• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Summary
 1. Description of Kefa Village,...
 3. Characteristics of the small...
 4. Criteria for evaluation of the...
 5. Description of production components...
 6. The alternatives to improve...
 7. Linear programming - considerations...
 Conclusion
 References
 Appendix














Title: Economic analysis of small farm systems
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075660/00001
 Material Information
Title: Economic analysis of small farm systems with reference to the Kefa family farm in Kefa Village, Zambia
Series Title: Economic analysis of small farm systems
Physical Description: 1 v. (various leaves) : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Slinger, Vanessa
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural systems -- Zambia   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Research -- Zambia   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Zambia
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographic references (leaf 15).
Statement of Responsibility: Vanessa Slinger.
General Note: "April, 1995."
General Note: "AEB 6933, Professor: Dr. P. Hildebrand."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075660
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 83801020

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Summary
        Page 2
    1. Description of Kefa Village, Zambia
        Page 3 (MULTIPLE)
    3. Characteristics of the small scale Banwa family farm
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    4. Criteria for evaluation of the alternatives
        Page 7
    5. Description of production components and constraints used
        Page 8
        Page 9
    6. The alternatives to improve the Banwa family's revenue
        Page 10
    7. Linear programming - considerations and results
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Conclusion
        Page 14
        Page 15
    References
        Page 16
    Appendix
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
Full Text











Economic Analysis of Small Farm Systems:
With reference to the Kefa family farm in Kefa Village, Zambia
AEB 6933
Professor: Dr.P.Hildebrand



Student: Vanessa Slinger













April, 1995


Cf








Summer


1 Description of Kefa Village region, Zambia

2 A Case Study Description of the Banwa Family of Kefa Village

3 Characterization of the Small Scale Banwa Family Farm

Goals for the Banwa Family

Production System of the Banwa Family

Family Consumption, spending and social obligations

4 Criteria for Evaluation of the Alternatives

5 Description of the Production Components and Constraints

Local maize
Groundnut
Millet
Beans
Tobacco

6 The Alternatives to Improve the Banwa Family's Revenue

Hybrid maize
Oxen labor
Cotton
Cotton and Hybrid maize
Production Components and Constraints of the alternatives

7 Linear Programming for the Banwa Family Farm -Constraints and Results

Presentation of the Banwa Farm Linear Programming Simulation

Presentation of the Banwa Farm Alternatives

8 Conclusions

9 References

10 Appendix







1. Description of Kefa Village. Zambia


Kefa is a small village located in Eastern Zambia, Africa. The village consists of a

total of 250 village residents who mainly grow food for subsistence and a little for sale.

There are neighboring villages in which some of the produce is sold. The major components

of the agricultural systems of these residents are:- food crops (including maize, millet,

groundnut, sweet potato, and beans), vegetable crops (including pumpkin, cucumber, and

tomato), fruit crops (including bananas and melons), animals (including pigs, cows, goats,

and chickens), and cash crops (such as cotton and sunflower seeds). Kefa is a village

undergoing change due to political and economic forces. The effects of these forces have

been seen in the loss in the traditional rural way of life (Skjonsberg, 1989).


2. A Case Study:
Description of the Banwa family of Kefa Village, Zambia


The following project is a case study of one family from the Kefa region. The Banwa

family farm is located in the western region of Kefa village (see diagram in appendix). The

close location of their house to the trail that leads to the main road makes it more convenient

for the transportation of any produce to other villages. The Banwas live in a square hut.

Eventually their house will be rebuilt into a brick house with the assistance of their fellow

residents.

The Banwa family consists of 6 members: Nige Banwa, the father, is 45 years old,

Jensuna Munta, mother and second wife, is 32 years old, and their three children,

Lisena(17), Potu(9), and Varuna(7). Geno Tsun (19), the son of Nige Banwa's first wife,

has become a member of the Banwa household since his mother died and he had to give up







the small plot of land and all the possessions to pay off his mother's outstanding debts and

her funeral costs.

3. Characteristics of the Small Scale Banwa Family Farm

Goals and Objectives of the Banwa family

In reference to small scale farms, Hildebrand (1990) stated that these farms focus on

the home first before undertaking commercial production. The Banwa family farm

exemplifies this characteristic of small scale farms. Like many other small farmers, they

have the primary goal of obtaining a subsistence living. It is only after the basic food and

maintenance requirements of the family have been met that the surplus is considered for sale.

After subsistence requirements have been achieved the family can look at ways of improving

their production system.

The Banwa family as a whole want to increase their income. Individual members of

the family have different reasons for wanting to do so. Geno Tsun, Nige's son by his first

wife, wants to increase his income so that eventually he will be able to obtain land of his

own, set up a farm, and get married. Jensuna wants to be able to send both of her younger

children to school on a consistent basis. At present there are periods when she cannot afford

to send them to school.

Lisena is going to be married in the near future. The Banwa family are an integral

part of the village society. As such, they aim to celebrate special occasions such as

weddings and funerals in the traditional village manner by supplying a gala feast for the

guests. Nige is concerned about having sufficient resources for the wedding and to give to

her future in-laws. In addition to the money or resources needed for Lisena's marriage,

Nige needs money to buy the materials for the rebuilding of their house.








The Banwa family face the constraint of being small scale farmers. Both cash and

labor are limiting factors. They are interested in a labor saving device however, piecework

is not sufficient. They could sell their cows and buy oxen with the available cash. It is

anticipated that the use of the oxen to prepare, plant and weed the fields will considerably

reduce the time for agriculture. However, if they sell the cows they will sacrifice milk

produced by the cows for sale.

They have little credit and have not been able to secure a loan from the local lending

institutions. Another limiting factor is that Nige, the head of the household and main

decision maker, is skeptical about new technology, such as hybrid maize. Geno, however, is

very excited about using the hybrid varieties.

Jensuna is considering growing cotton. Although it pays well, she will have to

depend on the local cooperative, which is considered to be inefficient, to sell her crop.

Meanwhile, it is also difficult to get the extension agents, who teach people about cotton

growing, out to the farm.

Production System of the Banwa family

The production system of the Banwa family is fairly simple. Jensuna, wife and

mother, and Lisena, the oldest daughter (for the purpose of this study Lisena is considered an

adult female), have the main responsibility of clearing and preparing the land. The two adult

males of the household, Nige and Geno, sometimes help the women in this task. The Banwa

family have access to 4.5 hectares of land in Kefa village. This land is cleared for the

planting of maize, groundnut, millet, beans, and tobacco. Part of this land is also used to

cultivate a vegetable garden consisting of pumpkin and cucumber. A negligible amount of

pawpaw is collected off of the tree located near to the house.








Both the adult women and the adult men plant and weed (twice a year) the crops.

The adult women, with the help of the adult men, harvest the maize, groundnut, millet, and

beans. The tobacco is for Nige's personal consumption and sometimes he gives some

tobacco as gifts. Only Nige harvests the tobacco. All of the work in the vegetable garden,

including preparing the land, planting, weeding, and harvesting is done by the adult men.

Feeding, milking, and herding of the livestock is the responsibility of the adult men. Potu,

the young boy, assists in the herding of the livestock.

The adult women are responsible for all domestic tasks including preparing the maize,

cooking, child care, firewood collection, taking the maize to the mill, the brewing of beer,

and water collection. The two younger children, Potu and Varuna, also help in this last

activity. The firewood is collected from the forest areas around the village. Both Nige and

Jensuna contribute to the building of houses for other residents. The two adult men complete

any house repairs on their own house that are necessary.

Family Consumption, Spending and Social Obligations.

Annually the Banwa family farm produces maize, groundnut, millet, beans, and

tobacco. Their livestock consists of cows and chickens. The maize groundnut, millet, and

beans are mainly used for household consumption. The maize and millet are also used by

Jensuna to brew beer which she sells. This is Jensuna's main source of income. With this

money she purchases domestic items, such as pots and utensils, pays for schooling and

uniforms for Potu and Varuna, covers any health and medical expenses, buys paraffin,

matches, soap, salt and sugar and pays to grind the maize at the mill. Any excess maize,

groundnut, and millet are sold at the local market by Nige or Geno.








Some of the produce from the vegetable garden is sold in the market. This entails

Nige or Geno biking to the surrounding villages. The income derived from the sale of the

vegetables is controlled by Nige. Some produce from the garden goes to household

consumption (in the form of relish). All crop residues are either put back on the field as

manure or fed to the livestock.

Nige also obtains income from the sale of milk from the cows. He has an agreement

with a neighbor, Surkin Alam, by which Surkin's bull mates with Nige's cow and the

offspring is given to Surkin. The chickens, kept for household use only, are used to flavor

the relish. With the money that Nige makes from the sale of milk and the produce from the

vegetable garden he buys beer (he is only given a certain amount from his wife's supply),

obtains seeds when necessary, and contributes materials to house repairs.



4. Criteria for evaluation of the alternatives

When making recommendations for small farmers it is important to consider the many

limitations that they face. While the objective function used in the linear programming

maximizes income (of the family, male and female), other social, economic and political

factors, such as poor extension programs, social hierarchy and fluctuating prices, must be

kept in mind. These influencing agents may make the implementation of the alternatives

challenging, if not totally unrealistic, even if there is the possibility of increasing revenue.

The gender disaggregating tools (Figures 1 -4) allow the researcher to understand the

power structure within the family. It is critical to consider the family hierarchy before

suggesting and implementing alternatives. Some alternatives could cause a shift in the power

dynamics and upset relationships between family members. Power structures may vary








between families within a region. In this case recommendations can be made on a situation

specific basis. As suggested by Poats (1989), this sort of analysis will help protect research

from errors of inefficiency or inequity in outcomes.



5. Description of production components and constraints used

Linear Programming.

LOCAL MAIZE Maize is a major staple crop for the Banwa family. Jensuna, the

wife, also uses maize in beer production. The maize has to be pounded and taken to the mill

every month to be ground. Mostly the seeds from the previous year is used for the following

planting, however, sometimes new seed are bought. Grinding at the mill costs K.2 per

month. The consumption constraints for the family are: a total of 2194.5 kg of maize for the

family per year (399 kg per adult (x5)& 199.5 per child (xl) and 35 kg of maize per drum of

beer produced). Surplus maize will be sold at a price of K0.083.



GROUNDNUT Groundnut require a lot of work. Therefore only a small area is put

under groundnut. Like maize, the seeds from the crop of the previous year are used in

planting, as well as new seeds are bought. Consumption by the family is as follows: 258.5

kg/year (47 kg per adult /year (x5) & 23.5 kg per child /year (xl)). Any excess is sold at

the market price of KO.17.



MILLET Millet is grow as a staple crop. It is not as popular as maize. The family

consumes the following amount: 130 kg per year (23.84 kg per adult (x5) & 10.8 per child

(xl)). Jensuna uses 35 kg of millet per drum of beer.







BEANS The Banwa family only grow beans for their consumption. The family

consumes 56 kg of beans per year (roughly 1.1 kg /week). They do not sell any beans.



TOBACCO Tobacco is also only grown for consumption. Nige produces 75

kg/year for his own use and as gifts to his friends.



BEER Beer is produced using maize (35 kg per drum)and millet (35 kg per drum).

Each beer making session produces one and a half drums of beer. The family consumes

and/or gives away 0.5 drum of that produced. One drum of beer sells for K26.25.



MILK Each cow produces 1.25 bottles of milk. The cows are milked for only 9

months of the year. They rest, breed and reproduce in the other 3 months. The Banwa

family consumes 337.5 bottles of milk per year (30 days per month x 9 months x 1.25

bottles). Surplus milk is sold to neighbors for K0.22/bottle.



CUCUMBERS Cucumbers are grown in the dambo garden. They are consumed by

the family and if there is any surplus it is sold to neighboring villages. 200 kg of cucumbers

are consumed by the Banwas every year. If sold the cucumbers receive a price of K0.04.



PUMPKIN Like cucumbers, pumpkin is grown in the dambo gardens and consumed

by the family. This consumption equals 500 kg per year for the family. Excess sold in near

villages earns K0.06.







LABOR In most months the females work for 7 hours/day and 6 days/week. The

males work, depending on the month between 3 to 5 hours/day and 6 days/week. In January

the amount of labor for both the female and male decreases due to the heavy rains.



6. The Alternatives to Improve the Banwa family's Revenue

A) Nige Banwa, as an older resident of Kefa Village, is skeptical of the new high

yielding varieties of maize. He has always grown the local maize. Geno, however, young

and enthusiastic, is eager to grow the hybrid maize that requires special seeds, fertilizer, and

irrigation. Geno has suggested to Nige that they use the money made from the sale of the

vegetables, excess crops and the milk to invest in hybrid maize production.

B) Nige Banwa could trade his cows for an oxen which he could use the plough, plant

and weed the land. In this case, he would lose the milk sales but on the other hand the

amount of time taken for ploughing will decrease with the use of the oxen for labor.

C) A cotton growing alternative will be considered for the adult females. Presently

the only source of income for the females is from the sale of beer. However, the growing of

cotton requires increased labor, as well as external inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides

and insecticides.



Production Components and Constraint of the Alternatives

HYBRID MAIZE Hybrid maize gives double the yield of local maize, however,

fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides are necessary to receive the benefits of these yields.

Consumption constraints on hybrid maize are the same as on local maize. Hybrid maize is

considered as an alternate activity in the farm production system.







COTTON Cotton is a cash crop not presently grown by the Banwa family. It is

considered as an alternate in the production system. Cotton is a cash crop only. It receives

K516 in sale. Cotton requires external inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, insecticides and

pesticides. It is sold through the Cooperative Union which is not considered efficient and it

relies on national and international markets that are not always reliable.



OXEN LABOR Another alternative that is considered is the use of oxen labor in

agriculture to replace or combine with manual labor. An oxen costs K67.25. In the case of

this alternative Nige would sell some cows in order to pay for the oxen. However, selling

the cows will reduce the amount of milk available for sale. Teams of 2 oxen could work the

land.

7. Linear programming Considerations and Results

The complexity of small-farm systems is evident from the interactions between the

system's components and the amount of information needed to build the linear programming

matrix. The linear programming simulation for the Banwa farm is realistic (Table 2). The

family is concentrating on meeting subsistence needs first. They produce beer, milk and

pumpkin for subsistence and to sell, and maize, groundnut, millet, beans, cucumber and

tobacco for subsistence.

An end of the year cash transfer restriction was built into the linear programming

model in order to ensure that the family has cash to begin production the following year.

Labor was divided on a monthly basis in order to observe labor constraints for each month.

The units used are: K kwachaa) for capital, day of work for labor, hectares (ha) for land,

Kilograms per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr) for production and Kilogram per year (kg/yr) for







consumption. There are results for the linear programming models for the farm simulation

and the alternatives for which the family's income is optimized, the male's income is

optimized and the female's income is optimized. This is important in order to see the effect

that the alternatives have on the different genders. This comes back to the importance of

considering power structures in families before making recommendations.

Linear programming shows great potential in simulating reality. The resulting farm

simulation could easily be conceived as another case study in Skjonsberg's book (1989)

"Change in an African Village: Kefa Speaks". The constraints, labor and capital in the case

of the Banwa family, under which small scale farmers produce become very apparent. Many

crops are, realistically, only grown for consumption.

At first, all of the alternatives were run separately. The alternatives with hybrid

maize and cotton were combined so that the linear program could choose the best alternative.

I attempted, unsuccessfully to combine the oxen labor alternative with the hybrid and cotton

alternatives. The program in quattro pro 3.0 was unable to do this and gave me the message

"too many iterations". Table 1 is a summary of the results (including total land area used,

constraints and production) for all of the alternatives considered (Farm simulation, hybrid

maize, oxen labor, cotton, hybrid maize and cotton).

Optimizing revenue for the male severely limits the revenue for the female. This

could have a negative impact on the health and education of the children since the female

pays for their school, medicine and health care. Based on this I looked at optimizing family

income and at the same time increasing the revenue for both the males and the females.

All of the alternatives presented increase the total revenue of the family some more

than others. In the first alternative (Table 3a) hybrid maize is produced but not sold. Cash







for inputs is limited for both the male and the female and labor is limited in four months of

the year. There is a small increase in revenue with this alternative. I would not recommend

this alternative for the Banwa family since the hybrid maize produced is not for sale. On the

whole in many regions of Zambia farmers grow local maize for their own consumption and

sell hybrid maize because hybrid maize varieties do not store as well and require milling.

Local varieties can be processed at home (Kumar, 1994).

The alternative using oxen labor increases family revenue considerably. Land

becomes a limiting factor in this case. It is mostly female labor that is still constraining in

some months. Both oxen and manual labor is used to produce local maize. Ox labor alone

is used to produce groundnuts, beans and tobacco. Manual labor alone is used for millet

production. I consider this a viable alternative because the significant increase in the

family's revenue will contribute to the achievement of many of their goals. Additionally,

when Geno moves away and Lisena gets married labor will become an even greater

constraint until the two younger children can contribute more fully. The use of oxen labor

will substitute for the labor lost when they leave. The revenue of the female decreases a

small amount with this alternative (when family income is optimized) because less beer is

produced and sold. Hence, some of her goals may not be achieved. Realistically land is not

really a constraint because Nige can go to the village headman and ask for a piece of land.

The alternative producing cotton also increases family income. Labor is still limited

in a few months of the year as well as the money for inputs. Optimizing female income for

this alternative seems to increase the income of the males and the females together most. In

adopting this alternative however they would have to consider the negative aspects of dealing

with the inefficient cooperatives.







For the hybrid-cotton alternative once again hybrid maize is produced only for

consumption. The family would not produce hybrid maize just for household consumption.

In addition the male's revenue only increases if male income is optimized. It is highly

unlikely that the Banwa family would adopt this strategy since it does not benefit Nige, the

household head and decision maker.

The family income is increased most using the oxen labor alternative. This

alternative also provides a way of dealing with more labor shortages in the future. Another

factor that makes this alternative more adoptable is that it maintains the power structure

within the household. Nige might resist an alternative that would shift power and money

away from himself.



Conclusion

Besides the alternatives considered to improve the revenue of the Banwa family, the

linear programming points out that there are labor constraints that need to be addressed.

Maybe the family should seriously look at hiring outside neighbour labor as well as using

oxen labor. They would be able to do this with the increased income. Credit is another way

in the future for them.



Improving the use of linear programming in this project.

Although the linear programming matrix is divided into male and female components

I did not separate the children's labor. The children are an important part of the farm

system and it would be useful and interesting to see, through the linear programming models,

their real impact. However, for the sake of time and also due to the lack of available








information they were not considered individually. It would have also been more realistic to

have included intercropping, especially between the beans and the maize, and the beans and

the millet.

There were certain limitations of the use of linear programming in this project. Some

of the numbers in the solution are not in integers. This is sometimes unrealistic for some of

the numbers. For instance the number of cows sold in the alternative with oxen labor is

1.15. This is a limitation of using quattro pro 3.0. This version of quattro pro does not

have a command to output integers. Many of the problems experienced using quattro pro 3.0

were difficult to solve. Other versions of quattro pro (e.g.,quattro pro 6.0) allow for easier

recognition and solving of problems. Despite these limitations quattro pro 3.0 was used due

to its availability. On the whole I would recommend that a higher version of quattro pro is

used in constructing and carrying out linear programming models.







Note: Data used in the Linear Programming Matrix were collected


from the following sources.

Chabala, C & Gichira, R.N. (1991). Zambia-Intrahousehold Dynamics and FSR/E in

Zambia: A case study of traditional recommendation domain 3 in Central Province.

Nair, P.K.R, (1980) Agroforestry species: A crop sheets manual ICRAF.

Statistical Office, Lusaka, Republic of Zambia, (1982-1985). Agricultural and Pastoral

Production (Non-commercial sector).



References

Hildebrand, P. (1990). Economic characteristics of small scale limited-resource farms. In

Perspectives on farming systems research and extension, edited by Peter E.

Hildebrand. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Boulder, Colorado.

Kumar, S.K. (1994). Adoption of Hybrid Maize in Zambia: Affects on Gender Roles, Food

Consumption, and Nutrition. In International Food Policy Research Institute Research

Report 100, Dec 1994.

Poats, S.V., Hilary Sims Feldstein, and Dianne E. Rocheleau, 1989. Gender and Intra/Inter

Household Analysis in Om-Farm Research and Experimentation. In The Household

Economy: Reconsidering The Domestic Mode of Production, edited by Richard R.

Wilk, Boulder:Westview Press.

Skjonsberg, E. (1989). Change in an African village: Kefa speaks. Kumarian press,Inc.USA.

























APPENDIX






DIAGRAM OF KEFA VILLAGE AND THE BANWA FAMILY FARM LOCATION
adapted from Kefa Speaks (Skjonsberg, 1989)









KEFA VILLAGE


The mran ,wg


99

9


'I 9 9
: e oo o


\0 ?.a"<
N 0 T 9e




S .2 s r lo 0) L0GEND .

aI o Mw.


6 O 0 0 e
S^o 0 -
^ \ .a ^) 0. .




I m rik" e / 0 *pgt-.

4 I Q ,,m




0:!o 7 77
00 0 9







ti? 99 9 S


F iut,, 1-


e ToChNpa.


S5 9 q






SCHEMATIC MODEL (BANWA FAMILY)


MARKET


SOCIAL
- FUNERALS
-WEDDINGS
-HEALTH
- EDUCATION


LIVESTOCK

CATTLE
CHICKENS


VEG.GARDEN

PUMPKIN
CUCUMBERS


CROPS

MAIZE
iROUNDNL
MILLET
BEANS
TOBACCO








FIGURE 2 ACTIVITIES ANALYSIS FOR THE BANWA FAMILY


ACTIVITY LABOR PRODUCTION (kg/ha) CONSUMPTION SALE PRICE
days/ha N /KG
(kg/year)
AM AF
Clear
land/prepare 9.5 17
Maize 1192 2194 K0.083
*Plant 1 1.5
*Weed 5 9
*Harvest 2 7
G'nut 750 258.5 K0.17
*Plant 6 8
*Weed 13 13
*Harvest 16 35
Millet 600 130 NOT FOR
*Plant 2 SALE
*Weed 6 6
*Harvest & 1 5
transport
Beans 400 56 NOT FOR
*Plant 4.5 6 SALE
*Weed 13 15
*Harvest 19 32




Vegetab. Cucumbers 2500 200 K0.04
*Plant 11 Pumpkin 3000 500 K0.06
*Weed 13.5
*Harvest 7.5





Other activ. Note: This time was
*cooking 68.5 not included in the
*Child 2.8 matrix. It was
*Repairs 15.2 subtracted from the
*Firewo. 3.8 total time
*Water 10.6 available for the
individuals


LEGEND: AM Adult male
AF Adult female


c children









ACTIVITIES ANALYSIS FOR THE BANWA FAMILY


ACTIVITY LABOR PRODUCTION kg/ha CONSUMPTION SALE PRICE
days/ha kg/year per kg

AM AF

Tobacco
*Plant 1.5 350 75 NOT FOR SALE
*Harvest


Livesto. 4.5
*Feed 1.25 337.5
*Milk BOTTLES/COW/DAY/ BOTTLES/YR k0.22
9 MONTHS

Beer 2
*making 1.5 DRUMS 0.5 DRUM K26.25


LEGEND: AM Adult male
AF Adult female


------- -- -----~----- --`------ ---~ -I- ---~


""'Y ~~


WITsn1 2I -








FIGURE 3 RESOURCE ANALYSIS FOR THE BANWA FAMILY


RESOURCES ACCESS CONTROL NOTES
LAND Both the AM and AF work on the land.
*WHO USES AM/AF AM While they discuss the things that
*HOW TO USE AM/AF AM they will do, it is the AM who has
the ultimate decision.

LABOR Each family member has control over
*OWN AM/AF/C AM/AF/C his/her own labor but the AM decides
*FAMILY AM/AF AM/AF labor allotment for family
production


INPUTS Inputs include seeds, fertilizer,
*PURCHASED AM/AF AM/AF insecticide, manure and pesticide.
*ON FARM AM/AF AM The AM takes care of the livestock
*PRODUCED AM/AF AM/AF so on farm manure is under his
control.


CASH In the farm simulation the only
*FROM CROPS AM AM source of cash for the AF is from
*FROM VEGS AM AM beer sales. With the cotton growing
*FROM BEER AF AF alternative the woman can earn cash
*FROM ANIMALS AM AM from cotton.
*FROM COTTON AF AF


KNOWLEDGE AM/AF/C AM/AF Each family member has a deep
understanding of the traditional
crops and planting techniques. They
make farm based decisions dependant
on this understanding.


EDUCATION C AM/AF The two smallest children go to
school. The AM pays for the
schooling.


LEGEND: AM Adult male
AF Adult female
C Children








FIGURE 4 BENEFITS AND INCENTIVES ANALYSIS FOR THE BANWA FAMILY


ACTIVITIES ACCESS CONTROL USES/CHARACTERISTICS IMPLICATIONS
FOR FSR/E

CROP PRODUCTION In the farm
*MAIZE AM/AF/C AM/AF C,S,D,M simulation AF
*HYBRID MAIZE AM/AF/C AM/AF C,S,C,M income is
GROUNDNUTSS AM/AF/C AM C,S,M limited to
*MILLET AM/AF/C AM/AF C,S,D beer sales.
*BEANS AM/AF/C AM C,S With the
*TOBACCO AM AM C,SA cotton
*COTTON AF/AM AF M alternative AF
have another
way of
obtaining cash


LIVESTOCK The use of the
*MEAT AM/AF/C AM C,SA ox labor
*MILK AM/AF/C AM C,M alternative
*MANURE AM/AF AM I may free up
*OX LABOR AM AM I some of the
labor
constraints of
the family


VEG.GARDEN PROD
*PUMPKIN AM AM C,M
*CUCUMBER AM AM C,M


HOUSEHOLD
PRODUCTION
*BEER AM/AF/C AF C,M
*RELISH AM/AF/C AF C


LEGEND: C- CONSUMPTION
D- DOMESTIC
I- FARM INPUT
M- MARKET SALE
S- STORAGE FOR LATER USE
SA- SOCIAL ACTIVITIES










AEB 633 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF NEAR PROGRAMMING FOR THE BANWA FAMILY


TABLE 1


ACTIVITIES Farm simulation Altemate H.malze pro Alternative w/ox labor cow Alternate -cotton Alternate Hybrid maize & cotton
PROD CON SELL PROD CON SELL PROD Prod w/ox CON SELL sale PROD CON SELL PROD CON SELL
Lmaize 1.99 2194.5 0 1.94 2132.14 0 1.48 2.61 2194.5 2520 1.99 2194.5 0 1.8925 2077.4 0
Lmaize m 1.9 2194.5 0 1.9 2194.5 0 1.637 2.595 2194.5 2783.3 1.865 2164.5 0 1.859 2186.86 0
Lmalze f 1.99 2194.5 0 1.242 1298.45 0 0 2.017 2194.5 0 1.99 2194.5 0 1.96 2194.5 0
G'nut 0.3447 258.5 0 0.3447 259 0 0 0.344667 258.5 0 0.345 258.5 0 0.3447 258.5 0
G'nut m 0.3447 258.5 0 0.3447 259 0 0 0.344 258.5 0 0.345 258.8 0 0.3447 258.5 0
G'nut f 0.3447 258.5 0 0.3447 259 0 0 0.344 258.5 0 0.345 258.5 0 0.3447 258.5 0
Millet 0.51384 130 0.51438 130 0.5004 0 130 0.51 130 0.51 130
Millet m 0.335 130 0.335 130 0.327 0 130 0.204 130 0.265 130
Millet f 0.51364 130 0.5243 130 0 0.57 130 0.51 130 0.51 130
Beans 0.14 56 0.14 58 0 0.14 5m 0.14 58 0.14 58
Beans m 0.14 56 0.14 58 0 0.14 56 0.14 56 0.14 58
Beansf 0.14 58 0.14 56 0 0.14 58 0.14 56 0.14 56
Tobacco 0.214 75 0.214 75 0 0.214 75 0.214 75 0.214 75
Tobacco m 0.214 75 0.214 75 0 0.214 75 0.214 75 0.214 75
Tobacco f 0.214 75 0.214 75 0 0.214 75 0.214 75 0.214 75
Beer drums 5.08 0.5 4.59 5.1 0.5 4.6 5.02 0.5 4.52 5.07 0.5 4.573 5.099 0.5 4.59
Beerm 2.03 0.5 1.535 2.03 0.5 1.53 1.89 0.5 1.39 0.82 0.5 0.318 0.831 0.5 0.3306
Beerf 5.08 0.5 4.59 5.27 0.5 4.77 6.02 0.5 5.52 5.07 0.5 4.573 5.073 0.5 4.5726
Milk cow 3.803 337.5 946 3.85 337.5 983.4 2.85 337.5 824.3 1.15 3.8 337.5 947 3.64 337.5 889.4
Milk m 4.1725 337.5 1071 4.17 337.5 1070.73 2.84 337.5 621.3 1.159 4.24 337.511 1095 4.24 337.5 1.93
Milk 1 337.5 0 2.43 337.5 482.13 1 337.5 0 3 1.439 337.5 148 3.5 337.5 843.9
Cucumber 0.08 200 0 0.06 200 0 0.08 200 0 0.08 200 0 0.08 200 0
Cucumber m 0.06 200 0 0.00 200 0 0.08 200 0 0.06 200 0 0.06 200 0
Cucumberf 0.00 200 0 0.00 200 0 1.05 200 2431.5 0.08 200 0 0.08 200 0
Pumpkin 0.7 500 1602 0.7 500 1602.1 1.11 500 2842 0.7 500 1002 0.723 500 1668.7
Pumpkin m 0.729 500 1885.7 0.73 500 1885.878 1.13 500 2892.23 0.75 500 1758.68 0.727 500 1682
Pumpkin f 1.1886 500 544 1.052 500 2655.344 0.167 500 0 0.167 500 0 0.726 500 1678.74
H.malze 0.02581 62.36 0 0.046 117 0
H.maze m 0 -3.3E-14 0 0.0031 7.64 0
H.maize f 0.371 896.05 0 3.198 0 0
cotton 0.0768 0.0706 0.087 0.067
cotton m 0.060742 0.060742 0.06 0.06
cotton f 0.0706 0.0786 0.078 0.078

OPTIMIZE- Family Male Female Family Male Female Family Male Female Family Male Female Family Male Female


Cash end yr 0
Cash endyr m 0
Cash end yrf 0

424681
Solution 42481
Island 3.97

Ionstralnts labor labor
Jan m sept m
Aprmn Apr m
July f cash f
cashSf


0 0
0 9.7
17.35 0

338.7 120.51
3.739 4.44


25.14 0 8.89
27.58 17.88 9.7
4.438 4.47 0

428.92 338.7 125.31
3.95 3.73 3.96


14.03 0 0
13.45 0 13.45
0 0 0

635.71 541.23 145.03
4.5 4.5 4.5


labor labor labor la labor labor labor
Aprm Novm Sept m Novm Novf Novf Julyf
July f Jan m Aprm Apr m Apr m Apr m cash m
cashm Apr m Cash Julyf Julyf cash
cash$m July f Fan Cash cash cash m
cashfa male cash m cash m
cash female cash f land land land
CashSf


0 18.09 0
0 18.00 0
0 17.35 0

464.11988 348.27 159.57
3.977 3.65 3.44


15.67 0 0
0 0 0
17.35 17.35 0

450.8 341.28 150.58
3.9 3.62 4


labor labor labor labor labor Labor
Jan m Septm Jan m Novm Septm Jan m
Apr m Apr m Aprm Jan m Jan m Aprm
July cash m Julyf Apr m Apr m Julyf
cash fam cash f cash fam July f cash f cash fam
cash cash cash cam cash fa cash f cash m
cashf cash f cash












AESB 00 ECONOMIC ANRLYSB6 I SML FA0M SYSTEMS
LNEMA PFIORAMMAN FO4R TE BMANA FAMILY FAMI


TALE ak


TABLE I FAMs4 S..AION- COFA MEMY P EDO


LMMI2E M2E I 0E W GPNUT GNJT M6E T M1ET BES BEANS TOBACCO TIOBXX A BEER BEER BEER MlA MLK MK CUCULAMERCULUIE CLCuMalIERPUIMPA P.MN1 PLA3W CMAAT CASH CASH H
IANS SELL. RANS SELL 1RANB 1R AN T ANS SELL COW 1RNS SELL TRANS SELL IRANB SELL ENOYR EmC1 END


(knec ( (hm 04 M
OaEC1100 FUNCTIO 0 aam 0 0 a1l 0 0 0 a


0 0 0 0 2 D 0 004 0 0 004 a


1 LAND I
tM1MIW LO4.DM M I
SS7S1446 A.lF 1
&1404W SETM I
0MIMX SEPTF 8
39149x4 OCTM 0
3 6 06 OCTF I
B1630W4 NOrM 2
127I NOVF 4

aI0BoT71 DECM 2
11.4183 DECF 4
0 |JANM i
O2W4aI8 JAF I
aHM FMB 0
0 l FE0F 0
Btu7U7 47 MA4M 0
241ia-Bg IMF 0
10 PRM I



aI lAO F 0
11.4CB3a1Dl fJtfF a



201W7 JUNEM 0
7425404 JUNE F a
14 JULYF 1
3M44W CASHMU4r 10
l KmH CASHWM 6
0W1m354 CAH4N F 4
4CWM 330 CASH.FMI.Y 0
3X7l471 CASWI M 0
129I94162 CASHSF 0
2X20.12 VA2EPBIO 11B
21940 MI2E CO 0
-78 E-15 GROUNDNUT 0
M20s OOUNNUTP 0
IME-lS MLLET PFD. o
130 WIET CO 0





3441E-1S BEER RO 0


4-OTE-I4 I PRO. 0
a SRCON 0
a 338 WXCOMN 0
4sm E-4 CUCUBERP 0


2o40-12 PLImnN 0PR
S20 7PLAMN CON 0


0 0 1 0
0 0 2 0
0 0 3 0
0 0 4 0
o 0 8 0
0 0 4 0
0 0 4 0
0 0 6 0
0 0 5 0
0 0 a 0
0 0 8 0
0 0 3 0
0 0 3 0


0 0 o 0
0 0 0 a
0 0 7 0


o o 16 o
0 0 7 0
0 0 10 0
0 0 4 0
0 0 a 0
0 0 3 0
0 0 6 0



0 0 0 0




1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0



0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0


I 0
1 0
0 0
3 0
3 0
3 0
3 0
4 0
8 0
4 0
6 0
4 0
4 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
7 0
10 0
7 0
10 0
B 0
10 0
2 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
-40 1


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0








0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 D
0 0



0 0 0



0 0 0
0 0 0








o 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0








0 0 0
1 0 0





0 0 0
0 0 0











0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
PO oo
o 0 o o
o o o
o D o o
o o o
o o
DO o
o 0 o
o 0 o o
o 0 o o
o o
o 0 o o


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 D
0 0
0 0
0 o
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0



0 0
0 0

0 079
0 D
0 D
0 0

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 o
0 0
0 0
I o


0 0


0 0



0 0
0 0


0 <- 4. 0
0 <- 6 0


0 < 14 0


0 <- 14 0


0 C( 10 0
0 < 14 0
0 <- 10 0


0 C 14 0
0 <- 10 0
0 <- 14 0
o <- 8 BB
0 <- 8 o

0 <- 10 0


0 <- 10 *BE-6 2
0 0- 14 0
0 <- 10 8

0 < 14 -.1E.-1
0 <- 6 0
0 <- 14 0

0 <- 6 1AXi-1B
0 <- 14 7.aBE-I8
0 <- 14 3357B01
0 <- WB 0


1 <- 18 0
0 >- 1o 17 27.16
0 <- o lOW.E
a I I ME 1



0 >- 21M.5 .012
0 < 0 717431

0 C O1 0770743

S > 130 O2SB3


0 <- 0 0.m
0 >- 175 -1

0 <- 0 2BS5
o >* Bs -alas
0 <- 0 024

0 >- 75 8 02

0 0 0 0104
0 >- 200 .10B

0 >- OO 00B


0 0 0


1001 214 0 0344 M 2 0 134 130 014 N0 021427 5 g 50 5 0 0 4 09 141i 3 07S g 0o 200 0 OI0I 9 S 10020BoB 0 0
424 133h5
0 0 .040W 0 0 Om. 0 0 0 0 0 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40M 0 0 0 -tE1B 1 1E5 aE17












RED OW E340mMI*4f IN0SAL4L FAF SVSI
LINEAR 14.01AMMI FOR 4 THE SWAIFMILY


TABNE Z


TABE I FI JIATION -MALE INCOM 0


LW4ZE MAIZ MAIZE 0M.7 75447 ~50 MILET WI.070 94M04 944440 TOBACC TOBAC BR BR BR MK 44MIL. M0ILK O CUflCMSE C O.CUA40E PLIMPION PL.101Q1 K11.I40 CA04AT CASH CASI RE
15" SELL 107 9. 1BELL 5 TRANS TRANS TRAN TRAN 1 S BELLCO TRANS S1 1RANS 9SELL TRANS SELL E07015 00015 END 0
Oa.t o4 P" ev M4 I4 04


I8W OSWECTME l0 0C14 0 0 0a5 0 a 017
58) OBE.C00 FUNCTIO 0 0 a 0 0 017
(F 1 O.0CTE 0LINCTI1N 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 253 0 0 G0 0 0 00G 0 0 a 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 022 0 0 o0 0 0 0O5
a 0 o am 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


37071" LAD I
S 7 LA0 4WM AT
31U7 P410 F
aSSPTM M
l0 9SPT IF
41110,7 OCTM 0
440141137 OCTF I
031441 NIN M a
t1725477 NYF 4
941041`15 DCM 2
10OM7 DECF 4
RINGI I AN M
30140 IANF
64234 FEBuM 0
o0893 EB F a
794094019 MM 0
2412OM 54VR0 0
10 APR1M
I1I (IN70 APR F
5204412 MAYM I
0317 VAY F 2
M00 1 JUNE M4 0
?94IWS13 AI. F 2
7461I .4Y F I
=407 CASHI NH 10
itl&1in3 CA4N .M 0
I1 CROWN F 4
3714151 CASH4$MLY 0
3 g CASH s4 0
So CASH If 0
.21IE.1 p4810Po -1102
210&S MAIZ N 0
.TSME15 ORJINJTPI 0
=B5 GROlO4JTC 0
24I.l4 MILET PR 0
13 MET COA 0
4&M-15 BEAN NXI 0
U BEANCON 0
4 IE-0 OAXCCO PRO 0
15 TOACO CN 0
ISM-II BEERPR 0
05 BEERI C 0
-..E-14 PUAXPRO. 0
3375 MIKCO 0
44840.10 CL..AMEM PR 0
20 AASERCwO 0
301494.2 P11.040140410 0
am PLW4014 N 0


0 0 1 0
0 0 2 0
0 0 3 0
0 0 4 0
0 0 4 0
0 0 4 0
0 0 4 0
0 0 6 0
0 0 5 0
0 0 9 0
0 0 5 0

0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0

0 0 9 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

0 0 7 0
0 0 is 0
0 0 7 0
0 0 10 0
0 0 4 0
0 0 6 0
0 0 3 0
D 0 8 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 9 0
0 00 0 0
0 00o 0 0
0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
S o0 -79 1i
0 0 0 I
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 o


1 0
I 0
2 0
3 0
a 0
3 0
3 0
4 0
8 0
5 0
5 0
4 0
4 0
0 D
0 0
0 0
0 0
7 0
10 0
7 0
10 0
5 0
10 0
2 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 a
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
D o
0 0
400 1
0 1
0 0
0 0
0 o
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 3 0

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0

1 0 0
0 0 01


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0



0 0 0

PO o o
o 0 o o
o 0 o


0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 78
0 0 0
0 0 45
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 022 0
0 022 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 40




0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
o o
o o
o o o
o o os
o o
o o o
o o o
o o o
o o
o o
o o










o o o
o oo


0 45 0
0 < 1 000
0 < 14 0
0 as
0 14 0
0 < a 0
0 < 4 0
0 10 0
0 < 4 0
0 10 0
0 < 14 0
0 < t 0
0 < 14 0


0 < 10 0
S < 14 0
S < 10 0o
0 < 14 0
0 < 10 80
0 14 0

0 < 10 o

0 < 14 41E

0 < 14 -17E-16
0 < 14 T7lE-17
0 < 0 0







I a 0 1mm
0 4 14D 0t
0 < 0 1 0
1 < 14 Q30070.B

0 > 14 77 -





0 > 9 4 05sm
0 o 3S 0



0 < 0 718e





0 > 0 .1713
0 < 0 -0 S143


0 < 0 o02



0 > 3 -412


0 20 01011
0 < 0 o0G

0 > oo .008
0 P 475


ISOLUTION 1 n 21"GS 0 03447 0B 0 02367 1-3 014 U 0Q214217 75 IS 05 IS-0 4017342 37"5 1071 a07 01 0 07 S 0 180M 5 0 70 0?0


a00 0 00 0 0 0mm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40m 0 0 0 a 791 -4I.6e 0 1












AEB M6I ECONOA MLYW N SMALL. FARM SHISEMS
ULEAR PRO AMfNI FOR 1M BAIWA FAMILY FARM


TABLE C


TABLE I FARM SULJ.AN FEMALE NOME OPM0IED


LMME MA MAE GNLT MNlT QT MRLET MLLET BEN 4EEAS TO1BACC TOBACCO BEER BEER 40EE0 RMLK MIx MI KCU CICME CUCLAME C UCUMBEE P PMN PUMP A CASHAT CAH CASH RHS
TRW SEL TREANS 1 46A TRA4S TRAS TRANS SELL COW TRANS SELL TRANS SELL TRANS SELL EMOYR ENDYR END Y
(Kh1h4 M P" M P" 0 (MOmaM


FNiM) OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 was 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
j~wni. OBJECTIVE Nw44no a 0 a 0 0 0 0 a 0 a a a 0 0 2625 0 0 0 a a 0 0 0 0 0 0


444867171 LAND I
aS34124 LU MUO
4.3SS176 ALOF I
4i801n SEPTM I
awnl= SPTF 2
2S13003 OCTM 0
4.30i0oN OCTF I
0S1954244 NOEM 2
1i20i0m NMVF 4
83001008 DECM 2
11.41301 0ECF 4
4mW14 JANM I
.IB14aBB JWNF 1
T.C4102 FEBM 0
2G !WW FEBF 0
610704i0e M M 0
2412007 M0R F 0
10 APRM I
11 4001 APRF 2
653127212 MAYM 1
1as540sl MAYF 2
20310050 JUNEM 0
7.964aa JlUNF 2
14 AJLYF 1
2i3046 CAU46P11T 10


1314 CA44N F 4
153106B4 CASFAMLNY 0
ID CASHM 0
1S2511874 CASH SF 0


21M45 MACOK 0
-7SI-19 ORAOLDNUT 0
M8l86 .Q.UOKJT 0

2IE-14 IMiLLETPRO 0
130 MLLUET CON 0
4ME.1 BEAN PRO. 0
SB BEANrCO
44M.14 TOACCOPRf 0

244SE-16 BEER PRO 0

5 BEER CON4 0
-74E.146 IAXPRO. 0
3S MLKCON 0
417El2 CICUERP 0
200 CLCfiBER C 0
444240 PULOW04PFI 0
O Ft444m0CO14 0


1 0
2 0
3 0
a 0
3 0
3 0
4 0
a 0
B 0
5 0
4 0
4 0
0 0
o 0
0 0
0 0
7 0
10 0
7 0



10 0
S 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 a

0 0
0 0



0 0
0 1



0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

0 30

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0
1 0


1 0
0 0

0 -
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 < 6 0
0 < 8 000
0 < 14 0
0 < 6 0
0 < 14 0
0 < 0
0 14 0
0 10 0
0 C 14 0
0 10 0

0 14 0
0 6 6 0
0 < 8 0
0 < 10 0
0 a 14 0
0 < 10 718-32
a C 14 0

0 C 10 930E.17
0 14 2.E-16
0 < a 0
0 < 14 0
0 < 1i. -1
0 < 14 -7.2E.16
0 C 14 1273J671
0 < So 0
0 < 3B 1.870E-18
1 < 18 0
0 12 IRIS-Is



0 > 80 818iE-17
I so 45BE-I7

0 C 0 00105484
0 21"4 48.0548
0 < 0 QOMW7


0 < 0 QOBB81
0 130 .O005M


0 w .0500030
0 < 1. 16E-18
0 6 75 *1..E-i8
o 0 alas

0 a 0s 4BS3

0 < 0 1 37E-1
0 > 3375 -1 24E-1
0 < 1 3E-19
0 200 -1 SE-1B

0 o -4SE-
0 C 0 6703
0 6 .4575.36~


ISOLUTION 1- 21 a4 a 0 03647 2G5 0 5tB64 130 1 4 I1 (1 214207 75 5 a S 46 03 1 0375 0 0m 2 0 1 1611641 m 4452m5 0 17.311 0
1 11737 a
0 0 .2012 0o o .0o o o o o o 0 4 0 0 0 0 o0 0 .21F 1 0 0 0 1 E o1 0 -4aE-17












AEB51133 EaCOMILY IN SMALL FARM SYS70EM
LINEAR P7040 14FOR4 T SAMNA FAMILY FARM


TARE 3%


TAK I FARM- TINCOME UM3D -WOWMAIZE


LAIIE AIZE MAUE HWO RD 7563 WSR 014.17 014.17 ON17 MILLT MILLET BEANS BEAN S Tm O BAC BEER BEER BEER MLKR W MIU( .D. 07.021701 4 KA6 7 CAOAT CASIAT CASHIAT W
TRANS SELL MAIZE TRANS. SEL L I THAN SELL TRANS TRANS TRANS TRAMSEL COW TR1NS SELL 1 3. TRANS amTRANS SELL E1 4 ENR E)707


0 0 4 t4 P 0" (Vt07C )
FmW OJECwE FUNCTION o 0 0 o033 0 0 a08 0 0 017 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 323 0 0 o22 0 0 004 0 o COB
P(MA) OBJEC1TE FUNCTION 0 0 o0W 0 0 008 0 0 077 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 022 0 0 004 0 0 03O
6(F m.) OBMClVE 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 343 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


390= = 00 314 n104b7 7 LAN D I I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
904 OW62M kB91110564017 LA-ORAJ 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 I 0
C3 01M M3146P k30?M .lM AJF 1 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 2 0
S0r617 001743144 so0mo 34 M 1 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0

*150 0a0 6318 a s43M SEPTF 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 a 0
39oW 0077444 l 401041573 OCT4M 0 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0
42541 0l BI 31467 474170S OCTF 1 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 3 0
4B62113 0176411 10a NOM 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 4 0
E11,U104 a01(7 I IBX711 N7NF 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
a97 00467iOn 9630NO DECM 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
11.201 017 110C 3 1DCF 4 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 2 0 5 0
gy41im0 m1 4 8 JA.N M 1 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 4 0
404M77 O M 1347 4ri4 0 JAN1F 1 0 0 7 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 4 0
612M 0 912MOM FESM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Oeaig 00OIOm EBF 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0
6731440 0 S3147 0 wML 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2412O 0 2417MAR4F 0a 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 o
69747=0 1C3M4 10 l I a 0 0 0 a 0 0 a 0 0
11 3716016 3 1104061531 ARF 2 0 0 4 0 0 I6 0 0 1 0 10 0
93M127 GIN 82= 3amMgO MAYM 1 0 0 2 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 7 0
B75WAM 007743044 46 MAY F 2 0 0 3 0 0 t0 0 0 2 0 10 0
00770 0l8 l7 W10 210447g73 AMM 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
9MMi oo03 3 711,122371 JUNEF 2 0 0 2 0 0 a 0 0 I 0 10 0
13ZF4137 CONT1314I6 1JLF 0 0 I 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 2 0

034i6 20300173. S CA43IN4U 10 0 0 11 0 0 a a 0 0 0 0 0
I71434 4I 1 6467 ISS470 CAB4H-UM 6 0 0 40? 0 0 a 0 a 0 0 0
17 140DI Q 19 CSWIN 4 0 W2 a 2 aD a a 0 a 0
74540Will? 0 41KSEM4 CAS434 0 0 m 2 0 0 0 0,? 0 0 0 0
4 i3 n 0 30?oMs CASH M 0 0 0 am 0 0 am 0 0 al7 0 0 0 0
M.401 0 IMS44M C0ASHV 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

-1SE-2l 0 1.01,1S-1 MAIZE PPO .1O I I a 0 0 0 a a a 0 0
M134434 8 42194,6 M3AIZECOX 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0a 0 0 0

0 .1 14Sb4-13 -1.1=-13 IR 0 0 0 .20 1m 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.174E-13 0 1173.I E-3 IGO0U4N 0 0 0 0 7 -i1 t 0 0 0 0
5 0 M ROUNN 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
41M-1 04LM3E-1I4 ETPRO 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 a 400 1 0 0
o3 0 13 MI.LETCO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0
43E-1 0 4 E-16 BANEMPRO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 1
W 0 B3EAN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
414=.I0 0 413l-lWA18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
75 0 TOACCO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1IE4. 0 1.90-15 BEERPRO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 05 BEER CO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7E-l.4 0 7, 1fW-.14WA P 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
347. 0 3S7I0 MKC.N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
-.1W-12 0-IrT7E- 2 CUURI 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
21D 0 2Wo U 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0
S7E-73 007in130MIGrP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ow 0 OWRUIG4C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 a 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 as 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 05 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0s 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 a 0 0 as 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0s 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0s 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 a 0 0s 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0s 0 0
0 0 a 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 06 0 0






0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0










0 0 0 2153 0 01 a22
0 0 0 0 0 0 022
0 0 0 o43 0 a 0
0 35 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
o 0 0 06 0 0














0 35 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

01 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 7 1 0 0
0 0 7 0 0 0 10
S 0 0 0 06 o 0





















0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0 0
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o







o o o o o o os


o o o os o o o


o 36 o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o
I 0 0 0 0 0
0 -1 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0
o o o o 8 D 1
o 0 0 o
o o o o
o o o oo o
o o o o o o o
o o o o oS o


.5 0
0 0 o
74 0
a o
14 0
a 0
14 0
10 321467?
14 0
10 0
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10 42lE-1
14 434E-34
10 0
t4 .2BE-1S
6 0
14 0
a 0
14 7.01E-IS
14 2 14-1



to 1714E-1B


10 I.I E.17
SO .1E-11


34IS .7 3 7m6


0 0og373
as .090373
0 04260212


0 1946417S
S -1704417
0 04020418


0 24S


0 Q22
3O75 22
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0 O00
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0 0 a0m 0 0 0 0 0 073a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -00 0 0 0 0 -7.4E1 0













AEB WRN EC]ONQMC NALYLS N SMMLJ FNM SYrSTEMS
LIEJR PROGRAMMNA FOR TIE BAWA FAMILY FARM


TABLE 3


TBE1 FAR MALE NCOME OFTMIED HM MA


LMM2E MI2E MIUE HRIMD WID HWORD GNUT ONUIT IUT I.1ET M.IET BEAMNS E BE TOBACCO TOBACCO BEER BEER 8EER M1L M4LK CU CIE CULCUMBE OClMBER P*IUKN PMPImN P M CAt AT CASCIAT CASHAT RH
TINS SELL MM2E TRAIN SELL TRAN SELL TUtN TfNh TM NN SELL CTOR W M SE T LL TRANS ELL T INS SELL ENDW ENDYR ENDY


M w() M M" 0`) Mo,)
Fa0) OBECTNE FIUNCT1N 0 0 00m 0 0 cm 0 0 017 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03 0 0 02o 0 0 004 0 0 005

F.l6 OaECT1E Fu7cnom 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 323 0 a 0 0 0 a 0 0 0


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


3am sn WmLM LAND I
saoem3 0 Saomxe7 LABORAUG 1
3BMM117 0 aMEM8 AUG F I
S 0 VS EPTM I

40 0 40250 OCTM 0
0340133 40o3041iB OCTF 1
301ms174 0 31ms740 NOcVM
1117340 011.1a047B NOY F
14104711 0 4104710i3 OECM
100m178 o0 Gn18 OECF 4
5m04617 oa SmI41o B JNM 1
3m1014 36304 JANF 1



76Es714 0 B7T41 EM 0HMR
241,a87 0 41 MAN7u 0
10 10 APRM
t11.0,Im 0 51191s AIF 0
&1om441 0 sll44io WYM


o07M7 0 20nmB? JUNEM 0
7004g11 0 704t1134 JUNEF a
700461 0 7010*142 JULYF 1
60 0 W CAS 4NPUT

it CASH4NF
xa0m 0 40o.M0 CAS6FAy 0
354SS 0 354.910810 CASH-M 0
S 0 60 CAS'SF 0
41E-4l 0 1SE-13 MAMEPROD -110

0 327514E. 1 -3a7aE-14 Hf1RD P 0

1174E-13 0 1.173BIE-13 GIRONDJT 0
SR ma GROCUNDNUT 0
PE.14 0 ..B-14 MLLET PRO
130 0 130 MLLET CON
33E-1S 0 632E-15 BEANPRO 0
so 0 IS BEANCXO 0
413E.1S 0 41034E-1 TOBACCO 0
7 0 a 5 TOBACCO 0
1.BEli 0 .4E-815 BEERPRa 0
0 O BEER CON 0
17E-1 0 1.714E-13 MILKPRO 0
3S 0 3376 MRLCN 0
-1.BE.1 o -1 BSFE-12 CUCUM ER
2) 20) CUCaMBER


am a Bam PUMPA"NCO


0 0 I
0 0
0 0 1
0 0 3
0 0
0 0 3
0 0 1
0 0 6
0 0 4
0 0 6
0 0 4
0 0 1
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 P
0 0 4
0 0
0 0 3
0 0 1
0 0
0 0 1
0 0 B0
0 0 467
0 0 332
0 Q03 0
0 0O33 0
0 0 0
1 1 0
1 0 0
0 0 -418
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
o 0 0
0 0 0
o o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o o
o o
o oo
o o


0 0 i 0 0 1 0 1 0

o o 3 o o o a o
0 0 4 0 o 0 0 3 0
0 0 2 a a 0 a I a
0 0 4 a 0 2 0 3 0



0 4 0 1 0 3 0
0 0 S 0 0 3 0 4 0
0 0 6 0 0 3 0 6 0




0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 S 0 0 I 0 4 0
0 0 3 0 0 1 0 4 0



0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0
a a0 0 o 1 0 7 0
0 0 6 0 o 1 o 10 0
0 0 7 0 0 0 0 7 0


0 0 4 0 0 0 0 6 0
0 0 0 0 0 I 0 10 0


0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 0


0 0 6 0 0 0 o
0 0 o 0 0 0 o 0

0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0
0 cm 0 0 017 0 0 0 0
o OC! o o o1 o o o o

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


I r 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 .730 1 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 o o 0 I 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1



0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 6
0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 05 0
0 0 0 00 0



0 0 o 0 s 0



0 o o 05 0

0 a 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0a 0
0 0 0 s 0






0 0 0 0 0 0










0 0 0 0 0
0 0 a 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 o 05





























0 0 0 0 0 a
o o o a6 o o
o o o o o o
o o o as o o
o 6 o o
o o o o o
o o o o o
o o o o o
o o o o o o
o 36 o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o


ISL T0 o. 1.77 0 14. 0 0 33E14 0. 0347 o 0 0O 33 0 01 0 30 025 1.0 417 37 o07 07 a0 0 o 10i 0 27 170U 707 71


0 0 0 3-3 1 0 00 0 0 -070 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4


47S 0
a6 0
14 0


14 0
* 0

14 0
10 -.7E-lS
14 1.3m-1S



a 0
* 0

10 0


I 0

14 0
60 0






10 1 E.17
14 -447E-1
10 0l





o -411.E-16
ao m
130







0 1
ma o,
s .130E16








14 -1B71B
0a I E-18
7o 4IIE-16
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45as 0141


0 02,
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0 17137






0 023
15 c032
0 7 O,






so .QOB












AE3B P ECONMC ANALY0 SMALL FARL SYTEMA
LIEAA PROGRAMMN FOR tHE BANWA FAMILY FARM


TABLE 3C


TA.BE I F M FEMALE INCO ME iPT E HT AE


LMAIE MA2E MM E 1OBWO HBW HRO GNULT GNL9 T ONJT MLLET MIET BEINS BEANS TOBACCO TOBACCO EER BEER BEER ML ML MIX CICRO.WEIRCIR CUCL L IBERi.FMPLIN PLMN PFIMNI CASMHAT CAS0AT CAH4AT 0MS
TRANS SELL MA2E TRWM SE SLL TRN4S SU S TRANS 17S SELL CIOW TRAS SSL T RAINS S ELL I8T T SELL ENDYR EN7VO ENDYR


IN pq4 04 INS ) 010M06
(Fm"I OBJECTW FUNC1ON 0 0 00m 0 0 00m 0 0 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03 0 0 3 22 0 0 0O4 0 0 0G8
Pb) OaECTIVE FUNIT 0 0 0m 0 0 0m 0 0 oGA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 022 0 a o004 0 0 0G
(Fw OBJECT4 F141U 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0

0 0 0


03 3 OQ37D11m s304 05 NO 1L
350050 0743487 40437513 LABOFRJ 1
3180S 037170811 3g0878UOI9 ALIOF 1


713311 0743411I9S 6 7S743 SEPTF 8
322721386 1.115S1806 434104 OCTM 0
35864444 037110M 3071644 OCTF 1
77BB7412 2230aM 10 NOVM 2
11014 140910 101X o NOVF 4
T7OM4 2294M RO 6 SON DECM 2
*4418 4 P8 2 0887737 OECF 4
47S041 037170S 44o7173SI4 JANM 1
330u7TNI Q371n7U7B 37345J74 JANF 1
71674tI? 0 71874-5715 FEBM 0
o6m= 0 00UMOU FEOF 0
*1941 0 8Ol4 86112 8 MM 0
24127M 0 24188T887 MARF 0
Bm0BD 03717B1BM 10 APRM I
B391 1.410 1838 11.410I8 APRF 2
43142 074341087 s370Ba4 MAYM 1
6=031 9.l 1 O4M104 WAYYF a
200187 0371 W20 24370Ba JUNE M 0
6471231 Q743418097 712 "702 JUNE F 2
13 S 037117080 14 JULYF 1
232106 a738788 90 CASH 0 U 10
14.411S2 17.308402 32 CASH44M 8
80m040 1234o76354 18 CAS.NF 4
36138i 0l 3011301100 CASHFAM 0
003441 0 009443413 CAS4H W 0
12I3111 0 taI31110 CASHIF 0
*1.0E-12 0 -1 8E412 M4ZE PFO .11B
1=04401 0800908130 21945 MAE CON 0
0 -1.331M 3 41333E-.13 IHVSn CPR 0
1.1-13 0 1.173B1E-13 OROLUN 0
=56 0 2B5 GFXND4N 0
444E-14 0 4437E-14 MLLETPRO 0
130 0 130 I.iETCO 0
33E15 0 43ME-1S BEANPRO 0
se 0 IS BEACON. 0
4IE15 0 41 -15 TOBACCO 0
S 0 7I TOBACCO 0
3ME-1 0 3S1E-t BEERPRO 0
OS 0 06 BEER CON 0
4&E-14 0 6177E-14 MIKPRO. 0
375 0 373.5 MLXCON 0
*-1 ME-12 0 -1.77712 OLnMBER 0
200 0 a0 CUCUMBER 0
08E-13 0 xOE-13 PLMPKNP 0
500 0 B00 PruWW4C 0


0 0 1
0 0 2
0 0 1
0 0 3
0 0 2
0 0 3
0 0 1
0 0 a
0 0 4
0 0 a
0 0 4
0 0 1
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 4

0 0 I


0 0 I

0 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 U
0 0 0
0 0a



0 0 3o
0 008 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
a 0 0
0 0 0241
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0


0 0 I 0 0 1 0 1 0 o0
0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 I
0 0 3 0 0 2 0 2 a 0
O 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0 I
0 0 I 0 0 2 0 a 0 0
0 0 4 0 0 a 0 3 0 1
0 0 4 0 0 1 0 3 0 0
0 0 5 0 0 3 0 4 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 0 6 0 0
0 0 0 0 2 0 5 0 2
0 0 0 a 0 2 a 5 0 0
0 0 3 0 0 1 0 4 0 0
0 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 0
a 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 1
0 a 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a
0 0 7 0 0 a a 0 0 0
a 0 0 0 0 I 0 7 0 2
0 0 Is 0 0 1 0 10 0 0
0 0 7 0 0 0 0 ? 0 0
0 0 Wo 0 0 7 0 o10 0 0
0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 o o 0 0
0 0 3 0 0 t 0 2 0 0
0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 G0o 0 0 o01 0 0 0 0 0
0 a0 0 0 o17 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 .7'0 I t 0 0 a 0 0
0 0 0 1 a 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 40 I 0 0 0
0 0 a 0 0 0 1 a 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 0
o 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -o
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 00 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 05 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 00 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 as 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 as 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 a a oa 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 a 0 os 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 a5 0
0 0 0 0 o0 a

o o 0 0 os 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 a 0 0 a 0
0 0 0 0 0 a
0 2 0 0 a a
a 0 0 0 a a
0 0 0 0 0 0
o o o oa s o











a a 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 o3 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0 0
0 35 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
a a 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 34 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 I 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 -an I


0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0s 0


405 0


14 0
6 0
14 0
8 0
14 0
10 3SaE-17
14 0
10 0
14 400E-.4
S 0
8 0
10 0
14 0
to14 -24E-1
10 .100-l1
Oa e70SE-16
14 A4SE-16

8 0
14 0
6 0
14 1.7E-17
14 t1244791


32 3E-.?17

100 -A4M E-18
S -1.4aE-17
so -42E.17
0 00111
21945 -0012M7
0 001224M
0 061S0481
=m5 0S1549
0 G00S7


0 2O .I




06 -180.76
0 34-1



307.5 -33E48

0 s731E-B

200 .74E-1
Sm or-t


SO LU I iN 1 24240 I 1 0 03 1171 U C UI 0 034 7 M 0 G0 13 13 0 14 o Q140 M 2 7 QS 477 243 3 47 6 4 21 0U0 M 0 o11 7 71 o 3BU44 20 5l 1 447 443
0 0 001 0 0 .01 0 0 .082 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 403























AIRS 59 ECONOMIC tMUL INSMULUFIARMN
LUNAR PROUMAUS FOR THE SASUWA FAIMIL FARM


TAMN A


TALE I


LMAIn LmAt MAN MaNE SHUTmr d oNur UT MILLET na MILET SEAN be IEAN TOBACC Mba TOOACC BEER BEER BEEROXEN MILK MILK MILK coW o0 CUCUMB CUCUMB CUCUIM PUMPKIN PUMPKIN PUMPKIN CASH AT CAWH CASH S


WM 75* SIUEL mb. T5*R WuLL


-Wbw TRANS M.6w IROWN m.m TPA" TRAUI NRIL COWI TRANS SELL U


S-M ourc o o o Mm o, o o o o
F.1 o" cnE FnCTON o o o o o O o o o o o o o o
PmN O ECTI FURMCCTION o o S 1 o o o 4 o o U o


o o H MS U U H

o 0 o 983 0 o a



o H H U U U U

o o H H U H U
o U U U U US U

O U H U H UK U



o o H U U oU H

U U U U U OK U
o o o o o 01
U S U U U o
U U U o oU
U S U H U o o
o U o U U o
o U U U o
U U U U U U o
U U H U o oU






o O o o oa o o
o o 87s o o

o o o or 6- o o
oo o o o o o
o o 21J o o o
o o o o o o o
o o $ o o o
oi o o o
o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o 36 o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
.0 00~ It It


So o o o o o
i o o o o o
o -I o o o o
o o o o o o

o o o o o o i
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o oI o o
o 0 a a -1 o o


IRWI 1110?4 IW 4 LAND 0
1 Y430 19l 4 A744 A OM I
9I Ma1 ZSI 447JM3 AUOw1 I

M231210 2S ISw WIU PT
440- 40o 4M BONN HETF 2
IOOUM7 14M24 24113712 OCTM 0
2NA4S teor 4a OcE tI

lBml 74I 14 9NOF 4
o"m o B42M l*3l7 0DEC
043416 NOW 134O1 DECI 4

29m 3Zero 103Mn JAMN
010o43 I4MV5 7SN24M FEBM
0344MW 0 0344U 7 FEB
U *I7Mt 20K0M MARM


NUIUS 7141 10 APR M
524Im 34 4n 14 APRo M
50m3$ AIMED I*3INT0 MAYF 2
3A1 13 141i 44m3 MA I

I0"m U IM33JUNE
430M 14.IK 755m74 JUNEA P
3a5 tr7 94 JULY P
71041 =Z3 .. 100 CASH WPrr to
71 oust BR4N CASHIEN M I
U &SM7 IsMM CASM F 4
U U4T41 O4A741N CASHEFAM. U
H0 IT I11 SITII CAUIH UO



0 ms -ms Rlw Nm U o
U t1o4 lit5MI5 C TSHU U1




391 1IW 43E.2 MAIES PRO o
0 ?IU IM MMIZ CON U
-f SUN -S3EIN I.AN ONU




o na Sao MWoKNUc o
U o- 4 41lEt.4 oMILE PRO
0 It M1 ANTAOO


o N I n TOWCCOC


0 Io-I 1304-12. MILK PAO
0 337. 3S77 MAN. CO.
U ME-12 153B.92 CUCUMBERS
U 00e 27 CUCUMBER
U -12 M *-IN SE-t2 PUMPKIN PR
U KO 0 BO PUMPKIN
IIsm 211,10 4 71, H
2ME.14 0 C4-1 U


o U
0

U I
1
o I
o S
U N
o U

H 4
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o

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U U
U U
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U 7

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o









o H
3





























o U
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o N
o o
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o
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0
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SO
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U U
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o
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A TRAN SELL TN BELL EHDYR ENO Y ENO YR



0 0 1 0*1 1 0 0I. 0 O NO 4




U 0 0 0 0 0 U 0 0 < 4 41-17


o o o 0 H 0 S < S U 0H O

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4
0 U o 0 o U U U o o < 014 U
S o o o o o o o o o o 10 41.11


o o O o o U o U H < 0 14 010I
o o 0 o 0 o o 1 0 o o < 0 000l



o o 0 S o o o o 0 U o 4 1U o

o O U o o U U U N o U 1 U


o o N S U U U H o 14 AIE-II

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o o o N o S U U U U U < 14 IINNI



N o U U U U oU I U 4 IW"
U U U o U U U U o o 1 I N .3E1-W


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0 0 o o o o 0 o o o o o o.mt,
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o 2 1 5: o o o o o < o1O




o o o o o 0 .1C 1 o 0 o o
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U I I o U 0 :3 U U o U M24


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-OL I AO 41M1 "9"13G NIMN 1 0 .741 SUS oUS0 U I 7 0 gA U U s00 75 N0W 00 452 0og -0 1 -0 3470 o4305 U 199*1 N O M 0 0U 011074 00 32omao oma 30 *I

U U H U U U 43 5 -USSI U -14 U U *l? U U U o o UUsla U U H U H t0 U U o U .3U 49K-I



















AmEB SM ECONOMIC AtIALYM MI MMLu FMWM 9Y 1EM
LINEAR PROGRAMMING FO THE IANWA FAMILY FA* W


TABE I


LMAIZE Lmel MAIE MAIE ONUTOnA WNUT 10UT MILLETne MILLET WMI be. EfAN TOBACCob-0 TOBACCIER oEER BEER0OXEN MI MIU M.K oor


(F.m) OBjECIM o FUNCTI
(Mw OECTIVE UNION o
(F4eM OBJECTIVE FUTIO 0

3- iatwB 41 (MLAND
n sel 01BoM 40 u*o o
1000 167441 40114 UMOCAUO
IMelt 22M0M 42a032 AUOF 1
23077 3ra74 s123t 1PM "
430M 1 001406 32136 lPTF 2

S*00"m IIMoK .ION OCTPF
'"s s I '0"1M .41D. OCTY
t36o4M 170 00 sUN* NOV M
17bl44 7aMn 4 M0oVF


30148 6 MI 1100 N DECMF
. 1o4 1t20 1 M810 DECFAM

0( 3 0S 1313" M I .F4 IL M
20"S" I MM I0EM4 JMF I





00 M7 7613 M MUM 1 0 F
0t41aa0 O 1 41 107 ILam P
2 A M M 4II 0 a N MAYM I




SIM IIM &ME MAYC o
I4 0 0 I4 12 004M01W9 oF
1 0 ,1 0 % N o w 7.l7 m S J LY F I

,3' 4210 310 W .r 10
W0 S E S I C 1 -6 M L 6
0 4 1* I4117 C06469 4


1342 @1 411117 C0A046 "P 0







IU2 I .2a CA800NM
o MEI EI 23- EE*
,10M. 3=74 4*OK-13 MAZEPRO O *I



0 42E-14 41E44 RM ETI O

i: -065.0110. 4 I p1 0
0 I AN4CN o



0 0 S E1 BEERCON
0 137E-t1 1.370-12 1S1K PO 0
0 3371 371 ILK. CO"
o n-I.2 I1na1.2 CUCMN 0

0 1000 200 CUCUM
0 100E11 10E-11 PUMPKIN0P 0
0 oX a IMO C C
I I0n 21 01 4 o Spo
2.E-14 0 182K.14 -.b 0


-mir TMAN ELL N brW TRtM SELL hb ibr TRAN6 e1r TAN6 -ib TRAIN T7iA SELLW oe COW mTmNS SELL 1rm aob


o II o O
o om 0 0
0 0 6 0
0 0 0 0
* 0 6 I
0 6 0 0
0 0 4 18

* 0 0 4
6 0 4 0

0 0 4 2









0 0 1 01
0 0 6 265
o o g a
0 0 1 04
o 6 1 I


or
o .

o o 3 i





0 0 2 00
o o o
S o i




6 6M 0 0
0 0 I II
o I
So I ,0

0 0 7





0 0 00
0 0o 0

o o o
S0e 4
01 6I 6

o r o
0 I0 0 6
0 o0 0 6





0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0
o o o
o o o o


Ioo O

Ooo o
0 00 6




o oo o

OO o


oo oo

o o o o
0 60 0
6 00 0
0 0 0


0
0 0
0 0

0 6
6 0
0 0

8 1
O






t oa
0 0
4 6
0 00
o o


o 0
o o






O 00
0 0
4 6



0 0


0 0
0:

0 00
o o







0 1
0 0

o 0o
I o







0 6
0 6
0 0
0 0
6 0








0 6
0 0
0 0
0 0


0 0
0 0
0 6
6 0

0 0
0 6
0 6
6 0
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0


o e o o o


0 4
0 0

0 0
o

0 0
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0 1

o
0 1
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0 6
o









6 10
o
O

I
6 4
o
6 0






0 0
6 0
6 0
0 7
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o 4
o 7







0 00
4 6
0 0
6 4
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6 0





0 40
0 6
0 0
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0 0










0 0
o





0 0o
0 0
o 4o
o 0
0 .4
0 0
0 0
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0 4
0 0
0 0
0 o
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 o
o .,






o o



o o
o o

o o

o o


as 0 a 0 as 0 0 0 a0 0. 0


0 0 0


t 0 0 o0
0 0 0 01
I o 0 0
41 O0
1I 0. 0 0

I o 1 01













10 0 0 00
0 0 0 01

0 0 0 0

s 0 0 09
O 0 0 0
210 0 0

0 o o0 0
0 6 o




0 0 0 0
6 0 0 o


0 0 o










0 0 o







o o 0 0
1 o 0 01


o 6 o 411 o o
o a o o O o
0 0 0 0 0 6
0 0 0 20 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

o o o o o o
0 o 0 0 0 01
0 0 0 0 0 0
6 6 o o o 0O

0 0 6 0 0 01















0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0


0 0 0 0 01 0
o o o o 0 0













0 0 0 0 6 0






0 41 6 0 6 0
o 0 o o o O







o o 0 0 0 o

















6 6 0 0 0 0





0 6 0 0
0 0 4 4 0


0
0
0

0

0
0
0










6
6
0
6
0
0
o







0

0
0
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

o
o
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o

o


o

o
o
o
o
o
0

o
*
o

o
o
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o
o
o
0
a

I
0


0 1CUCMECUCUMBECUCUMBE PUMPK I PUMPINO CASHAT CAH CAS4 M
0 TANMS S TRAN SELL ENDR ENO R ENoDYR


0
0
0
0


0 o
0

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 6

0 o
o o

0 0
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0 0

0 o
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0 o
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o -,

o
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o o

6 0
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0




a
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0 0
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0 6
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0 6
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o 0
0 0
0 0
6 0
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0 0
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o o
o o


o < *$ i
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o o
o < 14
S< 1o 4I






o< W14 4M
o< 4o 41Xr-
o 7 4 "46-1








0 a 1 I.1 .ME
0 0 E
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S < 104 1 0I-1



0 < *
o 1 4 l .


0 < t4 tS4
0 14 160LE


0< 20 0ft4M
o 7 01 041o .





S > .6 43
S< 01301


S 10 aom

0 0 0 0301

o 7 o 74n10
0 0 -71-
0 < 0 4

0 01 1 Q


0 1 I
0 4 4600


0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0


0 "1i


TABLE 4


'W.OZO 21 2"M 2-0 02 o W1 0 0 o A 0 1 o i 0 0 o214 1 051 IMP0 1 0 264 3 "A It35 0 5m o*4 0 0 ~ 'W" N0 2a g0 01a 00 3 0 0.130

o0 0 0 0 .17 0 0 4116 0 &1160 0 .-04 0 0 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .4I 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 -131 0





















40316 ECONMIC NK IN 1SMU. PAM.IR
ULOW" P"OOMI FPOR THES BAMINA FAIRLY FARM

PAM*-OFOP LA6OS.PIKAI(ICOKME


TABLE 4


KAIZE Ln MAIZE MAIZE EMfl 0.9 GMT ~6 511? "m BRUT BEAR b- YEA3 TOSACO "- TOSACO BEER M BEER OXEN KUR MLi MIII _0 0 B CUCUKS 00 PUEMPION PUMPKIN PUMPKIN CASH4 AT CASH 0CASH 164
0d,,, 0TRW10 I -U mw TRW 81 1 .-be TRANIS a60or TRAIINS wh TRAINS TRANS SE.L Lo* 0CW TRANS SELL ft TRAINS ISUE TRANS BIUL END END S (TWO7


VARA, OU1JECTIE FUNCTION
*M4 OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0
(F-Am4 OBJECTIE FUNCTION 0

(396m 011MO 6 LAND 0
l0IM 0: 20o007141 LASBOAUQ I
223" 0 2a40 AUGoF 1
2 s OI 4IIII24 SEPTM I
43147 0 "367 SEPTF a

219m4 0 l142 OCT F
4117M 051 6107"4 NOVM "


sII5 0l 4N1164 OECF0
0l4lt1 05 I M7111 JASIM I
2 7 o ImO17 JANP I

0107t43 7IMM 77101413 FEM
03M47 .0 .3MW FF o
0 90t IL4 3MI$ IARM
I o 17140 1 1 MAIMR

6md 0 sm*M1* AP*RF

7o161 o 0 nn"jU MA I
0S 0 cou 6 MAY, I



S 16 I I 16 0*1646Y 4
103M04 0 41013,10 K MUE


O 0 031 S0IP 4JUM
o o 1CASH-IN m n
s o CA.H4N F
0 MS.- M42017 CASH-AMAL 0
0 7M10lo W723014 CA,4.1 0
0 14 14Mmn CASHi. oF
-240637 214636 .* 3E-12 MAIZE PRO0 .111
0 21M1 IiNK MAIZE CON.
-EMS n, _I 3ME412 51WW 0
0 n 2gB OAOUNONU

-34067S 3401746 0 IMETPRO
0 13 130 MILLET C04. 0
.0 4 M44 BEAR PRO
o g o Mmn O1 + 0
-76 71 t0.t43 TOBACCOP
0 71 7 TOBACCO
0 41E-1 411E- BEERIIRO.
0 06 06 : 006CON
0 124E-12 1271-1* MILKPO 0
0 337 (70 MI" CON 0
0 21-.I1 21.E-12 CUCUMI
2 o 00 CUCUMBER
0 oE-142 ge1.it2 PUMK"P
0 M BO PUIo- PfON C o
3 I 40 e0 0 0
*4 10. 0 =-1102t6 0


0 o oam 0


o 0 o 0

0 0 0 4



161
0 0 0
0 0 3 4.
0 0 4 0



0 0 4










ISI

00.
-7 : 110
0 o I II




















000
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 7 11


o o o
0 0 7 65
0 0 10 5
0 0 4 3




o Q o

o ooM o o
0 0 0 45



I o o a


o oo o

0 0 0

0 o 0 0

0 0 0 0


o o o
0 00 0





0 0 0 0



o o o oI
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0s


X.OLUTION 0 201701 0M01 0 0 o 03W
442|7 0 0 4006 43 0


.4
o 0
o o
o o

o 0
o 0
o 2
o 3
o I
o 2
o 3
0 5
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o I
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O 4
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o o
o 0
o o
o
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o 7
O 40

o I
o I0
o 0
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O 2
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o o
o 0
o o







o 0

o o
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0 0
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o








4 o

O 0
o 0
o o
0 o

o
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o 0
o 0
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0 0
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04





3 0 0
IS I
o o o
0 o0 i 0 0





I o o o0
ir o 1 os


o oI
16 os
2S o o



I o o o
II o or
o o6
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oo o
o o o or
11 o o



0 0 0
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1oo o



a. 0 0 0
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o1 o o

Io o
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o o o
o o o


o o o o




0 000
0 0 2 4
0 0 0 0
16 0 @ 0
5 0 0 0
15 0 0 0
5 0 0 0
4 0 0 0


0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0( 0




-e D I

O 0 o m
0 o 0
0 00 0
0 00 0
0 o 6
O 00 0
0 00 0
0 0 00


o o o 13 o o o
o o o5 o o o
o o o 0 o 0 0


* 0 0 0 0 O 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 00

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

o 0 o o 0 o o
o 0 o o 0 0l o

0 0 o o o 0 o
o o o o o o o
0 o o o o 05 o
o o o o o o
0 0 0 0 0 01 0

O 0 0 0 0 06
0 o o o o o0 o
o o o o o o o
O 0 o 0 o 06 o

o o o
0 o o o o0 0 o

















0 0 0 0 0 .311 0
o o o o o o
o o o o o os o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o oa o o
o O o o on o o
o o o o o7 o o

o o o o, o o o

o o o L15 o o o
0 0 0 o o o 0

o M o
o o
o s o o o o
o ) o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o o

o o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o o

I o o o o o
I o o o o o
-i i I o o o

o o o o o o 1
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o I o


0am


4




14 0
o 0



o 1 4 0E
o 6 0

o 1 4




S 14
0 0
o 14 0
0 o o10
o 0



o 1 0

S 14 2 3EI
o 4 i4 641E-*

o 14 (14(4

0 10 410-1M
o 16o 4eIN16
0 ISE 72

o S Eo -9

0 4 1 E-I0


0 100 01E-1
o 0 ( ao 4M
o 4 0 0ss?
o o oWO




o o 010711




0 > 11 41-17

O 4 0 1E10
205 *21E6t
o O -i xL-

o 0 S-I

0 4 4o 4E+6IS

0 < 0 0


1


o


0 0 0 a0 0 0 0B 0 0 0a 0 0 0 0 -I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

M IS 0 0 0 A24 130 0 0l4 I S 0 0215 6 76 916 00 6SI 27055 1 337 1 0 0 3 I OBII 2o00 24315 7 0441 67 5 0 0 0

0 47 44 0 0 -I 4 0 1 -44.16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 481-17 42E-t 0 0 0 0 0 0 -41t4 -11E-10 *7E 17


O$












AEB m ECONOMC ANALYSIS IN SMALL FARM SYSTEMS
tEAR PROORWAM O FOR TM EBANWA FAMILY FARM

TALE 1 FAnM COrTON ALTE NATE -FAML.YINCOMEOPTMIED


TABLE


LMAIE MlIE MAIZE COTTON GN0IT l GNIT MLLT MTIET BEAN BEAN TOBACCO TOACC BEER SEER BEER MLK M K CLUCUBE CLCME CUCLUME PUMN RPUMPN PLMN CASHAT CAS"H4 CASH RHM
TR6 SELL RNS SELL TRANS TNS TRANS TRANSSELL SL ELL SEL T STANS SELL ENDit END3R ENDYR


-Os #4 M M 1 0 I (bot0h6
(Fir OBJECTN FLICTION 0 0 0 616 0 0 017 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 03 0 0 004 0 0 00
PMe) OBJECTIVE FUNCTION 0 0 m0 0 0 0 017 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0O4 0 0 000
Fn224 0CJECTIVE FUNCLTON 0 0 0 616 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


0ome 388 404644 LAND 1 0 0 1
0 434066 4376 LB RU 0 0 0
o490085 430 1 AU0 F A
o iS ssom 347T5 t 0 0 0
o 00G8 4 mOO SEPTF 3 0
0 391641m0 320141 OCTM 0 0 0 0
0 4319 2 43M02 OCTF 1 0 0
007o46 B92Oa7 64 mo EOM N o o0
o. 202m00 12omG NOVF 0 0 o

007m46 11.4083 11.4848 DECF M o 1
O01646 74643s2 54 JNMF 1 0 0

a01632a0 824482 6246 FPEB 0 0 2

0 8,0487 6SM7 MM 02 0 0


am 4126 4 70 41009 MARF 0 : a
0 10 10 APR 2 0 0 0
04BBB75 1140T3 11284704 APF R 0 0
00mm274 &3ii3 64007 MAYM 2 0 I 0
o383n mi817 ia4 MAYF 0 0 I0
Mo M 2a i'i 211 JUNEM 0 0 0 0 0
00714O6 1.402Ml 6037214 JUNE F 2 0 1
o038e 13046177 14 JULYF 1 0 0 0a
835307 4B0 BW M0 CASHNHUT 10 0 0 1

OL360 1001917 18 CAS F 4 0 0 13
3SB9 "4421.O0M 413240 CASH4FMLY 0 0 008 618
0 30464O41 3D454 CASH04M 0 0 a00 0
3954008 02304 234O52 CASHF6 0 0 0 BIG
0 O4ME-1 4 4E- 4rn*a pro -132 1 0
0 21946 46 MAlE CON 0 1 0
-21S7E-13 -2E-13 GROUNNT 0 0 0 0
2985 5s GHUNOJT 0 0 o 0
0 4441E-14 4.4E-14 MLLETP- 0 0 0 0
0 13 130 M.LETCN 0 0 0 0
S-63E-1 43E-16 EANPRO 0 0 0
S m EANCON. 0 0 0 0
0 413-15 4216-1 TOBACCOP 0 0 0
0 7s 76 TOBACCOC 0 0 0 0
30 3-18 .E-0 BEER PRO4 0 0 0 0
0 Q5 05 BEER CON 0 0 0
0 727IE-13 27M.13 W8PRO. 0 0 0
0 3P7 317.6.0C4 0 0 0 0


0 -31E.13 -32E-13 PLMPKN PR 0 0 0 0
0 6o 800S P.MN1CO 0 0 0


1 0 0
0 0 0
3 0 0
4 0 0

0 0
4 0 0
4 0 0
6 0 0
6 0 0
6 0 0
0 0 0
3 0 0
3 0 0

0 0 0



alla
0 0 0

0 0 0
9 0 0

6 0 0
0 0 0

7 0 0
20 0 0
4 0 0
6 0 0

0 0


6 0 0
6 0 0|
0 0 0
0 0 07
0 0 02

0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 2 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 O 0





0 0 0


o t o Oa
0 t 0 2
0 2 0
0 3 0 2
a1
o 0. 0
0 3 0 2

a 3 0 0
o 4 0 2


o s 0 0
0 l 0 0





O 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
01 0







0 a 0 0




0 0 0 0


















0 -4 2 0



0 0 0 0
o o o o


0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 05

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 5

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 05
0 0 0 0 o




0 0 0 0
0 0 0
000 0





0 0 0

0 0 0
a o




















0 0 0
00 00
o o 0 0





o 0 0 05









000 0
o 0 00
o o 0
o o 0 0 0




























0 0 0 0
o 0 0












0 0 0 0 0
o 0 0 0 O
0 0 0 0 0
o 4 0 0 o
0 0 0 0 0





o a 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
00 0 0 0
o o o
o o o
o o o
o 35 o o
o o o
o o o
o o o
t o o o o
D o( o o o
O ao. o
o o D o o1
o o o o o
0000o
o o o
o O o o o
o o o


o o 2
0 0 0

0 0
o o 0

0 0 0
0 0 0


o a 0
0 0 0
o 0 0
o 0 0
o 0 0


105





0 0 00
00 6
0 0 0
0 07
0 0 0

0 0









0 0
0 00









0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0








10)
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
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0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0

O 09 0
0 0 0
o O o














o o 0
0 0 0
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
0 o
1 o o
oo Oo
DOo o
DO O
o o o


0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0 < 6S 0
0 0 0 < 2 000
0 0 0 < 14 0
0o 0 < 2 0

0 0 0 < 14 0
o a 0 < 2 0

o o 0 < 10 0
0 0 0 < 14 0
o a 0 < 20 0
o a 0 < 14 o

0 0 0 < I 0
0 0 0 < 10 0

0 0 0 < 14 0
o o < 0 -4O 1o

o o 0 4 14 0
o o 0 < 10 o4


o 0 0 4< 24 o02
0 a 0 a 0

0 0 4 6 0
0 0 0 < 14 0

S 0 0 < 4a .2t05
0 0 0 < 34 0
0 0 1 < 16 4D4611
1 0 0 > 200 47.E-1

0 t 0 4 0 20E-1S

o 0 0 < 70 4143211
o o 0 < o 4 a
o o 0 7 234 .0-




o 0 0 < o 1.04
0 0 0 > 50 -1I 8
0 0 0 < o S343s?
0 0 0 75 434=m
o o o < o 3ags
o o o > as -s

o o 0 < 0 032

0 0 0 < 0 0234
o o o > ao 0.3
0 0 0 < 0 034
o o o (o <1o


OLU1ION i 2 4It5s 0 D00o 4 03456 As 0 051 130 014 s a02t42 75 s507 05 4573 3Swa0 3017 947 0m 20 0 O7a m S 120m5 173434 0 0.

0 0 .oo1 0 0 0 4o 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o 00 0 0 0 0 47TE 15 4.a












AEB 0 ECOCMC ANALYSM N M.LL FAM S11TEMS
LEAJI P1F h MaNG FOR THE BAN WA FAMY PFM

TA.E I FAW COTTON ALIOIE-NE MMAE NCOE C


TABLE 5


LUMAISE E W COTTON QNUr ONUT T i 4.1T MI.IET BEAN BEAN TOBACCO TOBACC BEER SEEFR EER MLK I.K X AL CUCLAMECUCL5MECUCUME JW PLAN LM PLM CASH AT CASH CASH f"
TRANS SELL TSINS SELL TRANS T RNS TRANS TRANS SELL COW TRANS SELL TRANS SELL ANS SELL ENO ENDYR EOND Y


PC-" to o4 ow 14 14 14I
aFmVa) OBCIENE FINCTION 0 0 0m 41 0 0 017 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 a g2 0 0 022 0 0 am 0 0 08
(MU) OECTNE FUNCION 0 0 0m D0 0 0 ot 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 0 022 0 0 004 0 0 0B
Fo) OBJEC110LFUNTO 0 0 0 me0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


C0 W42 S1mM I 3 4 r )4 LAND I o o
0 30B 5 80 LABfU 1 0 0
S3107704 A370,a aOF 1 I 0 0o
S a8 SEPTM 0 o

0 4.1347M 413W OCTM 0 0 0
0 1 1MM IS W OCTF3 I 0 0
a004 81477716 ag10 NO4VM 0 0 0
0040371 1001346 1OBBI1 4NOVF 4 0 0
054742 tL234M 9313446 DECM 2 0 0
001742 104121746 1042 DECF 4 0 0
0 sB4G4T7 s64' "NM 1 0 0

01,144 BS77448 7 Ln3 FEBI M 0 0 0
01711 0m883 1044 FE8F 0 0 0

00..71 2412887 2.2463==8 0 0 0
o 10 1014 P 1 0 0o
048443 10 22 11.3634 AURF 0 0
0o5442 147066 35544 MAYM 1 0 0
04a711 111544731 881fl8 MF 0 o0
004W071 207F87 1118l8 JUE M 0 0 0
O54742 14824M 7043153 JUNE1F 0 0
004C31 S07818 S111l4 JULYF 1 0 0
M 22004 31.o0104 CAB 1PUT 10o 0 0
0 39 1CASH#NM 8 0 0
*0804 I41843 CASH 44F 4 0 0

41o B2I 35488 382m70 CA Y o 0 05
0 3-4358714 34.30.0 CAMSHM 0 0 003
41 Bs s a3 7 a 8 D CASH SF 0 0 0
0 G154.E3 .11E.13 441p40 .11*B I 1
G0 2184 201 I0 ZE CON 0 1 0

o aSB 2aB GROUNDJT 0 0 0
0 1E-14-14 1.E-14 MLL.ETO. 0 0
0 130 I0 MLETCON 0 0 0
0 4 3 E-.5 S 3E-15 BEAN PRO 0 0 0
a m 8 BEANCOU N 0 0 0
0 18E-18 1E-IS T.,..Is 0 0 0
is 78 TOBA `D C 0 0 0
SIM3SE-1a 418-14 .0 EEP 0 0 0
0 a BEa MCON 0 0 0
432OE-13 4.-:13 MCP 0 0 0
0 3.0 3s .MLKCON 0 0
S1.OIE-13 1B E-13 OCUCUER 0 0
a 0 200 CUChER 0 0 0
0 466E 3 E- E13 --PLNPR 0 0 0
0 o aO PUMM RU C 0 0 0


I 0
O 0

3 0
4 0

* 0
4 0
4 0


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6 0
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0 0 0
0 a 0
0 0 0
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0 0 < a 00o
0 0 0 4 14 0
0 0 0 < 0 ma
0 0 0 14 0

o D a < 4 0E. 4
o a a < 14 a

a a o < 1 a


a o a < 14 a
0 a a < 10 4E-1S




a a a 4 a
0 0 0 < 14 0
0 0 o < I 0



S0 0 1a a a 14 a
0 a a < 10 aE1a
0 0a a 14 a

0 0 0 < 1. E.
0 0 0 < 14 1.1-60



a 0a < 0

S, < 14 1E-1.l
o 0 M <
o o o < 14 405
0 0 0 < 10 2E-1
0a < 3O 1.04180
0 a 1 a 18a
1 a a > 1 *T.E- I1





a S 00
a a m om
o o o < o oia2
0 0 0 4 .... 01
0 0 0 < 0 Q6S44.


0 0 0 > 13a a.t

0 0 0 < 0 171370
0 0 0 B -1.71237
0 0 0 4 0 0US714




a a o a o o
a o 0 < 0 81 8

0 0 0 4 15 .011

0 0 0 < 0 b02


5lON M 211. 0 0O5074a 0346 aB 0 2 0144 t30 014 a QM420 75 OQ s 05 G31 42403 337S 10M 00B 200 0 075M9 80 m 1791B 0 agB 0


0 0 0040 0 0 0 4704 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 405 0 0 0 10E17 0 4541












AEB S1B ECONOMIC ANMLYI N SMML FM SYEM
ULEM PRXWMWNO FOR THE BANMA FM.LY FANR


TALE :


TABLE I


LMAGE MAGE MA COTON ANUT ONUT OUl T lT M1ET BEAN BEAN TOBACCOTCOACC BEERBEER BEER MLK MLX MIL CUCUKIECUCU IEC ~E IEI@ nMN PULMQ PIMN HA CAS CAT C A CASH R64


TRAN SELL TRWNB SELL TRANS TRANS TRANS WTRAS SE COW TRANS SEL TRANS SELL TRAN SELL ENDVR ENDOW END o
-M h4 M M (h M Ibalet)
f.1 OBJCECT7 E FUICTION 0 0 aom we 0 0 017 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 062 0 0 037 0 0 104 0 0 00a4 0 0 0
Mal. mJECTWNE FUJNCTn 0 0 ca 0 0 0 07t 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a0 02 0 0 004 0 0 00o 0 0 0
FM'l) OSAEC IE FINCTION 0 0 0 IRS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a a 0 s26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a


0Q074MS 317710aa 4054644 LA 1 0 0 1 1 0
10 W4I2 40W3 1 oF I 0 0 05 S 0
O 43IBII 14U0F I 0 0 0 3 0
o 0 m BO M I 0 0 0 4 0
o 0000s1s s NEPTF T 0 O 0 6 0
0 30I64W 1023 7 OCTM 0 0 0 0 0 4 0
07 1140T1 3p10 OCTF I 0 0 0 4 0
Q007B6 3Ba" 6S1 OlAS N 1M 0 0 I 6 0
S12r090 12OM NOWVF 4 0 05 6 0
001464 1143;m 116 40 71CM a 0 0 I 6 0
14000744 idS 01104 C40 E 0 0 1 0 0
003 4 6dM 1 YF 0 0 0 3 0

B53B 4.51 47 1.1, F 1 0 0 1 3 0
0SB4 107014446 156 rM 0 0 0 0 0 0
0. .dE1 I.Ens 10 0 0 0 F 0
0aM2G194 20469- 7M 0 0 0 0 0 0



OI E 115.01a 5 16m4 MIRF 0 0 0 I 10 0
o0276 6S10 ISIS IMYM 7 0 0 I 7 0
1O 3 133E3 70012S 46 1 ACO 00 0 0 6 0 0


oom1S TiaM1 10i EURF 0 0 0 0 0

00764 7 400011 14 W.3CAS H 0 0 I 6 0
Q5 116177 14 COT? 0 0 0 06 0 0

1a 7 0 42 4 6 C A S 1 1 0 0 0 I 7 6 0
93E 64614617 1@ CA16 04 4 0 0 137 0 0

S6447310fl41 19361K CASHF 0 0 C 0 00
O0BI3E-lS MlE CASH Ml 0 0 0 10 0 0
11013E-I3 1,1E.13 pr -1741 1 1 0 0
0 2194.4 01.606CO5 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 M113 446 G.70JT 0 0 0 0 -7 1

0 SO.-14 14 LLETIO i 0 0 0 0 0 7

4 130 130 4MP6Ir Pt 0 0 0 0 0 0

00 737 1BEJACON 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 46 4 5MTB O 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 I474-16 I44.15 i EEERF 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 7 7 3C0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 17 13-16 11-1r5E.13 P 0 0 0 0 0 0
S 06s 060s 0AXW C 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 314E-13 -13 CUC E 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 ao4 CUCUMBER 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 iEO3 -I4E-13 LVI 0 0 0 0 0
0 7 nao PUn- CO 0 0 0 0 0 0


0
0 0
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0 1
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0 < I 0
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0 < 14 123E-10
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0 > 101 24E-18

1 0 S .1E-17
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0 < 0 0IKE4-
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0 < 0 2025
a > o -ass
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0 < 0 1.E17
0 C 3O .1.E17


.OLUI 0N 1.0 210M 0 007omo4 0346 i5 0 05 3a 13D 014 6 0214MB 75 so5 0 4573 31 4 3375 47 0o0 300 0 07 o Bom 0 1 m 17.340 17- 4 0D
I1GB57I 0
0 0 .0o14 0 0 0o .4= 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .1E1-1 0 0 0 0 0 41746





























TM4E, FM KUHIICTN ALDMTIWI FYM&IMP OGW


LI ME WAN W D H MW WA M CTD 4 NU WA uET WIET l En BM4 TOBA CO CCO BEE SEER BM EERallt laG MLXG =Cn*Ta .W G aC U IUUERP 1 4 E n C WCIW CW"M HSA


TIWM EU MWAE 55 E 5U


M) OJEC"TiE FLO.C1 m 0 0 Oam 0

allct OBJECTOE a UNCTION 0 0 0 0
Fonn osJiwr


NllDwi am- iB+ tMQ < o o i
oom aa s *m LaM i o o 0




Ol4mG GiB4U l 0 SEWF I 0 0 0
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o ase. 3 anma WaM oo o o a


anna. aic sea11.11 NWa a


0a'lWrM egjmm B4m4 omV 0 o



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= I amlli 1. C. PaSJim o o o






ol rSmL sles Tu Cat. o o o a
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o4l a fi i al a 4NO M o o a o


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Tt SEu. E101 EaE Im EMOVR


o oa o o oa o o o o o a
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0 0 0
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0 <- 4s o
o 4- o ao



o 1- 4 0




















0 4* Ia 1 0
o <- a

o .- *4 a


a <. 14 0 014.1
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o ,. salafo 1
o <- o
o <- Io o


o m10 -ia
o <* 14 o
o <*- 1 a


o <- o
0 <- 14 avm0 s




0 <. 0,
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o <* I> a-Kir



o >- 100 1ME 1T

o <- 8o 41iEnO





o >- a o aas


0 <- o O Bl


0 <*- D lOtC
o >- r0 I010






0 <- o OOB
o >* 300s 4)<



0 O (
0 a o


U T s o 00U Om o .O M 7 a s o 4 0 4 a o o 4 oam s o o o a oo 0 s a ga 3r o
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LMM. -E H- U 'O 71 i Wd 1 PIJT ILMT 5L11T VAINS S I lO BER PER BER WI iS A K -M (+ftlm fIUOUA W amCUOfra sUaM rwv cas GWAT Ca W HW
aS P.u Im TOWS Pt. 1I S P 1t 75 liWS mlWS 155 3ti Wco WiS PU T Su WI SE L. 9Em ENM. t, IEm.

1C 0" to 04


IMl OJECIEE FUNC a 0 o0m
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om- saas smoII LuWM i a o

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