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Everglades Drainage District biennial report
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 Material Information
Title: Everglades Drainage District biennial report <to the Board of Commissioners>
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: T.J. Appleyard, Inc.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla.
Creation Date: 1925
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Environmental engineering -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Drainage -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Environmental conditions -- Periodicals -- Everglades (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: F.C. Elliot, Chief Drainage Engineer.
General Note: Description based on : 1925/1926; title from cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001729481
oclc - 31026881
notis - AJE2062
System ID: UF00075731:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
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    Main
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Full Text










UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY














EVERGLADES DRAINAGE

DISTRICT




BIENNIAL REPORT

1925-1926


F. C. ELLIOT
Chief Drainage Engineer



T.J, APPLEYARO, INC., TALLAHASSEF. FLORIDA


**" *** .

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....
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~~_~~ ..... ...












BIENNIAL REPORT
EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
1925-1926


Tallahassee, Florida, January 1st, 1927.

Board of Commissioners of
Everglades Drainage District,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Gentlemen:
It has been the practice of this office to transmit to the
Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage District
every two years a report covering the work accomplished
in the Everglades during the two preceding years, to submit
estimates for continuing the work, to make recommenda-
tions for new work, and suggest such other subjects as
should come to the attention of the Board in reference to
the District, not only relating to the work going on, but also
from the standpoint of taxation, provision of money for
future work, and matters in general relating to the District
connected with drainage. The Board proceeds with the
raising of money under authority from the Legislature,
based upon the District drainage taxes imposed by law.
The Legislature will meet in April, 1927, hence it is ad-
visable that information be presented to the Board in ad-
vance which will assist in planning for the works of the
future, in financing such works, and for carrying out the
needs of the District in reference to drainage.
In consideration of the foregoing, this report is sub-
mitted.
Respectfully,
F. C. ELLIOT,
Chief Drainage Engineer.
FCE/B.













STATUS OF PRESENT WORK.
TABLE "A"


Canals


Caloosahatchee ....................
Cypress Creek .....................
D ania ...........................
Harney's Pond ....................
N ine M ile ........................
Snake Creek .......................
Tamiami .......................
South New River ..................
Snapper Creek ....................
Snapper Creek Extension ...........
Indian Prairie .....................
I illsboro .......................
North New River. ..... ............
M iam i ..........................
Saint Lucie .......................
W est Palm Beach .................
Lateral Canals ....................
Total Canal Excavation ...........



Levees


Moore Haven-Sand Point ...........
Sand Point-Miami .................
N. N. River-Hillsboro ...............
Miami-N. N. River .................
Hillsboro-Bacom Point .............
Moore Haven-North West ...........
Total Levee Construction .........
Miscellaneous excavation for Locks,
Dams, Docks, etc .................
Total Excavation ................


444 cj r-A



3,128,664 28.00
768,288 12.20
1,169,019 5.95
226,952 3.65
148,610 9.73
292,346 14.30
419,577 5.52
3,693,207 25.00
572,090 12.56
328,847 8.47
1,668,705 20.83
8,147,393 50.00
7,819,311 59.20
8,211,169 78.70
22,267,958 25.00
10,439,985 40.90
976,672 32.36
70,278,793 432.37



ab 5


919,735 11.28
405,581 11,52
244,215 2.66
641,848 6.98
644,360 18.89
177,788 3.16
3,033,527 54.49

80,720
73,393,040 486.86
cu. yds.










6 BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926

The work accomplished during 1925 and 1926 is as fol-
lows:
TABLE "B."
Cu. Yds. Cu. Yds.
Canal 1925 1926
Saint Lucie ..................... 1,257,151 1,459,712
West Palm Beach ............... 1,099,804 1,185,626
North New River ................ 509,881 1,242,673
Hillsboro ....................... 246,339 404,177
Indian Prairie .................. 234,945 31,258
Caloosahatchee .................. 141,119 .........
Snapper Creek .................. 3,941 .........
Lateral Canals .................. 68,986 168,781

Total ........................ 3,562,166 4,492,227

Levees
Moore Haven-Sand Point Div...... 207,637 241,130
Sand Pt.-Miami Div. ............. 65,927 19,343
Hillsboro-Bacom Pt. Div. ......... 1,500 193,760
Moore Haven-Northwest Div ....... 2,730 44,888
Miami-N. N. River Div. ........... 32,000 239,431
N. N. River-Hillsboro Div. ................. 119,814

Total ........................ 309,794 858,366
Miscellaneous ................... 27,808 4,700

Total work accomplished ....... 3,899,768 5,355,293
(1925) (1926)

RECAPITULATION

1925 1926
Canals ........................ 3,562,166 4,492,227
Levees ......................... 309,794 858,366
Miscellaneous ................... 27,808 4,700

Total ........................ 3,899,768 5,355,293
Total 1925 and 1926 ..................... 9,255,061

The Status of Lock and Dam Construction in the Ever-
glades is as follows:










EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


TABLE C."


Dimensions.
Lock W. ft. L. ft.
North New River No. 1 ................. 25 130
North New River (Temp., use discon'td.) .... 20 90
North New River (Temp., use discon'td.).... 20 9'0
North New River No. 4............... ... 22 110
South New River No. 1................... 22 90
Miami No. 1............................ 25 130
Miami No. 4.......................... 22 90
Hillsboro No. 1. ......................... 25 130
Iillsboro No. 2.......................... 25 130
West Palm Beach No. 1 .................. 25 130
West Palm Beach No. 2.................. 25 135
Caloosahatchee No. 1..................... 30 150
Caloosahatchee No. 2....................... 30 150
Caloosahatchee No. 3...................... 30 150
Saint Lucie No. 1........................ 30 150
Saint Lucie No. 2........................ 30 150
NOTE :-No new construction undertaken on these locks
during years 1925 and 1926.

MONEY EXPENDED

The amount of money expended on all construction work
of Everglades Drainage District includes the following:
Canal construction and maintenance, levee construction
and maintenance, maintenance of locks and dams and their
operation, maintenance of plant, new plant and equipment,
drainage investigations and surveys, superintendence and
administration.
The expenditures for the above, reduced to three classes
under which distribution is made for convenience, are set
forth by months in the following Tables "D" and "E."










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


TABLE "D."
EXPENDITURES FOR 1925.


Month Construction
January ..$ 95,992.94
February 99,012.71
March .... 95,572.78
April .... 91,913.35
May ..... 114,852.93
June ..... 127,705.59
July ..... 125,674.16
August ... 94,283.85
September 107,324.35
October ... 110,707.86
November 164,951.81
December 103,024.95

Total ...$1,331,017.28


Maintenance
$ 3,877.85
3,600.55
5,343.62
4,671.91
4,166.06
4,816.37
6,249.69
7,535.20
2,631.00
5,477.90
4,872.92
8,401.67


Engineering
$ 5,620.86
5,812.93
5,970.40
7,454.99
7,002.87
7,400.63
5,957.16
7,648.09
4,782.98
6,504.70
6,911.82
6,107.84


$61,644.74 $77,175.27


RECAPITULATION
Construction ........... $1,331,017.28=
Maintenance ........... 61,644.74=
Engineering ........... 77,175.27=


90.55%
4.19%
5.26%


Total ............... $1,469,837.29=100.00%
The work consisted principally in excavating rock and
earth in nearly equal proportions in deepening present
canals and in constructing the Saint Lucie Canal.
TABLE "E."


EXPENDITURES
Month Construction


72,796.53
163,848.86
155,687.89
150,866 65
178,191.67
70,655.49
287,010.35
195,087.05
144,882.90
124,073.76
344,691.12
172,817.25


January ......$
February .....
March .......
April ........
May ..........
June .........
July ..........
August .......
September ....
October ...... .
November ......
December .. ...


FoR 1926.
Maintenance
$ 3,850.45
4,319.42
3,987.22
3,982,57
4,987.76
6,036.60
5,500.46
8,638.35
9,877.48
13,013.00
15,887.10
12,611.53


Engineering
$ 7,257.34
5,533.81
5,840.38
9,076.73
6,130.28
6,463.47
6,230.05
7,475.76
6,505.59
6,492.63
5,531.26
8,178.57


Total .... $2,060,609.52


$92,691.94 $80,715.87










EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


Construction
Maintenance
Engineering


RECAPITULATION.
................. .$2,060,609.52=
................... 92,691.94=
. .................. 80,715.87=


Total ..................... $2,234,017.33= 100.00%


Construction
Maintenance
Engineering


1925 AND 1926.
.................. $3,391,626.80=
................... 154,336.68=
................... 157,891.14=


Total ..................... $3,703,854.62=100.00%
Total Expenditures to January 1, 1925 ... $11,200,000.00
Total Expenditures for 1925 and 1926..... 3,703,854.00

Total Expenditures to January 1, 1927. .... $14,903,854.00


New Canals
Canal Length
Miles
A(1) 23.2
(2) 10.0
B(1) 46.0
(2) 5.0
C(1) 29.5
(2) 20.5
D(1) 32.0
(2) 8.2
E(1) 36.0
F(1) 17.7
(2) 13.0
(G) (26.6)


H1(1)
K & K1
L (1)


Total
(1)
(2)


36.0
34.0
21.2


TABLE F.'
Estimate January 1st, 1927
Cubic Yards Unit Cost Cost
c. $
3,994,000 25 998,500.
1,842,300 15 276,345.(
5,975,000 20 1,195,000.(
1,485,000 13 193,050.(
2,141,000 40 856,400.(
2,010,000 21 422,100.(
6,400,000 33 2,112,000.(
778,000 33 256,740.
6,901,000 33 2,277,330.(
1,961,000 40 784,400.
1,500,000 40 600,000.(


(4,350,000)



14,000,000
5,490,000
S801,000


00
00
)00


JO
00
00
00
00
00,
00
00
00


(Being con-
structed by
Dade Drain-
age District)
2,240,000.00
1,372,500.00
120,150.00


............ 55,278,300 Cu. Yds. $13,704,515.00
New original cuts.
Additional cuts for outlets in old canals.


92.24,%
4.15%
3.61%


91.57%
4.17%
4.26%


I









BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


TABLE "G."

ESTIMATE OLD CANALS.

Total Remaining Yardage, January 1st, 1927.

Canal- Cubic Yards. Unit Cost. Cost.
Saint Lucie .......... 1,809,700 40c $ 723,880.00
Caloosahatchee ....... 1,200,000 25c 300,000 00
West Palm Beach..... 1,157,720 15c 173,655.00
Hillsboro ............ 3,834,800 30c 1,150,440.00
North New River..... 1,766,000 60c 1,059,600.00
Miami .............. 2,485,000 65c 1,615,250.00

Total ............. 12,253,220 $5,022,825.00
Note.-Estimates include overdepth of 1 ft., except 2 ft.
on Saint Lucie.
The canals as above described are on a basis of gravity
flow.
As time goes on it is certain that pumping from local
areas into the main canals will come more and more into
use as affording more flexible and wider range of drainage
and water regulation.
Such use of pumps will make possible much higher levels
in the main canals, even to elevation above the adjoining
land. Canals running at such levels would afford a very
considerable increase in discharge capacity and provide a
degree of drainage about 20% above that for which they
have been designed as pure gravity outlets.
The foregoing covers the work necessary to be done for
providing the main drainage outlets for that part of the
Everglades Drainage District lying East and North of
Miami Canal toward the Eastern boundary of the District,
Northward to Saint Lucie Canal, Northwestward and West-
ward around that section North and Northwest of Lake
Okeechobee, and Southward and Southwesterly along the
Caloosahatchee Canal to the Western boundary of the Dis-
trict, and thence Eastward near the Southern margin of
Lake Hicpochee and Nine-Mile Canal, following the South
shore of Lake Okeechobee to its intersection with the Miami
Canal, representing approximately two-thirds of the re-
claimable land of Everglades Drainage District. This is
the area in which all of the drainage work has been done









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


to date. The area includes some of the most valuable lands
in the Everglades and is nearer and more accessible to prin-
cipal centers of population and includes practically all of
that portion of Everglades Drainage District in which pri-
vate development has taken place. This area, embodying
approximately 2,300,000 acres, is large enough to accom-
modate all requirements for land settlement and cultivation
for several years to come. No estimate is submitted cover-
ing the Southwestern section of the Everglades, as it will
undoubtedly be a number of years before demand for land
will warrant beginning drainage in this untouched area.
The drainage of the latter section is referred to in a gen-
eral way, with suggestions as to what may be expected when
the drainage of the Southwest section of the Everglades
may be undertaken. Working out of final plans for this
section is a proper subject for the future, inasmuch as the
work will probably not be begun shortly, and for the fur-
ther reason that construction and cost conditions will not
be the same a few years hence.

FLOOD PROTECTION WORK AROUND LAKE
OKEECHOBEE

With reference to protective works along Lake Okee-
chobee for future construction, experience during the year
1926 and observations of the hurricane of last September
and the results therefrom, indicate the advisability, if not
absolute necessity, of undertaking on a broad, comprehen-
sive scale, not only the protection of lands around the lake
against storm damage in so far as practicable, but also
reducing the danger to human life. That there will be
other storms is certain. The occurrence of hurricanes such
as that experienced last September, according to available
records, is at extremely infrequent intervals, but records
are often broken and there is no way of forecasting how
soon another may be experienced, hence the early prepara-
tion for and speedy completion of works for combatting
hurricane dangers is must desirable. The protection of life
and property against hurricanes is a feature not strictly a
part of land drainage, but the experience of last September
makes clear the necessity of combatting this danger, as well
a providing against heavy rainfall. The construction of
drainage canals adequate for carrying away heavy rainfall,
or of the regulation of Lake Okeechobee to a degree satis-









12 BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926

factory for agricultural purposes, and as protecting the
land against overflow, is strictly a part of the drainage
enterprise. The reduction of danger from hurricanes is
another matter. Correlation of these two forces, water and
wind, and the aggravation of danger by reason of the simul-
taneous culmination of them in combination, especially in
the Lake region, is productive of conditions similar to those
along the shore of the sea itself, and against which it is
absolutely imperative to undertake work which will bring
the dangers resulting from their combination within reason-
able limits by breaking up the combination of these two
destructive agencies. Since but one of these is susceptible
of treatment, efforts must be confined to works to resist
the storm-driven waters. In other words, dykes must be
built along the shore of Lake Okeechobee.
The investigations and studies made, the data collected,
and the information now at hand, all gathered from the
September hurricane, makes possible the working out of
plans to better advantage for securing safer conditions to
the Everglades, especially the Okeechobee sections, than
could have heretofore been possible.
When the best remedy has been determined, the most
practicable works devised, and the cost has been estimated,
the project cannot be soundly urged for adoption unless
expenditures required for securing the desired and neces-
sary protection are warranted by the benefits to be secured
and the financial ability of the area to pay. Asssessments
of taxes must not exceed the ability of the property to pay,
regardless of future benefits.
In planning for flood relief and for lessening hurricane
danger, it may seem that the expenditures necessary for its
accomplishment are large. The degree of protection nec-
essary should be carefully considered. If such protection
is for agricultural purposes only, perhaps works affording
less degree of protection and at reduced cost, might be
justified on the theory that almost any expenditure would
improve conditions, hence warranted. There are situa-
tions, therefore, where partial protection may be wise and
where property losses at infrequent periods could be
borne. On the other hand, there are other situations, such
as the protection of towns and homes, involving the con-
sideration of human life, where anything less than com-
plete protection not only would be unwise, but a menace
to the Jives and property intended to be protected, and









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


where the provision of insufficient works might lead the
inhabitants to a feeling of false security which would
result in aggravating the danger, rather than ameliorat-
ing it.
With the above consideration emphasized, attention
is invited to works suggested for protection against Lake
Okeechobee during storms of hurricane character. Such
protective works should be considered from the same
standpoint as drainage works for the Everglades. The
plans of the Everglades Drainage District are for main
drainage works only. It is not the purpose of the Dis-
trict to provide the secondary drainage works, or works
of local character for local areas. Following the same
policy with reference to storm protection works, it would
be the part of the District to provide the main structures,
such as levees, around Lake Okeechobee only, but not the
levees, dykes or barriers for separating town or city areas
from outlying farm areas, or others of local nature.
The construction of an adequate levee around the South-
western, Southern and Southeastern shores of Lake Okee-
chobee of sufficient height to prevent hurricane driven
waters going over them, and of sufficient mass and re-
sistance to withstand wave action under hurricane con-
ditions, will require works of far greater height, strength
and mass, and at much greater cost, than any required
merely for retaining the waters of Lake Okeechobee under
non-hurricane conditions, but structures capable of re-
sisting the effects of such storms as that which occurred
last September can be built, and though at large cost, the
exigencies of the case must be its justification. The plans
worked out in this office contemplate:
1. Protective works which will be adequate to resist
the action of hurricane driven water from Lake Okeecho-
bee.
2. The provision of such works with as great economy
as is consistent with safety.
3. Protective works with which can be combined other
uses at small cost, thereby increasing their value and af-
fording additional benefits to the protected section.
With the foregoing principal points in mind, location
of the levee should be along the lake shore approximately
at the level which the lake will stand under normal con-
ditions; that is to say, between 14 and 16 feet. That the










.14 BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926

levee be constructed of local material and of such propor-
tions for differing materials, according to their resistant
qualities, as will be safe for the purpose intended, and of
constructing the same according to such design as will en-
hance property, not only by adequate protection to the
same, but by making it more attractive and for better
uses. With this point in mind the following is stated:
The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund own
practically all of the land on which the levee will be con-
structed, and in many localities there exists a strip of land
owned by the Trustees between the levee and the high
water mark of the lake which can be reclaimed and pro-
tected against overflow. This land in its present condition
is of little value. The construction of the levee can be
so carried out as to form a high embankment 150 to 250
feet wide on top, which will afford attractive home sites for
the Everglades section. The building up of such areas and
the creating of attractive and valuable home sites will
greatly enhance, not only the land improved and made
fit for such use, but property adjoining. Since this land
belongs to the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund,
it does not seem unreasonable for the Trustees to join
with the Drainage Board in the expense of providing the
levee in such proportion as the Trustees and the Drainage
Board may deem equitable, based upon the enhanced
value of property after such improvement. If the Trustees
should decline to join the Drainage Board in construction
cost, it is suggested that they deed to the Drainage Dis-
trict land occupied by the levee in order that the Dis-
trict may proceed with its construction as described, and
reimburse itself in part by the sale of lots on its own ac-
count.
The construction of such a levee would be carried out
by using the present levee along the lake shore as the
outer embankment, and building a second at the proper
distance on the land side of the first, say at a distance
of 150 to 250 feet, or such other width as local conditions
warrant, and of filling the space between these two em-
bankments by pumping material from the bottom of the
lake in front of the outer levee. The resulting levee would
be an embankment about 8 to 10 feet high, and about 200
feet wide. Drawings and estimates covering the construc-
tion of such levees are shown herewith. The levee should









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


be constructed of material at the site. Even though the
material be of low resistant character, such as sand or
muck, investigation indicates that there will be greater
economy in increasing the mass to meet requirements of
resistance, rather than haul material, such as rock, from
elsewhere and place the same along the levee, or of build-
ing a concrete wall. In many locations, however, rock
occurs at convenient depths for excavating by dredges and
depositing against the levee revetment. This can be done
to advantage. The construction of wooden pole mattresses
does not appear advisable for the reason that their cost is
considerable, and throughout the levee section there will be
much of the time when this mattress would be above water
level and consequently subject to rapid deterioration. Such
deterioration would not be obvious and would most likely
make itself known only under storm conditions, resulting
in failure at times when failure cannot be afforded. It is
not anticipated that such a levee as is here proposed is of
sufficient height to prevent the possible breaking over of
wave crests under hurricane force, but the great width of
the embankment is such as to resist serious erosion, just
as the shore of the sea resists the action of the waves. In
this connection it might be stated that the damage to the
ocean beach near Palm Beach and in the vicinity of Fort
Lauderdale did not extend to a strip of shore greater in
width than 90 feet on the immediate ocean side, and this
beach is of loose sand of low resistance: A width, there-
fore, of 150 to 250 feet appears to be sufficient for with-
standing any effect that might be expected from Lake
Okeechobee under hurricane conditions such as those which
prevailed during the storm of last September.
Inasmuch as these disturbances are in nearly all cases
forecasted several days in advance (such was the case
with the hurricane of last September), there is opportunity
to remove such property as farm equipment, machinery,
vehicles and the like, in the areas near the lake, to the
higher ground provided by the levee for greater protec-
tion. The advantages of a wide flat-topped embankment
of this nature rather than a narrow rock or concrete wall
seems sufficient to practically place other types of levees
or protection works out of consideration. In addition to the
above, and aside from the protective feature, this levee ap-
peals as of great value, as has already been stated, in pro-



















OKEECHOBEE LEVEE


MOORE HAVEN TO SAND POINT AND SIMILAR SECTIONS

Rebltve Scales o" -


----- oo'o 250


New Channel Mare,,.l fr Hydrauli Fill


NORTH NEW RIVER TO'HILLSBORO CANAL AND SIMILAR SECTIONS


OFFICE Of THE CHIEF DRAINAGE- I


ck, for Rip-Rnp


fl3p Rp

L.K Ok-hch b- Is- El- ------V
--- x 71 1..
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-- ----- ---- I R o f., T-ft









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


viding attractive building sites along what would then be
truly lake front property. The embankment would have
sufficient width to accommodate an improved road on the
lake side, with building lots immediately back of the road.
The present shallow lake bottom at ordinary high levels
and the exposed muddy marsh at low levels, would be con-
verted into a valuable navigable channel about 200 feet
wide, with a depth of water varying from about 6 to 10
feet adjacent to the shore line. Such advantages for build-
ing purposes, road location, water front and commodious
navigable channel would result in greatly enhanced values
of the land and shore line thus developed.
A levee such as the above, therefore, is recommended
above any other type of structure suitable for this locality
and for the purpose required.

OKEECHOBEE LEVEE

26 miles excavation 200' x 8'=
8,135,100 cu. yds. at 12c.... $976,212.00
Rock excavation and riprap, 19
miles-200 cu. yds. per 100 ft.
of levee=200,640 cu. yds at
40c ........................ 80,264.00
7 miles-150 cu. yds. per 100 ft.
55,440 cu. yds. at $1.60...... 88,704.00

Total 26 miles ............ $1,145,180.00
North New River Hillsboro Design-
21.6 miles excavation 85' x 8'=
2,872,320 cu. yds. at 12c ..... $334,678.00
Rock excavation and riprap, 200
cu. yds. per 100 feet of levee-
228,100 cu. yds. at 40c....... 91,240.00

Total 21.6 miles ........... $ 435,918.00

Total Okeechobee Levee, 47.6
miles .................... $1,581,098.00

Twenty-six miles of heavy levee divided into building
lots 90 feet wide with right-of-way 60 feet wide at quarter-
mile intervals across the levee, affords 56 lots per mile, or









BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


a total of 1,165 lots for four-fifths of the levee owned by the
trustees.
Value at $500.00 per lot ............... $582,000.00
Value at $750.00 per lot ................ 873,000.00
If the Trustees join with Drainage Board at ratio repre-
sented by $500.00 per lot, the heavy section of the levee
would cost as follows:
Everglades Drainage District ........... $563,180.00
Trustees of the I. I. Fund .............. $582,000.00
and the entire levee would cost:
Everglades Drainage District ........... $999,098.00
Trustees of the I. I. Fund .............. $582,000.00
The heavier sections cover portions of lake shore exposed
to open water. The lighter sections cover the naturally
protected shores of the lake.

MEMORANDUM

Since preparation of the above report the following
Law has been enacted by Congress:
"An Act authorizing a survey of the Caloosahatchee
River drainage area in Florida, and of Lake Okeechobee
and certain territory bordering its shores in Florida.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa-
tives of the United States of America in Congress assem-
bled, that the Secretary of War be, and is hereby author-
ized and directed to cause a survey of the Caloosahatchee
River drainage area in Florida and to determine what
control works are necessary for navigation in connection
with flood control and the cost thereof, and also a survey
of Lake Okeechobee in Florida and certain territory
bordering its shores and from Lake Okeechobee to the
Atlantic Ocean to determine what measures are necessary
for flood control, such as additional diking and outlets,
and further lowering of the levels of Lake Okeechobee.
Sec. 2. The sum of $45,000 or so much thereof as may
be necessary, is hereby authorized to be expended out of
any funds heretofore or hereafter appropriated for the
improvement of rivers and harbors to carry out the pro-
visions of this Act.
Approved, February 14, 1927."
The above relates to certain work which, if carried out,
will be of great assistance to Everglades Drainage Dis-









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


trict. If such work is carried out, it will be desirable
that the Board arrange with the Federal Government
for undertaking work by Everglades Drainage District
in harmony with whatever work may be done by the
United States. The coordination of the drainage work
by the Board and work of flood control and navigation
by the United States will result in greater benefit to that
section than the independent works of either without
reference to the other. This office will keep in touch
with the War Department in this regard and will furnish
information to the Board on the subject as soon as the
results of the survey 'referred to in the Act shall have
disclosed the nature of the works proposed, if any, by the
Federal Government, and the extent to Which such works
and those of Everglades Drainage District may be coordi-
nated to the best advantage.
ADDITIONAL DRAINAGE CANALS.
It does not seem to be generally known that the main
canals at present constructed or under construction in the
Everglades, form but a part of the complete plan for the
major canal system. That the present canals can drain
the Everglades is not and never has been claimed or ex-
pected by the Board. There is a rather widespread belief
that the present outlets are all that the Board have in
mind, even though they have taken pains to state the con-
trary. Hasty conclusions arrived at by judging drainage,
or lack of drainage, from the uncompleted plan, are bound
to be incorrect.
To complete the drainage of that section of the Ever-
glades where work is already well under way, representing
an area of approximately 2,300,000 acres, certain existing
canals must be improved and new canals constructed.
Tables showing improvements to present projects are in-
cluded herewith and also a table of new canals showing
excavation required and the approximate cost of their
construction. The degree of drainage to be provided by
this system, when completed, will afford adequate main
drainage outlets for the area. The drainage coefficient
on which they are planned is represented by the equation.
20
D = + 12.
1+V A









RUN-OFF CURVES

SFOR MUCK ONLY, BETWEEN TE LIMITS OF 1 SQUARE MILE AND 50 QUARE MILES D + 16
FLOW 1 FOOT BELOW BANK FULL THRU FLAT AREA.


FOR GENERAL CONDITIONS IN VARIABLE SO1L AP S5UBS0L
BETWEEN THE LIMITS OF' 10 SQUARE MILES AND ZOO SQUARE MILES ...-
FLOW FOOT BELOW BANK FULL THRU FLAT AREA.


D 2
D= I+- +liZ


Z4 1.0



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0.8




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EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


EVERGLADES


DRAINAGE DISTRICT, WEST PALM BEACH STATION


RAINFAL L lL EVAPORA 9I I C
1920 1921
Tortl Ro.nfall 62.59 Toral R;anfall 44.85
S- Evapoiaion 6074" .. vporoion 66A2"
"*OTE; -UI-NFiAjL BY STAHDAID RIM Q S.- U-- l
EVAPORATION FREE WATER SURE CE FROMI AN -
FLOATIIG IN CANAL.







4I I I HI nI LI I I4,1
t n 7


V -- --


3




Jan. Feb. Mor Apr May JuneJuly Aug.5ep Oct. Nov. Dec. Jn. Feb. Mr. Apr MayJuneJuly Aug.SeptrOct Nov. Dec.

1922 1923

Tolal Roanfall 69.9 Total Rainfoll 57.07'
Epvoporoion 45.37 Evaporotion 505







1, -


4-4





Jan. Feb. Mar Apr. May June July Aug.Sep.Ocr. Nov Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov.Dec












BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT WEST PALM BEACH STATION
RAINFALL EVAPORATION
1924 1925
Total Rainfll 74.73 ToIl- RainFall 6844
Ev- portion 48.81 s Evaporehon 44-77

10








pS 3
I A- 3
-- a--J: 2D - L L -



Jan. Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug.epr Oct Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Ma Apr May June July Aug SeptOct. Nov Dec.

1926
Total Rainfall 7173'
1.. Evaporhon 49.30















Jan. Feb. Mar Apr. MayJuneJuly Aug epr Oct Nov. Dec









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


In other words, for areas of 20 square miles, near their
upper ends the canals will afford a discharge capacity of
161 cubic feet per second per square mile. For an area
of 50 square miles, the discharge will be at the rate of 141/
cubic feet per second per square mile. For 100 square
miles of area the capacity would be at the rate of 13.8
cubic feet per second per square mile, and for 200 square
miles the capacity is at the rate of 131/2 cubic feet per
second per square mile.
The canals shown on Map No. 1 have a total combined
discharge capacity, exclusive of the Saint Lucie Canal, of
31,900 cubic feet per second. The area of Everglades
Drainage District served by these canals is 2,211 square
miles, and the drainage coefficient or rate of drainage pro-
vided by such canals is 14.4 cubic feet per second per
square mile, representing the removal of 54/100 inch of
rainfall for 24 hours. This is exclusive of natural water-
ways of which there are few, and omits from considera-
tion a few small areas near the coast served by other than
Everglades canals. That the above will be sufficient is
based further upon the assumption that the canals will
flow at the above capacity 1 foot below the banks through
low lands, and that prior to the beginning of the rainy
season the water table throughout the Glades will be re-
duced to an average of about 3 feet in order that the val-
uable factor of soil storage may be taken advantage of in
controlling floods and for diminishing the peak load. It
is also upon the assumption that the secondary, or lateral
systems to be provided by sub-drainage districts are in
operation to a substantial degree. The method of con-
structing the canals of the District heretofore followed
has resulted in obtaining a depth approximately 1 foot
greater than that called for by the specifications, and the
width is, in nearly all cases, wider than that required.
The above estimates for discharge do not take these con-
ditions into consideration, but are based upon the neat
section of the canal called for by the specifications and
plans.
It will be noted that the canals recommended follow an
Easterly direction, reaching the ocean by the shortest
practicable route. This East and West plan is a depart-
ure from the plan recommended by the Everglades En-
gineering Commission in what is commonly referred to as













EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT

31 3Z 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43









LAKE OKEECHOBE E- -
---












45

46
7 35 34 36 37 39 40 4 44







-- -- .----- 0, -,- --

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32 3. 34 35 36 37 33 39 40 41 4A 43

Proposd Ne C.nl.. A,B,C.0,,F,6,H,K, .
Probbe order development, fom are orda.
Probable oder ",devcrelopmol' rom rre ,z faowrdsau i ,









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


the Isham Randolph Report. The East and West canal
plan has been described in former reports from this office
to the Drainage Board, but because it is a departure from
the Isham Randolph plans the reasons for this departure
are again stated here. Such modification does not consti-
tute any basic difference in the general principles of
drainage, but is a different location of canals based upon
economy and efficiency. It might be here stated that in
the light of far more extended data and information now
at hand, and extensive investigation which this office has
made, which were not available in 1912, certain modifica-
tions are to be expected looking to improvement in the
original plan.
The reasons why this office recommends the East and
West Canal system as against the diagonal system suggested
in the Isham Randolph report, are as follows:
1. The land of the Everglades is low. Under best con-
ditions it has not enough slope to the sea to produce in the
canals more than a sluggish current. There is too little
fall to waste a particle of it. Unnecessarily long canals are
wasteful of fall. So important is this consideration that I
set this down as an axiom-a self-evident truth-that the
canals must follow the shortest route to the sea.
2. An examination of Map No. 2 shows that sub-surface
formation in the Everglades and discloses the other prin-
cipal reason for locating the canals Eastward toward the
ocean. Along the Eastern edge of the Everglades and for
some distance in places into the interior, the predominating
rock formation is soft and not difficult to excavate. Fur-
ther toward the interior extending generally North and
South, lies the hard rock of the E,]-.1l, 1-]. The excava-
tion of this rock cannot be done without extensive drilling
and blasting, which greatly adds to the cost of canal con-
struction. Character of rock is indicated on the map. If
canals were located running Northwesterly and Southeast-
erly, much greater proportion of their length would be
within the hard rock area, resulting in high cost. On the
other hand, with the canals following an Easterly direction,
they more quickly emerge from the hard rock area, result-
ing in less cost of construction. This is of special import
when it is observed that the upper reaches of the canals
are smaller and of less depth than their lower reaches.
Especially on Canal "B" is this arrangement advantageous
for the reason that the depth of iluck in the upper reaches
..* ... *..




.. ... ... ... ..


















EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 4Z 43


4 4


* ...


* **


4 .'.


_ _i__ ~









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


is sufficient, or nearly so, to provide a canal of sufficient
depth without rock excavation at all. This East and West
system of canals on the basis of cost can be constructed at
a saving of more than $5,000,000.00 over a Northwest and
Southeast system of equal drainage capacity. The condi-
tions as to rock have been so well prospected and explored
that the above facts are indisputable. This East and West
system makes use of the long diagonal canals already in
process of construction in Everglades Drainage District
and on which work was begun in the early stages of the
project. They will perform their part in the general plan,
principally as connecting or equalizing canals, but they
will not be constructed to as great size as would be neces-
sary if they had been considered as draining all the lands
tributary to them from end to end.

CONTROL WORKS

In addition to new canal construction above described,
the provision of certain controlling works in some of them
will be necessary. It will be noted from the map that
Canals A, B and C empty into other canals already con-
structed. No controlling works will be necessary in the
nature of locks or dams in them. Canals D, E, F, H and
K empty directly into tidewater and controlling works of
character similar to those heretofore provided at the out-
fall ends of other canals should be constructed in connec-
tion with them. Canal G is omitted from consideration for
the reason, as before stated, that the Dade Drainage Dis-
trict is constructing this outlet. No additional entrances
are to be made into Lake Okeechobee by any of the new
canals, hence no controlling works will be required at their
upper ends. An examination of the location of Canals D,
E and F in relation to existing canals which already have
locks for harmonizing the navigation feature, suggests that
the lock may be omitted and a dam only of movable type
provided. Canal H will be of such' character from the
standpoint of water levels and its location with reference
to other canals that a lock will probably be warranted in
connection with the other control works. The lock, if de-
cided upon, may be constructed at a later date after devel-
opment of the area along the canal shall have advanced
sufficiently. Based upon the cost of locks and dams here-










28 BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926

tofore constructed, the approximate estimate for these
structures is as follows:
Lock and Dam Dam Only
Canal D...................$ 200,000 $ 55,000
Canal E.................... 180,000 45,000
Canal F.................... 180,000 45,000
Canal H .................... 250,000 65,000
Canal K .................... 250,000 65,000

Total .................. $1,060,000 $275,000

The controlling works would consist of dam having con-
crete abutments and sub-structure having a part of the
dam of movable type, 50 feet in width, Everglades Stan-
dard Type.

TOTAL CONSTRUCTION.

Gravity System
New Canals ............................. $13,704,515.00
Present Canals .......................... 5,022,825.00
Control works ......................... 275,000.00
Okeechobee Levee ........................ 1,581,098.00

Total ........................... $20,583,438.00
The above represents a cost of approximately $8.95 per
acre for 2,300,000 acres of land served.

Observation of the operation of the drainage canals at
their upper ends during the past five years and bearing in
mind the probability of further subsidence of the muck
soil, suggests that some time in the future it may become
desirable to install pumps in the upper end of each canal
at Lock Number One for draining the land adjacent to
Lake Okeechobee into the Lake, and thence to the ocean
via Saint Lucie Canal, rather than through the entire
length of the long drainage canals to the sea.
Taking as an illustration an area adjacent to the Hills-
boro Canal through 9 miles of its length at the upper
end, it will be seen that the distance from the middle of
such tract to the lake is 41/2 miles, and thence from the
Lake via Saint Lucie Canal to the sea, 25 miles, or a total
of 291/2 miles to the ocean. The distance from the middle









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


of the same tract to the ocean via Hillsboro Canal would
be 47 miles. Thus the distance would be reduced by nearly
half. There is also the element of time. The Saint Lucie
Canal has about twice the velocity of the Hillsboro, hence
the time within which the water would reach the sea via
Okeechobee and Saint Lucie Canal would be reduced in
like proportion. In other words, water would pass from
the tract to the lake and thence through Saint Lucie Canal
to the sea, in approximately one-fourth the time required
for reaching the sea via the Hillsboro Canal. There would
be the further advantage of relieving each of the drainage
canals of the water coming in them near their upper ends,
thus permitting the remainder of the canal to operate to
better advantage in serving its tributary area. The opera-
tion of pumps would be necessary only during flood peri-
ods. At all ordinary periods gravity flow would be main-
tained through the entire length of the canal. The quantity
of water which might thus be discharged into Lake Okee-
chobee from the area bordering the Southeastern, Southern
and Southwestern shore would reach a great volume during
the time when heavy rain storms would prevail and thus
increase the amount of water to be ultimately discharged
through Saint Lucie Canal. The great storage capacity
of Lake Okeechobee, together with the margin allowed in
Saint Lucie Canal, will be sufficient to take care of this
additional quantity, especially in view of the certainty that
the improvement of present canals will tend to increase the
available discharge from the Lake. The Lake thus used
would be in the nature of a temporary storage reservoir to
reduce the peak load upon the canals. After the storm
rains have passed, the canals would resume gravity flow
and the water placed in temporary storage in the Lake
could be drawn off through them. This again illustrates
one of the advantages of the Lake as a storage basin, due
to its great size.
The work of constructing new canals and of improving
those now existing is susceptible of being carried out in
such manner that blocks of land can be added in various
areas prior to the completion of the entire program. In
fact, upon the completion of half of such program there
will be a million acres of land in Everglades Drainage Dis-
trict ready for settleinent and cultivation insofar as main
drainage outlets are concerned. The final completion of









BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


such plan covering 2,300,000 acres under a reasonable con-
struction schedule, would require about eight years. Refer-
ence to rate of drainage will be made later in this report.

CONTROL OF LAKE OKEECHOBEE

Since the drainage of the Everglades depends in so
large degree upon the control of Lake Okeechobee to pre-
vent overflow of Everglades lands by this lake, and since
there are now available much additional data relating to
lake control, attention is invited to the subject. Much of
these data are presented in the form of diagrams. They
have been prepared from our records of Lake Okeechobee,
together with rainfall and evaporation which affected the
lake. The diagram "RAINFALL, EVAPORATION AND
LAKE STAGE, LAKE OKEECHOBEE," shows the
level of the lake, and rainfall and evaporation observa-
tions plotted from daily readings since 1915. It may be
interesting to know that this diagram represents more than
47,000 recorded observations. The elevations are shown
in feet above Mean Low Water at Punta Rasa, to which
datum Lake Levels are referred. The solid lines in the
lower portion of the diagram represent rainfall in inches
each month. The dotted lines plotted adjacent to rain-
fall represent evaporation in inches each month from the
lake.
From 1915 to 1918 inclusive relatively small amounts of
water escaped from the lake through the drainage canals
at all seasons except for occasional short periods during
the peak of a rainy season when the canals reversed their
direction of flow for short distances of their upper reaches
and emptied into the lake. The small amount of water
coming into the lake and the short period of time during
which this condition prevailed, did not materially affect the
lake. Also, the low discharge capacity of the long drainage
canals had an almost negligible effect toward lowering the
lake from month to month, or from year to year. Their
cumulative effect in a period of four years probably repre-
sents a total of two to three feet. In other words, on
December 31st, 1918, Lake Okeechobee was probably two
and one-half feet lower as a result of four years con-
tinuous draft upon it by the drainage canals than it would
have been had all the canals been closed. Subsequent to
1918, the locks and dams in the several canals emerging









zo


,, E715917 wool F
16















10- F
L-4
I
IT





I r





1915 1916 1917










EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


from Lake Okeechobee having been completed, the dis-
charge through the drainage canals from the lake could be
completely cut off when desired. The prevailing water
level of the lake, however, during the entire period from
1915 till August 1922, was such as to require little dis-
charge from Lake Okeechobee for holding its level within
desirable limits. This was due to the absence of excessive
rain periods within the above time. In 1922 there occurred
six successive months of heavy precipitation in the Ever-
glades, resulting in a total rise of 5.0 feet in lake level, and
succeeding years continued to provide above the normal
amount of annual rainfall, of which 1924 and 1926 were
notable in flood producing qualities.
The control of Lake Okeechobee is defined as the regula-
tion of its water level in such measure as will prevent:
1. Rise to the point of overflow.
2. Falling below the level of best usefulness.
The assumptions for control are:
To regulate the lake within a margin of fluctuation of
3 feet as nearly as practicable.
That regulation must be adequate to prevent overflow
from floods of an intensity not less than those of which
we have knowledge, to-wit:-1912, 1922, 1924, and 1926.
That control should be adequate for the maximum three
months period of these storm years.
The three months period is arrived at as the time ele-
ment within which control must be accomplished by reason
of the fact that all available records of past storms in-
dicate that if control is accomplished within the above
period, control will certainly be accomplished for all other
periods. With the above statement of assumptions for
control, attention is invited to that part of the diagram
covering the period 1922 to 1926 inclusive as of special
application in the consideration of flood control. The above
might be taken as a basic plan for regulating the lake, but
which must be considered flexible and subject to such
variations as conditions require.
During this period, 1922 to 1926 inclusive, the Saint
Lucie Canal had not reached a stage of advancement
where it was of value in controlling Lake Okeecho-
bee. Not until October, 1926, did the canal reach a
construction stage affording a discharge capacity suf-
ficient to materially affect the lake. In October of
the past year the discharge from Saint Lucie Canal










32 BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926

became sufficient to have material effect upon the
lake, and its capacity has continued to increase till on
January 1, 1927, it is discharging at approximately three-
fourths of its ultimate capacity. The effect of the canal
upon Lake Okeechobee since about October 5th of 1926 will
be noted upon an examination of the lake stage diagram.
In observing the behavior of the lake from October 5th,
1926, to January 1st, 1927, comparison should be made
with the period November 1st, 1922, till January 15th,
1923, and the period November 15th, 1924, till March 1st,
1925. During the two last mentioned periods there was
practically no discharge from Lake Okeechobee. The long
drainage canals were burdened with a surplus of water
from adjacent lands tributary to them and were not usable
to an appreciable extent for lowering the lake level. It
will be noted in both of these periods that the high level of
the lake was reached and continued for two and one-half
months and three and one-half months respectively. That
is to say, the lake remained nearly stationary during the
above periods. In 1926 it will be noted that the lake
reached the maximum elevation on September 29th. A
downward trend was established about October 4th. The
conditions relating to all these periods were similar except
that in the latter case the Saint Lucie Canal had been
brought into operation. Observing the 1926 period, it
will be noted that the effect of the Saint Lucie Canal was
promptly felt upon the lake and a downward trend took
place within four or five days after reaching its highest
level, and also, that the decline shown by the diagram is
steeper than at any previous time. The above is conclu-
sive evidence of the effect of the Saint Lucie Canal upon
the Lake.
Attention is now invited to a second diagram on which
is plotted lake levels, rainfall and evaporation for the
years 1922 to 1926 inclusive. There is also plotted and
shown by a dotted line the hypothetical level of the Lake
arrived at by assuming that water was discharged from
the Lake at a rate equal to that afforded by the Saint
Lucie Canal under operating conditions. It will be seen
that it was not necessary for the Saint Lucie Canal to have
operated all the time. In fact, it is disclosed that it would
have been necessary to use the canal as a discharge outlet
but a small proportion of the time. The further assump-
tion is that no water was discharged from Lake Okec-

















LAK\, OKECHOEE ATUALrq

1922 TO 192ra 1

SHOWNG' YPOHETIAL.OPERTIONOF T. LCIECANA PL

SLIM. 20

.K~

k N I-, I
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-1924 -iii~ i-I..










EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


chobee by any of the drainage canals during the above
period, so that the entire control as plotted is from the
discharge through Saint Lucie Canal only, and with all
other canals closed.
In carrying out a regulation of Lake Okeechobee, the
records of the past several years are of great value in
working out a plan of control or of verifying the plan
heretofore adopted. These records indicate that it would
be advisable to have the lake not higher than elevation
15 feet on about April 1st of each year. Further in refer-
ence to the level of 15 feet as a working basis, the permit
from the War Department dated August 21st, 1924, pro-
vides in part as follows:
"That the said work, including the regulation of the
water level in Lake Okeechobee to a standard lake full
elevation of 15 feet above mean low water at Punta Rasa,
Gulf of Mexico, in accordance with the plans shown on the
two drawings attached hereto-are recommended by the
Chief of Engineers and are authorized by the Secretary
of War-"
There are certain conditions attached to the permit
not necessary to set down here. The regulation of the
lake about elevation 15 is in conformity with the permit
aforesaid. With the -lake at elevation- 15 feet or below,
shortly before the beginning of the rainy season, the Saint
Lucie Canal would be closed. The records indicate that
a further fall in the lake may be expected prior to the set-
ting in of the upward tendency ordinarily anticipated
during the rainy season; that as soon as this upward
tendency is established, even though the lake be below
elevation 15 feet, when rainfall has been heavy in the
watershed and the watershed full, indicating a further
rise in the lake, the Saint Lucie Canal should be opened
and should remain open throughout the rainy season.
After the rainy season has passed, ordinarily about Oc-
tober 31st, and the Lake becomes lowered to elevation
16 feet, if it has been above that level, the canal should be
closed so as to conserve water for passing through the
ensuing dry season, till about April 1st following. A
rise of the lake to elevation 16.5 by the end of the wet
season would not be disadvantageous from a lake control
standpoint, and would provide a larger margin to take
care of the succeeding dry season. The regulation of the
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EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


lake, therefore, as illustrated by the diagram, is based on
beginning the rainy season with a lake level at about 15
feet and ending the rainy season with a lake level of
about 16.5 feet. Such a program would have produced
satisfactory conditions during the plentiful or excessive
'rainfall years, 1922 to 1926 inclusive. If, however, we
apply this schedule of operations to the years 1915 to 1921
inclusive, there would have resulted periods when the
lake would have been too low for convenience.
The Saint Lucie Canal provides the means by which the
water of Lake Okeechobee can be drawn off for prevent-
ing undesirably high levels in time of flood. Thus the
high level will be within control. But during a cycle of
years of deficient rainfall, the lake will recede through
evaporation losses alone, even with all canals completely
closed, and the downward trend cannot be arrested until
normal or above normal rain arrives. Hence the necessity
for conserving such water in the lake as practice may in-
dicate to be advisable for getting past the usual annual
dry season. The control of the lake is primarily against
overflow. Lowering the lake to prevent overflow will
naturally tend to produce lower levels for extreme low
water. It is to be expected, in fact it is inevitable, that
low levels will be occasionally reached which will be a
source of inconvenience and complaint in that territory.
I wish to emphasize, however, that low levels are but a
matter of temporary inconvenience, while floods are a
matter of disaster. The sufficiency of the Saint Lucie
Canal as a flood control outlet for Lake Okeechobee with-
in the range of operations from elevation 15 feet to 18
feet is indicated by the diagram. Control within a margin
of 3 feet between elevations 14 and 17, would be more
advantageous and can be carried out. The same works
will suffice. It merely means their application to the
lower range.
Additional discharge from the lake will be afforded by
the drainage canals proper, and this discharge will in-
crease as the present canals are improved, and as others
necessary for land drainage are provided, but no allow-
ance has been made on account of them in the control
plan.
The above is considered as a general plan only for regu-
lating the lake and must be treated as flexible and subject










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


to such variations as conditions require. The regulation
of Lake Okeechobee, or any other body of water, under
wet or dry conditions such as prevail in South Florida,
within a maximum fluctuation of 3 feet as the allowable
limit, will prove no easy task, no matter how many or
what capacity the canals may be. With a working limit
of 5 feet for Lake Okeechobee, the proposition of control
would be greatly simplified. Looking to the future of
Lake Okeechobee and its regulation, the further subsi-
dence of soil around the muck sections of the lake, together
with increased flow which will come from the Kissimmee
River Valley and other water sheds of the lake as these
water sheds are improved by drainage, may bring about
the necessity of increasing the working margin for the lake,
and perhaps an increase in discharge capacity therefrom.
If such increase becomes necessary, the changes affecting
the lake will come about slowly. There will be ample
opportunity of taking care of this condition should it
arise. Increase of the working margin must be obtained
at the bottom of the zone rather than at the top. The high
level must not be increased. The working zone must be
increased by reducing the low level. In other words, the
working level of 15 feet must be reduced to 13 feet, or to
such other level as future necessity requires. Any lowering
of the level of Lake Okeechobee affects the navigability of
the lake around its margins and its shallow places. This
will require consideration of the navigation feature over
which the United States maintains jurisdiction. The
Board are familiar with this question and it is not neces-
sary to deal with it here.

WATER POWER

As incident to the regulation of Lake Okeechobee, it has
been urged by many that the water discharged from the
lake through Saint Lucie Canal would afford valuable
hydro-electric power and justify a development for that
purpose. An examination of the lake diagram will go far
in showing whether or not such is feasible. On this ques-
tion the following is stated:
Since the opening of the Saint Lucie Canal in 1925 the
discharge of water over the dam at Lock No. 2, as observed
by many visitors at that lock, has prompted a number of









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


inquiries of this office in reference to developing a water
power on the Saint Lucie Canal, and has been the cause of
offers to the Board from more than one party to purchase
a concession for power development. The sight of a large
volume of water more than 200 feet across plunging over
this dam through a fall of 10 to 14 feet, brought to many
observers visions of light and power through the transfor-
mation of the water's potential energy into useful work
for man's accommodation. The natural conclusion quickly
,'.,ee>tinl itself to the observer is that a great quantity of
power is going to waste which, if transformed into electrical
energy would be of tremendous value for the great variety
of purposes to which it is applicable. Such conclusions are
perfectly natural, even though they may be in error. The
head held prior to October, 1926, at the dam was by reason
of the fact that the unfinished condition of the canal several
miles above the dam limited the amount of water which
the canal could carry, and permitted this high level at the
dam without diminishing the flow through the upper canal
from the lake. The higher level in the lower part of the
canal provided more favorable conditions for the working
of dredges. Otherwise, there would not have been the high
waterfall at the dam which suggested to the observer the
possibility of water power.
To be of economic value a water power must exist and
be usable a sufficient length of time each year to earn a sum
which will in a reasonable time pay the cost of installation,
the fixed charges on same, other expenses, and afford a sat-
isfactory return on the money invested. Furthermore, the
power characteristics, if intermittent, must be such as to be
susceptible of harmonizing with an auxiliary plant operated
by steam, or otherwise, for supplying power during the
time when the hydro-electric plant would be shut down,
either from lack of water to produce sufficient volume, or
for surplus water which might drown out the necessary
head.
In August, 1913, the Chief Drainage Engineer submitted
to the Board of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage
District a report on the control of Lake Okeechobee, and
stated, among other things, that it might be feasible to
develop a substantial water power from the discharge of
Lake Okeechobee. Also, in December, 1913, the Everglades
Engineering Commission submitted a report to the Board
of Commissioners of Everglades Drainage District in refer-










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


ence to the drainage of the Everglades, and embodied as a
part of the report a recommendation for a power develop-
ment on the then proposed Saint Lucie Canal. These two
reports, to those who have read them, have been the cause
of inquiry as to why a water power installation was not
included in the construction of the present lock and dam.
Without going into a detailed discussion of the report of
the Chief Drainage Engineer or of that of the Engineering
Commission in reference to water power development on
Saint Lucie Canal, it may be stated that the suggestions
in the first and the conclusions in the second were based
upon data and information collected through one season
only, and furthermore, that such data were far from com-
plete, even for that period. Since that time, from May
15th, 1915, to the present, this office has made daily obser-
vations and has kept daily records of rainfall, evaporation
and water levels of Lake Okeechobee and it is not unreason-
able in the light of these far more complete and extended
data that the earlier suggestions and recommendations
would be subject to modification.
The possibility of water power on Saint Lucie Canal
depends on drawing water from Lake Okeechobee in suffi-
cient quantity and for a sufficient time to make develop-
ment of power a practical commercial proposition. Our
records indicate that during the past 12 years there would
have been seven consecutive years, from 1915 to 1921,
inclusive, when water sufficient for power purposes would
not have been discharged from Lake Okeechobee through
Saint Lucie Canal, and that the last five years, from 1922
to 1926, inclusive, there would have been five periods, last-
ing a total of 405 days, during which water would have
been discharged from Lake Okeechobee through this canal
for regulating the said lake, and that of the 405 days, 190
days would have to be deducted, if considered from the
power standpoint, because the flow through the canal would
have been of such nature that no worth-while power could
have been developed. Thus it is seen that for the past five
years the canal as at present designed could have been
operated 215 days for power purposes, or about 121/2% of
the five-year period.
Furthermore, when the water level conditions in the
canal and the discharge characteristics at the dam are
understood, it will be appreciated that even when water
is being discharged through the canal and over the dam










EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


in large quantities, there may be no power possibilities
attendant. The dam at Saint Lucie Lock No. 2 is of the
adjustable type. That is to say, the crest of the dam
can be raised or lowered so as to discharge a small or
large quantity of water according to needs. When the
canal is called upon to carry the maximum amount of
water (when Lake Okeechobee is at high stage), the gates
at the dam will be wide open and the water in the canal
will pass the dam with scarcely more than a pronounced
increase in velocity as it flows between the piers of the
structure. The appearance will be like that of a stream
passing turbulently between the piers of a bridge. There
will be no water fall anything like sufficient for the
development of power. The low water level at the dam is
for producing a swift current in the canal so as to dis-
charge a maximum amount of water from Lake Okeecho-
bee. This adjustment at the dam of practically no head,
or of head entirely too small for power purposes, would
be maintained so long as Lake Okeechobee remained
above desirable level. These occasions, however, would
be usually followed by short periods when the lake is at
a safe level and with water flowing in from its water shed
in sufficient quantity to maintain the lake at such level
and at the same time afford sufficient water to be dis-
charged through Saint Lucie Canal for power purposes.
This favorable condition would exist usually for not more
than 30 to 60 days following high lake levels.
The present flow characteristics of the canal could be
.so changed as to afford a fall of 9 to 10 feet at all times
when water is available for power purposes and this could
be done without reducing the discharge of Saint Lucie
Canal as at present designed. To change the present flow
characteristics to such as would be suitable for power
development would require an increase in the size of the
canal of approximately 75%, at an estimated cost around
$2,000,000.00. There would also be the cost of hydro-
electric installation, and in addition, steam electric or
other auxiliary not included in the above figures. Con-
templation of such cost in 'relation to uncertain and inter-
mittent water power, available but for a small fraction
of time during favorable years, and for no time at all
during unfavorable years, places the development of










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


hydro-electric power of commercial character on this
canal beyond practicable consideration at this time.
Aside from its consideration as a business enterprise,
there is another phase of the subject.
When the rainy season is over, there would be the
complication of storing a surplus of water in the lake
for the following dry season, and at the same time draw-
ing off water for power purposes.
Evaporation from the lake ordinarily amounts to about
55 inches per year, with variations between 49 inches in
1922, a year of heavy rainfall, and 61 inches in 1918, a
year of light rainfall. Between rainy seasons, ordinarily
November 1st to May 1st following, the amount of water
added to Lake Okeechobee from combined rainfall and
inflow from its water shed is usually less than the amount
removed by evaporation. Hence the lake may fall, even with
no water running out through the canals. Consequently,
it is necessary to carry over a surplus to compensate for
evaporation losses during the dry season to prevent Lake
Okeechobee, in so far as is practicable, from going too
low.
Lake Okeechobee being a comparatively shallow body
and having low banks and flat shores, the allowable mar-
gin of fluctuation is very limited. This fact does not lend
itself favorably to a wide range of regulations for drain-
age, irrigation, navigation, domestic supply, or power,
and an unlimited exploitation of the lake toward any one
of these features without due regard to others or to con-
ditions governing its behavior, would be unwise, would
complicate the problem of.control, and prevent the regula-
tion of the lake for the greatest general benefit of the
Everglades as a whole.
Therefore, the feasibility of developing a hydro-electric
power of commercial value on Saint Lucie Canal, based
upon discharge from Lake Okeechobee, is so improbable
that there can be no justification for enlarging the canal
and for constructing a plant at this time. Observation of
discharge at the dam for the next three or four years will
settle this question beyond any possibility of doubt, and it
is almost certain to be settled negatively.









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


LATERAL CANALS

The great importance of the lateral system in connection
with the main system and the effect which the secondary
works have upon the main system in affording satisfactory
drainage, justifies reference to the subject.
The main drainage canals are for the purpose of pro-
viding outlet for the waters of the Everglades. In order
that the main outlet canals may function properly, it is
necessary that there be lateral canals for collecting the
water and bringing it to the main. Main canals constructed
approximately six miles apart, as is planned, through the
Everglades, cannot collect the water between them. Their
effect without laterals can extend by a short distance each
side of the canal. The main can have no material effect
insofar as satisfactory farm drainage is concerned, for
more than one-fourth of a mile from it during heavy rain-
fall periods. Without lateral systems the main, canals
would fail. During the rainy season the following would
happen:
Assume that the distance between canals is six miles.
Suppose that at the beginning of the rainy season the water
table between main canals averages 3 feet; heavy rains
begin. The result is that precipitation soaks into the soil
and there it stays, there being no way for it to escape
except by evaporation, which, during such times, is so in-
consequential as not even to be considered. The rain thus
falling and soaking in, gradually accumulates day by day
until the storage capacity of the soil in the 3-foot depth
assumed, representing 6 to 7 inches of rainfall, is all used
up. Finally, when the soil has become saturated, further
rainfall stands upon the surface and the land is flooded.
Not until this condition has been reached is there any ap-
preciable runoff to the main canals. When this condition
is arrived at, however, the water flowing over the surface
from the flooded areas comes to the canals for all practical
purposes as rapidly as it falls, bringing a tremendous
amount of water suddenly to the mains, which must of
necessity fail to carry it. It is beyond all economic possi-
bility to provide main canals able to carry any such quanti-
ty of water suddenly dumped into them.
On the other hand, take the operation of the canals in
conjunction with a complete lateral system. Let the










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


assumption for water table and for rainfall be as before.
The rain falling upon the land soaks into it. By seepage
through short distances it finds its way to the farm ditches,
thence to the laterals, and through the laterals to the main.
Thus the rain of today promptly begins its way toward the
main canals and to the sea. The water is drawn off and
the storage capacity of the soil is restored, thus preparing
it for the reception of succeeding rains. The water thus
carried to the main canals by degrees'permits the canal to
remove the surplus little by little and not delay the time
until flood stage has been reached before beginning their
operation. Only in this way will it be possible for the
main canals to serve their tributary areas.
A further examination might be made as to the function'
of the main canals in the general scheme of drainage. The
main canals might be likened to the sewer main of a city,
and the laterals and farm ditches might be likened to the
piping system for the buildings of the town. .No one would
expect service from the main system through the street
until his premises and his building had been properly
piped and connected with such main. This reasoning is
applicable in degree to the main and secondary works of
a drainage system. This is especially and emphatically
true in the Everglades area where no natural water courses
exist and where the slope of the land toward the main
canals is insignificant. These statements are not ex-
pressed as a theory, but are set down as facts from actual
observation of the conditions which have at times existed
in the Everglades. There have been occasions where rains
of considerable intensity, 2 inches to 3 inches or more in
as many days, have produced no appreciable effect upon
the canals because there was no way for the water to get
to them. Instances have been observed where water ac-
tually stood on the ground within 50 feet of the canal with
the canal 3 feet below banks. The effect upon the canal
was negligible until water reached the point where it over-
flowed into the canal. Then there followed almost imme-
diately bank full and finally flood conditions.
This office has made careful investigations and studies
in reference to the lateral systems, and information and
data collected through several years in the form of re-
ports is available to any sub-drainage district desiring
them.









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


The intimate relation between main and lateral canals
brings us to a further consideration. The building of a
secondary system for a small part of the area tributary
to a main canal, will not afford full protection to the small
area if the local works of the remaining area should not
also have been, at least in principal part, completed. This
is for the reason that when the heavy rainy season comes
on the large area will reach a flooded condition before be-
ginning to contribute water to the main, and after this
condition shall have been attained, the situation will be
like that already described where the secondary system
does not exist. Hence, if good use is to be made of the
main canals prior to the construction of the complete lat-
eral system, the area which they serve should be confined
to those only where a substantial part of the secondary
system shall have been provided, and other areas must be
completely divorced from the main canals during flood
periods. Therefore, dykes or levees across the land must
be constructed by the sub-drainage district to protect their
local areas and controlling works must be provided in the
main canals which will separate outside unimproved areas,
or areas having no lateral systems, from those having con-
structed their lateral systems. As new areas have their
lateral systems completed, such areas can be added from
time to time to those already taken in, and satisfactory
service from the mains and from the laterals can then be
expected.
The progressive advancement of drainage can in this
way be carried out, but this progressive advancement
must be carried out as conditions permit. It will not gen-
erally be practicable to take in isolated areas separated by
wide" expanses of unimproved territory from sections
already taken in and improved. It is desirable that new
areas be taken in in an orderly and systematic method of
progression. Not only is this arrangement advisable from
the standpoint already above described, but also from the
standpoint of preventing conflict among other areas in
the use of the main canals and the infringement of the
rights of one area against another in taking advantage of
the drainage works of the district.
The Law under which Everglades Drainage District
operates, provides for the construction of the main drain-
age works, and it is the policy of the Drainage Board to










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


confine the works of the district to those of major char-
acter. It is not the province of the district to provide the
lateral systems, but since the lateral systems and the main
systems are so intimately related, and taken together are
absolutely essential to drainage, it is a wise provision of
the Law that the Board have control and jurisdiction over
the lateral systems and local works to such extent as the
said local works affect the main canals of Everglades
Drainage District. Authority is vested in the Board by
Law for carrying out such regulation in this, regard as
seems, in their judgment, necessary. This is an important
subject in the administration of the affairs of the district.

EXTENSION OF TIE BOUNDARIES OF EVER-
GLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT

NORTHERLY AND NORTHWESTERLY.

It has been ._II_.--t.l by many and urged by some
that the boundaries of Everglades Drainage District
should be extended to Northward and Northwestward
to include all of the area tributary to Lake Okee-
chobee. In other words, that the water sheds of the
Kissimmee River and Fisheating Creek should be in-
cluded within the district and the drainage works of
Everglades Drainage District extended into the added
area. The subject of extending the drainage area of
the district into far off territory not benefited by
the works of the District as at present existing, pre-
sents a different aspect from extending the boundaries
of the district into nearby territory already benefited.
and to be further benefited, such as the strip along the
East Coast and area adjacent to the Caloosahatchee River.
The extension of the boundaries of the district to include
the latter mentioned areas will be discussed elsewhere
in this report. The boundaries of Everglades Drainage
District on the North and Northwest already extend about
as far into this region as the benefits from the drainage
works in Everglades Drainage District will reach under
the present plan for drainage. Hence from the stand-
point of benefits from the works as now planned, either
direct or indirect, there is no good reason for including
these large and remote areas to the Northward and North-
westward. It is true that the Northern and Northwestern









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


areas suggested for addition to the district constitute a
large part of the water shed of Lake Okeechobee, flow-
ing into the said lake through the Kissimmee River, Fish-
eating Creek, and minor tributaries. It is true that these
areas contribute large quantities of water to Lake Okee-
chobee during the rainy season, having material in-
fluence toward producing flood conditions. But the pres-
ent effect which these areas have upon Lake Okeechobee
is a natural one, just as the rainfall upon the Lake and
lands of the Everglades is a natural phenomenon with
both of which the works of Everglades Drainage District
are compelled to deal. The control of Lake Okeechobee is
based upon discharging sufficient water therefrom
through the Saint Lucie Canal to prevent overflow under
storm conditions similar to those which have been exper-
ienced from 1912 until the present day. The natural flow
to the Lake from the Northerly water sheds has been
taken into consideration in working out the control plan
adopted. There does not appear to be necessity for chang-
ing the present control plan so long as these conditions
remain substantially as they are now. That is to say,
until systematic drainage work has been undertaken in
the Kissimmee River and Fisheating Creek areas outside
of the district. This subject is touched upon in a report
of the Chief Drainage Engineer on the control of Lake
Okeechobee submitted in 1913, with the following com-
ment:
"At some future time the drainage of the Kis-
simmee River Valley will undoubtedly be im-
proved.. Canals and ditches will be constructed
for carrying overflow waters from the valley to
the river and the river will also be improved. Any
improvement to the river tending to increase its
flow and drainage work done in the valley would
cause flood waters to be transported more rapidly
to the lake, causing a greater influx and more
rapid rise in a given time therein than now occurs.
The amount of water actually received by the lake
from the Kissimmee valley would also be increased
to some extent, as the water brought more quickly
would not be subjected to as great loss by evapo-
ration as now obtains. The building of drainage
works in the territory to the Northward of the










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


lake will therefore aggravate lake flood to some
extent. The same reasoning applies to other ter-
ritory adjacent to the lake. Consequently, the dis-
charge from the lake would possibly have to be in-
creased to meet new drainage conditions which will
come about through future development ..
These future conditions should be realized and
appreciated now, but can be provided for when
needed and would be a part of the natural pro-
gressive development of the project."
The question presented to the Board seems to be whether
or not the time has now come for undertaking this pro-
gressive development of the project. If it is considered
that the beginning of a comprehensive drainage program
for reclaiming the lands of the Kissimmee River and re-
lated sheds should be undertaken at this time, then this is
the time to extend the district to include these water
sheds and this is the ground upon which the same should
be annexed. If the area is taken into the district with
such end in view, then it should be understood that the 1
mill ad valorem tax which has been suggested by pro-
ponents of the extension plan, will be sufficient only for
making surveys' and drainage investigations, but cannot
be considered as sufficient with which to even begin works
in the area. When the area is ready to begin with its con-
struction work, then additional drainage taxes in the shape
of acreage assessments against land must be imposed for
providing money therefore, similar to the plan in operation
for Everglades Drainage District.
In the event that the boundaries of Everglades Drainage
District shall be extended by the Legislature to include
the Northerly water sheds, a tax of 1 mill as proposed
could be levied, the proceeds from which would go toward
paying the cost of necessary surveys, drainage investiga-
tions, and the preparation of plans. After the plans have
been developed and the probable cost ascertained, the own-
ers of property in the area will be in position to determine
whether or not they will proceed with drainage at this
time. If so, then it would be proper for the Legislature
to impose the usual acreage drainage tax in amount to be
ascertained.
The necessary preliminary Legislative steps are:
1. Extend the boundaries of Everglades Drainage Dis-








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EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


trict to include the Northerly water sheds and annex these
areas to Everglades Drainage District.
2. Make the Laws under which Everglades Drainage
District operates applicable to the area annexed.
3. Impose a tax of 1 mill on the dollar on all property
within the area so annexed.
4. Authorize the carrying out of drainage investiga-
tions and surveys from the proceeds to be derived from the
above tax.
And at a subsequent Legislature, based upon the in-
formation obtained, if the decision of property owners is
for carrying out drainage works, levy an acreage tax along
the lines followed by Everglades Drainage District and
make provision for carrying out the necessary construc-
tion. In so far as the effect upon Lake Okeechobee is con-
cerned of improving this territory, it is not necessary to
give immediate consideration to this feature. In fact, to
intelligently anticipate what the effect will be will require
knowledge of the work to be done. Improving lakes of
the area as holding basins would tend to reduce maximum
runoff, while constructing canals or enlarging the Kissim-
mee River would tend to increase the runoff. But what
the ultimate effect of the combined works would be is not
determinable till the works to be constructed shall have
been decided upon.
There is attached to this report a map showing the extent
of the Northerly water sheds of Lake Okeechobee.

EAST COAST AND CALOOSAHATCHEE AREAS
As differentiated from the subject of extending the boun-
daries of Everglades Drainage District Northward to in-
clude the remaining water sheds of Lake Okeechobee, the
proposal to extend the District to include the East Coast
strip and a strip along the Caloosahatchee River presents
a different aspect. First, there can be no doubt but that
both of these areas, the Coastal strip and the Caloosahatchee
area, have received, and will hereafter receive in larger
degree, drainage benefits from reducing water levels over
much of this section, and
Second, that there is manifest certain indirect benefits
not strictly of a drainage nature or not from actually tak-
ing water off of the ground, but nevertheless of great value
to these areas.









BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


A consideration of the benefits conferred upon such areas
justifies extending the boundaries of the District to include
them. The reason for including such areas within the Dis-
trict has been discussed thoroughly and at length during
the past four or five years. The two principal considera-
tions from the standpoint of Everglades Drainage District
are the securing of additional property within the District
and the addition of large population thereto, both of prime
importance in financing the works of the District to suc-
cessful completion. There is urgent necessity for their in-
clusion from the standpoint of financing and ample justi-
fication for such inclusion from the standpoint of benefits
which the area proposed to be annexed have already had
and will continue to receive.
While the plan of extending the boundaries of Ever-
glades Drainage District as above referred to undoubtedly
affords the best method of placing the District in position
for financing the work to final and successful completion,
yet the extension of the boundaries to include these areas
depends upon the wishes and desires of the people living
therein. Though the plan for annexing these areas and the
imposition of a 1-mill tax on property therein, accompanied
by the making of such property exempt from the Ever-
glades acreage drainage tax, and though, as above stated,
there is no question but that benefits have been received
and will hereafter be received by such areas, there has been
and there still is strong opposition to include such terri-
tory, while on the other hand there is considerable support
to the proposed measure. The Legislature has twice de-
clined, or has at least failed, to enact the necessary law
for extending the boundaries of the district. Whether or
not the desired legislation can be passed at the next session
is a matter of conjecture. If it does not, or if it does not
seem wise in the judgment of the Board to press the passage
of such an Act, there is the alternative of continuing along
the lines followed in the past, and while progress of drain-
age cannot be as rapid as would be possible under the ex-
tension plan, still substantial progress can be made. By
laying out a modified schedule of work designed to take
care of definite, though restricted, areas, considerable land
can be provided with the necessary main canals for afford-
ing outlet. In case of necessity, as an alternative, the fol-
lowing is suggested:









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


RESTRICTED AREA PLAN

Select those areas where the remaining main drainage
works can be completed at least cost, bearing in mind the
suitability of such areas for early settlement and cultiva-
tion.
Determine the amount of money which can be raised for
a period of say four years for carrying out the work in
such areas, and the taxes required to be assessed therefore.
Design the works for providing main drainage for such
areas and proceed with the work on such basis.
If such plan be decided upon, the area designated and
the works required laid out, it will be essential that the
work and expenditures therefore be confined to such areas
and to the budget for them until all of the work for the
limited territory shall have been completed before proceed-
ing to other areas. There is attached Map No. 3 indicating
certain areas selected by way of ,i-._--ti,.,. and showing
the main canals for serving them.
The canals for serving these areas are parts of the final
system except that some of them would not be excavated
to the full depth and width required when they shall have
been extended to their full length for serving the entire
territory along them. In this way the works for local
areas will harmonize with and form a part of the complete
plan for draining the Everglades and will in no way con-
flict with the carrying out of the ultimate plan.
The above refers to new canals. If the plan of confining
the work to restricted areas is followed, it will also be
necessary to limit present canals to the areas to be served
in part by the proposed new outlets. The area which can
be reclaimed in this way in four years would reach ap-
proximately 400,000 acres, which should be ample to
supply all the land necessary for settlement and cultiva-
tion for at least five years, or at the average rate of 80,000
acres for settlement and cultivation per year for a five
year period. The above is in addition to approximately
90,000 acres now under some degree of settlement. This
is on the assumption that work on all of the new canals
and all of the old canals for improvement is carried on
simultaneously. Some of these units can be completed
in two years, while others will require full four years on
a working schedule which financing will permit.













EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT

30 31 32 53 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

37 37
--------- ---- --

38
-39 I\ 39


40
LAKE OKEECHOBEE -






-- ,--- -
S__ ,41







4L -.--_------ .-. 4











9 NO R CT1~ AREAS-- -- -
4 A3







S* I 6I -',, '








0--- --_- i -r4--, i
47 :.











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--H--
a


S-- --- ------ -
5J I I


1.4

5 44 55

56~ 5


57

.58 5-

5 9


--- 60

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43
BIENNIAL REPpORT, oFFICE OF TH CHIEF DRAINAGE ENGINLtR
TALAA C FLO ID 7









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


The affording of satisfactory drainage for such re-
stricted areas will depend not only on the main outlets,
but also upon the organization of sub-drainage districts
and the -construction of the necessary lateral systems by
them for taking advantage of the mains. Some of these
areas are already within sub-drainage districts which are
on an operating basis and in legal shape to proceed with
their lateral systems.
These areas are referred to in units. Cost of completing
the main works in each unit is tabulated. The arrange-
ment and areas of these units are susceptible of consider-
able variation to suit requirements. The units shown are
by way of illustration and suggestion on map No. 3.
AREA No. 1.
Acres. Cost. Cost.
Completion of levee
and canal 30 ft. x 6.5
ft.-21 miles, 801,000
cu. yds. at 15c ..... $120,150.00
Half of West Palm
Beach Canal Improve-
ment 1,500,000 cu.
yds. at 15c ........ 225,000.00
Half of improvement to
Dam No. 2......... 40,000.00

Total ............. 63,000 $385,150.00
AREA No. 2.
Acres. Cost. Cost.
Canal A, 2-3 ultimate
size, 65 ft. x 15.5 ft.
-24 ft. x 8.5 ft.-
23.2 miles.
Earth and muck,
1,514,000 cu. yds. at
15c.............
Rock, shell, hardpan,
382,000 cu. yds. at
50c. .............. 387,820.00
Half of West Palm
Beach Canal Improve-
ment, 1,500,000 cu.
yds. at 15c. ........ 225,000.00










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


Acres.


Half of improvement
to Dam No. 2 .....


Cost.


40,000.00


Total ............. 73,600


AREA NO. 3.


Acres.


Cost.


Improvement to Hills-
boro Canal for areas
3 and 4-half of total
-1,917,400 cu. yds.
at 25. ............ 26,800 $479,350.00


AREA No. 4


Improvement to Hills-
boro Canal for areas
3 and 4-1/2 of total
-1,917,400 cu. yds.
at 25c ............
Improvement to Cy-
press Creek Canal,
1/ of total required
for areas 4 and 5,
average 40 ft. x 10 ft.
-50 ft. x 10 ft. Less
1/ Cypress Creek
Canal already exca-
vated, for 8.18 miles,
389,000 cu. yds. at
25c ...............

Total ...........


Acres. Cost.




$479,350.00










97,250.00


$576,600.00


Cost.


$652,820.00


Cost.




$479,350.00


Cost.


35,800










EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


AREA No. 5.

Acres. Cost. Cost.
Improvement to Cy-
press Creek Canal 1/
of total required for
areas 4 and 5, aver-
age 40 ft. x 10 ft.-
50 ft. x 10 ft. less 1/
Cypress Creek Canal
already excavated,
for 8.18 miles 389,-
000 cu. yds. at 25c.. $ 97,250.00
Canal New River, north
fork as required for
the area, 25 ft. x 10
ft.-40 ft. x 10 ft.
625,000 cu. y'ds. at
30c ............... 187,500.00

Total ........... 37,500 $284,750.00

AREA No. 6.

Acres. Cost. Cost.

Improvement of Snake
Creek Canal for
areas 6 and 7. 1/2 for
this area average 44
ft. x 9 ft. less ex-
cavation from pres-
ent Snapper Creek
Canal. Rock, 324,500
cu. yds. at 50c; earth,
51,500 cu. yds. at 15c 42,800 $169,975.00










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


AREA NO. 7.


Improvement to Snake
Creek Canal for areas
6 and 7. Canal aver-
age 44 ft. by 9 ft. less
excavation from pre-
sent Snake Creek
Canal. 1/2 for this
area. Rock 324,500
cu. yds. at 50c.
Earth 51,500 cu. yds.
at 15c .............
Improvement of Snap-
per Creek Canal 3.9
miles to provide canal
33 ft. by 6 ft., 44 ft.
by 8 ft., 70,000 cu.
yds. at 40c.........


Acres. Cost.











$169,975.00






28,000.00


Total ........... 108,000


AREA NO. 8.


Acres. Cost.


The work for num-
ber 8 will consist of
the improvement pro-
posed for Caloosa-
hatchee Canal be-
tween Lake Iicpo-
chee and Fort
Thompson, represent-
ing the excavation of
approximately 1,-
200,000 cu. yds., at
25c ............. .


$300,000.00


Cost.


$197,975.00


Cost.









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


Acres. Cost. Cost.
Permanent construc-
tion at Lock and
Dam No. 2......... 60,000.00
This cost does not take
in t o consideration
the probability of im-
provement of this
outlet by the United
States as appears
probable under re-
cent Act of Congress
authorizing a survey
of this section, to-
gether with a section
of Lake Okeechobee,
in the interest of
Flood Control and
for navigation, for
which survey an ap-
propriation of $45,-
000.00 has been made
available by Con-
gress. It may be
reasonably antici-
pated that at least
some work will be
done by the United
States in this chan-
nel, which will re-
duce the cost of this
improvement in the
interest of drain-
age by Everglades
Drainage District ..


Total ............ 30,700


$360,000.00










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926

AREAS Nos. 9 TO 12 INCLUSIVE


Acres. Cost.


Cost.


In addition to areas
Numbers 1 to 8 inclu-
sive, there are also
areas Numbers 9, 10,
11 and 12 bordering
upon Lake Okeecho-
bee, remaining drain-
age for which is of
local character and is
being provided by
local sub-districts .. 75,000
For all areas there must be included the cost of pro-
tective works around Lake Okeechobee and of completing
St. Lucie Canal.

LAKE OKEECHOBEE LEVEE


Acres.


Cost.


Estimated cost-total
$1,581,098.00 of
which 1/2 is assessed
to Everglades Drain-
age District and 1/,
to Trustees of the
Internal Improve-
ment Fund ........


Cost.


$790,549.00


COMPLETION OF ST. LUCIE CANAL


Acres. Cost.
1,809,700 cu. yds. ma-
terial at 40c .......
Total acres for which
main drainage work
will be provided in
four years under
above schedule is.. 493,400
And the total estimated
cost is ............
Or, at the rate of $9.37 per acre.


Cost.


$723,900.00






$4,621,069.00










EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


A part of the work, such as the Okeechobee Levee and
Saint Lucie Canal, is of general nature affecting the entire
District, hence the expense proper to distribute against
the area is about $7.00 per acre.
After work shall have been completed in these areas,
the various canals may be extended further and addi-
tional areas made ready as requirements dictate. The
foregoing will probably provide a considerable excess of
land over and above that which will be placed under but
even moderate degree of settlement and cultivation with-
in the next five years.
The 1926 Everglades Drainage District acreage tax
now in effect amounts to a total of $1,570,632.00 per
annum, which is sufficient to support bonds to the extent
of approximately $17,000,000.00 or $18,000,000.00. There
are now outstanding $10,255,000.00 in bonds. In addition
to the above the Legislature in 1925 authorized the is-
suance of $3,000,000.00 in bonds, and these bonds are
now on hand subject to sale. The remaining amount in
bonds which can be issued upon the present drainage tax
is consequently about $3,750,000.00 to perhaps $5,000,-
000.00, making a total of say $7,500,000.00, which, if bonds
are sold, will be ample to provide for the work above
described. Hence, following the plan of selecting re-
stricted areas and of completing the works for such areas,
as has just been described, has the advantage that no in-
crease in taxes need be resorted to for financing the work
through this stage. It would be advisable, however, to
rearrange the schedule of taxes to apply equitably to the
areas which will be improved and benefited as differen-
tiated from those areas which will receive but little ben-
efit through the carrying out of the restricted work.

RATE OF DRAINAGE

The draining of lands of Everglades Drainage District
is but a part of the ultimate problem of its final reclama-
tion. After drainage has been accomplished there comes
the subject of colonization, or settling the lands and
bringing the same under cultivation. In fact, this is the
ultimate purpose of drainage. Perhaps this feature in
connection with the Everglades has not been as generally
gone into or as thoroughly analyzed as that of drainage,










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


but its bearing upon the drainage of the land is an im-
portant matter. The Board have before them plans for
draining the areas, but they have not before them infor-
mation on which they can accurately determine or fore-
cast the probable rate at which the lands will be settled
and cultivated. In my judgment, the area which can be
brought under settlement and cultivation each year is
not so large as the common opinion indicates to be pos-
sible or desirable. The completion of drainage for an
area of 2,300,000 acres within eight years would mean
that to keep-up with the rate of land drainage, settlement
and cultivation must proceed at a rate approaching the
rate of drainage. To think of settling and cultivating
even sparsely a practically untouched area of 2,300,000
acres in eight years is setting expectations upon settle-
ment and cultivation at a high limit. Judging by the rate
at which land settlement and cultivation have gone on
in this country, and also the rate at which certain sec-.
tions of the Everglades have been settled and placed un-
der cultivation, and making all possible allowances for
difficulties and for vicissitudes from time to time which
no doubt have militated against more rapid development,
it seems to be that to bring under but a moderate degree
of settlement and cultivation additional areas of 40,000
to 60,000 acres per annum would be making good prog-
ress in this direction. The completion of main drainage
works in those areas of the Everglades where settlement
and cultivation have already started, and the addition
of perhaps a hundred thousand acres per year for a year
or two would provide a reserve of drained land for near
future needs, and after such reserve shall have been pro-
vided, the addition of more land to the reserve could
proceed at a rate which will take care of any possible
need for agricultural land, but without carrying any un-
necessarily large excess. Such areas should be selected
in reference to nearness to centers of population, accessi-
bility to markets, facilities for ingress and egress, econ-
omy of drainage, and other considerations which might
give such areas a sort of priority over others in drainage,
settlement and cultivation. The drainage plan proposed
to be carried out by the Board is of such nature as to
be well adapted to a progressive development of the










EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


above character. These are economic considerations in
the advancement of the enterprise. On the other hand,
there will doubtless be urged upon the Board the neces-
sity for more and more drained land aside from that
which will be required for satisfying the needs as con-
fined to settlement and cultivation. There may be ex-
pected urgent demands for additional drained land in or-
der to satisfy the desire for more land to sell. This has
been experienced in the past and is to be expected in
the future, but the consideration of land for sales pur-
poses does not afford a sound basis on which to bring in
large areas year by year with no possibility of putting
them to use and bringing them into an earning state, or
of enabling such areas to pay the increased tax burdens
which must inevitably come by reason of expenditures
fo'r drainage purposes. Such would result in a large
carrying charge upon the construction prior to its util-
ization, and the expense of maintenance for a consider-
able period after construction and prior to the time when
such works would be brought into use, not to speak of
danger of damage to the lands with no population to
assist in controlling such danger and the added expense
of protection.
An examination of Map No. 1 will disclose that a pro-
gressive development may be carried out under a wide
range of selection.
This larger plan, in a general way is similar to the plan
for restricted areas already discussed, but can be carried
out on a much larger scale, involving larger annual ex-
penditures requiring financing which the District can
carry out, in my judgment, to very much better advan-
tage by extending its boundaries into the East Coast and
Caloosahatchee areas. The construction of drainage works
necessary under this plan would be the excavating of the
several canals to their full ultimate size and the provision
of all of the controlling works necessary for them. Such
plan would provide greater latitude in the selection of
areas in number, size and location.
Whether the Board adopts the plan of the comparatively
small restricted area development or the plan of almost
unlimited area development will no doubt depend in great
measure upon the ability to finance the work, resolving
itself finally into:










BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


1. For the Larger Plan: Extending the boun-
daries to include the East Coast and Caloosa-
hatchee areas, as just and equitable and as advan-
tageous for adequate financing, and
2. For the Restricted Area Plan: To con-
tinue financing as at present and proceed with
the work on a restricted scale.

DRAINAGE OF TIE SOUTHWESTERN SECTION.

Reference has been made to the drainage of the South-
western section of the Everglades with the statement that
the subject would be alluded to in a general way only.
This section comprises the area lying generally West of
the Miami Canal and South of Lake Okeechobee within
Everglades Drainage District.
No drainage work of any important character has been
undertaken by the District in the Western and South-
western section. This section comprises a total of approxi-
mately 2,340 square miles, or nearly 1,500,000 acres. The
character of the area, its distance from the sea, and its
elevation warrants careful consideration in selecting the
best and most economical method for providing the main
drainage outlets for the territory. The area in general
differs in three principal respects from that part of the
Everglades where work is now going on and heretofore
referred to. With the exception of the Northeastern por-
tion of this area, the muck soil which predominates is
thin, varying generally from 2 to 6 feet in thickness, and
is underlain with the usual lime stone of the Everglades.
Further to the Southward within the Everglades proper
the soil is even thinner, and in areas of considerable size
very little soil exists above rock formation. On the other
hand, some of the very best land in the Everglades is in
this area. Furthermore, its Southern location reduces
frost danger, which is advantageous in growing high class
winter crops and for some of the staples. Some of this
section is destined to be among the best producing areas of
the Everglades. In the Western portion of the district
the Everglades marsh gives way to the predominating
sand. formation of flat pine woods, cypress swamps and
open prairie. The elevation of the Southern portion is
usually from 3 to 8 feet above sea level. The distance from









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


the middle of the tract where the surface elevation is about
15 feet, is approximately 60 miles to the sea. It is to be
expected that the cost of draining this area will be greater
than an area of similar size in other parts of the Ever-
glades by reason of the greater proportion of rock, the
greater distance from the sea, together with the lower
ground surface elevation. The lower elevation and greater
distance to the sea makes necessary longer and larger drain-
age canals for carrying a given amount of water, while the
larger proportion of rock results in greater cost of exca-
vation, and with all, it appears that local drainage can be
accomplished to best advantage and with greatest economy
by installing pumping plants for unwatering protected
local areas. The probability that only by pumping can
this area be economically drained, suggests arrangement
of outlet canals with the pumping idea in view. Such ar-
rangement would require departure from the plan of canal
construction heretofore followed-that is, for gravity op-
eration. Outlets for receiving water from local territory,
at least during storm periods, must be through the opera-
tion of pumps. A comparison of costs in the construction
of canals to afford drainage by pumping into them, indi-
cates a much less cost through the adoption of a pumping
system than any attempt to carry out drainage, even if
such be feasible, by gravity alone.
Assuming that pumps must be resorted to by local areas
in utilizing the main outlets, such outlets would be con-
structed in general according to the following plan:
The general location for such main outlet system is shown
on the accompanying map, No. 4. In the northerly portion
of the area the canals -ill be constructed in the usual way
by excavating a single channel of sufficient capacity for
carrying the water from its tributary area. The excavated
material would be deposited on each side to form a retain-
ing embankment or levee. As the canal approaches the
sea, it will become impracticable to excavate a single chan-
nel. of sufficient size at economical cost for carrying the
large volume of water which must come to it, consequently
resort must be had to digging two channels and of placing
the excavated material on the opposite side of each. These
channels would be practically parallel and vary from say
300 to 3.000 feet apart. The excavation from the east chan-
nel would be thrown to the eastward, and from the west
channel it would be thrown to the westward. These em-













EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 A4 43
---


37 37

38 -38I--
-I -
39 39


4 LAKE OKEECHOBEE. --

--+- --C






45

46 4

--- -r







MAP N4---






53
54 I
CNl FR I I --

---- ----
8 /\. i--- F -----








55 I 5
59 5
\ "cV~' -58




30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43
BILNNIAL REPORT, or.ICE of TNH CHIEF DRAINAGE CENC61R
TALLAHASSEE FLORIDA 1927














TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION


I;-sba


OFFICE OF CHIEF DRNNAGE


F- To 556-










66 BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926

bankments would consist principally of rock. Afterward,
the muck soil within the area between these two channels
must be pumped out, or otherwise removed to the outside
of the embankments. Such will provide a wide, shallow
waterway. The water impounded between the embank-
ments or levees will travel down such waterway toward
the sea, but the surface of the water, at least during storm
periods, would be above the surface of the land outside.
Adjacent areas would carry out their local drainage by
providing levees around them, constructing lateral canals
and farm ditches within such area, of leading the water to
one or more central pumping plants at the canal embank-
ment, and pumping the same into the space or waterway
between such embankments.
In the extreme western edge of the district the land has
sufficient elevation to afford drainage by gravity until the
coast is approached. This section can be satisfactorily
drained in the ordinary manner, but the cost will be higher
per acre than the eastern section of the Glades by reason
of the large amount of rock to be excavated.
Map No. 4 attached hereto and the accompanying sketch
indicates a suggested location and arrangement of canals
for affording service to their tributary areas. The approx-
imate cost of main outlets for reclaiming the area will be
around $26,000,000 for about 1,500,000 acres. It is prob-
able, however, that not all of this area is of such character
or of sufficient value for agricultural purposes as to justify
intensive drainage, at least for some time to come.
Though this area, as already stated, has in it practically
no drainage works of importance, yet the work done in
Everglades Drainage District is of value and importance in
connection with its drainage. The control of Lake Okee-
chobee through the construction of the Saint Lucie Canal
has important bearing upon this southwestern territory,
and the other canals constructed to the east and northeast
deflect the water from that section of the Glades and reduce
the amount which would have to be cared for in the south-
western section. This southwestern area remains the most
inaccessible and is the most distant from centers of popula-
tion and localities in which improvements are under way.
Settlement and colonization of the Glades section will grad-
ually reach out toward it, but some time must elapse be-
fore there will be demand for this land for agricultural
needs. Hence the delayed improvement of this section of










EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


the Everglades comes about naturally and is influenced by
the advancing tide of development from other directions.
Its final drainage, settlement and cultivation will come in
the natural order of things, and its drainage should be con-
sidered with such in mind.

TAXATION AND FINANCING

While the work accomplished to date represents a large
part of the completed plan, yet much more remains to be
done. This means that additional money must be raised,
resulting in additional taxes. Additional taxes mean heavier
burdens to land owners, all of which must be kept within
such bounds that the owner of property can pay the same
without unnecessary hardship and yet permit the carry-
ing on of the work at such rate as will bring lands into
cultivation and use as rapidly as practicable. The extent
to which money can be raised by the District determines
the rate at which the drainage work can be accomplished,
and this in turn for all practical purposes fixes the rate
at which land can be made ready for settlement and culti-
vation.
Map No. 5 shows the present acreage tax schedule.
Two plans have been suggested for proceeding with the
work.
1. The larger plan, extending the boundaries to include
the East Coast and Caloosahatchee areas on some just and
equitable basis of benefits and as greatly assisting in ade-
quate financing, and proceeding with the construction of
the main system of canals for serving an area of 2,300,000
acres. The approximate cost for completing the main
drainage works for such area has been shown to be $20,-
.71.1,438.00. A reasonable working schedule for the above
would be one which would complete the work in 8 years.
Thus expenditures at the rate of two and one-half million
dollars per annum for a period of eight years would be
necessary.
2. The restricted area plan, with the District as it now
is and continuing to raise money as at present. In this
case the work would be proceeded with in such manner as
will bring into condition for use certain selected restricted
areas. The cost of completing the main drainage works for
the restricted area heretofore illustrated and discussed, was















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EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


shown to be approximately $4,531,000.00, and that 493,000
acres of land would be ready for use insofar as main drain-
age works are concerned as a result of such work. This
plan can be carried out without material changes in the
District as it now is. The completion of works for about
half of these areas can be brought about in two years, and
three years should suffice for completing the work in all
of these units. Allowing an additional year to complete
their secondary systems would make the foregoing areas
available in four years.
The carrying out of the restricted area plan appears to
be ample for all reasonable needs of settlement and cultiva-
tion. The four-year schedule outlined can be carried out
by the District as it now is, but the completion of the units
suggested for the four-year schedule is by no means the
completion of all work for the District and represents but
approximately one-fourth of the expense for reclaiming
the area in which work has already been done, amounting
to approximately 2,300,000 acres. It does not seem likely
that the District as it now is, with its low assessed valua-
tion of property, small population and large proportion of
non-producing area, can advantageously finance the whole
work to completion. Hence the adoption and carrying out
of the restricted area plan does not reduce the desirability
or the justness of extending the boundaries of the District
to the East Coast and to other sections. No matter what
plan may be followed, the problem of financing the work
will ever be at the forefront in importance. The benefits
which have been and which will hereafter be received by
the adjacent areas and their towns and cities, and the de-
velopment of the Everglades as their back country, makes
such inclusion in the district and the payment of a nominal
tax such as 1 mill in the dollar of property, just and
equitable beyond any sort of question. These are the real
grounds for their inclusion. One of the results from such
inclusion or as incident thereto, is the benefit or advantage
to Everglades Drainage District in financing the work.
Thus will advantages or benefits to each party come about
in a reciprocal way, and not of a one-sided nature.
The following tables "H" and "I" indicate the amount
of money necessary to be raised by taxation for supporting
bonds issued to supply money for carrying out the work:













TABLE 'H."


EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT.

Suggested Taxing Schedule.
Acreage Tax.

Zone Acres Rate 27-28 Rate 29-30 Rate 31-32 Rate 33-34 Rate 35-36 Rate 37-38
1 ...... 186.000( $1.50 $ 279,000 $1.50 $ 279.000 $1.80 $ 334,800 $1.90 $ 353,400 $2.00 $ 372,000 $2.00 $ 372,000
2 ...... 311.700 1.00 311,700 1.10 342,870 1.30 405.210 1.40 436,380 1.40 436,380 1.50 467,550 2
3 ...... 350.000 .75 262,500 .90 315,000 1.10 385,000 1.20 420,000 1.20 420,000, 1.30 455,000 '
4 ...... 392.000 .60 235,200 .75 294,000 .90 352,800 1.00 392,000 1.00 392,000' 1.00 392,000
5 ...... 668,000 .50 334,000 .60 400,000 .75 501,000 .90 601,200 1.00 668,000 1.00 668,000
5a ..... 208,000 .25 51,500 .40 82,400 .50 103.000 .60 123.600 .70 144.200 .75 154,500
6 ......2.000,000 .10 200,000 .10 200,000 .10 200,000 .10 200,000 .10 200,000 .10 200,000
Total ..4,113,700 $1,673,900 $1,914,070 52.281,810 $2,526,580 $2,632,580 $2,709,050 0

Ad Valorem Tax
-Everglades .... 1 Mill $ 53,000 2 Mills $ 110,000 3 Mills $ 168,000 4 Mills $ 228.000 5 Mills $ 290,000 5 Mills $ 300,000
Annexed Area ..... 1 Mill 140,000 1 Mill 145,000 1 Mill 150,000 1 Mill 155,000 1 Mill 165,000 1 Mill 175,000 S
Grand Total..... $ 1,866,900 $ 2,169,070 $ 2,599.810 $ 2,909,580 $ 3,087.580 $ 3.184,050 zo
Bonds on Tax ..... $19,000,000 $22,000,000 $20,000,000 $29,000.000 $31,000.000 $33,000,000 g
Order of Issue (In- a
eluding all pre-
vious issues) .... $19.000,000 $23,000,000 $28,000,000 $33,000,000 ....................
Available for Work. $ 4,000,000 $ 5.000,000 $ 5.000,000 $ 5.000,000
This Table is by way of suggestion only.









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT

TABLE" I."

EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT.

(Present Taxing Schedule Acreage Tax.)


Acres
186,000
311,700
350,000
392,000
668,000
206,000
2,000,000


Rate
$1.50
1.00
.75
.60
.50
.10
.10


Total 4,113,700
Ad Valorem Tax,
Everglades 1926 assessment, 1 mill.


27-28.
$ 279,000
311,700
262,500
235,200
334,000
20,600
200,000

$1,643,000

....... $ 52,404


Grand Total .......................... $1,695,4114

TABLE "J."

VALUATION OF PROPERTY IN EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DIS-
TRICT SUBJECT TO DRAINAGE TAXES-1926 ASSESSMENT.

Lands on which acreage tax is levied ..... $30,629,629.00
Lands exempt from acreage tax on which
1 M ill tax applies ..................... 19,975,147.00
Railroads and Telegraphs ................ 1,636,610.00
Personal Priperty ....................... 163,030.00

Total ............................ $52,404,416.00
The above does not include school lands and property
not taxable-$353,690.00.

EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT TAXES-1926.

I mill ad valorem tax, 1925 assessment. .....$ 32,429.58
Acreage Drainage Tax, 1926 assessment. .... 1,604,061.40

Total Tax Assessed ................. $1,636,490.98


Zone
1
2
3
4
5
5-a
6









BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


The following is a brief general statement of the status
of bonds sold, issued, or authorized by the Legislature to
January 1, 1927:
Amount of bonds authorized by the Legislature $14,250,000
Amount of bonds disposed of for which money
has been received, exclusive of refunding
bonds ................... .............. 11,250,000
Amount of bonds matured and paid off....... 1,000,000
Amount of bonds outstanding............... 10,255,000
Made up of:
All issues except refunding ..... $6,723,000
Refunding only ................. 3,532,000
($5,000 more of refunding bonds
were required to make up in part
the difference between call and re-
fund rates).
Amount of bonds on hand not disposed of.... 3,000,000
Amount of bonds available for raising money
authorized by Legislature, 1925........... 3,000,000
Of which $1,250,000 5%, dated January 1,
1926, deposited with Park National Bank
under agreement with Spitzer, Rorick & Com-
pany and $1,250,000 to be issued as of date
January 1, 1927, and $500,000 to be issued as
of date January 1, 1928.
The following amounts borrowed for paying cost of work
are owed by the Drainage Board:
Amount of notes to The Arundel Corporation
to January 1, 1927....................... $497,862.23
Amount of notes to Trustees of the Internal Im-
provement Fund to January 1, 1927........ 298,000.00

COLLECTIONS.

The following is the statement of Everglades Drainage
District taxes, 1926, as shown by records of the Tax Agent:
Amount of acreage drainage taxes, 1926 ..... $1,571,631.82
Amount of ad valorem taxes, 1926, on 1925
assessment ............................ 32,429.58
A financial set-up for Everglades Drainage District from
the foregoing and from other data might be stated in a
general way as follows:
Area of District-4,114,000 acres.
Assessed value, 1926-$52,404,000.00.









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


Estimated value (suggested five times assessed value-
$262,000,000.00.
Population (1925 census adjusted to 1927)-46,000.
Amount of District's drainage taxes, 1927-$1,674,000.00
Amount of Districts' ad valorem taxes, 1927-
$52,404.00.
Total Everglades Drainage Taxes, 1927-$1,726,404.00.
Average collections after deducting delinquencies, 96%
to 97%.
SDelinquencies paid by Trustees of the Internal Improve-
ment Fund as required by law, 3% to 4%.
Final collections to District, 1I.11'
Total bonds authorized by Legislature to January 1st,
1927-$14,250,000.00.
Total bonds issue and sold-$11,250,000 00.
Bonds on hand subject to sale-$3,000.000.00.
Bonds matured and paid-$1,000,000.00.
Bonds. o(,iil-.il,,ii.; ---+tll-,255,000.00. ($5,000 more of
refunding bonds were required to make up in part the dif-
ference between call and refund rates).
Sinking fund required by 1;iv.-2'.
Present debt not including bonds out covered by notes--
$795,862.23.
Bonds are general obligation of Everglades Drainage
District through authority from Legislature, Chapter 6456,
Acts of 1913, and amendments.
Interest rates on bonds outstanding: Early issues at 6%.
Middle issues at 51/2%. Recent issues at 5%.
Bonds are serial maturing from present till 1959. Future
issues will probably be at interest rates from 5% to 51/2%.
Interest payable semi-annually.
No interest or principal payments have ever been post-
poned.
Refunding bonds authorized.
Refunding bonds issued ................... $3.532,000 00
Which amount is included in outstanding
bond statement. Proceeds from bonds are
to be used in constructing canals and other
drainage works for reclaiming the lands of
the District.









BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


Estimated cost of work for reclaiming
2,300,000 acres where work is now going on
is as follows:
Cost of work to date...$14,904,000.00
Estimated cost of addi-
tional work ........ 20,584,000.00

Total ............................. $35,488,000.00
Cost per acre work accomplished as charged
against 2,300,000 acres (part of above is
chargeable against remaining area of dis-
trict when this area is developed)........ 6.48
Cost per acre for new work (a small part of
this work must later be distributed against
additional area) ...................... 8.95

Total cost per acre for Everglades Drainage
District work on 2,300,000 acres................. $15,48
Estimated value of land when drained-$50.00 to $500 00
per acre for agricultural purposes.

MONEY RECEIVED BY EVERGLADES DRAINAGE
DISTRICT FROM VARIOUS SOURCES OTHER
THAN BONDS AND TAXES

1925 and 1926

Machinery, equipment and supplies ........... $14,399.44
Rock and sand ............................. 19,087.78
Machine shop and equipment services .......... 13,246.81
Lock tolls ................................ 3,931.18
Refunds on freight, material and supplies ...... 603.99
Interest on notes ........................... 422.29
Miscellaneous, maps, blue prints, reports, etc... 101.60

Total ................................. $51,793.09

CONCLUSION

In addition to the matter set forth in this report, there
are numerous other reports, memoranda, many charts, dia-
grams and plans, and other date and information on prac-
tically every phase of the drainage project on file in the









EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT


office of the Chief Drainage Engineer, all of which are
available at any time for the use of the Board. It was
not deemed necessary to include the above in a report of
this kind. Furthermore, much of the subject matter and
some of the conclusions and opinions set down do not have
the supporting data therefore, or in some cases, the reasons
influencing such opinions. Such supporting data and de-
tailed discussions of the subjects mentioned are also at hand
for ready reference, if desired.
I do not know of any other drainage project in this
State or out of it where so much information and data
have been accumulated during a considerable period of
years as upon the Everglades. The statement has been
made many times by engineers and others visiting this office
and making inquiry or seeking information on general or
special subjects relating to the Everglades, that they had
no idea there was so much information, so much data, or
such complete records on the subject. These data, records,
reports, studies and investigations cover:
Temperature, evaporation, percolation, soil t.,.! ,,. run-
off experiments, storage reservoirs, and topography.
Soil characteristics as affecting drainage and other
hydrological phenomena.
Information in reference to design, construction and
costs of locks, dams, and other controlling works.
Costs of excavating canals, of building levees, and other
works of the district, both by contract and as undertaken
directly by the Board, information and costs on drilling
and blasting.
Classification of various materials encountered in canal
construction, including muck, sand, marl and rock in its
various stages of hardness, and charting such areas.
The subsidence of muck and its effect upon drainage,
water storage and percolation;
Approved and tested method of land surveys and the
cost of the same;
Instructions, rules and regulations for the use of the
employees of the District, as engineers, inspectors, mem-
bers of survey parties, in the operation of dredges, the use
of cars and other vehicles, operation of locks and dams for
navigation and for water regulation;
Maintenance, upkeep and depreciation of plant and









BIENNIAL REPORT, 1925-1926


equipment, together with maintenance of works con-
structed; subsistence and housing of employees;
Information in reference to bonds, taxes levied for sup-
porting the same, and for providing money for carrying
on the work;
The ascertaining and determining of benefits upon which
are designated zones for the levy of the differential drain-
age taxes.
* The imposition of the ad valorem tax, extension of the
boundaries of the District, financing and other economic
considerations;
The keeping and analyses of costs and accounts and the
distribution of expenses toward various projects and oper-
ating units carrying on the District's work, such as boats,
barges, dredges, machine shop, motor vehicles, and other
equipment, producing power from various fuels, lubricat-
ing oil tests, insurance such as indemnity, liability, acci-
dent, vehicle and other coverage, employees' accident risks
and ratio;
Information in reference to sub-drainage districts, their
works and their relation to Everglades Drainage District,
digest of various laws affecting the Everglades Drainage
District and the many sub-drainage districts existing there-
in, and the construction which has been placed upon them,
and
Practically every other subject entering into or having
bearing upon the project.
These data, records and other information have been
carefully kept, are trustworthy, and are of constant value
to this office in carrying out its work.
With all this wealth of data upon almost every conceiv-
able subject in reference to the Everglades drainage pro-
ject in its many aspects, it seems to me that it would not
be out of place to compile and print the same for more con-
venient use of the District and for the information of the
public. There would be some expense attached thereto,
but the cost would be moderate and, in my opinion, justi-
fied by the value of the information thus made available.
Respectfully submitted,
F. C. ELLIOT,
Chief Drainage Engineer.
January 1, 1927.