma, the kumquat, the Thomasville citrange,
the quincadoni, and in some counties a fine summer apple, thrive if given
fair treatment. In southern Florida in addition to the wonderful variety of
citrus fruits, there is the marvelous mango, avocado, papaya, surinam
cherry, and many other economic ornamentals that grow well usually with
but little attention.
Records show that 548 calendar orchards have been planted. These
plantings include 24,092 fruit trees, 36,028 berry vines, and 5,053 grapevines.
Fresh fruit having a cash valuation of $6,904.87 was sold from 447 homes.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD CONSERVATION
While food conservation ever stands out as a major activity of interest
and importance in the farm home, and reports show progress made, it
requires a continuous campaign to convince the average woman of the
fact that canning should be done scientifically. Only by the use of fine,
fresh products, canned by the latest methods known, can be achieved
quality canned products of high nutritive value. Striving to bring about
a quality consciousness has also been the aim of all home demonstration
agents.
GIRLS' CANNING PROGRAM
There were 2,567 4-H club girls enrolled in canning during the current
year,'and they reported 105,191 containers filled.
As with the gardening requirements for girls, the canning is also set
up for a logical development into the budgeted and canned family food
supply. A new canning guide and record book for the younger girls was
published in June. This leaflet contains detailed directions for canning
berries and tomatoes as called for in the First Canning Demonstration.
It also includes directions for making simple "spreads" and relishes which
appeal, perhaps, more to the younger club girl than does plain canning.

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS BY GIRLS
There were 4,693 girls enrolled in gardening in 1939 and 2,803 were
reported as completing the demonstration. The Garden Record Book with
its suggestions for fruit plantings and vegetables for the beginning year is
included with other instructional material for club girls. It is seen that
the girls' gardening demonstrations lead on to the time when they will
be enrolled in the women's program and assist with the planning and care
of the home garden and calendar orchard.

MISCELLANEOUS
From a demonstration in wreath making given to the home demonstra-
tion agents some 10 years ago, wreath making in many varied and
interesting forms has become very popular. County-wide annual wreath
festivals for special days have been made stimulating, instructive and
remunerative. The highly attractive foliage of tropical and other plants is
used along with fruit, berries and many interesting kinds of seedpods.
In one county the wreaths were labeled with the name of the plants
used in their construction. These wreaths not only presented seasonal
exhibits which taught many people in a beautiful way to send special
Christmas and other greetings, but served to create interest in plant
material in a most unusual way. Wreaths are made for decoration at
home and for the cemeteries as well as for sale. One 4-H club girl reported
selling $5 worth to friends.
This year 293 individuals are reported making specific plantings for
Christmas wreaths in 18 counties.
The "county" flower demonstration is another project which began
to develop along with wreath making as a means of adding more interest
and color to the prosaic vegetable garden demonstration.
The county flower most popular in the state has been the zinnia,
followed closely by the marigold and the petunia. One county this year
held their 12th annual zinnia show. Every variety was suitably and beau-
tifully featured.
The county flower was reported growing in 3,370 homes in 27 counties.
In 19 counties 2,908 individuals report encouraging the growth of an







Annual Report, 1939


annual, and 19 counties report 1,909 individuals being interested in the
growth of a perennial county flower.
It is felt that the beautification work needed all over Florida could be
greatly extended if every club home in every county planted generously
their adopted annual and perennial flower.
The fifth competitive educational exhibit of citrus by-products was set
up at the Florida Orange Festival in Winter Haven located in the heart of
the citrus industry. This exhibit consisted of canned grapefruit, marma-
lades, preserves, spiced pickles, crystallized citron of commerce, kumquats,
calamondins, tangelos, tangerines, Seville oranges and baked products such
as citrus pastries, cakes and cookies.
Well made citrus products are always highly colorful, spectacular and
attract considerable attention. Eighteen counties of the citrus growing
areas and individuals from 21 counties sent in choice exhibits. The beauti-
ful display featuring a wide variety of Florida's citrus fruits in all their
many delectable ways of serving tends to do much to bring about a greater
appreciation of their many healthful and delightful uses. The exhibit is
instructive not only for Florida's own folk, but also for the many winter
visitors in the State.
The valuable experience gained in the preparation of the products for the
Orange Festival may be a means of increasing the cash income by marketing
those preserves and baked goods at other times. In addition, Florida
housewives and others may be encouraged to include these healthful fruits
and fruit products more generally in the diets of their own families.


Fig. 6. Home demonstration women are giving more attention to planning the year's food
supply for their families. Exhibits at fairs call attention to this work.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement

Extension home improvement activities had their usefulness further
broadened during 1939 by the house building and furnishing which Florida
farm families found they could do with aid from sundry federal agencies.
Farmers whose houses are up-to-date, kept in repair, given paint when
needed, and furnished tastefully have a better standing with bankers and
business men than their less progressive neighbors..
In home improvement work thinking and planning are of first import-
ance; action follows a good plan. Tours, working bees, magazines with
good exterior beautification plans, and good house plans with interior
decorations were used by the agents in stimulating interest and crystalliz-
ing thought. During Better Homes Week home demonstration clubs
cooperated with local merchants in displaying certain items and also by
having exhibits on the subjects which were stressed in the county, such
as health, comfort, beauty, and convenience.

IMPROVING THE HOUSE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS
County Home Demonstration Agents and the Home Improvement
Specialist gave attention to the improvement of both homes and their
surroundings. They helped in the remodeling of old houses and the building
of new homes; in improving the architecture of the house to suit the
countryside, with thought given to health and comfort and conveniences for
the family. Also, consideration is given to the placing of the house so that
prevailing winds may reach the bedrooms, and large windows are built to
let in the Florida sunshine as well as air.
Home Demonstration Agents for many years have encouraged and aided
rural families in remodeling their homes. This work has shown rapid
advances during the past year, as a result of small loans for the purpose
made by the Federal Housing Administration. The same agency is en-
couraging the erection of new farm homes.
More thought is being given to natural and artificial lighting as related
to the health of the homemaker. Many home demonstration women have
cut windows in the kitchen so that the women do not have to work in
their own light and so that a current of air can be furnished. Insulating
houses to keep out heat or cold, dampness and sound is encouraged.
In the surroundings of the house, home sanitation is the first point of
attack because of its relation to health. Screening, filling in low places,
and oiling stagnant streams, lakes or pools where mosquitoes breed have
been consistently recommended by Extension workers as well as public
health authorities. Many times these things have been done on a community
basis for greater effect.
Farm folks are better citizens because they have good health and
comfortable surroundings, which constitute the underlying motive for all
Extension home improvement undertakings.
Following the establishing of desirable homes and provision for adequate
sanitation comes beautification of home grounds, or exterior home improve-
ment. In this, emphasis has been placed on the use of native shrubbery
and other materials. Plans and suggestions for planting home and school
grounds furnished by the College of Agriculture and the U. S. Department
of Agriculture have been of valuable assistance to the agents in this
connection.







Annual Report, 1939


ELECTRIFICATION ADVANCES
Where 10 years ago electricity, except that supplied by home power
plants, was a rarity in rural Florida, now it is noticeable in many areas.
Since 1937, encouraged by the Rural Electrification Administration, at least
five different cooperatives have made the "juice" available to customers
along hundreds of miles of rural lines in many counties.
Because home demonstration women have become interested in and
talked electricity, the advance during the past two years has been noticeable.
There has been an awakening to the need of electricity, running water, more
adequate storage space, baths, indoor toilets, and making working surfaces
the proper height. All of these things tend to lighten the load carried by
rural women and give them more time for cultural things, their families,
their communities, and recreation.
Business principles are being increasingly applied to home-making
activities. Good equipment is appealing to those who can make wise
investments in equipment which saves labor, time and money. Since rural
electrification has made such rapid strides, electric pumps in large numbers
are being installed to provide running water in rural homes. The sunshine
water heater is another valuable asset becoming more widely used in Florida
homes.
JUNIOR HOME IMPROVEMENT
Girls were still embarked upon the four-year program of definitely
planned home improvement. In the first year emphasis is laid on the various
chores each girl should do around the home in the best possible manner, such
as washing dishes, setting the table, making a bed, and properly cleaning a
room. After learning pointers on these at their club meetings and from
literature, the girls are required to practice them in their homes until they
become habits. In this way it is hoped to give the girls a start towards
developing a fine art of homemaking.
In the second year emphasis is put on the outside of the house. The
girls improve the porch and its furnishings and make foundation plantings
around their own homes.
First requirement of the third year is a drawing of the yard as it is
and another plan of what it can and should be. This brings about a fine
family relationship where all members of the family work together in
the planning. A green yard usually is the first visual demonstration. Then
come steppingstones or walks, which in many cases have been made by
the girls.
The fourth year the girls may choose a room in the home to be improved.
Usually the living room or the kitchen is selected. First considered are
floors and walls, then come furniture rejuvenation and the making of thrift
furniture, and lastly wise and thrifty buying of furniture and furnishings is
stressed. This home improvement work is coordinated with sewing in
making dish cloths, dish towels, table mats, table cloths and napkins,
curtains, rugs, porch pillows, chair backs and cushions, table runners, and
similar materials.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART IV-NEGRO EXTENSION

WORK

ACTIVITIES WITH NEGRO FARMERS
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
Nine local farm agents served 10 counties during the year. Home agents
were assigned in four additional counties.

DISTRICT, STATE AND NATIONAL MEETINGS
Annual conference of agents and farmers took place December 6 to 8,
1938, at the Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee. In March 1939 an
Agricultural Adjustment Act conference was held at the same institution,
attended by agents representing 12 counties.
Boys' and girls' 4-H club 21st annual Short Course occupied the first
week of June at the A. and M. College, bringing out 14 agents, 31 adult
leaders, 111 club boys and 153 girls.
District farm and home institutes held for the fourth year during
August, September and October in one-day meetings at eight centrally
located places assembled 1,350 farm men and women.
Cotton allotment and referendum matters were discussed in another
conference with Agricultural Adjustment Administration officials, which
convened at the A. and M. College November 13.
Florida was represented at the National Conference of Farm Agents,
Vocational Teachers and farmers, in Washington, D. C., October 12 to 14,
for study of the problems confronting the rural Negroes of the cotton belt.

FAIRS AND EXHIBITS
Negro farm agents in seven counties put on an exhibition at the Florida
Fair, Tampa, during February 1939. Boys' 4-H club work was specially
stressed.
Space in the Florida Exhibit at the New York World's Fair was made
available to Negro citizens and a variety of products and materials was
shown.
PROJECT ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Typical were the results in Alachua County when one farmer in each of
45 communities was selected to plant five acres of soil-improving crops
during the fall of 1938, to be plowed under and followed with corn in the
spring of 1939. Records kept disclosed that 6,041 bushels of corn came
from the 225 acres, or better than 26 bushels per acre.
Local county agents spent 31 days in 64 communities and received
assistance from 84 voluntary leaders in furthering fall and winter grazing
crops.
Sea Island cotton raising was fostered by the Leon County local agent.
Method demonstrations were repeatedly given in the flue-cured tobacco
counties and most Negro farmers had more leaf to sell this year.
In Gadsden County 15 farmers grew a total of 31,500 pounds of sun
tobacco under contract and received $4,252.50 or an average of 131/c per
pound. Thirty-six Alachua County farmers grew 68,127 pounds of bright







Annual Report, 1939


tobacco which was sold on the open market for a total of $10,211.68.
Fifteen Sumter County farmers received $4,501.52 for their tobacco crop.
Truck crops production was assisted by the Sumter and Alachua local
farm agents. Sumter County truck growers realized $14,045.06 for their
cucumbers, $12,032.00 for tomatoes, $10,049.03 for strawberries, $2,030.03
for beans and $10,042.98 for watermelons. Alachua County truck growers
realized $23,798.06 for their beans, cucumbers and squash.
Eight agents carried on work in 152 communities for improved home
gardens among Negro farmers.
Local county agents spent 125 days assisting farmers in nine counties
with their pork production.
Dairying received special attention in several counties. Sixty milk
cows in Jefferson County are returning their owners an average of $270.00
monthly from the sale of milk to a cheese company at Thomasville. The
skimmed milk is afterwards returned to the farmers free of charge. Leon
County farmers are also receiving a substantial cash income from the sale
of milk to the same company. George Philpot, a farmer of Hamilton
County, operates the only Negro dairy we have record of in the State.
During the year he maintained a herd of 12 Jersey cows and sold 6,000
gallons of whole milk, 4,800 gallons of skimmed milk, and 200 pounds of
butter for a total of $3,460.00. After deducting $1,266.00 for feed and
$848.00 for labor, Philpot had a profit of $1,346.00.
In nine counties 123 days were devoted by eight local farm agents to
poultry flock improvement. According to the Alachua County agent,
Haynes Brooks of Arredonda community operates a small poultry farm
with 450 birds. This farmer supports his wife and five children from this
flock. Brooks sold $742.51 worth of poultry and eggs.

SWEET POTATOES AND SUGARCANE
In its third season, the four-year plan for demonstrating sweet potatoes
and sugarcane as safe cash crops for small farmers had some noteworthy
developments.
Study of the out-of-State market for these products, begun at Cleve-
land, Ohio, in 1938 by a Florida Farmers' Cooperative Association repre-
sentative, was continued through the current period.
Sugarcane syrup made by Negro farmers in Florida has been introduced
into 110 Cleveland retail grocery stores during the two years, the Associa-
tion representative giving out samples in his house-to-house canvassing.
Fifty thousand certified Puerto Rico plants were ordered from the
Louisiana Sweet Potato Growers' Association and taken through the local
farm agents by farmers in several northern Florida sections.
Bankers and business men became interested in the possibilities of
sweet potato growing as advocated by the Extension Service workers.
Cashier P. B. McDougall of the Lewis State Bank, Tallahassee, donated
1,000 of the Louisiana plants to each of two Leon County Negro 4-H club
boys.
The report of John Mizell of Jasper, Hamilton County, is used as
showing the most outstanding result with the sugarcane and sweet potato
crops the past year. Mizell reported having made a net profit on his 10
acres of sugarcane and four acres of sweet potatoes totaling $1,456.75.
The report of Mizell could be verified by the fact that he received $226.00
net profit from his second carload of chewing sugarcane shipped to Detroit,
Michigan, grown on three-fourths of one acre. He made and marketed
450 gallons of syrup which he sold at 50c per gallon and has 75,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


stalks of seed sugarcane banked for sale from which he expects to receive
$10.00 per thousand stalks. He has a record of saving 95 percent of his
sweet potatoes banked and only offers them for sale when the price
ranges are from $1.25 to $1.50 per bushel. His average yield of sweet
potatoes the past year was 225 bushels per acre despite the unfavorable
climatic conditions for that crop.

WORK OF BOYS' 4-H CLUBS
Boys' 4-H clubs among Florida Negroes enrolled 1,906 members this
year, 1,097 of the number completing their projects.
Corn projects were started by 862 boys and finished in 480 instances.
Jefferson County boys averaged 45% bushels to the acre.
Sixty 4-H club boys enrolled for cotton projects, with 35 completing
them. Sea Island cotton was planted by 17 Alachua County members, 14
of whom completed their projects.
Peanut projects enrolled 319 boys, 122 completing theirs. Six Sumter
County members raised 13,100 pounds of the Florida Runner variety on
eight acres. Adult farmers bought their crops at 75c per bushel.
A total of 183 boys enrolled for the poultry projects, and they were
completed by 76, with 52,784 birds. Girls' club members have heretofore
shown the greatest interest in this project but the local farm agents report
that boys are rapidly taking it up.
Home and market garden projects were enrolled in by 223 boys, 110
completing. In the swine project, 166 members enrolled and 118 completed
their work. Leon County put on a pig contest, which ended with a show at
the county fair.

CAMP AND ACHIEVEMENT DAYS
Next to the annual State Short Course for 4-H Club Boys and Girls,
the boys' camps are regarded as the most important group events. Three
were held during the year, with the total attendance of boys reaching 114.
Leon, Gadsden and Alachua counties had encampments.
Achievement Day was celebrated in Alachua, Columbia, Hiamilton,
Jefferson and Leon counties. Altogether, 4,498 persons were present for
the exercises.
Number of 4-H clubs in State ...................... ................. 110
Number of 4-H club boys enrolled ............. ......... .......... 1,906
Number of club members completing projects ............................ 1,097
Number of Achievement Days held -............................. 5
Total attendance at Achievement Days ................................... 4,498
Number of encampments ....................................... 3
Total attendance at encampments .................-...--..................... 114
Number of tours conducted .................................................... 7
Number attending tours .... ........................ ................... 188







Annual Report, 1939


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Beulah S. Shute, Local District Home Demonstration Agent
Local home demonstration service during 1939 extended regularly into
eight counties which have a high percentage of Negro population.
Supplying the needs of Florida rural Negroes was the central aim
sought, provision of adequate food, shelter and clothing coming first. Home
sanitation and healthful living, proper family relations, farm ownership
and good citizenship were other objectives.
Supervisory programs aimed to obtain a more abundant life for rural
Negro families. Harmony in farm homes was striven for, through im-
provement of the dwelling, the furnishings and the surroundings. Practices
advocated would lead to the more effective use of time, income and energy.

PERSONNEL PROBLEMS
Phases of the plans were taken to 10 counties where agents were
not working by the Local District Home Demonstration Agent, at different
times during the 12 months.
Meetings called jointly by the State Agricultural Extension Service
and the Federal Agricultural Adjustment Administration, the Annual
Boys' and Girls' Short Course and the series of six one-day farm and home
institutes furnished opportunities for giving agents further training.
County local home demonstration agents were encouraged by regular
visits from the District Agent. Needs of individual farm families received
study on these trips. Planning was done in advance that the endeavor
might supply the demand for information and inspiration to the fullest
possible extent.
FARM HOME UNDERTAKINGS
Progress was made on most of the projects that the program featured.
Reports from the several counties giving the results in detail furnished
ample evidence of accomplishments. In the State, 1,847 individuals made
clothing for themselves and members of their families. 461 women planned
and carried out family food budgets. Poultry products value at $9,406.55
were used in the home. There were 661 family cows owned and milked,
and 385 club women improved their practices in home dairying.
A total of 35,502 quarts of food were canned by homemakers and 4-H
club girls; this food was valued at $7,515.20. Better planned, more
nutritious and more attractive meals are being served to Florida's rural
Negro families as a result of food selection, meal planning and preparation.
Improved practices in some phase of food preparation this year were made
by 1,043 women, while 593 women served balanced meals. School children
from 567 homes carried lunches that had been planned according to recom-
mendations and in 680 homes methods in child feeding were improved.

CAMPS, PICNICS AND EXHIBITS
Camps carried on for from three days to a week each furnished instruc-
tion and amusement for Negro young people in four counties.
Picnics on a neighborhood or county-wide basis were among the more
popular community events in eight counties during the year.
Exhibits directed by Negro women and 4-H club girls were shown at
the Florida Fair, Tampa, and the Strawberry Festival, Plant City. Displays
of like nature appeared at county fairs and festivals in four places. Com-
munity exhibitions were put on in numerous instances.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' AND GIRLS' SHORT COURSE
The 21st Annual Boys' and Girls' State Short Course was held June
6-9 at the Florida A. and M. College. The total enrollment, 309 this year,
was less than the two previous years. This was due partly to the fact that
the registration fee for each person attending was slightly higher, and to
the fact also that a number of eligible 4-H club girls were finishing high
school and had gone to other necessary expenses this season and were
unable to finance their trip to Tallahassee.
Eight agents, 153 4-H club girls, and 27 leaders made a total of 187
girls and women in attendance at the Short Course.
The Contests held and their respective winners are as follows:


First Place
Song Contest .................................... Alachua County
Bedmaking Contest ........................... Gadsden County
Poultry Judging .............................. Madison County
Record Books .................................... Gadsden County


Second Place
Duval County
Duval County
Putnam County
Marion County


Teams composed of two girls represented each county. No one team
entered two contests; therefore, many more girls were able to participate
in the contests and receive the value of this type of training.







Annual Report, 1939 93


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)

GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Total days service rendered ......................... ............... 4,587
Members in Extension associations or committees ........................ 590
Communities in which Negro Extension program has been
planned .................................. .............. .............. ......... ............. 232
Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home demon-
stration work ........................ ................. 83
Members in such clubs or groups ...................................... ...... ........ 1,446
4-H clubs .... ...................................... ......... 233
4-H club members enrolled ............ ....................... 4,479
4-H club members completing .................................................. 2,925
4-H club teams trained .......... ................ ... .......... 86
Farm or home visits ...... .................................... .... 6,911
Different farms or homes visited ............................ ............... 3432
Calls relating to Extension work ........................................ 10,842
News articles or stories published and circular letters issued .... 589
Letters written ............................................ 7,399
Bulletins distributed ....................... --- ......... 6,981
Extension exhibits ........................ .............................. 49
Meetings held ............................ .. ................................ 2,505
(Attendance .......................... 50,401
Achievement days and encampments ..................................... 37
(Attendance ........................... 28,342
Homes and farms influenced by program ................................... 7,330
Homes with 4-H club members enrolled ............................. 2,042

CEREALS

Communities in which work was conducted .................... ........ 263
Result demonstrations conducted .......................... ........--- 56
Meetings held ............................................................................. 91
News stories published and circular letters issued ...................... 23
4-H club members enrolled ............................... .. ............ ...... 1,090
4-H club members completing ................... ......................... 695
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing .... 941
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing .......... 13,828

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS

Communities in which work was conducted ............................ 400
Result demonstrations conducted ....................................... 111
Meetings held ............... ............................. 80
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 31
4-H club members enrolled ......................... ... .......... 399
4-H club members completing ....................................................... .. 178
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing .... 209
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing ....... 5,256







94 Florida Cooperative Extension

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS

Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Others Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was conducted .... 245 87 79
Result demonstrations conducted ........................ 29 12 13
M meetings held -----..............................................-. 57 34 56
News stories published and circular letters .... 46 16 15
4-H club members enrolled ...........----..................... 306 61 22
4-H club members completing .............................. 184 36 18
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H members .. 124.5 45 17
Yield of crops grown by 4-H members ............... 4,490 bu. 18,027 lb. 18,625 lb.

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS

Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 767
Result demonstrations conducted ..-..................-- ......................... 1,610
M meetings held ----.. ............. .. .................................... 560
News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 81
4-H club members enrolled ......... ......................... ........... 3,207
4-H club members completing .. ...... ...................................... 2,082
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing .... 422
Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing ............ 5,058 Bu.

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Communities in which work was conducted ................................... 120
Result demonstrations conducted ........................................... .... 71
M meetings held ................................................................................... 57
News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 9
4-H club members enrolled ........- .............-......... .......... ........... 16
4-H club m em bers com pleting ........................................................... 1
Terracing and drainage, farms ............................ ...................... 66
Acres .-------------------.-..-------------------... 1,712
Land clearing practices -- ---------......... ............................ ... 86
A cres ..........-........ ........................ ............. ............ 338
Better equipment practices .......... ........................................ 328
Buildings erected or improved ..................... .............. .......... 490

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted ................................ 205
Result demonstrations conducted .............. ......................... ............. 379
M meetings held .............................. ...................... .............. --198
News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 43
4-H club members enrolled ........................................ ..................... 753
4-H club members completing ............................ ............ .. ........ 531
Number units in projects conducted by 4-H club members com-
pleting ............................................................................................. 52,784
Families following better practices for poultry ............................ 3,917

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 402
Result demonstrations conducted .................................. ........... ........ 270
M meetings held ......---- ......... ...... ..................................... ...... ..... 203
News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 62
4-H club m em bers enrolled ..................................... ...................... 617
4-H club members completing .................. .............................. .. 486
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 518







Annual Report, 1939


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Result demonstrations conducted ....-................-...- ................ 4
M meetings held ................................. .. ------ ... ..........-............- 28
News stories published and circular letters issued .................. 43
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ............ 467
Families assisted in getting established .................. .......... 31
Individuals affected by marketing program ............................ 306
Organizations assisted with problems ................................. 140
Individuals assisted with problems .........................- ...... 764
Value of products sold by association and individuals ................$219,406.48
Value of supplies purchased by organizations and individuals .... 51,226.05
FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted .................................. 299
Result demonstrations conducted ................. ........ ..... 896
M meetings held ................................................. ................. .... 391
News stories published and circular letters issued ................... 31
4-H club members enrolled ................................ ...... ..... 3,582
4-H club members completing .................................. ....... 2,600
Families adopting improved food practices ................................ 7,366
Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school
lunch .................... ....................3.............. ....... 34
Children involved .................... .................... ..... .- ....... .. ... 2,256
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ................ 41,502
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved ................... 7,609.12

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted ................................. 121
Result demonstrations conducted ............................................ 225
M meetings held .............................. ..... ............................... 151
News stories published and circular letters issued .................... 6
4-H club members enrolled ................................... ....... 1,023
4-H club members completing ................................. .......... 935
Other 4-H club members who participated .............................. 670
Families adopting better child-development practices ........... 2,329
Individuals participating in child-development program ........... 880
Children involved ................................. ..... .. .... ..... 1,542
CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted ................................. 150
Result demonstrations conducted ............................. ............... 514
Meetings held .................................... --- ... 241
News stories published and circular letters issued ................... 18
4-H club members enrolled ................................. ......... 1,920
4-H club members completing ....................... ......... 1,373
Articles made by 4-H club members ........................._..... 5,076
Individuals following better clothing practices ...................... 10,975
Savings due to clothing program ............................. ..... $5,783.67
HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 420
Result demonstrations conducted ............................ ............ ... 1,131
Meetings held ............................ ..... ............. .......... 338
News stories published and circular letters issued ................... 75
4-H club members enrolled .................................. ... ....... 3,322
4-H club members completing ................................ ......... 2,690
Units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing .... 8,838
Families adopting improved home-management practices ........ 7,735
Saving due to home-management program ............................. $5,518.20
Families making improvements in house furnishings ........... 3,559
Savings due to home-furnishings program .............................. $3,045.00
Families following recommendations regarding handicraft ........ 891







96 Florida Cooperative Extension

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted ............................... 195
Result demonstrations conducted ....................................... 582
Meetings held ...... ............... ............. ................ 213
News stories published and circular letters issued ...................... 31
4-H club members enrolled .......................................... 2,177
4-H club members completing .. .... .............................. 1,308
Individuals having health examinations .............................-.. 1,112
Other 4-H club members who participated ................................ 740
Individuals adopting better health habits ........................ 5,712
Families adopting better health habits ......................................... 1,909

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Meetings held ...........- .............................................. 282
News stories published and circular letters issued ...................... 102
Communities assisted with community problems ............................ 494
Training meetings conducted for community leaders .................. 83
Families following recommendations as to home recreation .... 441
4-H clubs engaging in community activities .................................... 67
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other
relief agency ..... .................................................. ............... 201







Annual Report, 1939


INDEX


Acreage allotments, 21
Agents' activities, 11, 75
Agents, county and home demonstra-
tion, 5
Negro, 6
Agricultural Adjustment Adminis-
tration, 6, 71
Agricultural Conservation, assist-
ants in, 6
report, 21
Agricultural economics report, 26
Agronomy report, 32
Animal husbandry report, 37
Anniversary programs, 19, 66
Associations, poultry, 48
Baking, 82
Bankers' scholarships, 57
Beef cattle, 37
Board of Control, State, 2, 4
Boys' 4-H club work, 10, 50
contributors to, 58
Negro, 90
State Short Course, 57
Bronze leaf control, 62
Bulletins and circulars, 17
Bull pens, 43
Calendar flock records, 47
orchard, 83
Camps, club, 10, 52, 57, 72, 90, 91
Canning, 84, 91
Cattle, beef, 37
clubs, 42
sales, 42
sheds, 43
Citrus, bronze leaf control, 62
costs, 26
cover crops, 60
cultivation, 60
fertilizer demonstrations, 59
frenching, 61
fruit culture, report, 59
grove management, 26
Growers' Institute, 63
irrigation, 60
marketing, 29
melanose control, 61
rust mite, 61
scale control, 61
stem-end rot, 61
Clothing and textiles, 76, 78
Clovers, 34
Club camps, 10, 52, 57, 72
Club work, 10, 50, 65, 66, 72


College 4-H club, 10, 73
Community work, 73
Cooperation with State Institutions, 9
Cooperative council, 31
Corn, peanuts and velvet beans, 32
Cotton marketing quotas, 22
Sea Island, 35, 88
seed tests, upland, 35
Councils of girls and women, 69
County agent activities, 24
County and home demonstration
agents, 5
Cover crops, citrus, 60
Crop rotation, 32
Culling poultry, 47

Dairying, report, 41
Dairy breed clubs, 42
demonstration team, 58
farm accounts, 27
feeding, 41
herd improvement, 42
home, 74
sales, 42
work, home, 41
Director and Vice-Director, report
of, 7

Economics, agricultural, 26
Economic outlook information, 28
Editorial and mailing report, 17
Egg-Laying Test, Florida National,
44
Electrification advances, 87

Farm accounts, 27
Farm forestry report, 64
Farm management, 26
Farm record books, 27
Fat Stock Show and Sale, 39
Feed prices, poultry, 44
Fertilizer demonstration, citrus, 59
Financial statement, 12
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., 29, 62
Florida National Egg-Laying Test,
44
Food conservation, 83, 84
Food, nutrition and health, 79
preparation and meal planning, 79,
81
Forage demonstrations, 41
Forage and hay crops, 33
Forestry clubs, 65
fire protection, 64
marketing farm timber, 64







Florida Cooperative Extension


reforestation, 65
timber stand demonstrations, 64
Frenching, citrus, 61
Fruit supply, home, 83

Gardening, 83, 84
Girls' 4-H club work, 10, 66, 71
councils, 69
State College Club, 73
State Short Course, 72
Grades and standards work, 31
Grading tobacco, 36

Hay and forage crops, 33
Health development, 74, 79, 81
Herd management, cattle, 37
History of Extension Service in
Florida, 7
Hog prices, 30
Home demonstration councils, 69
handicraft, 84
planning, 69
report, 66
with 4-H club girls, 71
with Negroes, 75, 91
Home dairying, 74
Home improvement, 77, 86
Home meat curing, 40
Home products and industries, 74, 84

Industries, home, 74
Irrigation, citrus, 60

Land-use planning, 9, 28

Marketing agreements, 29
citrus, 29
farm timber, 64
home products, 74
livestock, 30
quotas, 22
specialist's report, 29
swine, 40
vegetables, 30
Meat curing, 40
Melanose, citrus, 61
Men's work, 24

National Poultry Improvement Plan,
49
Negro county and home demonstra-
tion agents, 6
extension work, 88
4-H clubs, 90
home demonstration work, 75, 91
statistical report, 93


Newspaper and farm journal service,
18
Nutrition, health and food, 79

Oats, 35
Organization and personnel, 67

Pasture development, 33
tours, 38, 43
Peanuts, corn and velvet beans, 32
Peanut spacing, 33
Potato study, Dade County, 27
Poultry associations, 48
calendar flock records, 47
culling demonstrations, 47
feed prices, 44
home flocks, 74
improvement, 47
Improvement Plan, National, 49
Institute, second annual, 47
keeping, report, 43
products prices, 44
State 4-H Club show, 48
Price fixing, grapefruit, 29
Program planning, 68
Projects added during year, 9

Radio programs, 19
Record books, farm, 27
Reforestation, 65
Review of 1939 work, 8
Rural electrification advances, 87
Rust mite control, 61

Scale control, 61
Scholarship winners, 57
Sea Island cotton, 35
Shows, exhibits and contests, 56
Silos, 43
Silver Anniversary, 7, 19
Soil conservation district, 9
Spacing peanuts, 33
Staff members, 2
Statistical report, 12
Negro, 93
Steers for market, finishing, 38
Stem-end rot, citrus, 61
Sugarcane, 36, 89
Sweet potatoes, 36, 89
Swine production and marketing, 40

Terracing, 32
Textiles, 77
clothing and, 76, 78
Timber marketing, 64
stands, 64







Annual Report, 1939


Tobacco, flue-cured, 36, 88
marketing quotas, 23
Tours, pasture, 38, 43
Truck crops production, 89

Vegetable marketing, 30
Velvet beans, peanuts and corn, 32


Watermelon marketing control, 30
Women's councils, 69
Workstock on farms, 40
World's Poultry Congress, 48
Wreath making, 84
Writing training, 18
Youth conference, 73