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 Abstract
 Introduction
 Materials and methods
 Results and discussion
 Conclusions
 References






Title: Field fertilization trails of four selected spices
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075674/00001
 Material Information
Title: Field fertilization trails of four selected spices
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Angell, Samuel Hunt
French, E. C.
Hildebrand, Peter E.
Blue, W. G.
Whitty, E. B.
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1990
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075674
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 122269500

Table of Contents
    Abstract
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Materials and methods
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Results and discussion
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Conclusions
        Page 8
    References
        Page 9
Full Text




FIELD FERTILIZATION TRIALS OF FOUR SELECTED SPICES

S. H. Angelli, E. C. French2, P. E. Hildebrand3,
W. G. Blue4, and E. B. Whitty2 3,






ABSTRACT

Dry matter yield (DMY) is one of several important factors to
consider in developing spices as a commercial field-grown crop.
The objective of the experiments conducted with 4 species is to
determine the effects of N, K, and micronutrients (alone and in
combination) on the DMY of the spices. The spices under
consideration are Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Oricanum majorana
(sweet marjoram), Oricanum onites (pot marjoram), and Origanum
vulgare (oregano). Field fertilization trials were established at
the University of Florida involving four levels of N and three
levels of K in a complete factorial design, and one level of a
micronutrient package. Regression analysis of DMY indicates that
spices responded most favorably to 168 and 252 kg N ha-1 in
combination with 168 kg K ha"1 or alone, depending on the specie.
Plants responded poorly to K treatments when not in combination
with N. Highest DMY of pot marjoram was obtained when micro-
nutrients were applied in combination with N and K.








Additional index words: Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana,
Oricanum onites, Origanum vulgare, Dry Matter Yield, Nitrogen,
Potassium.







1 Graduate student, Dept. of Agronomy, Univ. of Florida.
2Professor, Dept. of Agronomy, Univ. of Florida.
SProfessor, Dept. of Food and Resource Economics, Univ. of
Florida.
4 Professor, Dept. of Soil Science, Univ. of Florida.









INTRODUCTION


The United States is currently the world's largest consumer
of spices, and yet only a small percentage of those spices are
produced domestically. The total consumption of spices in the U.S.
is 282,000 metric tons, or over 1 kg dry weight per person per year
(Landes, 1987). Americans spend almost 2 billion dollars annually
on spices (Burns, 1985). Investigations have shown that per capital
spice consumption is inelastic, with increases in demand stemming
from rises in population (Landes, 1987). The U.S. is potential
a large market for any spice producer, foreign or domestic. Most
of the world's spice production takes place in the Mediterranean
countries of Europe. For farmers in these countries, spice trade
has been an important part of their economic well-being for
centuries. It has been shown through survey that the sale of herbs
and spices is a primary source of income for many small farmers in
St. Thomas and St. Croix, the U.S. Virgin Islands (French, personal
communication).

There is very little research currently being conducted
concerning the production of these spices. Research is the first
step to estimating economic benefit to farmers in the U.S. and
Caribbean. Development of nutrient response models is an important
part of improving spice production under varying environments. Dry
matter yield, presented in this paper, will be used in part for the
development of nutrient response models.



MATERIALS and METHODS

Research Site

Four individual experiments were conducted on Gross Arenic
Paleudult soils at the University of Florida's Green Acres Research
Unit, which is located 13 miles west of Gainesville. Field pH was
on average 6.4. Pre-transplant blanket application of magnesium
sulfate as Epsom salts was performed at a rate of 224 Kg ha".
Water was applied with overhead irrigation as needed throughout the
growing season. Weeding was done by hand and with rototiller
throughout the year.


Experimental Design

The four experiments were conducted using a randomized
complete block design, with 14 treatments and 4 replications per
specie. The N, K, and NK treatments were arranged in a 3*4
complete factorial with a micronutrient package added at 2 separate
NK levels. Sixteen plants per treatment plot per specie were
transplanted in a 4*4 plant arrangement, 30 cm on center, each plot
being 1.44 m .









INTRODUCTION


The United States is currently the world's largest consumer
of spices, and yet only a small percentage of those spices are
produced domestically. The total consumption of spices in the U.S.
is 282,000 metric tons, or over 1 kg dry weight per person per year
(Landes, 1987). Americans spend almost 2 billion dollars annually
on spices (Burns, 1985). Investigations have shown that per capital
spice consumption is inelastic, with increases in demand stemming
from rises in population (Landes, 1987). The U.S. is potential
a large market for any spice producer, foreign or domestic. Most
of the world's spice production takes place in the Mediterranean
countries of Europe. For farmers in these countries, spice trade
has been an important part of their economic well-being for
centuries. It has been shown through survey that the sale of herbs
and spices is a primary source of income for many small farmers in
St. Thomas and St. Croix, the U.S. Virgin Islands (French, personal
communication).

There is very little research currently being conducted
concerning the production of these spices. Research is the first
step to estimating economic benefit to farmers in the U.S. and
Caribbean. Development of nutrient response models is an important
part of improving spice production under varying environments. Dry
matter yield, presented in this paper, will be used in part for the
development of nutrient response models.



MATERIALS and METHODS

Research Site

Four individual experiments were conducted on Gross Arenic
Paleudult soils at the University of Florida's Green Acres Research
Unit, which is located 13 miles west of Gainesville. Field pH was
on average 6.4. Pre-transplant blanket application of magnesium
sulfate as Epsom salts was performed at a rate of 224 Kg ha".
Water was applied with overhead irrigation as needed throughout the
growing season. Weeding was done by hand and with rototiller
throughout the year.


Experimental Design

The four experiments were conducted using a randomized
complete block design, with 14 treatments and 4 replications per
specie. The N, K, and NK treatments were arranged in a 3*4
complete factorial with a micronutrient package added at 2 separate
NK levels. Sixteen plants per treatment plot per specie were
transplanted in a 4*4 plant arrangement, 30 cm on center, each plot
being 1.44 m .









Fertilizer Treatments

Fertilization treatments were the same for all species (Table
1). Nitrogen was supplied as ammonium nitrate (34% N), potassium
as muriate of potash (51% K), and micronutrients as a package at
a rate of 67 Kg ha'1 (see Table 1 for amount of individual micro-
nutrients applied). Fertilizer was mixed with 250 g sand and
applied by hand to individual treatment plots. Four split
applications were applied, the first after transplant with
subsequent applications after each harvest, or every 8 wks,
whichever came first. A fifth fertilizer application was made
prior to harvest #2 on 18 May 1990 for pot marjoram.


Table 1. Fertilizer treatment


Treatment
niinmbipr


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
13a.


Treatment
N P K
---- kg ha ---


0
84
84
84
168
168
168
252
252
252
0
0
252
168


- 0
- 0


0
0
- 84
- 168
0
- 84
- 168
0
- 84
- 168
- 84
- 168
- 168
- 84


Element


+ micros+
+ micros'


kg ha"'


Micronutrient package:


CU .......
Mn........
Fe........
S.... ..
mg .......
Zn ........
B. . ...
Mo. ......


....0.168
....1.55
....2.49
*... 6.7
....6.22
...0.48
....0.017
... .0.001


Annuals

Sweet Basil. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was planted from
seed on 17 February 1989 into Metromix 300 growth medium in
Speedling trays (72 cells/tray) washed in 5% Clorox solution.
Plants were grown for 5 weeks in a greenhouse environment. On 24
March, plants were transplanted into the field and topped above









the second node. Fertilizer amendments were made on 22 April,
25 May, 1 July, and 8 August. Four center plants of each plot were
harvested by hand at the onset of flowering 16 cm above ground on
23 May, 28 & 29 June, 2 August, and 4 October. Due to highly
variable yields, the fourth harvest was omitted from the data
presented. Following harvest, plants were washed in distilled
water, air dried, and separated into flowers (flowers considered
to be raceme material above lowest floret), leaves (including
petiole) and stems (remaining portion). The material was placed
in separate air-tight plastic bags with a moist paper towel to
allow moisture content in fresh plant material to equilibrate at
150C for 24-48 h. Following equilibrium, fresh weights were
recorded, and a subsequent FW subsample was taken and weighed.
The subsample was dried at 50'C for 48 h in a forced-air oven for
determination of percent dry matter (% dry matter = dry wt
subsample/FW subsample). Regression analysis was performed on the
dry matter yield (DMY) of N and K treatment means, with DMY = %
DM*fresh wt.*26.9. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on
micronutrient treatments.


Sweet Marjoram. Sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) was planted
from seed on 26 February 1989 into Metromix 250 growth medium
contained in washed Speedling trays. Plants were removed from the
greenhouse environment and transplanted in the field on 14 April.
Fertilizer treatments were applied 5 May, 1 July, 29 September, and
20 November. Four center plants in each plot were harvested by
hand 8 cm above ground after the initiation of flowering on
30 June, 14 September, and 18 November. Field weights were
recorded and plants were washed in distilled water and air dried.
Whole plant samples were then put in 'Zip-Lock' plastic bags with
moistened towel and held at 15*C for 24-48 h to attain moisture
equilibrium. Fresh weight was recorded and a subsample taken and
dried for 48 h at 120'C in a forced-air oven. Regression was run
on DMY treatment means and ANOVA performed on treatments 10 and 13,
6 and 13a.


Perennials

Pot Marioram. Pot marjoram (Origanum onites L.) was propagated
vegetatively from existing germplasm on 19 & 20 February 1989.
Samples were cut, dipped in Hormatid root hormone, and placed in
Metromix 300 potting soil contained in washed Speedling trays.
Cuttings were allowed to root 6 wks in a greenhouse and
transplanted to the field 12 April 1989. Fertilizer treatments
were applied to all plots 22 April, 2 July, 28 August, and 6
November in 1989 and on 18 May and 12 July 1990. Areas of 0.84 m2
were harvested 5.2 cm above the ground surface with a gas powered
hedge clipper modified with an aluminum catchpan. Harvests
occurred on 22 December 1989 and 17 May 1990. Field weights, FW,
SSW, and DW were recorded after harvest. Regression was run on
treatment DMY means and ANOVA performed on micronutrient and
corresponding NK treatments.









Oregano. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) was propagated vegetatively
from existing germplasm on 21 February 1989. Plant samples were
cut, dipped in Hormatid root hormone and placed directly into
Metromix 300 potting soil in washed Speedling trays. Cuttings were
transplanted from the greenhouse to the field on 1 April 1989.
Fertilizer treatments were applied to all plots 22 April, 30 June,
8 August, and 6 November. Plants were harvested 5.2 cm above
ground with modified hedger over 0.84 m2 on 19 November 1989.
Field weights, FW, SSW, and DW were recorded. Regression was run
on treatment DMY means and ANOVA performed on micronutrient and
corresponding N, K treatments.



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Sweet Basil. Nitrogen treatments without K had DMY consistently
below treatments with NK together (Fig. 1). Nitrogen treatments
with K = 84 Kg ha'' showed DMYs consistently above those treatments
where K = 0 or K = 168 Kg ha'1. With all K treatments, DMYs were
lowest when N = 0 and peaked when N = 200. A sharp increase in
basil yield resulting from the application of N was measured by
Putievsky and Basker in 1977. It has been suggested that basil
responds most favorably to the interaction of N and K (Simon,
1987). Dry matter yield declined significantly at the fourth
harvest (P = .05), and treatment DMYs were inconsistent. For these
reasons, the fourth harvest was not considered in the regression
analysis. Putievsky and Basker (1987) noted that their final basil
harvest was half that of their penultimate harvest. Treatments
involving the micronutrients were not significantly different
(P = .05) from those same NK treatments without micronutrients or
from each other (Table 2).


Table 2. Response of selected spices to N, K treatments with and
without applied micronutrients
Treatments Dry matter yield
Specie N P K With micros Without micros
--------------- kg ha---------------------
Basil 252 0 168 4360.0az* 5100.Oz
168 0 84 2760.3az 4253.6z

Sweet marjoram 252 0 168 348.6az 312.8z
168 0 84 311.6az 506.1z

Pot marjoram 252 0 168 1963.6az 1838.1z
168 0 84 1368.1bz 1581.6z

Oregano 252 0 168 652.6az 929.1z
168 0 84 826.5az 600.9z

+ Using Duncan's Multiple Range Test, means within each column and
row followed by the same letter are not statistically different
(P < 0.05).











S5000

NK + MICRO'S A
34000

c 3000 NK + MICRO'S $
K=O
2000 $
K=84
a 1000 --A
K=168
0 I I I I I I I I I I I
0 40 80 120 160 200 240
NITROGEN, Kg ha"1

Fig. 1. Basil mean dry matter yield regression of N, K, and micro-
nutrient fertilizer treatments. Data totals means of 1 year's
growth (3 harvests) in 1989.


Sweet Marioram. At the low N levels (N < 75 Kg ha'1), regression
analysis indicates that high K treatments yielded better than low
K treatments (Fig. 2). As N increased above 75 Kg ha"I, the DMYs
of the lowest K treatment exceed those of the two higher K
treatments. Maximum DMY was obtained with treatment #8. When
K = 84 Kg ha-1, the plants responded in a manner similar to the
basil, with DMY peaking at 190 Kg N ha'1. The interaction between
N and K is strong. Lowest DMY was obtained at high NK combina-
tions. Treatment DMYs involving the micronutrients were not
significantly different from each other or from the corresponding
treatments without micronutrients (Table 2).


Pot marjoram. Lowest DMYs were obtained across all N trts when
K = 0 Kg ha 1, while highest DMYs were obtained across all N
treatments when K = 168 Kg ha"' (Fig. 3). Similar to the basil and
sweet marjoram (when K = 84 Kg ha' yields of all K treatments
were optimal when N = 190 Kg ha Yield declined at levels
exceeding 190 Kg ha'1. The difference between the micronutrient
treatments was significant at P = 0.05. While the micronutrients
increased yields at the 252-0-168 level, the difference was not
significant (Table 2).


Oregano. As with the pot marjoram, highest oregano DMY was
attained with K = 168 Kg ha'1 across all N levels except when N < 25
Kg ha"' (Fig. 4). Dry matter yield never attained maximum yield at
K = 168 Kg ha"1. Lowest DMY occurred when K < 84 Kg ha I, no matter












700,


600

5 500




300

S200


K 168
0 I l l I I l I
0 40 80 120 160 200 240
NITROGEN, Kg ha1

Fig. 2. Sweet marjoram mean dry matter yield regression of N, K,
and micronutrient fertilizer treatments. Data totals means of 1
year's growth (3 harvests) in 1989.


2000
r*


. 1500



C1000



> 500


u I I I I I I i I I I I
0 40 80 120 160 200 240

NITROGEN, Kg ha1

Fig. 3. Pot marjoram mean dry matter yield regression of N, K, and
micronutrient fertilizer treatments. Data totals means of 1 year's
growth (2 harvests) in 1989 and 1990.


NK + MICRO'S $
K=O

K ---8---
K,84


K=O
--$--
K=84

K=168











r" INK + MICRO'S $
S800
S< NK+ MICRO'S A

W 600 -


400 K O
2 r --$---
C 200 K= 84

K= 168
0 T 1
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
NITROGEN, Kg ha1
Fig. 4. Oregano dry matter yield regression of N, K, and micro-
nutrient fertilizer treatments. Data totals means of 1 year's
growth (1 harvest) in 1989.


the level of N. Similar to the other spices tested, DMYs at K = 0
and 84 Kg ha peaked around 200 Kg N ha Pot marjoram and oregano
are genetically very similar with similar growth habits, and both
persist from year to year under field conditions. This may in part
explain the similar positive response to the high K level of 168
Kg ha"1. Yield of pot marjoram was almost double that of oregano,
which is somewhat less erect and vigorous. Micronutrient DMYs were
not significantly different from each other or from corresponding
treatments.



CONCLUSIONS

1. Dry matter Xield of spices tested maximized at approximately
200 Kg N ha for all K levels in most cases, while lowest DMY
resulted from no applied N.

2. Maximum yield of sweet marjoram and oregano were not attained
for K = 84 and 168, respectively. These results indicate that
higher DMY could be achieved by applying N above the 252 Kg
ha level used in this test at the elevated K levels.

3. High DMYs were attained by oregano, pot marjoram, and basil
at the highest K rates (168 and 84 Kg ha ), whereas the lowest
DMY was attained by sweet marjoram at K = 168 Kg ha"' with
applied nitrogen.









4. Sweet marjoram attained highest DMYs with increasing N and
K = 0.

5. The addition of micronutrients did not significantly influence
yield positively or negatively compared to the comparable
micronutrient treatments. However, the lowest yields attained
by basil and pot marjoram resulted from the addition of
micronutrients with 168 Kg ha-1 N and 84 Kg ha'1 K.



REFERENCES

Burns, T. F. 1985. The economic significance of the American
spice industry. American Spice Trade Association. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ.

Landes, P. 1987. Reflections of the American spice industry.
Botanical Marketing. KHL Flavors. Maspeth, NY.

Putievsky, E., and D. Basker. 1977. Experimental cultivation of
marjoram, oregano, and basil. Journal of Horticultural
Sciences 52:181-188.

Simon, J. 1987. Sweet basil: a production guide. Dept. of
Horticulture. Purdue University Cooperative Extension
Service. West Lafayatte, IN.

Tucker, A. 0., and M. J. Maciarello. 1984. Trends in the U.S.
importation of herbs and spices. Dept. of Agriculture and
Natural Resources. Delaware State College. Dover, DE.




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