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Group Title: farming system of the Nkoyama family and its possible alternatives analyzed with linear programming
Title: The farming system of the Nkoyama family and its possible alternatives analyzed with linear programming
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 Material Information
Title: The farming system of the Nkoyama family and its possible alternatives analyzed with linear programming
Series Title: farming system of the Nkoyama family and its possible alternatives analyzed with linear programming
Physical Description: 1 v. (various leaves) : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Koyama, Atsushi
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Zambia   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Zambia   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Zambia
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Atsushi Koyama.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: "April 20, 1995."
General Note: "AEB 6933, Economic Analysis in Small Farm Systems, Spring 1995, Final Report."
General Note: "Agricultural Education and Communication Dept., IFAS, UF, Gainesville, FL."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075681
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 83793930

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Part I. The farming system of Nkoyama family
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Part II. Analyses with linear programming
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Notes on data sources
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Tables
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
Full Text




AEB 6933
Economic Analysis in Small Farm Systems
Spring 1995
Final report










THE FARMING SYSTEM OF NKOYAMA FAMILY
AND ITS POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES
ANALYZED WITH LINEAR PROGRAMMING









April 20, 1995




Atsushi Koyama

Agricultural Education and Communication Dept.
IFAS, UF, Gainesville, FL


c1








PART I. THE FARMING SYSTEM OF NKOYAMA FAMILY


1. Introduction


The Nkoyama family is a typical small farm family in Eastern
Zambia. The rural area in which they live is tropical climate with
1000 mm/year rainfall in warm wet season (from November to April).
Dry season is divided into cool dry season (from May to August)
and hot dry season (September and October).
The members of the Nkoyama family are as follows: The husband
and the father, Kamaswanda Nkoyama (42) is an innovative minded
farmer; In contrast, his wife, Ajesi Daka (38) is conservative.
Rather, she is always too busy to think about different ways of

life and work; Their two daughters, Nyamanda (15) and Tika (10)
help their mother well in cooking and housekeeping, even in
farming; The older son, Micheck (13) sometimes helps his father
in weeding and harvesting; Micheck's brother, Vast (4) is a pet of
the family.
They plant local maize, hybrid maize, groundnuts and sweet
potatoes. The family also keeps a cow and a sow. Consuming crop
residues such as maize stalks and leaves and groundnut hay, the
cow produces not only milk but dung for fuel and manure, and draft
power for farming (Kefa 94). A sow produces several piglets per
farrow and manure for crop fields. Pigs consume maize husks mixed
with water (Kefa 98) and sweet potatoes vines. Field crops are
primarily for their home consumption while milk and pigs are
mainly for market. Crop and livestock interaction is one of the
most important characteristics of their farming.


-2 -








They have been doing subsistence-base farming for more than
fifteen years. But the relationship between household and market
has gradually been getting closer and stronger. The family buys
daily goods such as cloths and salt as well as agricultural inputs
like chemical fertilizers and pesticides at the market. As a
result, they need more money recently in accordance with the
change of their life style.
Although the primary goal of the farming is still getting
sufficient food for family consumption, making more money through
the improvement of the productivities in the limited land has
become another essential objective of their farming.




2. Activities analysis


The Nkoyama family holds 2.3 ha of farm land. The husband,
Kamaswanda keeps 1.5 ha and plants hybrid maize in 0.2 ha and
local maize in 1.3 ha. The wife, Ajesi has 0.8 ha and grows 0.31
ha of local maize, 0.42 ha of groundnuts and 0.07 ha of sweet
potatoes. Cow husbandry including milking is men's job while pig
husbandry is women' job.
Kamaswanda and Ajesi carry out land preparation in each field
at the end of dry season, September and October. They sometimes
help each other and the two daughters help her mother, too. Land
preparation for either local or hybrid maize demands 11 days.
Before the first rain, they plant local maize together. Kamaswanda
makes the holes and Ajesi drops seeds. Sowing of local maize for 1
ha needs 13 days.


- 3 -








Hybrid maize is grown by Kamaswanda. Its planting, which
requires 12 days, is done in December. Ajesi also plants
groundnuts in her field in December. Groundnuts demands 160 days
per ha for planting because farmers have to plant groundnuts after
ridging which needs a lot of work.
After planting, they begin weeding, which requires 45 days
for 1 ha of local maize, 38 days for 1 ha of hybrid maize and 45
days for 1 ha of groundnuts. While weeding for hybrid maize is the
husband's responsibility, weeding of all the local maize
(including the 0.5 ha under Kamaswanda's control) and groundnuts
are women' job. In addition, the wife grows sweet potatoes in 0.1
ha of her land. As a result, November is the busiest month for
women.
Kamaswanda has to prepare a granary bin for maize and
groundnuts before harvesting. From the end of March, harvesting of
local maize begins. Harvesting 1 ha of local maize demands 15
days. In April, harvesting of hybrid maize begins, too. Because
the land productivity of hybrid maize is twice as much as that of
local maize, harvesting of hybrid maize per ha needs 29 days. All
the family member participate in the harvesting work, which lasts
almost three months. Ajesi is very busy in this period. Not only
harvesting maize, but she has to prepare daily meals at the maize
field and home for every family member, and has to harvest
groundnuts and sweet potatoes at her field.
In total, cultivating 1 ha of local maize demands 90 working

days, 1 ha of hybrid maize demands 107 working days, and 1 ha of
groundnuts requires working 358 days, and 1 ha of sweet potato
needs 277 days. If they grew more hybrid maize, labor shortage


-4 -








would be so serious. But they crop hybrid maize just 0.2 ha so
harvesting labor is enough at present.
Kamaswanda is in charge of cow milking and Ajesi feeds pigs
everyday. Cow feeding and milking need 15 minutes work a day. Pig
feeding demands 30 minutes work a day. The sale of the animals is
based on the final decisions by Kamaswanda, after enough
discussion with his wife in case of the pig sale.




3. Resource analysis


Though the land is managed by the husband and the wife
independently, what crops to grow is discussed by them.
Kamaswanda, who has access to extension service, tend to adopt new
farming methods, while Ajesi is skeptical to those new approaches
primarily because she has very little chance to learn them.
External inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides are applied
to hybrid maize based on extension agency's recommendations. As
the hybrid maize is grown by Kamaswanda, decision making on inputs
purchase is responsible for him. Hybrid maize realizes more than
twice as much yield as the local cultivar. But it requires a high
amount of external inputs which cost the family 82.8 Kwacha per
ha.
They apply cow dung and pig manure to all the crops including
hybrid maize. They apply just the animal manure to local maize
now.
In terms of cow rearing, more than half of the feeds required
are provided from their field. But a certain amount of feed has to


- 5 -








be purchased from outside. They buy 20 Kwacha hay for a year. Pigs
eat those provided within their farming such as maize husks and
sweet potato vines. They ask a local expert of pig copulation to
twice a year. The expert keeps some boars and offer service. One
copulation cost 1 Kwacha.
Cash income is from crop other than local maize and livestock
selling. Except of some parts of groundnuts sale, all the selling
of the crop and livestock is done by Kamaswanda. He makes
decisions on how to use the money in general. But He usually
spends money after discussion with his wife. Purchase of daily
goods at the market is done by both Kamaswanda and Ajesi.
Available cash of the family can be divided into two flows.
Cash 1 is crop cash, which flows from July to December. They get
almost all the cash from hybrid maize and groundnuts selling in
July. Then Kamaswanda spends money for the purchase of seeds of
hybrid maize and fertilizer in November. As the school fee is due
in the middle December, they need more than 25 Kwacha then.
Education in Zambia is changing. Kamaswanda and Ajesi got just
primary education. Now, their children begin to pursue secondary
education. Parents, especially Ajesi, hope that the children get
secondary education. Though Ajesi is reluctant to change the ways
of farming, she knows well the necessity of cash in the near
future.
Cash 2 is animal cash, whose flow is not fixed in particular
months. Income sources are milk and pig selling, which is 178
Kwacha in total at present. The items of expense are hay for the
cow and copulation for the sow, which in total 22 Kwacha a year.
156 Kwacha a year is available for daily goods, accordingly.


- 6 -








4. Benefits and incentives analysis


Maize is the staple. In average of last five years of the
family farming, local maize can be harvested 1120 kg/ha and hybrid
maize can be 2416 kg/ha. As 350 kg/person/year is required for
self consumption, so 2100 kg is needed for the six family members.
Local maize can be processes at home and retained in the granary
bin easily but hybrid maize do not store as well and requires
milling (Kumar). So except early maize which amounts 300 kg, they
have to get the maize for home consumption from local varieties.
As the existing land productivity of local maize is 1120 kg/ha,
they have to allocate at least 1.607 ha of the land to local maize
to get 1800 kg maize for home consumption.
Kamaswanda hopes to increase hybrid maize area because its
productivity is more than twice as much as that of local maize.
The problem is that the yield often fluctuates, though he is
trying to do his best as extension service staff advise him. He
thinks that the hybrid variety may be susceptible to even small
environmental changes. That is why not only Ajesi but also
Kamaswanda himself cannot fully rely on hybrid maize and is
investing just less than half field of all to hybrid maize. In
addition, production cost of hybrid maize is around 82.8 Kwacha
per ha. Risk is too serious for the family to invest more land to
hybrid maize.
The family consumes 311 kg of groundnuts annually. The yield
is 1153 kg/ha. Now Ajesi grows groundnuts in 0.42 ha in her field
and gets 480 kg. So, the family can sell 231 kg. At the Union
Cooperative market, Kamaswanda sells almost half of them. Ajesi


- 7 -








sells another half in local market or use for exchange with
villagers.
Pigs can be sold twice a year. Though the litter size of the
sow is usually 7-8, they can grow 5 piglets in average due to high
mortality rate. As they consume 1 pig for a feast in August, they
sell 9 pigs which bring about the biggest money as an enterprise.
Ajesi began to think that more nutrition may be required to reduce
mortality rate because her brother who keeps 3 sows advised her so
the other day. He recommended to feed groundnuts cake which is
available at the market. But it may cost much. She is concerned
about more investment to the new approach which is not necessarily
persuasive and clear for her.
Milk selling is another big income source. The cow comes up

with 1.25 bottle of milk everyday. The family consume two bottles
a week. They sell 361 bottles a year in the village to neighbors.
Consequently, total income from milk selling is 43.35 Kwacha (0.12
Kwacha per bottle).




5. Possible alternatives


The objectives of Nkoyama family are not only harvesting

sufficient food for subsistence but getting more money to meet
daily needs including realizing children's secondary school and
further investment for improved farming. In order to achieve the
goals, they have to enhance productivities of the crops and
livestock in the limited land.
One possible alternative could be increasing the area of


- 8 -








hybrid maize, as Kamaswanda plans. The constraint will be
instability of the yield of hybrid maize. To keep high yield
stable, further management improvement through extension and
training service will be required. Increase of expense due to
purchased inputs will be a constraint, too. Furthermore, labor
shortage in harvesting period will be more serious. It seems to be
difficult for Kamaswanda to persuade his wife, who is very
skeptical to hybrid maize expansion.
Another possible alternative could be purchased fertilizer
application to local maize. There are data which show remarkable
improvement of productivity when fertilizer is applied to the
local cultivar. The risk of this alternative may be lower than the
first one. Ajesi may agree with this safer approach.
One more alternative is to give more nutritious feeds
including groundnut cake which contains high protein to pigs to
enhance its productivity. Availability of those feed will be
investigated well. If there are low or no cost materials which
have enough protein and energy, it could be the best alternative.
If they can find a good alternative, pig production can be
extended because there is enough pork market in the region.


- 9 -








PART II. ANALYSES WITH LINEAR PROGRAMMING


1. Simulation of the present farming system


As shown in Table II-1., Nkoyama family's current farming
system is simulated with a linear programming model. All the labor
requirements which were discussed in the Part I is simulated
without any discrepancy in this model. All the requirements in
home consumption are satisfied, too. Cash flow 1 shows that they
get enough money at the year end to pay the school fee. Cash flow
2 indicates there is surplus, 156.35 Kwacha, which is used for
purchased daily goods such as clothes and seasonings. Interactions
between crops and livestock, all of which are satisfied in this
model, are as follows:


i) maize stalks and leaves for cow feed
ii) maize husks for swine feed
iii) groundnuts hay for cow feed
iv) sweet potato vines for pig feed
v) cow dung for local and hybrid maize, groundnuts and
sweet potato fertilization

vi) pig manure for local and hybrid maize, groundnuts and
sweet potato fertilization
vii) cow dung for an energy source of the human life


Through checking the column titled "USED AMOUNT", you can
recognize that "land" and womenn' labor in November" seem to be
major constraints in existing farming system. As land is strictly


- 10 -








limited physically, it seems to be very difficult to relax this
constraint. The labor shortage in women's labor in November seems
to be cleared if Kamaswanda agrees with the cooperation with his
wife during that busy month because Kamaswanda himself has enough
time in November (the used amount is just 10.71 days in mens'
labor in November).


2. Ex ante evaluation of possible alternatives


2.1. Alternative 1


Table 11-2. is women' labor in November is relaxed to 70
days based on the agreement with Kamaswanda, which means the
relaxation without hired labor. Additional labor is allocated to
groundnuts production, which increased from 0.416 ha to 0.459 ha,
In contrast, hybrid maize decreased from 0.202 ha to 0.159 ha,
because the price per kg in groundnuts selling is higher (0.2
Kwacha) than in hybrid maize selling (0.07 Kwacha). As a result,
total income of the household increased slightly, from 225.234
Kwacha to 227.704 Kwacha.
From Table 11-3. to Table II-5 are substantial alternatives
which include management improvement.


2.2. Alternative 2


Table 11-3. indicates the possibility of th pigs fed
purchased groundnuts cake as Ajesi got the advi e from her brother
(The constraint of women' labor in November has already been


- 11 -








relaxed). In the Table II-1 and 2, the column titled "pig
production" indicated a sow provides just 10 piglets a year, which
means that she gives birth twice a year and five piglets grow
healthy per farrow. In the Table 11-3, the number of produced
piglets will be 12. The nutrition level of both sow and piglets
will much improved by groundnuts cake which contains a lot of
protein. In addition, the selling price of pig will also go up
from 15 Kwacha per pig to 18 Kwacha because a pig fed groundnuts
cake can gain more weight. As the sow will eat 3.6 Kwacha of
groundnuts cake and a piglet will eat 1.8 Kwacha, total annual
cost of the groundnuts cake will be 14.6 Kwacha in average. Total
income by pig selling will go up from 135 Kwacha to 198 Kwacha.
Cash 2 flow, which is indicated in the last row, also will
increase from 156.35 to 204.95 Kwacha. Consequently, total
household income will go up from 227.704 Kwacha to 290.704 Kwacha.


2.3. Alternative 3


The projection of another alternative, fertilizer application
to local maize, is shown in Table 11-4. If purchased fertilizer
will be applied to local maize, its land productivity will be
enhanced from 1120 kg/ha to 1506 kg/ha. The higher land
productivity will result in smaller land allocation to local
maize, from 1.607 ha to 1.195 ha, which satisfy the local maize
home consumption constraint (1800 kg). The surplus land (0.412 ha)
will be transferred into hybrid maize and groundnuts production,
0.318 ha and 0.095 ha, respectively. The reason all the surplus
land will not be transferred into groundnuts field is another


- 12 -








women' labor shortage in October. In other word, in this scenario
the workload for Kamaswanda in charge of hybrid maize will
increase more than that of Ajesi in charge of groundnuts. So, if
Kamaswanda agrees with his wife on the cooperative work in October
in groundnuts field, the land transfer from local maize into
groundnuts rather than into hybrid maize will increase the total
income.
Though most of the hybrid maize produced is for home
consumption in the Table 11-2, 857.2 kg of hybrid maize will be
sold in the scenario shown in the Table 11-4. Total household
income will be enhanced from 227.704 Kwacha to 303.17 Kwacha.
In this scenario there is one more hidden benefit. That is
the increase of maize stalks, leaves and husks production. Those
maize residues are utilized as animal feeds, which will result in
the deduction of purchased feed for cow and the improvement of
pigs nutrition. In this context, the strategy of land transfer
from local maize into groundnuts rather than into hybrid maize
based on the agreement of cooperation between Kamaswanda and Ajesi
will accompany a negative aspect in terms of maize residue
production. In particular, if you consider the combination of the
alternative 2 (pig) and alternative 3 (local maize), this point
will become essential.


2.4. Alternative 4


The Table II-5 shows this combination, pigs with groundnuts
cake and local maize with fertilizer. The crop part is completely
same as the alternative 3. In terms of pig production, there will


- 13 -








be two differences; the number of provided piglets will increase
from six to seven; and the price of a pig will go up to 20 Kwacha
also. This improvement in nutrition is not from feeding groundnuts
cake but from feeding increased maize husks mixed with water,
which is staple for pigs. Thanks to land transfer from local maize
to hybrid maize, which will result in the increase in hybrid maize
production not only in grain but also husks, seven piglet and
their mother can take energy source enough. To tell the truth, in
the alternative 2, the number of grown pigs increased from five to
six but the amount of their staple feed was the same as before.
The weight gain, which resulted in the higher price of sold pigs,
was due to groundnuts cake intake which played a role not only in
positive nutritional enhancement but also in covering the
nutritional reduction of maize husks intake in the alternative 2,
though this reduction is not so serious.
In alternative 4, total household income will reach 428.17
Kwacha. The cash increase due to hybrid maize will benefit
primarily Kamaswanda, but the cash increase due to pig selling
will benefit Ajesi also because pig husbandry is her job and she
has a certain power on the decision-making in pig selling though
Kamaswanda keeps overall power in the selling of all the products.


2.5. Alternative 5


Table 11-6. shows a "super alternative" through rearing two
sows with purchased feeds including groundnuts cake. If you relax
pig feed requirements on maize husks and sweet potato vines (and
also the constraint in women' labor in October) into half of the


- 14 -








alternative 4, this model suggests the possibility of doubling the
sow. This scenario will allow 26 pigs for selling and 2 pigs for
home consumption, which means 688.915 total household income and
better protein ingestion for family members. Big income will make
up for the increased feeding cost easily. Also surplus pig manure
will increase dramatically, from 6017.95 kg in the alternative 4
to 14,767 kg. This will realize pig manure selling, although this
new business is not included in this model and also will require
additional labor.
This super scenario however, has a serious drawback. If swine
production will extend as this model, the intra-house power
politics will change significantly because daily activities in
swine production is under Ajesi's control. Ajesi's contribution to
the household income will become outstanding more and more. As
Kamaswanda is afraid that he may lose current absolute power in
the household, he will never accept this scenario. In addition,

primarily because the cash demand of the family is not so much at
present, Ajesi herself, who does not like a drastic change, may
not desire this scenario. The goals of the Nkoyama family will be
achieved enough through adopting the alternative 5. which will
bring about almost twice as much income as that of current farming
practices.


- 15 -








NOTES ON DATA SOURCES


"Kefa" =
Skjonsberg, E. 1991. Change in an African village: Kefa
speaks. Kumarian Press. West Hartford, Connecticut, USA.
"F&P" =
Feldstein, H. S. and Poats, S. V. 1989. Working together:
Gender analysis in agriculture. Kumarian Press. West
Hartford, Connecticut, USA.
"Celis" =
Celis, R., Milimo, J. T., and Wanmali, S. eds. 1991. Adopting
improved farm technology: A study of smallholder farmers in
Eastern province. Zambia. International Food Policy Research
Center. Washington D. C.



1. Labor


LM Nkoyama
Kefa46
Kefa56
Kefa67
HM Nkoyama
F&P262
Kefa67
GN Nkoyama
F&P262
Kefa46
Kefa67
SP Nkoyama
F&P


Land prep.Planting
11 13


11
11


16
16



121
121


18
21
10
160
229


18
95
95


*LM=local maize, HM=hybrid maize,
*the unit: labor days (7 hours)


GN=groundnuts, SP=sweet potato


- 16 -


Weeding
45


Harvest
21


Total
90


107
104


358
382
346


277
277


40
40


137
137



60
60









2. Yield and gross income


Yield
LM Nkoyama 1,120 kg/ha
F&P253 1,044
Kefa46 1,192
Kefa65
Kefa65
Celis76
Celisl82 2,480
Celis203 1,125
LM with fertilizer
Nkoyama 1,506 kg/ha
Kefa48 1,506 kg/ha
HM Nkoyama 2,416 kg/ha
Kefa47
Kefall4
Celisl82 5,499
Celis203 2,416
GN Nkoyama 1,153 kg/ha
F&P253 1,072
F&P267
Kefa47 542
Celis203 1,235
Milk Nkoyama 1.25 btl/day
Kefa95 1.25 btl/day


Income
0.07 K/kg



0.07
0.3
0.07


0.61




0.07 K/kg
114 (K/ha)
0.083


0.61
0.2 K/kg

0.42



0.12 K/btl
0.12-0.15 K/btl


3. Maize price (source-Celis76)


1974 0.0556 K/kg
75 0.07
78 0.1
80 0.13
81 0.15
82 0.1778


- 17 -








0.2033
0.2722
0.3147
0.6111


4. Purchased inputs (source-Celis203)


HM seeds
fertilizer


20 kg/ha
159kg/ha


From these data in 1986, the
Nkoyama family by dividing 7
the previous section.


seeds
fertilizer
total


value in 1974-75 was estimated for
based on the maize price change shown



7.4 K
75.4 K
82.2 K


5. Animal


Animal data such as the amount of feed intake and manure
production were based on several books other than the three source
books (Kefa, F&P and Celis).


- 18 -


52 K
528K











Tk,(e. --1. Farming system of Nkoyama family


MARKET


HOUSEHOLD


ANIMALS

Cow
Pigs


CROPS
Local Maize I Ietl
Hybrid Maize Co
Groundnuts r
Sweet potatoesre du









TcI[c L- 2. Activities Calender


SMonth
Activities


Local Maize
Land preparation
Sowing
Weeding
Granary preparation
Harvesting/storage
Selling
Hybrid Maize
Land preparation
Sowing
Weeding
Harvesting/storage
Selling
Groundnuts
Land preparation
Sowing
Weeding
Granary preparation
Harvesting/storage
Sweet Potatoes
Land preparation
Planting
Weeding
Harvesting
Livestock
Cow milking
Pig husbandry
Other economic activities
Brewing beer
Household activities
Fetch water
Gathering firewood
Cooking
Childcare
House repair


SMainly male adult task
SMainlyfemale adult task
Joht actvilies


SEP I OCT I NOV I DEC I JAN I FEB I MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG


0+0


L0--0


,-0


j1 ZI z z I I


-----


-1---I- ---1*--*-- ---


SMale child
SFemae child


-----.----- Intermttent


-z


-----I-----I----- ~----~-----t----t- ---1-----I-----~-0









T l e L- 3. Activities analysis



Men Women Boys Girls
Local maize
Land preparation
Sowing *
Weeding
Granary preparation *
Harvesting/storage **
Selling *
Hybrid maize
Land preparation *
Sowing *
Weeding **
Granary preparation
Harvesting/storage *
Selling
Groundnuts
Land preparation *
Sowing
Weeding *
Granary preparation
Harvesting/storage *
Sweet potatoes
Land preparation
Planting
Weeding ** *
Harvesting/storage *
Livestock
Cow milking
Pig husbandry
Other economic activities
Brewing beer
Household activities
Fetch water **
Gathering firewood ** *
Cooking **
Childcare
House repair

Note: The person with "**" works harder than the person with "*" in the same row.









Todfe 1- 4. Resource analysis


Access


Land


Water
Labor
Own
Family
Hired
Capital goods
Cow
Pigs
Inputs
Purchased

Produced on farm
Cash
Maize sale
Groundnuts sale
Cow sale
Pig sale
Credit
Loans
Knowledge
General cultivation
Fertilizer application
Beer brewing
Markets/Transportation
Market
Transportation
Education
Primary
Secondary


M, F, B, G

M, F

M, F, B, G
M,F
M, F

M
F

M

M, F


M
F
M
M, F

M,F

M,F
M
F

M,F
M


M, F, B, G
B,G


Control

M, F


Notes

M and F discuss about what crops to
grow.


labor shortage at harvesting


M,F
M,F
M

M
M, F

M

M,F

M
F
M
M,F


seeds, fertilizer and pesticides for
hybrid maize.
seeds, crop residues, manure


M,F
M
F


M, F
M, F


M=Male, F=Female, B=Boys, G=Girls









To, le I-- 5. Benefits and incentives analysis


Access


Crop
Local maize
Hybrid maize
Groundnuts
Sweet potatoes
Livestock
Cow sale
Cow milk
Pigs sale
Pork meat
Household production
Beer
Bush and Forest
Timber
Fire wood
Fodder


M, F, B, G
M
M, F, B, G
F,G

M
M, F, B, G
M, F
M, F, B, G

M,F

M
F,G
M,F


Control

M,F
M
F
F

M
M
M,F
M, F

F

M
F
M,F


Notes

Consumption
Consumption and sale
Consumption and sale
Consumption

Sale
Consumption, sale and exchange
Sale
Consumption, sale and exchange

Consumption and sale

Consumption (house repair)
Consumption (cooking)
Livestock feed















PRODUCTION AND ITS RELATED ACTIVITIES
Local Local Local Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Ground Grou rou Ground Sweet Sweet Milk Mik Milk Pig Pig Pig Cash Cash Cash
Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize nuts nuts nuts Potato Potato tranto tran to tranto
prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans prod trans selling prod trans selling Sept Nov Yrend
(ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (he) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (cow) (bottle) bottle ) (sow) (piglet) (piglet) (K) (K) (K)


OBJECTIVE FICTION 0 0 0.07 0


USED RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS OR
AMOUNT REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET
23 Land
228054 Labor SepM 0
28.4365 SepW 6
207805 Ot M 0
43.9877 Oct W 5
10.7139 NovM 6
80 NovW 12
6.31235 DecM 0
29.8306 Dec W 10
5.90917 JanM 0
28.5398 Jan W 10
8.50752 AprM 4
34.19 AprW 5
7.90833 May M 3
31.9837 MayW 3
207895 Jun M 0
18.5528 Jun W 0
1800 Home con Local Maze 0
300 Hybrid Maize 0
311 Groundnuts 0
365 Sweet Potatoes 0
104 Mik 0
1 Piglets 0
-919.6 Cowdung 400
-6290.34 Pig manure 800
-9.1E-13 Account Local Mgrain -1120
-31E-12 Hybrid M grain 0
-123.521 M stalk & leaves -580
-48.521 M husks -580
-48E-13 Goundnuts grain 0
-41.9558 Groundnuts hay 0
-35E-10 Sweet Potatoes 0
-28E-14 Sweet potato vine 0
0 Mik 0
0 Piglets 0
-3.5E-12 Cash 1 July 0
-7.1E-15 Sep 0
-5.19242 Nov 0
25 Yearend 0
-156.35 Cash 2 Year 0


0 0 1
0 0 6
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 28
0 0 6
0 0 24
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 5
0 0 10
0 0 10
0 0 5
0 0 5
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 800
0 0 1200
1 1 0
0 0 -2416
0 0 -1208
0 0 -1208
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 82.8
0 0 0
0 0 0


O 0.07 0




0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 40
0 0 0
0 0 80
0 0 0
0 0 76
0 0 0
0 0 25
0 0 0
0 0 20
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 37
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 2000
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -1153
0 0 -1153
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
o o
o o
o o


0 0.2 0




0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 121
0 0 0
0 0 95
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 1500
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 -5000
0 0 -3000
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.2 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 0 0.12 0


0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 -8213
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1020
0 0
0 0
0 438
1 0
0 0
0 -465.3
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 20


0 00.002
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -8760
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1095
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 219
1 1 0
0 0 -10
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.12 2


0 15 0 0 0


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 -15


0<= 23 ha
0 0<= 50PD
0<= 40PD
0<= 50PD
0<= 40 PD
0<- 80 PD
0<= 40 PO
0 a D PD
0<= 50PO
0<= 4 PD
0< 50PD
0 = 30 PO
0< 50PD
0< 30PD
0<= 50PD
0 < 30PO
0< 50PD
0>= 1800 kg
0 > 300kg
0>= 311 kg
0 = 110 kg


0 -50
0 0 <= 0 kg

0<= Okg
Oc<= Okg

0<= Okg
0 0 kg
0 <= 0kg
0<= Okg
0< O0bole
0<= Ohead
0= O0Kwacha
0< O0Kwacha
1 < 0 Kwacha
1 25Kwacha
0<= OKwacha


VARIABLES 1.607 1800 0 0.202 300 187 0.416 311 169 0.073 385 1 104 381.3 1
EACHPROFIT 0 0 0 0 0 13.09 0 0 33.79 0 0 0 0 43.35 0




1-zz61

6J2Q


1 9 46.88 48.884
0 135 0 0


Table U-1. Liner Proganmg fr Iefrr a FamI'a D evelopmene-PFnarme Prancice


RHS


SOLUTION
225234













Table 84. Lbkur Programmmig for Nkoyama FMWnly Dmevlopnme-Allw~ernav 1 (labo


PRODUCTION AND ITS RELATED ACTIVITIES
Local Local Local Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Ground Ground Ground Sweet Sweet Mik Milk Mik Pig Pig Pig Cash Cash Cash
Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize nuts nuts nuts Potato Potato tranto tran to tran to
prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans prod trans selling prod trans selling Sept Nov Yrend
(ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (cow) (bottle) (bottle) (sow) (piglet) (piglet) (K) (K) (K)


OBJECTIVE FICTION 0


USED RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS OR
AMOUNT REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET
23 Land 1
203854 Labor SepM 0
30.0432 SepW 6
1.87812 Oct M 0
46.3977 Oct W 5
10.7130 Nov M 6
63.0526 Nov W 12
5.28802 DecM 0
30.5938 DecW 10
4.94517 Jan M 0
27.3431 Jan W 10
8.30889 AprM 4
35.9975 Apr W 5
7.50867 May M 3
33.5903 MayW 3
1.87812 JunM 0
19.8382 Jun W 0
1800 Home cons Local Maize 0
300 Hybrid Maize 0
311 Groundnuts 0
110 Sweet Potatoes 0
104 Mik 0
1 Piglets 0
-8911.57 Cow dung 400
-6258.21 Pig manure 800
0 Account Local Mgrain -1120
1.1E-11 Hybrid M grain 0
-75 M stalks & leaves -580
-23E-13 M husks -580
35E-12 Goundnuls grain 0
-88.2876 Groundnuts hay 0
-256 Sweet Potatoes 0
-28E-14 Sweet potato vine 0
0 Milk 0
5.3E-15 Piglets 0
-9.5E-13 Cash 1 July 0
-10.9876 Sep 0
-1.3E-12 Nov 0
25 Yearend 0
-156.35 Cash 2 Year 0


0 0.07 0




0 0 1
0 0 8
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 28
0 0 6
0 0 24
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 5
0 0 10
0 0 10
0 0 5
0 0 5
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 800
0 0 1200
1 1 0
0 0 -2416
0 0 -1208
0 0 -1208
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 82.8
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0.07 0 0 0.2 0


0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 40
0 0 0
0 0 60
0 0 0
0 0 76
0 0 0
0 0 25
0 0 0
0 0 20
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 37
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 2000
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -1153
0 0 -1153
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 121
0 0 0
0 0 95
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 1500
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 -5000
0 0 -3000
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.2 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 0 0.12 0


0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 -8213
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1020
0 0
0 0
0 438
1 0
0 0
0 -465.3
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 20


0 00.002
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -8760
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1095
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 219
1 1 0
0 0 -10
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.12 2


0 15 0 0 0


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 -15


0 23 ha
0 < 30PD
0<= 50PD
0<= 40PD
0 = 50PD
0 40PO
0< 70 P
0<= 40PD
0< 50PD
0<= 40PO
0<- 0S PO
0<= 30PD
0<= 50PD
0< 30PD
0<= 50PD
0 < 30 PD
0< 50 PD
0>= 1800 k
0>= 300kg
0>= 311 kg
0 > 110kg
0 > 104 bottle
0>= 1 head
0<= -3650kg
0< 0kg
0<= 0kg
0<= 0kg
0 <= 0kg

0 <= 0 k
0< O0kg
0<= 01kg
0<= 0 kg
0 = 0 bottle
0< O0head
0< O0Kwacha
0< O0Kwacha
1 < 0 Kwacha
1 >= 25 Kwacha
0 < 0 Kwacha


VARIABLES 1.807 1800 0 0.161 300 90 0.456 311 215.3 0.073 110 1 104 381.3 1
EACHPROFIT 0 0 0 0 0 8.3 0 0 43.05 0 0 0 0 4335 0


1 9 49.35 38.386 25
0 135 0 0 0


SOLUTIrON
227.704













T*aM 4. Lhr Progmminrg for NkoWm FPamly's Developo -Aemadve 2 (lebornpg)


PRODUCTION AND ITS RELATED ACTIVITIES
Local Local Local Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Ground Ground Ground Sweet Sweet Milk Milk Milk Pig Pig Pig Cash Cash Cash
Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize nuts nuts nuts Potato Potato tranto rn to tran to
prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans prod trans selling prod trans selling Sept Nov Yrend
(ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (cow) (bottle) (bottle) (sow) (piglet) (piglet) (K) (K) (K)


OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0


0 0.07 0 0 0.07 0 0 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.12 0


0 18 0 0 0


USED RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS OR
AMOUNT REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET
23 Land 1
203954 Labor SepM 0
30.0432 SepW 6
1.87812 OctM 0
46.3977 OcW 5
10.7139 NovM 8
83.0526 No W 12
5.28802 Dc M 0
30.5938 Dec W 10
4.94517 JanM 0
27.3431 Jan W 10
830009 AprM 4
35.9976 AprW 5
7.50887 MayM 3
33.5903 May W 3
1.87812 JunM 0
19.8382 Jun W 0
1800 Home cons Local Maize 0
300 Hybrid Maize 0
311 Groundnuts 0
110 Sweet Potatoes 0
104 Mik 0
1 Piglets 0
-6011.57 Cowdung 400
-6258.21 Pig manure 800
9.1E-13 Account Local M grain -1120
-25E-12 Hybrid M grain 0
-75 M talks & leaves -580
-9.1E-13 M husks -580
-82E-13 Goundnutsgrain 0
-88.2876 Groundnuts hay 0
-256 Sweet Potatoes 0
-1.1E-13 Sweet potato vine 0
-63E-13 Mik 0
0 Piglets 0
-21E-12 Cash July 0
0 Sep 0
-10.9876 Nov 0
25 Year end 0
-204.95 Cash 2 Year 0


0 0 1
0 0 8
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 28
0 0 a
0 0 24
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 5
0 0 10
0 0 10
0 0 5
0 0 5
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 800
0 0 1200
1 1 0
0 0 -2416
0 0 -1208
0 0 -1208
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 82.8
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 40
0 0 0
0 0 80
0 0 0
0 0 78
0 0 0
0 0 25
0 0 0
0 0 20
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 37
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 2000
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -1153
0 0 -1153
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 121
0 0 0
0 0 95
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 3D
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 1500
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 -5000
0 0 -3000
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.2 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 -8213
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1020
0 0
0 0
0 438
1 0
0 0
0 -465.3
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 20


0 0 0.002
0 0 0
0 0 2.143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -8780
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1095
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 219
1 1 0
0 0 -12
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.12 16.4


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 -18


VARIABLES 1.807 1800 0 0.181 300 90 0.458 311 215.3 0.073 110 1 104 361.2 1
EACHPROFIT 0 0 0 0 0 6.3 0 0 43.05 0 0 0 0 43.35 0


Oc 23 ha
0<= 30PD
0<= 50PD
0< 40PD
0<= 50 P
0< 40 PO
0<= 70PD
0 40 PD
0 0<- 40 PO
0<= 50 PD
0 < 3D PD
0 <= 50 PD
0< 30PD
0< 530PD
0<= 30PD
0 0>= 1800 kg
0>= 300kg
0>= 311 kg
0 > 110 kg
0 104 bottle
0>= 1 head
0 < -3550 kg
0 < 0 kg
0<= 0kg
0c Okg
0<= Okg


0 <= 0 kg
0<= Okg
0= O0kg
0 0 kg
0= 0 bottle
0<= Ohead
0 < 0 Kwacha
0= 0 Kwacha
1 < 0 Kwacha
1 >= 25 Kwacha
0 = 0 Kwacha

25
0


SOLUTION
290.704


1 11 49.35 49.354
0 198 0 0













TAbb U-4. LUiew PRogrrmnmb for NiWoyam Femlyt' Developimil-Atmranh 3 (laborlocNal


PRODUCTION AND ITS RELATED ACTIVITIES
Local Local Local Hybrid Hybrid Hybid Ground Ground Groun d Sweet Sweet Milk Mik Mik Pig g Pig Cash Cash Cash
Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Maizen nut nuts nuts Potato Potato tranto tranto tranto
prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans prod trans selling prod trans selling Sept Nov Yrend
(ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (cow) (bottle) bottle ) (ow) (piglet) (piglet) (K) (K) (K)


OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0


USED RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS OR
AMOUNT REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET
23 Land 1
394480 Labor SepM 0
31.3463 SepW 8
3.4651 Oct M 0
50 OctW 5
8.24231 Nov M 6
85.2813 Nov W 12
13.5245 Dec M 0
30.73 Dec W 10
12.586 Jan M 0
25.1112 JanW 10
8.24679 AprM 4
40.2439 Apr W 5
9.44648 May M 3
40.2484 May W 3
3.4651 Jun M 0
24.9175 Jun W 0
1800 Home cons Local Maize 0
300 Hybrid Maize 0
311 Groundnuts 0
110 Sweet Potatoes 0
104 Mik 0
1 Piglet 0
-6727.93 Cow dung 400
-8017.95 Pig manure 800
0 Account Local M grain -1506
1.1E-11 Hybrid M grain 0
-462196 M stalks & leaves -758
-387.196 M husks -756
-4E-13 Goundnuts grain 0
-197.071 Groundnuts hay 0
-255 Sweet Potatoes 0
5.7E-14 Sweet potato vine 0
0 Mik 0
0 Piglets 0
-38.2555 Cash 1 July 0
-28E-11 Sep 20
24E-11 Nov 0
25 Year end 0
-156.35 Cash 2 Year 0


0 0.07 0 0 0.07 0


0 0 1
0 0 6
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 26
0 0 6
0 0 24
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 5
0 0 10
0 0 10
0 0 5
0 0 5
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 80
0 0 1200
1 1 0
0 0 -2416
0 0 -1208
0 0 -1208
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 82.8
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 40
0 0 0
0 0 60
0 0 0
0 0 76
0 0 0
0 0 25
0 0 0
0 0 20
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 37
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 2000
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -1153
0 0 -1153
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 02 0




0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 121
0 0 0
0 0 95
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 3D
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 1500
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 -5000
0 0 -3000
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.2 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 0 0.12 0


0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 -8213
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1020
0 0
0 0
0 438
1 0
0 0
0 -465.3
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 20


0 0 0.002
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -8780
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1095
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 219
1 1 0
0 0 -10
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.12 2


0 15 0 0 0


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 -15


0<= 23ha
0c 30PD
0 50OPD
0 40PO
0 < 50 PD
0 40PD
0 70 P
0 40PD
0 50 PO
0 < 40PD
0<= 50 PD
0 < 30PD
0 < 50PD
0< 30PD
0< 50PO
0<= 30PD
0 50PD
0>= 1800kg
0>= 300kg
0>= 311 kg
0 >= 110 kg
0 > 104 bottle
0>= 1 head
0<= -3650 kg
0<= Okg
0< 0 kg
0< 0 kg
0<= 0kg
0<= 0kg
0<= 0kg
0<= Okg
0<= Okg
0<=c Okg
0<= Obottle
0 < 0 head
0< O0Kwacha
0< 0 Kwacha
1 < 0 Kwadha
1 >= 25 Kwacha
0 < 0 Kwacha


VARIABLES 1.195 1800 0 0.479 300 857.2 0.561 311 324.1 0.073 110 1 104 381.3 1
EACHPROFIT 0 0 0 0 0 60.01 0 0 64.81 0 0 0 0 43.35 0


1 9 88.56 64.66
0 135 0 0


RHS


SOLUTION
303.17












Table 11. Uner Progpamming tar Nkopme FamilWy Dmeviolpme-Atemative 4 (lboropg+loci 14


PRODUCTION AND ITS RELA TED ACTIVITIES
Local Local Local Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Ground Ground Ground Sweet Sweet Milk Milk Milk Pig Pig Pig Cash Cash Cash
Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize Maize nuts nuts nuts Potato Potato tranto tranto tranto
prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans prod trans selling prod trans selling Sept Nov Yrend
(ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg (kg) (kg) (kg) (cow) (bottle) (bottle) (sow) (piglet) (piglet) (K) (K) (K)


OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0


USED RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS OR
AMOUNT REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET
23 Land 1
394489 Labor SepM 0
31.3463 SepW 6
3.4651 Oct M 0
50 OctW 5
824231 NovM 6
65.2813 NovW 12
13.5245 DecM 0
30.739 DecW 10
12.566 Jan M 0
25.1112 JanW 10
824679 AprM 4
40.2439 Apr W 6
9.44648 MayM 3
40.2484 May W 3
346501 Jun M 0
24.9175 Jun W 0
1800 Home cn Local Maize 0
300 Hybrid Maize 0
311 Groundnuts 0
110 Sweet Potatoes 0
104 Mik 0
1 Piglets 0
-6727.93 Cow dung 400
-6017.95 Pig manure 800
6.8E-13 Acount Local M grain -1508
-91E-13 Hybid M grain 0
-482196 M stalks & leaves -756
-22.1985 M husks -756
28E-13 Goundnutsgrain 0
-197.071 Groundnuts hay 0
-255 Sweet Potatoes 0
-1.1E-13 Sweet potato vine 0
-23E-12 Mik 0
0 Piglets 0
-36.2555 Cash 1 July 0
25E-11 Sep 20
-34E-11 Nov 0
25 Year end 0
-265.15 Cash 2 Year 0


0 0.07 0 0 0.07 0


0 0 1
0 0 6
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 28
0 0 6
0 0 24
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 5
0 0 10
0 0 10
0 0 5
0 0 5
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 800
0 0 1200
1 1 0
0 0 -2416
0 0 -1208
0 0 -1208
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 82.8
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 40
0 0 0
0 0 80
0 0 0
0 0 78
0 0 0
0 0 25
0 0 0
0 0 20
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 37
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 2000
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -1153
0 0 -1153
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0.2 0




0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 121
0 0 0
0 0 95
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 1500
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 -5000
0 0 -3000
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.2 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 0 0.12 0 0 20 0 0 0


0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 -8213
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1020
0 0
0 0
0 438
1 0
0 0
0 -465.3
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 20


0 0 0002
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -8760
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1480
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 219
1 1 0
0 0 -14
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.12 18.2


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 -20


0<= 23 ha
0= 30PD
0<= 50PD
0<= 40 P
0< 50 PO
0< 40PD
0< 70 PD
0<= 40 PD
0<= 50PD
0<= 40PD
0<= 5OPD
0< 30PO
0< 50PD
0<= 30PD
0<= 50 PD
0 30 PD
0<- 50 P
0>= 1800kg
0>= 300kg
0>= 311 kg
0 >= 110kg
0 >= 104 bottle
0>= 1 head
0< -3850 kg
0<= 0kg
0<= 0 kg
0< O0k
0<= 0kg
0 < 0kg
0 <= 0 kg
0<= 0 kg
0 < 0kg
0<= 0kg
0<= Obottle
0< 0 head
0 <= 0 Kwacha
0 < 0 Kwacha
1 < 0 Kwacha
1 >= 25 Kwacha
0 < 0 Kwacha


VARIABLES 1.195 1800 0 0.479 300 857.2 0.561 311 324.1 0.073 110 1 104 361.2 1
EACHPROFIT 0 0 0 0 0 60.01 0 0 64.81 0 0 0 0 43.35 0


1 13 88.56 64.66 25
0 260 0 0 0


SOLUTION
428.17












Table 14. UnL Progrumming for Nkoynam FamNy' Developmen-Aitemativ 5 (labor+pi'2+kcal M)


PRODUCTION AND ITS RELATED ACTIVITIES
LocaLo cocal Local Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Ground Ground Ground Sweet Sweet Mik Mik Mik Pig Pig Pig Cash C Cash Cash
Maize Maize Maize Maize Maiz Maze nuts nuts nuts Potato Potato tranto tranto tranto
prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans selling prod trans prod trans selling prod trans selling Sept Nov Yrend
(ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (ha) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) (cow) bottle ) (bottle) (sow) (piglet) (piglet) (K) (K) (K)


OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0


USED RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS OR
AMOUNT REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET
23 Land 1
3.83465 Labor SepM 0
34.1576 SepW 6
337404 Oct M 0
53.1051 OctW 5
824231 Nov M 6
88.6824 Nov W 12
13.0488 Dec M 0
33.1805 DecW 10
12.1256 Jan M 0
27.5883 Jan W 10
815492 Apr M 4
43.1205 AprW 5
9.26274 May M 3
43.0331 May W 3
3.37404 Jun M 0
27.588 Jun W 0
1800 Homecons Local Maize 0
300 Hybrid Maize 0
311 Groundnuts 0
110 Swet Potatoes 0
104 Mik 0
2 Piflets 0
-6728.25 Cow dung 400
-14767.1 Pig manure 800
6.8E-13 Account Local Mgrain -1508
23E-13 Hybrid M grain 0
-440 M stalks & aves -756
0 Mhusks -758
1E-12 Goundnuts grain 0
-216.335 Groundnuts hay 0
-253.333 Sweet Potatoes 0
0 Sweet potato vine 0
0 Milk 0
28E-12 Piglets 0
1.3E-13 Cash 1 July 0
-4.5E-13 Sep 20
-38.5222 Nov 0
25 Year end 0
-474.55 Cash 2 Year 0


0 0.07 0 0 0.07 0


0 0 1
0 0 6
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 26
0 0 6
0 0 24
0 0 0
0 0 5
0 0 5
0 0 10
0 0 10
0 0 5
0 0 5
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 800
0 0 1200
1 1 0
0 0 -2416
0 0 -1206
0 0 -1208
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 82.8
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 40
0 0 0
0 0 80
0 0 0
0 0 78
0 0 0
0 0 25
0 0 0
0 0 20
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 50
0 0 0
0 0 37
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 2000
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -1153
0 0 -1153
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.07 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0.2 0




0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 121
0 0 0
0 0 95
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 30
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1000
0 0 1500
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 0
0 0 -5000
0 0 -3000
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.2 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 0 0.12 0 0 20 0 0 0


0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 1.071
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 -8213
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1020
0 0
0 0
0 438
1 0
0 0
0 -465.3
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 20


0 0 0002
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2.143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 2143
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 -8760
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 730
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 109
1 1 0
0 0 -14
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 -0.12 34.4


0<= 23 ha
0<= 30PD
0<= 50PD
0<= 40PD
0 <- 0 PD
0<= 40PD
0<= 70 P0
0<= 40PD
0< 50PD
0<= 40PD
0<= 50PD
0<- 30PD
0<= 50PD
0<- 30PD
0< 50PD
0 < 30 PD
0< 50PD
0>= 1800kg
0>= 300kg
0>= 311 kg
0 110kg
0 = 104 bottle
0>= 2 head
0 < -350 kg
0 <= 0 kg
0<= 0kg
0<= 0 k
0<= 0 kg

0 < 0 kg

0.c 0kg
0O 0 kg
0<= 0 kg
0< 0 bottle
0<= 0 head
0 < 0 Kwacha
0<= 0 Kwachs
1 0 Kwacha
1 >= 25 Kwacha
0 <= 0 Kwacha


VARIABLES 1.195 1800 0 0.461 300 8128 0.568 311 343.3 0.073 110 1 104 361.3 2
EACHPROFIT 0 0 0 0 0 56.9 0 0 688.67 0 0 0 0 43.35 0


2 26 125.6 101.68
0 520 0 0


SOLUTION
m8.915




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