THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
STREET IN OLD ST. AUGUSTINE
AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES
Seeing St. Augustine
Compiled and Written by the
Federal Writers' Project
WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION
... ...... .... .-
The R record Company
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T THE TIME that this Guide Book goes to press,
plans are being launched looking toward the
preservation of the many historical and other
resources of St. Augustine, Florida, as well as their proper
development and wise use by citizens and visitors alike.
This Ancient City, encompassing so many aspects of
national and international history, has been the subject
of research over several months by Carnegie Institution
of Washington, assisted by a distinguished group of his-
torians and other scientists.
In this connection the present work, done by the
Federal Writers' Project, has been of particular value,
and it is a significant contribution in compact and read-
able form to the knowledge already existing regarding
While the contents will doubtless be altered and
expanded as research throws new light on the history of
the city, it is felt that at the moment these are minor
difficulties. The big thing is to realize that a new de-
parture has been made in developing a type of guide
book, having a value for the general reader and tourist
alike, which at some later time can be amended to include
or exclude such materials as experience will show to be
VERNE E. CHATELAIN.
Carnegie Institution of Washington,
Washington, D. C.
RAILROAD: Florida East Coast Railway, station at Malaga Street, be-
tween Valencia and Ovieda Streets.
AIRPORT: St. Augustine Municipal Airport, 5 miles north from city
on United States Road No. 1.
Bus STATION: Florida Motor Lines and Seminole Coach Co., Alhambra
Hotel, corner of King and Granada Streets.
TAXIs: Fare 10c and up, according to number of passengers and distance.
HACKMEN: Colored drivers, horse-drawn carriages. $1.50 per hour,
at 26 DeSoto Place, 30 Granada Street, Plaza, Ponce de Leon Hotel
and along Bay Street.
PIER: City Yacht Pier and mooring basin, south of Bridge of Lions.
TRAFFIC REGULATIONS: Watch signs for one-way streets and parking
limitations. Chief one-way streets: St. George (south), Aviles
(south), and Charlotte (north).
TOURIST INFORMATION SERVICE:
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE: Civic Center, San Marco Avenue, north of
ASK MR. FOSTER, TRAVEL AGENCY: 53 King Street, open from Decem-
ber 15 to April 15.
GUIDES: Licensed uniformed guides, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., at Fort Marion
entrance, north Bay Street. One dollar around St. Augustine; $1.50
includes Anastasia Island.
RECREATION DEPARTMENT: Headquarters, Chamber of Commerce, at
Civic Center, San Marco Avenue, north of City Gates.
CINEMA: Jefferson Theatre, 68 Cathedral Place; Orpheum Theatre,
20 Cathedral Place.
Music: Band concerts, Plaza (occasionally). Series of concerts, spon-
sored by St. Cecilia Club, Presbyterian Church House. Negro chorus,
September through May, Sunday afternoon, 3:45 p.m., at Florida
Normal and Industrial Institute.
AUDITORIUMS: Civic Center, San Marco Avenue, north of City Gates.
Cathedral Lyceum, 265 St. George Street.
ATHLETIC FIELDS: Lewis Park, southern end of Marine Street, local
games in season. Civic Center Park, on San Marco Avenue.
SWIMMING: St. Augustine Beach, State Highway 140, 7.5 miles south
of Post Office, bath houses. Lighthouse Park Beach, 1.5 miles east
of Post Office, bath houses. Vilano Beach, State Highway 78, 3 miles
north of Post Office, bath houses. Surfside Beach, State Highway 78,
3.6 miles north of Post Office, bath houses. Usina's Beach, State
Highway 78, 5.5 miles north of Post Office, bath houses. Y. M. C.
A. indoor pool, corner of Valencia and Ribera Streets, rates of 15c
for boys, 25c for men; ladies on Saturday from 2 to 4 p.m.
TENNIS COURTS: Ponce de Leon courts, $10 per season. Y. M. C. A.,
25c an afternoon; Civic Center, courts under construction, 25c per
GOLF COURSES: The St. Augustine Links, United States Road No. 1,
2.5 miles north of city, 18 holes; fees, $2 per day, $10 per week,
$50 per season. St. Augustine Municipal Links, 93 Cerro Street,
south end of city, 9 holes; fees, 50c per day.
T'OURIST CLUB: At Civic Center, $3 per season. Shuffleboard, roque,
croquet, horseshoe courts, dances in auditorium, rooms for reading
and card playing, Thursday night entertainments.
FISHING: Fresh-water fishing at St. Johns River (33 miles distant).
Salt-water fishing at Vilano Bridge, Usina's Beach, City Yacht Pier,
Corbett's Dock, Lighthouse Park Pier, Matanzas Inlet Park, Summer
Haven and Mickler's Pier at Palm Valley. Boats for hire at reason-
able rates; deep-sea fishing boats at City Yacht Pier.
RIDING ACADEMY: At Garnett Orange Grove, 114 San Marco Avenue.
Horse rentals, $1 per hour; available until 9:00 p.m. daily.
ANNUAL EVENTS: "A Day in Spain," a fiesta held in March; features
are Spanish singers and dancers and Spanish suppers. Pilgrimage to
Shrine of Nuestra Sefiora de la Leche, on Low Sunday.
General Information 6
Contents .. 8
List of Illustrations . 9
The Story of St. Augustine, Florida.... .11
A Word Picture .... 11-The Naming of Florida. ... 14-By
the Turn of a Tide .... 15-The French Piper .... 1 7-Im-
pregnable San Marcos. .... 18-Negro Refugees and Indian
Slaves. .... 19-English Attacks.. .20-Tory Florida. .. .22
Tory Newspaper.... 23-The Second Spanish Occupation. ..24
Under American Sovereignty.... 25-War with the Seminoles
.... 26-Spanish Atmosphere Becomes an Asset. .... 28-During
the Civil War .... 29-Development as a Resort .... 30-St.
Augustine to Date. 33
Points of Interest in St. Augustine, Florida. 36
Points of Interest in Environs 58
Tours in Environs .. 59
Tour 1.... 60-Tour 2....63-Tour 3.... 65
Selected Bibliography . .. 70
List of Illustrations
Map of St. Augustine, 1937 . .. 10
Hotel Ponce de Leon Court -. .. .12
Chapel Entrance, Fort Marion ..... . .14
Fountain of Youth 15
Boazio Map, 1586 . 18
Plan of the Town and Harbour of St. Augustin . 21
Monuments to Dade Command ...... .27
Horse Trolley . ... . 30
Anastasia Island . . 32
Old Wooden Schoolhouse . 35
Moat Steps, Fort Marion . .. 35
Fort Marion .. 38-39
Zero M ilestone . 41
Old Curiosity Shop .. 42
Spanish Treasury L . .. .. 42
Llambias House 44
Oldest House .. . 45
St. Francis Barracks. ... .. 47
Cathedral .\ .. 49
Don Toledo House . 51
Villa Zorayda . .. 51
Flagler Memorial Presbyterian Church . 53
Shrine of Nuestra Sefiora de la Leche ... .54
Fort Matanzas . .. 57
....z OVA .SAINT
0Ins IIjIZ1- 37
c o 12/-~
The Story of Saint Augustine, Florida
A WORD PICTURE
T. AUGUSTINE, the oldest perm nPnt whitp settlement in the United States,
Sis steeped in the grand story of the American conquest. The little city
is identified not alone with aborigine and conquistador, but with the French
Huguenot, the Briton of the Revolutionary Era, and finally the pioneer
American. True, its growth through three centuries and more has been
small, and the year-round population numbers but 10,418; but the stature
of the city cannot be measured in figures: it remains today not only a great
monument of the past, but an attractive resort, perhaps comparable in at-
mosphere to a Continental spa rather than a modern American town.
arrow streets and overhanging balconies suggest the Spanish heritage;
the gray fortress on the waterfront is a grim reminder of the settlement's
early role as defender of Spain's claim to North America.-l On the other
hand, large hotels and attractive suburbs are 'lively evidence of modernity.
The strong strain of Spanish individuality has persisted through genera-
tions of change; each new possessor of the little town has been in turn
possessed by it. Old structures were razed, but the weathered stone of the
thick walls was used in new homes, and the new builders retained the old
Spanish architecture. Even the English erected their dwellings with an
eye to the course of the sun and walled their gardens as had Spanish pre-
decessors. American pioneers moved in with little change, since there were
enough of the little buildings to house them for many years to come.
The longer Americans remained, the stronger waxed the influence of
the old town. In the eighties came a man whose means were equalled
only by his imagination, and the spell of the place awakened in him a desire
to recreate the glory of Spain in this, her frontier capital. So Henry M.
Flagler brought the great hotels, red spires, decorative balconies, elaborate
cornices and wrought iron g tes--gay, yet withal characteristic of the for-
mality so dear to the heart ofRenaissance Spain. From St. Augustine archi-
tecture and from her history as well as from the climatic demands of Florida
grew the Mediterranean style structures that characterize South Florida cities.
Emerson called St. Augustine "little city of the deep" and it seems indeed
to belong to the sea. East, south and west are the boundary waters-North
and Matanzas Rivers, links of the Inland Waterway, and the San Sebastian
River, harbor for the shrimp fleet. "Rivers" they are-called; in reality they
are but salt-water lagoons behind Anastasia Island and North Beach, those
narrow barriers cleft by a tortuous channel to the ocean.
Still.guarding this entrance from the sea is Fort Marion, which the
Spanish calTed San Marcos Nearby are the City Gates, once linked with the
12 SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
picturesque St. George Street.
In the center of the town is the Plaza de la Constituci6n? historic parade
ground for the military defenders of three nations. Facing each other across
this tree-covered park are the Catholic Cathedral with its manuscript records
that go back to the sixteenth century and the Trinity Episcopal Church,
that stands on a spot long hallowed by religious activity. To the east is a
statue of Florida's discoverer, Don Juan Ponce de Leon, and spanning
Matanzas River on its way to Anastasia Island is the beautiful Bridge of
Lions. To the south is the old Spanish quarter.
West of the Plaza is Post Office Park, where on the site of the Spanish
Governor's palace the United States Post Office is built. Just beyond are the
Ponce de Leon and Alcazar hotels.
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
About these two historic squares, with foliations north and west, is clust-
ered the city's business section, and within the radius of a few hundred yards
is found anything from cocktails and a delicious sea-food dinner to fishing
tackle and a suit of clothes.
For more than a hundred years St. Augustine has been a resort. Picking
oranges, listening to the story of St. Augustine's centuries, comparing the
northern clime with Florida sunshine-these things beguile the time of less
active visitors; golf, fishing, sailing, swimming at any of St. Augustine's
five beaches, or hunting in the tangled swamp, piney wood or flat field are
more strenuous pastimes.
Courteous guides are everywhere available. For a nominal sum they are
glad to pilot the sightseer's automobile through the narrow one-way streets
so often disconcerting to those unfamiliar with the ancient city. Some
visitors find that a leisurely walk about town is a pleasant way to see things;
some adopt the ever-popular bicycle; many prefer the comfortable pace of
the horse-drawn hacks driven by soft-tongued Negro guides. Old houses,
with their doors opening directly on the street, with their Old World
atmosphere personified in barred windows and crumbling walls, are conven-
ient places to find inexpensive souvenirs. Restaurants specialize in local
dishes-pilau, clam chowder, fried shrimp, gopher stew and the like. Nor
would the restaurants and curio shops be complete without the Greek, Cuban
or Armenian owner who knows so well how to cater to his trade.
St. Augustine has its percentage of foreign-born people, and no small
portion of them are the hardy seamen of the shrimp fleet-Scandinavians,
Portuguese, Italians. Of Spaniards, there are few; but there are, of course,
many descendants of the Minorcan immigrants. Coming from the Island
of Minorca at the time when England owned both Florida and the Med-
iterranean islands off the coast of Spain, the Minorcans were originally part
of Dr. Turnbull's agricultural colony at New Smyrna, Florida. They
moved in a body to St. Augustine in 1777, and today their descendants make
up a large section of the city's population.
St. Augustine has grown more in the last three decades than in the full
three centuries previous. North and west are proofs of expansion-new
sections of the old city. The western area presents, in addition to its
attractive homes, an industrialized aspect that is quite in contrast with the
formality of the older portion, while the northern part has become another
pleasant residential suburb. US 1 leads through both sections, and along
its length are small shops, rooming and boarding houses.
Many of the more pretentious homes are in the Southern Colonial style;
a number of beautiful dwellings are done in the Spanish Provincial manner;
outstanding ecclesiastical architecture is Romanesque or Renaissance with an
occasional touch of Gothic.
And everywhere are vividly colorful gardens; oyster shell lime and the
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
humid atmosphere make for luxuriant growth of the semitropical flowers
and shrubs. St. Augustine grass, so called because the seed was brought
from Spain at an early date, is a thick green carpet for antique stone
figures and urns that lend a quaint touch to the riotous gardens.
SThere is more of new than of old
St. Augustine, yet over the town hangs
the serene atmosphere which comes only
with calm age. Even in 1700, travelers
thought the town looked old, and though
a it has been burned, torn down and re-
built many times, it has always exuded
the feeling of antiquity. Like the
gnarled cedars clinging to the wind-
swept shores of the beaches, its roots are
CHAPEL ENTRANCE. FORT MAmRON stlrng and deeply embedded in the soil.
THE NAMING OF FLORIDA
Dawn of April.3+,A1153,showed a middle-aged, blond Spaniard stand-
ing in the high prow of his caravel, anchored off an unknown shore.
His blue eyes turned first to note with satisfaction that his two other ships
rode safely at anchor nearby. Then he looked landward where myriads
of birds circled over the dark forest. This as the vicinity of what later
was to become the site of St. Augustine.
The officers of the expedition stood near Ponce de Leon, their com-
mander. Because the weather was uncertain, it had been agreed that the
ships would wait here until the wind should subside. A few hours later
the small boats took the men shoreward to see what manner of island this
might be. Since land was first sighted on March 27 during the Pascua
^lorid/" Sp"'nisb for Feast of Flowers, it was undoubtedly the time of the
year as well as the appearance of the land that inspired the commander to
call his discarvry Florida, meaning full of flowers.
Thus did Florida receive its name, an apt description of the peninsula.
Even if no more were known of him, one would say this Spaniard had imag-
ination, to bestow upon a land the magic of such a name. But he was here
upon a curious quest-a search for the fountain of youth. The West Indian
natives had told him of their search for this miraculous fountain, and Ponce
de Leon's own race had many stories regarding it, which had descended to
them from medieval times. Some scoffed, many hoped it was true, but few
dared openly to venture for it.
At the head of his landing party, Ponce de Leon walked up the shore
with drawn sword in one hand and royal patent in the other. In the
language laid down by precedent he claimed the land for Spain, little dream-
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
ing that thereby he placed his country's name high on the list of contestants
for a vast new continent.
The expedition remained here five days, during which time it is reason-
able to suppose Ponce de Leon sampled the nearby springs in his search for
the fabled fountain. Satisfied that it was not here, he finally set sail, never
to return to the spot made famous by his visit.
FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH
BY THE TURN OF A TIDE
A half century passed before further official notice was taken of the
futur site of St. Autine hen in 4 a French expedition sailed
into the harbor. Laudonniere, the leader, exchanged amenities with the
cacique of the Indian village Seloy, but went 40 miles farther north to the
St. Johns River to erect Fort Caroline.
This act precipitated a conflict between Spain and France for control
of the Floridacoast. Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, foremost admiral
of Spain, was sent to Florida to destroy the Frenc fort. Arriving at the
St. Johns River September 4, 1565, he found that Laudonniere had been
re-e-nfors~-bv-a-fxresh expedition under Ribaut, so outnumbered in men and
ships, Menendez decided to fortify a nearby harbor and wait for re-en-
Hastily he unloaded his ammunition, supplies and people at St. Augus-
tine, which he named with elaborate formality on September 8. Deep
draft ships could not enter the protected harbor, and rather than leave his
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
craft exposed to the danger of capture by the French fleet, the Admiral
bade certain of his seamen set sail for Hispaniola at midnight of the second
day, himself going a little way to sea with them. At dawn Pedro Menendez,
with 150 of his men, returning to St. Augustine harbor, found the French
Armada was waiting. A great ship and three smaller vessels, crowded with
Frenc~ soldiers, set out in pursuit of the two little Spanish boats. The
Spaniards knelt, praying desperately for deliverance. They managed to
crqss the dangerous bar at the channel entrance; the French ships dared not
follow until the tide should rise.
Menendez urged his people shoreward, for on him rested a heavy
responsibility. His ammunition was stored in the great Indian communal
house, appropriated two days before. His men worked feverishly-there
was nothing else to do, for neither French nor Spanish gave quarter and
they knew they must defend or die.
It lacked but two hours of high tide and the French Armada drew closer.
But it was unseasonable September, the month of hurricanes. Suddenly a
strong north wind sprang up and the vessels tacked seaward to prevent being
cast ashore. The last the Spaniards saw of them, the ships were flying
southward before the rising storm.
To the experienced eye of Menendez, these events meant opportunity.
For many a year he had sailed past these shores, shepherding the treasure fleets
on their way to Spain. It would be many more days, he knew, before the
French vessels could return to their fort and harbor. Meantime, the fort
must be greatly weakened, if he could judge from the number of men he
had seen on the ships. So was born the bold idea of the strategist-to attack
the fort in the absence of the ships.
But this plan seemed lunacy to his men. Only the force of his per-
sonality kept his 500 men in line when he led them into the storm for the
overland march to the French fort. And forlornly the rest of his colony
watched the soldiers go, never expecting to see them again.
The sun finally shone again. Then one day a soldier was seen running
toward the little settlement of St. Augustine full of news of the miraculous
capture of Fort Caroline. At once the colonists formed a triumphal pro-
cession and marched out to meet Menendez-four priests leading with cross
aloft, followed by the soldiers, women and children, all singing the Te
One day soon after his return, word reached Menendez that a French
army was marching up the beach from the south. These were the men of
the fleet now shipwrecked along the coast. South went Menendez to meet
and destroy them. Yet he spared some, and allowed them to stay in St.
Augustine, sharing with them his scanty provisions. This seemingly incon-
sistent action might be explained if one reasoned that 500 Frenchmen were
a menace to the Spaniards, but a few could nc allowed to live.
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
Menendez was the greatest historical figure ever associated with Florida;
he made St. Augustine the headquarters for a chain of forts and Indian
mission towns which extended from irginia to lorida, around the penin-
sula as far as Tampa Bay. His untimely death in Spain at the age of 55
was a great misfortune for St. Augustine, and it is significant that he wrote a
few days before his death, "After the salvation of my soul, there is nothing
in this world that I desire more than to see myself in Florida." In 1924,
we e remn f great colonizer were transferred to a lead casket
i the church at Aviles, the headboard of the original wooden coffin was
presented to thie City-ot St. Augustine by the Spanish government, and the
historic relic is now in the City Hall.
THE FRENCH PIPER
Menendez was fond of music. Accordingly, when he killed most of
the shipwrecked Frenchmen, he spared several musicians, and some of these
men transferred their melodies to St. Augustine, mingling their flutes with
the war drums of Indian allies and the mellow bells of the first parish
church in the new continent.
Twenty-one years passed, and then on May 8, 1586, the lonely watch
tower on the white beach of Anastasia Island roused the curiosity of 2,000
English fighting men, the dread fleet of Francis Drake, scourge of the
What this place might be, none knew, though the beacon argued a
Spanish lookout to guide the treasure fleets bearing their spoils homeward.
Since it must be Spanish, Drake himself, ever fierce after Spanish prey, led
the landing party around the island. There across the quiet waters of
Matanzas Bay (or Tolomato River, as it was then called) rose the crude
fort and flimsy village. The standard of Spain floated from the battle-
ments of the wooden fort, called San Juan de Pinos. Drake set English
tars to back-breaking hauls of artillery along the sands, that he might fire
the first shot at that hated emblem. As night drew near without signs of
resistance from the fortress, the English prepared to advance, when from
the town a single rude dugout, propelled by one man, advanced to meet them.
Amazed, the English saw that as the man drew near, he held in his mouth
a flute on which he played as loudly as he could a tune popular in Protestant
countries-The March of the Prince of Orange. That this tune should
come from a Spanish stronghold stayed English fire until the breathless
boatman was close enough to shout that he was Ami! He was Nicholas
Burgoigne, one of the French musicians retained by Menendez, and Drake
learned from him that this town was the creation of the great Spanish
admiral. Flutist Nicholas assured his new friends that the town was
deserted, and soon the thatched roofs were flaming. In the fort was found
a chest with the garrison's pay; it was, of course, appropriated. As the
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
i iil i ,"s L A i UlIjnc
THE BOAZIO MAP, 1586, FROM BEGGES' ACCOUNT OF THE DRAKE ATTACK.
BIGGEST WAS A CAPTAIN IN DRAKE'S FLEET.
fleet departed, the great logs of the fort sent a tower of flame skyward,
telling the wretched inhabitants hiding in the woods that they must start
anew their struggle for survival. The flutist went with Drake to England,
perhaps to play the tunes he had learned in savage Florida to curious stay-
IMPREGNABLE SAN MARCOS
Brought from far-off Apalachia in West Florida, Indian slaves were
forced into a lifetime of penance for rebellion against Spanish authority.
By their toil rose stronger fortifications, but in 1668 the city was again
attacked and burned by British buccaneers, this time under John Davis.
There was little booty, for the people were poor.
After 1670 the Spaniards drove their captive workers with more than
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
ordinary zeal, for northward a new menace reared its head. Charleston,
called by St. Augustine's people San Jorge, took root in abandoned Spanish
fields and waxed strong by its trade with heathen Indians. Plans for wooden
Fort San Marcos were revised to provide an impregnable fortification, finally
begun in 1672. On Anastasia Island was the workers' village, near the
shallow coquina pits under the blistering sun. From the quarries on Anas-
tasia were cut the blocks of coquina that were ferried across the bay and
laboriously hoisted into place for the walls of San Marcos.
Don Juan de Ayala, who later became governor, was a gentleman of
such boundless energy and zeal that he soon caught the eye of the Spanish
monarch. In 1687 Ayala sailed from St. Augustine in his own vessel to
obtain supplies and ammunition for the city, and as a reward for his patriot-
ism he was granted the privilege of carrying merchandise, duty free, and of
bringing 12 Negroes to cultivate the fields of Florida. So strict, however,
were the regulations regarding those who might be brought to Florida that
even the Negroes had to-be Spanish-reared. Perhaps this stipulation ac-
counted for Ayala's securing but a single black. Nevertheless, the city cele-
brated with universal joy, for there was great need of workers to raise crops.
NEGRO REFUGEES AND INDIAN SLAVES
Negro slaves caused frequent trouble between South Carolina and
Florida. Slaves from the English plantations escaped to Florida and were
welcomed by the Spanish governor, who gave them a fort, called Moosa,
two miles north of St. Augustine. Here they resisted efforts to recapture
them, and incidentally served as a buffer for St. Augustine. In retaliation,
English colonials captured Spanish Indians and sold them for slaves. But
even with this grievous score between them, a happy interlude occurred when
an English governor with a conscience dealt with a Spanish governor capable
South Carolina's Governor Archdale returned to the Spanish Governor
Torres four Florida Indians who had been offered for sale in Charleston
in 1695. Torres in return promised to give shipwrecked Englishmen safe
conduct out of his territory, and soon made good his pledge.
In 1696 a party of English castaways arrived in St. Augustine. They
were without clothing, but deemed themselves fortunate, for ordinarily
the Indians would have taken their lives along with their raiment. Torres
sheltered them in his own house, and allowed them to see the town, which
was at that time a strange medley of soldiers, missionaries and half-civilized
Indians. A book about their adventure, entitled God's Protecting Provi-
dence, sold many editions in the American colonies, so curious were the Eng-
lish settlers about their secretive southern neighbor.
20 SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
European war in 1702 put a stop to this brief period of good will.
French ships from Mobile and Spanish vessels from St. Augustine united in
a vain effort to crush Charleston. This hostility only furnished anti-St.
Augustine propaganda to Moore; a new and ambitious Carolina governor,
and he raised enough money and troops for a sizeable expedition against St.
Augustine-an attack by land and by sea. Colonel Daniels led the land
forces that included 600 Yemassee Indians, while Moore embarked in
schooners with an equal number of provincial militia. Daniels arrived first
and occupied the town, quartering his men in the large church buildings.
The inhabitants had retired to the fort, stocked with enough provisions for
a four months' siege. A month in front of the great stone fort convinced
Moore that he needed bombs and mortars to capture it. To get these neces-
sities, Daniels was dispatched to Jamaica, but before he returned, two Spanish
ships had approached the beleaguered fort and frightened Moore into
raising the siege. He set fire to the town and marched the 200 miles back
to Charleston, abandoning a great quantity of stores. Colonel Daniels
narrowly escaped capture off St. Augustine when he returned from Jamaica
with the guns.
Even the Indians were scornful of Moore's inglorious defeat. Arro-
tomakaw, chief of the Yemassees, said to Moore's soldiers: "Though your
governor leaves you, I will not stir until I have seen all my men before me."
As a result of Moore's attack, the fort was strengthened and the garrison
increased so that it was ready for Colonel Palmer's raid in 1725. Safe
within the walls the inhabitants watched their homes burn and learned that
their cattle and their Indian allies were driven by the thousands to Carolina.
Well might the Spanish Crown confer upon the little town the proud
title, "La siempre fiel Ciudad de San Augustin" (Ever Faithful City of St.
Augustine). The English were determined to possess the Land of Flowers,
and in 1740 the brilliant James Oglethorpe, Governor of Georgia, found
himself with instructions "either to demolish the fort or bastions (at St.
Augustine), or put a garrison in it, in case you shall have men enough for
Forewarned, Spanish Governor Monteano prepared to fight. He secured
an able engineer, Antonio de Arredondo, to repair the defenses. Ramparts
were heightened, a covered way made by embanking 4,000 stakes, bomb proof
vaults constructed, and entrenchments thrown up around the town. A
fortified line ran from stockades on the San Sebastian River to little Fort
Moosa, two miles north of the city, and well manned by runaway Carolina
slaves. Within the town and fort were 740 soldiers and more than 2,000
June 12, 1740, the siege began. Oglethorpe emplaced three batteries, two
on Anastasia Island and one on North Beach. Colonel Palmer with 80
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA 21
Scotch Highlanders took and occupied Fort Moosa. Bombardment of the
town forced civilians to seek refuge in Fort San Marcos, and supplies began
The night of June 25, the Scotchmen at Moosa fell before a surprise
attack, while the rest of the English army, unable to cross the river, could
do nothing but look on helplessly. Only 20 prisoners were spared, and
these were stripped and thrown into the dungeons of San Marcos.
I h j t
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A -i ll t 0 l
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
For 28 days shots were exchanged between San Marcos and the English,
but there was little damage. Cannon balls did not shatter the thick
coquina walls of the fort, so Oglethorpe fell back on the plan of reducing
the besieged by starvation. But, as the summer season advanced, his troops
suffered from fever and insects. Discouraged by news that provisions for
the Spaniards had arrived at a harbor 60 miles south of St. Augustine, Ogle-
thorpe decided on July 20 to give up the siege. With drums beating and
banners displayed he crossed to the mainland in full view of San Marcos,
but the defenders were too shrewd to be provoked into a sally from their
Three years later, March 9, 1743, Oglethorpe again tried to lure them
out by the same tactics, but again his efforts were fruitless. "They were
so meek there was no provoking them," he scornfully said.
It was apparent that nothing could be done with the "faithful city."
English colonials blamed the escape of their slaves, the Negro insurrections
and Indian raids on Spanish authorities at St. Augustine. Indignantly they
looked at "that den of thieves and ruffians! receptacle of debtors, servants
and slaves! bane of industry and society!" and resolved in their minds that
it was the source of all injuries their province had received, ever since its
Yet, St. Augustine's fortitude availed her nothing. Ill luck in Cuba
finally loosened the weakening grasp of Spain. Havana was captured by
the English; Spain traded the whole of Florida for the return of Havana.
From the city they had defended for 200 years, the Spaniards departed in
a body. Even the Indian towns under the walls were deserted-many of
the copper-hued people went with the Spanish to Cuba. Great fruit trees
in the governor's, fine garden lay on the ground, and the fountains were
broken. When the English entered the town, scarcely five people remained.
English, traditionally, have a genius for tidying, and soon the little town
was again in bloom. The newcomers made no great changes in the Spanish
plan of the houses beyond bringing in their steep gable roofs and dropping
the living room from second story to ground floor. Coquina remained the
building stone. Entrances were shaded by porches above Tuscan pillars.
On the east side of the houses, wide high windows projected into the street;
on the west the windows were small. Double windowless, walls, six or
eight feet apart, ran along the north side to form a sort of gallery which
served as a pantry. But where the Spaniards had used stone urns filled with
coals to heat their rooms, the English, accustomed to chimneys and fireplaces,
added these cheerful features. Enormous barracks were built, large enough
to house five regiments. Though some thought the money might better
have been spent on roads and bridges, the unforeseen American Revolution
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
was soon to create a use for these barracks. Since there was no longer an
Indian danger, large plantations, such as Mon Plaisir, and Bonaventure on
the Matanzas River, were developed outside of town.
Northward were friends, so the King's Highway was constructed from
Colerain in Georgia to St. Augustine, and from there to New Smyrna, where
a colony of 1,500 Minorcans, Greeks and Italians was established by Dr.
Andrew Turnbull in 1767. Ships bringing them to Florida made a brief
stop at St. Augustine, where the colonists were eventually to return and
make their home.
This New Smyrna colony was the most ambitious agricultural experi-
ment ever undertaken under British rule in America. Governor James
Grant and Chief Justice William Drayton were close friends of Turnbull,
and were of great assistance to him in starting his colony. But after the
American Revolution developed, Drayton was removed from office as a
rebel sympathizer, and Grant was replaced in March 1774 by Patrick
Tonyn, a fiery Tory who disliked Turnbull for personal as well as political
reasons. The need for men in the Florida militia furnished Tonyn with
a pretext to ruinhis enemy: he encouraged the New Smyrna settlers to leave
the colony and move to St. Augustine in 1777. The settlers themselves
were only too glad to leave, having suffered many hardships during their
ten years in the new land. So to Tonyn they marched, deaf to the com-
mands of their overseers to return. Almost to a man they joined the militia.
As the American Revolution gathered momentum, St. Augustine assumed
importance as a depot for British operations against the southern Colonies.
In August 1775, as she was preparing to cross the bar at St. Augustine
harbor, the British ship Betsy was captured by an American privateer.
British sympathizers watched in despair, for she carried 111 barrels of gun-
powder for their troops.
When news of the Declaration of Independence reached the crowded
little city, feeling ran high; John Hancock and Samuel Adams were burned
in effigy in the public square and four years later, several signers of that
monumental document-Middleton, Rutledge and Heyward-were pris-
oners in St. Augustine. And they were but three among dozens of other
prominent captives sent to Florida's Tory stronghold after Charleston fell
into British hands.
Two major expeditions were launched from St. Augustine, one a land
attack under General Prevost against Savannah in 1777, the other a naval
venture which resulted in the capture of the Bahamas for England in 1783.
The East Florida Gazette, violent Tory newspaper, was published in
St. Augustine at least as early as 1783, when the South Carolina Gazetto
of that year denounced the paper as containing articles "wherein the good
24 SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
people of these States are insulted." The St. Augustine paper, therefore,
was among the earliest of American newspapers.
That same year of 1783 brought overwhelming financial misfortune to
East Florida's capital. Florida was retroceded to Spain September 3, and
the English citizens were given the alternative of becoming subjects of
the Spanish king or leaving Florida. Patriotic fervor ran so high that the
Britons left, almost to a man. And, like the Spaniards before them, they
sold their homes. The Minorcans remained, feeling sure that they would
find Spanish rule congenial.
THE SECOND SPANISH OCCUPATION
The empty houses did not fill rapidly until Governor Zespedez, who
arrived at St. Augustine in June 1784, hit upon the plan of offering
Americans land grants here. The offer was soon accepted, and the Spanish
city became brisk with adventurous "Yankees" whose English names struck
a cosmopolitan harmony with the Spanish and Irish names of officials and
Along with the land settlers came many troublemakers to incite the
Seminole Indians against Spaniard and American alike. There was Dan
McGirth, former scout in the British Army. But, when he burned Spanish
ships in the St. Johns River, he was finally captured and spent six years in.
a San Marcos dungeon. Other troublemakers were the Patriots of Florida,
American settlers who revolted against Spanish authority and organized a
republic in 1812. Their real motive was to persuade the United States to
annex Florida, and for a while, American forces aided them. The Patriots,
augmented by U. S. Regulars, marched on St. Augustine, but because they
did not capture it quickly enough, official Washington was obliged to recall
the Americans and the move for independence failed.
In 1817 an English traveler who arrived at the carnival season found
St. Augustine had settled down to Spanish routine, and thus described it:
"Emerging from the solitudes and shades of the pine forests, we espied
the distant yet distinct lights of the watch-towers of the fortress of St.
Augustine, delightful beacons to my weary pilgrimage. The clock was
striking ten as I reached the foot of the drawbridge; the sentinels were
passing the alerto, as I demanded entrance; having answered the preliminary
questions, the drawbridge was slowly lowered. The officer of the guard,
having received my name and wishes, sent a communication to the governor,
who issued orders for my immediate admission. On opening the gate, the
guard was ready to receive me; and a file of men, with their officer, escorted
me to his Excellency, who expressed his satisfaction at my revisit to Florida.
I soon retired to the luxury of repose, and the following morning was
greeted as an old acquaintance by the members of this little community.
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA 25
"I had arrived, at a season of general relaxation, on the eve of the
carnival, which is celebrated with much gaiety in all Catholic countries.
Masks, dominoes, harlequins, punchinellos and a great variety of grotesque
disguises, on horseback, in cars, gigs and on foot, paraded the streets with
guitars, violins, and other instruments, and in the evenings, the houses were
open to receive masks, and balls were given in every direction. I was told
that in their better days, when their pay was regularly remitted from
Havanna, these amusements were admirably conducted, and the rich/resses
exhibited on these occasions were not eclipsed by their more fas ionable
friends in Cuba; but poverty had lessened their spirit for enjoymer as well
as the means for procuring it; enough, however, to amuse an idle spectator,
and I entered with alacrity into their diversions."
UNDER AMERICAN SOVEREIGNTY
Not for long, however, were the Spanish to claim la siempre field Ciudad
de San Augustin; again events more or less remote affected the fate of St.
Augustine. Andrew Jackson stormed through West Florida, showing how
flimsy was the illusion of Spanish authority, and at last on February 22,
1819, Spain acknowledged the fact by ceding the territory to the United
States. On the morning of July 10, 1821, Colonel Robert Butler saluted
the Spanish governor and the American flag was raised over the old city.
The next year the new American government began its civil career in
Pensacola with the first session of the legislative council, but the following
year the second session was held in St. Augustine. After a journey of 28
days, the West Florida members arrived, with official records by the wagon
load. Members were unanimous on one point at least-the need of a
capital more convenient to both Pensacola and St. Augustine representatives.
Two men, Dr. William H. Simmons of St. Augustine, and John Lee
Williams of Pensacola, werb chosen to decide on a proper location; this
turned out to be Tallahassee.
In 1823 a treaty with the Seminoles was drawn up at Camp Moultrie,
four miles south of St. Augustine. Here 70 chiefs agreed to withdraw
from north Florida and not to hunt north of what is today the site of Ocala.
Governor Andrew Jackson had strongly urged sending the Seminoles west,
but since south Florida was little valued at that time, Floridians did not
object to the treaty.
Prince Achilles Murat, nephew of Napoleon, stirred local society in
1824. The 23-year-old visitor took a house in the city for the season and
purchased a plantation, Portenope, near Matanzas Inlet. A year later he
moved to the vicinity of Tallahassee,.but.he. kept his pleasant contacts in St.
o. -. .. .
Augustine. : .. ,..
Nor was Murat the Uily..h6ta'ble to find St. Aug2usJine at an early date.
In 1827 the y.oqtil,' Emerson, wintering in the, d'.:ity, described
.*' *. .*
.. .... ..-
....'.; ::- : .
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
activities of the town so recently acquired by the United States: "It is a
queer place. There are eleven or twelve hundred people, and these are
invalids, public officers, and Spaniards, or rather Minorcans. What is done
here? Nothing. It was reported in the morning that a man was at work
in the public square, and all our family turned out to see him. What is
grown here? Oranges, on which no cultivation seeks to be bestowed, beyond
the sluggish attention of one or two Negroes to each grove of five or six
hundred trees. The Americans live on their offices; the Spaniards keep
billiard tables, or, if not, they send their Negroes to the mud to bring oysters,
or the shore to bring fish, and the rest of the time, fiddle, mask and dance."
But St. Augustine was good to Emerson: it gave him back his health,
and he acknowledged the fact in beautiful poetry:
"There liest thou, little city of the deep,
And always hearest the unceasing sound
By day and night, in summer and in frost,
The roar of waters on thy coral shore.
But, softening southward in thy gentle clime,
Even the rude sea relents to clemency,
Feels the kind ray of thy benignant sun
And pours warm billows, up the beach of shells.
Farewell; and fair befall thee, gentle town!
The prayer of those who thank thee for their life,
The benison of those thy fragrant airs, .
And simple hospitality hath blest,
Be to thee ever as the rich perfume,
Of a good name, and pleasant memory!"
WAR WITH THE SEMINOLES
During the next decade, with the beginning of the Seminole War in
1835, St. Augustine resumed its role of military post. As most of the
active engagements took place in middle Florida, troops were continually
leaving the town, until by 1836 it was without adequate defense. Many
planters who had sought refuge in the city had brought their slaves with
them, and apprehension grew lest some of these should betray the city to
the savages. Nor was this fear without foundation, for many of the Negroes
had lived with the Indians, even intermarried with them. A patrol was
organized, but most of its members were old or sick and possessed few
muskets that would fire. When the dire situation became known, two
volunteer companies and cargoes of provisions were sent by the City of
Charleston-that historic-place .w hii.h ai.'hndred years before had been an
affirmed enemy of..thke' ldst.city. '. .
In SeptemhS. 1i37, General Henry Hernan'dt~. turned King Phillip
*. :*: **: "*** .
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
MONUMENTS IN NATIONAL CEMETERY, ST. AUGUSTINE. TO DADE COMMAND.
MASSACRED DURING SEMINOLE WAR
and some other chiefs 18 miles from St. Augustine. On October 21,
Osceola and Coacoochee agreed to come to a spot about seven miles south-
west of St. Augustine for a conference with General Jesup. Hernandez
was ordered to surround the Indians and bring them in.
A group of about 80 Indians stood waiting under the appointed tree as
General Hernandez approached. Osceola, outstanding with his fine physique
and intelligent, open expression, advanced to meet him; on his head was
a turban adorned with two long ostrich plumes; his dress was rich and
colorful, but not the striped costume that now distinguishes the Seminole.
The Indians seemed uneasy-a sixth sense must have warned them that
misfortune was near. The troops surrounding the band began to close in.
Hernandez announced that he was not satisfied with the replies to his ques-
tions and would have to take the warriors into custody. Brave Osceola
said to a companion, "I am choked; you will have to answer for me."
A storm of popular censure descended on Generals Jesup and Hernandez
for this breach of faith with the red men. Jesup defended himself in a
letter to the Secretary of War, saying that these Indians had deceived him
and violated their parole so often that he had to match duplicity with guile.
Nevertheless, the seizure of Osceola made him a hero in the public eye and
posterity has continued to condemn Jesup's policy.
Osceola and Coacoochee were imprisoned at Fort Marion, as San
Marcos was called by the Americans. A month later Coacoochee escaped,
28 SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
giving his warwhoop as he plunged into the forest. Osceola refused to
leave, saying he believed the authorities in Washington would eventually
remedy the wrong that had been done. But he was transferred to Fort
Moultrie, South Carolina, in January, and there developed quinsy of the
throat and died the same month.
His betrayal by no means marked an end to the Indian trouble; in
1838 three civilians and an army officer were killed near St. Augustine,
and two years later Indians fell upon a troupe of actors who were on their
way to the city from the St. Johns River. One of the musicians and
several persons traveling with the party were killed, but the company
reached St. Augustine and presented there The Honeymoon.
During this war St. Augustine profited considerably from the purchase
of supplies by the military organizations. Afterwards this income subsided,
however, and the town became even poorer than before, since the country-
side had been despoiled of its farms and the people impoverished.
SPANISH ATMOSPHERE BECOMES AN ASSET
Yet, in 1843 William Cullen Bryant found the city pleasant even in
apparent decrepitude. He was at the height of his popularity and his letters
about the ancient city were read eagerly by the American public. He wrote:
"At length we emerged upon a shrubby plain, and finally came in sight
of this oldest city of the United States, seated among its trees on a sandy
swell of land where it has stood for three hundred years. I was struck
with its ancient and homely aspect, even at a distance, and could not help
likeningit to pictures which I had seen of Dutch towns, though it wanted
a windmill or two to make the semblance perfect. We drove into a green
square, in the midst of which was a monument erected to commemorate
the Spanish constitution of 1812, and thence through the narrow streets of.
the city to our hotel.
"I have called the streets narrow. In few places they are wide enough
to allow two carriages to pass abreast. I was told that they were not orig-
inally intended for carriages, and that in the time when the town belonged
to Spain, many of them were floored with an artificial stone composed of
shells and mortar, which in this climate takes and keeps the hardness of rock,
and that no other vehicle than a hand-barrow was allowed to pass over
them. In some places you see remnants of this ancient pavement, but for
the most part it has been ground into dust under the wheels of the carts
and carriages, introduced by the new inhabitants. The old houses, built
of a kind of stone which is seemingly a pure concretion of small shells,
overhang the streets with their wooden balconies, and the gardens between
the houses are fenced on the side of the street with high walls of stone.
Peeping over these walls you see branches of the pomegranate and of the
orange tree, now fragrant with flowers, and, rising yet higher, the leaning
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
boughs of the fig, with its broad luxuriant leaves. Occasionally you pass
the ruins of houses-walls of stone, with arches and staircases of the same
material, which once belonged to stately dwellings. You meet in the
streets with men of swarthy complexions and foreign physiognomy, and you
hear them speaking to each other in a strange language. You are told that
these are the remains of those who inhabited the country under the Spanish
dominion, and that the dialect you have heard is that of the island of
'Twelve years ago,' said an acquaintance of mine, 'when I first visited
St. Augustine, it was a fine old Spanish town. A large proportion of the
houses, which you now see roofed like barns were then flat-roofed, they were
all shell-rock, and these modern wooden buildings were not yet erected.
That old fort, which they are now repairing, to fit it for receiving a gar-
rison, was a sort of ruin, for the outworks had partly fallen and it stood
unoccupied by the military, a venerable monument of the Spanish dominion.
'But the orange groves were the ornament and wealth of St. Augustine, and
their produce maintained the inhabitants in comfort. Orange trees of the
size and height of the pear tree, often rising higher than the roofs of the
houses, embowered the town in perpetual verdure. They stood so close in
the groves that they excluded the sun, and the atmosphere was at all times
aromatic with their leaves and fruit, and in spring the fragrance of the
flowers was almost oppressive.' "
DURING THE CIVIL WAR
January 7, 1861, a volunteer company of Confederates seized the fort.
The ousted ordnance sergeant reported "one thing certain: with the excep-
tion of the guns composing the armament of the water battery, the property
seized is of no great value." From a military standpoint, he was probably
right, and when on March 11, 1862, Union naval forces threatened to
shell the town, the old fort was hastily surrendered.
At first the naval commandant, Rodgers, thought that a majority of the
inhabitants might be won over to the Northern cause, but his complacency
was upset when he found the flagpole at the fort cut down. Inquiry re-
vealed that women had done it. "They seem to mistake treason for cour-
age," he reported angrily.
For the rest of the war, the city remained under control of Federal
forces. The fort was repaired, earthworks strengthened, and barracks
built. Confederates under General Dickenson patrolled the countryside,
and at one time captured a party of Union officers who had ventured out
for a dance. And it is said that at another time Dickenson, disguised as a
Union officer, came through the City Gates for a ride along the streets.
The Federals attempted to organize a Republican Party, and held polit-
ical rallies in the city. A large number of northern people had settled in
SEEING ST. ,UGUSTINE
Florida, and President Lincoln had hopes they would side with the Union
cause. In 1864 a Federal court was established, the officers of which
were all northern men. Major John Hay, Lincoln's personal representa-
tive, came to Florida in an effort to bring about a political reconstruction
here; as a result, six Republican delegates represented the State in the 1864
Baltimore convention. Buckingham Smith of St. Augustine was one of
DEVELOPMENT AS A RESORT
In the days following the War Between the States, St. Augustine was
almost cut off from the rest of the State. Transportation was inadequate.
From Jacksonville small river boats traveled up the St. Johns River to
Picolata, a distance of 48 miles. From there it was necessary to bounce over
uneven roads to St. Augustine in a stage coach, a six-hour journey that cost
five dollars and ended with a ferry ride over the San Sebastian River.
Provisions came mostly by sea and were priced so excessively high that mod-
ern necessities, such as flour and salt, were beyond the purchasing power of
the average citizen.
THE HORSE TROLLEY. FROM ST. JOHNS RIVER TO ST. AUGUSTINE
Then in 1871 wooden rails were laid over a road route from Tocoi,
and a small mule-drawn car took the place of the old stage. Later the
wood was replaced by steel, and in 1874 St. Augustine saw its first railroad
locomotive. Visitors and provisions began to come into the city with satis-
In 1883, Henry M. Flagler, one of the founders of the Standard Oil
Company, vacationed in St. Augustine. Only 53 years old, he had accu-
mulated a huge fortune and had decided to retire, but the unusual features
of the oldest city gave him a new interest which grew so strong that it soon
occupied all of his time. He had come to Florida to forget business; he
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA 31
found that he was now busier than he had been in years. Realizing the
oldest city in the United States had possibilities as a tourist center and health
resort, but that limited accommodations in the town were retarding its devel-
opment as such, he made up his mind to build a hotel that would rank among
the finest in the world.
To design this hotel, Flagler selected two young graduates of L'Ecole
des Beaux-Arts in Paris and sent them to Spain to study Spanish and Moorish
architecture. One of these men, Carrere, big and jovial, was later to
become the business man and engineer of this famous partnership; the other,
Hastings, quiet and artistic, the son of Flagler's minister, contributed fine
design. The sketches and ideas brought from Spain inspired conception of
architectural monuments which reconstructed St. Augustine's glorious past.
The Ponce de Leon Hotel, the Alcazar Hotel, the Flagler Memorial
Church-from these buildings Carrere and Hastings gained national repu-
tation; but it is remarkable that never again, so far as it can be ascertained,
did they build in the Spanish manner.
Realizing the attractions the East Coast had to offer, Flagler began to
extend a railroad southward. He established headquarters of the road in
St. Augustine and became the city's foremost business man.
But Flagler did not confine his activities to his own enterprises. His
interest in the old city led him to do everything in his power to develop
natural resources and better the living conditions of the inhabitants. When
the freeze of 1895 destroyed crops and orange trees in the county and city,
he aided in the rehabilitation of farmers and growers by financing the dis-
tribution of seed and plants. Often he would lend money and cancel the
note before payment was due.
Another pioneer in the development of the modern city was Albert Lewis
of Bear Creek, Pennsylvania, a man particularly interested in the possibility
of beautification in St. Augustine. If Mr. Lewis saw a front lot that
needed palm trees, he would suggest to the owner that he plant some; and
if the man found the cost too much for his pocket, Lewis furnished trees
and labor at his own expense. His efforts resulted in the planting of hun-
dreds of trees in all parts of the city.
Increased influx of tourists, which meant sale of souvenirs and curios,
gave livelihood to many people; some St. Augustinians operated a multitude
of small business places, while others made their living from the soil or
Development of St. Augustine as a port has been retarded by Nature,
since the constantly shifting sand bars at the entrance to the harbor form
a barrier to ships of any size. Nevertheless, some little water commerce has
come about as a result of the Intracoastal Waterway, opened to St. Augus-
tine in 1912. Matanzas Bay and River are part of the long inland water-
way that link the coastal cities of east Florida and extend north along the
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
east coast of the United States. Due to its location on these bodies of water,
St. Augustine has the advantage of protected water transportation both north
and south. The waterway is navigable for yachts and small craft through-
out the entire year.
The islands across the bay from the city proper are topographically
different from the pine flatwoods section of the mainland where the city
stands. Built up by currents and wave action through the centuries, these
islands are composed chiefly of sand and coquina rock, and although they
seem permanent as they stand today, currents are continually washing away
and building up the bars along the beach and at the entrance to the harbor.
A study of the old maps of the section shows that the inlet has changed from
aue east and west to north and south since the time of the first settlers.
The islands are sandy, covered near the beach with a sparse vegetation-sea
oats, cacti, and ocean grasses. In the areas where coquina is found are
patches of dwarfed cedars and scrub oak. The ensemble is lonely, but beau-
tiful in contrasts of white sand and dusky green vegetation, and the Spanish
bayonet with its white blossoms lends a touch of the exotic.
Nor have the islands alone changed with the centuries. Even within
the harbor there is a great contrast since Menendez unloaded his vessels. The
shore line of the town has been made uniform with a sea wall. A tiny
lake is all that remains of the Maria Sanchez Creek which once flowed
-^ S -< L
ON ANASTASIA ISLAND
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA 33
through the site of the Ponce de Leon Hotel. A marsh north of the fort was
once high ground; and another on Anastasia Island was filled during the
boom days to make a fine residential section.
Many of St. Augustine's modern buildings, as well as the oldest houses
in the city, are built of coquina rock. This strange stone is composed of
broken shells cemented together by calcium carbonate from sea water,
and lies just under the surface sand along the northeastern coast of the
State. Because it is soft to quarry, but hardens into sturdy rock when
exposed to the air, coquina has furnished an adaptable building material for
St. Augustine architecture since the time of the early Spanish settlers. It
was used for-the walls of Fort San Marcos, and its excellence was shown
by withstanding the impacts of cannon balls without shattering. Coquina
was even used to pave the city streets in Spanish times.
ST. AUGUSTINE TO DATE
As more travelers visited the city and remained to become residents,
homes began to appear outside the original boundaries. Newcomers built
north of the City Gates, and across the San Sebastian River there grew up
a section called New Augustine.
There are many stories about the independent Minorcan settlers who
came over with Turnbull to New Smyrna, moved to St. Augustine, and
worked at what they could. More so than any other race in the population
of the section, they kept their racial identity until the past two or three
generations. In recent years, however, they have intermarried and scat-
tered so that today there is little to identify the descendants of the original
settlers. Those whom intermarriage has least affected still have olive skins,
sharp features, and, in the cases of the younger women at least, are strikingly
beautiful. Often one finds an individual fairer in complexion than even
the Anglo-American; there may be sandy blond hair and in many instances
clear, almost transparent blue eyes-but his surname is Minorcan. The
Minorcan dialect has practically disappeared.
One interesting custom brought by the Minorcans from their native
country, and occasionally observed today, is the Fromajardis. George R.
Fairbanks wrote in 183b: "On the evening before Easter Sunday, about
eleven o'clock, I heard a party of young men, with instruments of music,
grouped about the window of one of the dwellings, singing a hymn in
honor of the Virgin, in the Mahonese dialect. They began with tapping
on the shutter. An answering knock within had told them that their, visit
was welcome, and they immediately began the serenade. If no reply had
been heard they would have passed on to another dwelling. [After the sere-
nade] the shutters are then opened by the people within, and a supply of cheese
cakes, or other pastry, or eggs, is dropped into a bag carried by one of the
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
If the gift was received the singers acknowledged it with a little song:
"This house is walled around,
Walled 'round on four sides,
The owner of this house
Is a polite gentleman."
But if nothing was given, the last line was changed to:
"Is not a polite gentleman."
The charivari, another custom observed in the Old World, was often
practiced here. When a newly married couple returned from their honey-
moon, the young folk of the town would gather about the house and beat
pots and pans, ring bells, sing off key, and generally make the night hideous
with all sorts of strange noises-and the bedlam continued until the noise-
makers were finally bought off by being brought into the house and feasted
on cakes and wine at the expense of the groom.
A third custom is related in Brevard's History of Florida: ". Pat-
goes are a kind of introduction to a dance. A wooden bird is fixed on a
pole, and carried through the city by some slave; on presenting it to the
ladies, they make an offering of a piece of riband, of any length or color,
which may suit their fancy or convenience. This is fixed to the bird, which
thus becomes decked with an abundant and gaudy plumage. A time and
place is then set apart for the fair patrons of the patgoe to assemble, who
are usually attended by their beaux, armed with rifles or fowling pieces.
The patgoe is shot at, and the fortunate marksman, who succeeds in killing
it, is proclaimed King. The patgoe becomes his, by right of custom; and is
by him presented to the fair lady he loves best, who, by accepting it becomes
his Queen, and he is also entitled to the invaluable privilege of paying all
the expense of the next ball, over which His Majesty and his consort preside."
The city still retains many of its older dwellings which provide charm
for the sightseer, and while the principal influx of guests occurs during the
winter months, a steadily increasing number of vacationists from central
Florida and south Georgia invade St. Augustine's beaches during summer
Rich in tradition and in romantic atmosphere, St. Augustine offers the
artist a variety of subjects for the brush. Many student and professional
artists live in the town, and during the winter months, art marts are held in
the Plaza. The St. Augustine Arts Club holds exhibitions, and visiting
artists are welcomed at the regular semi-weekly sketch classes.
St. Augustine has naturally been an inspiration to novelists and poets as
well as artists. As early as 1874 Constance Fenimore Woolson, niece of
James Fenimore Cooper and one of the earliest of local-color novelists,
used St. Augustine as the setting for several novels. She was followed by
Stephen Vincent Benet, the author of Spanish Bayonets; Edwin Granberry,
THE STORY OF ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA 35
who wrote The Erl King; and numerous poets who have caught in verse
the spirit of the beautiful and historic place.
The old city has an unusual number
of educational institutions. The first
organized school in St. Johns County \
was established in St. Augustine about
1785. by a Catholic priest, Father Has-
sett. Franciscan priests were already
doing educational work among the In-
dians; these priests mastered the Indian
dialects in order to insure the success of
their work, and it is a recorded fact that
text books in Florida Indian dialect were
published as early as 1613. The present
system of Catholic schools in St. Johns THE OLD WOODEN SCHOOLHOUSE
County, started by the Sisters of Mercy
in 1858, was taken over about ten years later by the Sisters of St. Joseph.
In St. Augustine was established the first free dental clinic in this coun-
try. Here every white child of school age can receive treatment. In the
year 1913 John T. Dismukes of St. Augustine, banker and philanthropist,
became interested in the project and offered to pay the salary of the dentist,
provided the school board would arrange for the office and purchase the
necessary equipment and supplies. In 1923 Mr. Dismukes endowed a build-
ing for the purpose of carrying on this work.
St. Augustine has its enterprising newspapers. The St. Augustine Record,
a daily owned by the F. E. C. Railroad, is published every evening except
Saturday and carries a Sunday edition. A monthly publication, the Florida
Dispatch, official organ of the Florida Railway Employees' League, also
comes from local presses. The independent and militant St. Augustine
Observer is a weekly.
MOAT STEPS. FORT MARION
Points of Interest in St. Augustine*
Zero Milestone, Old Spanish
Old Wooden Schoolhouse
Old Curiosity Shop
Trinity Episcopal Church
'Convent of St. Joseph
Murat Coffee House
Webb Memorial Library
Casa de Cannonosa
St. Francis Barracks
City Yacht Pier
Bridge of Lions
\30. Slave Market
31. Plaza de la Constitucion
32. Catholic Cathedral
33. Public Librarr
34. Fatio House
35. O'Reilly House
36. Don Toledo House
37. Alcazar Hotel
38. Ponce de Leon Hotel
39. Villa Zorayda
40. Shrimping Fleet and Docks
41. City Hall
42a. Flagler Memorial Presbyterian
"43. Spanish Cemetery
'44. Huguenot Cemetery
45. Civic Center and Tourist Club
46. Garnett Orange Grove
47. Shrine of Nuestra Sefiora de la
48. Fountain of Youth Park
49. Florida School for the Deaf and
50. Fort Moosa Gardens
52. Treasury Street
*Numbers refer to Map, page 10.
Points of Interest in St. Augustine'
1. FORT MARION (open 9:00 a. m. to 5:00 p. m., no admission charge),
at the north end of Bay Street, is the oldest fort standing in the United
States. Proclaimed a National Monument in 1924, it is administered by
the National Park Service, and free guided tours through the fortification
are conducted daily at half-hour intervals.
St. Augustine has been defended from the very year of its founding
by a succession of forts-all built of wood until the present coquina forti-
fication, known as Castle San Marcos, was started in 1672. The wooden
forts were but poor protection. When Menendez returned to St. Augustine
in 1566, he found his first fortification burned. It took but ten days to
build another and place the artillery, but the sea soon encroached and a
third fortification was placed farther back from the water. Drake came
upon the town in 1586 and burned Fort San Juan de Pinos, another in the
line. And so it went. The immediate predecessor of the great stone fort
was another wooden structure, also named San Marcos.
Then, in 1670 Charleston was founded, and as insurance against the
English who occupied the coast a bare 200 miles to the north, permission
and funds were obtained from the Spanish Crown to erect a greater fort at
St. Augustine. Designed after the fashion of Vauban, the great French
military engineer, Castle San Marcos was conceived as an impregnable for-
tification to guard the north inlet of the Matanzas River.
In 1672 construction of the quadrangular, four-bastioned, moated work
was begun; but not until 1756, nearly 90 years later, was it pronounced com-
plete. Each of the great blocks of coquina that went into the massive pile
was cut and carted from the Anastasia quarries to the Matanzas River, where
they were loaded on barges and ferried to the site of the fortification; a '
though the work was done largely by Indian hostages, Negro slaves, soldiers
and inhabitants of the walled city, it cost millions to complete.
Long before it was finished, San Marcos had its baptism of fire. The
English threat materialized. Both South Carolina and Georgia flung their
troops against St. Augustine, but the inhabitants simply flocked to the shel-
tering fortress while the Britons went about their futile sieges.
Ironically enough, seven years after the fort was formally completed,
it became the property of Great Britain, the very nation whose threats had
caused its building. During the 20 years of English occupancy, it was
named Fort St. Marks. In Spanish hands again, it was San Marcos, but
in 1825, after Florida became a territory of the United States, it was re-
named Fort Marion in honor of General Francis Marion, Revolutionary
patriot and South Carolinian.
Under the American regime, Fort Marion was used mainly as a prison.
It was to this stronghold that the leaders Osceola, Coacoochee, Talmus
*Numbers refer to Map, page 10.
38 SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
Hadjo and about 200 other Seminoles were brought for safe keeping in
1835, and a half century later, in 1887, part of Geronimo's band of
Apaches was imprisoned here. During the War Between the States, Con- ,
federate troops held Fort Marion for 14 months.
The outer walls of the fort are 12 feet thick at the base and taper to
7 feet at the top. Beautifully arched casemates and well designed cornices "
as well as the modeled coats of arms at entrances to fort and demilune
attest the good taste and imagination of the Spanish builders.
Entrance to the fort is from the south; a narrow roadway leads through
the encompassing glacis, or earthwork, to a bridge over the ditch that sur-
rounds the demilune, that small triangular outer fort designed to protect the
weakest point of the fortification, its single entrance. A bridge spanning
the 40-foot encircling moat connects the demilune with the main fortifica-
tion. In the old days, this moat was flooded by tidewater to make an effective
A heavy timber-and-iron door swings at the sally-port entrance that
was formerly closed by an up-swinging drawbridge, the pulleys of which
are still visible above the doorway. Just inside is the track for the sliding
portcullis. The sally-port itself appears like a wide, arched tunnel through
the thick walls of the fortress to the open parade or court. Off the sally-
port to the right are the guard room with its huge three-cornered fireplace,
and the general prison; to the left are the commandant's quarters (a room
which now accommodates the administrative staff), and leading from here
are two rooms for other officers. The second of these was made into two
stories by the English, as is indicated by holes in the walls which supported
the second-floor beams.
The flat surface of the court is broken in the southwest corner by a
well, one of three which supplied the garrison with fresh water. There
are 31 rooms in the fort-living quarters for the garrison, storerooms,
chapel, powder magazine, guardrooms and dungeons. The majority of these
rooms open on the court and are generally alike with heavy doors, barred
windows, and dim light filtering through narrow slits in the 8-foot curtains,
high up near the arched ceilings.
In the southwest corner room the Seminoles Coacoochee and Talmus
Hadjo were imprisoned, and in the wall at the rear may be seen the foot-
holds they dug to reach the high window and escape. It is said that Coacoo-
chee starved himself so that he might squeeze through the narrow opening.
The next room to the north is the Spanish Treasury; its heavy door is
secured not alone by a huge key lock, but by a bar and padlock, all three
combined into one ponderous mechanism. The powder magazine, readily
identified by its thick walls on all sides, is at the northwestern angle of the
court. The next room to the east was used for living quarters.
POINTS OF INTEREST 39
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
The chapel, without which no Spanish fort is complete, is directly
opposite the sally-port. Niches in the walls supported two fonts for holy
water and the location of the altar place is still discernible. It is said that the
doors at both sides of the chapel originally had iron bars behind which con-
demned prisoners stood to hear Mass; these bars prevented the unfortunate
wretches from seeking sanctuary at the altar, where they would be under
the protection of the Church.
One of the casemates along this north curtain is known as the Fern
Room: its walls are almost covered with southern maidenhair fern, propa-
gated by the wind and taking its roots in the crevices of the masonry. Water
seeping through the porous rock keeps the plants alive.
In 1833 the sealed entrance to a dungeon-like compartment deep within
the northeastern bastion was discovered and broken open. Certain relics
were found in the cell, so that some think the place was used by the Spaniards
to confine recalcitrants; others maintain it was a powder room or magazine.
Through a low entrance, one passes into the barrel vaulted dungeon. The
guide turns out the lights and the ventilating fan stops for a few long
moments while blackness and silence press down upon the visitor, who feels
he is far below the surface of the earth in this clammy cell where some
hidden trapdoor may suddenly spring and plunge him into a bottomless pit.
Actually, the dungeon is at the same level as the other rooms.
A wide stairway, formerly a ramp up which were drawn heavy barbette
guns, leads to the terreplein, or roof of the fort. The ramp was supported
by an irregular arih of coquina, declared by engineers to be remarkable
because without a keystone it sustained the ramp and guns. The old coquina
is now replaced by concrete, but the unusual shape is retained.
From the terreplein there is a fine view of the entire fortification and
the surrounding town. The parapet is embrasured for the many guns of
the old fort, and from the height on the east curtain one gazes down at the
seawall, behind which the water battery was built between 1835 and 1843.
Granite arcs upon which the guns traversed are still in place, and standing
in the moat is the little hot shot oven, where cannon balls were heated red
to be fired at the enemy. These missiles were effective in the days of
wooden ships; they could skip several times upon water and still retain
sufficient heat to start fire.
At the point of the northeast bastion is St. Charles watch tower; on
the other three are sentry boxes. The guard in the tower received messages
from a similar lookout across the bay whenever a vessel was sighted, but for
that matter, from St. Charles the ocean is clearly visible, and even from
here an enemy sail could be reported long before it came within gunshot.
Oglethorpe's English batteries were across the harbor, and on the eastern
curtain of the fort are marks of his bombardment.
2. ZERO MILESTONE, Osceola Park, on Fort Marion Circle between Bay
POINTS OF INTEREST 41
Street and the City Gates, is a coquina
sphere 20 feet in circumference. Placed
by the St. Augustine Historical Society
and Institute of Science, erected and
dedicated in 1929 by the Exchange
Club, it marks the eastern terminus of
the first transcontinental highway in
America, the Old Spanish Trail from
St. Augustine to San Diego, California. .
3. THE CITY GATES, at the north ZERO MILESTONE
end of narrow St. George Street,
opposite Fort Marion, are one of the best known historic relics in America.
Part of the city defense system, they comprise today one unit of Fort
Marion National Monument.
St. Augustine is bounded by water on the east, west and south sides,
and in the old days its defenders felt there was little danger of attack, save
from the north. On this unprotected front were thrown up three defense
lines; one west from Fort Moosa, about two and a half miles north of the
present-day post office-; one across the peninsula north of the Pine Street
vicinity, and the last from Castle San Marcos west of San Sebastian River.
It was as a unit of this inner line that the gates stood to protect the one
entrance to the city; wall and palisade, fronted by a ditch on the outer side,
precluded entry otherwise. Earthen breastworks, planted on top with
impenetrable Spanish bayonet, ran from the city wall suth along the line
of Cordova street as far as St. Francis Barracks before they swung east to
Construction of the original gates began in 1745; the present more
ornamental structures were erected in 1804, and guarded for many years the
drawbridge which spanned the moat at this point.
4. THE OLD WOODEN SCHOOLHOUSE, 14 St. George Street, just south
of the City Gates (open 8:00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m., admission voluntary
contributions), is a quaint little clapboard structure of hand-hewn red cedar
planks. Juan Genoply, one of the three New Smyrna settlers who were
bravely instrumental in bringing about the Minorcan migration' to St.
Augustine, bought this lot in 1778, and since he was a carpenter, probably
built thereon his own home. One of his descendants taught school in the
little place before the Civil War, and it is reputed to have sheltered also the
guard stationed at the nearby City Gates. 'Aside from the structure itself,
the attractive gardens and the Spanish kitchen are of interest.
5. THE ARRIVAS HOUSE, 44 St. George Street, is another of the ancient
buildings which cannot be assigned a more definite date than that it was
constructed during the First Spanish Occupation, and antedates even the Old
Curiosity Shop. Today the structure, remodelled to a remarkable extent,
houses a number of small shops.
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
6. WATKINS HOUSE, 52 St. George Street, was built shortly after 1803.
Coquina, of course, figures in the construction, and the structure is still
habitable, as is evidenced by the presence of the souvenir shops within.
S~7. THE OLD CURIOSITY SHOP, 54
SSt. George Street, was built by Juan
S 'aredes between 1803 and 1813, but in
appearance this house, with its huge fire-
place and coquina walls two feet thick,
seems more ancient than many others of
i earlier date. The property is now owned
by the St. Augustine Historical Society and
rented as a curio, souvenir and antique shop.
S8. THE OLD SPANISH INN, 43 St.
George Street, almost opposite the Old
Curiosity Shop, is yet another of the co-
CURIOSITY SHOP quina buildings which date from the First
Spanish Occupation, which ended in 1763. Unfortunately, no definite date
can be assigned, but it is known that the house and lot were negotiable prop-
erty in 1771. Its arched openings are typical of the stone houses and shops
that early lined St. George Street, the main street of the ancient city since
9. THE OLD SPANISH TREASURY (Anna G. Burt House), S. E. corner
of St. George and Treasury Streets (open 9:00 a. m. to 5:00 p. m., admission
25c), now houses the Women's Exchange. The original treasury building,
of wood, was erected about 1600. Almost a century later, in 1690, thick
coquina walls replaced the timbers and in 1702, after Moore burned the
town, the stone walls formed a rest for a second
story of wood. Three decades later, Dr. Seth
Peck bought the place, covered the walls with
cement and plaster, made it his home and the
first drug store in St. Augustine. The old dis-
pensary is now utilized by the Exchange for |
display and sale of jellies, rugs, fancy work and
novelties. Eventually the building came into
the hands of Dr. Peck's granddaughter, Anna
G. Burt, who in 1931 deeded the property to
the City of St. Augustine with the proviso that
it be maintained as a southern ante-bellum home.
The floors are hand-hewn yellow pine,
pinned by hand-wrought nails. The stairway has formal beauty of its own.
Each of the quaint rooms is filled with rare and beautiful period furniture,
old paintings by famous artists decorate the walls, and bric-a-brac is every-
where. Of principal interest is the old strong room where the King's
POINTS OF INTEREST
monies were stored; there is an authentic Spanish chest and a number of
money bags-but alas, no gold.
The high-walled garden in the rear of the house contains a variety of
beautiful trees and shrubs, not least of which is the rare Aramomia Decrani,
sweet-smelling spice tree.
10. THE POST OFFICE, at the intersection of Cathedral, King and St.
George Streets, was reconstructed in 1936-1937 along the lines of a 1764
drawing. The first building on this site was erected by Gonzalo Menendez
de Canzo between 1597 and 1603 and was sold the latter year to Pedro
de Barra, Governor of Florida, for 1000 ducats. From that time on it
was officially recognized and known as the Governor's Mansion. It was
repaired and built of stone to the second floor in 1690. In 1702, shortly
after it was declared finished, it was damaged by fire during Moore's attack,
but the Spanish soon rebuilt. During the English period, the old structure
was remodelled, and after Florida passed into the hands of the United States
Government, the Governor's Mansion underwent further architectural
changes and was dedicated as a Temple of Justice. The several apartments
were set apart for the Superior Court, County Court and officers of the
The building was regularly occupied by the Government as a Post Office
in August, 1873, when it was fitted up by Postmaster Benedict at his own
expense. The new Post Office Building embodies much of the architectural
style of the original Governor's Mansion, and includes most of the stone
used in the construction of the building in 1690. It is indeed an imposing
structure with its heavy wooden balconies, supported by great ornamental
A few paces west of the Post Office is a tablet which has been placed
to mark the site of El Rosario, a stone redoubt built to defend the gov-
ernor's residence at a time when the west line of defense was within a
block's distance of the Mansion.
11. TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH, an unostentatious bit of English
Gothic ecclesiastical architecture, stands at the corner of St. George and
King Streets, opposite the Plaza. During the First Spanish Occupation, this
was the site of the Catholic Bishop's house. The cornerstone of Trinity
Church was ceremoniously laid on June 23, 1825. As the years passed and
the Parish prospered, the original structure was added to and altered. Today,
the north porch and tower, the walls of the north transcept and baptistry are
the only remaining portions of the old building, the first Episcopal Church
erected in Florida.
12. LINDSLEY HOUSE, 214 St. George Street (not open), is identified
with the First Spanish Occupation, although the exact date of construction is
unknown. The first and second stories of this fine old dwelling are built
entirely of coquina, two feet in thickness, and the third story is of wood.
There is an old treasury vault in the house.
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
13. MACMILLEN HOUSE, 224 St. George Street (not open), is shown on
many of the old maps. Typically old Spanish with its ground floor of co-
quina and upper story of wood, the house is still in good condition and has
been the home of the MacMillen family since 1880.
14. ST. JOSEPH ACADEMY AND CONVENT, 241 St. George Street, was
established in 1858 by the Sisters of Mercy. About 10 years later the work
was taken over by the Sisters of St. Joseph, who are now in charge. The
first organized school in this area was established in St. Augustine about
1785 by a Catholic priest, Father Hassett; at the time, Franciscan priests
were doing educational work among the Indians, but this particular school
was devoted to the education of the whites.
Prominent among nationally known educators is Monseignor Pace, who
lived and taught in the Parish of St. Augustine shortly after he was ordained.
Now Vice-Rector of the Catholic University in Washington, D. C., Mon-
seignor Pace played a very influential part in direction and expansion of the
Catholic school in St. Johns County.
15. PRINCE MURAT HOUSE, 250 St. George Street, now serving as a
coffee house, probably was built by Antonio Huertas in 1815. It is a bit of
Spanish architecture which tradition says was occupied by Prince Achille
Murat, nephew of Napoleon.
16. THE GRAHAM HOUSE, 279 St. George Street, northeast corner of
St. Francis Street, was
Constructed of coquina in
A/ 1791 by Gines de Oliba.
It has withstood well the
Ordeal of the centuries,
/* and today is a popular din-
ing hall and rooming
17. HE LLAMBIAS
HoUSE, 31 St. Francis
,- Street (not open), was
built previous to 1763,
." ? during the First Spanish
I erty was deeded to Nicho-
las Turnbull in 1783 and
a map of 1788 clearly
shows this old stone house
and lot. It is an ancient
-P and interesting example
__- of Spanish construction.
Sij -The rear of the build-
LLAMBIAS HOUSE ing has been enlarged, but
POINTS OF INTEREST 45
SOUTHWEST ENTRANCE, OLDEST HOUSE
still retains the Spanish design. The name indicates that it was owned at
one time by Llambias of the original Minorcan colony.
18. THE "OLDEST HOUSE," 14 St. Francis St. (open daily 9:00 a. m.
to 6:00 p. m. 25c fee includes admission to Casa de Cannonosa and Webb
Memorial Library and Museum, both reached through entrance from the
"Oldest House"). Thick coquina walls reach to the second story of wood,
which terminates at each end in attractive small porches. The hip roof adds
to the massive appearance of the structure. In typical Spanish style the
house abuts on the street, reserving the verdant lawn and gardens, even the
fabled money vine and the wishing well in the garden, for the guest who
lifts the great brass knocker and passes through the arched doorway to accept
the hospitality within. Low ceilings and huge fireplaces are as impressive
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
as the inch-thick pine board flooring and the worm-eaten, hand-hewn cedar
beams, and it is interesting to know this is one of the buildings where no
nails were used in the original construction. Part of the building was
restored and the tower added about 1888.
A perfect chain of titles has been established and copies of deeds from
1763 to date are exhibited with such irreplaceable antiques as the 300-year-
old Royal Spanish bed, purchased from the Spanish Government in 1893.
Although the exact construction date is lost in antiquity, the building appears
to be a product of the late 1500's. Early accounts indicate that the Fran-
ciscan Friars may have found refuge here during the six years that it took
to rebuild their establishment after the disastrous 1599 fire. This house,
among others, was transferred in 1764 to Jesse Fish, trustworthy English
gentleman to whom local Spaniards sold their lands and homes to preclude
confiscation by the English. When Florida reverted to Spain in 1783, the
Spanish regained their possessions, the old house was purchased by Don
Geronimo Alvarez, and remained for a century in the hands of his family.
The St. Augustine Historical Society purchased the historic place in 1918,
and has made every effort to preserve it in the original state.
19. WEBB MEMORIAL LIBRARY AND MUSEUM, 16 St. Francis St.
(open daily 10:00 to 12:00 a. m. and 2:00 to 4:00 p. m., entrance from the
"Oldest House"-see above). Built in 1923 at a cost of $17,000, the edifice
enjoys the distinction of being the first reinforced concrete structure in the
Oldest City, and was named in honor of Dr. DeWitt Webb, for 35 years
president of the St. Augustine Historical Society.
In the library upstairs are many interesting historic maps, pictures, books,
pamphlets-a rare collection of Floridiana valued at more than $50,000.
Especially beautiful are the profusely illustrated volumes by Catesby done
in 1743, showing Florida flora and fauna.
The museum displays a collection of china, glass, copper and silverware,
documents and old furniture, among which is a maple and mahogany bureau
once owned by Martha Washington, which is the envy of every visiting
D. A. R.
20. CASA DE CANNONOSA (HOUSE OF THE CANNONBALL), 18 St. Fran-
cis St. (open daily from 9:00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m., entrance from the "Oldest
House"-see above), was so named because it is thought that one of the walls
was pierced by a cannonball from an Oglethorpe battery in the 1740 siege
of St. Augustine.
Casa de Cannonosa was evidently built by the Spaniards, for when the
house was repaired about 10 years ago, it was discovered that the floor was
solid coquina, 18 inches in thickness, tamped down with salt water. During
the early United States occupation, the place was a tavern, and at one time
General Martin D. Hardin owned and lived on the property. It was later
utilized as a gift shop; today it is an interesting museum.
POINTS OF INTEREST
In the first room of the museum is a fine display of sea mosses, rare corals,
and shells. In the Armor Room are relics of the Civil War and Spanish-
American War, cannonballs from the Oglethorpe siege, World War relics,
an eighteenth century gun used by Lafayette, and a U. S. Cavalry gun of
1859. In the St. Augustine room are articles found in or near the city.
The "Whaling Room" displays articles connected with whaling expeditions.
The Indian Room has its interesting features.
21. ST. FRANCIS BARRACKS, 108 Marine Street, houses the State
Arsenal and executive offices of the Florida National Guard. On this site
about 1576 the first Franciscans built their crude church, monastery, con-
vent and other buildings, which were burned and rebuilt many times.
During the English Occupation the chapel of the convent was adapted as
a barracks for the soldiery. When Florida became a territory of the United
States, the old cells were used as a jail. Later the establishment was again
used for barracks by the U. S. Army. In 1881 it was officially designated
"St. Francis Barracks."
In 1907 St. Francis Barracks became
State military headquarters, but the main
building was gutted by fire in Decem-
ber, 1915. Not until 1921, when a
Congressional Act donated the Barracks
to the State of Florida for military pur-
poses was sufficient money appropriated
to restore the building.
22. KING'S BAKERY, on Marine
Street, opposite the St. Francis Barracks,
was built by the English before 1788. In this -bi ing was baked the
bread for the English troops. Restored to a degree, it is now used as a
23. THE NATIONAL CEMETERY, Marine Street, south St. Francis
Barracks, contains the graves of many soldiers killed during the hdian War,
notably Colonel Dade and the 114 men who were massacred in 1836 by
the Seminole Indians. The tombs of the latter are marked by thr e stone
monuments known as the DADE PYRAMIDS. The little cemetery i still
used as a burial place for United States war veterans.
24. FLAGLER HOSPITAL, beautiful and modern structure just east of he
Lewis ball park and at the end of Tremerton Street, was dedicated in 1921.
The property and old hospital were presented to the city in 1888 by the
late Henry M. Flagler. When the establishment was destroyed by fire in
1916, the present building was financed largely by Mrs. Mary Lily Flagler
Bingham and Dr. Andrew Anderson.
25. WORTH HOUSE (PABLO CAFETERIA), 16 Marine Street, was built
by Miguel Ysnardy between 1791 and 1799. One of the first hotels in
48 SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
the city, it was known through the years variously as the Union Hotel,
Levington's Hotel, and Bridier's Hotel. Its major claim to fame is based
on the fact that two of the successive owners were General W. J. Worth
and Colonel John T. Sprague. Constance Fenimore Woolson, the au-
thoress, once lived there, and Andrew Fowler, founder of the Episcopal
church in St. Augustine, was a guest there in 1821.
To the casual observer it is hardly recognizable as an old house because
a large addition was put up on the west side of the original building and
the two stories of coquina have been stuccoed in such a fashion that their
appearance belies their age.
26. CITY YACHT PIER, just south of the Bridge of Lions, has ample
accommodations for visiting craft. Here information about the inland
waterways may be obtained.
27. THE BRIDGE OF LIONS spans Matanzas Bay to connect the main-
land with Anastasia Island. Dedicated in 1927, this beautiful concrete
and steel drawbridge stretches in a sweeping arc 1,545 feet from shore
to shore. Its graceful proportions, its massive piers and symmetrical towers
make it one of the most ornamental spans in the state. This toll-free
bridge derives its name from two monumental lions guarding the city
approach. Carved of Italian marble, these statues were given the city by
the late Dr. Andrew Anderson.
28. THE HAMBLEN CLUB, facing Anderson Circle and occupying the
corner between Bay and Charlotte Streets, is an unusually attractive two-
story stucco structure with red tile roof, balconies and arched openings of
Spanish feeling in harmony with St. Augustine architecture.
Originally a private residence, it was built by the late'Charles F. Ham-
blen, prominent local business man, who at his death willed the home as a
clubhouse for the working men of the city. He had, however, left no
funds with which to carry out the plan and for many years the building was
rented as a tearoom. During the boom of the twenties, the place was
remodelled and arranged as an administration building by D. P. Davis, the
man who is identified with St. Augustine's Davis Shores. Upon his death,
the business men of the city took charge of the property and converted the
building into the clubhouse for which it was originally intended.
Although accommodations are limited, the usual club facilities-rooms,
restaurant, billiards, dominoes, card games-are available to the working
men of the city, who comprise its membership. A feature of the club
is the free guest card given visitors; after a two weeks' period they may
join as regular members by paying the required annual $5 fee. Many
local organizations hold their meetings in this attractive and centrally
29. PONCE DE LEON AND ANDERSON CIRCLES, between the Plaza and
the approach to the Bridge of Lions, are gifts to the city from Dr. Andrew
POINTS OF INTEREST 49
Anderson. In one is a replica of a Ponce de Leon statue erected in San
Juan, Puerto Rico. The figure of De Leon is cast from an old cannon.
In the south circle stands a flagstaff, memorial to World War Veterans and
commemorating important events in the city's history: Florida's discovery
by Ponce de Leon in 1513, St. Augustine's founding in 1565 by Menendez,
Florida's cession to England, retrocession to Spain and acquisition by the
United States in 1821, and the 1885 renaissance by Henry M. Flagler.
30. THE SLAVE MARKET, at the bay end of the Plaza facing Charlotte
Street, is a large, shed-like structure formerly used for public auctioning
of provisions and slaves. The Market and Plaza were first established
about 1598 to meet the needs of the little Spanish town. The present
structure dates from 1824; in 1887 it was razed by fire, but was restored
the following year and served for some time longer as the municipal market
place. Here, long before the Civil War, occurred the occasional whipping
of a slave, but the principal function of the building was as a public market,
since it stood near the water's edge in the days when the old rectangular
basin at its front made it handy for boats to unload produce there. After
the transactions in the cool of the early morning (for there was no ice),
the place was thoroughly scrubbed. Today it is relegated to checker and
31. PLAZA DE LA CONSTITUCI6N (PLAZA OF THE CONSTITUTION), is
an attractive landscaped parkway in the center of town, bounded by Cathe-
dral, Charlotte, King and St. George Streets. It is named from the shaft
erected in 1813 to commemorate the adoption in Spain of a liberal consti-
tution. Strangely enough, when in the next year Ferdinand VII was
recalled to the throne of Spain, that monarch violated his pledge to abide
by the new document, declared it null and void, and ordered the removal
of monuments raised to it. But the Spanish monument still stands in St.
Companion to this remarkable shaft is
the monument raised in 1872 to the mem-
ory of 46 brave men of St. Augustine who
lost their lives in defense of the Confed-
32. THE CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL, op-
posite the Plaza on Cathedral Place, begun i
in 1793, was completed in 1797. A cen-
tury later, in 1887, the church was partially
destroyed by fire but the coquina facade
and walls remained standing and the THE CATHEDRAL
church was rebuilt the same year by Bishop
Moore, who managed to raise the necessary money. Henry Flagler made a
generous donation. It was at this time that the transept and tower, which
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
houses the town clock, were added. In the old facade are four bells; the
inscription Sante-Joseph-Ora-Pro-Nobis, 1682 (St. Joseph pray for us),
remains discernible on the smallest bell, reputed to be the oldest in the
country. Beautiful stained glass windows eloquently depict the religious
life of Augustine, the Saint.
The Cathedral parish of St. Augustine is the oldest in the United
States, and its.records, preserved in the Cathedral, date from 1594.
33. PUBLIC LIBRARY, at 5 Aviles'Street (open 9:30 a. m. to 6:00 p. m.)
is a coquina and wood structure erected prior to 1785. In 1786 it passed
into the hands of Don Bernardo Segui, native of Minorca and mem-
ber of the New Smyrna colony. When Florida was ceded to the United
States, the building was rented to Joseph J. Smith, Florida Supreme Court
Judge, and in the home was born Edmund Kirby-Smith, the last of the
Confederate generals to surrender. Eventually the property passed to
John L. Wilson and his wife, of Framingham, Massachusetts, who pre-
sented it to the St. Augustine Library Association.
On Aviles Street, an undecorated arched doorway gives entrance to
the library. The lovely garden and fountain in the rear of the place
are framed by the Romanesque arches of a heavy arcade. The meeting
room of the Maria Jefferson Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo-
lution, and the Junior Library room are located on the first floor, while
upstairs is the library proper. Here are 14,500 volumes of biography,
travel, history, philosophy, and fiction, in addition to the valuable Ammi-
down Genealogical Collection, and the Caldecott Collection of original
drawings. Visitors are extended the privileges of the library upon payment
of a.$2 deposit, which is refunded.
34. FATIO HOUSE, next to the Public Library south on Aviles Street
(open 9:00 a. m. to 5:00 p. m., no admission charge), was built of coquina
by Andres Ximenez between 1806 and 1821, in the style identified with the
Second Spanish Occupation. The building was purchased from Sarah
Anderson in 1855 by Louise Fatio, and is today in an excellent state of
preservation. Its old slave quarters, Spanish kitchen, patio and balconies
provide atmosphere for gift shops, painters' studios and apartments.
35. O'REILLY HOUSE, located on Aviles Street within the Convent
walls, and just north of the Don Toledo house, is shown on early maps of
the city, but the exact date of construction is unknown. At the beginning
of the nineteenth century, Don Miguel O'Reilly, native of the town of
Cressey, County Longford, Ireland, left this house and another for the
specific purpose of founding a "Religious House under the plan of St.
Francis de Sales." It served as a convent before the present Convent build-
ings were erected.
36. DON TOLEDO HOUSE, adjoining the southeast corner of Aviles and
Bridge Streets (open 8:00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m., admission 25c), is a typical ex-
POINTS OF INTEREST
ample of the architecture erected during
the Second Spanish Occupation and con- .
tains interesting relics, antiques, pictures "
and furniture used by former residents
of the city.
From this corner there is a worth-
while view down the length of quaint
37. THE ALCAZAR HOTEL, in the ~.
area bounded by King, Bridge, Cordova,
and Granada Streets, is opposite the
Ponce de Leon. Like that elaborate
place, it is the design of Carrere and
Hastings, and is likewise in the Spanish DON TOLEDO HOUSE
Renaissance style, which seems so ap-
propriate for the St. Augustine monumental architecture. The open court,
sunken gardens, casino, and a large indoor swimming pool make it a veritable
beauty spot. Although the establishment is now closed for business, it ranked
at one time second only to the Ponce de Leon as a stopping place. Furnish-
ings of the hotel remain intact but they are not used for any purpose.
38. PONCE DE LEON HOTEL, occupying the square formed by King,
Cordova, Valencia and Sevilla Streets, is the largest in the city, and one of
America's most elaborate hotels. Henry M. Flagler conceived this hostelry
as a prime necessity in the development of St. Augustine as a winter resort;
it turned out to be but one great unit in his plan for Florida east coast
development. On January 10, 1888, the edifice was formally opened.
One of the finest examples of Spanish Renaissance architecture in America,
its red tile roof, the towers, domes and lavishly decorated arched gateways,
no less than the remarkable interior ornamentation, make it one of the most
colorful spots in this picturesque city. Carr6re and Hastings, then young
architects, were sent to Spain for ideas of design, which they incorporated
in their monumental work. And so
far as it can be ascertained, after they
left St. Augustine never again did
they build in the Spanish Renaissance
The Ponce de Leon is open only
during the winter season, and then
may be called the center of social
activities in the city.
39. VILLA ZORAYDI, 83 King
Street (open 8:30 a. m. to 8:00 p. m.,
admission 25c), erected in 1885, is
VILLA ZORAYDA an outstanding example of Moorish
52 SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
architecture, blending its red and yellow trim and ornate lines very well into
the architectural atmosphere of St. Augustine. It bears the distinction of
being the first concrete monolith to be erected in the Oldest City. Archi-
tect-builder Franklin W. Smith drew much of its design from a tower of
the Alhambra, famous castle of Granada, Spain, and the first floor arches
are reproductions of those in the Alhambra. Tiled walls and sumptuous
furnishings are of deep interest.
40. THE SHRIMPING FLEET AND DOCKS, headquarters on the San
Sebastian River, just south of King Street, lend a colorful, picturesque
and utilitarian touch to the Oldest City. Here the trawlers bring their
catches of shrimp for shipment to the markets. The bright paint of the
boat hulls is often badly weathered, but with the net-festooned booms, the
fleet offers pictorial inspiration to the most jaded artist.
Shrimp fishing as we know it today originated about 1913 in Fernandina,
Florida, when old Captain Billy Corkum, New England fisherman, coasted
the peninsula in a vain hunt for bluefish. At that time, shrimp fishing was
confined to seining inland waterways with a small mesh net. Captain Billy
reasoned that the tiny shellfish would be even more plentiful in ocean waters,
so he designed a crude net for trawling. His first catch numbered more
shrimp than he could load in his hold; naturally it was not long before his
secret became public property and the industry grew by leaps and bounds.
St. Augustine harbor, well protected and at that time easily entered by
small boats, was near fruitful waters, and it was not long after 1921 that
the Salvadores, the Fodales, Versaggis, Polis and others became well-known
names in the St. Augustine fishing business. Aside from the packing plants
which heralded the advent of the commercial shrimp fisherman, there soon
sprang up canning and freezing plants; these establishments supply not only
local and northern markets but ship their produce abroad and even to the
Improvements in net design have been concomitant with innovations that
show the shrimp boat to be built for its particular style of fishing; high-
bowed Diesel-powered craft 50 or 75 feet from stem to stern have replaced
the little gas-driven launches of earlier days, and more than 300 such
trawlers operate in coastal waters as far south as Cape Canaveral eight
months out of the year.
Scandinavians, Portuguese, Italians, and Spaniards man the fleet, which,
when occasion demands, may be on the "pond" for a week at a time.
Negroes, too, have their place in the small army of 2,000 workers identified
with the industry that means millions of dollars to St. Augustine.
41. THE CITY HALL, northwest corner of St. George and Hypolita
Streets, houses administrative machinery of the city government. The head-
board of the casket of Pedro Menendez de Aviles, founder of St. Augustine,
was presented to the city in 1924, and rests temporarily in the City Hall
POINTS OF INTEREST 53
until another display place can be provided. In the City Vault are municipal
records from 1821, invaluable to the St. Augustine historian.
42a. FLAGLER MEMORIAL PRES-
BYTERIAN CHURCH, west corner of
Valencia and Sevilla Streets, is a
magnificent edifice built in 1890 by
Henry Flagler in memory of his
daughter, Jennie Louise Benedict.
Of Venetian style, the structure is
built in the shape of a Latin cross,
and is imposing in white terra cotta
and yellow brick. Mosaic floors are
of Siena marble relieved by plaques of breccia violet marble. A mauso-
leum containing Flagler's remains adjoins the church.
42b. KIRKSIDE, the old home of Flagler (not open), is adjacent to the
church property on Valencia Street at the intersection of Markland Place.
The extensive and beautiful grounds are in excellent keeping with the
Colonial feeling in the design of this large structure, which is still in the
hands of the Flagler heirs.
43. SPANISH CEMETERY, on Cordova Street, just south of Orange
Street, was used as a burial place for Spaniards in 1794, and for others until
1878. The dark, water-stained coquina tombs, built above ground, though
now in a deplorable state of decay still contain the remains of many of the
old city's foremost citizens.
South of this site was an ancient powder house, erected about 1598.
It is believed that on the present cemetery lot a small chapel was erected
by the first of the Franciscan friars, and there a brave Father was a martyr
to the Indians. It is known that in early days an Indian village here was
evacuated in 1601 when the chief took his people to a site about three leagues
north of St. Augustine. The village name, Tolomato, was given to the
River now known as North.
44. HUGUENOT CEMETERY, opposite the City Gates on San Marco
Avenue, was opened in 1821 during the yellow fever epidemic of that year.
The tombstones bear many interesting inscriptions, but there is no record
of Huguenot burials. Probably the site was so named because it was a
Protestant cemetery under the control of the Presbyterians.
45. THE Civic CENTER AND TOURIST CLUB, on San Marco Avenue,
north of the City Gates, is an FERA project, completed in 1936. This
$92,000 recreational center is built of coquina in the Mission style and the
massive walls, arched loggias, heavy piers and red tile roof are in complete
harmony with the surroundings, and add another artistic touch of Spanish
architecture to this historic city.
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
Here are headquarters of Florida's oldest tourist club, where visitors
find many unexpected friends and much entertainment to while away the
sunshiny days. There are shuffleboard, tennis and roque courts, horseshoe
pitching and miniature golf courses; football and diamondball fields are
nearby. Membership for tourists is $3 per season.
The Chamber of Commerce occupies the north rooms of the building,
and those in search of information are welcome.
46. THE GARNETT ORANGE GROVE, west of San Marco Avenue with
entrance on St. Louis Avenue (open daily, no admission charge), is a small
SHRINE OF NUESTRA SENORA DE LA LECHE
POINTS OF INTEREST
grove set in the midst of giant moss-hung liveoaks. The tourist is per-
mitted to pick his own oranges. Stables of the St. Augustine Riding Acad-
emy are on the property, and horses may be rented by the hour or day.
47. NUESTRA SENORA DE LA LECHE (OUR LADY OF THE MILK) is
the name given to the little Catholic chapel on Ocean Street, one block
east of San Marco Avenue, and the building commemorates the first mass
(September 8, 1565) said in the first permanent white settlement in the
United States. The first Chapel, on or near the present site, was called
Nombre de Dios (Name of God), and in it was placed a statue of Our Lady
of the Milk. The chapel was demolished in 1728 at the order of the Spanish
Governor, when raiding British forces gained possession of it. In later
years was erected a second chapel, which bore the name Nuestra Seiora de
la Leche. But this structure fell into disuse during the time of British
occupancy, and later, when the Cathedral was built, coquina stone from
the little chapel was used in its construction.
In 1873 Bishop Verot erected a small wooden chapel on the old coquina
foundations, but this effort to perpetuate the physical history of the spot
was badly damaged by a storm the next year. In 1918, through the gen-
erosity of Mrs. Amelia Hardin, Bishop Curley of St. Augustine was enabled
to erect the present memorial Shrine, Nuestra Sefora de la Leche, in the
design of the original chapel.
Each year on Low Sunday (the Sunday after Easter) there is a pilgrim-
age to the Shrine. The Bishop of the Diocese, numerous priests and nuns
from over the State, various Catholic organizations and many laymen take
part in the picturesque procession along the roadways strewn with flower petals
by children of the city.
An old cemetery, no longer used, is adjacent to the chapel.
48. FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH PARK, entrance on Magnolia Avenue at the
foot of Myrtle Street, just a block east of San Marco Avenue (open 7:00
a. m. to 7:00 p. m., admission 25c), is one of St. Augustine's most beautiful
tourist attractions. The 21-acre park is fronted with a high "tabby" wall;
tree-bowered roadways provide attractive drives.
The "Fountain of Youth," supposedly one of the spots visited in 1513
by Ponce de Leon in his search for eternal youth, is, of course, a figurative
expression; but enclosed in a mission-like grotto of coquina rock and over-
hung with ferns is a deep and ancient well whose cool waters, if no elixir,
are at least capable of refreshing the weary traveler. It is here visitors
peer into the deep recess and drink freely of its clear waters, thinking the
while of Juan Ponce de Leon who failed to find the fabled Fountain and
died from the poison of an Indian arrow.
Here likewise is an Indian burial ground where countless skeletons lie
uncovered and preserved. Only recently discovered, this is one of the most
interesting exhibits of its type to be found in America. Smithsonian
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
archeologists have expressed the opinion that the burials were made some
time after the founding of the city by Menendez, as they show definite
indications of Christian interment. The exposed skeletons are sheltered
in a reproduction of an Indian communal house and stockade, built of logs
and designed from LeMoyne's drawings of Indian towns as he saw them
in 1564, when the park was part of the site of the Timuquan Indian village,
Seloy. Exploratory trenches reveal that below the exposed skeletons are
other burials; below these, in a mixture of yellowish-brown sand and an
occasional oyster shell, were found group burials, presumably of native
Indians who were interred prior to the founding of the city.
The park has a radio station which is an adjunct of the municipality, and
its architecture is in excellent keeping with the rest of the park, with
the "tabby" walls and the floors done in mosaic tile reputedly over a hun-
dred years old, imported from Cuba. A roof of small saplings heightens
the rustic effect.
A flowered walkway leads to the marker commemorating Ponce de
Leon's landing in the vicinity. The natural beauty of the park has been
enhanced by landscaping. There is a museum collection of authentic relics
which date back to the sixteenth century, and other historic pieces are scattered
throughout the park. Souvenirs may be procured.
49. THE FLORIDA SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND BLIND, on San Marco
Avenue, a mile north of the center of the city, was funded in 1885 by
Thomas Hines Coleman, himself a deaf mute. Governor W. D. Bloxham
became interested in the project and an appropriation of $20,000 was made
for buildings and equipment. In place of the original rambling wooden
structures, there are now several handsome buildings of brick and hollow tile.
Twenty acres are laid out to meet the needs of the students and every
effort is made to provide curricula that will help them find their place in life.
Instruction is given in such fields as linotype operation, gardening, poultry
raising, painting, shoe repairing, barbering, cooking, sewing, home-making,
laundry work, beauty culture, basketry, rug-weaving, piano-tuning, mattress-
making, and broom-making. Musical training is given to the talented
blind and a military training department has been organized for the deaf.
The school maintains a 476-acre farm at Casa Cola on North River
about 6 miles north of the city limits. This farm supplies not only a great
quantity of the provisions consumed at the school but also training ground
for agricultural students.
In spite of physical handicaps, the students are enthusiastic athletes; the
school has football, basketball, and baseball teams, which compete regularly
with other teams in the State.
50. FORT MOOSA GARDENS, attractive botanical plot, (R) off San
Marco Avenue, approximately 1.5 miles north of the City Gates, are near
the site of old Fort Moosa. The fort, originally built by Negro refugees
POINTS OF INTEREST 57
from the British colonies, was a square earthwork with four bastions and
was the strongest unit of the outer defense line. Colonel Palmer, under
Oglethorpe, was slain here by troops of Spanish Governor Monteano.
5 1. THE SEA WALL, which extends from the north boundary of Fort
Marion National Monument to a point opposite St. Francis Barracks, was
built as a necessary protection against encroachment of the Matanzas Bay
waters. Begun by the Spanish shortly after 1690, the original wall ex-
tended from the fort to the Plaza, and during the English regime (1763-
1783) was completed as far as St. Francis Street. Between 1835 and 1842
the United States Government built a new wall of coquina rock with a
heavy granite coping. Part of the old Spanish wall is today beneath Bay
52. TREASURY STREET, extending from the Bayfront to Cordova
Street, included when the plans of the settlement were made over 300
years ago, is the narrowest in the city, one of its several blocks measuring
but six feet in width. The name derives from the fact that the King's treas-
ury faced on one of its corners.
Points of Interest In Environs*
53. THE MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY (See Tour 1).
54. OGLETHORPE'S BATTERY (See Tour 1).
55. ST. AUGUSTINE LIGHTHOUSE AND RESERVATION
(See Tour 1).
56. LIGHTHOUSE PARK AND BATHING BEACH (See Tour 1).
57. ST. AUGUSTINE OSTRICH AND ALLIGATOR FARM
(See Tour 1).
58. FORT MATANZAS NATIONAL MONUMENT (See Tour 1).
*Numbers refer to Map, page 10.
Tours in Environs
60 SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
ST. AUGUSTINE-ANASTASIA ISLAND-CRESCENT BEACH-
MATANZAS INLET-MOULTRIE-ST. AUGUSTINE.
Complete trip-37.4 m.
State 140, State 14-A, US 1; all paved. The road from the Bridge of Lions
to Matanzas Inlet is part of the Ocean Shore Boulevard while US 1 is
known as the Dixie Highway. Eating places are available along the way
and rooms are obtainable at Summer Haven.
This trip southward runs the entire length of Anastasia Island. On
this island, named for Saint Anastasia, occurred one of the bloodiest deeds
in American history, the execution of the French Huguenots by Menendez.
For centuries on Anastasia has been quarried coquina, that rock which for
many miles forms a layer in the strata of Florida's east coast.
From the POST OFFICE drive east on King Street one block to Bay
Street, cross the Bay over the BRIDGE OF LIONS. This toll-free bridge,
dedicated in 1927, is of concrete and steel; its draw is frequently raised
to pass shrimp boats going out for a catch or returning with full holds to
the San Sebastian. The bridge derives its name from the two lions of
Italian marble, gift of the late Dr. Andrew Anderson, at the city entrance
to the span.
At .8 m. (L) on State 140 is the MUSEUM OF NATURAL HIS-
TORY (open daily 8:30 a. m. to 6:00 p. m., admission 25c), which
exhibits a collection of live and mounted specimens-animals, birds, eggs,
reptiles and fish. Live monkeys and alligators are feature attractions.
Left on the first road past the museum, .3 m., is the site of OGLE-
THORPE'S BATTERY. From here in 1740 Oglethorpe fired upon town
and fort, found that his shells fell short, and built another battery in the
marsh closer to the city. The siege was unsuccessful, but many of the
battle scars on the east curtain of Fort Marion were made by Oglethorpe's
At 1.5 m. (R) is the ST. AUGUSTINE LIGHTHOUSE AND
RESERVATION, a modernized, first-order light, 165 ft. in height.
Built in 1873, it is near the site of its many predecessors, and is unusual
in that it is painted in black and white spiral stripes. Since the founding
of St. Augustine, this point has been known for its lookouts, watchtowers
and lighthouses. A marker placed on the reservation commemorates the
attack of Sir Francis Drake, who sighted the Spanish lookout, entered the
harbor and burned the town May 8, 1586. When buoy tenders are not
occupied otherwise, they will conduct visitors to the top of the lighthouse
from where there is a comprehensive view of the city and harbor.
At 1.5 m. (L) is LIGHTHOUSE PARK AND BATHING BEACH,
a public park with refreshment concession, fishing pier and bathing facilities.
It is a favorite picnic ground and affords an elevated view of the inlet.
TOURS IN ENIRONS
At 1.8 m. (R) the ST. AUGUSTINE OSTRICH AND ALLI-
GATOR FARM (open 8:00 a. m. to 6:00 p. m., admission 25c), has en-
joyed for many years prominence as a point of interest adjacent to the
Ancient City. Besides a large flock of ostriches the farm exhibits thousands
of alligators of all sizes and a collection of live snakes and turtles. Its
museum of marine curiosities is one of the most complete in the South.
At 3.1 m. (L) is the OLD SPANISH CHIMNEY, remnant of bar-
racks erected during the Spanish occupation of the city to shelter the men
who quarried coquina for buildings in St. Augustine. Here, too, is the
OLD WELL, built at the same time as the barracks.
At 3.4 m. (R) is a COQUINA QUARRY, visible from the road.
From this and similar quarries nearby came the coquina used in the old St.
Augustine buildings. When the stone is first cut, it is of a tan color; it grays
and hardens with age and weather.
ST. AUGUSTINE BEACH, 7.5 m. (L), is ideal for surf-bathing
and at low tide offers a wide, hard driving expanse where races are held.
Bathhouses and refreshment stands are conveniently nearby, and cottages
can be rented.
CRESCENT BEACH, 9.9 m., is a small community where residents
of St. Augustine and inland towns often go for summer bathing and
At 13.9 m. is FORT MATANZAS NATIONAL MONUMENT, a
Government reservation where boats are obtained for the trip to old FORT
MATANZAS, on small Rattlesnake Island near the west bank of the Inlet.
This old fort, 40 ft. square and about 30 ft. in height, was built in 1736
to replace a tower used to guard the entrance to the Inlet. In the park
grounds are a small inn and restaurant, docks for fishing, and the custodian's
South .7 m. from the inn is a marker locating the HUGUENOT MASSA-
CRE. There were in reality two massacres, one September 29, the other
October 12, 1565. Here Menendez killed the survivors of the French fleet
which was wrecked when attempting to attack St. Augustine. Matanzas
is Spanish for "bloody"; these events gave this place its name. On Sep-
tember 29, 1565, Menendez with 50 men marched to the south end of
Anastasia Island and found 200 Frenchmen gathered on the opposite
shore. He was outnumbered, but prevailed upon the French to place
themselves at his mercy. Requiring them to cross the channel ten at a
time, with their hands bound, Menendez had each ten murdered as soon
as they were out of sight of the rest. On October 12, the same strategy
disposed of 150 more Frenchmen, among them Ribaut, heroic commander.
News of the tragic death of these French castaways caused a furor in
At 14.4 m. is Matanzas Inlet, spanned by a free bridge. From here
there is an excellent view of the ocean, and fishing is allowed from' the
62 SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
SUMMER HAVEN, 15.4 m., is a small summer resort with accommo-
dations at the inn. Cottages are also available. In this peaceful environ-
ment, right on the Atlantic coast, fishing, swimming and boating are ready
and waiting. The road from here runs atop the sand dunes and for miles
there is little to interrupt the ocean vista.
Returning over the same road (State 140) as far as CRESCENT
BEACH, 24.1 m. (see above), turn (W) across bridge spanning Matanzas
River at this point. This place is favored by fishermen and boats may be
hired at the bridge.
At 25.3 m. is the junction with US 1.
Crossing the highway, State 14-A continues on to Hastings, 12 m., through
an uninhabited stretch of pine flatwoods.
Turn (R) on US 1. This well-paved road leads through a pine woods
section that is always green and sweet odored.
MOULTRIE, 31.9 m., is the site where in September 1823, a treaty
with the Seminole Indians was signed. Near Moultrie is the site of Fort
Peyton and the capture of Osceola, famed Seminole chieftain. (See Tour 2).
Continue north on US 1 to ST. AUGUSTINE, 37.4 m.
TOURS IN ENVIRONS
ST. AUGUSTINE PICOLATA TOCOI SPUDS ST. AUGUS-
Complete trip--4..6 m.
State 48, paved; County 9, graded; State 47, graded to Tocoi-paved
from Tocoi to Spuds; State 14, paved; State 95, paved. Few filling
stations on any of these roads. State 14 particularly dangerous to drive
owing to narrowness, curves, and cattle. No hotel accommodations.
This tour is through a hinterland rich. in scenery and historical interest.
Though the soil in this section is very rich, communities are merely gather-
ing places for the farmers, and practically all houses are in isolated spots.
State 48 is reached by traveling north from the CITY GATES of St.
Augustine on San Marco Avenue 1.5 m (L). This route is also called the
Little Horn road and part of it marked the outer defense line of the old city.
At 6.5 m. is the junction with Co. 9 (L). (State 48 (R) leads to
Shands Bridge across the St. Johns River.)
At 7.1 m. (L) on Co. 9 is the SITE OF AN INDIAN MASSACRE
(R). A MARKER (L) records the attack on a band of traveling Shake-
spearean actors by Seminole Indians in 1840. The tragedy has its comic
side, for the next day the Indians were captured, drunk as lords, clad in the
habiliments of the troupe-top-hatted Hamlets and blond-wigged Ophelias.
SPresent day PICOLATA (Spanish for spear head), 18 m., is a turpentine
camp on the east bank of the St. Johns River. James Riz, pioneer who
inaugurated the line of stage coaches to St. Augustine, started the settlement,
erecting buildings and a wharf. Tourists traveled by boat up the St. Johns
River to Picolata and from there to St. Augustine by stage coach.
Near present day Picolata is OLD PICOLATA, where a square
tower, moated and 30 ft. in height, guarded the Old Spanish Trail at its
crossing over the historic St. Johns River. On January 1, 1740, this place
was captured by the English under the command of General Oglethorpe.
During the Indian insurrection of 1835 a small wooden blockhouse guarded
Picolata, the breastworks of which, 18.9 m. (L), can still be seen.
Right .5 m. from Picolata is the HOME OF GENERAL DENT. General
Dent, a Civil War veteran, in 1872 married the sister of President U. S.
Grant, who was a guest at the ceremony. A short distance to the rear of
General Dent's old home is a small memorial cemetery; tombstones were
placed here in recent years to the memory of soldiers who died in the
TOCOI, 23.1 m. (meaning water lily) is a little fishing village on
the banks of the St. Johns River, under giant oak trees. In early Spanish
times an Indian village and a Franciscan mission stood here. The section is
particularly well adapted for growing oranges and Irish potatoes.
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
Shortly after the Civil War, passengers and materials to St. Augustine
were rerouted at Tocoi over the crude 15-mile combination mule- and steam-
drawn railway that connected Tocoi and St. Augustine. This railway
brought about the decline of Picolata, but both railway and Tocoi suffered
a similar fate when Flagler completed his railroad from Jacksonville to
St. Augustine. The Tocoi rails became but a "streak of rust left in the
At Tocoi there are two routes to St. Augustine, the short and direct way
on State 95, following the roadbed of the old railroad, or a loop route fol-
lowing the St. Johns River over State 47.
From Tocoi to St. Augustine, Florida 95 is a well-paved, wooded highway
that passes through the grounds of the Florida Normal and Industrial
Institute for Negroes, which is just west of St. Augustine. The grounds
and equipment of this institution represent an investment of approximately
one-half million dollars. The school is accredited by the Southern Asso-
ciation of Secondary Schools and Colleges, carrying a course of study that
takes the Negro pupil through four years of high school and two years
of college work. The "Orange Blossom Quartette" and the "Jubilee Sing-
ers," noted for their radio and personal renditions of Negro songs and
spirituals, originated in this school.
Dense woods line State 47, the river road. Honeysuckle and evergreens
decorate the roadside and oak trees hundreds of years old shade the highway.
Few signs of human life are seen, though an occasional cleared spot indicates
where fishermen stopped in order to cast into the St. Johns for black bass or
RIVERDALE, 25.3 m., is a rustic community near the bank of the river.
SPUDS, 34.8 m., is the shipping point for thousands of barrels of pota-
toes every year. The hamlet is a focal point in a large potato-growing
Right from Spuds on State 14 are Hastings and Palatka.
The road from Spuds (L) is very rough and several dangerous curves
make driving difficult.
ELKTON, 39.7 m., is a crossroads town, with a few stores and homes
of modest design.
At 42.7 m., is the junction with an unpaved, unnumbered road.
Right on this road is the SITE OF FORT PEYTON, 2.2 m., where a
marker indicates the location of this Seminole Indian War outpost.
Another marker, 3 m., is on the place where Osceola, famed Seminole
chief, was captured under a flag of truce.
This road, known as the Fort Peyton Road, is almost impassable and a
guide should be found before a visit is made to the site.
At 48.6 m. (L), is the intersection at city limits with US 1 on which
return to ST. AUGUSTINE is made.
TOURS IN ENVIRONS
ST. AUGUSTINE-PALM VALLEY-DURBIN-ST. AUGUSTINE.
Complete trip-56.7 m.
State 78, paved; Old Beach Road unnumbered and unpaved: County 44,
dirt; and State 4, paved. Road 78 remarkable for lack of curves. Heavy
traffic on State 4 necessitates caution in driving. No gasoline obtainable
between Usina's Beach and Palm Valley. Accommodations extremely
limited. Cattle on road day and night.
This tour covers a part of the route followed by Oglethorpe in his march
on St. Augustine. It is, for the most part, through uninhabited country and
probably part of the pine and scrub and oak woods have not had a visitor
since the English in 1740. Though it is at no point more than 100 yards
from the beach, State 78 runs behind an almost unbroken line of sand dunes,
so that the Atlantic is only occasionally visible from it.
Drive north on San Marco Avenue from the CITY GATES 1.1 m.,
turn (R) opposite Davenport Park on May Street to Causeway from
mainland to KURTH'S ISLAND, 1.6 m., a small strip of land in North
River. This Island was formerly known as the Isle of Tolomato, just as
North River was called Tolomato River. The wooden bridge spanning the
river is an exceptionally good place for many varieties of salt-water fishing
and platforms have been built for the Isaac Waltons.
At 2.5 m. (L) is the junction with State 78.
Right from this junction is VILANO BEACH AND CASINO, .5 m., where
dances are held and there is an excellent artesian water swimming pool.
Surf bathing is an attraction.
At 3.1 m., on State 78, is SURFSIDE. For several blocks there are
cottages between the road and the ocean.
Surfside Pavilion, right on ocean front, is a popular place for dancing
during the summer. Connected with it is a dining hall. Bathhouses are
available for surf bathers.
USINA'S BEACH, 5.5 m., is the name given to a station on the high-
way; .3 m. (L) is the pavilion, right is the beach with bathhouses. Today
the pavilion is the scene of many informal oyster roasts-quantities of oysters
are provided at a nominal charge. In years before a bridge gave easy
access to this beach, the spot was extremely popular as the terminus of a
boat trip from St. Augustine, and a picturesque horse-car rattled over the
stretch from river wharf to beach.
The road from Usina's Beach is lonely, without a house for many miles,
but drinking fountains at 13 m. and 18 m. (R) are refreshing landmarks.
A sign warns of shifting sand dunes, since at times, particularly after a
strong northeast wind, sand accumulates in the road, making fast driving
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
At 19.5 m. (R) is MICKLER'S FISHING PIER (admission 25c).
The pier extends 300 feet into the ocean, and anglers can purchase bait.
PONTE VEDRA, or "Green Point," 24.5 m., is a rapidly growing
community that was started originally by the National Lead Company.
This company bought many acres of land in this section because it was par-
ticularly rich in certain minerals valuable to its industry. As time passed,
several homes and a golf club for the entertainment of company officials
were built. Though the golf course is at the edge of the Atlantic Ocean
in sea level country, the topography has all the necessary hills to make the
pastime exciting. (The course is open to visitors and green fees are $1).
Sectional trials for the National Amateur Tournament are held here annually.
During 1935 and 1936 a real estate subdivision was undertaken, and
about 40 beautiful homes have been completed (1937). A bath club has been
built on the ocean front in the central part of the community; there bathing,
dining, and dancing may be enjoyed. The club house is open to visitors;
rooms are available and meals are served. There is but one business place
and building is closely restricted in Ponte Vedra.
The beach is excellent for driving and an unbroken drive on the hard
sand stretches many miles north. Though it is possible to return to St.
Augustine by driving on the beach, there are times when it is unsafe and
authentic information about the tide should be obtained from filling stations
before the trip is attempted.
Returning to St. Augustine over State 78, turn (R) on an unpaved,
unnumbered road, 29.2 m., for a trip through a fertile agricultural section.
PALM VALLEY, 31.9 m., is a small trading center for an agricultural
community. The soil in this section is very fertile and excellent for truck
farming. Due to its semi-isolation, Palm Valley was the center of illicit
whiskey distilling during the Prohibition era and "Palm Valley shine" was
a byword among imbibers in this section of Florida. Giant bull frogs abound
in the many ponds near Palm Valley and some residents earn their living
In a deserted and almost impenetrable spot, W. of Palm Valley at 3.5 m., is
the site of FORT DIEGO, built shortly after 1700 by Don Diego de
Espinosa and destroyed by Oglethorpe in 1740. Little remains of the old
fort. It is inadvisable to drive a car over the roads to this spot and it
is difficult to find it without a guide; one may be found in Palm Valley.
At 37 m. the road crosses PABLO CREEK, a part of the Intracoastal
Waterway. Always beautiful, this country is particularly so in the early
spring when the jasmine and dogwood are in flower. Wild flowers grow in
abundance and during the Christmas season this is a favorite hunting ground
for those who seek the swamp holly as Christmas decorations. From this
TOURS IN ENVIRONS
swamp holly the Indians made their famous black drink by parching the
leaves and then boiling them.
At 41.8 m. is the junction with US 1. Turn (L) on US 1 to return
to St. Augustine.
DURBIN, 43.3 m., is a flag stop on the Florida East Coast Railway.
SAMPSON, 49 m., is the name of a section rather than a town.
At 54 m. (L) the highway passes the AIRPORT, work on which has
been carried forward by the Works Progress Administration during 1936
At 56.7 m., on US 1, or just at the city limits of St. Augustine, is the
ST. AUGUSTINE GOLF LINKS (open), nationally known 18-hole
course, 6,345 yards long, par 72.
It was organized as the St. Augustine Golf Development Company
November 12, 1915. Construction on the beautiful course was begun shortly
thereafter and completed in 1917. It is today one of the most complete
courses in the State of Florida and is rated by professionals as a championship
playing field. Here Jimmy Farrell, well known golfer, is one of the pro-
fessionals during the winter months.
The Annual Winter Championship of Florida (January 25-29), Na-
tional Championship of Golf Club Champions (February 15-20), Women's
Golf Championships East Coast of Florida (March 2-6), and Amateur-
Professional Championship (March 17-21) are among the annual tourna-
ments held here.
1513, April 3, Ponce de Leon landed in vicinity of St. Augustine.
1565, September 8, Menendez landed and founded St. Augustine.
September 10, French fleet threatening St. Augustine was wrecked by-
1574, September 17, Death of Menendez in Spain.
1586, Drake burned St. Augustine.
1594, Date of St. Augustine Parish records.
1640, Apalachian Indians condemned to labor on St. Augustine fortifications.
1672, Stone fort of San Marco begun.
1702, Governor Moore of South Carolina laid siege to St. Augustine.
1725, Colonel Palmer of South Carolina marched against St. Augustine.
1740, Oglethorpe of Georgia besieged St. Augustine.
1743, Oglethorpe's second attack on St. Augustine.
1763, Florida ceded to England. Fort San Marco named St. Marks.
1767, Turnbull Colony established at New Smyrna.
1774, Tonyn succeeded Grant as Governor of Florida.
1776, Hancock and Adams burned in effigy at St. Augustine.
1777, Minorcans left New Smyrna for St. Augustine.
1780, Prominent American patriots confined in Fort St. Marks.
1783, Florida retroceded to Spain.
1793, Construction St. Augustine Cathedral started..
1812, Patriots of Florida occupied Fort Moosa and withdrew under Spanish
1817, Andrew Jackson's invasion of West Florida.
1819, Florida ceded to United States.
1821, July 10, Americans raise U. S. flag in St. Augustine.
1823, Second Territorial Council met in St. Augustine.
Treaty with Seminole Indians, at Moultrie.
1825, Fort San Marcos named Fort Marion.
Episcopal Church construction started.
1827, Emerson in St. Augustine.
1830, First Presbyterian Church built.
1833, Protestant Episcopal Church built.
1836, St. Augustine imperiled by Indians; plantations east and south of
1837, Osceola, Coacoochee and other Seminoles captured under flag of
truce near St. Augustine and imprisoned at Fort Marion.
1840, Indian attack on theatrical troupe en route to St. Augustine.
Methodist Chapel built.
1843, William Cullen Bryant in St. Augustine.
1861, Confederates seized Fort Marion.
1862, St. Augustine and Fort Marion surrendered to Union Naval force.
1863, Political rallies held in St. Augustine by Federal soldiers.
1864, Federal court established in St. Augustine.
First Negro Protestant Church established.
1874, First locomotive reached St. Augustine from Tocoi.
1885, Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Halifax River Railroad built, from
South Jacksonville to St. Augustine. Florida State School for the
Deaf and the Blind established at St. Augustine by Thomas Hines
Coleman. Construction of Hotel Ponce de Leon started.
1887, Great fire, Cathedral partially destroyed.
1888, January 10, Ponce de Leon Hotel opened.
1889, Standard gauge railroad completed from St. Augustine to Jack-
1894, St. Augustine Record Press established.
1895, Great freeze destroyed St. Augustine orange groves.
1906, Flagler Mausoleum built.
1912, Intra-coastal Waterway connected St. Augustine with St. Johns River.
1914, Great fire.
1918, Snow in St. Augustine.
1922, Head board of Menendez' original coffin presented to City of St.
Augustine by the Spanish Government.
1924, Florida East Coast Railway repair shops erected at St. Augustine;
double track laid; other railway improvements made. Forts Marion
and Matanzas made'National Monuments.
1925, Davis Shores created from marsh land.
1928, Zero Milestone erected at St. Augustine to mark terminus of trans-
continental Spanish Trail.
1936, National Committee formed for preservation and restoration of Old
NOTE: This selected bibliography of general material is designed for
him who feels such interest in St. Augustine's story that he desires to go
further into its history. The items have been chosen with an eye to their
availability in the larger libraries or the bookshop. It is, then, obviously
not intended for the research student who wishes to make an exhaustive
examination of all materials to be found; for him, the librarians at St.
Augustine's repositories will be glad to point out bibliographies which relate
to particular aspects of St. Augustine history.
Much source and secondary material, as well as illuminating cartographic
and pictorial material, is deposited in the St. Augustine Historical Society
Library, adjacent to the "Oldest House," and in the Florida Case at the
Public Library, on Aviles Street.
JL = Jacksonville Public Library.
LC = Library of Congress.
PL = St. Augustine Public Library.
SA = St. Augustine Historical Society Library.
Averette, Annie (Tr.): Unwritten History of St. Augustine. 1 v., 233 pp.
Record Co., St. Augustine, 1902. JL, PL, LC, SA.
Barrs, Burton: East Florida in the American Revolution. 1 v., 42 pp.
Guild Press, Jacksonville, 1932. JL, LC, SA.
Bierstadt, Edward: Sunlight Pictures, St. Augustine. I v., 51 plates. Arto-
type Publishing Co., N. Y., 1891. LC, SA.
Bolton, H. E.: Arredondo's Historical Proof of Spain's Title to Georgia.
1 v., 382 pp., map, illus. University of California Press, Berkeley,
California, 1925. JL, LC, SA.
SBonnycastle, R. H.: Spanish America. 1 v., 428 pp., map, illus. Abraham
Small, Philadelphia, 1819. LC, SA.
/Bourne, E. G.: Spain in America. V. 3 of The American Nation. 350
pp., maps, illus., bibliography, index. Harper Bros., N. Y., 1904. JL.
"/Brevard, C. M.: A History of Florida From the Treaty of 1763 to Our
Own Times. 2 v. Florida State Historical Society, DeLand, 1924.
JL, LC, SA.
SBrinton, D. G.: Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, Its Literary History,
Indian Tribes and Antiquities. 1 v., 202 pp. J. Sabin, Philadelphia,
1859. JL, LC, SA.
Brinton, D. G.: A Guide of Florida and the South. 1 v., 136 pp. George
Maclean, Philadelphia, 1869. JL, LC, SA.
Brown, G. M.: Ponce De Leon Land and Florida War Records. 1 v.,
180 pp., illus. Record Printing Co., St. Augustine, 1902. JL, LC, SA.
Carroll, B. R.: Historical Collections of South Carolina. 2 v. Harper
and Brothers, N. Y., 1836. JL, LC, SA.
Chapin, G. M.: Florida, Past, Present and Future. 2 v., illus. S. J.
Clarke Publishing Co., Chicago, 1914. JL, LC.
Connor, J. T. (Tr. and Ed.): Colonial Records of Spanish Florida, 1570-
1580. 2 v. Florida State Historical Society, DeLand, 1930. JL, LC, SA.
Connor, J. T. (Tr, and Ed.): Pedro Menendez de Aviles. 1 v., 286 pp.,
illus, index. Florida State Historical Society, DeLand, 1928. JL.
Connor, J. T. (Ed.): Jean Ribaut: The Whole and True Discouerye of
Terra Florida. 1 v., 139 pp. Florida State Historical Society, De-
Corse, C. D.: Florida History--A Field of Colorful Original Sources.
Florida Historical Society Quarterly, v. VI, No. 1, July, 1927. Tal-
lahassee. LC, SA.
Crane, V. W.: The Southern Frontier. 1 v., 391 pp., map, illus., bibliog-
raphy, index. Duke University Press, Durham, N. C., 1928. JL.
Darby, Win.: Memoir on the Geography, and Natural and Civil History
of Florida. 1 v., 92 pp. T. H. Palmer, Phila., 1821. JL, LC,
Davis, W. W.: Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida. 1 v., 771 pp.
Columbia University Press, N. Y., 1913. JL, LC.
DeLand, M. W.: Florida Days. 1 v., 200 pp., illus. Little, Brown & Co.,
Boston, 1889. JL, LC, PL, SA.
Dewhurst, W. W.: The History of St. ili,lKr',, Florida. i"v., 182 pp.
G. P. Putnam's Sons, N. Y., 1885. JL, LC, SA.
Doggett, Carita: Dr. Turnbull and the New Smyrna Colon'y of Florida.
1 v., 216 pp., illus. The Drew Press, Florida, 1919.. JL, LC, )A.
Emerson, R. W.: Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1820-1872. 1 v.,
542 pp. Houghton Miffin Co., Boston and N. Y., 1909. SA.
Fairbanks, G. R.: Florida, Its History and Its Romance. 1 v., 240 pp.
Drew and Co., Jacksonville, 1898. JL, LC, SA.
Fairbanks, G. R.: History and Antiquities of St. Augustine, FI. i.r. 1 v.,
200 pp., maps, illus. C. B. Norton, N. Y., 1858. JL, LC, SA.,;
Fairbanks, G. R.: History of Florida. 1 v., 350 pp. Lippincott, Phila-
delphia, 1871. JL, LC, SA.
Fairbanks, G. R.: The Spaniards In Florida. 1v., 120 pp. C. Drew,
Jacksonville, 1868. JL, LC, SA. r
Florida, the American Riviera. 1 v., 50 pp., llu. -. Art Age Press, N. Y.,
1887. JL, LC, SA. ;:
SEEING ST. AUGUSTINE
Florida East Coast Railway: The Story of a Pioneer, 1885-86-1935-36.
1 v., 30 pp., map, illus. The Record Co., St. Augustine, 1936. SA.
Forbes, J. G.: Sketches, Historical and Topographical, of the Floridas. 1 v.,
226 pp. C. S. Van Winkle, N. Y., 1821. JL, LC, PL, SA.
Kenny, Michael: The Romance of the Floridas. 1 v., 395 pp., map, illus.
Bruce Publishing Co., N. Y., 1935. JL, LC, SA.
Knauss, J. 0.: Territorial Florida Journalism. 1 v., 249 pp., illus. Fla.
State Historical Society, DeLand, 1926. JL, LC, PL, SA.
Lowery, Woodbury: The Spanish Settlements Within the Present Limits
of the United States. 2 v., maps, illus. G. P. Putnam's Sons, N. Y.,
1905. JL, LC, SA.
Mann, F. A.: Story of the Huguenots. 1 v., 197 pp. Mann and Mann,
St. Augustine, 1898. JL, LC, SA.
Mohr, C. H.: The Franciscans in Florida. Fla. Historical Society Quar-
terly, v. VII, No. 3, January 1929. JL, LC, SA.
Musick, J. R.: St. Augustine (A Story of the Huguenots). 1 v., 309 pp.
Funk and Wagnalls Co., N. Y., 1892. LC, SA.
O'Daniel, V. F.: The Dominicans In Early Florida. 1 v., 230 pp. Cath-
olic Historical Society, N. Y., 1930. JL, LC.
Parkman, Francis: Pioneers of France In the New World. 1 v., 472 pp.
Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1894. JL, LC, SA.
Preliminary Check List of Floridiana 1500-1865 In the Libraries of Florida.
Florida Library Bulletin, v. II, No. 2, April 1930. 16 pp. JL, SA.
Priestley, H. I.: The Coming of the White Man. 1 v., 386 pp., illus.
MacMillan, N. Y., 1929. LC, SA.
Ransom, Robert: Chronology of the Most Important Events Connected
With Florida History. 1 v., 40 pp. The Record Co., St. Augustine,
1928. JL, LC, SA.
.,Reynolds, C. B.: Old St. Augustine. 1 v., 144 pp., illus. E. H. Reynolds
Co., St. Augustine, 1886. LC, SA.
Robertson, J. A.: Archival Distribution of Florida MSS. Fla. Historical
Society Quarterly, v. X, No. 1, July 1931. Tallahassee. LC, SA.
Sewall, R. K.: Sketches of Old St. Augustine. 1 v., 69 pp. Putnam's
Sons, N. Y., 1848. JL, LC, PL, SA.
Siebert, W. H.: Loyalists In East Florida. 2 v., maps, illus. Fla. State
Historical Society, DeLand, 1929. JL, LC, SA, PL.
Sprague, J. T.: The Origin, Progress and Conclusion of the Florida War.
1 v., 557 pp., maps. D. Appleton, N. Y., 1848. JL, LC, SA.
Stork, William: Description of East Florida With a Journal Kept By John
Bartram. 1 v., 35 pp., maps. London, 1769. LC, SA.
Swanton, J. R.: Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors.
Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 73.
1 v., 492 pp., maps, excellent bibliography. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C., 1922. LC, SA.
Vignoles, Charles: Observations Upon the Floridas. 1 v., 219 pp. Bliss
and White, N. Y., 1823. JL, LC, SA.
Whitaker, A. P. (Tr. and Ed.): Documents Relating to the Commercial
Policy of Spain in the Floridas. 1 v., 227 pp. Fla. State Historical
Society, DeLand, 1931. JL, LC, SA, PL.
Actors, 28, 63.
Adams, Samuel, 23.
Agriculture, 13, 19, 23, 28, 29, 31, 56, 63,
64, 66; see also Oranges, Plantations,
Airport, see Transportation.
Alhambra Hotel, 6.
Alhambra, Castle at Granada, Spain, 52.
Alligator, see Museum of Natural History
and St. Augustine Ostrich and Alligator
Alvarez, Geronimo, 46.
American Revolution, 11, 22, 23.
Ammidown Genealogical Collection, 50.
Anastasia, Island, 11, 12, 17, 19, 20, 32,
33, 37, 48, 60; Saint, 60.
Anderson, Andrew, 47, 48, 60.
Anderson Circle, 48, 49.
Anderson, Sarah, 50.
Annual Events, 7.
Aramomia Decrani, 43.
Archdale, Governor of South Carolina, 19.
Architecture, 11, 13, 22, 28, 29, 38, 39,
Arredondo, Antonio de, 20.
Arrivas House, 41.
Arts Club, St. Augustine, see Club.
Athletic Fields, 6.
Atlantic Ocean, 11, 65, 66.
Augustine, Saint, 50.
Authors, 34, 35.
Ayala, Juan de, 19.
Baltimore Convention, 30.
Barra, Pedro de, 43.
Beach, 34, 65, 66; Lighthouse Park, 7, 58,
60; North, 11, 20; St. Augustine, 7, 61;
Surfside, 7, 65; Usina's, 65; Vilano and
Casino, 7, 65; see also Crescent Beach.
Benedict, Jennie Louise, 53.
Benedict, Postmaster, 43.
Benet, Stephen Vincent, 34.
Betsy, Capture of Ship, 23.
Bingham, Mary Lily Flagler, 47.
Bloxham, W. D., 56.
Bridge of Lions, 12, 48, 60.
Bridier's Hotel, see Worth House.
Bryant, William Cullen, 28, 29.
Buccaneer, see Davis, (John), Drake.
Burgoigne, Nicholas, 17, 18.
Burt House, see Spanish Treasury.
Bus Station, see Transportation.
Butler, Robert, 25.
Caldecott Collection, 50.
Cape Canaveral, 52.
Carnival Season, 24, 25.
Carrere and Hastings, 31, 51.
Casa Cola, 56.
Casa de.Cannonosa, 45, 46, 47.
Castaways, English, 19; French, 16, 61.
Catesby, Books by, 46.
Cathedral, 12, 49, 50, 55.
Catholic Bishop's House, 43.
Catholic University, 44.
Cemetery, 55, 63; Huguenot, 53; Nation-
al, 47; Spanish, 53.
Chamber of Commerce, 6, 54.
Charleston, 19, 20, 23, 26, 37.
Chimney, Old Spanish, 61.
Churches, Flagler Memorial Presbyterian,
31, 53; Trinity Episcopal, 12, 43, 48.
City Gates, 11, 33, 41, 53, 56, 63, 65.
City Hall, 52, 53.
City Vault, 53.
Civic Center, 6, 53, 54.
Civic Center Park, 6.
Civil War, 29, 38, 41, 47, 49, 63, 64.
Clinic, Free Dental, 35.
Club, St. Augustine Arts, 34; Exchange,
41; Golf, see Golf Course; Hamblen,
48; St. Cecilia, 6; Tourist, 7, 53, 54.
Coacoochee, 27, 37, 39.
Coleman, Thomas Hines, 56.
Colerain, Georgia, 23.
Commerce, 31, 49.
Confederates, 29, 38, 49.
Cooper, James Fenimore, 34.
Coquina, 19, 22, 28, 29, 32, 33, 37, 41-46,
48-50, 53, 55, 57, 60, 61; Quarry, 61.
Corkum, Billy, 52.
Court, Federal, 30; see also Florida and
Crescent Beach, 60, 61, 62.
Cressey, County Longford, Ireland, 50.
Cuba, 56; Havana, 22, 25.
Curiosity Shop, Old, 41, 42.
Curley, Bishop, 55.
Customs, 25, 26, 33, 34.
Dade, Colonel, 47.
Dade, Pyramids, 47.
Daniels, Colonel, 20.
Daughters of American
Davenport Park, 65.
Davis, D. P., 48.
Davis, John, 18.
Davis Shores, 33, 48.
Day in Spain, A, 7.
Dent, General, 63.
Dickenson, General, 29.
Dismukes, John T., 35.
Don Toledo House, 50, 51.
Drake, Francis, 17, 18, 37, 60.
Drayton, William, 23.
Drug Store, First, 42.
Durbin, 65, 67.
East Florida Gazette, 23, 24.
Education, 35, 41, 44, 56, 64.
Emerson, R. W., 11, 25, 26.
English, 11, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 37, 65.
Epidemic, Yellow Fever, 53.
Erl King, The, 35.
Espinosa, Diego de, 66.
Exchange Club, see Club.
Fairbanks, George R., 33.
Far East, 52.
Farrell, Jimmy, 67.
Fatio House, 50.
Fatio, Louise, 50.
Ferdinand VII, 49.
Fish, Jesse, 46.
Fishing, 7, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65; see also
Flagler, Henry M., 11, 30, 31, 47, 49, 51,
Flora and Fauna, 14, 22, 28, 29, 46; see
also Agriculture and Orange.
Florida, Cession: to England, 22; to
Spain, 24; to U. S., 25, 50; Discovery of,
14, 49, 56; Governor of, 24, 55, see also
Ayala, Barra, Bloxham, Grant, Jackson,
Monteano, Tonyn, Torres, Zespedes;
Legislature, 25; Naming of, 14; Occu-
tion of: First Spanish, 41-43, 63; Eng-
h, 47, 49, 55, 57; Second Spanish, 49,
pP1; U. S., 46, 49; Superior Court of, 43,
50; Territory of U. S., 47; War in, 26,
Florida East Coast Railway, 6, 31, 35, 67.
Florida Motor Lines, see Transportation.
Florida Normal and Industrial Institute,
Florida Railway Employees' League, 35.
Florida National Guard, 47.
Florida School for the Deaf and Blind, 56.
Floridiana, Collection of, 46.
Fort Caroline, 15, 16.
Fort Diego, 66.
Fortifications, 37, 41, 43, 57, 60, 63; see
Fort Marion, 11, 19-22, 24, 27, 29, 33, 37-41,
Fort Marion Circle, 40.
Fort Matanzas, 58, 61.
Fort Moosa, 19, 20, 21, 41, 56-57; Gardens,
Fort Moultrie, 28.
Fort Peyton, 62, 64.
Fort St. Marks, see Fort Marion.
Fort San Juan de Pinos, 17, 18, 37.
Fort San Marcos, see Fort Marion.
Fountain of Youth, 14, 15, 55, 56.
Fowler, Andrew, 48.
Framingham, Massachusetts, 50.
Franciscan Friars, 35, 44, 46, 47, 53, 63.
Freeze of 1895, 31.
French, 15, 16, 17; Huguenot Massacre,
16, 60, 61.
Fromajardis, 33, 34.
Gardens, 13, 14, 22, 28, 29, 41, 56.
Garnett Orange Grove, 7, 54, 55.
Garrison, 17, 39.
Genoply, Juan, 41.
Georgia, 20, 34, 37.
God's Protecting Providence, 19.
Golf Courses, Ponte Vedra, 66; St. Au-
gustine Links, 7, 67; St. Augustine Mu-
nicipal Links, 7.
Golf Tournaments, 66, 67.
Governor's Palace, see Post Office.
Graham House, 44.
Granberry, Edwin, 34.
Grant, James, 23.
Grant, U. S., 63.
Guides, 6, 13.
Hackmen, 6, 13.
Hamblen, Charles F., 48.
Hamblen Club, see Club.
Hancock, John, 23.
Hardin, Amelia, 55.
Hardin, Martin D., 46.
Hassett, Father, 35, 44.
Hastings, 62, 64.
Hay, John, 30.
Hernandez, Henry, 26, 27.
Honeymoon, The, 28.
Hospital, Flagler, 47.
Hotel Alcazar, 12, 31, 51.
Hotel Ponce de Leon, 6, 12, 31, 33, 51.
Huertas, Antonio, 44.
Huguenot Massacre, see French.
Independence, Declaration of, 23.
Indian, 14-16, 18, 19, 22, 35, 37,,44, 47, 53,
55-56, 63; Burial Ground, 55-56; Semi-
nole, 24-28, 39, 47, 62-64; Timuquan,
56; Yemassee, 20.
Information Service, Tourist, 6, 54.
Inland Waterway, 11, 31, 32, 48, 66.
Intracoastal Waterway, see Inland Water-
Irish Priest, 24.
Italian, 13, 23, 52.
Jackson, Andrew, 25.
Jacksonville, 30, 64.
Jefferson Theatre, 6.
Jesup, General, 27.
Jubilee Singers, 64:
King .flip, 26.
Kin'- Iaker' 17." .
Kintg'-' Highh aiv.- 23.
Kirby-Smith, Edmund, 50.
Kirkside, 53.. ''
Kurth's Island, .65.
S Lafayette, Gun usea by, 47.
Land Grants, 24.
'Lifdonniere, 15. -
L'Ecole d.s Beabt-Arts, 31.
LeXMoyne's Drawings, 56.
Levington's Hotel, see Worth House.
: i Lewis, Albert, 31.
"Lwis Park, 6, 47.
Library, St. Augustine Public, 50; Webb
Memorial and Museum, 45, 46.
Lighthouse and Reservation, 58, 60.
Lincoln, President, 30. -.
Lindsfey sp, 43.. '-
Little Horn Road, 63.
Llambias House, 44-45.
Llambias (Minorcan), 45.
Lyceum, Cathedral, 6.
MacMillen House, 44.
Mlahonese, see Minorcan.
Maria Sanchez Creek, 32.
Marion, Francis, 37.
March of the Prince of Orange, The, 17.
Massacre, see Dade, French, Indian.
Maianzas Bay, see River, Matanzas.
Matanzas Inlet, 25, 60, 61.
Matanzas Massacre, see French.
Matanzas River, see River.
McGirth, Dan, 24.
Menendez de Canzo, Gonzalo, 43..
Menendez, Headboard of Coffin, 17, 52, 53.
Menendez de Aviles, Pedro, 15-17, 32;'49,
Militia, 20, 23.
Minorcan, 13, 23, 24, 26, 29, 33, 41, 45, 50.
Missions, 17, 63.
Monteano, Governor, 20, 57.
Moore, Bishop, 49.
Moore, Governor of South Carolina, 20,
Motion Pictures, 6.
Moultrie, 60, 62.
Murat, Achilles, 25, 44.
Murat House, Prince, 44.
Museum, 42, 45, 46; of Natural History,
58, 60; St. Augustine Ostrich and Alli-
gator Farm, 61.
Music, 6, 17, 26, 33, 34, 56, 64.
National Lead Company, 66.
National Monuments, see City Gates,
Fort Marion, Fort Matanzas.
National Park Service, 37.
Negroes, 19, 22, 26, 37, 52, 56, 61.
*New Augustine, 33.
New Smyrna, 13, 23, 33, 41, 50.
Nombre de Dios, 55.
North River, see River.
Oglethorpe, James, 20, 22, 40, 46, 47, 57,
63, 65; Battery, 58, 60.
Oldest House, 45, 46.
,,Old Houses, see Arrivas, Casa de Can-
nonosa, Curiosity Shop, Don Toledo,
Fatio, Graham, Library (Public),
Lindsley, Llambias, MacMillen, Murat,
Oldest House, O'Reilly, Post Office,
Schoolhouse, Spanish Inn, Spanish
Treasury, Watkins, Worth.
Oliba, Gines de, 44.
Orange, 13, 26, 28, 29, 31, 55, 63.
Orange Blossom Quartette, 64.
O'Reilly House, 50.
O'Reilly, Miguel, 50.
Organization, see Club.
Orpheum Theatre, 6.
Osceola, 27, 28, 37, 62, 64.
Ostrich, see Museum of Natural History
and St. Augustine Ostrich and Alligator4
Pablo Cafeteria, see Worth House.
Pablo Creek, 66.
Pace, Monseignor, 44.
Palmer, Colonel, 20, 57.
Palm Valley, 65-66.
Paredes, Juan, 42.
Pascua Florida, 14.
Patriots of Florida, 24.
Peck, Seth, 42.
Picolata, 30, 63, 64.
Pier, City Yacht and Mooring Basin, 6
48; Fishing, 60, 61, 62, 66; see als,
Pilgrimage to Shrine, 7, 55.
Plantations, 19, 23, 25, 28.
SPlaza, 6, 12, 28, 43, 49, 57.