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Title: Linear programming family simulation and assessing alternatives
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075676/00001
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Title: Linear programming family simulation and assessing alternatives
Physical Description: 1 v. (various leaves) : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Villalobos, Heisil
Publication Date: 1995
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Subject: Agricultural systems   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Heisil Villalobos.
General Note: "Economic Analysis in Small Farm Systems, AEB 6933, ... Professor P. Hildebrand."
General Note: "University of Florida, Farming System Research, Spring Semester, 1995."
General Note: Cover title.
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Volume ID: VID00001
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 83798347

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Case study
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    References
        Page 28
Full Text







ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN

SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
AEB 6933









LINEAR PROGRAMMING
FAMILY SIMULATION AND ASSESSING ALTERNATIVES


BY

HEISIL VILLALOBOS








PROFESSOR

P. HILDEBRAND


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

FARMING SYSTEM RESEARCH

SPRING SEMESTER, 1995









Introduction


A farm is a system composed of many subsystems. In this way

the household, the crops, the animals and the community of

insects and other biotic communities which are part of the farm

form subsystems of the total farm system. Also, a farm forms

part of other bigger systems such as the community and the

country system. All of the components of a system interact among

themselves and there is energy flow between them. Components and

materials are cycled. A farm system is also called an

agroecosystem because at least one community of plants or animals

of that ecosystem is considered to be of agricultural value; and

the human intervention in the system plays an important role.

There are several types of farming systems, but the type

that will be dealt with in this report is the small-scale farming

system. In this type of farm, the family lives on the farm. The

farm is the home and decisions are made from the point of view of

the home. Also, in the small-scale farming system, there are

usually limited resources and a wide diversification of

activities or small enterprises (Hildebrand, 1981).

Linea programming is used in attempts to model the

economics of the agricultural system activities, including its

spacial dimension, constraints and objectives. This model

provides an useful mean to analyze the consequences of direct

changes in the economic structure, such as those that would arise

from the introduction of new technologic alternatives (Hazell,

1986).









CASE STUDY

The small farming system that I will analyze consists mainly

of a household, a.small number of crops (food and cash crops),

some domesticated animals, the market (including the community),

a fallow and forest land. This small farm is located in Zambia,

in a small village at 1000 masl. The soil is red clay-loam with

a 5.3 average pH. Zambia has a tropical climate which is wet and

warm with long rains from November to April; cool and dry from

May to August; hot and dry in September and October and with

short rains in October. So, they have basic a seasonal rainfall

of around 1000 to 1400 mm with six dry months in the year (Celis,

et al., 1991).

The household consists of 5 family members; the father,

Jose, 35 years old; the mother, Flor, 29 years old; two

daughters, Rosa and Violeta, 17 and 13 years old; and a son Juan,

15 years old. Rosa is a daughter from Flor's first marriage.

All family members work on the farm.

They have 9.0 acres of land to cultivate and to raise their

animals. The family usually practice the system of one-year

fallow per each three years of cropping. The major crops grown

are: local maize, hybrid maize, cotton, groundnut. They also

grow minor crops such as beans and cowpeas. The local maize,

groundnut and beans are their staple crops. Meanwhile, cotton

and hybrid maize are mostly cultivated by the men for cash.

These cash crops require some inputs like fertilizers and seeds

that have to be purchased at the market. Crops residues are used

to feed animals.






Market & Village


^--,#
--- - I__ ^_
Fertilizers
Crop Seeds Hired labor
IFood Cash |


-Food -


Labor -


Power
Manure


Animals

Cattle
Oxen
Chickens




A


......... FeedI --
*-- >Feed


4- ---------- ---


rt~








This farm system also has two cattle, one ox and six

chickens in the animal production subsystem unit. These animals

produce food for the family and provide some manure (fertilizer)

and power for the crops. Animals can also be sold for emergency

needs. A small proportion of the milk is sold, but most of it

comes into the household.

The forest provides firewood, bamboo and grass which are

used for building the house. They also have to purchase some

house items such as salt, sugar and paraffin. Jose, the father,

brings cash to buy them. Meanwhile, Flor, his wife, is in charge

of Violeta's school fund which is around K. 20 per year and

another family expenses such as children's clothing and shoes.

Figure 1, shows the farm system, with the interactions among the

various components with arrows.

Figure 2 shows the gender-disegregated activities calendar.

This information is also summarized in the activities analysis

table. This figure and table show who conducts the different

activities and at what time. They reveal the periods of labor

shortage. They also show what tasks are undertaken by men and

which are done by women. As can be seen, the family starts

preparing land at the end of September because they plant in

November to coincide with the first rains. Weeding and

harvesting are the most labor intensive activities. They are the

periods when the labor shortages usually occur. Also, this

figure shows that women work very hard in the field and are in

charge of the food crops while men work more in the cash crops.

Thus, the father, Jose, devotes 6 hours per day of his time on





Figure 2. Gender-disaggreted Activities Calendar


ACTIVITY


L. Maize


Hibrid



Groundnuts


Cotton

Beans


Minor Crop

Repair
house
Leisure T. ........
Child care- ----
Cooking -------
Anival care -- -
Carrying water--
Collect. fuelwooc


F.Rain


Rain


MONTH


Cold M.
Dry


S O N D Jn F M A M JN


SLP

Rd
..------------ ...-- -..---
kLP
PI
W

Swath
s watch


J


A


Carry
Harv f
- - - -


.Harv


sh MK


LP S_ Sh
w Harv MK
------------------...-----------------.

* P1 Harv MK

PI J-arv
Water M MK

f P fHarv


*RH
Rest
-------------


father
Mather
whole
family


11 father LP= land prepared.
son Pl=planting
mather
dauhterF =fertilization
daughters


Sh=shell
Mk= market
w= weeding
Rd=ridge


J
J
err
fi


. .


-- ---------


Rest
---------... .----------









Table 1


ACTIVITIES ANALYSIS
Crop production Males


Females


LOCAL MAIZE
Land Preparation for Adult males in a
every activity family
Planting Adult males Adult female
Weeding and ridge or men help adult & young
hills
Watching all family all family
Harvest, carry and store adult & young
grain
HYBRID MAIZE
Land preparation, adult male female help
market,fertilize
Planting, weeding, adult male adult female
watching and harvest
Carry grain, shell, store adult female
GROUNDNUT
Land preparation, and adult male
market
Weeding, all family all family
Harvest and shell men help adult female
COTTON
Land preparation, market adult male
Harvest and shell men help adult female
MINOR CROPS (beans)
Planting, harvest, water men help adult female
REPAIR HOUSE Adult male female help
ANIMAL CARE
Cow and ox Adult & young
Chicken adult & young
Cook, collect fuelwood adult female
Carry water adult & young









farm activities and 2 to non-farm activities or resting.

Meanwhile, the mother, Flor, works 50% of her time (4 h/day) on

house chores such as cooking, fetching water and collecting

fuelwood, and carries provisions to the field. Violeta spends

15% of her time on farm operations, she goes to school in the

mornings and works on the farm in the afternoon. Juan, the son,

herds the cattle and ox while the women care for the chickens.

Rosa and Violeta assist their mother in house chores and help on

the farm.

House and tool repairs are done by men. However, cutting

and harvesting grass to rethatch the roof is the women's job at

the end of harvesting season in the middle of June.

Based on this information, we can also identify whose labor

will be affected by the introduction of proposed changes or new

technologies to this small family system.

The resources analysis shown disaggregation by gender. Who

has access and control of critical resources is presented in

Table 2. It can be seen, that land is the main resource for the

villagers. Land belongs to the chief who has the power to

allocate it to the headmen. So, the headman controls the land

and gives access to it. In this village, women depend on men to

increase their acreage by clearing more bush. Villagers also

acquire use of land by inheriting, but usually the one who

cleared the field first is considered the owner unless it has

been formally handed back to the headman. There are still some

vacant sites of land in the village. Villagers also have the

opportunity to lend other people use of the land. For this









Table 2 Resources analysis of the small farm.
Resources Analysis


Items


Access


Control


Notes


Land Flor and Rosa
Used by men Villagers the chief can be given
and women, Men (Jose) and the access to a
grow cash headman plot of land
crops/women to grow food
food crops crops and
obtain cash

Water women/men nobody women are in
(Flor, Rosa, charge of
Violeta, Jose, collecting the
Juan) water

Labor mother/father father/mother Jose may hire
Flor manages (Flor/Jose) (Jose/Flor) labor for
the girls' harvest or
labor and Jose weeding and
the son's pays for it
labor with food or
labor.

Capital goods
chicken Flor/children Flor Flor may have
cow Flor/children Jose access to cash
ox Flor Jose if she raises
cash Flor/children Jose and sells some
tools Flor/children Jose animal
Jose may hired
the ox

Inputs Jose gets the
fertilizer Jose cash to buy
seeds Flor Jose them.
manure Flor Jose Jose uses
manure in his
education Juan/violeta Government dimba garden
credit Jose/Flor Eastern Credit is not
Cooperat.Union always
knowledge girls/boy father/mother available

Market Jose/Flor Cooperative Jose sells
Union the cash crops

Comments: The father (Jose) manages the market and the access to
money. Women should be given more economic activities that
generate cash. The opportunities to obtain credit limit some
economic activities.














Table. 3


BENEFITS AND INCENTIVES ANALYSIS

Crop production:Access.Control Uses Implications

Local maize the food this is basic food.
family mother make beer Beer is female's
seed business


Hybrid father sell,cash it provide cash
maize
Groundnut Father sell,cash the second
food important crop


Cotton father sell, cash it needs a lot of
labor

Beans The mother food and mostly women's job
family cash
Minor crops the mother food provide protein
family animal feed vegetables


Cattle, ox milk family consumption,
Mother Father draft power fertilizer and milk
manure sell

Chicken the Mother food, family consumption,
family cash female's business

Cook, water the mother meat house chores are
fuelwood family _female' s job









reason, the availability of land is not a constraint in the

village, but land fertility is.

The father, Jose, controls the majority of the capital goods

and agricultural inputs. He manages the access to the cattle, ox

and the introduction of inputs such as fertilizer and seeds to

the agricultural system. Table 3 shows the benefits and

incentives analysis and the activities analysis. This table

refers to who has access to or control of the output of

production. It can be seen that the females are more involved in

the local maize and beans production Meanwhile, the males manages

the cash crops and the animals. Benefits and incentive analysis

is an useful tool for creating a map on profile desegregated by

gender of the incentives and benefits associated with each

economic activity (Celis et al., 1991).

Description of some economic activities:

Local maize

This is the first crop to be sown after the rains start.

Jose and Juan have to prepare the land before the first rains

come. They cut trees and burn weeds (clear the field). Then,

they plant in November (women and men). Usually men make holes

and women drop seeds and cover them. The seed used comes from

the last year's harvest. Then, they must weed. Weeding is

mostly a women's job with some help from the men. Weeding starts

in December and ends in January with the second weeding during

the period of heavy rains (milachi).

With the second weeding in January, they make ridges and

apply fertilizer in the hybrid maize. The family does some









harvesting in February of green maize. In March the maize starts

drying up and people may rest, this is the pleasant time.

From December to the end of February people have to watch

the maize to protect it from the wild animals. In March maize

dries up completely and the watching ends.

In the cold months from April, (harvest) May and June

everybody in the family is very busy. They have to work hard

because harvest time begins. Harvest is mostly done by women

with help from men. To weed an acre of local maize takes a woman

2 weeks (6 hours/day). Women, working as cultivators, spend 10

days to cut, strip, stack cobs from one acre of the local maize.

Then, in May and June, women carry the harvest to the village.

One hectare of local maize may produce 1,192 kg (483

kg/acre); of this, 1360 kg is needed for the family year's

consumption. To cultivate one acre of local maize it requires

365 hours; of this time, 55 hours is needed for shelling. Maize

yield may increase with fertilization to 1506 kg/ha as compared

to 1163 kg/ha. without fertilizer.

Hybrid maize (S-52)

This crop is grown for cash and it is planted after the

family finishes planting the local maize. The hybrid maize needs

some inputs that Jose has to buy at the market, such as

fertilizer and seed. Also this grows better if it is plowed by

oxen or tractor. It is considered that the cost of production per

acre of hybrid maize is around K 40 and it may yield 800 Kg/acre

(0.25 kwachas/Kg). To plant an acre of hybrid maize, it takes 4

days and to weed the same area takes 90 hours. To shell ten









bags of maize takes 2 full working days. Although the hybrid

maize produces more, people say that it does not store well under

local storage methods and the grain is softer and less flinty

than local maize. As a result, farmers tend to devote more

labor to local maize than to hybrid maize. Also, hybrid maize is

often planted after the local maize which decreases its

production. In July the Cooperative Union market opens up and

people carry their crops out of the village (market).

Cotton

Cotton is grown 100% as a cash crop. The cotton seeds must

be bought in the market. The family spends 7 days planting 1

acre of cotton and 160 hours weeding it. Also, to pick and bale

one acre of cotton, it takes 52 days.

Groundnut

This crop is grown for house consumption and cash. The yield

per hectare is 286 kg with an average price of K. 0.5 per

kilogram. For family consumption, an average of 200 kilograms is

needed. This crop should be weeded twice, but usually there is

not time to do it. It requires 2,426 hours to cultivate 1

hectare of groundnut. It requires 7 days to plant and 33 days to

harvest half acre of it. It is harvested after harvesting the

local maize. To shell a bag of groundnut, it takes 4 days.

Small Crops

Small crops are planted when the family does the second

weeding in January. Some crops that are cultivated are beans,

cucumbers, pumpkins, cowpeas and leafy vegetables like okra and

rape. Some of these crops are intercropped with maize. To plant











Table 4. Summary of labor consumption of economic activities


planting 35 h/acre 30 h/acre 52 h/acre 35 h/acre
weeding 60 h/a. 75 h/a. 160 h/a. 85 h/a.
ridging 62 h/a. 70 h/a.
shelling 55 h 55 h. 384 h.
harvesting 50 h. 75 h. 300 h. 60 h.
yield 483 kg/acre 800 kg/acre 417 kg/acre 150 kg
income 120 K 200 k/acre 208 kwachas 75 K/acre
constraint 1360 kg 200 kg
consumption
n
Land 2.5 acres 0.68 acre





Appendix.1
AVERAGE YIELD PRODUCTION AND INCOME
of SOME CROPS IN THE EASTERN OF ZAMBIA

CROP AVERAGE OR PRICE INCOME
MINIMUM YIELD

COTTON 1032 kg/ha. 0.5 516 kwachas
GROUNDNUT 286 kg/ha. 0.5 kw/kg 143 kwachas
MIXED BEANS 517,5 kg/ha. 1 kw/kg 517,5 kwachas
CASSAVA 877 kg/ha. 0.3 kw/kg 263 kwachas
(flour)
SORGHUM 502 kg/ha. 0.25 kw/kg 125.5 kwachas
MAIZE (local) 1721 kg/ha. 0.25 kw/kg 430 kwacha
MAIZE & BEANS 348 kg/ha 0.25 and 1 190 kwachas
maize kw/kg
103 kg/ha bean

SWEET POTATOES 8 T/ha. 0.1 800 kwachas
Dada from: Statistical office report. 1989. Agricultural and
Pastoral Production. Republic of Zambia.









one acre of beans takes 8 days and to weed it, 100 hours. Also,

it may take 3 days to harvest 1/4 acre of beans. Flor also grows

the relish (vegetables).

Leisure time

For the villagers, mouse hunting is a cherished sport in

July and August. They spend a whole day in August looking for

mice. From August to September is the time when the villagers

relax. People drink beer and socialize. Also, in March when the

maize starts drying up people may rest. This is also the

pleasant time.

Hired labor

Sometimes Jose hires or exchanges labor for weeding or

harvest. This may be paid by cash and in-kind. For example:

people pay 12 Kwacha to clean the land and 16 K for harvesting.

Labor is 1 kwach a day. Also, to make six long ridges can be

paid with the food of one day.





FAMILY GOAL

The main general goal of this family is to produce the

necessary food to subsist. However, around this goal, the family

members have some ambitions. For example, Rosa wants Violeta to

finish school and be an educated woman. For this reason, she

seeks to produce more local maize to finance her studies. She

knows that by producing more maize she may produce more beer and

feed more chicken for sale. Juan wants to increase the yield of

the crops, but he will need to use more labor and inputs in order









to do that. Juan also wants to buy another cow and sell more

milk in the village.

In order to achieve these goals the family has some

constraints. The lack of water, labor, cash, and infrastructure

are the most limiting constraints to the productivity of the

village. In other words, they will need more labor if they want

to increase the cultivated area. Also, cash is necessary to buy

fertilizer and seeds. Credit is not always available to target

farmers. The family has to continue using the local maize

variety, with low yield, because others do not store well under

local conditions. For the lack of productivity, they can not

feed more animals. All of these constraints within the systems

limit the productivity of the entire village.

There are some possible alternatives for achievement of the

family goal that must be analyzed. People need to increase the

efficiency of some labor such as weeding, harvesting and

shelling. For example, weeding must be done at the critical

period in maize. Also, in order to increase productivity, they

must apply fertilizer to the local maize. The research station

must seek other high yielding varieties that can be stored well

under the local conditions. Also, the availability of credit and

the mechanism to get it must be improved.

After all, it must take into account that because of the

wide variety of activities and resource limitation, the family

system is very complex and sensible. The villagers always try to

keep the system in balance making the best use of the available

resources. So, any efforts to produce change or the introduction









of new technologies must be carefully analyzed.

The activities analysis and calendar as well as the resource

analysis and benefits/incentives analysis are used to develop a
Vb
linear program model which Ktends to analyze and judge possible

technological or management changes in the original family

system. Also, the tables provide information on the variables

and constraints to be included in the linear programming model.




ASSESSING ALTERNATIVES

Linearprogramming was used to simulate and analyze the

current farm system. This method is used to determine profit

maximizing combination of farm enterprises that can be feasible

with respect to a set of fixed farm constraints.

In the farm being represented, labor and cash are important

family constrain. For this reason, crops that are well adapted

to the environmental condition such as cassava, sorghum and

sweet-potatoes are recommended. Researches suggest that alley

farming of these crops may be economically feasible and

ecologically sound under the present environmental condition.

Intercropping systems can incorporate the biological stability

and nutrient balance that may allow an intensified production

over the long-term. Moreover, this technology can reduce the

requirement of external inputs such as fertilizer and herbicides.

Several researches also st5fd that total productivity per unit of

land and total income are higher under intercrop than under

monocultures (Terry, et al., 1984). It has proved that a way to









reduce the labor intensity is knowing the specific time when

weeds must be removed to minimize yield loss. Maize and beans

or cassava in intercroping reduce the need of weed control to the

first 4 to 6 weeds after planting. After this period, weeds are

controlled by the crop shade (Terry, et al., 1984). So,

intercroping can provide to the family with more available labor

to be invested in another productive activity.

The incorporation of these intercroping systems in the

linearprogramming matrix shown that maize-beans combination was

the most productive activity under the farm system constraints.

These suggested alternatives also caused an important family and

female income improvement. The higher yield provided by this

alternative will also depend on the fertilizer level used. Also

any adoption of a high-yield variety has to be accompanied by an

extension programs. It is important to recall that agricultural

models only provide a link between economic theory and data as

well as practical appreciations of problems and policy

orientations. The results always depend on the accuracy and

precision of the considered data. Tables 5 and 6 show how the

family activities and income were changed by the incorporation of

the new alternatives. These tables also provide a summary of the

gender maximization analysis which provides a framework of

information for considering the consequences of decisions about

research or recommendation domains and extension.











TABLE 1. q
FArM SIMULATION
SOLUTION FOR FAMILY


AEB 6933 ECONOMIC ANAUSIS IN SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
Near programming for the Jose & Flor family


HEISIL VILLALOBOS


Production Male Female Male Cash Female Cash
Crop land MAIZE Maize BEER HYBRID COTTON PEANUT Transf Sell BEAN Beans Beans CASH CASH TRANSFER TRANSFER MILK Milk Milk RHS DV
(acre) (acre) Trans Barrel (acre) (acre) (acre) Peanut Peanut (acre) Transf Sell Transf Transf end year end year 1 COW Transf Sell


Family OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
Male OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
Female OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
(Kwachas)_

8.0 TOTAL LAND
0.7 CROPLAND
-1.0 Fallow account
115.7 CASH (Kwacha)
154.7 LOBOR:SeptMale
17.6 Sept female
100.2 October Male
44.9 October Female
117.0 November Male
89.8 November Female
139.2 December Male
149.4 December Female
218.9 January Male
157.9 January Female
234.5 February Male
160.7 February Female
137.7 March Male
248.2 March Female
110.8 April Male
170.5 April Female
118.9 May Male
183.4 May Female
82.7 June Male
318.5 June Female
110.7 July Male
207.3 July Female
81.0 August Male
196.7 August Female
527.0 Ox labor:ran season
98.3 Oc L Dry season
-1360.0 Maize Accont
0.0 Maize Constraint
-229.7 Peanut Accont
0.0 Peanut Constrain
-302.5 Beans account
0.0 Beans constrain
2.0 CATTLE
-960.0 Milk account
0.0 Milk constrain
76.0 Cash Male (rain seasons)
39.6 Cash Female (rain season)
-271.1 Cash Male (dry season)
-98.4 Cash Female (dry season)
0.0 Cash Male atyead end
0.0 Cash Femele atyead end

SOLUTIONS


0 21 200 208 0 0 0.5 0
0 8 200 208 0 0 0.5 0
0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 3 40 50 28 0
0 0 30 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0 0
0 0 17 23 27 0
0 0 5 12 28 0
0 0 B 25 18 0
0 0 22 25 17 0
0 0 15 45 15 0
0 0 22 135 30 0
0 0 35 45 14 0
0 0 28 135 26 0
0 0 10 5 10 0
0 15 5 0 5 0
0 0 12 29 8 0
0 0 22 116 24 0
0 0 12 29 8 0
0 0 22 116 24 0
0 0 5 11 8 0
0 0 13 19 24 0
0 0 9 14 38 0
0 0 10 21 212 0
0 0 21 5 21 0
0 20 0 18 0 0
0 0 85 85 90 0
0 0 13 15 11 0
1 35 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 -300 1
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 40 50 26 0
0 3 0 0 0 0
0 -8 -200 -208 0 0
0 -10 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0
0 1
0 0
0 7
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 48
0 28
0 100
0 25
0 20
0 25
0 45
0 50
0 10
0 10
0 45
0 75
0 10
0 150
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 65
0 12
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 -209
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 7
-0.5 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 -1
0 -1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 0 0.12 Maximize
0 0 0 0.12
0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 <= 9 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 0 0.00
0 0.5 0 0 <= 0 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 120 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 -0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 2.88
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.38
0 10 0 0 <= 220 -0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.41
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 -0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 -0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 480 1.09
0 0 0 0 <= 480 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 0 0.44
0 0 0 0 >= 1360 -0.44
0 0 0 0 <= 0 0.50
0 0 0 0 >= 200 -0.50
0 0 0 0 <= 0 1.00
0 0 0 0 >= 53 -1.00
0 1 0 0 <= 2 29.03
0 -480 1 1 <= 0 0.12
0 0 1 0 >= 365 -0.12
0 0 0 0 <= 90 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 80 0.00
0 0 0 -0.12 <= 0 0.00
1 0 0 0 <= 0 0.00
0 0 0 0 >= 110 -0.00
1 0 0 0 >= 90 -0.00


583.45 7.97 3.53 1360.00 9.84 0.96 0.00 0.77 200.00 29.74 0.72 53.00 98.24 13.97 25.43 110.00 222.03 2.00 365.00 595.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 .00 -21.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 .00 0.00 0.00










TABLE 1.b
FARM SIMULATION
SOLUTION FOR MALE


AEB 8933 ECONOMIC ANAUSIS IN SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
Near programming for the Jose & Flor family


HEISIL VILLALOBOS


Production Male Female Male Cash Female Cash
Crop land MAIZE Maize BEER HYBRID COTTON PEANUT Transf Sell BEAN Beans Beans CASH CASH TRANSFER TRANSFER MILK Milk Milk RHS DV
(acre) (acre) Trans Barrel (acre) (acre) (acre) Peanut Peanut (acre) Transf Sell Transf Transf end year end year 1 COW Transf Sell


Family OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
Male OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
Female OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
(Kwachas)

7.7 TOTAL LAND
0.3 CROPLAND
-0.9 Fallow account
119.8 CASH (Kwacha)
183.1 LOBOR:SeptMale
17.2 Sept female
102.2 October Male
47.7 October Female
121.8 November Male
90.1 November Female
96.3 December Male
131.2 December Female
129.8 January Male
140.6 January Female
225.1 February Male
145.5 February Female
98.2 March Male
184.2 March Female
104.2 April Male
168.3 April Female
80.5 May Male
120.0 May Female
74.2 June Male
180.8 June Female
112.7 July Male
210.0 July Female
88.0 August Male
174.8 August Female
490.1 Ox labor:rain season
90.3 Oc L Dry season
-1360.0 Malze Accont
0.0 Maize Constraint
-229.7 Peanut Accont
0.0 Peanut Constrain
-106.0 Beans account
0.0 Beans constrain
2.0 CATTLE
-960.0 Milk account
0.0 Milk constrain
90.0 Cash Male (rain seasons)
29.8 Cash Female (rain season)
-334.2 Cash Male (dry season)
-87.4 Cash Female (dry season)
0.0 Cash Male at yead end
0.0 Cash Femele at yead end

SOLUTIONS


0 0 21 200 208 0 0 0.5 0 0 1 0
0 0 8 200 208 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0


0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 3 40 50 26 0
0 0 30 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0 0
0 0 17 23 27 0
0 0 5 12 28 0
0 0 8 25 18 0
0 0 22 25 17 0
0 0 15 45 15 0
0 0 22 135 30 0
0 0 35 45 14 0
0 0 28 135 26 0
0 0 10 5 10 0
0 15 5 0 5 0
0 0 12 29 8 0
0 0 22 118 24 0
0 0 12 29 8 0
0 0 22 118 24 0
0 0 5 11 8 0
0 0 13 19 24 0
0 0 9 14 38 0
0 0 10 21 212 0
0 0 21 5 21 0
0 20 0 16 0 0
0 0 85 85 90 0
0 0 13 15 11 0
1 35 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 -300 1
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 40 50 26 0
0 3 0 0 0 0
0 -8 -200 -208 0 0
0 -10 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0
0 1
0 0
0 7
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 48
0 26
0 100
0 25
0 20
0 25
0 45
0 50
0 10
0 10
0 45
0 75
0 10
0 150
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 65
0 12
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 -209
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 7
-0.5 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 -1
0 -1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
1 10
10 0
00 0
00 0
00 0
00 1
o o
0 0 -
00-10
00 0
00 0


0 0 0 0.12 Maximize
0 0 0 0.12
0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 <= 9 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 0 0.00
0 0.5 0 0 <= 0 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 120 -0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 -0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 2.35
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 -0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 0.20
0 10 0 0 <= 220 -0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 -0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 480 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 480 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 0 0.23
0 0 0 0 >- 1380 -0.23
0 0 0 0 <= 0 0.50
0 0 0 0 >= 200 -0.50
0 0 0 0 <= 0 0.22
0 0 0 0 >= 53 -0.22
0 1 0 0 <= 2 34.11
0 -480 1 1 <= 0 0.12
0 0 1 0 >= 365 -0.12
0 0 0 0 <= 90 2.90
0 0 0 0 <= 60 -0.00
0 0 0 -0.12 <= 0 0.00
1 0 0 0 <= 0 0.00
0 0 0 0 >= 110 -0.00
1 0 0 0 >= 90 -0.00


420.41 7.72 3.45 1360.00 8.74 1.32 0.00 0.77 200.00 29.66 0.25 53.00 0.00 0.00 2.59 110.00 90.00 2.00 385.00 595.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -46.1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.22 -2.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00











TABLE 1.C
FARM SIMULATION
SOLUTION FOR FEMALE


AEB 6933 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
Linear programming for the Jose & Flor family


HEISILVILLALOBOS


Production Male Female Male Cash Female Cash
Crop land MAIZE Maize BEER HYBRID COTTON PEANUT Transf Sell BEAN Beans Beans CASH CASH TRANSFER TRANSFER MILK Milk Milk RHS DV
(acre) (acre) Trans Barrel (acre) (acre) (acre) Peanut Peanut (acre) Transf Sell Transf Transf end year end year 1 COW Transf Sell


Family OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
Male OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
Female OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
(Kwachas)

8.7 TOTAL LAND
0.8 CROPLAND
-0.7 Fallow account
76.1 CASH (Kwacha)
125.9 LOBOR:Sept.Male
17.7 Sept. female
90.6 October Male
35.3 October Female
98.0 November Male
82.2 November Female
139.2 December Male
131.8 December Female
222.8 January Male
138.8 January Female
203.4 February Male
138.1 February Female
136.0 March Male
251.1 March Female
100.5 April Male
148.9 April Female
115.7 May Male
174.7 May Female
79.3 June Male
333.4 June Female
98.3 July Male
178.8 July Female
58.7 August Male
197.2 August Female
449.4 Ox labor:rain season
87.1 Oc L Dryseason
-1360.0 Maize Accont
0.0 Maize Constraint
-200.0 Peanut Accont
0.0 Peanut Constrain
-343.9 Beans account
0.0 Beans constrain
2.0 CATTLE
-960.0 Milk account
0.0 Milk constrain
35.0 Cash Male (rain seasons)
41.1 Cash Female (rain season)
-78.9 Cash Male (dry season)
-98.6 Cash Female (dry season)
0.0 Cash Male atyead end
0.0 Cash Femele at yead end

SOLUTIONS


0 21 200 208
0 8 200 208
0 10 0 0


0 0 0.5 0
0 0 0.5 0
0 0 0 0


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 3
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 15
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 20
0 0
0 0
1 35
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 3
0 -8
0 -10
0 0
0 0


0 0
0 1
0 0
0 7
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 48
0 28
0 100
0 25
0 20
0 25
0 45
0 50
0 10
0 10
0 45
0 75
0 10
0 150
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 65
0 12
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 -209
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 7
-0.5 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 -1
0 -1 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 0.12 Maximize
0 0 0.12
0 0 0


0 0 0 <= 9 0.00
0 0 0 <= 0 0.00
1.5 0 0 <= 0 0.00
0 0 0 <= 120 0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 -0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 0.54
10 0 0 <= 220 -0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 1.21
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 0.00
10 0 0 <= 220 -0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 -0.00
0 0 0 <= 480 0.00
0 0 0 <= 480 0.00
0 0 0 <= 0 0.08
S 0 0 >= 1360 -0.06
0 0 0 <= 0 0.11
0 0 0 >= 200 -0.11
0 0 0 <= 0 1.00
0 0 0 >= 53 -1.00
1 0 0 <= 2 0.00
30 1 1 <= 0 0.00
0 1 0 >= 365 -0.00
0 0 0 <= 90 0.00
0 0 0 <= 60 -0.00
0 0 -0.12 <= 0 0.00
0 0 0 <= 0 -0.00
0 0 0 >= 110 -0.00
0 0 0 >= 90 -0.00


217.52 8.69 3.53 1380.00 9.86 0.00 0.00 0.67 200.00 0.00 0.82 53.00 ***** 55.02 0.00 110.00 90.00 2.00 365.00 595.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -18.47 -23.08 0.00 0.00 -0.11 0.00 0.00 00 0.00 0.00 -0. 000 0.00 0.00 0.00 .00 0.00









FAMILY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES SIMULATION


ACTIVITY


UNITS OR AREA
PRODUCED


PRICE/UNIT


LOCAL 3.53 acres 0.25 kw/kg consumption
MAIZE and make beer
BEER 9.84 barrels 21 kw 206.64 kwachas

HYBRID 0.96 acres 0.25 kw/kg 192 kwachas

COTTON 00 0.5 kw/kg 00
PEANUTS 0.77 acre 200 kg 0.5 kw/kg 14.87 kwachas
constr 29.74 sell
BEANS 0.72 acre, 53 kg 1 kw/kg 98.24 kwachas
constrai 98.24 sell
CATTLE 2 cattle, 365 bottle 0.12 kw/bottle 71.4 kwachas
constr. 595 bott.sell
TOTAL INCOME: k. 583.45

MALE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES SIMULATION


ACTIVITY UNITS OR AREA PRICE/UNIT INCOME
PRODUCED

LOCAL 3.45 acres 0.25 kw/kg consumption
MAIZE and make beer
BEER 8.74 barrels 21 kw 183.54 kwachas
HYBRID 1.32 acres 0.25 kw/kg 264 kwachas
COTTON 00 0.5 kw/kg 00
PEANUTS 0.77 acre 200 kg 0.5 kw/kg 14.83 kwachas
constr 29.66 sell

BEANS 0.25 acre, 53 kg 1 kw/kg 00
constrai
CATTLE 2 cattle, 365 bottle 0.12 kw/bottle 71.4 kwachas
constr. 595 bott.sell


TOTAL INCOME: k. 420.41


INCOME












FEMALE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES SIMULATION


ACTIVITY


UNITS OR AREA
PRODUCED


PRICE/UNIT


INCOME


LOCAL 3.53 acres 0.25 kw/kg consumption
MAIZE and make beer

BEER 9.86 barrels 21 kw 207.06 kwachas
HYBRID 00 0.25 kw/kg 00

COTTON 00 0.5 kw/kg 00

PEANUTS 0.67 acre 200 kg 0.5 kw/kg 00
constr. 00 sell

BEANS 0.82 acre, 53 kg 1 kw/kg 00
constrai
CATTLE 2 cattle, 365 bottle 0.12 kw/bottle 71.4 kwachas
constr. 595 bott.sell


TOTAL INCOME: k. 217.52









Table 5.


ACTIVITY


FAMILY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES SIMULATION

FAMILY MALE FEMALE


LOCAL MAIZE 3.53 acres 3.45 acres 3.54 acres

BEER 9.84 barrels 8.74 barrels 9.86 barrels

HYBRID 0.96 acres 1.32 acres 00

COTTON 00 00 00

PEANUTS 0.77 acre 0.77 acres 0.77 acre

200 kg 29.74 sell 29.66 sell 00 sell

constraint 0.5 kw/kg

BEANS 0.72 acre, 0.25 acre, i0.82 acre,

53 kg constraint 98.24 sell 00 sell 198.24 sell

1 kw/kg

CATTLE 2 cattle, 595 2 cattle, 2 cattle, 595

365 bottles bott. sell 595 bott. bott. sell

constraint sell


TOTAL INCOME:


k. 583.45


420.41


217.52


IU-4w-- j k.













Table 6.


ASSESSING ALTERNATIVES

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES SOLUTION


ACTIVITY


FAMILY


MALE


FEMALE


LOCAL MAIZE 2.93 acres 3.54 acres 2.82 acres
BEER 1.55 barrels 10.5 barrel 00
HYBRID 00 00 00

COTTON 00 00 00

PEANUTS 0.67 acre 0.67 acres 0.77 acre
200 kg 00. sell 00. 00 sell
constraint
MAIZE & BEANS 1.76 acres 0.69 acres 2.35 acres

MAIZE & 0.81 acres 1.40 acres 00
CASSAVA

SORGHUM & BEAN 00 00 00

SWEET POTATOES 7.18 00 7.32 (439
in fallow land (430.kg*0.1) kg* 0.1)
BEANS 0.59 acre, 00 acre, 0.92 acre,
53 kg 250.57 kg sell 00 sell 380.86 sell
constraint 1 kw/kg

CATTLE 2 cattle, 595 2 cattle, 595 2 cattle,
365 bottles bottles sell bottles sell 00 sell
constraint


K. 989.49 553.14


TOTAL INCOME:


648.01












TABLES
ASSESSING ALTERNATIVES
SOLUTION FOR FAMILY


AEB 8933 ECONOMIC ANAUSIS IN SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
Unew programming for e Jose & Flor family


HEISILVILLALOBOS


Production ---INTERCROPING--- Male Female Male Cash Feme Cash
Crop lid MAIZE Main BEER HYBRID COTTON PEANU Trans Sel BEANS Bens Beas MAIZE MAIZ SORGHUM SWEET- CASH CASH TRANSFER TRANSFER MILK Mlk Mi RHS DV
(acre) (are) Tranf Barr (acre) (acre) (acr) Pewot Peanut (acre) Transf Sd BEANS CASSAVA BEANS POTATOE Trans Trasn endyeard endyard ICOW trn sf SeI


Faniy OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0 0 0 21 200 206 0
Male OBJECTIVE FUNCT 0 0 0 8 2 200 20 0
Fenme OBJECTIVE FUNCT 0 0 0 10 0 0 0


- (Kw-cha)-
9.0 TOTAL LAND
0.0 CROPLAND
-1.2 FALLOW account
2200 LOBOR:SeptMle
754 Sept femle
1389 October Ml
210.0 October Female
95.9 Novemb Mle
1163 Novembn Femakl
101.2 December Mle
181.6 December Femrde
1121 January M l
140.0 Januyy Femie
158.2 February Mde
125.1 Februay Femle
181.5 March Mad
1729 MarchFemime
1499 AprIMile
13.0 Aprl Fmle
828 May Male
1244 May Female
97.2 June Male
1e28 June Fermale
892 July Male
170. JulyFemole
128.7 August Miae
30.9 August Femwn
390.0 OX LABOR:rin season
1155 OXLDry eason
.13000 MAIZE Accont
0.0 MAIZE ConstrAnt
-200.0 PEANUT Accorn
00 PEANUT Constrln
-3036 BEANS Accont
00 BEANS Constrin
20 CATTES
-960.0 MILK Account
00 MILKConstran
900 CASH Male (rainseason
000 CASH Female (ran* eas
-3726 CASH Me (dry season)
-290.3 CASH Fermle (kdy se
00 CASH Male at yadnd
0.0 CASH Femdeatyeade


0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 30 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0
0 0 10 0 0
0 0 17 23 27
0 0 5 12 28
0 0 8 25 18
0 0 22 25 17
0 0 s1 45 15
0 0 22 135 30
0 0 35 48 14
0 0 28 135 28
0 0 10 5 10
0 s1 5 0 5
0 0 12 29 6
0 0 22 118 24
0 0 12 29 8
0 0 22 118 24
0 0 5 11 8
0 0 13 19 24
0 0 9 14 38
0 0 10 21 212
0 0 21 5 21
0 20 0 16 0
0 0 85 85 90
0 0 13 15 11
1 35 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 -300
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 40 50 28
0 3 0 0 0
0 -8 -200 -208 0
0 -10 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0


0 0.5 0 0 1 190 318 153
0 05 0 0 0 95 238 153
0 0 0 0 1 95 80 0


0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 50
0 0 0 0 0 30
0 0 0 0 0 24
0 0 0 0 0 40
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 48 0 0 10
0 0 25 0 0 28
0 0 100 0 0 0
0 0 25 0 0 0
0 0 20 0 0 0
0 0 25 0 0 0
0 0 45 0 0 s0
0 0 50 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0 40
0 0 10 0 0 10
0 0 45 0 0 10
0 0 75 0 0 20
0 0 10 0 0 20
0 0 150 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 18
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 65 0 0 18
0 0 12 0 0 20
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 -209 1 1 -103
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 15
0 0 7 0 0 s1
0 05 0 0 0 -95
0 0 0 0 -1 -95
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0


6 0 0
0 0 0
6 0 0
o O o
e o


0 0
0 0
0.012 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
12 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
12 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1
2 0
0 -1
-8 0
0 0
0 0


0 0 0 012 Malinlze
0 0 0 012
0 0 0 0



0 0 0 0 <- 9 149.3
0 0 0 0 < 0 199.18
0 05 0 0 <- 0 00
0 10 0 0 <- 220 089
0 0 0 0 < 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <= 210 027
0 10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 0 <- 210 000
0 10 0 0 <= 220 000
0 0 0 0 <- 210 000
0 10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <= 20 000
0 0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <- 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <- 210 .00
0 10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 <- 210 000
0 10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 0 < 210 0.00
0 10 0 0 < 220 0.00
0 0 0 0 < 210 000
0 10 0 0 < 220 0000
0 0 0 0 <- 210 .000
0 0 0 0<- 40 000D
0 0 0 0 <- 40 000
0 0 0 0 <- 0 048
0 0 0 0 >- 130 448
0 0 0 0<- 0 82
0 0 0 0 >- 200 -082
0 0 0 0 < 0 1.00
0 0 0 0 >- 63 -1.00
0 1 0 0 < 2 5071
0 -40 1 1 <- 0 012
0 0 1 0 >- 365 412
0 0 0 0 <- 90 1.84
0 0 0 0 <- 80 1.40
0 0 0 4-12 <- 0 400
1 0 0 0 <- 0 000
0 0 0 0 >- 110 -0.00
1 0 0 0 >- 90 .00


989.4 9.00 293 1380.00 1.55 0.00 0.00 067 200.00 0.00 0.89 300 25057 1.78 0.1 000 7.18 000 0.00 110.00 9000 200 38500 595.00
0.00 000 0.00 0 -8138 0.00 -032 000 00 000 000 0.00 0.00 -37.52 000 -1.84 -1.40 0.00 000 000 000 000


SOLUTIONS












TABLE 2.
ASSESSING ALTERNATIVES
SOLUTION FOR MALE


AEB 8933 ECONOMIC ANAUISS IN SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
Unear programming for th Jose & Flor family


HEISILV1UALOBOS


Produon --- NTERCROPING--- Mae Female Me Cash Female Cash
Croplknd MAIZE Mait BEER HYBRID COTTON PEANU Tramn Sel BEANS Beian Bean MAIZE MAIZ SORGHUM SWEET- CASH CASH TRANSFER TRANSFER MILK MIk Mil
(acre) (acre) Trasf Bmel (ware) (acre) (acre) Panut Peant (scre) Tramf Sol BEANS CASSAVA BEANS POTATOE Trawf Traanf endyard endyerd COW iralf Se


RHS DV


Famly OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0
Male OBJECTIVE FUNCT 0
Fermnl OBJECTIVE FUNCT 0


- (Kwacha)-
84 TOTAL LAND
0.0 CROPLAND
-1.1 FALLOW account
2037 LOBOR:SeptMale
S2e Sept fhme
13.0 Octobe Male
1053 October Female
1129 NovemberMae
111.0 November Femal
67.5 December Mal
135.9 Decnber Feme
s86 Jr uryMae
1186 Ja uwyFemale
1724 Febury Male
9&0 Febrnuay Feal
118.5 Mach Mle
2065 MarchFemale
1124 AprlMale
140. April Female
49a May Mae
685 May Feale
77.2 June Male
87.5 Junr Female
m90 July Mae
177.1 Jy Female
141.2 August Mal
210.0 August Female
4032 OX LABOR:ran season
10.9 OXL Dryseason
-1300. MAIZE Accont
0.0 MAIZE Consrint
-200.0 PEANUT Accont
0.0 PEANUT Consr
-71.1 BEANS Accont
0.0 BEANS Constrin
20 CATTES
-960.0 MILK Account
0.0 MILK Constran
1000 CASH Mae (rn season
90.0 CASH Female (rain sa
-481.7 CASH Mle (dry season)
-2822 CASH Femnal (dry se
00 CASH Male tyead nd
0.0 CASHFemale at yeade

SOLUTIONS


0 21 200 208 0
0 I 200 200 0
0 10 0 0 0


0 0
0 1
0 0
0 30
0 0
0 10
0 10
0 17
0 5
0 8
0 22
0 15
0 22
0 35
0 28
0 10
s1 5
0 12
0 22
0 12
0 22
0 5
0 13
0 9
0 10
0 21
20 0
0 85
0 13
35 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 40
3 0
-8 -20
-10 0
0 0
0 0


0 0
1 1
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
23 27
12 28
25 18
25 17
45 15
136 30
45 14
135 26
5 10
0 5
29 8
t18 24
29 6
116 24
11 8
19 24
14 38
21 212
5 21
18 0
85 90
15 11
0 0
0 0
0 -300
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
50 28
0 0
-208 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 0(5 0 0 1 190
0 0.5 0 0 0 95
0 0 0 0 1 95


0 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 48
0 0 28
0 0 100
0 0 25
0 0 20
0 0 25
0 0 45
0 0 50
0 0 10
0 0 10
0 0 45
0 0 76
0 0 10
0 0 150
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 65
0 0 12
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 -209
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 7
0 -0.5 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


319 153 8 0 0
238 153 0 0 0
90 0 8 0 0


0 0
0 0
0.012 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
12 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
12 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1
2 0
0 -1
0
0 0
0 0


0 0 0.12 Mamlze
0 0 0.12
0 0 0



0 0 0 <- 9 0.00
0 0 0 <- 0 0.00
0.5 0 0 <- 0 (100
10 0 0 <- 220 .00
0 0 0<- 210 100
10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
10 0 0 <- 220 0.00
0 0 0 < 210 000
10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 <- 210 000
10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 <- 210 100
10 0 0 <- 220 0.00
0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
10 0 0 <- 220 0.00
0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
10 0 0 < 220 0.00
0 0 0 < 210 0.00
10 0 0 < 220 000
0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
10 0 0 <- 220 0.00
0 0 0 <- 210 000
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <- 210 0.24
0 0 0 <= 480 -00
0 0 0 <- 480 000
0 0 0 <- 0 008
0 0 0 > 1380 .40.
0 0 0 <- 0 052
0 0 0 >- 200 -0.52
0 0 0 <- 0 000
0 0 0 >- 53 0.00
1 0 0 <- 2 57.90
-40 1 1 <= 0 012
0 1 0 >- 365 412
0 0 0 < 100 &99
0 0 0 <- O 0.35
0 0 -0.2 <- 0 0.00
0 0 0 <- 0 0.00
0 0 0 >- 110 -00
0 0 0 > 90 0.00


56314 8.44 3.56 130.00 10.50 000 0.00 0.7 2(0.000 0 .00 000 0300 18.13 0.69 1.40 0.00 000 0.00 000 110.00 90.00 200 36.00 69500
0.00 000 0.00 000 -39 -9519 0.00 000 -002 -242 0.0000 .0 00 0.00 -2.62 460.89 -5.99 3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 000












TABLE 2 C
ASSESSING ALTERNATIVES
SOLUTION FOR FEMALE


HEISILVILLALOBOS


AEB 6933 ECONOMIC ANAUSIS IN SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
Lnr programming for fth Jose & Flor fairly


rodcon ---INTERCROPING-- Mi Female M Cash Female Cash
Crop lnd MAIZE Maze BEER HYBRID COTTON PEANU Trau Sel BEANS Ber Bens MAIZE MAIZ SORGHUM SWEET- CASH CASH TRANSFER TRANSFER MILK MIk Mlk
(cre) (cre) Tranls BarT (arn) (acre) (acre) Peanut Penut (acre) Tramf Se BEANS CASSAVA BEANS POTATOE Transf Trasn endyeard ndyeard 1 COW Itarmf Sel


RHS DV


Fmwly OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0 0 0 21 200 208 0
Male OBJECTIVE FUNCT 0 0 0 8 200 200 0
Fema OBJECTIVE FUNCT 0 0 0 10 0 0 0


0 0.5 0 0 1 10 318 153
0 05 0 0 0 95 238 153
0 0 0 0 1 95 80 0


8 0 0
0 0 0
6 o 0


0 0 0.12 MIdm le
0 0 012
0 0 0


- (KwuchM)-
00 TOTAL LAND
-00 CROPLAND
-1.8 FALLOW account
209.6 LOBOR:SeptMade
848 Sept female
1203 OctoberMale
210.0 October Fmale
735 November Made
98.8 NovenberFemale
1097 Deceber Male
187.5 December Female
131.9 J suary Mle
134.2 JauayFenmle
147.9 FbnuryMle
131.5 Fobruay Female
201.2 March Mdl
151.2 March Femae
1828 AprlMale
141.8 Aprl Female
0.5 May Mle
1800 May Femae
6.8 JurwMale
21i0 JuneFemale
752 Jly Male
1695 JulyFemale
831 August Male
00 August Female
37.2 OX LABOR rn season
1112 OXLDryseason
-1380.0 MAIZE Accort
00 MAIZE Consr*nt
-2000 PEANUT Accont
00 PEANUT Constrn
-4339 BEANS Accont
0.0 BEANS Constrain
0. CATTES
-3650 MILK Account
00 MILKUConirin
0&7 CASH Male (raisason
0.3 CASH Fmale(rain se
-2212 CASH Ma (dry season)
-27.1 CASH Fmale(dry sea
0.0 CASHMaleatyeadend
00 CASH Feale at yeade


0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 30 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0
0 0 10 0 0
0 0 17 23 27
0 0 5 12 28
0 0 8 25 18
0 0 22 25 17
0 0 15 45 15
0 0 22 135 30
0 0 36 45 14
0 0 28 135 28
0 0 10 5 10
0 15 5 0 5
0 0 12 29 6
0 0 22 118 24
0 0 12 29 8
0 0 22 116 24
0 0 5 11 a
0 0 13 19 24
0 0 9 14 38
0 0 10 21 212
0 0 21 5 21
0 20 0 18 0
0 0 55 as 90
0 0 1 15 11
1 35 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 -300
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 40 50 26
0 3 0 0 0
0 4 -200 -206 0
0 -10 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 50
0 0 0 0 0 30
0 0 0 0 0 24
0 0 0 0 0 40
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 48 0 0 10
0 0 26 0 0 28
0 0 100 0 0 0
0 0 25 0 0 0
0 0 20 0 0 0
0 0 25 0 0 0
0 0 45 0 0 50
0 0 50 0 0 0
0 0 10 0 0 40
0 0 10 0 0 10
0 0 45 0 0 10
0 0 75 0 0 20
0 0 10 0 0 20
0 0 150 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 18
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 65 0 0 18
0 0 12 0 0 20
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 -209 1 1 -103
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 15
0 0 7 0 0 15
0 45 0 0 0 -95
0 0 0 0 -1 -95
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0
0 0
0.012 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
12 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
4 0
0 0
12 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 1
2 0
0 -1
-8 0
0 0
0 0


0 0 0 <- 9 13350
0 0 0 <- 0 17800
05 0 0 <- 0 a00
10 0 0 <- 220 0.00
0 0 0 <- 210 000
10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 <- 210 0.50
10 0 0 <= 220 .00
0 0 0 <= 210 G00
10 0 0 <= 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 000
10 0 0 < 220 0.00
0 0 0- 210 000
10 0 0 < 220 0.00
0 0 0 < 210 0.00
10 0 0 <- 220 0.00
0 0 0 <= 210 -00
10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 <- 210 000
10 0 0 220 0.00
0 0 0 <- 210 0.00
10 0 0 <- 220 000
0 0 0 < 210 0.21
10 0 0 <= 220 000
0 0 0 <= 210 000
10 0 0 <= 220 000
0 0 0 <- 210 000
0 0 0 < 480 -0.00
0 0 40 0480 .00
0 0 0 <- 0 039
0 0 0 >- 1300 -30
0 0 0 <. 0 081
0 0 0 >= 200 -81
0 0 0 < 0 1.00
0 0 0 >2 53 -1.00
1 0 0 <* 2 0.00
480 1 1 <- 0 0.00
0 1 0 >- 385 -00
0 0 0 < 90 000
0 0 0 <- 0 0.00
0 0 412 <- 0 -00
0 0 0 <- 0 000
0 0 0 >- 110 400
0 0 0 >= 90 -00


64801 900 282 1380.00 0.00 000 000 057 20000 000 092 5100 3808 2.35 000 000 7.32 23.34 19g 110.00 90.00 078 3800 000
0.00 0.00 00 -15 -1S6 -11.93 000 0.00 -061 0.00 000 0.00 000 -11300 -110 000 000 0.00 000 00 00 00 000 0.00


SOLUTIONS











REFERENCES

Carr, S.J. 1993. Improving cash crops in Africa. World Bank

technical paper # 216. The World Bank. Washington, D.C.



Celis,R., J.T. Milino, and S. Wanmali (eds.). 1991. Adopting

improved farm technology: a study of smallholder farmers in

Eastern Province, Zambia. IFPRI, Washington, D.C.



Hildebrand, P.E. 1986. (eds.) Farming systems research and

extension. Linme Reinner Publishers, Inc., Boulder,

Colorado.



Hazell, P.B.R. and D. Norton. 1986. Mathematical programming for

economic analysis in agriculture. MacMillan Publishing Co.

New. York.



Statistical Office. 1989. Agricultural and Pastoral Production.

Lusaka. Republic of Zambia.



Skjonsberg, E. 1989. Change in an African village. Kumarian

Press. Hartford. Conn.



Terry, E.R., E.V. Doku, O.B. Arene, and N.M. Mahungu (eds.).

1984. Tropical root crops: Production and uses in Africa.

International Society for Tropical Root Crops. Africa

Branch, Ibadan NG.




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