Title: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075732/00002
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board of Conservation
Publisher: The Board
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1935-1936
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Conservation of natural resources -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1932/34)-2nd (1934/36).
Numbering Peculiarities: First biennial report covers the period from July 1, 1933 to Dec. 31, 1934; 2nd biennium ending June 30.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075732
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002706779
oclc - 01569422
notis - ANH4182
lccn - 36027765
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Full Text










UNIVERSITY.
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY




















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-FLORIDA-

Second Biennial Report


To State Board of Conservation





BIENNIUM ENDING
JUNE 30, 1936










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GEORGE W.DAVIS
"'TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA .
............. :. .'...
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GEORGE W. DAVIS
State Supervisor of Conservation
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA















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A MODERN FLORIDA FISHING SCHOONER PUTTING OUT TO SEA













































































































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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Tallahassee, Florida,

February 15, 1937.

To His Excellency,
Fred P. Cone,
Governor of the State of Florida,
Chairman State Board of Conservation,

Sir:

I have the honor to submit herewith the Biennial Report for
the State Board of Conservation, which includes the Shell
Fish Department, Geological Department and Archaeological
Department for the years 1935 and 1936.


Respectfully submitted,

Ser. oW. oa tio
Supervisor of Conservation.



















CONTENTS


PART I Page
Foreword 3
Progress Report for the Years 1933-36 4
Consolidation of Departments 4
Welaka Hatchery 5
Hatcheries, 1934 5
Federal Aid 7
Another Federal Project 7
Government Purchase of Fish 9
Planting of Oysters in Choctawhatchee Bay 9
Educational Work 9
State and National Parks 12
New Legislation, 1935 12
Federal Survey of Florida Fisheries Industries 12
Oyster Beds 14


Sponge Industry
Hatcheries
Boats
Law Enforcement
More Federal Projects
Conservation Publicity
Law Enforcement, 1936 ..............
Educational and Publicity .......-
No Funds for Educational Work
More Federal Projects
Federal Projects
Choctawhatchee Bay
Archaeologist Duties Assumed
New License Season
Law Enforcement


15
................. ... 15
15
15
15
17
17
17
18
18
18
18
19
19
21
25


Legislative Recommendations
Law Enforcement Tables


PART II


Florida's Commercial Fishing Industry
Closed Seasons and Legal Lengths
Salt Water Fish Census
Salt Water Fish and Shellfish for Food
Leading Commercial Fish

VII












Page

Florida Shrimp 50
The Florida Oyster 54
Other Florida Sea Foods 60
The Sponge Industry 64
By-Products of Florida Salt Water 75

PART III

Second Biennial Report of the State Geological Survey ................. 79
Establishment and History 79
Maintenance 79
Purpose and Work of the Survey 80
Personnel 81
Cooperation 81
Publications 81
Museum and Library 82
Clay Laboratory 82
Some Needs of the Survey 83
Developments 86
Diatomite 86
Pottery 87
Deep Drilling 87
Dolomite 87
Appropriation Requested-1937-1939 89
Financial Statement 91
Geophysical Prospecting 91
Mineral Production of Florida, 1934 and 1935 92
Phosphate 93
Limestone, Lime, Flint and Cement 96
Agricultural Limestone 97
Building Stone 97
Curbing, Flagging, Paving 97
Railroad Ballast 97
Road Metal and Concrete 98
Riprap 98
Lime 98
Cement 98
Flint 98
Fuller's Earth 99
Clays and Clay Products 99
Brick and Tile 101
Pottery 102
Sand and Gravel 102
Diatomite 103
Peat 103
VIII












Page
Peat Producers 105
Mineral Waters 105
Mineral Production of Florida, 1934 and 1935 105


PART IV
Florida State Archaeological Survey 109
Report on Activities in Hillsborough County 109
Site I-A, Thomas Mound, North Bank, Little Manatee River 111
Site II-A, Cock Roach Key, Southwestern Hillsborough County 113
Project Closed 113
Project Reopened 113
Site III-A, Spender Mound 114
Site IV-A, Cagnini Mound 115
Site V-A. Branch Mound 115
Site VI-A, Lykes Mound 115
Methods Followed in Investigations 116
Disposition of Material 116
Closing of Project 116
New Project 116
Site VII-A, Snavely Mound, Near Thonotosassa 116
Report on Activities in Dade County 117
Beach Mound 118
Mound C at Opalocka 122
Mound D at Opalocka, Florida 132
Mound E at Opalocka, Florida 135
Mound F at Opalocka, Florida 136
The Golden Glade Road Mound 137
Golden Glade Road Mound G-2 139
Mound H, Opalocka, Florida 140
General Remarks Covering the Entire Project 142
Disposition of Material and Conclusions 145
List of Specimens Allotted to the State of Florida on Project
No. 13-1516 146

PART V
Finances 155

PART VI
1936 Report of the Gulf Coast Oyster Laboratory, Federal De-
partment of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries at Apalachicola,
Florida 17'3
Hydrographic Surveys 173
Condition of Oyster Bars 173
Thais 174
Table of Sizes and Numbers of Oysters on Bars 178

IX










LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page

A Modern Florida Fishing Schooner Putting Out of Sea ....Frontispiece
An Air View of a Florida Fishing Fleet in Dock at Pensacola...... 2
An Interior View of a Modern Florida Fish Plant 6
Florida Sea Bass and Red Snapper Steaks Dressed for Market.... 8
No. 1-Mining Oyster Shell from Mound 10
No. 2-Accumulation of Oyster Shell 10
No. 3-Detail of Loading Shell on Barge 11
No. 4-Barge in Last Stages of Loading 11
A Good Haul of Spanish Mackerel 13
A Florida Shrimp Fleet Docked at Fernandina 16
Shrimp-An Important Item in the Florida Fishing Industry......... 20
Sea Trout, A Good Money Producer at Northern Markets ........... 36
A Popular Product of Florida's Salt Waters (Red Snapper) ........... 38
Sheepshead-A Bottom Fish of Value 40
Sturgeon, A Valuable Salt Water Fish 43
Oysters-The Nutritious Food 44
The Mullet-An Important Florida Commercial Fish ..................... 45
A Good Money Maker for the Florida Commercial Fisherman
(Red Grouper) 47
Red Fish, Found in All Salt Waters of State 49
Sorting Shrimp from Other Varieties of Small Fish that the
Trawls Bring Up ............ 51
Lowering the Shrimp into the Hole for Ice Storage 53
Oyster Dredge Filled with Seed Oysters 55
Representative Oysters from Franklin County 57
An Oyster Filled with Pearls from Apalachicola Bay ...................... 59
Barrels of Florida Shrimp en Route to Distant Markets ............... 61
The Sponge Fleet at the Docks 63
Sponge Diver in Suit with Sponge Net 65
Sponge Hooker Using Diving Bucket and Sponge Hook .................. 67
A Sponge Sale in Progress at Tarpon Springs Sponge Exchange.. 69
Sheepswool Sponge-35 Months Old from Cape Florida Channel.. 70
Cutting Snapper Steaks Preparatory to Packing for Shipment.... 74
Sanlando Springs Near Longwood, Seminole County ...................... 78
Silver Glen Springs East of Lake George 84
Newly Opened Quarry of Dolomitic Limestone Near Lebanon,
Levy County 88
Hydraulic Mining of Land-Pebble Phosphate 94
Fuller's Earth Plant, Floridin Company, Quincy 100
Concrete Drying Area and Plant of the Florida Humus Company,
Zeilwood 104
Excavating Site I-A-Thomas Mound in Hillsborough County........ 110
Skeletons in Lower Level Mound 2-A. Cock Roach Key, Hills-
borough County 112
Skulls and Femurs Site II-A-Cockroach Mound 114
SX
























PART I

FOREWORD

PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE YEARS 1933-1936
LEGISLATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS
LAW ENFORCEMENT TABLES






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AN AIR VIEW OF A FLORIDA FISIIIN; FLEET IN DOCK AT PENSACOLA


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PART I.


FOREWORD
In the "Sea Resources" bulletin, a course in Conservation
of Natural Resources for Florida High Schools, Henry F.
Becker, Associate Professor of Geography at the Florida State
College for Women, says: "Our very assumption that a com-
fortable scale of living is possible for the whole population
in a democracy presupposes an abundance of owned or obtain-
able resources. In this connection two striking facts emerge:
(1) the United States probably has the most adequate natural
resource base of any country in the world; (2) ruthless ex-
ploitation has already made such inroads on this natural
wealth as to create a real conservation problem. Such studies
as the 'Report of the National Resources Board,' 'Rich Land
Poor Land' by Stuart Chase, and 'Deserts on the March' by
Paul Sears reveal the magnitude and complexity of our man-
made difficulties. Florida, no less than other parts of the
United States, is involved in many of these difficulties. The
happy, nation-wide solution of conservation problems will
depend upon the cooperation of the individual, local com-
munity, state, and nation. To conduct an effective attack on
unwise and wasteful use of natural resources in a democracy
demands understanding by its citizens of conservation prob-
lems, policies and practices."
The above statement should be significant to F!oridians
and those interested in the welfare of this great State,
inasmuch as the fishing industry of Florida, one of the State's
most valuable resources, represents an investment of approxi-
mately $10,000,000, employs over 10,000 persons, and produces
from $6,500,000 to $20,000,000 annually-about 10% of the fish
business of the entire United States.
The magnitude of this great natural resource industry
should excite thoughts of protecting and preserving so
valuable an industry.
We no longer believe, as we once did, that fish and other
forms of water life are so plentiful that man cannot completely










destroy the supply. In fact it is often very easy for man
to take some kinds of sea resources so rapidly that the supply
becomes exhausted or depleted. Such thoughtless and waste-
ful use of a resource is called exploitation.
To see how important this fact is we have only to think of
some of the mistakes which the people of the United States,
one of the richest countries in the world, have made in the past.
Among the most striking of these mistakes are the rapid and
wasteful destruction of most of our tremendous forest re-
sources, and the misuse of our vast areas of fertile soil, result-
ing in widespread erosion and lowered fertility and produc-
tion. As a result of these serious mistakes we have come to
realize that we must cease our wasteful extravagance and
begin to plan the use of our natural resources more carefully.
This planning for the wisest and best use of our natural re-
sources has come to be called conservation.
To practice conservation of our natural resources in Florida
means, then, to study carefully both the natural handicaps and
the natural advantages of the region in which we live and then
to plan our work and play carefully to fit these natural con-
ditions. This planning should result in using our resources
wisely and completely, but not wastefully. Conservation, then,
does not mean saving by refraining from the use, but means
careful and wise utilization of our natural resources so as to
avoid extravagant and needless waste.

PROGRESS REPORT OF THE
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT
FOR THE YEARS 1933-1996

1933

CONSOLIDATION OF DEPARTMENTS
The Legislature of 1933 consolidated the Shell Fish Com-
mission, the Game and Fresh Water Fish Department and
the State Geological Survey into The State Board of Con-
servation, which act took effect July 1st, 1933, and the Gov-
ernor appointed me as Supervisor of Conservation. I had
previously been appointed Shell Fish Commissioner.
4










Considerable time and work as well as expense was required
in effecting this consolidation including a complete audit and
setting up new books for accounts, new filing system for keep-
ing records of licenses paid, all new records and stationery.
The working out of details of employment, of personnel for
office and field work and co-ordinating the work of the two
Departments throughout the State took up the better part
of the remaining months of 1933.
However, the Department showed increased revenue, in-
erased number of arrests and general increased efficiency was
brought about as the records prove.

WELAKA HATCHERY
With the assistance of funds from the Federal Government
work of enlarging the Welaka Fish Hatchery on a large scale
was started. On April 21st, the Hatchery Superintendent
wrote that the Shad Hatchery had been rebuilt and made four
times larger and that the demand for fingerling for planting
was increasing daily.
In December of this year work was started on Barracks
for a Federal Transient Camp at the Welaka Hatchery.

1934
HATCHERIES
During this year the work at the fish hatcheries was carried
on. One at Welaka, one at Winter Haven and a third was
under construction at Wewahitchka.
The value of the building and equipment at the Welaka Fish
Hatchery and Game Farm is conservatively estimated at
$200,000.00. It consists of a bass hatchery of two brood ponds
and twenty-four rearing ponds; shad hatchery of twenty-four
revolving bell jars; game farm equipped for two hundred
pairs of birds; deer park; aquarium; caretaker's home and
two houses of other helpers. At the time the Conservation
Department was created, the State had a plant worth approxi-
mately $25,000. The present plant was planned by the De-
partment and developed, cooperatively by the Department
with the aid of FERA and CWA funds.
5






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AN INTERIOR VIEW OF A MODERN FLORIDA FISH PLANT


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At the Winter Haven Fish Hatchery the improvements con-
sisted of building a caretaker's house and garage, cleaning
grounds around hatchery, raising dyke across lake, rebuilding
tool house, constructing road around west side of hatchery
and cleaning out canals. This work was done by the Depart-
ment, the FERA and CWA cooperating.
At the Wewahitcha Fish Hatchery two brood ponds were
completed and stocked with brood fish.
Fish hatched and planted from Welaka Fish Hatchery
in 1934:
13.000,000......................Shad
673,200.......................Fingerling and Fry Bass

FEDERAL AID
In the summer of 1934 a parasitic natural enemy of ,he
oyster called a 'leech" was recognized as a menace to the
Apalachicola oyster beds, as it was completely destroying
seed as well as adult oysters ni some of the beds. In January
the Commissioner, accompanied by a delegation from Franklin
County, went to Washington with a report of the damage
this leech was doing and succeeded in getting an appropria-
tion from the Federal Government for building the Indian
Pass Laboratory, which is now engaged in research work on
this pest in Apalachicola Bay.
This laboratory is the only one of its kind in the Gulf area
and the results of its findings will benefit the fish and oyster
industry of the entire region. Together with the Florida dele-
gation in Congress I was able to get through a Bill appropriat-
ing $500,000.00 for study of the pest and its eradication-this
bill, however, was vetoed by the President, but a second bill
for $100,000.00 was passed. Request for $50,000.00 for replant-
ing dep eted oyster areas was also filed and is now pending.
Of the $100000.00 appropriation Florida received $27,000.00.

ANOTHER FEDERAL PROJECT
Another Federal Project proposed at this time was a com-
plete survey of the Commercial Fisheries Industry of Florida.














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DEEP SEA BASS.
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TRY OUR
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FILORIIDA SEA BASS ANI) RED SNAIPP'EI STEAKS I)DRFSSEI) FOR MARKET


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GOVERNMENT PURCHASE OF FISH
An emergency step to aid the situation which had thrown
hundreds of fishermen out of employment was made in 1934
with the timely cooperation of Congressman Millard Caldwell
of the Third District. With Congressman Caldwell's aid I was
able to induce the Government to purchase 386,100 pounds of
salt fish for distribution among the Government relief clients.
This helped to open up the market for fresh fish. About this
time the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions was also
induced to place Florida fish on its list of commodities regu-
larly purchased for State Institutions. This course was a
great help to the fishing industry and the institutions gained
by a greater use of these nutritious, palatable and economical
foods.

PLANTING OF OYSTERS IN CHOCTAWHATCHEE BAY
At tlis time the Department was cooperating with Dr.
Pytherch of the Federal Bureau of Fisheries in making an ex-
tensive investigation of Choctawhatchee Bay. Dr. Pytherch
came in September of this year at the request of Senator Dun-
can U. Fletcher and after a thorough investigation recom-
mended this as a most promising new territory for production
and cultivation of oysters, with large areas available, where
exceptionally favorable conditions exist.
Areas free from natural enemies and producing marketable
oysters of fine flavor, size and shape. Later an appropriation
was secured from the Federal Government for $50,000.00 to be
spent in planting and developing this area in 1934 and a like
amount in 1935. The work being under the supervision of Dr.
Pytherch with the full cooperation of the State Department.
From the time this work was started in December 1935,
there were 192,660 bushels of oyster shell and 12,843 bushels
of seed oysters planted.

EDUCATIONAL WORK
In the spring of 1934 Mr. Carey Thomas, the Department
Educational Director, carried out plans that had been pending
for sometime for the publishing of a conservation magazine.
9













































No. 1-Mining oyster shell from mound. This mound is a solid mass of shell wtih
the exception of possibly six inches of overburden or top soil. Note depth
b)y comparison with height of workers.


No. 2-This accumulation of oyster shell taken from the mound and deposited
on the shore line preparatory to loading on the barges.











































Ni. 3-Thlis shows a detail of loading shell on the barge which later is to be
towed to the areas previously selected for planting.


No. 4-This shows the barge in the last stages of loading. Note man in foreground
with wheel barrow wheeling shell. Note motor towboat in left hand
side of picture ready to tow barge to planting ground.











The magazine was named "The Florida Conservator" and
was published monthly. The numerous requests for The Con-
servator, particularly by schools, libraries and those interested
in Florida were gratifying.
Educational work was also carried on through radio broad-
casts, fair exhibits in several counties and two leaflets, one on
Florida Wild Life Resources and a leaflet on the Welaka
Fish Hatchery.

STATE AND NATIONAL PARKS
The Department also offered the facilities commanded in
assisting the work of securing the grant of land for the
Myakka State Park and assisted whenever possible in the
plans for the Everglades National Park.
1935
NEW LEGISLATION
The 1935 Legislature removed the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Department from the Conservation Department. This re-
quired a great deal of extra work and expense. A complete
audit was necessary, new books had to be set up in the Book-
keeping Department, new files installed, new stationery
ordered and new records made. There was also the work of
rebuilding the personnel of the Department.

During the Legislature of this year the Department main-
tained an office in Tallahassee and retained the services of a
competent lawyer for the benefit of those representing the
Conservation interests and Commercial Fishing Industries of
Florida. This assistance was offered for the benefit of fram-
ing and submitting laws they saw fit to offer the Legislature.
At all times I was diligent in cooperating with those the
Department represented endeavoring to assist in securing
Legislation they thought needful and to guard against harm-
ful laws.

FEDERAL SURVEY OF FLORIDA FISHERIES INDUSTRY
The demoralized condition of the Fisheries Industry, due to
the depression, called for substantial aid. A representative
12









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sent to Washington to discuss the matter with the Bureau of
Fisheries secured the cooperation of that Department in
putting on a thorough Federal survey of production, methods
of handling, transportation, possible new markets and in-
creased consumption, how to attain same and distribution of
returns.

OYSTER BEDS
We were successful in getting projects approved for the
planting of oysters in the following counties in cooperation
with the Federal Government:
FRANKLIN COUNTY
OKALOOSA COUNTY
WALTON COUNTY
Establishment of Federal Laboratory at Indian Pass to fight
the pest now affecting oysters in some portion of the State.

SPONGE INDUSTRY
Prohibiting wholesale violations in the sponge industry
increased revenue from sale of licenses to sponge boats. This
is remarkable when it is taken into consideration that the
license charges are nominal. Licenses ranging in price from
$1.05 to $4.05.
Aid given Sponge Producers Corporation in placing projects
to be paid for by Federal funds soon to be made available.
Acknowledgment of this is shown in the following letter:

February 11, 1935
Honorable George W. Davis,
Supervisor of Conservation,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Dear Sir:
Your letter addressed to the President of the Tarpon Springs
Sponge Exchange was handed to me and following your ad-
vice I called a meeting of the City Commissioners consisting
of the City Planning Board and had them insert, with the
other projects that they have, our two projects namely the

14











building of concrete docks and additional purchases of land
to facilitate the docking of one hundred sponge fishing boats
and that of planting sponges in the devasted areas.
The writer wants to thank you personally as the Presi-
dent of the Tarpon Springs Sponge Exchange for your help
in this matter and we hope the time will come that we will
be able to reciprocate.
With best regards,
Yours very truly,
GEORGE W. EMMANUEL.

HATCHERIES
After building up a magnificent plant at the Welaka
Hatchery in Putman County the Department was able to
secure Government operation of this project insuring its con-
tinued operation and development under expert supervision
and with Government funds.
The project for a Crayfish and Stone Crab Hatchery at Key
West was still under consideration.
BOATS
The Department obtained the use of Federal Government
owned boats, without charge to the State, for conservation
work in Florida.
LAW ENFORCEMENT
Substantial increase in number of arrests. This means strict
enforcement of the law by this Department, thus protecting
the fish during the closed seasons and the conserving of these
resources.
MORE FEDERAL PROJECTS
Secured approximately $600,000.00 from Federal Govern-
ment for conservation work in Florida.
Secured employment for a great number of persons who
needed work.
CONSERVATION PUBLICITY
The Department sponsored a number of fair exhibits of an
educational nature on the work being done along lines of
conservation and assistance to Commercial Fisheries.



















































Ax FJO0RIDA SHIMPU!I FLEET 1)OCKEUD AT FEIRNANI 'INA


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Broadcasts at Gainesville on Conservation.
A number of newspaper and magazine articles on conserva-
tion and the Fisheries Industry and the importance of law
enforcement.
1936
LAW ENFORCEMENT
The year of 1936 opened with the Department making a
drive for a strict enforcement of the closed season on mullet.
This effort was most successful and a great many pounds of
contraband mullet were seized.
EDUCATIONAL AND PUBLICITY
In the effort to further the "Eat More Fish" campaign,
which the Department has sponsored for several years, a
pamphlet was published and distributed called "Interesting
Facts Why You Should Eat More Florida Sea Foods." This
pamphlet included a collection of menus and recipes, gathered
from various sources, together with valuable tables and facts
from the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries.
Another pamphlet called "A Guide to Florida Salt Water
Fishing by State Highway" and intended primarily for our
winter visitors was also published. This pamphlet was made
up of a map of the State with main arteries of travel charted
as to good salt water fishing and a fine chart giving informa-
tion as to method, tackle, bait and location for taking salt
water fish.
The Department received many very encouraging and com-
plimentary newspaper notices and letters concerning these
two pamphlets. The Dealers of the State have been most
enthusiastic, declaring the menu booklet very helpful. The
repeated demands for a further supply of both booklets have
come from Chambers of Commerce, Newspapers, Civic Organi-
zations, Tourists, in the State and out, and the Commercial
Fish Dealers.

NO FUNDS FOR EDUCATIONAL WORK
With the Department funds so limited advantage has been
taken of every small opportunity in order to carry on any










educational work for conservation. Along this line news-
paper articles have been written, page and half page advertise-
ments carried in various monthly magazines in the interest
of the "Eat More Fish" campaign, to aid the Commercial
Fisheries Industry.
The Department has also given radio broadcasts, fair ex-
hibits and sponsored a course of lectures on Conservation.
given by Dr. H. F. Becker, in connection with the extension
course on Conservation given by the University of Florida.
The 1935 Legislature passed a law requiring a course on
Conservation to be taught in the first two years of High
School. Extensive material for this Department has been
collected and written up for the text book the Department of
Education is preparing for this course. This course should
be very beneficial to the cause of Conservation.
MORE FEDERAL PROJECTS
In 1936 the survey of the Commercial Fisheries Industry of
Florida was completed by Dr. Conn, of the Federal Bureau
of Fisheries, assisted by a worker from the Department. This
survey may bring about a great improvement in the methods
of handling and icing Florida Sea Foods.
FEDERAL PROJECTS
The Government also allowed the appropriation which has
been sought for a Crayfish and Stone Crab Hatchery and
Aquarium at Key West. This allotment was granted in June
of 1936 and work on same will start in the near future.
CHOCTAWHATCHEE BAY
The work sponsored by this Department in Walton County
is now making substantial progress. This work consists of
dredging and planting of oysters in Choctawhatchee Bay and
is carried on under the Federal Bureau of Fisheries with the
State Conservation Department cooperating in every way
possible. The Department furnishing a boat for this work
and also an Inspector who is on the Department's pay roll.
ARCHAEOLOGIST DUTIES ASSUMED
The State Archaeological Survey was put under the State
Conservation Department early in the year of 1936. At this











time Mr. Herman Gunter, State Geologist, accompanied me in
making a thorough survey of the work already done along this
line in the State. The work of the Archaeological Survey has
been carried on entirely with PWA funds.
The funds for this project were exhausted October, 1, 1936,
and a new project was submitted by this Department. This
project was approved by the Works Project in Jacksonville
October 16th and forwarded to Washington for approval,
which approval was expected not later than November 15th.
Many urgent appeals for continuation of the Archaeological
Project at Tampa have been received as this particular project
employed around a hundred men-most of whom were sixty
years of age or above. These men cannot find employment
elsewhere.
NEW LICENSE SEASON
The licenses were due October 1st for salt water fish dealers,
oyster dealers and operators of sponge boats, salt water fish-
ing and oystering vessels. The new year has opened well with
the industry looking forward to a good season.
For the year ending September 30th, 1936, the Department
issued 1605 retail fish dealers licenses at $5.00 each and
455 wholesale fish dealers licenses at $50.00 each, 1201
oyster dealers licenses at $5.00 for retail dealers and $10.00
for wholesale dealers. Other licenses issued were 496 alien
and non-resident commercial fishermen at $5.00 each-also
211 sponge boats at from $1.05 to $4.05 each, 3533 salt
water fishing and oystering vessel licenses from $1.05 up to
around $50.00 depending on size of boat.
LAW ENFORCEMENT
The closed season on mullet is from the first day of
December to the twentieth day of January and the Con-
servation Department is asking the cooperation of every fish
dealer in Florida in helping us see that the closed season is
enforced. The Department is putting on a number of extra
men to help cope with this situation and as in the past a few
violators have made money at the expense of the majority
of the fishermen in the State.





7~~.j


II


SI:IIMI'- AN I.MI'OIITANT ITEM IN THEll: FIOII1I)A FISHING; INDI'STIIY


I &


Ii''
I'AM


.SHRIMF
Lvh1











Along the line of enforcement I would like to quote from a
letter received last March 16th from Mr. S. E. Rice of the
Acme Packing Company in Apalachicola:
"As far as practical conservation in the seafood in-
dustry is concerned the first closed season on shrimp has
demonstrated beyond question the value of the measure.
The shrimp season just closed has been the best from
point of quantity produced that we have had in four or
five years. We attribute this to the protection afforded
the small shrimp in the bays during the closed periods
which allows them to reach maturity and migrate to Ihe
Gulf.
The Conservation measure applied to mullet and oysters
in this section has proven equally beneficial."
NOTE
The consolidation of Departments and the later division
have required much extra attention and heavier office work
and more expense than would have been involved in four years
of undisturbed administration. However, I have at all times
kept in constant touch with the men in the field-checking
closely on law enforcement and the needs of the people the
Department represented.


(oa. 70. Cj9aiA
Supervisor of Conservation.


LEGISLATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS
The Conservation Department of Florida does not nearly
cover the field nor perform the work that the name implies.
It follows then, naturally, that more is expected of this de-
partment than it can possibly perform or accomplish under
its present limitations as to size and income.
Florida is so richly endowed with natural resources that
every year thousands of people from many states are drawn
by this natural abundance to share in the enjoyment of these
natural gifts.











Fishing for sport in the salt waters of Florida is possible
all year. Deep sea fishing for sailfish, tarpon, marlin, sword-
fish, amberjack, tuna, kingfish, barracuda, dolphin, and other
species may be carried on in the outside waters of the Atlantic
and the Gulf of Mexico. In bays, bayous and other salt waters
near the coast are found such species as speckled sea trout,
tarpon, channel bass, redfish, mackerel, and sheepshead. -These
two types of fishing, deep sea and coastal, overlap somewhat
because some species of deep sea fish migrate at times into
warmer, shallower waters. Large numbers of the thousands
of tourists who visit Florida come in part because of the op-
portunities for sport fishing. If you read the newspapers
regularly you will find mention of many well known people
who come to Florida waters for sport and recreation. As you
know, most of the tourists from the North visit us in the
winter because at that time of year our climate is warm and
sunny. When our hot, wet summer sets in, the sports fisher-
men who visit us come largely from nearby inland states to
spend a few days or weeks on our coasts.
It is impossible to know exactly how much money these
visitors spend in the hotels, shops, and other business establish-
ments of our State. Estimates have been made, however,
which indicate that our tourist industry brings us a greater
income than all the rest of our work activities put together.
Since our salt water fish resources play an important part in
attracting these visitors, does it not seem wise to think now
of ways in which this natural resource can continue to be
used without exhausting it? This conservation of salt water
fish can be accomplished in large part through laws which
regulate the size of fish caught and prohibit fishing during
the spawning season for any species which seem in the slightest
danger of being depleted. Such "closed seasons" already
have been declared for mullet, trout, shad, and others.
Fortunately, for many species the closed season comes in sum-
mer when the fewest fishermen visit our waters.
In order that Floridians and Florida's many visitors may
continue to enjoy this rich heritage, conservation must cease
to be a "catch phrase" and become an actual and a solid
22










factor in our daily lives. To realize this is impossible under
the present amount of revenue the department operates upon
which comes solely from licenses and privilege taxes imposed
upon the commercial fishing industry. It is essential that
additional funds with which to carry on must be obtained
before a genuine conservation program can be maintained
within this State.
California, which possesses only one-half the actual salt
water frontage as does Florida, spends almost twice as much
money in its Conservation Department. The ability of Cali-
fornia to spend more money is made possible by a salt water
sport fishing license of $3.00 for non-residents and $2.00 for
residents, which brings in annually over $150,000.00. The
need for a salt water sport fishing license is most obvious
within our State also. With this added revenue the Con-
servation Department in Florida could begin to perform those
duties that one would naturally assume should be carried on
in a full conservation program. The State of California spends
$25,000 a year on an educational and publicity program and
Louisiana almost as much. Both States have motion pictures,
junior organizations, regular publications, such as magazines,
and constant streams of literature both for the adults and
school children, promoting conservation as well as publicizing
the State's natural resources.
It would be my recommendation that a one dollar non-
resident salt water sport fishing license be made into law and
in this manner provide the much needed additional revenue
for the maintenance of a full conservation program within the
State of Florida. No visitor within our State participating
in salt water fishing should object to a one dollar license
in addition to the many dollars he of necessity spends on
equipment or boat hire in quest of our salt water game fish.































































LAW ENFORCEMENT


TABLES


,*t* *f

.f f f
ft ft ft ***

**. *. 2
*ft

*. ft
ft t f
ft ft *ft
ft
ft f


* *


* ft.
*f
ft f f



*ft
ft.

.f t f f t f














































































































*. *..
**, .* < a
*a .. : :. a *
** ** ^**




**.': *. '*./ *' .-..
0 .* :. *.
a aa* ~ a a.* ** ***
*. a *a.*

* a a w ,* *
* aa* ** *

a....
~~~~ a
a. ~ = a a a






TOTAL NUMBER OF ARRESTS, FINES ASSESSED AND
COLLECTIONS MADE SPECIFYING VIOLATIONS.
Fiscal Year, July 1st, 1934 To June 30th 1935.


Offense


Hunting closed season
Hunting without license
Hunting in Breeding Grounds or
Game Preserve
Illegal Hunting
Killing Doe Deer
Sale and Possession of Venison ............
Killing Manatee or Sea Cow ...........
Possession of Non-Game Birds ............
Guiding Hunting Parties without
license
Trapping closed season
Trapping without license ..................
Illegal Trapping
Burning Woods or Marsh ...................
Fishing without license
Illegal Fishing
Possession of Undersize Fish .............
Selling Fish without license ..................
Seining in Fresh Waters
Selling Black Bass
Purchasing Black Bass
Exceeding Bag limit
Illegal Nets
Possession of Salt Water Fish
closed season
Gathering Oysters closed season .......
Possession of Stone Crabs closed
season
Operating Fishing Vessel without
license
Unlawful seining
Selling Oysters without license ..............
Trespassing leased Oyster Beds ........
Shrimping inside waters
Not displaying tag on Shrimp Boat ....
Turning Turtles on Cocoa Beach ........
Destroying eggs of Wild Turkey Nests
Renting Boats without license ............
Illegal license
Failing to show license
Interfering with officer making
arrest
Making false statement to procure
license
Witness Fees

TOTALS


Number of Fines
Offenders Assessed
77 $ 605.54
71 705.00


141.00
85.00
25.00









40.00
25.00
517.39
735.00
241.38
36.00
190.00
16.59
10.00
20.00
253.50


Fees &
Mileage
Collected
$ 263.15
167.35

91.00
98.01
43.17






6.40
32.50
2.50
21.00
329.56
249.13
169.95
21.00
51.03
10.25

2.00
223.35


6 25.00 15.11
1

8.00


541.00





5.00




2.00


2 25.00


681 $4.244.40


62.83







4.55

12.75


15.40

$1,899.99











TOTAL NUMBER OF ARREST, CONVICTION AND MONEY
COLLECTED PER COUNTY THROUGH FEES AND COSTS
OF MILEAGE FROM JULY 1ST, 1934 TO
JUNE 30TII 1935.


Counties
Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSoto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake


Arrests Convictions
19 12

5 2

8 7
6 6
13 9
4 2
10 6

9 7
1 1
21 16

29 18
26 8
28 14
2 2
8 S
13 10
5 3
9 7
9 9
2 ....

1 1
1
9 8
13 10
1 1
S 3
17

23 20
13 9


Costs & Fees
$ 39.16

12.50

154.90
39.00
6.75
15.11
51.20


12.75
32.75

79.93
5.20
94.63

4.00
36.61
5.60
50.74
46.20
15.39

9.50

36.50
35.83

4.38


4S.00












TOTAL NUMBER OF ARREST, CONVICTION AND MONEY
COLLECTED PER COUNTY THROUGH FEES AND COSTS
OF MILEAGE FROM JULY 1ST, 1934 TO
JUNE 30TH, 1935-Continued.


Counties
Lee
Leon
Levy
Lilerty .....
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palin Bealch
1'asco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington

TOTALS


Arrest

14
9
. .............. 2
2

1
11

9
13
21




8
45
4
10
1
1

30
-- - ....
19
11
4
39

3

31

34

(81


ts Convictions



6
*


Costs & Fees
17.00
56.99
49.02
20.70
2.10
14.75
62.01
0.00
40.50
16.13
70.57





152.08
10.50
103.25



2.3S
35.60
24.47
68.25
7.00
2.75
36.36

13.25
30.30
157.50
51.90

$1,899.99











TOTAL NUMBER OF ARRESTS, FINES ASSESSED AND
COLLECTIONS MADE SPECIFYING VIOLATIONS.
Fiscal Year, July 1st 1935 To June 30th 1936.


Offense


Number of Fines

Offenders Assessed


Transporting fish without
permit
Possession of mullet out
of season
Fishing gill net prohibited
waters
Illegal nets
Possession undersize
crayfish
Dragging for shrimp inland
waters
Possession of undersize fish
Trespassing leases of oyster
beds
Taking and catching shrimp
out of season ....................
Non-resident fishing without
license
Resisting arrest .................
Engaging in fishing business
without license .........
Fishing boat without license
Arrest made-charge not
given on report ..................
Taking and selling oysters
from Choctawhatchee Bay
Fishing within 100 yds. of
shore

TOTALS


Fees &
Mileage
Collected


1 $ ....... $ 4.00


10 100.00


100.00
35.00


4 20.00

3 ..
19 .........

2 .....- ..-

2 -- -- -
2

5
1


105 $ 260.00 $ 22.14


Witness fees collected 118.35

Total amount of Court Costs $ 140.49
Sale of confiscated fish 9.57


Total amount brought in through violations


S 150.0(I









TOTAL NUMBER OF ARRESTS, CONVICTIONS AND MONEY
COLLECTED PER COUNTY THROUGH FEES AND COSTS
OR MILEAGE FROM JULY 1ST 1935 TO JUNE 30TH 1936.
Counties Arrests Convictions Costs & Fees
Bay 2 2 $ 4.00
Brevard 1 1..
Collier 4 4 ........
Dade 6 6 7.76
Duval 18 7 39.10
Escambia ....... 5.75
Franklin 2 ............
Lee 2 ..........
Martin 5 1 ........
Nassau 20 2 ........
Palm Beach 12 8 15.03
Pinellas .... ... 19.50
Putnam 2 .......
Sarasota 18 1 20.75
St. Johns 1 ......
St. Lucie 3 2
Volusia 8 4 ........
Walton 1 1
W akulla .............
Washington .... ... 28.60

TOTALS ...................... 105 39 $ 140.49
*Bay-Sale of confiscated fish 9.57

$ 150.06

TOTAL NUMBER OF ARRESTS, CONVICTIONS AND MONEY
COLLECTED PER COUNTY THROUGH FEES AND COSTS
OF MILEAGE FROM JULY 1ST 1936 TO
DECEMBER 31ST 1936.
Counties Arrests Convictions Costs & Fees
Collected
Charlotte- 2 .... $ ...
Lee 1 ....
Martin 6 .....
Palm Beach .. .... 7.00
St. Johns 1 ......
St. Lucie 1 ............

Totals 11 .... $ 7.00
TOTAL NUMBER OF ARRESTS, SPECIFYING VIOLATIONS.
Collected
Offense Arrests Fees
Violating closed season on mullet 3 $ ...
Illegal seining 6 .....
Wholesaling Fish without license 2 7.00

Totals 11 $ 7.00

31

























PART II

FLORIDA'S COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY
CLOSED SEASONS AND LEGAL LENGTHS
SALT WATER FISH CENSUS
SALT WATER FISH AND SHELLFISH FOR FOOD
LEADING COMMERCIAL FISH
FLORIDA SHRIMP
THE FLORIDA OYSTER
OTHER FLORIDA SEA FOODS
THE SPONGE INDUSTRY
BY-PRODUCTS OF FLORIDA SALT WATER












PART II.


FLORIDA'S COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY

The commercial fisheries of the State of Florida constitute
one of the State's greatest actual assets and may well be con-
sidered a source of potential wealth for future generations.
Florida has a coast line greater than any other State in the
Union and is situated adjacent to both temperate and tropical
waters. This location favors an abundant and marvelous
variety of seafoods delicious enough in flavor and quality
for the table of the wealthy epicure and so reasonable in price
that the most restricted budget can afford a plentiful supply
of these "cheaper than meat" foods.
The thirty-five coast counties of the State are rich store-
houses of seafoods, the taking of which gives a livelihood to
thousands of people and brings millions of dollars annually
into the State. Besides those employed regularly in the fishing
industry, the a'lied canning industry affords seasonal occupa-
tion for numbers of people.
The conservation of this great industry, which is composed
of the Salt Water Fish, Shell Fish, and Sponge In-
dustries, comes under the supervision of the State Board of
Conservation. The department is entirely self-supporting,
operating on license fees collected from the various industries
mentioned above. At the present time the department deals
with the commercial fisheries only, the salt water sportsman
not contributing in any way to the up-keep and operation of
the department, although thousands of tourists enjoy this
sport and recreation annually and it is probably the most
popular outdoor pastime of all the classes.























"11w


SEA TlROUT, A GO(ODI) MONEY ]'IODUICER AT NORTHERN MARKETS









CLOSED SEASONS AND LEGAL LENGTHS


The laws of the State of Florida protect practically all of
the food fish used commercially by providing closed seasons
which prohibit their being caught during their spawning sea-
son. These seasons vary with the different species of fish
according to their spawning habits. There are some special
closed season laws for certain counties, but the following
closed season cover the State at large:

Mullet: Between the first day of December of any year
and the twentieth day of January of the next
succeeding year, provided, however, that anyone
having any fresh or unsplit mullet, or roe on
hand at the beginning of the closed season may
have five days in which to dispose of same.
Trout: From the fifteenth day of June to the fifteenth
day of July of each year.
Shad: Between the first day of April and the first day
of December of any year, or to be in possession of
or transport any iced shad between the seventh
day of April and the first day of December of
any year.
The laws of the Department also prohibit the taking of
fish of less than certain lengths. The legal lengths of fish
coming under this protection are as follows:
Blue Fish........................10 in. from tip of nose to fork of tail
Pompano ........................ 9 in. from tip of nose to fork of tail
Mullet 10 in. from tip of nose to fork of tail
Mackerel ........................12 in. from tip of nose to fork of tail
Red Fish.......................12 in. from tip of nose to fork of tail

SALT WATER FISH CENSUS

It is difficult to get an accurate record of the output of the
fishing industry in Florida waters. Questionnaires were
mailed to each wholesale dealer, as required by law. (Section



















/.v'9'". "-K 0 -M' "

C N \ *^^1.I -
rYr t

'' ~i '' ~ .-
I, : ,
> ,,
.,


THE FLORIDA RED SNAPPER.
Lutjanus Blackfordii, Goode & Bean. (p. ::,..)
DrawblgbyB.L. Told, from No. 21380,I U. National usem, collectel iat I'.N l.l Ll. Fl.,a MI Sit. 7 i st.11t1



A PO1'PULA; PIOII;('T OF FLORIDA'S SALT WATEIRS


~LX' 5--
~hU~.


~ ,::;.
--


t-
~~i~


--,~
' ~-~ ~---;
---


! `
.I;~. ,









12, Chapter 10123, Acts of 1925.) Returns from these though
incomplete give a good basis for approximating the oatch for
the biennium:

Mullet 52,326,904
Trout 7,863,880
Mackerel 17,445,740
Blue Fish 5,781,976
King Fish .........-- ,570,964
Red Fish 1,589,468
Sheepshead ............... 1,593,068
Flounders 284,168
Red Snapper 7,686,176
Grouper 9,006,160
Pompano 1,703,332
Shad 1,232,972
Herring 151,776
Catfish ................ 5,306,020
Bream ....................... 2,509,434
Crappie 2,269,100
Crayfish (Spiny Lobster) 1,664,718
Shrimp 15,918,550
Other Bottom Fish 5,261,000

Total ....................143,265,406

SALT WATER FISH AND SHELLFISH FOR FOOD
Fish and shellfish contain vitamins, minerals in quantity and
variety, and are an excellent source of highly digestible
proteins.
PROTEINS FOR BUILDING OF MUSCLES AND OTHER
BODY TISSUES. Protein is the foundation of all diets for
man or anima's and is necessary in any diet for normal
growth and maintenance of life. Proteins are composed of
what might be called little building stones known as amino
acids. The food value of different proteins depends on the
variety and content of these amino acids. Fish proteins
are complete, that is, ihey contain all of the amino acids

39























































I I'I~IS! L\ U .\ F''I)1UISH OF" NIAIA EI











required for the growth and maintenance of the human
body. Fish proteins are readily digested, and they are
superior to most vegetable proteins and equal to most meat
proteins.
FATS FOR ENERGY. Fish fats have a high energy value
and are as completely digested as fats from other foods.
MINERALS ARE ESSENTIAL TO THE PERFORMANCE
OF CERTAIN FUNCTIONS IN THE BODY. Calcium and
phosphorus are necessary for the development, growth and
maintenance of bones and teeth.
Iron and copper are essential in the treatment and pre-
ventidn of nutritional anemia.
Iodine is required for the proper functioning of the thyroid
gland.
Sulphur as a constituent of cystine, one of the essential
amino acids in proteins, is important for proper growth.
VITAMINS FOR GROWTH AND MAINTENANCE OF GEN-
ERAL WELL-BEING. The absence of any one of the vita-
mins results in a so-called "deficiency disease." A de-
ficiency of vitamin A causes xerophthalmia, an eye disease.
Lack of vitamin B is evidenced in beri-beri.
Scurvy is caused by the absence of vitamin C from the diet.
Insufficient vitamin D brings about rickets.
Pellagra results from the absence of vitamin G.
Following is a chart showing alphabetically the most im-
portant fish and shellfish produced in Florida and their con-
tent of vitamins, protein, fat, and mineral nutrients. The ab-
sence of a specific vitamin or other nutritional factor from the
chart does not always indicate that the fish in question does
not contain this absent nutritional factor, but may indicate
that this fish has not been tested for the vitamin or other
nutritional factor concerned.







FOOD CHART (Edible Portions)


Commodity Vitamins Protein


Blue fish



Buttertish


Catfish
and
Bullheads


Clams


Crabs



Croaker



Flounder



Lobsters


Mackerel



Mullet


Oysters


Fat Mineral Nutrients


A, B. 19% 0.5% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.


Sardine A, B, I). 25%
(pilchard)


Shad


A, B. 19%


Sheepheads A, B. 20%



Shrimp A, I. I). 25%


13% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
9% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
4% Calcium.
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
1% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.


Squeteague A, B. 19% 2% Calcium,
or "sea Phosphorus, Copper
trout" Sulphur, Iodine.
(From Tables Compiled by J. R. Manning, Chief Technologist Federal
Bureau of Fisheries-Washington)


A, B. 18% 11% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
A, B. 144% 21% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
A, B, D, G. 9% 1% Calcium, Iron,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
A, B, G. 17% 2% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
A, B. 18% 3% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
A, B. 14% 0.6% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
A. B. 16% 1 2% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
A, B. 19% 7% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
A, B. 19% 5% Calcium,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.
A, B, D, G. 6% 1% Calcium, Iron,
Phosphorus, Copper
Sulphur, Iodine.





















5. '''m..


STURGEON, A VALUABLE SALT WATER FISH







Some of the more important diseases affected by the diet
are: Goiter, rickets, dental caries, nutritional anemia, pellagra.
xerophthalmia (an eye disease), beri-beri, and scurvy. These
diseases accompany a deficiency of vitamins and minerals in
your diet.
OYSTERS FOR NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA
Calcium, Phosphorus, etc., for Good Bones and Teeth.
Iodine for Healthy Thyroids.
Iron and Copper for Good Red Blood.
Vitamins for Growth and Good Health.
IODINE IN FOODS FOR HEALTHY THYROIDS
Parts of IODINE per billion (fresh basis) in various foods:
Sea Foods Other Foods


Oysters 492
Shrimp 450
Spanish Mackerel ................... 400
Red Snapper 313
Lobsters 1,380
Clams 1,370
Crabs 180


Milk 5
Butter 106
Eggs 27
Beef 5
Lettuce 27
Oranges 15
Veal 22
Lemons 1(0;
Ox Liver 19
Carrots 23
Spinach 62


(From Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries-Washington)
MAKE IT A HABIT TO EAT FLORIDA FISH AND SHELLFISH:


OYSTERS-THE NUTRITIOUS FOOD
44

















/'


1'-$g4 q 3 eI" Is's._










THE MULLET-AN IMPORTANT FLORIDA COMMERCIAL FISH











LEADING COMMERCIAL FISH

The bulk of the fish used commercially is the mullet which
constitutes about one-third or better of all the fish caught in
Florida waters. There are two species of mullet. The silver
mullet and gray mullet. The silver mullet is about 14 inches
long when grown. These are found in southern bays when
small, but the adults are usually found in the southern open
seas, being seldom found in the northern portion of the State.
The bulk of the mullet caught, however, is the gray mullet
which is caught throughout the year, except during the closed
season and are preeminently a poor man's fish whether he be
a producer or consumer. They are the cheapest and the most
widely distributed fish in our waters as well as in our southern
markets. The closed season on mullet is strictly enforced in
order to continually have a commercial supply of this im-
portant commodity. The mullet produces an abundance of
delicious mullet roe. No estimate has been placed upon the
value of the roe produced by the mullet, but its potential
value as well as that of the mullet itself is practically un-
limited.
The mackerel, trout and grouper rank next in production.
These are choice fish and command a good price. The trout,
like the mullet, is with us all the year and is the main fish
taken after the closed season on mullet. They are a material
part of the State's output during every month of the year
except during their closed season from the 15th of June to
the 15th of July. Other important food fish caught in Florida
waters are the shad and pompano. The shad is a delicious
fish itself and produces an abundance of shad roe which is
considered quite a delicacy.
Mullet This fish seldom bites a hook and line and is
taken in nets and seines. As a food fish mullet is
a general favorite and the mullet roe is very
popular. Smoked mullet is a truly delicious
breakfast or luncheon dish. The fresh mullet is
generally served fried.
Mackerel This fish is caught on both coasts in large num-













A


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' wq


'THE RED GROUPER.
Epinephelus morio (Cuv.), Gill. (p. 411.)
Drawing by H. L. Todd, fom No. 22129, .. S. National Museum. obtained in the Washington Marketl Distrkit of Colnumbia Ib G Br-n Uoo.



A GOOD MONEY MAKER FOR TIE FLORIDA COMMERCIAL FISHERMAN


;;2: '


"










bers and is highly prized as a food fish. It is
especially fine when served broiled with butter.
Sea Trout The trout is caught in bays or inlets. Is a year
round fish and a general favorite, baked, fried
or broiled.
Grouper The grouper is one of the most plentiful of tropi-
cal reef fish. It is a good food fish, excellent
boiled and served with cream sauce, is a fine
chowder base.
Shad The shad passes most of its life in the ocean and
very little is known of its habits before it enters
bays and rivers for the spawning season or after
it withdraws when that season is over. In the
St. Johns and St. Marys Rivers, which are the
southernmost shad streams in the United States.
the shad appear in November.
Pompano The pompano is considered by many to be the
aristocrat of sea foods. Because of its delicious
flavor it is usually the top in price in home mar-
kets as well as northern and eastern markets.
Superlative when delicately broiled.
Red The red snapper is a deep sea fish caught far out
Snapper in the Gulf. The take ranging around seven
and a half million pounds annually. This is the
most valuable and best known of the snapper
group and is highly valued as a sea food because
of its juicy meat and fine flavor. Its excellent
shipping qualities carries it from southern coasts
to great distances throughout the United States.
It is good baked, broiled or fried according to
the size of the fish.
Blue Fish Blue fish are most plentiful in the winter months,
reaching the peak during January and February.
They are in great demand in northern and east-
ern markets. Most delicious broiled and served
with tartar sauce.
King Fish This fish is caught on both the west and east
48

















































RED FISH, FOUND IN ALL SALT WATERS OF STATE










coasts in abundance, and the State is famous for
her king fish steaks.
Red Fish or This fish is found in deep salt water channels.
Channel A very good food fish. wonderful for baking.
Bass
Bream Bream are caught in some of the waters that have
been put under the jurisdiction of the State Board
of Conservation. They are very plentiful and a
popular pan fish.
Flounders, Herring, Sheepshead, Crappie and Bottom Fish
are other valuable food fish that are caught in
abundance in Florida waters.
Snook or A salt water game fish for which the demand has
Robalo increased over a per od of the last ten years
until it now ranks with other popular food fish.
The snook is cooked in many ways, being an
especially good chowder base.
Menhaden Menhaden, though not used for food fish, are
very useful in that they constitute the main food
for a number of other fish. They are taken in
the ocean or gulf with purse seines, by fishermen
for the purpose of making oil, and the waste
product is called "scrap" and is used in the mak-
ing of fertilizer and chicken feed meal. Men-
haden are found from ihe St. Marys River south
to Daytona Beach and on the west coast at Port
St. Joe in the bay and gulf.
FLORIDA SHRIMP
The shrimp is a diminutive, long-tailed, lobster-like
crustacean and is supposed to spawn in the outside waters.
When the young shrimp hatches it is about one seventy-fifth
of an inch long and is carried along by currents until it lodges
in the inside waters, where it remains until nearly grown when
it again migrates to open waters.
The principal shrimping grounds in Florida are located at
Fernandina, the mouth of the St. Johns River, New Smyrna,
Cape Canaveral, Apalachicola and Pensacola. Florida pro-
duces about 20% of the shrimp taken annually, which places
her second on the list of states in this industry.







4 Y
5'
s>, i1


SORTING SHRIMP FROM OTHER VARIETIES OF SMAIL FISH THAT THE TRAWLS BRING UP


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Ir ~C


""irc~:r~tl;illiII4liE











Since this industry is so important to us in the income that
it yields and in the employment it gives to our people, we must
take great care to keep the shrimp resources from being
depleted.
Regulating the fishing gear so as to allow the small shrimp
to escape and grow to full size is one effective means of con-
servation. In Florida we have several regulations aimed at
conserving the resource.
The law regulating the size prohibits possession or sale of
shrimp or prawn of such size that they count more than 45
headless shrimp or prawn to the pound. Dealers state that
this size regulation has increased the supply substantially.
Shrimp fishing, like most sea industries, is seasonal, pri-
marily because of a more plentiful supply at some times than
others. So marked is this seasonal character that many of the
fishermen work northward in the industry from Cape Cana-
veral, Florida, to Charleston, South Carolina. From Cape
Canaveral to St. Augustine, where large or "jumbo" shrimp
are caught, the season extends from the middle of August
through January 15. At Apalachicola, the principal west
coast center, there are two seasons: from October 1 through-
out the winter, except for bad weather, and from the middle
of April through the middle of July.
Florida shrimp are marketed primarily in two forms, canned
in various ways and as a fresh and frozen product. A recent
study by the United States Bureau of Fisheries shows that the
market demand for canned shrimp and canned salmon was
less affected by the depression than any other sea food studied.
The United States Bureau also suggests two excellent ways
of conserving shrimp by using this resource more completely.
One is to make the great amount of waste material (44% of
the total), now largely thrown away, into meal for feeding
animals. The other is to advertise widely the many uses to
which this highly nutritive and pleasing food can be put.





















































LOWERING THE SHRIMP INTO THE HOLE FOR ICE STORAGE











Shrimp has become a staple item of our seafoods and with
improved methods of packing and canning it is now found on
an ever-increasing number of pantry shelves. It is equally
popular on the family and restaurant menu.

THE OYSTER
The oyster may be determined as an edible mollusk, one of
the Lamellibranchiate Mollusea. It belongs to the genus
Ostrea, family Ostracidae, the members of which are dis-
tinguished by the possession of an inequivalve shell, the one-
half or valve being larger than the other. The shell may be
Free, or attached to fixed objects, or may be simply imbedded
"in the mud. The fry or fertilized ova of the oyster are termed
"spat" and enormous numbers of "spat" are produced by
each individual oyster during the spawning season. Oysters
will spawn in the Florida waters during every month in the
year, but the spawning season is generally considered to be
the best from March until September in southern waters.
The closed season is between the 15th day of April and the
1st day of October.
A normal oyster is supposed to spawn sixty million eggs
or "spat." The "spat" being discharged, each embryo is
found to consist of a little body inclosed within a minute but
perfectly formed shell, and possessing vibratile filaments or
cilia, by which the young oyster at first swims freely about
until it comes in contact with some kind of clean clutch, such
as she'l, posts or any object in the water that is not covered
by mud or slime.
Florida oyster beds are among the large producing areas
in the United States. Not only are these bivalves produced in
abundance, but they have a wide reputation for their fine
flavor and size. Federal inspection from time to time has
given to Florida oyster beds a fine rating as to sanitation.
Found in abundance in their natural condition, through oyster
culture, practiced in the Apalachicola Bay on the west coast and
Halifax tidal waters on the east coast, effort has been made
to retain a high rate of production here. Oyster culture con-
sists in planting clean oyster shells in producing area to which
Ihe young or spat, spawned freely in Florida from April until















LI


OYSTER DREDGE FILLED WITH SEED OYSTERS











October, may attach themselves, to mature in from eighteen
months to two years. This is about half the length of time
required in northern waters.
The young oyster grows very rapidly in the waters of this
State for the first twelve months, attaining a length of three
or more inches from hinge to bill. Of course this rapid growth
is more marked at certain locations along the coast, according
to the feeding matter contained in the waters. Ordinarily an
oyster will attain its growth to a marketable size of from three
to five inches within two years, the second year's growth being
considerably less than the first year. If undisturbed, oysters
will grow to a length of from six to twelve inches.
Oysters have practically the same food value as meat and
are even more easily digested and therefore an important
part of the invalid's diet. In buying beef, mutton, poultry
or fish, there is always considerable waste in the form of
bones, inedible portions, feathers, etc. In a cut of steak, for
instance, the waste often runs as high as 30 to 60 per cent.
In the oyster there are no bones or feathers and no inedible
portions. It is all meat, and particularly rich in those ele-
ments which go to repair overworked brains and nervous
systems.
It is estimated that a quart of oysters contains on an aver-
age about the same quantity of actual nutritive substance as
a quart of milk, or three-fourths of a pound of beef, or two
pounds of fresh codfish, or a pound of bread. The nutritive
substance of oysters contains considerable protein and energy-
yielding ingredients.
Prof. Frederick P. Gorham, Associate Professor of Biology
of Brown University, says: ''There is no reason today why we
should not give the oyster prominent place in our dietary as
a cheap, delicious, nutritious, healthful and pure food
product."
It is a well-known fact that every food product has ad-
vanced in price, while the oyster or clam market has not
changed. It cannot be "cornered" by the rich, and the rich
and poor alike may enjoy them.


















































REPRESENTATIVE OYSTERS FROM FRANKLIN COUNTY










Although the oyster has always been a prime favorite on the
list of seafoods, it is only in the past few years that a full
apprecia.ion of its value as a nutritious food has been brought
about.
Laboratory tests have determined that the oyster has almost
twice the mineral content of food fishes, and that they con-
tain more health-giving properties than any other single food,
having more iron than beef liver or spinach, more copper than
any known food and about 205 times as much iodine as either
eggs or beef.
The above qualities make the oyster a great aid in the treat-
ment of nutritional anemia.
The following is an excerpt from an article by E. J. Coulson,
Temporary Assistant, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, on the value
of the oyster as an excellent food:
"Investigational studies were carried on in our laboratories
with oyster samples furnished from various localities to deter-
mine dietary values.
To quote:
These feeding tests showed:
1. That the inorganic elements (or ash content) present in
the oyster are responsible for its antianemic potency;
2. That the effectiveness of the oyster in nutritional
anemia can be accounted for on the basis of its iron,
copper and manganese content;
3. That these metals are in a form easily available for
blood-building purposes;
4. That the antianemic potency of oysters may be cor-
related with their iron content.
"It has !ong been known that milk, in spite of the high
esteem in which it is held because of its unusual nutritive
value, is not a perfect food. It is known that when young
rats or other animals are continued on an exclusive milk diet
after the usual weaning time, a severe anemia results and
they die before reaching maturity. The addition of iron and
copper to the milk will allow the rats to grow to maturity
and to reproduce, but the offspring are weak, scrawny things,
very se'dom living to weaning age because of the inability of
the mother to nurse them properly. However, if oysters are












































AN OYSTER FILLED WITH PEARLS FROM APALACHICOLA BAY






AN OYSTER FILLED WITH PEARLS FROM APALACHICOLA BAY









added to the milk, normal growth and reproduction will occur
wihh the production of vigorous young which are well nour-
ished and grow to maturity as rapidly as do rats on a more
varied diet. Thus when we partake of a delicious oyster
stew, we can be assured that this milk and oyster combination
is an exceedingly helpful one, since it permits not only normal
blood formation, but also good growth, reproduction, and
lactation."
During the period from July 1st. 1934 to June 30th, 1935.
there were 6,900 bushels of oyster shell planted in Franklin
County and 14,400 bushels planted in Walton County.
The sworn statements of Shell Fish Dealers filed in the office
of the State Board of Conservation shows the number of bar-
rels of oysters and clams handled to be as follows:
July 1st, 1934, to June 30th, 1935, 59,5141/2 barrels of oysters
July 1st, 1934, to June 30th, 1935 13,716 barrels of clams
July 1st, 1935, to June 30th. 1936. 53.6251/2 barrels of oysters
July 1st, 1935, to June 30th. 1936. 22,602 barrels of clams
July 1st, 1936, to December 31st, 1936, 10,456 barrels of
oysters
July 1st, 1936, to December 31st, 1936, 9,907 barrels of clams
OTHER FLORIDA SEA FOODS
LOBSTER-A large marine crustacean used as food of
which the spiny lobster or crawfish is a specie.
SPINY LOBSTER OR SEA CRAWFISH-The Florida
lobster is found on the southeastern coast of Florida. This
product is popular throughout Florida and in hotels and
restaurants in the Eastern part of the United States. When
the market is accessible they are shipped alive, otherwise in
the cooked state.
CRABS-Crabs, a 10-footed crustacean having the abdomen
on tail folded under the body.
Stone crabs, one of the greatest delicacies to be found in
Florida waters, find a ready market here and in other States.
They are found at various points along the east and west
coasts, and while not too plentiful are found in their greatest
abundance on the Matacumba reef. For the protection of
these crustaceans the State has fixed the minimum size at






















































BAPflETqS OF FT.OPMTDA SHTMP EN nOT7TE TO DISTANT MAPKETS









which they can be taken at ten inches and provided a closed
season on them from March 21 to July 21.
The blue crab, also a choice article of food, is found in all
of the coastal waters of Florida. There are a number of pack-
ing plants for crab meat in Florida, and the last five years
have seen a substantial increase in demand and output of
this commodity.
SCALLOPS-The sea'lop is a bivalve having a nearly cir-
cular shell with radiating ribs and a wavy edge. They are
found on both coasts of Florida and find a ready market .
Fried scallops and breakfast bacon being a popular dish.
Note-The scallop shell was formerly worn as a pilgrim's
badge.
CLAMS-One of the various bivalve mollusks much
esteemed as food. Probably the largest bed of hard clams
in the United States extends along the southwest coast of
Florida in the region of the Ten Thousand Islands. Here are
about 150 square miles of sea bottom composed largely of
rather firm gray mud, on top of which is a layer of silt several
inches in depth. So plentiful are the clams in this area and
in portions of the Keys that a dredging boat can dig in one
locality for several months at a time by drifting gent'y with
the wind and tide. Another method of securing these elams
is by hand digging or "treading." A man works with the
tides in water about as deep as the length of his arm. He
locates the clam by treading on it and lifts it into his shallow
boat with a short two-tined fork. This method is used less
since dredges have proved so satisfactory.
The clams from both dredging and hand digging are trans-
ferred to small canneries on the islands, the chief of which is
at Caxambas. As yet no special measures for protecting this
resource have been necessary. Here conservation could take
the form of more complete use. for these rich clam beds have
been worked very little.
Clam products such as clam broth, clam juice, little neck
clams and clam chowder are excellent food for the whole
family and invaluable for the sick and convalescent. They
are an appetizing tonic for stomach disorders.














I I
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'1/
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THE SPONGE FLEET AT THE DOCKS


I F










TURTLES-A Sea Food Imported for Canning-Several
turtle canneries in the Florida Keys receive green turtles from
British vessels. These vessels go out to fishing grounds about
the island of Ascension, the West Indies, and the Atlantic
coast of Nicaragua, where these large turtles are very
abundant. Some of these green turtles are also taken at
various places along the coast of Florida, especially in the
east coast lagoons. Perhaps this is a fishing industry that
we could develop more completely in our own waters.
THE SPONGE INDUSTRY
Though sponges were found on the beach at Key West as
early as 1849, which resulted in their being sought by
"hookers," the sponge industry was not started on a com-
mercial basis in the Gulf waters until in 1890 when John K.
Cheyney, one of the early settlers, sent out the first hooker
boat. Other prominent Tarpon Springs people joined in the
business as time went on.
During the Spanish-American War, because of their fear of
Spanish warships, the Key West sponge fleet put into Tarpon
Springs to dispose of their cargo of sponge. From this small
beginning, there has developed in the Tarpon Springs Sponge
Exchange the largest sponge market in the world.
In 1905, the first divers were brought in by Cheyney and
his associates from Greece and the islands of Aegina, Halki.
Calymnos and Symi. They brought with them their own
equipment, diving suits. plans. of the boats used in the Medi-
terranean, and other paraphernalia. From this time, the
sponge industry steadily increased to the million dollar in-
dustry of today. It is understood that while the diving suit
had not been used in the Gulf waters until 1905, it had been
used in the Mediterranean for many years. Diving is much
more remunerative than "hooking" sponge.
Commercial sponges come chiefly from the Gulf of Mexico.
the Straits of Florida and the Mediterranean Sea. The Florida
sponge beds extend from Key West to St. Marks Light near
Apalachicola, in depths of from ten to one hundred and thirty
feet, and reaching from one to fifty miles from shore. It is
believed that there are some 9,300 square miles of sponge-



































;-~


SI'ONGE DIVIC[E IN S rI't' WI'I'H SI'ONG E NET

635


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L.: AWUMA


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yielding bottom between St. Johns and St. Marks Light, in
the Gulf of Mexico.
A book could be written regarding the several varieties
and many qualities of sponges produced here. There are four
varieties of sponges found in the Gulf waters, ranging in
commercial value as follows: first, the sheepswool; second,
the yellow; third, the grass, and fourth, the wire or velvet.
The wool, or first quality, is compact and tough in texture,
i s strength and toughness depending upon the depth of water
from which it comes. The sponges found in what is termed
deep water, from 75 to 150 feet, being extra fine quality, bring
the highest prices. The silk, honeycomb, elephant-ear and
several other varieties come from the Mediterranean Sea.
The sponge, which has been an article of commerce since
long before ihe Christian era, is only the skeleton of an animal
that has adhered to the bottom of the sea, on the surface or
in the crevice of a rock, or sometimes attached to coral reefs.
It was first found in the Mediterranean Sea, and is mentioned
several limes in the Bible, and frequently referred to in ancient
writings of Greece. The ancient Greek name is "zo-ofiton,"
meaning half-plant and half-animal. It is one of the most
ancient and lowest forms of marine animal life and when
found is covered with a tenacious black skin. The cells are
filed with gelatinous gray matter called "gurry" which is
allowed to decay and is afterwards eliminated by pressure.
The skeleton left represents the sponge as we know it, but is
dark gray in color. The commercial color is obtained by
bleaching in a solution of permanganate of potash, or a similar
solution. The age of the sponge is usually determined by its
breadth, the growth said to average about one inch per year
in diameter.
The Tarpon Springs fleet comprises nearly one hundred and
fifty boats, manned by some five hundred men. Voyaging on
the Gulf of Mexico fifty to eighty miles from land, up and
down the coast, these boats are often out for a trip of several
months' duration. The boats are only twenty-five to forty-
five feet in length.
As mentioned before, sponges are obtained in two ways-
hooked from the bottom by men working on the surface, and
"picked" by divers who descend to the bottom of the gulf

66























































T'ON'GE HOOKER USING DIVING; BUCKET ANT, SPONGE HOOK









in diving suits. Hooking sponge is the simpler and more
primitive method, the hooker boats being of all descriptions.
two-masted schooners sometimes 100 feet over all, towing a
string of dinghies, to small decked boats, also sailing or power
dories. In this method, if the water is smooth and clear, the
hooker sees the sponge unaided. At other times when the sur-
face is disturbed by wave action, he peers through a bucket
fitted with a glass bottom, or he smooths the surface with
oil. His hook, a sharp-prouged, three-tooth, small rake-like
tool on the end of a long, light pole, seeks out the sponge as
he peers down from the surface and tears it from its bed.
Hookers work in water up to 30 feet in depth.
All diving is of the soft suit variety. The diver is attired in
a Ihick rubberized suit with bronze shoulder piece and helmet.
Air is pumped into the helmet by an air pump in the diving
boat, a completely equipped small cruiser, stored with pro-
visions for a stay of from a few weeks to several months at
sea, and manned by a crew varying from four to six men, in-
e'uding a captain, engineer, cook, life-line tender and deck
hands, the number of divers depending on the depth of diving.
The right bottom for sponging is usually found by the use of
the sounding lead. The diver when working in comparatively
shallow water remains on the bottom for several hours, but in
deeper water for much shorter periods. Divers go down,
in deeper diving, to around 125 feet. In naked diving, the
shark is the diver's greatest peril. while in machine diving it
is the fouling of the life-line or air hose. Modern divers take a
bag with them, signaling on the life-line for another when it
is filled with sponge, these bags being formed of rope. The
percentage of casualties from diving in the sponge industry
is not high. However, the life of a sponge diver is shortened
if he continues this work for more than ten years, the water
pressure often causing paralysis or what is known as the
"bends."
Upon arrival at the docks, the sponges are unloaded and
placed in a cooperative warehouse maintained by the fisher-






,--


A SPONGE SALE IN PROGRESS AT TARPON SPRINGS SPONGE EXCHANGE


^.'i







































SHEEPSWOOI SPONGE--35 MONTHS OLD FROM CAPE FLORIDA CHANNEL

men. Before being stored, the sponges are sorted for quality
and size, and are threaded on a strong cord fifty-eight inches
in length, then tied in a wreath. The number in a wreath
varies from ten to twenty. depending on size.
On certain Tuesdays and Fridays the sponge auction is held.
The buyers assemble and are advised as to the quality: the
buyer writes his offer on a slip of paper and hands it to the
representative of the co-operative association. After the bids
are in, the highest bidder is announced. It is interesting to
note here that the seller is not obliged to dispose of his sponge
if he does not consider the price high enough. but can hold
them over for another sale, contrary to the usual auction rules.

70










This procedure continues until all lots are sold. One morning's
sale may total from fifteen to fifty thousand dollars.
The buyer or highest bidder removes his purchase to the
packing house, cuts them loose, breaks off all pieces of shell
or rock, if any, from the bottom of the sponge, trims them,
using sheep-shears to remove any roughness, and then dries
them in the sun. When dry, they are packed in bales measur-
ing about 20x24x32 inches, and weighing from 40 to 50 pounds.
The bales are numbered, invoiced and shipped to their destina-
tions, from where they are afterward distributed among the
retail houses from the firms of New York and other large
market centers.
Special processes of curing, cleansing and bleaching re-
quired by many of the sponges take place after they are sent
away by the wholesale dealer. The only sponges shipped
direct to the consumer are those of independent firms who
deal direct from Tarpon Springs.
Sponge receipts for some years, for the skeletons of these
jelly-like animals sold to packers in this, the largest sponge
market in the world, were nearly $850,000. In addition to
this, it is estimated that from $50,000 to $75,000 worth are
sold annually outside of the Exchange, thus making the in-
dustry pay-approximately a million dollars annually. During
the past thirty years, twenty million dollars worth have been
shipped from this port. It is difficult to realize how so vast
a quantity of this product could be utilized, but realizing the
enormous amount consumed by automobile owners and manu-
facturers, tailors and painters for cleaning purposes, and
housewives for various uses, the demand is found to be greater
than the supply. Certain companies have perfected methods
of dying the sponges so that they may be had in many lovely
shades to match the bath-room or kitchen decorations.












1935 ANNUAL REPORT ON SPONGES SOLD THROUGH THE
TARPON SPRINGS SPONGE EXCHANGE, INC.
ROCK ISLAND SHEEPSWOOL
Large Wool .................... 31,627 Bunches $272,685.10 Av. $ 8.63 1
Med. and Small ............ 18,449 Bunches 36,351.93 Av. 1.96 I
Wool Rags 60,633 Bunches 218.933.27 Av. 3.61 I

110,709 Bunches $527,970.30
YELLOW--GRASS-WIRE
Yellow 64,249 Bunches $ 67,027.00 Av. $ 1.00 I
Grass 21,660 Bunches 15,600.24 Av. .72 I
Wire 11,159 Bunches 9,560.25 Av. .851Y I

97,068 Bunches $ 02.187.49
GRAND TOTAL
R. I. S. W. all grade ............110.709 Bunches $527,970.30
All other varieties ................ 97,068 Bunches 92,187.49

207,777 Bunches $620,157.79


DISTRIBUTION
DIVING BOATS
R. I. S. WOOL
Middle Range .................. $118,813.21
Middle Deep .................. 117,593.72
Deep Water 205,613.01

$442.022.84
Yellow Middle R. ......... 20,908.24
Yellow Middle D. ........ 17,462.36
Yellow Deep W. ........... 16,432.37
Wire Middle R ............... 3.517.14
Wire Middle D. ............ 2,409.48
Wide Deep Water .......... 3,633.63

Total by Diving Boats ..-$506,386.06


CATCH BY
HOOKER BOATS
INSHORE WOOL
$ 85,947.46


Yellow
Grass





Total by Hooker
B oats .... .........


$ 85.947.46
t 12,224.03
15,600.24

$ 27,824.27




.$113,771.73


GRAND TOTAL ALL BOATS
$620,157.79
Sponges sold outside of the Exchange were estimated to ie value at
about $3.000.00 to $5,000.00.












1936 ANNUAL REPORT ON SPONGES SOLD THROUGH THE
TARPON SPRINGS SPONGE EXCHANGE, INC.
ROCK ISLAND SHEEPSWOOL
Large Wool ..................... 26.519 Bunches $371,994.19 Av. $14.02
Med. and Small ............. 21,258 Bunches 67,155.82 Av. 3.16
Wool Rags 87,623 Bunches 498,604.63 Av. 5.71


135,400 Bunches $937,754.64
YELLOW-GRASS-WIRE
61,176 Bunches $ 73,839.02
17,423 Bunches 17,253.68
.......... 5,604 Bunches 6,581.92


$ 1.20 B.
.99 B.
1.17 B.


R. I. S. W. all grades
All other varieties .......


DIVING
R. 1. S. WOOL
Middle Range ........
Middle Deep ..........
I eep Water


Yellow Middle I.
Yellow Middle D.
Yellow Deep W. -
Wire Middle D...
Wire Middle R...
Wire Deep W. ....


203 Bunches $ 97,674.62
RAND TOTAL
........135,400 Bunches $
........ 84,203 Bunches


937,754.64
97,674.62


219,603 $1,035,429.24
DISTRIBUTION CATCH BY
BOATS HOOKER BOATS
INSHORE WOOL


.$465,750.00
S154,220.00
215,800.64

$835,770.64
.$ 21,971.62
.25.997.00
S6.125.00
S4.102.00
3,589.00
.4,890.00


6


$101,984.00




$101,984.00
13,332.00
17,668.00

$ 31,000.00


Yellow
Grass


Total by Hooker
$ 66,674.62 Boats $132,984.00
Total by Diving Boats....$902,445.26
GRAND TOTAL ALL BOATS
$1,035,429.26
Sponges sold outside of the Exchange were estimated to be value at
about $3,000.00 to $5,000.00.


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Grass
Wire










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BY-PRODUCTS OF FLORIDA SALT WATER
A Fish Product to Feed Livestock-Many waste materials
from the fishing industry, called fish scrap, can be ground up
and made into a nourishing meal to feed to livestock. At
present this industry is very small in Florida. The town of
Clearwater has built a municipally owned meal plant to which
fishermen can bring scrap to be ground. Perhaps other fish-
ing towns might profitably follow her lead.
Fish for Fertilizer-The State has two factories, one at
Fernandina and one at Port St. Joe, where menhaden (which
are not good food fish) are made into fertilizer. Early settlers
in America found the Indians using fish to fertilize their crops.
Later, when the new fertile lands of interior United States
were plowed and planted, we became very careless in our use
of soils. Today we are facing a real problem because our
methods of agriculture have resulted in the depletion of soil
by erosion and continuous planting of the same crop on the
same land year after year. Perhaps, in our effort to build up
our soils again, the fish fertilizer industry may grow. It is
very likely that we shall have to emulate the Chinese and
Japanese farmers by returning fertility to the soil in every way
possible.
A By-Product with Many Uses-Large heaps of discarded
shells are a waste product of the oyster fishing industry, for
which many uses have been found. The shells are burned
to make lime for fertilizer; crushed to form grit for poultry;
put on roads and along railroad track beds; and used in
oyster culture as "clutch" or hard bottom-material to which
live oysters may attach themselves.
































PART III

SECOND BIENNIAL REPORT
OF THE
STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


















































AI N oE O






















SA INLAND SPRINGllN(S NEAR~ I,O NCWO()I). S EMIII S OLF COU NTY~










PART III.

SECOND BIENNIAL REPORT
OF THE
STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Establishment and History
The Florida Geological Survey was established by the
Legislature of 1907. The Act creating it was approved by
Governor N. B. Broward, June 3, 1907, and Dr. E. H. Sellards
was appointed as State Geologist June 19, 1907, serving as
such until April 18, 1919. Upon the resignation of Dr. Sellards
as State Geologist, Herman Gunter, who had been with the
Survey since August 15, 1907, was appointed as his successor.
The Survey continued to function under the original Act for
twenty-six years, or until 1933.
During the Legislature of 1933 a Conservation Department
was created through the consolidation of the State Shell Fish
Commission, the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish
and the Florida State Geological Survey. This Act provided
for a State Board of Conservation, which is composed of the
Governor of Florida, the Secretary of State, the Attorney
General, the Comptroller, the State Treasurer, the State Super-
intendent of Public Instruction and the Commissioner of
Agriculture.
In 1935 by an Act of the Legislature the Department of
Game and Fresh Water Fish was made a separate function
of the State Government, thus leaving only the two formerly
distinct departments in the Conservation Department.
MAINTENANCE
From July 1, 1933, to June 30, 1935, funds for the main-
tenance of the Geological Department were allotted from the
Conservation Department. During the 1935 Legis'ature, how-
ever, a change was made through the Act making appropria-
tions for the various state agencies by placing the maintenance
of the Geological Survey again upon the General Revenue
Fund as it had been prior to the consolidation of Departments.











PURPOSE AND WORK OF THE SURVEY
Generally speaking a Department of Geology is instituted
for the purpose of making known and assisting in the develop-
ment of the mineral and other natural resources. In Florida
the mineral resources alone are of greater importance than
appear to be generally recognized. To have an understanding
of the mineral resources, however, a first requisite is an under-
tanding of the geology, so its first report dealt with the
geology of the State briefly and an important resource, the
water supply of central Florida. This was followed by a detailed
report on the geology which was accompanied by a general
geologic map. With the broader basic knowledge as its guide
the Survey has followed the policy of reporting upon specific
natural resources, as for instance, the underground waters
of the State, the phosphates, clays, limestones and marls,
sands and gravels, diatomaceous earth and the so-called rare
earths. There have also appeared reports dealing with the
geography of northern, central and southern Florida. Bulle-
tins containing fundamental data on the fossils contained in
many of our different formations and those obtained from an
examination of well cuttings have likewise been published.
All of these publications have contributed to an understand-
ing of the geology of Florida which in turn has given an
insight to the potential economic possibilities.
Necessarily with a limited appropriation it has not been
possible to delve as deeply into these various subjects as in
many instances was desired nor to publish as large editions
as the subjects treated merited. Consequently many of the
reports need revision and many have been out of print and
therefore are not available for distribution. Mineral needs
and the uses to which raw materials are put are constantly
changing. Some supposedly useless material of yesterday
becomes of vital importance today and it is therefore no re-
flection to say that the old reports are inadequate to properly
and fully meet the demands of modern industry. These older
reports contain fundamental data but the need today is for
more specific and more detailed information, quantity, accessi-
bility, chemical and physical properties and adaptibility to
commercial use.










PERSONNEL
The members of the Survey, in addition to the State
Geologist, have been Mr. Frank Westendick, Assistant Geolo-
gist, and Mrs. Mary H. Carswell, Secretary. Mr. J. Clarence
Simpson was Museum and Laboratory Assistant until Decem-
ber, 1935, when he was placed in charge of the archaeological
work in Hillsborough County by the Supervisor of Conserva-
tion. Special typing and clerical services have been rendered
by Miss Jeanetta Clemons.
COOPERATION
The work of the State Geological Survey includes problems
that touch many of the activities of other State and National
bureaus. A cooperative policy has always been maintained
where assistance can be rendered and duplication avoided.
Such a policy has furthered the work of the Survey and has
proven mutually advantageous. Cooperation has been main-
tained with the U. S. Geological Survey in water supply in-
vestigations, in geologic and paleontologic studies and in a
report on the physiography of Florida. Also with the U. S.
Bureau of Mines and the U. S. Bureau of Census in the
mineral production of the State. Of State organizations we
have cooperated most directly with the State Board of Health,
the University of Florida, the State Road Department and the
Superintendent of Public Instruction. Cooperation has also
been given various cities, communities and organizations
especially in the matter of the development of adequate,
potable supplies of ground water.

PUBLICATIONS
The Geological Survey has made available in permanent
form the results of its investigations in annual reports and
bulletins. The last annual report was the Twenty-third-
Twenty-fourth which was issued in 1933 just prior to the Sur-
vey being placed in the Conservation Department. The First
Biennial Report of the State Board of Conservation contains
a section covering the activities of the Geological Survey for
the period from July 1, 1933, to December 31, 1936. In ad-










edition to the annual reports there have been issued 14 bulle-
tins, 13 Press Bulletins and two mimeographed reports of in-
vestigations. These are placed in the leading libraries of
Florida and throughout the United States where they can be
referred to. Exchange relations are also maintained with all
the various Geological Surveys in this Country and many
foreign countries.
The publications issued by the Geological Survey are free
to residents of Florida, but requests from persons living in
States other than Florida must be accompanied by postage.
Conservation of Minerals in Florida. In compliance with
Sections 5-6 of Senate Bill 562 enacted by the Legislature of
1935 and relating to Courses of Instruction covering the Con-
servation of the Natural Resources of Florida, there was pre-
pared by the Florida Geological Survey for the Department of
Public Instruction a pamphlet dealing with the mineral re-
sources of Florida. This can be secured from the office of the
State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
MUSEUM AND LIBRARY
In December, 1927, the Survey offices and museum were
moved from the State Capitol to the ground floor of the
Martin Building. The west side is devoted to offices, publica-
tions room and the microscopic laboratory. The east side is
one large room measuring about 18 by 60 feet and is given
over to exhibits. On account of the crowded condition of the
office and museum the corridor between has been converted
into the library, which is used for reference. The library
contains thousands of publications from the various Geological
Surveys, domestic and foreign, the U. S. Geological Survey,
the U. S. Bureau of Mines, the Smithsonian Institution and
other Federal organizations. It is quite complete and is a
valuable source of reference material.
CLAY LABORATORY
The clay testing laboratory is located in the basement. It
is equipped for the making of physical tests of clays but
owing to the serious reduction in appropriation it has not
been possible to operate it for about three years. Investiga-











,ions and research work on the white burning clays of the
State were conducted with very satisfactory and significant
results. These results should be made available to those in-
terested in these resources. With the development that
Florida is making in the industrial fields further research
should be carried on particularly of the common clays and the
pottery and stoneware clays. Construction of the more
permanent type is utilizing more and more the enduring
building material and this is creating an ever stronger de-
mand for clay produces. Florida has raw materials that make
not only an attractive building brick but one of good quality
as wel Development should be encouraged, and the Survey
can render this needed service if money is made available.

SOME NEEDS OF THE SURVEY
The statement is often made that Florida abounds in natural
resources and that Nature has been most generous toward the
State in bestowing such gifts. It is true that Florida does have
many natural resources but is the State doing its share toward
their proper development, utilization and conservation? Where
there is abundance and plenty little if any thought is given to
conserving or utilization. Waste frequently creeps in and ex-
travagance is the general practice. Many instances of waste of
natural resources are of record throughout our Nation and
Florida, too, is guilty. Even with our mineral resources we have
been most thoughtless in their development, particularly with
the abundant water supplies that everywhere are present. So
it becomes necessary to call attention and seek a halt before
it is too late and in such warnings the cooperation of the
citizens of the State or commonwealth is earnestly asked.
Underground water investigation: The underground and
surface waters of the State have always been a most valuable
asset. Perhaps the very abundance and generous presence of
water has caused our citizens to give little thought to the
actual importance of it. Over a large portion of the State
flowing wells can be obtained and in such sections the waste
of ground water is particularly noticeable. Many seem to
have the idea that just because the water will flow freely
83





















































SIIII(;l.HN S1'IINCS, EA ST OF LAKE, (EORGE


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there is no need to stop it. It is there for use or waste just
as one desires in the matter. But, there is a limit to such a
practice. And as the State develops there will necessarily be
an ever increasing demand. Already there is being felt the
result of heavy draft on our artesian supplies, both in the
reduction of flow as well as in the quality of water. Thus
Nature reacts, so it is of imperative necessity that we take
precaution and use judgment in the development and the
utilization of Nature's gifts. Therefore waste should not be
tolerated or permitted. Measures to conserve and protect our
water supplies should be enacted. Wells penetrating waters
too saline for use should be plugged so as to prevent con-
tamination of surrounding wells yielding fresh water.
With the establishment of the Survey attention was given
to the underground waters of the State and a number of
reports have been issued. More recently cooperation with
the U. S. Geological Survey has been maintained and rather
detailed studies have been in progress covering certain areas
that have been faced with problems connected with the
adequacy of water supplies. This important phase of work
should be continued but owing to lack of funds this coopera-
tion has been suspended, except to a very limited degree.
Groundwater legislation: A bill has been prepared which
has for its purpose the protection of the water supplies of
Florida and their conservative development. This will be pre-
sented to the 1937 Legislature for consideration. If this
should receive favorable action it will mean a prolongation
of use of the ground waters and an orderly utilization of
them. It is a measure designed to conserve and protect as
we"l as to permit use.
Clay: The Survey now has a clay laboratory capable of
carrying on tests of our common building and pottery clays.
Assistance should be made available so this laboratory could
be re-opened and such detailed survey of our clay resources
made. There is also now on hand the results of a study of
our white-burning clays, the kaolins, and these should be
arranged and placed in order for publication. It is thought











that the report will contain such data as to stimulate added
utilization of these high grade Florida clays.
Sand Investigation: With the increasing demand for glass-
wares detailed studies should be made of the sands of the
State for the particular purpose of determining their suit-
ability for the manufacture of glass. There are many deposits
of almost pure silica sand in different parts of the State but
actual'information about their extent and chemical composi-
tion is lacking. In order therefore to invite development
such data should be gotten and reported upon. It is felt that
some of our deposits are of sufficiently high quality to permit
the manufacture of even the higher grades of glassware.
In order to accomplish some of the suggestions made it is
urged that the appropriation for the maintenance of the Sur-
vey be increased so additional assistance can be employed.
In another section will be found the requested budget for the
biennium 1937-1939.

DEVELOPMENTS
DIATOMITE
During the biennium covered by this report certain develop-
ments have come about that are worthy of special mention.
Continued research carried on by the American Diatomite
Company of Clermont, Lake County, has resulted in a solution
of certain difficult problems connected with the drying, re-
fining and utilization of the Florida diatomaceous earth. A
small plant is now operating satisfactorily and a high grade
product is being placed on the market. Furthermore, articles
manufactured from diatomaceous earth are also being made,
chief among which at present is the Everdry salt shaker manu-
factured by the Ever-Dry Products Company, Clermont. This
is a most satisfactory container for salt since the patented top
made from diatomaceous earth prevents or retards the en-
trance of moisture. This small diatomaceous earth industry
is attracting a great deal of attention not only in Florida but
in other states and it is predicted that the output of both crude
material and manufactured products will grow.




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