• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Florida
 Counties and county maps
 The Atlantic Coast
 The Gulf Coast
 Middle Florida
 Subtropical Florida
 West Florida
 Miscellaneous information
 Index














Group Title: Handbook of FLorida
Title: A handbook of FLorida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075649/00001
 Material Information
Title: A handbook of FLorida
Physical Description: 380 p. : maps part fold ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Norton, Charles Ledyard, 1837-1909
Publisher: Longmans, Green & co
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1891
Edition: 3rd ed., rev., 1982.
 Subjects
Subject: Guidebooks -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Charles Ledyard Norton. With forty-nine maps and plans.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075649
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01665137
lccn - 01003464

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Preface
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Florida
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
    Counties and county maps
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
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        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    The Atlantic Coast
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
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        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
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        Page 159
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        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
    The Gulf Coast
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
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        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
    Middle Florida
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
    Subtropical Florida
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
    West Florida
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
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        Page 351
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        Page 353
        Page 354
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        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
    Miscellaneous information
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
    Index
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
Full Text











A HANDBOOK OF FLORIDA






A HANDBOOK OF FLORIDA








BY
CHARLES LEDYARD NORTON


WITI1 FORTY-NINE MAPS AND PLANS



THIRD EDITION, REVISED.



NEW YORK
LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO.
15 EAST SIXTEENTH STREET
1892







































COPYRIGHT, 1891, BY

CHARLES LEDYARD NORTON


TROW DIRECTORY
PRINTING AND BOOK60ING COMPANY
NEW YORI



















NOTE.


THE right and title to "The Florida Annual," of which
four editions have been published, has been purchased, and
the present Handbook is designed to preserve its best feat-
ures in a new form.

















PREFACE.



THE first section of the Handbook proper is devoted to
sketches of the several counties, with maps compiled from
the best attainable authorities. In the context the different
railroad lines crossing the counties are given, with tables
of stations and distances, so that, if desired, the different
routes can be followed from county to county. Take, for in-
stance, Route 40, p. 183, Jacksonville to Palatka. The railway
Passes through Duval, Clay, and Putnam Counties. Descrip-
tions of the counties with their respective maps are alpha-
betically arranged, beginning at page 1. On page 25 are
stations and distances in Duval County, on page 16 those in
Clay County, and on page 82 those in Putnam County, so
that the movement of the train can be followed from one
map to another throughout the journey. Distances are
given in both directions as indicated by arrows at the sides
of the tables. The frequent establishment of new stations
and the discontinuance of old ones may account for discrep-
ancies between the maps and current time-tables. In future
S editions these will be corrected as rapidly as possible.
In the other sections travelling routes are described in
general and in detail, with as much accuracy as possible un-
der the changing conditions of a country where, a few years
ago, railroads were unknown.
The general plan divides the State into five sections, as





PREFACE.


follows: The Atlantic Coast (p. 103); The Gulf Coast (p.
228); Middle or Inland Florida (p. 273); Subtropical
Florida (p. 309); West Florida (p. 329). Under these again,
the towns and places of special interest are designated as
numbered routes covering the principal resorts and lines of
travel as they exist. Much information of value to intend-
ing settlers, as well as to tourists, will be found throughout
the volume. This is especially true in consideration of the
county maps, which have never before been published to-
gether in such convenient shape.
Reference to the table of contents, pp. ix to xii, will
facilitate the finding of any particular route or locality.
Hotel rates, the usual prices for saddle-horses, carriages,
boats, guides, etc., are in the main the result of personal ex-
perience, or from answers to letters of inquiry. Such ratds,
however, are always variable, with, in general, an upward
tendency.
The editor will be grateful for the correction of any er-
rors, or for information that may increase the value of fu-
ture editions.
O. L. N.
15 EAST SIXTEENTH STREET, NEW YOBK,
November, 1890.









CONTENTS.



[In order to permit the introduction of new routes in future
editions of the Handbook, without disturbing the general arrange-
ment, the routes are numbered decimally. Thus Jacksonville is
10; Fernandina, 20; St. Augustine, 30; while the intermediate
numbers, 11, 22, 85, etc., are assigned to routes subordinate to,
and more or less connected with, each central point of interest.]
PAGE.
Introductory Matter, Hints to Travellers, etc.............. xiii
Paragraph History of Florida .......................... xx

COUNTIES AND COUNTY MAPS.
Alachua County................................. ........ 1
Baker County .................... .................... 6
Bradford County ...................................... 7
Brevard County ...................................... 9
Calhoun County ..................................... 11
Citrus County.................................... ..... 18
Clay County..................................... ...... 14
Columbia County........................................ 16
Dade County............................................ 19
De Soto County ...................................... 21
Duval County ............................................ 28
Escambia County .................... ................ 27
Franklin County..................................... 29
Gadsden County ...................................... 81
Hamilton County ...................... ................ 82
Hernando County. ................................... 84
Hillsborough County ................................... 86
Holmes County........................................ 89
Jackson County....................................... 40
Jefferson County ................................ .... .. 42
Lafayette County .................... .............. 43
Lake County .............. ......................... 45
Lee County............ ............................... 49
Leon County ........................................ 51
Levy County ................ ....................... .. 54
Liberty County ........ ............. ......... ....... 55
Madison County ........................................ 57
Manatee County ...................................... 59
Marion County ...................................... 61





X CONTENTS.

PAGE
Monroe County ............................ ........... 04
Nassau County .................................... ..... 65
Orange County ..................................... ... 68
Osceola County ............ ......... ...... ................. 71
Pasco County ........................................ 74
Polk County .......................................... 76
Putnam County ....................................... 80
Saint John's County............ .......................... 82
Sumter County ................... .......... ......... 85
Santa Rosa County........................................ 88
Suwannee County...................................... 89
Taylor County.......................................... 92
Volusia County ........................................ 94
Wakulla County ....................................... 98
W alton County ............................ ... ....... 100
Washington County ........... ...................... 101

I. THE ATLANTIC COAST.
BOUTE PAGE
10. Jacksonville ...................................... 103
11. Jacksonville to St. Augustine and return:.............. 110
12. Jacksonville to Fernandina and return ............... 111
13. Jacksonville to Mayport and return .................. 112
14. Jacksonville to Pablo Beach and return ............... 114
15. Jacksonville to Green Cove Springs and return ........ 115
16. Jacksonville to Fort George Island and return.......... 115
17. The Lower St. John's River andDomenique de Gourgues 117
20. Fernandina ........ ................................. 127
21. Amelia Island ..................................... 130
22. Amelia River .................... ............... 130
28. Nassau Sound........... ..; ..................... .. 31
24. Cumberland Sound ................................. 131
30. St. Augustine........ .............................. 133
31. Anastasia Island .................................... 175
33. Matanzas River and Inlet ............................ 178
34. St. Augustine to Jacksonville....................... 182
35. St. Augustine to Palatk.......................... 182
38. Jacksonville to Palatka by rail ...................... 183
39. Jacksonville to Palatka by river ...................... 184
40. Green Cove Springs................................. 187
50. Palatka................. ... .................. ..... 188
51. Lake George...................................... 190
52. The Fruitland Peninsula.............................. 191
53. Crescent Lake..................................... 191
54. Seville ........... ................................. 192
55. Palatka to Sanford by rail............................ 198
56. Palatka to Sanford by river.......................... 194
60. Sanford ......................................... 196





CONTENTS. xi

ROUTE PAGE
61. De Land............. ... ................ ...... 198
62. Lake Helen ......................................... 199
70. Daytona .......................................... 200
71. Ormond ........................................... 202
72. Halifax River ................................... 202
80. New Smyrna ..................................... 203
81. Ponce Park and Mosquito Inlet .................... 207
90. The Indian River ................................. 210
91. Titusville............................... ....... 213
92. Rockledge............. ................. ..... 214
93. Melbourne ................. ..................... 215
94. Jupiter Inlet....................................... 216
95. Jupiter Inlet to Lake Worth ....................... 221
100. Lake Worth ..................................... 222
101. The Sea Coast South of Lake Worth.................. 220

II. TIE GULF COAST.
110. Fernandina to Cedar Key......................... 229
111. Cedar Key.......................................... 229
120. Jacksonville to Homosassa ........................ 233
121. Homosassa ........................................ 233
130. The Pinellas Peninsula ............................ 236
131. Tarpon Springs .................................. 237
132. Clearwater Harbor................................. 243
133. St. Petersburg.................................... 247
140. Tampa ................... ...................... 249
141. Port Tampa ..................................... 251
142. The Manatee River... ................... .......... 252
150. Charlotte Harbor .................................. 254
151. Punta Gorda.......... ............. .............. 256
152. St. James-on-the-Gulf (Pine Island)................. 259
153. Punta Rassa and Tarpon Fishing...................... 261
154. The Caloosa River ................................ 265
155. Fort Myers ......................................... 267
156. Lake Okeechobee ................................ 269
157. The Everglades ................................... 270
158. Naples.......................................... 271

III. MIDDLE FLORIDA.
160. Sanford to Tampa Bay and Port Tampa ............. 275
161. Winter Park ...................................... 276
162. Orlando:........... ............................ 278
163. Kissimmee ........................................... 279
164. Lakeland......................................... 280
165. Bartow ........................................... 281
166. Plant City ......................... ...... .... ... 282





xii CONTENTS.

ROUTE PAGE
170. Jacksonville to Ocala ............................ 282
171. Interlachen................. .................... 283
172. Citra........... ............. ..................... 284
173. Gainesville and The Land Office..................... 288
174. Jacksonville to Leesburg.......................... 290
175. Micanopy and the Seminole Wars.................... 291
180. Ocala.. .............................. ..... 294
181. The Oklawaha .................................... 296
182. Silver Spring.................................... 299
183. Blue Spring ....................................... 301
184. Dunellon.......................................... 302
185. Lake Weir ........................................ 304
190. Leesburg ........................................ 305
Dade's Massacre................................... 307

IV. SUBTROPICAL FLORIDA.
200. Biscayne Bay .................................. 310
201. The Florida Reefs ................................. 315
202. Key West ........................................ 323

V. WEST FLORIDA.
210. Jacksonville to River Junction........... .......... 331
211. Macclenny........................................ 334
212. Olustee .......................................... 334
213. Lake City........................................ 338
214. Live Oak....: ................................... 339
215. Madison...... .................................. 339
216. Monticello .............. .......................... 840
220. Tallahassee ...................................... 342
221. The Wakulla Spring............................... 347
222. St. M arks ............ ..... ... ............ ..... ..... 349
223. Quincy............... ........................ 350
224. Chattahoochee. .................................. 351
230. River Junction to Pensacola.................. ...... 352
231. Marianna ............................ ............ 353
232. De Funiak Springs .............................. 354
233. Milton ................. .......................... 355
240. Pensacola.......................................... 355
250. The Gulf Coast of West Florida ...................... 365
Miscellaneous Information: Oranges, Lemons, Limes,
Citrons; Grape Fruit, Pineapple ..... ........... 368
Native Races of Florida............................ 372
Seminole Words, etc................................. 37
Average Temperature............ ........ ...... 377
Rainfall, etc., in Florida.................. ......... 78
The Game Laws of Florida......................... 379
Index...... .............................. ...... .. 381















FLORIDA.



THE State of Florida, owing to its semi-tropical climate,
and its remarkable natural attractions, is recognized as the
most favored winter sanitorium and pleasure resort of Amer-
icans. Especially is this true of those who reside so far
North that they are certain to be more or less incommoded
by protracted cold.
The Florida Season.-As soon as the weather begins to be
wintry and disagreeable in the North it begins to be pleasant
in Florida. Although the fashionable season does not open
until after Christmas, invalids or others desiring to avoid
the first approaches of cold can always find comfortable ac-
commodations near the principal places of resort. The lead-
ing hotels usually open in January and close in May, and the
travelling facilities are at their best during that period.

Railroads.

New York is the natural starting point for travellers from
the Northern Atlantic States and Canada. Through tickets
without change of cars to St. Augustine and the other prin-
cipal resorts in Florida can be procured at any general rail-
way office.
The Atlantic Coast Line is the shortest. Time, New York
to Jacksonville, twenty-four to thirty-six hours. Vestibuled
trains are run through from New York.
There are three ordinary express trains daily each way be-
tween New York and Jacksonville during the winter season.
The vestibuled trains are made up of drawing-room cars





Xiv OCEAN ROUTES.

with electric lights, libraries, dining-rooms, smoking-rooms,
bath, and all the luxuries of a modern hotel.
The direct route passes through Philadelphia, Pa., Wil-
mington, Del., Baltimore, Md., Washington, D. C., Rich-
mond, Va., Wilmington, N. C., Charleston, S. C., and Sa-
vannah, Ga., to Jacksonville and St. Augustine.
St. Louis, Louisville, and Cincinnati are the three points of
departure from the Northern Central group of States. From
these cities frequent trains run either to Pensacola or Jack-
sonville, or direct to New Orleans, whence communication
with the Florida railroad system is constant and easy.


Ocean Routes.
The journey to Florida may be pleasantly varied by mak-
ing part of the trip by sea, as indicated in the following list
of steamship lines.
The Clyde Steamship Company, Pier 27 East River, office
No. 5 Bowling Green. Tri-weekly steamers to Jacksonville
(time, about three days). Monthly schedules are issued,
giving dates and hours of sailing. All these steamers touch
at Charleston, S. C.
The Mallory Line, Pier 20 East River, New York, de-
spatches a steamer once a week to Fernandina, but little
more than one hour's ride to Jacksonville (about three
days at sea).
The Ocean Steamship Company, Pier 25 East River, New
York. Steamers three times a week from Boston, New York,
and Philadelphia (the latter freight only), to Savannah, Ga.,
five hours from Jacksonville (about fifty-five hours at sea).
The Old Dominion Line, Pier 26 North River, New York.
Tri-weekly steamers to Norfolk and Richmond, Va. (about
twenty-four hours at sea), thence twenty-two hours by rail
to Jacksonville.





HINTS TO TRAVELLERS.


Special tackle for tarpon and kingfish is described under
Route 82.
iMloney. A list of towns having banks or bankers is given
below. A supply of silver quarter-dollars and of nickel five-
cent pieces will be found convenient, as small change is apt
to be scarce away from the larger cities. A stock of one
dollar bills is preferable to those of larger denominations
since the weighty and inconvenient silver dollar is in
Florida almost invariably tendered in change.


BANKS.

Apopka, Orange County.-Bank of Apopka.
Bartow, Polk County.-Polk County Bank.
Brooksville, Hernando County.-Bank of Brooksville (not incorporated).
Daytona, Volusia County.-Bank of Daytona.
De Land Volusia County.-F. S. Goodrich.
Eustis, Orange County.-Bishop Bros.
Fernandina, Nassau County.-Bank of Fcrnandina.
Gainsville, Alachua County.-First National Bank. H. F. Dutton & Co.
Interlachen, Putnam County.-Taylor & Warren.
Jacksonville, Duval County.-First National Bank. The Florida Savings
Bank. National Bank of Jacksonville. National Bank, State of Florida.
State Bank of Florida (not incorporated). Ambler, Marvin & Stockton.
Key West, Monroe County.-Bank of Key West. John White Bank.
Kissimmee, Osceola County.-Kissimmee City Bank.
Lake City, Columbia County.-N. S. Collins & Co.
Lakeland, Polk County.-I. J. J. Nieuwenkamp.
Leesbu' -.w..r. r, .,,i.rr -MI..r...n, Stapylton & Co. Yager Bros.
Ocala, 7~'I.. **n...,, / --1. .. i .r 'National Bank. First National Bank.
Orlando, Orange County. National Bank of Orlando. Orlando Loan & Sav-
ings Bank.
Palatka, Putnam County.-First National Bank.
Pensacola, Escambia County.-First National Bank of Pensacola. Mer-
chants' Bank. F. C. Brent & Co.
Punta Gorda, Do Soto County.
Sanford, Orange County.-First National Bank.
Seville, Volusia County.-Bank of Seville.
St. Augustine, St. Johns County.-First National Bank.
Stanton, Marion Connty.-The Buffum Loan & Trust Co.
Tallahassee, Leon County.-B. C. Lewis & Son.
Tampa, Hillsboro County.-First National Bank of Tampa.
Tarpon Springs.-Bank of Tarpon Springs.
Tavares, Lake County.-Bank of Tavares (not incorporated).
Titusville, Brevard County.-Indian River Bank.

Travelling Expenses. Individual tastes and habits of ne-
cessity govern daily expenses. Lawful rates by rail in
Florida are 3 cents a mile on the main lines, and 4 and 5 cents
a mile on branches and local roads. If the traveller fre-
quents the most expensive hotels his daily bills will be from
$3 to $5 a day, or even more, exclusive of "tips," but in





HINTS TO TRAVELLERS.


most of the resorts comfortable quarters can be found at
lower rates, say $2 a day, or $8 to $10 a week. With reason-
able economy $5 a day should be a fair average, covering all
strictly travelling expenses, and leaving something to spare
for emergencies. It is earnestly recommended that travel-
lers give only reasonable fees to attendants. In all respect-
able hotels they are paid good wages and excessive fees tend
to lower their sense of duty. Small fees of five or ten cents,
given on the spot for services rendered, secure better attend-
ance, and are less demoralizing to the recipient than large
fees postponed till the hour of departure.
In the height of the season it is well to telegraph in ad-
vance for rooms. If a prolonged stay is made at a hotel an
itemized bill should be called for at least once a week, since
errors can be most easily corrected when fresh in mind.
The final bill should be called for several hours in advance
of departure-the night before in case of an early morning
start. This gives time for the inevitable discussion conse-
quent upon the discovery of actual or supposed mistakes.
In many of the small hotels away from the principal re-
sorts, bathing facilities are very primitive, if not wanting al-
together. A pair of bathing mittens carried in a waterproof
sponge-bag, so that they can be packed away even when wet,
has been found an untold luxury under such conditions;
and in the same category may be mentioned a cake of soap
in a flannel bag of its own (not waterproofed). Such a bag
is far better than the ordinary travellers' soap-box, in which
the soap rapidly deteriorates when not packed away in a
perfectly dry state.
Riding and Driving. The ordinary Florida road is not
well adapted for pleasure driving, but there are certain sec-
tions of the State, as in Marion County, where a carriage may
be driven for many miles at a moderate pace through the
open woods. Elsewhere, in sections where clay predomi-
nates, as in Gadsden and Leon Counties, the roads are excel.
lent, save in wet weather. Near the coast, too, there are shell-
roads of admirable smoothness. This is notably the case at
Fort George Island, Duval County, in the vicinity of Jack-
sonville, and near New Smyrna. Finally, the ocean beaches


Xviii




HINTS TO TRAVELLERS.


Hints to Travellers.
Outfit. Woollen undergarments, shirts, and hosiery of light
or medium thickness, according to individual temperament,
are best. Camels' hair, or some of the so-called unshrinkable
flannels are preferable. There are days in every month when
thin outer clothing, suitable for summer wear, is desirable,
but, in general, clothing of medium thickness is not uncom-
fortable. Moderately warm wraps, overcoats, and rugs are
indispensable, and mackintoshes or other waterproofs are
recommended. For men soft felt hats are best for general
use, but sun-helmets of cork, pith, or duck are convenient
for warm weather. Straw or palmetto hats can always be
purchased in Florida. If much walking is anticipated high
shoes are desirable, as deep sand cannot always be avoided.
For men leggings of leather or canvas are recommended as
a protection against the tangled "scrub" and its living
inhabitants, especially the red bugs and wood-ticks that
frequent the undergrowth. During the winter months
snakes are rarely encountered. Leggings are also conveni-
ent for riding, and are very generally used by tourists and
sportsmen.
All the articles specified can be purchased in St. Augus-
tine or Jacksonville, at a slight advance upon New York
prices, and most of them can be found in any of the larger
towns
The normal clear, winter weather of Florida is perfect for
out-of-door life, but seasons differ greatly. While summer
is usually the rainy season there are occasional variations from
the regular order. Sometimes there are rainy winters, and
every season brings its northerss," when a cold wind blows,
sometimes for several days in succession, and fires and warm
clothing are in demand. With a limited amount of luggage
it is often inconvenient to carry a full supply of thick under-
wear, therefore it is suggested that these sudden changes of
temperature be met by donning two suits of light underwear
at once.
Railway travel in Florida is unavoidably dusty in fair
weather, the dust being of that penetrating quality that ren-





HINTS TO TRAVELLERS.


ders its perfect exclusion from cars wellnigh impossible.
Dusters are not pretty to look at, but they add greatly to the
comfort of travel, and any anti-dust contrivances in the way
of caps, neckerchiefs, and the like will be found equally con-
venient.
Camp Outfit. Two woollen blankets, army size; one sewn
together at bottom and along two edges, to form a sleeping-
bag, and the other left unsewn, for use in warm weather,
$5.00; one rubber poncho, $1.00; one suit of oil-skin cloth-
ing, coat and trousers, $3.50; one perfectly water-tight
match-box (a tightly corked, large-mouthed vial is perhaps
best) ten cents ; one pocket or watch-chain compass. This is
indispensable in Florida, for in cloudy weather there is noth-
ing to steer by in the piny woods, and the watercourses are
often so tortuous that bearings are easily lost, fifty cents
upward; one mosquito net. Florida hunters use "cheese-
cloth," as that is proof against sand-flies while the ordinary
netting is not. The foregoing list covers essentials only.
The aggregate cost need not exceed $12.00
Shooting Outfit. Guns according to preference, since every
sportsman has his favorite. A light 32 or 44 calibre rifle
will be found very convenient. Game of all kinds has been
shot at so much since the introduction of breech-loaders
that it has become very wild. The rifle can often be used
with good results when shot-guns are useless.
For shot, Nos. 9 and 4 with a supply of buckshot for large
game, and a few long-range cartridges have been found to
serve well for general shooting.
Fishing Outfit. An ordinary bass-rod, reel, and line is best
for general purposes. Common metallic spinners or spoons
are used for trolling. Florida fishes handle trolling gear
rather roughly, and phantom minnows" and the like are
apt to come to grief. For general purposes, Limerick hooks,
ringed and bent, are as good as any. A supply of gut-snelled
hooks is desirable for use in the perfectly clear waters of
certain streams, but in general linen snells are best. The
most useful sizes of hooks range from 610 downward, though,
of course, for the heavy weights the larger sizes are neces-
sary. Sinkers must be provided and floats are often useful.





HINTS TO TRAVELLERS.


from Fernandina south to Cape Canaveral are, as a rule,
perfect in all respects for driving or wheeling. The only
drawback is that for an hour or two every day when the tide
is at full flood the finest part of the driveway is under
water.
Equestrians will find passably good saddle-horses at very
reasonable rates almost everywhere in the State. Riding
through the woods is always enjoyable, and a gallop on the
beaches referred to above is exhilarating beyond descrip-
tion.
Walking Trips. Extended pedestrian excursions are not
likely to be undertaken in Florida, or, if undertaken, are not
likely to be repeated. Several weighty reasons are against
them. The distance from one place of interest to another is
usually too great to be covered on foot in a day. The coun-
try roads are always sandy, save in rare instances, and the
scenery is, as a rule, very monotonous. From many of the
resorts pleasant walks may be taken through the woods or
along the beaches. Often the walking is easy and the
ground reasonably clear of undergrowth in the pine woods
as well as in the hammocks, but where the saw palmetto is
found progress is always difficult. No stranger should ven-
ture into Florida woods without a compass. None of the
signs known to Northern woodsmen hold good here, and
bearings are very easily lost, particularly under a cloudy sky
or when night is coming on.
All pedestrians in Florida will sooner or later form the
acquaintance of the "red bug," an insect almost invisible
as to size, but gigantic in his power of annoyance. High
boots or tight leggings, afford some protection, but a salt-
water bath (natural or artificial) or rubbing the legs with al-
cohol or ammonia immediately on reaching home is the only
sure preventive of intolerable itching, which usually lasts
several days.





xx PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA.


Paragraph History of Florida.

1497. The English claim to priority of discovery is based
on the following passage in Sebastian Cabot's narrative:
"Despairing to find the passage I turned back again, and
sailed down by the coast of land toward the equinoctial (ever
with the intent to find the said passage to India), and came
to that part of this firm land which is now called Florida,
where my victuals failing, I departed from thence and re-
turned into England." During the same year, according
to Francisco Adolpho de Varnhagen, Americus Vespucius
coasted the whole peninsula.
1500-1502. Gaspar Corte-Real, probably a Spanish trader,
furnished data from which was traced the first approximately
correct outline of the North American coast, clearly indi-
cating the Floridian peninsula (Cantino's map, Lisbon, 1502,
now preserved in the Biblioteca Estense, at Modena, Italy).
1513. March 27. Easter Sunday (Pascua Florida, in
Spanish) Juan Ponce de Leon sighted the coast near St.
Augustine, and named it in honor of the day.'
1513. April 2. He landed in 300 8' north latitude, prob-
ably near Fernandina.
1513. April 8. He took formal possession in the name of
the King of Spain.
1516. Diego Miruelo, a pilot and trader, discovered a bay,
probably Pensacola, which long bore his name on Spanish
maps. Pence de Leon made a second voyage of discovery,
but was driven off by the natives, who killed several of his
men.
1517. February. Francis Hernandez de Cordova, while
on a slave-hunting expedition, landed at some unidentified
place on the west coast of Florida. His men were attacked
by the natives and driven off. De Cordova himself was fa-
tally wounded.
1519. Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda discovers the coast in the

] The year 1512 is usually given as the date of this discovery. Justin Winsor,
Vol. I., cites official documents proving that 1513 is the correct date.





PARAGRAPH HISTORY uF FLORIDA.


vicinity of Pensacola, and proves that Florida is not an
island.
1521. February or March. Ponce de Leon, commissioned
as governor of the Island Florida," landed at some point
probably not far from St. Augustine, and attempted to take
possession. He was fatally wounded in a fight with the na-
tives, and the settlement was abandoned.
Francisco Gordillo and Pedro de Quexos, sent out by
Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, discovered a large river and named
it St. John the Baptist. They kidnapped about seventy of the
friendly natives, and carried them away. These Indians
were subsequently returned to their homes.
1525. Pedro de Quexos returned, by order of Ayllon,
regained the good-will of the Indians, and explored the
coast for two hundred and fifty leagues, setting up stone
crosses bearing the name of Charles V. of Spain, and the
date of taking possession.
1528. April 14. Pamphilo de Narvaez with a fleet of five
vessels, containing four hundred men and eighty horses,
landed in Bahia de la Cruz (perhaps Clearwater Harbor).
The fleet was sent along the coast, while the army marched
inland and perished, all save four, who escaped after eight
years of captivity.
1539. May 25. Hernando de Soto reached Tampa Bay,
and named it Espiritu Santo. His force was five hundred
and seventy men, with two hundred and twenty-three horses
and a complete outfit. He marched northward and westward,
treating the Indians, friend and'foe alike, with cruel treachery
and violence. Passing beyond the present boundaries of
Florida he discovered the Mississippi River, where he died
and was buried beneath its waters.
1549. June 25. Father Luis Canca de Barbastro, in
charge of a missionary expedition, landed near Clearwater
Harbor, and was killed by the Indians with four of his asso-
ciates.
1559. July 1. Tristan de Luna y Arellano, with one
thousand five hundred soldiers and settlers, landed in Ichuse
(Santa Rosa) Bay. A hurricane almost destroyed his fleet,
on September 19th. Explorations were undertaken, but re-





xxii PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA.


suited in no discoveries of importance. Mutinies followed
among the troops, and eventually the settlement was aban-
doned.
1562. May 1. Jean Ribaut, a French Huguenot, with a
colony of the same faith, entered the St. John's River, re-
named it La Riviere de Mai, and erected a stone monument
bearing the arms of France. No attempt at permanent set-
tlement was made at this time.
1564. June 22. Reng de Laudonnigre, a French Hugue-
not, discovered the harbor of St. Augustine and named it La
Riviore des Dauphines.
1564. July. Fort Caroline built by the French, prob-
ably at St. John's Bluff, near the mouth of the River of
May" (St. John's).
1565. August 3. Sir John Hawkins entered the river,
relieved the wants of the French colony, and told Laudon-
ni6re of an intended Spanish attack.
1565. August 28. Pedro Menendez d'Aviles, with a
strong Spanish fleet, reached the coast north of Cape Canav-
eral.
1565. August 28. He discovered St. Augustine harbor
and named it after Aurelius Augustinus, Bishop of Hippo.
1565. August 28. Ribaut reached the St. John's with re-
enforcements for the French.
1565. September 4. Menendez arrived at the St. John's
River and prepared to give battle to the French, who put to
sea, pursued by the Spaniards.
1565. September 5. Menendez returned to find that
more French ships had arrived. He retreated to St. Augus-
tine and, finding the natives friendly, founded the city on
its present site, the oldest in the United States.
1565. September 8. Menendez landed the greater part
of his force and took formal possession of St. Augustine in
the name of the King of Spain.
1565. September 10. Ribaut's fleet wrecked in a hurri-
cane near Canaveral.
1565. September 29. Menendez received the surrender
of an advance party of the French who survived the wreck
of their fleet at Matanzas Inlet, and put 111 of them to





PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA. XXiii

death. Sixteen who professed to be Catholics were spared,
at the intercession of the Spanish chaplain.
1565. September 30. Menendez, having marched over-
land with 500 men, surprised and put to death the French
garrison at Fort Caroline. A few escaped, including Lau-
donni6re, the commander.
1565. October 1. Laudonniere and the survivors of the
massacre escaped to sea in two small vessels.
1565. October 10. Ribaut, with the rest of the surviv-
ing French, reached Matanzas. About half of them sur-
rendered and were put t6 death. The rest retreated to Ca-
naveral and built a fort.
1565. November 8. Menendez attacked the French at
Canaveral. Most of them surrendered and were spared.
1565-66. (Winter.) The French survivors who had es-
caped to the woods incited the Indians to attack Fort Caro-
line, which the Spaniards had renamed San Mateo.
1566. March 20. Menendez returned to St. Augustine
from a voyage, quelled a mutiny with difficulty, relieved San
Mateo, reorganized the garrisons, and sailed for Spain, which
he reached in July.
1568. April. Domenique de Gourgues, with the avowed
intention of avenging the massacre at Matanzas, captured
the Spanish forts on the St. John's River, hanged the surviv-
ors of the fight, and destroyed the fortification.
1568-1586. European interest in Florida languished.
Settlements were sustained mainly through the personal ef-
forts of Menendez.
1586. Sir Francis Drake, the English freebooter, at-
tacked St. Augustine. The Spaniards fled, offering scarcely
any resistance, and the place was burned. After Drake's de-
parture the people returned and began to rebuild the town.
1593. Twelve Franciscan missionaries were distributed
among the Indians on the east coast.
1598. The Franciscan missionaries were nearly all killed
by the Indians.
1612-13. Thirty-one Franciscans sent from Spain.
Florida constituted a Religious Province of the Order, and
named St. Helena.





xxiv PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA.

1638. War between Spanish colonists and the Apalachee
tribe, resulting in the subjugation of the Indians.
1665. St. Augustine pillaged by English freebooters un-
der Captain John Davis. The Spaniards made little or no re-
sistance.
1655. The hereditary governorship of the Menendez fam-
ily terminated, and was succeeded by Diego de Rebellado,
as Captain-General.
.1675. Don Juan Hita de Salacar became Captain-General.
1680. Don Juan Marquez Cabrera became Captain-Gen-
eral.
1678. The commandant of St. Augustine sent out a suc-
cessful expedition against the English and Scotch settlements
near Port Royal.
1687. A large consignment of negro slaves brought to
Florida by one De Aila.
1681. The Governor (Cabrera) attempted to remove sev-
eral Indian tribes to the islands on the coast. Hostilities
followed, many Christian Indians were killed and others
carried away as slaves.
1696. Under authority of the Viceroy of New Spain a
settlement was made at Pensacola, and Fort Charles was
built.
1702. September and October. Governor Moore of South
Carolina laid siege to St. Augustine, by land and sea. The
town was occupied and burned, but the castle (the present
Fort Marion) held out. Two Spanish vessels appeared and
Governor Moore withdrew, losing his transports.
1703-4. Governor Moore sent an expedition into M,.ldle
Florida mainly directed against the Indians friendly to Spain.
He destroyed several towns and carried off many Indians to
slavery, at the same time defeating the Spaniards under Don
Juan Mexia, who came to the aid of their Indian allies.
1708. Colonel Barnwell of South Carolina invaded Mid-
dle Florida and raided through the Alachua country east-
ward to the St. John's River. About the same time Captain
T. Nairn of the same forces penetrated to the head waters
of the St. John's, and possibly to the Okeechobee region,
bringing back a number of slaves.





PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA. XXV

1718. March. Fort San Marcos de Apalache erected at
St. Mark's by Spaniards under authority of the Governor of
St. Augustine. About the same time the French estab-
lished Fort Crevecceur at St. Joseph's Bay, but soon aban-
doned it and the Spaniards took possession.
1718. May 14. The French under Bienville, the com-
mandant at Mobile, attacked, the Spaniards at Pensacola,
and mainly by stratagem captured the entire garrison, who
were sent to Havana in accordance with a promise made be-
fore the surrender.
1718. Two Spanish ships appeared off Pensacola, and
after a brief bombardment received the surrender of the
French commander. The fortifications were at once strongly
garrisoned, and an unsuccessful attack was made on the
French, who still held Dauphin Island.
1719. September 18. After a series of actions the Span-
ish at Pensacola surrendered to the combined land and
naval forces of the French under Desnade de Champsmelin.
Pensacola was destroyed and abandoned, and the captured
Spaniards were taken to France as prisoners of war.
1722. Pensacola reoccupied by the Spaniards on declara-
tion of peace, and the town rebuilt on Santa Rosa Isl-
and.
1727. Colonel Palmer of South Carolina, after certain un-
successful negotiations with the Spanish authorities in Flor-
ida, made a descent upon the northern part of the province,
and with the aid of Indian allies harried the whole country
to the gates of St. Augustine, capturing many slaves and
driving off much live stock.
1736. Spain formally claimed all territory south of St.
Helena Sound, as part of her Floridian possessions, and
warned England to withdraw her colonists. Futile negotia-
tions followed.
1739. October. War declared between England and
Spain, because of alleged encroachments by both parties in
the provinces of Georgia and Florida. Governor Oglethorpe
of Georgia, having already prepared a force, at once invaded
the disputed territory.
1739. December. A detachment of Oglethorpe's men





xxvi PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA.

attacked Fort Poppa on the St. John's River, opposite Pico-
lata, but were repulsed by the Spaniards.
1740. January. Fort at Picolata captured by the Eng-
lish.
1740. June 20 till July 7. Siege of St. Augustine by
the English under Major-General James Edward Oglethorpe,
Governor of Georgia. The defence was successfully con-
ducted by a Spanish garrison of 750 men under Don Manuel
de Monteano.
1742. July 5. Monteano led an expedition against Ogle-
thorpe, sailing from St. Augustine. He was repulsed after
having forced the English to abandon their first position.
1743. March. General Oglethorpe invaded Florida, and
surprised the garrison of St. Augustine, killing some forty
men before they could gain the citadel. Oglethorpe with-
drew, not being prepared to conduct a siege.
1748. Suspension of hostilities by treaty between Great
Britain and Spain.
1750. As the result of a tribal quarrel among the Creek
Indians in Georgia, Secoffee, a noted chief of the tribe,
headed a movement for secession, and with a large number
of followers settled in the Alachua country, Florida. These
Indians became known as Seminoles, i.e., seceders, out-
laws.
1762. Hostilities renewed between Spain and Great Brit-
ain. The English capture Havana.
1763. February 10. By treaty Great Britain and Spain
effected an exchange of Cuba for Florida, and the English
at once took possession of Florida, and General James Grant
was appointed Governor.
1765. The King's Road," constructed from St. Augus-
tine to the St. Mary's River.
1766. Forty families emigrated from Bermuda to Mos-
quito Inlet.
1767. Colony of 1,500 linoreans established by Dr. Turn-
bull at Mosquito Inlet (New Smyrna).
1776. Colony at New Smyrna broken up because of al-
leged harsh treatment.
1774. In view of the disaffection of the northern colonies





PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA. xxvii

pending the war for Independence, immigration of loyalists
was encouraged from Georgia and the Carolinas. A consid-
erable number settled near St. Augustine.
1775. August. An American privateer captured the
British supply ship Betsey, off the harbor of St. Augustine,
in sight of the British garrison.
1778. Nearly 7,000 loyalists moved into Florida from
Georgia and the Carolinas.
1779. September. Hostilities resumed between Spain
and Great Britain.
1780. Sixty-one prominent South Carolinians sent to St.
Augustine by the British authorities as prisoners of State.
1781. March-May. The Spaniards under Don Bernardo
de Galvez, with a naval force under Admiral Solana, invested
Pensacola, which was defended by about 1,000 English under
General Campbell. A chance explosion of a magazine com-
pelled the surrender of the English, who capitulated on
honorable terms to a largely superior force.
1783. Colonel Devereaux, a loyalist fugitive from Caro-
lina, sailed from St. Augustine with two privateers and cap-
tured the Bahama Islands, then held by the Spaniards.
They have ever since remained under the British flag.
1783. September 3. Independence of the American col-
onies-not including Florida, which had taken no part in the
struggle-acknowledged by Great Britain. Upon -this
Florida was ceded back to Spain, Great Britain retaining the
Bahamas. English subjects were allowed eighteen months to
move their effects. The crown transported most of them'to
England, the Bahamas, and Nova Scotia.
1784. Zespedez, the new Spanish governor, arrived at St.
Augustine and took possession.
1795. Spain receded West Florida (Louisiana) to France.
1811. In view of probable war with England the United
States Congress resolved to seize Florida in order to prevent *
the English from taking possession.
1812. March 17. A number of persons styling themselves
"patriots met at St. Mary's and organized the Republic of
Florida. Aided by United States gunboats they took pos-
session of Fernandina, elected a governor, and shortly after-





xxviii PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA.

ward marched upon St. Augustine, but were repulsed.
The United States soon withdrew its open support, but the
"patriots" continued to wage war on their own responsi-
bility, aided by American volunteers.
1814. August. A British force under Colonel Nichols oc-
cupied Pensacola with the consent of the Spanish comman-
dant and hoisted the British flag.
1814. November 14: Pensacola captured by United
States forces under General Andrew Jackson. The English,
presumably with Spanish connivance, built and armed a
fort at the mouth of the Apalachicola River and garrisoned
it with Indians and negroes.
1816. August. "Negro Fort" on the Apalachicola at-
tacked by a combined force of Americans and friendly Indians
under Colonel Clinch, and captured after one of the maga-
zines had been exploded by a hot shot. During this time
Florida was in a state of anarchy, and Indian forays into
Georgia were frequent.
1818. April 7. General Jackson, with a force of Ameri-
cans, severely chastised the Florida Indians, capturing a
formidable fort at St. Marks.
1818. May 25. Pensacola, which had been reoccupied by
the Spaniards, surrendered to General Jackson by the Span-
ish after slight resistance.
1819. February 22. Florida ceded by Spain to the
United States.
1821. February 19. Treaty of cession formally rati-
fied.
1821. July 10. The Spanish flag hauled down and the
United States flag hoisted in its place at St. Augustine. A
like ceremony took place at Pensacola on July 21st.
1822. March 30. By act of Congress Florida was made
a territory of the United States, and organized as such.
1822. June. The first legislative council met at Pen-
sacola and created four counties : Escambia, Jackson, St.
John's, and Duval.
1823. September 18. Treaty of Fort Moultrie made with
the Indians, inducing them to confine-themselves to a reser-
vation.




PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA.


1823. October. Tallahassee selected as the territorial
capital.
1823-1835. Settlers began to press into Florida and en-
croach upon Indian reservations. Treaties were made and
set aside looking to the removal of the Indians.
1834. April 12. Proclamation by the President pursuant
to treaty finally adopted, directing the removal of the Semi-
noles west of the Mississippi.
1835. Autumn. Friendly Indians murdered by those
who were disposed to resist the execution of the President's
proclamation.
1835. December 25. The Seminoles made a descent
upon New Smyrna, burned all the houses, and laid waste
the plantations. Having been forewarned, the inhabitants
escaped.
1835. December 28. Osceola, the Seminole chief, way-
laid and killed General Thompson, the Indian Commissioner,
at Fort King, with several companions. On the same day
the command of Major Dade, U.S.A., 110 strong, was am-
buscaded and massacred by Indians, under Chief Micanopy,
near Dragem Junction, Sumter County. Four soldiers
feigned death and escaped, three of them reaching Tampa
Bay. Thus began the Seminole War, which lasted seven
years. (See pages 291 and 307.)
1835. December 31. United States troops under Gen-
eral Clinch defeated the Indians near the scene of Dade's
massacre, of which event they were at the time unaware.
1836. February 27-March 6. United States troops under
General Gaines attacked by a large force of Indians while
attempting to ford the Withlacoochee River. The troops
intrenched themselves, and were besieged for several days,
with constant fighting, until their provisions were nearly ex-
hausted, when they were relieved by General Clinch.
1836. June 9. Indians threatened the stockade at Mican-
opy. United States forces under Major Heileman marched
out and routed them after a sharp fight.
1836. August 11. Major Pierce attacked Osceola's band
of Micosukee Indians near Fort Drane, and routed them.
1836. November 21. Colonel (late Major) Pierce drove a


xxix




XXX PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA.

large force of Indians into the Wahoo swamp,.but no de-
cisive victory could be gained, owing to the impenetrable
nature of the morass.
1837. January 20. A detachment, marching to Jupiter
Inlet from the head of the St. John's River, found Indians
strongly posted on the banks of the Locohatchee. After at-
tacking and dispersing the Indians a stockade (Fort Jupiter)
was constructed near the inlet.
1837. January27. Engagement near Hatcheelustee Creek.
The Indians were routed and driven into Great Cypress Swamp.
1837. February 8. Intrenched camp on Lake Munroe at-
tacked at night by a large force of Seminoles. The Indians
were repulsed with heavy loss.
1837. March 6. Treaty of capitulation signed by Gen-
eral Thomas S. Jessup and Seminole chiefs at Fort Dade.
A large number of Seminoles nominally surrendered at this
time; the influence of Osceola and the warlike faction
proved too strong, and by the end of the summer hostilities
were resumed.
1837. October 12. Osceola and seventy-one of his band
seized by order of General Jessup and confined as prisoners
of war.
1837. December 25. Colonel Zachary Taylor, with a
strong detachment, following the main body of the Seminoles
southward, overtook them on the shore of Lake Okeechobee.
After a stubborn fight, lasting several hours, the Indians fled.
Taylor lost one-tenth of his men in killed and wounded.-
This action terminated concerted resistance on the part of
the Indians. After this they fought in small parties.
1838. March 22. Colonel Twiggs captured 513 Indians
and 165 negroes near Fort Jupiter.
1839. May. A council with the Seminole chiefs resulted
in an official declaration of peace.
1839. July. The Indians, without warning, resumed hos.
utilities in all parts of the State. Colonel Harney's command
was nearly exterminated at Charlotte Harbor by an over-
whelming force of Indians.
1840. August 7. Government station on Indian Key de-
stroyed by a war party of Indians. Dr. Perrine killed.




PARAGRAPH HISTORY OF FLORIDA.


1840. December. Colonel Harney conducted an expedi-
tion through the Everglades. During the year the Indians
adopted the plan of raiding with small parties and the whole
State was harried by these bands.
1841. May 31. Colonel, afterward General, William J.
Worth was given command of the United States forces in
Florida. He inaugurated a summer campaign which proved
effective. The Indians were, during the winter of 1841-42,
either captured, killed, or driven into the most inaccessible
swamps.
1842. April 19-August 14. The Seminole War was de-
clared at an end. The surviving Indians were removed to
Arkansas, with the exception of about 360, who were tacitly
allowed to remain in the Everglades.
1845. March 3. Florida admitted to the Union as a
State.
1861. January 6. United States Arsenal at Chattahoochee
seized by Florida State troops.
1861. January 7. Fort Marion, St. Augustine, seized by
State troops (see p. 151). Fort Clinch, Fernandina, occupied
the same day.
1861. January 10. Ordinance of secession adopted by the
convention assembled at Tallahassee.
1861. January 10. United States troops transferred from
Barrancas Barracks to Fort Pickens, Pensacola Harbor.
1861. January 12. All United States property on the
mainland, including the Navy Yard and Forts Barrancas and
McRae, seized by Florida State troops, the commandant
of the Navy Yard with his men being held as prisoners.
1861. January 12. Formal demand made for the sur-
render of Fort Pickens to Florida State troops.
1861. January 14. Fort Taylor, Key West, garrisoned by
United States troops.
1861. January 18. Fort Jefferson, Tortugas, garrisoned
by United States troops.
1861. April 12-17. Fort Pickens reinforced.
1861. August 6. The blockade-runner Alvarado burned
off Fernandina.
1861. November 22. Fort Pickens (Pensacola) opens fire




XXXii PARAGRAPH HISTORY- OF FLORIDA.

upon the Confederate batteries on the mainland. An artil-
lery duel continued all day.
1862. January 16. Naval attack upon Cedar Key.
1862. March 3. Amelia Island evacuated by the Confed-
erates, and (March 4) occupied by Federals.
1862. March 11. Jacksonville occupied by Federal forces.
1862. March 14. Brigadier-General James H. Trapier,
C.S.A., assigned to the command of Middle and East Florida.
1862. March 17. Colonel W. S. Dilworth.assigned to the
command of Florida, vice Trapier, transferred.
1862. March 23. New Smyrna partly destroyed by Fed-
erals.
1862. April 8. Brigadier-General Joseph Finegan,
C.S.A., assigned to the command of Confederate forces in
Florida.
1862. April 9. Jacksonville evacuated by the Federal
troops.
1862. April 10. Skirmish near Fernandina.
1862. October 4. Jacksonville again occupied by the
Federal and shortly afterward abandoned.
1863. March 10. Jacksonville occupied by Federals.
1863. March 31. Jacksonville evacuated by Federals.
1864. February 7. Jacksonville reoccupied by Federals.
1864. February 20. Battle of Olustee. Defeat of the
Federal.
1865. October 28. End of the Civil War. Ordinance of
secession repealed, after which a civil government under the
supervision of a military governor (General John Pope) was
temporarily established.
1868. July 4. The fourteenth amendment to the Con-
stitution of the United States having been adopted, with a
new State constitution, Florida was readmitted to the Union
and military supervision withdrawn.
1889. June. Discovery of highly valuable phosphate
beds at Dunellon, Marion County, followed by similar dis-
coveries in different parts of the State.
1890. Eleventh census of the United States. Population
of Florida, 391,422. For population of counties and chief
towns, see under each.







Alachua County.
Area, 1,260 sq. m.-Lat. 290 25' to 29 55' N.-Long. 82 to 82 59' W.-Popn-
lation (1890), 22,929.-Pop. (1880), 16,462.-Assessed valuation (1888), $3,193,000.
-County seat, Gainesville.
The name is of Indian origin, pronounced al-latch-u--ah,
with the accent on the second syllable. Probably, however,
the Indian pronunciation accentuated the last syllable.
The name was originally given to a remarkable chasm in
the earth near Gainesville (see map), and is said to mean lit-
erally "the big jug without a bottom;" but there is prob-
ably a conveyed meaning to the Seminole ear implying, the
place where the waters go down." The settlement of this
region by whites was effected by the agents of Fernando de
la Maza Arre'dondo, an enterprising Spanish merchant of
Havana. Messrs. Dexter and Wanton, under his authority
and led by the accounts given by Indians of the high roll-
ing lands, rich soil, heavy forests, and abundant lakes and
streams, penetrated to the vicinity of Gainesville and there
established a trading-post. The Indian accounts proved
true, and Arredondo obtained a Spanish grant of about
289,645 English acres-rather more than one-quarter of the
present county of Alachua. The exact date of the original
settlement cannot be ascertained, but it was no doubt prior
to the beginning of the present century, when the whole
interior of Florida was an unexplored wilderness, and the
discoverer of a fertile tract had only to ask for a grant in
order to secure what was then regarded as a clear title from
the Spanish crown.
Alachua is classed in the United States Government re-
ports as in the long-leaf pine region. It contains, however,
tracts of oak and hickory, hammocks and prairies. The
eastern part of the county, at the point of highest elevation,
is 250 feet above tide-water; the western part about 70 feet.
Near the Levy county line is a range of sand-hills, 120 feet
above tide-water. The Cedar Key Railroad crosses this
range between Archer and Bronson. Along the Santa F6
and Suwannee Rivers the underlying limestone frequent-
ly crops out, forming picturesque and precipitous banks,




ALACHUA COUNTY.


crowned with rich hammock. From northwest to south-
east, crossing the county, is an irregularly detached belt of
fine hammock lands, the substratum of which is the peculiar
disintegrated limestone of this region. Oaks, hickory, gun.
trees, bay, magnolia, beech, maple, and other hard woods
grow here in great luxuriance, although along this belt tlh
rock is but thinly covered with soil. The total area of ham-
mock land is about 2,440 acres. It is of two grades, "black
hammock," with a sandy loam soil, brown or blackish in
color, and nearly a foot deep; and "gray hammock," with
a lighter soil and higher percentage of sand, underlaid with
sand or sand-rock.
The Suwannee River and its tributary the Santa Fe define
the western and northern boundaries of the county. The
first named is navigable for steamers throughout this section
of its course, and the second as far as Fort White, about eight
miles above the confluence of the two streams. In the west-
ern part of the county are countless small lakes and ponds,
most of them deep and well supplied with fish. They are
connected by natural water-courses, sometimes on the sur-
face, sometimes subterranean, and curious natural wells and
"sinks" are of frequent occurrence. These wells are usu-
ally perpendicular shafts, three or four feet in diameter, de-
scending through solid limestone rock to a depth of thirty
or forty feet. Water strongly impregnated with lime is
found in most of them, but some are dry and may be ex-
plored.
This part of the county is sparsely settled as compared
with the eastern, especially the southeastern section. This,
however, renders it the more attractive for sportsmen and
campers. Large game has been hunted off in the more
thickly settled portions of the county, but deer and turkey
are to be found within easy driving distance of almost any
of the towns west of Gainesville, and the ordinary game
birds are reasonably abundant everywhere.
Large lakes are found in the eastern and especially in the
southeastern portion of the county. Of these South Pond
and Santa F6 Lake are joined by a canal, and are navigable
for launches and small steamboats. Orange Lake, which







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ALACHUA COUNTY.


bounds the county at its southeastern corner, is an irregular
body of water, the largest in the county, but shallow and
overgrown with aquatic vegetation. In the season these
shallow lakes are frequented by water-fowl.
The remarkably open character of the woods at once
impresses the observant traveller. The scrub palmetto is
wholly absent over large tracts, and one may ride or drive
comfortably for miles through a virgin forest without a sign
of a wagon road or of a human habitation.
Among the crops that are successfully cultivated in Alachua
are artichokes, beans, beets, cabbages, celery, cucumbers,
egg-plant, lettuce, okra, onions, parsnips, peas, potatoes
(Irish and sweet), pumpkins, radishes, squashes, tomatoes,
turnips, arrow-root, barley, castor beans, cassava, chufas,
koonti, corn, cotton, pea-nuts, melons, millet, oats, rice, rye,
sorghum, sugar-cane, tobacco,' and wheat. Oranges are
grown successfully whenever facilities for transportation
render it possible to market the crop to advantage. Peaches
of the Pientau and other early varieties are cultivated; the
Leconte pear is a profitable crop, and strawberries in very
large quantities are shipped to the North during January,
February, and March.
The Florida Southern Railway (J., T. & K. W. system) en-
tersthe county from the westward, Palatka being the nearest
station of importance. The stations next and within the
county are :
27....Cones Crossing (Putnam Co.) ....45
29....Colgrove...................... 43 E
31.... Hawthorne '...................41 A
Dist.fr. 32....Constantlne's Mill...............40 Dist.fr.
Palatka. 35... Grove Park..................... 3S Ocala.
V 40....Rochelle 2 .............. 2.......32
W 45....Mlicanopy Jc ...................2T
47....Evinston (Levy Co.).. ...........24
1 Crosses F. C. &. P. Ry. (see p. 5).
2 Gainesville Br. (see below). For continuation of this line to Ocala,. Lees-
burg, etc., see p. 63.
Gainesville Branch (J., T. & K. W. system) :
I ST....Rochelle'............. .. ...8 E
Dist. fr. | 41....Sink................ ............ 4 A Dist. fr.
Palatka. V 42....Oliver Park...... ................3 Gainesville.
W 45....Gainesvillel .....................0
I Connects with main line (see above).
2 Connects with S. F. & W. Ry. (see p. 5), and Cedar Key Division F. C.
P. (see p. 5).






ALACHUA COUNTY.


The main line of the Florida Central & Peninsula Railway
enters the county from the northeast after crossing Santa
F6 River. The stations next and within the county are:
19.... Iampton (Bradford Co.)........51
85....W aldo ...................... 45 N
Dist. fr. 90....Orange Heights.................40 A
Jackson- 94....Campville .................. .. Diet. fr.
ile 99 ....Hawthorne ....................1 Ocala.
S V 106 ....Lochloosa. ......................24
S 109....Island Grove....................21
112....Citra (Levy Co.)................. 1
SCedar Key Branch, F. C. & P. (see below).
2 Crosses Gainesville Branch J, T. & K. W. For continuation of this line to
Ocala, see p. 63; to Jacksonville, p. 9.

Cedar Key Division, F. C. & P., crosses the county south-
westerly from Waldo, where it leaves the main line.
0... Waldo................ ............
6 ...Fairbanks........... ...........64 NE
14....Gainesville .............. .....56 A
Dist. fr. 18. ..Hammock Ridge ............52 Dist.
Waldo. 23... Arredondj .....................50 fr. Cedar
21 ...Kanapaha.....................49 Key.
V 24....Palmer........................46
SW 29....Archer.. ........ ........ .....41
38....Bronson (Levy Co.)...............32
1 Connects with Gainesville Branch, J., T. & K. W. (see p. 4), and with
Gainesville Division, S. F. & W. (see below). For continuation southwest to
Cedar Key, see p. 55; northeast to Jacksonville, Fernandina, etc., see p. 9.

The Gainesville Division, S. F. & W. Ry., runs northeast
from Gainesville to Lake City Junction, Columbia County.
The stations are:
0....Gainesville ................. ...36
Dist. fr. 11 ...Hague.................... .......25 SE Dt. f.
Gaines- 16... Newnansville ................... 20 A iLakst.yr
vie- V 23 .... High Springs.............. ..13 a City
le. 33....Fort White ...................... 3
86 ....Lake City Jc. (Columbia Co.)... 0
I For continuation northwest, see p. 17. For connections at Gainesville, see
map.






13i\AKEI (C')''N'Y


IHaker (Couly.
Area, 500 q. m.-Lalt. 300 10' in :i0" '2.' N.--l oii. 82" to 2S3 30' W.-Popula-
tion (1S90), 3,312.-RcL'istered vote (1S,9), 6i 5.-Pop. (18S0), 2,312.-Assessed
valuation (ISSS), -$544,30S.-County ueat, McClenny.
The northern part of this county is within the limits of
hle great Okeefenokee Swamp, which extends to the north-


B I.\lil:R COUNTY

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xt'ard across the Georgia State line. This portion of tho
county is hardly habitable, but is rich in statmhing tilmber
which is rafted down the tributaries of tihe St. Mary's Iiver






BAKER COUNTY-BRADFORD COUNTY.


to tide-water and a market, or else finds its way to the Florida
Central & Peninsula Railway Company's stations in the
southern tier of townships. The southern part of the county
is moderately high pine land, with sandy soil. The princi-
pal shipments are turpentine and lumber, with an increas-
ing quantity of peaches and vegetables.
Near the southwestern corner of the county there took
place the most considerable engagement that occurred
within the State during the Civil War.
The Western Division of the Florida Central & Penin-
sula Railway crosses east and west near the southern border.
The stations next to and within the county are :
19. ...Baldwin (Dural Co.)............180 E
28.... McClenny ................. .. .177 A
Dist. 30....Glen St. IMay ............... 175 it
fr. Jackson- 87....Sanderson.................... ..168 Dis. fr.
V* ille. a39.... Pndleton ...................16 iv J.
V 47....Olsutee............. ........ 158
W 52.... .t. Carrie (Co'umbia Co.).......153


Bradford County.
Area, 550 sq. m.-Lat. 290 40' to 30 10' N.-Long. 820 to 820 40' W.-Popn-
lation (1890), 7,502.-Registered vote (1889), 1,370.-Pop. (1880), 6,167,.--ighest
elevation, 210 ft. (Trail Ridge).-Assessed valuation (1888), $1,124,763.-County
seat, Starke.
Bradford County is classified in the long-leaf pine region.
The best land is gently rolling, with sandy loam, well suited
for the cultivation of cotton, corn, vegetables, fruits, and
rice. The most fertile land is found along the lakes and
water-courses-mainly in the southern and eastern sections.
Second class is for the most part a yellow sandy loam, covered
with pine forests. It is capable, however, of producing fair
crops of oats, rye, and barley. The third-class land is sandy
and low, covered with scrub palmetto and underlaid with
a compact "hard pan." Cypress ponds abound in the east-
ern and northeastern sections, and, besides their timber, af-
ford valuable beds of muck, readily available for fertilizing
purposes.
Swift's Creek, Olustee Creek, New River, and Samson
River are tributaries of the Santa Fe, which in turn flows
through the Suwannee to the Gulf of Mexico. These streams





BiRAIiFORI (t' UNT'VY


are all available for rafting' purposes, and in'amy of thelmu
afford good tt ill-sites. The more conlidhrable lakes are
So-uth Prong Pond, one of the sources of Oinstee Creek (200
acres) ; Swift Cr(rk ]ond (70( acres), Lake Butler (700
acr.l, Sauiisn Lake (2,200 acres', Crosly 1,ake (800 acres),


Rowell Lake (1f00 acres). At the southeastern corner, Ih-
tween Bradf'ord and Alaclhua ('iuiticeisi Hanita. FJ Lake, ilhe
silrc of the rive o o'f that iiame, 1:7 feet above the sea. It
is the largest bdod of water dljacent to the county, son.c
eight miles long with its connections, and affording' water
transportation to Waldo, a railroad station near the head of
the South Pond.
The main line of the Florida Central & Peninsula Railway





BRADFORD COUNTY-BREVARD COUNTY.


crosses N.N.E. and S.S.W. in the eastern tier of town-
ships. The stations next to and within the county are:
61.... Highland (Clay Co.)..............69
66....Lawtey .... .......... .........64 NNE
Dist. fr. 67AS ..Burrin .........................63 A Diet. fr.
Jack- 71 ....Temple .................. ..... 58. .
sonville. V 73....Starke ...................... 57 Ocala.
SSW 79... lampton ......................51
85....Waldo (Alachua Co.)......... .. 45
For continuation of this line to Jacksonville, see p. 16; to Cedar Key, see
p. 5.



Brevard County.
Area, 8,000 sq. m.-Lat. 270 10' to 28 50' N.-Long. 800 10' to 810 W.-Popu-
lation (1890), 3,399.-Pop. (1880), 1,478.-Assessed valuation (1888), $1,007,474.-
County seat, Titusville.
The present county was formed from St. Lucie County, in
January, 1855. The county seat was successively at Fort
Pierce or Susannah (1855 to 1864), Bassville (1864 to 1873),
Lakeville (1873 to 1879), and finally at Titusville, or, as it was
formerly known, Sandy Point. In 1879 the southern part
of Volusia County was added to Brevard, so that the county
now includes 108 miles of Atlantic Sea-coast, practically em-
bracing the whole of the Indian River with its dependencies,
and nearly covering two degrees of latitude.. The coast-line
forms the eastern boundary of this tract, its general trend
being N.N.E. by S.S.E. The western boundary is defined
for about twenty miles by the St. John's River, and then
follows a township meridian southward to Lake Okeechobeo,
the great inland sea of Central Florida. The greatest width
is on the southern boundary, about forty-two miles, marked
by a township line from Okeechobee to the mouth of the St.
Lucie River.
Fronting the ocean is a strip of beach, broken by occa-
sional inlets, and usually varying in width from a few hun-
dred yards to a mile. This is covered for the most part with
a heavy growth of timber, and rarely rises to a height of
more than fifteen or twenty feet above high-water mark. West
of this is Indian River, a narrow strait or lagoon, averaging
about a mile in width, but spreading out to some six miles





BREVARD COUNTY.


at the widest, and contracting to barely a hundred feet at the
Narrows. Near the head of the river are large islands or
peninsulas, and farther south, at the Jupiter and St. Lucie
Narrows, are innumerable small islands separated by channels
often not more than one hundred feet wide, and covered with
an almost impenetrable growth of mangroves and other trop-
ical vegetation. Indian River is, in fact, not a river as the
term is ordinarily understood. It is a great lagoon fed by
countless fresh-water streams, but open to the ocean through
several considerable inlets, in which the salt water ebbs and
flows. The water is partly salt and partly fresh, according
to the state of the tide, or the distance from an inlet, or from
fresh-water rivers and springs. The depth averages twelve
feet in the channel, and there are no natural obstacles of a
dangerous character from one end of the river to the other.
The mainland or west shore of the Indian River varies con-
siderably in height, and in the character of its soil, but it
offers an almost unbroken succession of desirable building
sites, and unsurpassed lands for the cultivation of citrus-
fruits and pineapples.
This fertile belt is comparatively narrow. To the west-
ward stretches a wilderness, as yet hardly explored, save by
the hunter and surveyor, and still haunted by the large game
of Florida-bears, panthers, wild cats, and deer; while turkies
and the lesser varieties of wild-fowl are found in abundance.
Much of this wild region is swampy, and there are many
shallow lakes navigable for canoes.
There is every reason to believe that this wilderness was
once a lagoon and that in the course of time-a few thou-
sand years more or less-the natural processes of geological
upheaval and accretionwill convert Indian River, first into
a morass, and then into dry land, while perhaps another
beach and another river will form to seaward.
The shores of Indian River, then, are substantially the
only inhabited portion of Brevard County. For a more de-
tailed description, the reader is referred to Routes 70 to 74.
It remains to describe in general terms the climate of this
coast, and this is best done by reference to the reports of the
United States Signal Service.





BREVARD COUNTY-CALHOUN COUNTY.


The Indian River Division of the Jacksonville, Tampa,
& Key West system at present ends at Titusville, near the
northern boundary. The stations next to and within the
county are :
23....Maytown ......................18 N
Dist. r. 31....Aurantia ................ ...... 10 Dist. fr.
Enterprise v 35 ... lims ................... .. 6 A Titusvie.
Jc. ST....La Grange ....................... 4
41....Titusville ...................... 0
For continuation of this line north and south from Enterprise Junction, see
pp. 70, 97. For steamboat routes from Titusville, see Route 70.



Calhoun County.
Area, 1,160 sq. m.-Lat. 290 40' to 80 30' N.-Long. 85 to 850 40' W.-Popu-
lation (1890), 1,671.-Pop. (1880), 1,580.-Assessed valuation, $352,862.-County
seat, Blountstown.
This county was organized with its present boundaries in
1874. It was named after John C. Calhoun, a prominent
Southern statesman, who died in 1850. The land is sandy,
with clay subsoil and underlying limestone; for the most part
heavily timbered and within easy reach of water transporta-
tion. The Apalachicola River, navigable for steamers, forms
the eastern boundary, and nearly parallel to it are the Chi-
pola River and Brothers River, both of them navigable ex-
cept during low water. The bottom-lands along the rivers,
especially the Apalachicola, are rich alluvial deposits of in-
exhaustible fertility, but subject, of course, to periodical
overflow. Springs of excellent water abound throughout
the county, and the pine lands are for the most part of good
quality.
West of the Apalachicola the Chipola River widens into
Dead Lakes, sunken areas with dead cypress-trees standing
or lying in water ten to twenty feet deep. It is thought that
the subsidence of the lake bottoms is of comparatively recent
occurrence. This region can only be penetrated in boats, but
it offers great attractions and novel experiences to sportsmen
who are not afraid of hard work.
St. Joseph's Bay is a fine body of navigable water with
shores well adapted for camping.
























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C'IT I as C'oUNTY.


Citrus (ouiily.
Area, 70.1 (1. I. l' 2W 40' to tI IQ 5 1.W.2' 10' to 2150
I'optiation (1a 2,:a Ex(wa~o at _11' t. Let- 211 1[ .-A-c''i 'olutlioL
Li,;,-, 747-2.-C II~ Mmn at onll' (I.
'1]ii'-; ColIllitY 10:1S 0F;1''hii'd, Fioin 2, 187', pr'ior to 'which1


Ititc ( iulf ()f _M oxio() azo. l i- ; 111'Jilk'd tY 11_ Il,' 1 il[ I1~(1I
Rio.,aI-i Z!- o T m l I)-j II 1(


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i /1111 0


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1 )1)1111 1(1 '. 'l'0 fnl 0 o)f II1i( e ( illII f F. i- ]01 e 110:1r t ho C i)st,
1( "vore 11 w'l itilhi 1:10 ,v nek '' :1 oo. noT heiIl4 *t rrich Sil
ofvrvio' jog ijli iidelrlaiI x\ jtl cooiii' an i hto' l ro' ck



ille Gultf lnoeet, nilll'.northeric' andl easterIv wiinl1 01 of vol'S
raIre oecurlrcn1( Sorvedl of t1ihe woi'-ll sprinig1 s p11 lian
to Florida a1n' follml within the counts. Thbe fT ing. and


I'


L- -----





14 CITRUS COUNTY-CLAY COUNTY.

hunting are exceptionally line. Along the coast are unimer-
ous shell-nmounds and ilandls, aflording excellent building
sites. The IIonmosassa I iver anll its vicinity offer especial
attractions to settlers, tourists, anil spo-rtsmen.
The (iulfl Coast is bordered by coluntless islands, or keys, of
limestone, ,sollle of thoem covered with mangroves, other,
nearly :relnn. Navigation is very dangerous owing to reefs,
shoals, and oyste'r-leds that extend in some cases miles f'romi
the coast. There are, however, two harbors accessible for
vessels drawing not more than four fe at Ctrystal liver,
alnd Il nlosassa.
Citrus is a rich orange country, and is the natural i1home
of the Htomiosassa orange, which Is, perhaps, the longest
established repluat ion n of any the loidi varieties, and, it
is said, has taken more prizes tlan: any other.
The Silver Siiiins, Oeiala, and ((lllf TRailroad crosses the
county from )DunIllon, on the Withlacooehoo River, to Homo-
sassa, near the Gulf Coast. Thli stations next to and within
the county are :
21 Dunellon (.litrion Co.) .. .. 22
S :14 .. ( itroin llr ....... . 14
Di-t. fr. i t. fr.
Ocala. Pa o110m1osassa.
v J9 ... ( y *tal. **.. .. ...... .. ... 9
-N .... 1 ollt,!llt-at ....... .. ....... 0
For continuation of this line tuo ocail, ee pi. 6-1.


Clay County.
Area, 640 sq. m.-Ldt. 29 41' to I0 (' N.-Lonll. 810 5' to S2 1' W.-
-Populat!on (1;90). 5.134.--Pop. (1SSO), 2,S3s.--.\(esed valuation (1SS),
$1,2)0,000.-E!evation on l Trail RTidL,(,, 150 fect.-Cl'oiunty seaf, Green 'Cove
Spring.
Clay County was organized iln 185;, from Duva] County,
and named after the Hion. 0Henry Clay, of Kentucky, United
States Senator for any years, and a candidate for thlie Presi-
dency iln 1824 and IS4tl. The St. John's liver, separating
('la Couniy from St. John's Counit on the east, is here a
noble stream varying from one mile to three miles iln width.
Black Creek, olne of its tributaries, is navigable for steaTers
as far as Middleburgc, were two smaller branches unite to
form the main stream. These branches find their source re-
spectively inl tle northern and southern sections of the coun-




CLAY CO L'NTY.


tv". The South Fork :sgai sublivides into Gre Crook
and Ates Creek, which drain the lakel region of lthe co(lnty.
Tiu; land is in the main moderately high pine, interspersed
with I anI inI k and ,o]rul) oilk. Tie I).- planlitaiiin s ]ii
along ilh St. Johnl'sRi cr, \vhrN e ae ;I lil u Ihmoi hiiing oli'anI-





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groves. Thirouh this portion of i, comty ruis tln \ain

fording direct and easy commnnuiication with all points north
and south. The lake region is largely unoccupied as yet,
Ibt hlias abundant natural attractions for the sportsman as
well as for the permanent settler.
i1'
















well tIM for~ tite peillniatint settler.






1G CLAY COUNTY-COLUMBIA COUNTY.

The J., T. & K. W.. bly. follows the west bank of the St.
lohn's l.iver. The stations within amd near the county are:
11 .I ,-d's(/ '( '.) .. .. 114
14 Or lig. Park..... ...... 111 N
18 .I 1eoria. ... .. 1 A
20 .... ack Cireek 10... .. .
)4 t. 24 Fl1emin .g .. ... .... ............ i l 1 st. l r.
Jackson- 2 '.. .. 97 Port
villc. 2 .... _. .... ..... 9C 'ITam pa.
'. ... 95
v : ........... 91
S W....W t Tocmi ..... 8'4
40 .Bo .twik (I'to it 'o.) ....... 79
1 Branch to Florence Mills and Sharon, 9 m. s-outhweot. For continuation of
main line north. see p. 25; south, se r p.. 82.
The main line of the F. C. & P. ity. crosses the north-
western corner of the county. Stations adjacent to and
within the county are :
5... Maxville (Dlral Co.) .. ...... 121 N
Dist.- W lb ...... ... ... 122 A Dist. fr.
fr. 'er V i1 himad .. 117 Ocala.
dina. S l.... L l\vi y (Br, uordl Co.) ....... .112
For coitinial iiln of this line to Orala, see p. 9: Cedlar Key. see p. 7; Fcrn;in-
dina and Jackilovillt, see pp. 23 and 7T.
The Western T .;i of Florida runs to Belmore, 14 miles
southwest of Green Cove Spring. The stations are :
0... Green Cove Spring .. .. .....14
3 ..Clinch'....... ........... ...... 11 N E
D is. ...Willkinson .... ............. 8 A Dist. fr.
Diet. fr. Noveclcia t .. ......
(G' Cove. V 10. Shar vl ...... ......... 4 Belnore.
SV 1 .... \V: -t Sharoll..... ..... ....... 3
14.... Before ........ ....... .. 0



Columbia County.
Area, 800 sq. i.-TLal. 29 4-'I to '0 33' N.-Lonj:. S2 27' to 02 50' W.-Popu-
lation (19i0), 12,S41I.-Pop. (Isst), 9..>9.-Assses tl valuation (SS88), $1,600,403.
-Highest clevatiou, 200 ft. (lake City).-County seat, Lake City.

Columbia is one of the northern tier of counties touchingg
the Georgia line, and including- a wide tract itf unsettled fl;it
pine land in its northern half. The southern half is mod-
irately high pine land, with extensive tracts ofl good ara-
lile soil, underlaid in the western portion by soft sandstone,
and elsewhere 1y clay, which li a been used, since 1847, for
brick. The Iong staple Sea Island cotton thrives in this

















COLUMBIA COUNTY






SCA I ,,E1 7 I -




I L1





COLUMBIA COUNTY.


county, and large warehouses have been established at Lake
City and elsewhere. Good water is found in natural and
artificial wells and streams all over the county, save in
the southwestern portion, where limestone prevails, and, of
course, affects the water.
The line of the Florida Central & Peninsula Railway
crosses the central portion of the county, connecting to the
eastward and westward with Jacksonville, Tallahassee, and
Pensacola. Fromn Lake City to Lake City Junction is a di-
vision of the Savannah, Florida & Western Railway, leading
to Gainesvillo and the Suwannee River at New Branford.
Santa F6 River, separating the county from Alachua on the
south, is navigable for steamers as far as Fort White, and
is available for small boats, and for log-rafting to its junc-
tion with Olustee Creek. Three of the largest creeks in the
county sink into the ground, to reappear, probably, in some
of the numerous springs along the principal water-courses.
The exceptional healthfulness of the central region has
been recognized by the Trustees of the State Agricultural
College, who, after due deliberation, selected Lake City as
the site of the institution.
The chief articles of export are Sea Island cotton, corn,
and tobacco, cotton being the largest and most profitable
crop.
The Western Division of the F. C. & P. Ry. crosses the
county from east to west, with stations, as follows, within
and adjacent to the boundaries:
47....Olustee (Baker Co.).............. 160 E
D ist. 52 ...M t. Carrie................ 155
fr.Jackson- 59.... Lake City ..................... 148 A it fr.
ville. 65....OLden ............... .... .... 142 River Jc.
71.... Welborn (Suib annee Co.) .... .136
I Connects with Lake City Division. Waycross Short Line, Lake City to
Lake City Junction. 19 m.; Fort White, 22 m., and Gainesville, Alachua County.
For continuation to River Junction, see p. 91 ; to Jacksonville, pee p. 7.





DADE COUNTY.


Dade County.
Area, 7,200 sq. m.-Lat. 25 10' to 26G 10' N.-Long. SO0 to 80 55' W.-Popu-
lation (1890), 721i.-Pop. (10SO), 257.-County seat. Juno.
Dade County is, at this writing, in the main inaccessible
to the ordinary tourist, and unopened to the average settler.
Communication by rail has been established with Lako
Worth, near the northern boundary, but the only means of
reaching Bisca-ne Bay, its southernmost habitable district,
is by way of the weekly mail-packets-ordinary coasting
schooners from Key West. The seventy miles of beach be-
tween Lake Worth Inlet and Cape Florida ar accessible
only by means of sea-goinig craft, or on foot, or in canoes
along the tortuous water-ways that connect the various
rivers and inlets. The map indicates tile scant line of settle-
ments along tihe coast, all of them within sound of the surf.
The rest of the wide domain is umnsurveed, is inhabited only
by the remnant of the Seminole Indians, and is visited only
by tile more enterprising and adventurous of hunters and
cowboys. Within tile boudls of tlhe county lies the major
part of the great inland fresh-water lake Okeechobee. To
the southward and eastward stretch the pathless Everglades,
separated from the sea only by a comparatively narrow ridge
of coralline rock. From the southern reaches of Indian
River and from Lake Worth something of an export trade
has opened iln pineapples, coconuts, tomatoes, fish, and
turtles. This goes northward by way of the Jupiter &
Lake Worth Rlailway and the Indian liver steamers. The
settlements along Iliscayne Bay send similar products and
a considerable amount of koonti-root starch by sea to Key
West.
To tile sportsman the inland and coastwise waters of Dade
County offer endless attractions, which are described more
in detail under their iaplopriate loeal divisions. See Jupiter
Inlet and Vicinity?. Lake Worth. IllIsloroug-h river, New
iiver, Boc:a latones, Biscaynie Bay, Lake Okeechotbee, Thl
Everglades, etc.
Tile only railway iln )ade County, and tile southernmost
in the United States, is the narrow-gauge line, seven miles






JB R E V. A R D a "'


DADE CO.
CALE OF MILES
0 5 10 1. 2(


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DAD)E CUUNTY--DE SUT'U CUONTL'Y


long, from Jupiter JIlet tu the 11i ad of Lake Worth, see
Route 75. IIt belongs to the Jacksonville, Tampa, & Ke(v
\'Wst system, ain runs in connection with their boats on the
IndHian ivor. The demand for pineapple lands led to a very
considerable immigration to thi \icinit of Biscaynoi Bay
and the Florida Keys during the summer of 1891.



De Soto County.
Area, 3.800 sq. m.-Lat. 21; 4' 'to 27 :;' N.--Lo.,n 80 o 30' to j2 20' W.-
Population (1,90), 4,940.-A-. -cd vtaluatiion, $1,9O3,640.-County satt, Ar-
cadia.
This county was organized in 1887, as the result of a sub-
division of 3Manattee Comity, anid was1 appropriately namt'ed
after the gloreat Spanish navigator, Illelmando DiSL" So.
It is still in the main a wilderness, soune sixty miles wide,
extending frollt the Kissinllie liver and Lake Okeechobeo
ol te I tle t t lit (1 ilf of Meixico oil the west. A narrow
chain of settlements skirts thle navigable waters and the line
of the Florida Sonuthlrn RailowayV, but a few miles on itlther
side of these the pine forests are unbroken until they disap-
pear in tle prairies and saw-grass bordering the great inland
lakes. And yet this region ii'represents large wealth, folr here
begins tile great cattle rang' e of S uthwestern Florida, ex-
tending from Peace tLiver on the northwestern side otf the
county to tile borders of thle Everglades. This wliole region
is flat or gently rolling pine land, interspersed with ham-
mock, and often opening into prairies and savannas. Except-
ing in the dense hantmock, the whole is carpeted w ith grass,
affording nutritious I'ood for cattle tihe year round, while no
shelter whatever is required for the animals.
The county is lisected 1byv the twenty-seventh parallel of
north la' itlue, about two-thirds of its area lying to the north-
ward of that line. With tlhe ctotiiuous county of, Let, it con-
tains bv far the largest tract of naturally valuable land in
South Florida. Owing to its low latitude, tropical fruit cult-
ure and truck farming for early vegetables are among its
chief industries.
The Florida Southern lRailway crosses tile county from









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pg ~




DE SOTO COUNTY-DUVAL COUNTY. 23

northeast to southwest, having its terminus at Punta Gorda,
near the head of Charlotte Harbor, where it connects with the
Morgan Line of steamers for New Orleans, and with coast-
wise craft plying to the southward. (harlotte Harlbor and
its adjacent waters afford the b.st tarpon fishing on the Gulf
Coast (see Route 81), and all the game fish of this region
abound in the rivers and bays. Deer and turkeys are fre-
quently killed within five miles of the railroad, but for the
certainty of good sport the hunter must go farther afield, as
the large game is generally hunted off in the vicinity of the
permanent settlements.


Duval County.
Area, 900 sq. m.-Lat. 30" 35' to 300 13' N.--Long. S1 20' to 82 5' W.-Popu-
lation (1890), 26,755.-Pop. (1880), 19.431.-Assessed valuation (1888), $9,540,619.
--County seat, Jacksonville.
Duval was one of the original counties into which the
territory of Florida was divided in accordance with an act of
Congress, on the second Monday of June, 1822, nearlva year
after the United States formally acquired possession. A glance
at the inap will show the peculiar commercial advantages
that it has always held. Ever since the ships of the French
Huguenot, Jean Ribaut, anchored inside the bar at the
month of the St. John's, and named it the River of May,
this nob le stream has been the natural avenue of travel and
trade to and front the interior of the peninsula. Along its
banks the first settlements were formed and railroads fol,
lowed the settlements. All traffic between the Atlantic
States lying to the northward and the Floridian peninsula
passes almost of necessity either through the St. John's
River or near the point where the course of the stream
changes from north to east.
The county lies on both sides of the river to a point about
twenty-five miles from the sea-coast. It was named after the
Hon. William P. Duval first territorial governor of Florida.
The first white settlement was made by the French in
1564, at St. Jolh's Bluff, a high promontoryon the south bank
of the river about three miles from its mouth (see p. 118).







This was merely ai military post. The first eivil settlement
is believed to have been made in 1812, at hle head of the old
King's road from St. Augustine, on theo south bank of tho


river opposite the present site of Jacksonville. The settler,
Lewis Z. Hogan, moved across the river in 1Sl;, and thus
was formed the nucleus of the leading commercial city of


DIUVAL C()1N"TY





DUVAL COUNTY.


Florida. Long before this, however, the banks of the river
were inhabited by Indian tribes, as is evident from the
countless shell mounds that exist on both sides of the stream,
often containing rude pottery, stone implements and the like,
mingled with bones of men and animals in perplexing and
suggestive confusion.
The sea-coast line is about twenty miles in extent measuring
southward from the mouth of Nassau River. The greater
part of it is fine hard beach, suitable for driving and bathing
and usually backed by sand ridges or hammocks available
for building-sites.
All the great railway lines of Florida centre in Jackson-
ville. The main line of the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key
West System runs south to Tampa, Punta Gorda, and Titus-
ville. Stations within the county and next to the southern
boundary are:
0....Jacksonville ....................125
Dist. fr. 4.. .Edgewood ....................121 N T r.
Jackson- 9 ....Black Point ........ ............llfi Dist. fr.
ville. S 11....Reed's .........................114 an rd.
14.... Orange Park (Clay Co.).........111 I

The Jacksonville, St. Augustine & Halifax River Railway
(J., T. & K. W. System) crosses the St.- John's River on a
steel drawbridge, just above the city. Stations within the
county and next beyond are:
0... Jacksonville ... ................
1.... S. Jacksonville................ 36 NW
3....Phillips .......... .......34 A
Diet. fr. 5 .. Bovwd'n ..........................32 Dit.
Jacst.on- 9....Summerville ....................28 f St. An-
ville. 10.... Nesbit ....... ....... ....... fr.StiAn-e
11 .... Eaton ........................... 26 gustine.
V 14.... Sweetwater ....................23
SE 16....Bayard.........................21
17.... Register (St. John's Co.)..........20
For connections at St. Augustine, see p. 133.
The Plant System, Savannah, Florida & Western Railway,
Waycross short line. From foot of Bridge Street. Stations
within and near Duval County are :
Dist. fr. 0... Jacksonville ..................20 NW Dist. fr
Jackson- V 12... Dinsmore ......................8 A Ca
ville. SE 20....Callahan .. .................... 0 Callahan.
1 For connections, see p. 103.
2 Connects with F. C. & P. Ry., see p. 67.





26 DUVAL COUNTY.

The Florida Central & Peninsula Railroad-Jacksonville
Branch. Between Jacksonville and Fernandina. From foot
of Hogan Street. Stations are:
0 .. Jacksonville ..................37
1....Waycross Jc..... ...............36 S
Dist. .... Jacksonville Je. ...............32 A Dist. f .
fr. Jackson- 15....Dval.. ..............22 Fernand
vile. V 26....HIart's Rd. Jc.2................. 11 na
N 2T... lat'ss Road.....................10
37....Fernandina3 ................... 0
For connections, see p. 103.
2 Connects with Southern Dlv. F. C. & P., see p. 6T.
3 Connects with Mallory Line steamers for New York (see p. 127); and coast-
wise steamers for Georgia ports.

The Jacksonville & Atlantic Railroad has its station in
South Jacksonville. Ferry from foot of Market Street. The
stations are:
0 ....Jacksonville..................17.3
Dist. fr. I ..... S. Jacksonville' ............103 Dit. fr.
Jackson- i 2.8 ...St. Nichola .............. ...14.5 A Pablo
vie. 6 .... Pottsbnrg ....... ...........11.3 P o
v 14.6... .San Pablo ................... 2.7 each.
1.3.... PabloBeach .... ........ 0
1 Connects with J., T. & K. W. System.

The Jacksonville, Mayport & Pablo Railway & Navigation
Co. has its station at Arlington, on the south bank of the St.
John's, three miles by ferry, foot of Newnan Street. The
stations are:
0....Jacksonville .....................20
3.... Arlington .....................17 W
4....Egleston......................... 16 A
7... Verona ..........................13
8....Cohassett ......................12
9....McCormik ............ .....11
Dist. fr. 10....Mill Cove.........................10 Dist. fr.
Jackson- 11....Plne Grove .... ............... 9
vlle. 14....Idlewild ...................... 6 Mayprt.
15....Greenleld ....................... 5
16....Burnside Beach.................. 4
18....The Jetties. .................... 2
V 19 ...Jetty Cottage..................... 1
H 19....Light House......................
20....Mayport .......... .............. 0


--o--





ESCAMBIA COUNTY.


Escambia County.
Area, 720 sq. m.-Lat. 31" to 300 20' N.-Long. 87 40' to S7 50' W.-Popula-
tion (1890), 20.097.-Pop. (1,80), 12,153.-Assessed valuation (188s), $3.649,7i8.
-('County ea:t, I' ltnaco' )
The magnificent bay where Pensacola now stands was dis-
covered by Panlllilo de Nar'va n who landed there, accord-
ing to the English historian Jeffries, in 1528. A permanent
settlement was made in ll(9), by the Spaniards under Don
Andre d'Arreola, on the present site of Fort Barrancas, and
since that time, although the location of the town was re-
peatedly shifted, and it has been held successively by
French, English, and Americans, it has never been aban-
doned by Europeans.
Escamnia is the westernmost county of Florida, terminat-
ing the Gulf range of counties, and separated from Alabama
on the west by the Perdido River, and on the north by the
arbitrary interstate line. Its soil is sand underlaid with
clay, and its agricultural capabilities are rapidly developing.
Its main export, however, is lumber, since Iensacola is the
shipping-point for a vast region of heavily wooded land
lying to the northward, and penetrated by streams, down
which the logs are floated to tide-water.
Much of the land in the county is high and rolling, with
hardwood hammocks along the watercourses.
To hunters, fishermen, and yachtsmen, the coasts and
waterways of E'Oamliia County ofier great attractions. The
extensive land-locked sounds and bays afford safe anchorage
in all weathers, and are easy of access from sea at all stages
of the tide. The shores are almost everywhere available for
camping purposes, and game laounds, though reckless and
indiscriminate shooting Ihas made it very wild.
The Pensacola & Atlantic Division of the Louisville &
Nashville Railroad enters the county from Santa Rosa
County on the east, crossing Escambia Bay on a long
trestle. The stations are :
Dist fr 0 ...Pensacola ...... ........... 161 SSW Dist. f.
ei s ( i ...l, h lia. ... .... ... .. .. 15: A Iiver
Pens V ... ies tra ............... .153
cola. NNE 9 .... Escambia .... ............ ...... 152










C


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ESCAMBIA COUNTY-FRANKLIN (COUNTY. 29

Tihe Pensacola Atlantic Division, Louisville & Nash-
ville Railroad, enters Escambia from Alaltama on the north.
Stations near and within the county are:
1) IF'l llitt )l I ... .. ....... 44
5 1 1l Spriip s .... .......... :9 N
12 M cI]):t d .... .......... i 2
Dist. fr. 20 M hni ...... ...D fr.
tluomaton. 24 It t'l-t.a. oluota.
t2S i. 'C tlo mlllent n ........ ........... 1t
V 32 (;onzalez ... ........ ... ... 2
S 7 Olivr ..... .. ... .. .... .... .
44 .. ln- cola ...... .. 0
( Connects with lines to New Orleans, Montuomnery, and Selma.
SBranch to 3luscu-c, ive, miles we-t.
The Pensaetola & Peerdido Railroad connects Pensacola with
Millview, six miles west, on Perdido Bay.


Franklin County.
Ar;e, 500 sqi. I.-Lat. 29c 4)' to 30" 5' N.-- OloI'. S4' 3,0' to S) 15' W.-Popu-
lation (1590), 3,271.-'P p. (1-n0O, 1,791.-Asss- ed evaluation (158), $495,427.-
County seat. Apalachicola.
Nearly the whole of this county was originally included in
what was known as the Fiorlios Purchase, the result of
negotiations made with the Itndians 1) an English firm,
Folrbs &- Co., in 1819. This was just prior to the transfer
of Florida flromi Sipain to tole United States. Tihe sea-coast
of this county is sheltered iby St. .Vincent's, St. George's
I tland, and )Dog Island, wiithin which are lbroa.d sounds and
bays navigable for vesecls of any size and afllrding fishing
grounds unsurpassed by any on the coast. Dog Island IHar-
bor especially is one of the finest on thle Gulf.
Ow ing to its isolated position Franklin County has not yet
been penetrated by railroads, and flor this reason it offers
attractions to the sportsman not possessed by its more ac-
cessible neighbors. Trilutarv ,o these nearly land-loeked
"waters are a llllllIber of livers and estluaies, lmlanyl of them
navigabled for vessels of c ,siiderable size, and all navigable
for small boats, affording access to some of the best hutlinlg
lands in Fllorida. Tlie region is most easily reached ib way
of the Apalachicolat liver, froln liver Junction, whence com-
nmuication by rail is easy and direct from all parts of the
United States.







~v.



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-.


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1'r





GADSDEN COUNTY.


Gadsden County.
Area, 540 sq. m.-Lat. 30 20' to 30W 40' N.-Lomn,. 4- 1' to 84" 35' W.-Popn-
itriou (1o90), 11,STS.-PI'op. (1880), 12,169.--BAssesed valuation (1888), $1,018,149.
-County seat, Quincy.
Organized as one of the original counties into which the
State was divided in 1822, Gadsden County soon became
one of the leading agricultural districts of Florida. The
face of the country is undulating, with a subsoil of red clay,
well watered, and covered with a heavy growth of hammock
and pine timber. The Ocklockonee Iiver forms the dividing



z O R G J A


% 0 F 0 Gf G



LIBERTY 1

,%cj-,o, :r, '
(ADSDEN COUNTY 0' -"
SCALE OF MI LE h '-S '
L I .. IIy


line from Leon County on the southwest, and into this flow
numerous runs and creeks of clear water, affording abun-
dant facilities for water-power and natural irrigation for w-ide
tracts of land. The hills rise to a considerable height in the
northern part of this county-more than 300 feet in the
neighborhood of Quincy. Under the system of cultivation
that prevailed prior to the Civil War, and before adequate
means of transportation existed, the annual tobacco crop was
something like 5,000 boxes of 350 pounds each. Within a
few years this industry has been revived by Northern capital
on a large scale in the vicinity of Quincy (Route 223).
The culture of Cuban tobacco was introduced into Gadsden





32 GADSDEN COUNTY-HAMILTON COUNTY.

County in 182!), by a Virginian who settled in the vicinity of
Qnincy. He was so successful that his example was soon
followed, and until the Cvl e iiWar in iSO the value of the
crop nearly or quite equalled that of cotton, the annual ship-
ioents averaging 1,((0,1000 pounds. A great advantage of
tobaccuo-growers was that the busy season timed itself so as
not to interfere with cotton-planting. Thus the tobacco
could usually be harvested after the cotton was started and
before it was time for picking, while the packing and boxing
was necessarily done in wet weather, when out-of-door work
was impracticable. The Civil War first and the abolition of
slavery afterward practically suspended this industry.
The W western Division of the Florida Central & Peninsula
Railway crosses Gadsden County with stations as follows:
9.... Ocklockoncr (Leon Co.) ........ 24
12 .. I[:i av .......... .... ..... I SE
24 .... ii ... .................. 19 A Dist. fr.
V 3 'n1 I 1 ... ............. 10 RiverJc.
a c. N W 42 .... lli li hoiI cl l io ........ ......... 1
43 ... liv'r ,Junlctuion .... ..... 0
:Connects Savannah, Florida & Wrstcrn I':1iwray-, crossing at once into
Penco'a & Allantie Di, ion L. & N. (-ci p. 16), and with Chat-
Iailoochee liicr Stcamers.


Hamilton Couity.
Area, 460 sq. m.-Lat. 301 20' to 30" 40' N.-Long. 82 40' to 83 20' W.-
Population (1890). S,477.-Pop. (1880), 6,790.-Assessed valuation (1888), $1,042-
495.-C'onny seat, Ja-p;lr.
The county lies between the Snwannee River on the west,
and one of its main branches, the Alapaha, on their south mnd
east. The surface is generally level, with rolling land near
the rivers, atnd a fito growth of hammock timber and pine,
and cypress in some portions. Sea Island or long staple
cotton is successfully grown. In the river-swampsf anud ham-
mocks the soil is rich and dark. The Florida Central k&
Penina~llvtu ih'Olnal Tnu through tihe middle of the county
from north to south, and the Florida Central & Western
railroad passes close to the sliothwest ern corner at Ella-
ville, Ma\dison Conuty. The county contains a number of
remarkable springs, sinks, and other natural curiosities.





HAMILTON COUNTY -HERNANDO COUNTY. ,3

The Gainesville Division, Savanniah, Florida & Western
Railroad, crosses the county with stations as follows:
130 .. )uponl ........... ....... 49
139 Forr'-t .... .... .. 40 7'
D:-t. I 1. -o Statenlvill.e .. .............29 A Dist. fr.
nnl,. pcr .. ... .Li.ve Oak.
Sax lt illn v 16 'M arloln ... ..... 11
S ]71 S uW llla n (n a e ll (C o r '.) .. ..
179. Live ak (,HsLnau-e Co.) ...... 0
Coicrt- F. C'. P. PI. running a en-t to Jacksonville, and west to River
.Julction -cc 1p. 911. For conlt;inalttion to Gaine-ville. see p. 91.

The GoCorgiao Southerin & Florida Railroad enters the
county from Coeolgiia on the north with stations as follows:


D st. fr. 1 7 ...i lrose (Ga.) .... .....
MV 10U ..... C ... .. .. ..
acon, a. SE 19 White Spsin. & .......
I ('osses S. F. & W. Ity.


...43NW Dit. fr.
.... 3 A Lake City.
.... 11 I


IHcnaildo County.
Area, 500 sq. m.-Lat 2 2oS to 2 40' N.-Lone. 82 to 82 40' W.-Popn!a-
tion (1890), 2,474. -Ashctscd valuation (18S8). $900,000.--4ounty seat, Brooks-
ville.
Until 1850 this county, then three times its present size,
was named Benton, after the Hon. Thomas H. Benton, of
3





HERNANDO COUNTY.


North Carolina, a popular statesman of tie day. The pres-
cnt name was chosen when til original county was subdi-
vided in 1875.
Brooksville, the county town, lies in the midst of one of
the finest agricultural regions of the State. The surface soil
is largely a rich vegetable mould, underlaid with brown sandy
loam several feet deep, and resting upon a substratum of
limestone, clay, or marl. In area the land is about equally
divided into hammock, high pine, low pine, and swamp.
The hammock lands are almost invariably high and rolling,

., r c I T u : III: 1: \lM01 4,4l1lI I


....




17 'sA 22 ,






with fine natural drainage, and au.n cxe(edingly rich soil un-
derlaid with sand or clay, and having a substratum of lime-
stone. All these lands, except the very poorest, are ex-
tremely productive, yielding cotton, tobacco, vegetables, and
the various field crops. In the central and western parts of
the comity the ridges rise to a height of some three hundred
feet above tide-water. There are n navigable rivers, and the
Gulf coast can bo approached only by boats of very light
draught, save at Gulf Key or Hammock Creek, where there
is a good lmrbor accessible for vessels drawing six feet of
water. Indian Creek, in the same harbor, is also a safe
anchorage for small vessels. Elsewhere the approaches
to the coast are shallow, with numerous oyster-beds, and
an archipelago of small barren islands in the northern part.





HERNANDO COUNTY


35


The Florida Southern (J., T. & K. W. system), the South
Florida, the Florida Central and the Orange Belt railroads
cross the eastern part of the county, and a branch of the first
named penetrates to Brooksville in the middle of the
county.
Stations of the Florida Southern within and adjacent to
the county are :
Dist. fr 63 ....Pemberton Ferry I...............11 W D.st. fr.
Ocala V 69... Couper ......................... 5 Brooks-
E. 74....Brooksville .................. 0 ville.
SConnects with South Florida Railroad (see below). For continuation of this
line to Ocala, see p. ST..

The Bartow Branch of the South Florida Railroad has sta-
tions within and next to the county as follows :
0....Pemberton Ferry' (Sumter Co.)..67 N
Dist. fr. 1....Fitzgerald ......................56
Pemberton .... Oriole ......................... 4 A Dist.
Ferry. v 6....BayCity ....................... 51 fr. Bartow.
10... Macon (Pasco Co.)................47
11....Orange Belt Jc. ................48
1 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system (see above).
2 Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see below). For continuation of this line, see
p. 76.

The Tampa Branch of the F. C. & P. Co. crosses the east-
ern point of the county from north to south. Thq stations
are :
Diet. fr. 22....WVithlacoochee ............... 9 A Dist. fr.
Wild- 28. ..Lacoochee ....................32 Plant
Wood. V S0....Owensboro 2 ....................31 City.
I Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see below).
2 Crosses South Florida Railroad (see p. 76). For continuation of this line,
see p. 76.

The Orange Belt Railway crosses the eastern point of the
county from northeast to southwest. Stations are:

Dist. fr. 66... Wyoming........ ...............3 NE Diet. fr.
Monroe. 1....Lacoochee .......... .. TT A St. Peters-
SSW 73.... Macon ........................75 6 burg.
Crosses F. C. & P. Ry. (see above).
2 Crosses South Florida Railroad (see above). For continuation of this line,
see pp. 74 and 87.





36 HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY.


Hillsborough County.
Area, 1,300 sq. m.-Lat. 27 20' to 28 50W N.-Long. 820 to 820 50t W.-Popu-
lation (1890), 14,810.-Pop. (1880), 5,814.-Assessed valuation (1888), $3,200,000.
-County seat, Tampa.
This county, or the region adjacent, early received its name
after the Earl of Hillsborough, Secretary of State for the
colonies of Great Britain during the American Revolution.
The county was organized in 1835. It is mainly in the long-
leaf pine region, naturally all woodland, with 1,185 square
miles of rolling pine land, 75 square miles of marshy lowland,
and 40 square miles of hammock. Of all the Gulf counties
Hillsborough is perhaps the most favored in her coast line,
which exceeds 150 miles in length, although from north to
south the county is only 36 miles wide. This is due to
Tampa Bay, which with its branches, Hillsborough Bay and
River and Old Tampa Bay, penetrates far into the interior.
About one quarter of the whole extent of coast is low and
marshy, while the rest rises quite abruptly from the water's
edge, often with bluffs and a border of fine beach. The
greater part of the county is good pine land, with a fair
amount of hammock and some open prairie. The better lands
for agricultural purposes lie in the western part.
Tampa Bay was one of the first discovered and used by
the early navigators, and it is almost certain that traders and
freebooters visited its waters prior to Hernando De Soto, who
anchored there on May 25, 1539, with a fleet of several ves-
sels, and a force of 570 men, comprising the very flower of
Spanish chivalry. He brought with him, also, 223 horses,
and the whole elaborate equipment of armorers, smiths, and
servants essential to the needs of such a force. The Feast of
Pentecost of that year fell on the day of arrival, and the
noble bay was named Bahia Espiritu Sancto (Bay of the
Holy Spirit), after the devout custom of these early explorers.
The Spanish name was for centuries retained on the maps,
but it appears to have been dropped in favor of the still
older Indian name soon after the English gained a foothold.
On the shores of the bay and along the Gulf coast and the
outlying Keys are many Indian mounds of great interest to





HOLMES COUNTY.


Holmes County.
Area, 510 sq. m.-Lat. 30" 43' to 31 N.-Long. 86' 5' to 85 30' W.-Popula-
tion (1890), 4,33 .-Pop. (1880), 2.190.-Assessed valuation, $332,954.-County
seat, Cerro Gordo.
The land in Holmes County is mainly a good quality of pine
land, which produces cotton, sugar-cane, corn. and tobacco,
as the principal field crops. The soil is claya.nd sandyloanm.
Peaches, grapes, and plums are successfully grown, and stock-


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VW A L T ON


B A M A
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S H I N

- -
S H I N G T 0 N


raising is among the profitable industries. The Choctawhat-
clee River is the pricipal) watercourse, finding its source
in Southern AlhiiIamali, runingl ign a southerly direction across
thle county, and failing into C(hiotawhlatchee Bay. It is navi-
galce for steamboats beyond the county line, and is available
for loggingi purposes and small boats well up into Alabama.
llolmes Counlv is underlaid with cavernous whito lime-
stone, which frequently' forms remarkable "sinks" and wells.
Most of the lakes and ponds are of this nature, often occur-
ring on ridges where there was a sufficient quantity of sand
and drift to fill in the cavity when the subsidence occurred.





40 HOLMES COUNTY-JACKSON COUNTY.

The Pensacola & Atlantic Division of the Louisville &
Nashville Railroad crosses Holmes County east and west near
the southern border. Stations in and near the county are as
follows:
43....Chipley (Washington Co.).......118
53....Bonifay ........................ 108 E
Dit. 61....Carville ..... .............. 100 A Dist. fr.
Dist. fr. 63....Westville ..................... 98 pensacola.
River Jc. V T7.. .Ponce de Leon ................ 91
W 77..... Arg le ............. .... ....... 84
81....De uniak Sp .................. 80
For continuation east and west, see p. 101.



Jackson County.
Area, 1,000 sq. m.-Lat. 300 85' to 31 N.-Long. 840 50' to 85* 40' W.-Popu-
lation (1890), 17,492.-Pop. (1888), 14,372.-Assessed valuation (1888), $1,023,985.
-County seat, Marianna.
This county is in what is termed the oak, hickory, and
pine upland region. It contains about 150 square miles of
red lime lands, 400 square miles of oak, hickory, and high
pine, and 450 square miles of ordinary long-leaf pine lands.
It is named after Gen. Andrew Jackson, military Governor
of Florida, and is one of the original counties organized on the
acquisition of the Territory by the United States. It is on
the eastern border of what is known as West Florida. The
Chattahoochee River separates it from Georgia on the east,
navigable for river steamers for the whole distance. The
Chattahoochee unites with the Apalachicola River near the
southeastern corner of the county. Along the river is a strip
of bottom land from one and one-half to two files wide,
which is of extraordinary richness, but is subject to over-
flow. The Chipola River, rising in the northern part of the
county, runs south, dividing it nearly in half. This stream
is used for floating lumber to the railroad and to the Gulf,
but is navigable only for small boats. Along the Chipola
River are rich hammock lands covered with a heavy growth
of hard wood timber, as oak, beach, magnolia, maple,
hickory, and bay. The county is well watered by the tribu-
taries of the streams mentioned, and is besides well supplied
with lakes and springs. The soil is for the most part red





JA('KSON COUNT I.


clay and sandy loam, and produces cotton, corn, oats, rice,
sugar-cane, and tobac.'o, l nd all save the strictly subtropical
fruits.
The Pensacola & Atlantic Railroad crosses the county from


1 6






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WASHINGTON ,,,,,'' -* ''



JAC SON I ,
SSCO TY /' (




near and within the county as follows :
0 .... .TRiver Jc. i (lad.sde Co.) ..... 16l i .
5 S l ad ................ .... ... 15(
Di't. fr. 15 ...C'ypre-s.. .. .... ... .. 146 A Di-t. fr.
River Jc. V 2 ... r n .. .. ....... 3 P 'n acola.
1. 34... ( ottondale ... .. ... ... 127
44 in i i ley (bllts o tn nsih, n sC.) .. 117
1 'oranects within Stvllniah. Florida Western Railroad (see p. 52), iand
C'hatillhuchee livcr st ial er-.
IIIAII ThAucIee ito i-ro I ollooer-.





JEFFERSON COUNTY .


Jefferson County.
Area, 560 sq. mn.-Lat. 30" to 30 40' N.-Long. 831 35' to 84 5' W.-Populh.
tion (1890). 15,699.--Pop. (1880), 16.065.-Ass ssed valuation (1888), $1,800,000.
-County seat, Mlonticello.
Jefterson County stretches across that portion of the State
known as Middle Florida, touching Georgia on the north


G +, .....- ..__I


I -


L 0 R


JEFFERSON COUNTY
SCALE OF MILES
U ., 10





JEFFERSON COUNTY-LAFAYETTE COUNTY. 43

and the Gulf of Mexico on the south. The Aucilla River,
navigable for steamboats to the natural bridge, forms the
southeastern boundary. The face of the country is unusually
diversified, the whole of the northern part hilly and well
wooded, Micosukee Lake forming its northwestern boundary.
This lake is about twelve miles long and six miles wide at
its western end, a curiously irregular body of water, sur-
rounded by extensive forests of pine. The soil is generally
a sandy loam underlaid with clay, well adapted for the cul-
tivation of early vegetables and fruits. The field crops are
mainly cotton, corn, rice, sugar-cane, and tobacco. About
twenty miles from the coast the hills abruptly disappear, and
from this point to the Gulf stretch the "flat woods" almost
unbroken, but full of game, and affording an inviting field
to the sportsman.
The Western Division of the F. C. & P. crosses the county
about twelve miles from the Georgia line. Its stations
within and nearest to the county are :
12....Chaires (Leon Co.)........ .....153 W
Dist. fr. 18....Lloyd.. .........................14T A Dst. fr.
Talla- 27....Drifton ....................138 Jackson-
hassee. V 34.. .Aucilla.......................131 ville.
E 41.... Greenville (dladison Co.) ........124
I Connects with branch to Monticello, four miles, and then with branch of
Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad to Sunny Hill, twelve miles, and
Thomasville, Ga., twenty miles.


Lafayette County.
Area, 940 sq. m.-Lat. 29 20' to 300 15' N.-Long. 82 50' to S3 22' W.-Popu-
lation (1890), 3,669.-Pop. (1880), 2,441.-Assessed valuation (1888), $532,18.-
County seat. New Troy.
Lafayette County lies along the west bank of the Suwannee
River for the whole of its navigable course, its natural facil-
ities for transportation being excellent. The river is navi-
gable for steamboats to New Branford, where the Savannah,
Florida & Western Railway touches the eastern bank of the
river, affording communication by rail with Gainesville,
Lake City, and Live Oak, and the great trunk lines of rail-
way. The soil is sandy, underlaid with clay, and there is
much excellent hammock land as yet unoccupied. The
southern extremity of the county is within ten miles of
















I (F'


FAYETTE COUNTY

SCALE OF MILES
SI U 10




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LAFAYETTE COUNTY-LAKE COUNTY.


Cedar Keys, the Gulf terminus of the Florida Central &
Peninsular Railway.
The Gulf coast of Lafayette County is very shallow, and
destitute of harbors, save at the mouth of the Suwannee and
Steinhatchee Rivers, where small vessels may find shelter and
anchorage. The fishing is excellent in the rivers and along
the coast.
Game of all kinds is very abundant in the heavily wooded
and sparsely populated region that covers the whole county
a few miles back from the river.


Lake County.
Area, 1,100 sq. m.-Lat. 2So 20' to 2S 55' N.-Long. 81a 157 to 810 55' W.-
Population (1890), 8,020. Organized in 1887, no census.-Assessed valuation
(1888), $3,724,116.-Highest elevation, 500 ft.-County seat, Tavares.
Lake County was formed in 1887 by an act of the State
Legislature uniting portions of the adjoining counties
(Orange and Sumter). It is among the most beautiful of
the inland counties, owing to the picturesque groups of lakes
from which it takes its name, and which cover nearly one-
sixth of its surface. The larger members of the group are
known as Lakes Harris, Eustis, Griffin, Dunham, Dora, Yale,
Minnehaha, Mineola, and Apopka, the last named lying
partly within the borders of Orange County. Besides these
there are small lakes, almost without number, and abundant
flowing streams. That the county is nearly on the "divide"
of the Floridian Peninsula is evident from the fact that
streams flowing through its territory find their vay to the
ocean through the three widely divergent channels of the St.
John's, the Withlacoochee, and the Kissimmee, the first
named falling iito the Atlantic near the northern boundary
of the State, while the others reach the Gulf of Mexico,
through Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades. In point of
fact, the highest elevations in the State, nearly five hundred feet
above tide-water, are found in this county. The approaches,
however, are so gradual that only the surveyor's level can
demonstrate the constant rise. The larger lakes are all navi-
gable for small steamers, and as some of them are connected






LA hE COt U-TY I I AKE
__SALE OF 111119 14 lx

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LAKE COUNTY.


by natural or artificial waterways quite an extensive and
varied system of navigation exists.
The Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railway system,
through the Florida Southern Railway Company, affords
abundant transportation facilities, and there are besides the
Tavares, Atlantic & Gulf, and the Orange Belt Railways.
These lines intersect in all directions, skirting the lake
shores and rendering all parts of the county easily accessible.
Other branch roads are contemplated, notwithstanding the
multiplicity, for Lake County is one of the richest orange-
growing counties in the State, and it has been abundantly
proven that, to be profitable an orange grove must be within
a very few miles of a railroad.
The St. John's & Lake Eustis Division of the Florida
Southern Railway (J., T. & K. W. system) enters the county
at Astor (forty-two miles from Palatka) after crossing the St.
John's River. The stations are:
0....Astor ........................25
4....Bryansville ................... 21 N
6....Cummings............ ...... 19 A
7....Sellar's Lake.......... ...... 18
Dist. fr 12 ....Summit...........................13 .
Astor. 15 .... Ravenswood ................... 10 DFst. fr.
16.... .Pittman...................... 9 Fort Mason.
18....Altoona ........................
V 20....Glendale.......... ......... 5
S 21....Umatilla ................ ... 4
25 ...Fort Mason '..................... 0
I Connects with branches to Tavares and Leesburg (see below).
Connections with the foregoing at Fort Mason (sixty-seven
miles from Palatka). This line is U-shaped, curving around
the north shore of Lake Eustis. The stations are:
0....Leesbnrg ....................2..
1 ...randview ...................22 NE
2 ...Belle'reva........................21 &
5....Laniers.........................18 SW
6....Tilson ............. .... .... 17 A
7... Orange Bend........... ..... 16
Dist. fr. 8 ...Lisbon....................... 15 Dist. fr.
Leesburg. 10....Lancaster ............ .......12 Lane Park.
11....Grand Island ..... .... ..... 11
V 14 .. Fort Mason ................ 9
NE 16....Enstis ........... ....... 7
& 17....Mt. Homer............ ..... 6
SW 20....Tavares ............... .. 3
23 .. Lane Park...................... 0
1 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system to Pemberton Ferry, etc., and to
)cala, etc. (see p. 48). Also with F. C. & P.. Southern Division (see p. 48).
'Connects with J., T. & K. W. branch to Astor (see above).
3 Connects with J., T. & K. W. branch to Sanford (see p. 48).





48 LAKE COUNTY.

The main line Florida Southern Railway (J., T. & K. W.
system), from Ocala, Marion County, and beyond, has stations
within and near the county as follows:

21.... South Lake Weir (Marion Co.) ....53
24....Conant.......................... 0 N
26.... Lady Lake............ ...... 48 A
29....Chetwynd ..................45
Dist. fr. 30....Fritland Park ..................4 Dist. fr.
Ocala. 3 Leesburg I...... ........40 Brooksville.
36.... Corleys..........................38
38....Helena ....................... 36
V 39....Okahumpka...................35
8 44....Casons.... ..................30
48....Centre Hill (Sumter Co.) ........ 26
1 Connects with J., T. & K. W. to Fort Mason (see p. 47); F. C. & P. to
Wildwood (see below); and Lake Griffin steamboats. For continuation of this
line, see p. 63.

The Sanford & Lake Eustis Railway (J., T. & K. W. sys-
tem), from Sanford to Tavares, has the following stations near
and within the county:

8....Markham ......................21- E
11....Ethel ....... ..................18
Dist.fr. 16....Wayland.........................13 A Dist.fr.
Sanford. 19... Sorrento ......................10 Tavares.
24 ...Mt. Dora........................
S29....Tavares.......................... 0

The Southern Division F. C. & P. enters the county from
Sumter County on the west. The stations adjacent to and
within the county are :
5....Bamboo (Sumter Co.)..... ....17 N
9....Montclair ...................... 13
D;st. fr. 11....Leesburg ...................... 11 Dist. fr.
Wildwood. 14.... Sadie ....... .................... 8 Tavares.
S15 ... Eldorado............ .......... 7
S22,... Tavares2 ..................... 0

3 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 47).
2Connects with'J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 47).


The Tavares, Orlando & Atlantic Railroad has stations as
follows within and adjacent to the county:
I 0 ...Tavares ...................32 N
Dist. fr. I 4....Ellsworth.........................2 A Dist. fr.
Tavares. V 8....Victoria .................... 24 Orlando.
8 10....Gainsboro (Orange Co.) ..........22
I Connects with J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 47), and F. C. & P. (see
above).





LAKE COUNTY-LEE COUNTY.


The Tavares, Apopka & Gulf Railroad has stations as fol-
lows:
0....Tavares ................. ... ...29
3....Ellsworth.... ..................25 N
8.....Astatula .........................20 A
Dist. fr. 15....West Apopka.................14 Dist. fr.
Tavares. 20.... Montverde ...................... 9 Clermont.
23.... Watts Jc ....................... 6
S 27....Mineola........................ 2
29.... Clermont.................. ...... 0
'Connects with J., T. A K. W.; Tav., Or. & Atlantic; and F. C. & P. (see
p. 48).
The Orange Belt Railroad from St. Petersburg, on Tampa
Bay, to Monroe, Orange County, has stations near to and
within the county as follows:
92....Cedar Hammock (Sumter Co.)...57
98... Mascotte.......................1 W
Dist. fr. 102....Sheridan...................47 A Dist. fr.
St. Peters- 107...Clermont .......................42 Monroe.
burg. V 109... .Mineola.........................40
E 110....Mohawk ........... ........39
116.... Killarney (Orange Co.)...........33
I Connects with Tavares, Apopka & Gulf Railroad (see above).



Lee County.
Area, 1,800 sq. m.-Lat. 250 50' to 26 58' N.-Long.. 81 40' to 82 5' W.
-Population (1890), 1,413.-Assessed valuation (1888), $875,834.-County seat.
Myers.
Lee County was formed by act of Legislature in 1887 out
of Monroe County. By a popular vote of the inhabitants it
was named after General Robert E. Lee, the Confederate
leader. Like the adjacent counties of Dade on the east, Do
Soto on the north, and Monroe on the south, it still is a
wilderness, mainly forest, but opening toward the west into
the vast level savannas and everglades bordering upon Lake
Okeechobee. The fact that until 1887 the county seat (Key
West) was one hundred and eighty-five miles from the north-
ern limit of the county gives an idea of -the magnificent
distances of this region. Fort Myers, or Myers as it is now
called, is the present county seat.
There are as yet no railroads in this county, the nearest
terminus being at Punta Gorda, about nine miles north of
the boundary line. Access from that point is easy by means





50 LEI COUNTY.

of steamboats 'whillh run down lth coast to Naples, and up
the ('aloosahatlcht Rciver.
The nilf coast is w\,ll irovidedl with na'lbors in San Carlos
hi, Cl iarlotte larlio, aid Ote.go Jiy.
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The C'aloonaatlfcheoo l iver is tlle moist important of the
watercourses, fitming' its source in LaEl Oklceech'libce and
flowing in a southwesterly direction to the Gulf. Fur twelty--
thlre miles froi tih month it aver ag's mior than a nmilo in
width andls s in;ivigable for vessels drawiin' :tout seven feet.
Above this point it narrows, to about o une hundred and





LEE COUNTY-LEON COUNTY.


seventy-five feet, becomes deeper, with banks sometimes
ten to twenty feet high and clothed with a dense growth of
virgin forest. The Disston Land Company has straightened
and deepened the channels connecting with the great lake,
so that now small steamers can go through to and from the
Kissimmee River, crossing Lake Okeechobee.
The county in general is flat and low, averaging some
thirty feet above tide-water. The soil is well adapted to
vegetables, oranges, pineapples, sugar-cane, and all the
tropical fruits. The lands bordering the Upper Caloosahat-
chee are largely vegetable mould, several feet in depth, and
even in the pine lands muck-ponds are found at short inter-
vals, affording valuable manure. Considerable quantities of
egg-plants and tomatoes are shipped to the North in January
and February, and the strawberry, which ripens here in Jan-
uary, is already an important crop.
Stock raising is the most important interest of Lee County,
and from Punta Rassa, at the mouth of the Caloosahatchee,
the annual shipments to Cuba number about 10,000 head.



Leon County.
Area, 900 sq. m.-Lat. 300 15' to 300 41' N.-Long. 840 to 840 55 W.-Popula-
tion (1890), 17,735.-Pop. (1850), 19,662.-Assessed valuation (1888), $2,006,413.
-Elevation, 250 feet, near Ta!!ahassee.-County seat, Tallahassee.

Leon County is one of the oldest and most prosperous in
the State. To the stranger approaching from the generally
level country to the eastward it presents a pleasing variety
of landscape, with its wooded hills and picturesque valleys,
its hard clay roads, its groves of magnolia and live-oak, and
the extensive plantations of cotton, sugar-cane, tobacco, and
grain. Pears, peaches, and grapes are profitable crops and
easily cultivated.
The soil is clay and sand, the sand predominating in what
are known as gray hammocks while in the rich lands or
"veritable hammocks," as they are locally termed, red clay
predominates and forms a permanently rich and practically
inexhaustible soil, suitable for almost all agricultural pur-





LEON COUNTY.


poses. Beneath this, at a depth of eight or ten feet, is a bed
of limestone, through which run subterranean rivers, and in
which are formed the remarkable sinks that are among
the natural curiosities of the region. As a grazing country
Leon County is noted all over this part of the State.
There are several kinds of native grass, which grow with
great luxuriance, and are apparently quite as good for dairy
stock as any of the standard Northern grasses. Among these

LEON COUNTY G T O P A
SCALE OF MILLE
0 10




q 71 1; F LIN]




SALLAHASSE,

S K K .^-- :1 ,'/ ,, V ,
I; I I i" "/" % '



( \i / ',

W A K U L \L A I


are the Bermuda grass, orab grass," crow's foot," and
" beggar weed." Tle last named is a leguminous plant
which springs up without seeding on almost all cultivated
land, after the usual market crop has been harvested. It
possesses excellent fattening qualities, and if not used for
pasturage forms a fertilizing crop which returns to the sur-
face soil an abundant supply of excellent manure. Tlie
other kinds of grass make good hay when harvested and
cured. All kinds of live stock eat them with avidity, and
thrive as well as on the Northern varieties.





LEON COUNTY.


During the existence of ,negro slavery, Leon County'was
mainly occupied by large planters, whose estates covered
thousands of acres, and whose wealth enabled them to live in
true baronial style. Their crops of cotton and tobacco were
hauled to the St. Mark's River and shipped thence to the
markets of the world. Tallahassee, the capital of the State
and the county seat, was the social centre of this life and
still retains many of its former characteristics. The great
plantations are now largely subdivided and sold or let to
small tenants, and the productive energies of the county are
adjusting themselves to the new order of things.
There are several large lakes within the borders of the
county, all of which afford excellent sport for the fisherman,
and to the southward, within easy reach, is an almost un-
broken wilderness, reaching to the Gulf of Mexico, where
there is an abundance of game.
The eastern part of the county is drained by the St. Mark's
River (see p. 98) and the western part by the Ocklockonee.
Neither of these streams is navigable within the limits of
Leon County.
The Western Division F. C. & P. crosses the county from
east to west, with stations in and near the county as follows:
147 ... Lloyds (Jefferson Co.)............61
Dist. fr. 153....Chaires.........................55
Jackeon- 165....Tallahassee ....................43 A D st. fr.
ille. 17 .... Ocklockonee ...................34 River Jc.
177... Midway (Gadsden Co.).......... 31
'Connects with St. Mark's Branch F. R. & N. (see below). For continua-
tion east see p. 43; west, see p. 32.

The St. Mark's Branch F. 0. & P. south from Tallahassee.
Stations are :
Dist. fr. 0....Tallahassee .................. 21 N
Talla- 4....Beair........ .......... ..17 A Dist. fr.
haass. V 16.... Wakulla (Wakulla Co.)... ... 51 St. Mark's.
has. 21....St. Mark's (Wakulla Co.)........ .
1 Connects with Western Division F. C. & P. (see above).





J- LEVY COUNTY.


Levy County.
Area, 940 sq. m.-Lat. 290 to 29" 35' N.-Lon, S2 22' to S3 5' W.-Popula-
tion (189(1), 6,575.-Registered vole, 1,540.-Pop. (1SSO), 5,7Tli.--Asse sd valua-
tion (1888), $1,101,369.-Elevation, 120 ft., near Bronion.-'omuty seat, Broneou.

Levy County was organized in 1850, and named after a
leading politician of that day, who soon afterward changed


his name to Yulee. He was a senator of the United States
and promiinent in the movement f,)l' secession.
A large proportion of the land in Levy County is undulat-
ing pine forel with a sandy soil more or less mixed with
loam and underlaid with limestone. It is well adapted for
the cultivation of fruits and vegetables. The whole county


r 13 14 15 It







I "fr
-.C il





16;
0 1i C0 i......i.
-S 45'15O Ii "-AI
G+N. 1,0DI( 7,~ (~~-;




LEVY COUNTY-LIBERTY COUNTY.


is well within the latitude adapted for orange culture. The
Suwannee River forms the northwestern boundary, and is
navigable for river steamers, as is the Withlacoochee, which
forms the southeastern boundary. Midway between these
two is the Wacassassa River, navigable for small boats, and
penetrating what is known as the Gulf Hammock, a rich,
fertile tract capable of producing all the farm crops in great
abundance.
The coast is well provided with harbors for small craft,
and at Cedar Key vessels of considerable size can find shelter
and secure anchorage.
The best oysters on the Gulf Coast are found in this vicin-
ity and are shipped in large quantities to other parts of the
State.
The Cedar Key Division F. C. & P. enters the county
from the northeast. Its stations near and within the county
are :
29....Archer (Alachua Co.) ............41 NE
38....Bronson .......................32
Dist. fr. 50....Otter Creek ...... .............20, A D st. fr.
Waldo. V 51....Ellzey .......... ..........19 Cedar Key.
SW 60 ...Rosewood.......................10
70....Cedar Key....................... 0
Connects at Gainesville with J., T. & K. W. system, and with F. C. & P.
(see pp. 4 and 5).


Liberty County.
Area, 800 sq. m.-Lat. 300 to 30n 40' N.-Long. 840 40' to 850 10' W.-Popu-
lation (1890), 1,499.-Pop. (1880), 1,362.-Assessed valuation (1888), $238,012.-
County seat, Bristol.
Liberty County lies between the Apalachicola River on the
west and the Ocklockonee River on the east. The land is for
the most part second and third class pine, with a sandy soil
underlaid with clay. Oranges are successfully cultivated,
and the rivers and lakes abound with fish, but the principal
industry is stock-raising, for which the open pine-woods are
admirably suited. No railroads have as yet penetrated
the county, but the Apalachicola River affords steamboat
communication with the Gulf of Mexico and with the Flor-
ida Central & Peninsula Railroad at River Junction.
Bristol, the county seat, has a population of about three








I inodre sonl~. In the middle of tho comiti are a m!
if ,nmall nikes felnm one to fioe jiiiles in lengt lh.


0




I
2ii


River, a tributary of the Ocklockonee, and New River, flowing
directly to the Gulf of Mexico, drain the central portion of
the county.


LI'ERTi'Y COUNTYY





MA IISON COUNTY.


Madison County.
Area. ;. 630 sq. ,1.-Lat. 30 12' to 301 3-' N.-Long. S3- 10' to 3 50' W.-
Population (1q90), 1-.2I .-P jop. (1sl1i, 14,79'.-A- oced valuation (1SSS,, $1,-
.500,100.-County sT at, MIadisoi
The eiaslrni half oof Mad ison Coumty is mainly pine land,
aind tihe we-lrn is lar 'oly hanliin)ock of good quality. The
natural division between these two tracts runs. irregularly




z A






00








T A Y L i -R L .
ofi the 111111 ii w 1
1












'I-\I)ISiO. CO" NTYI
E OF MFS A FYETTE



farther below a te surface aiong the pines than aio l tie
K" "










ha l ockso. In Loth divisions t r soil llis theprodu ive and so
well adapted t tho e cultivation o lf Sea I sland cotton that one
of the largest manufacturing ]lou-es in tihe world lha estal-
li+shed a factory at Madison, thie county seat. It. is claimed
that nearly one-twelfth of tlhe entire long staple cotton crop
of thle world is grown in Madison County. The climate can
hardly be considered semi-tropical, but thle Gulf of Mexico





MADISON COUNTY.


is near enough to prevent destructive frosts, the nights are
generally cool, and the temperature rarely rises above ninety
degrees in summer, and the health of the settled portions of
the county is exceptionally good. Figs and grapes are
among the most prolific of the fruit crops. Fig-trees grow
without cultivation, reaching in a few yeys a height of fifteen
to twenty feet, and bearing abundantly. Grapes are raised
in large quantities, including the native scuppernong, and
foreign varieties, including the black Hamburg, and the
wine-producing industry has already reached respectable pro-
portions. Le Conte pears have been introduced within a
few years, and with peaches can be ripened for the North-
ern markets long before similar fruits come to perfection in
higher latitudes.
The Suwannee and Aucilla Rivers with their tributaries
drain the county, affording abundant water and numerous
mill-sites. In the extreme southern portion, and extending
into the neighboring counties of Taylor and Lafayette, is a
great swamp, known as San Pedro Bay. It has never been
explored beyond a short distance along the edges. The whole
tract, save occasional ridges and islands, is under water, and
four considerable streams flow outward in different direc-
tions. These are the Finholloway and the Econfenee on
the west, and the Spring Warrior and Steinhatchee on the
east. The "bay" is a noted retreat for large game, including
deer, bear, panthers, and wolves. It is no trifling matter to
hunt in this region, but with competent guides good sport
may be anticipated.
The Western Division F. C. & P. bisects the county,
crossing it from east to west, with stations at:
94....Bncki Jc. (Suwannee Co.) ..... 113
S 95....Ellaville ...................... 112 E
Dist. fr. 1 103 ... Lees........................104 A Dist. fr.
Jackson- I 105 ....West Farm ...................102 River Je.
ville. V 110....Madison ....................... 9T
W 124....Greenville..................... 83
131.... Ancilla (Jefferson Co.).......... 76
For continuation east to Jacksonville, see p. 91; west to Tallahassee, Pensa-
cola, etc., see p. 43.





MANATEE COUNTY.


Manatee County.
Area, 1,330 sq. nm.-L:i. 2. ;' 5;to 271 ,S' N.-L(,ni. 2 2' to S2' 50' W.-Popn-
lt.,n (1 1)l. 2,S99.- PopiIL. ,l ;, .t -A u d vI .i o: n I ), ,1,217,922.40.
-- IoI tl:Leat, 1::l CI.
anat&ee County take its 11name froin the manIqatoo, or Sa-
cow, an animal formerly abundant along the coasts of 1Flor.


Sthu.
B .B-0 n i u H I I

.. .6 . .
.- '....-- ( ,







I .L u *o ne r t-. All- L An m



S- --
t \ i t e z 2 h








t r odifie1 the equalizing influence of th .
5-, *



ida, 1)ut cow ceariy extinct (ese p. 21st. Eviur mainl1 e-





MANATEE COUNTY.


Without prejudice to other sections it may be said that the
county contains a greater area of strictly arable land than
any other county south of the twenty-eighth parallel. There
is a great variety of soil ranging from rich hammocks to
worthless swamps, but the greater part is pine land capable
of more or less successful cultivation according to location.
Some excellent farms have been opened in the flat woods,
and crops can be grown out of doors the whole year round.
The prairie lands, of which there are tens of thousands
of acres, are believed to be productive, but at latest ad-
vices no considerable attempt has been made to cultivate
them.
The garden section of the county is along the Manatee
River, which is bordered by some of the richest hammock
land in the State, and smaller hammocks and "bays" exist
all through the piney region.
Early vegetables for the Northern markets are cultivated
with great success.
The coast extends from Tampa Bay on the north to the
headwaters of Charlotte Harbor on the south. It includes
the mouth of the Manatee River and Sarasosta Bay with its
outlying keys, and affords an unsurpassed cruising-ground
for pleasure craft suited to the navigation of these shallow
waters. Fish, oysters, and turtle abound, the tarpon may
be caught with the rod, and the devil-fish may be harpooned
out in the Gulf. The keys are many of them quite high
and well adapted for residence and the cultivation of the
more tender sub-tropical fruits.
The nearest railway connections are at Tampa, and St.
Petersburg on the north and Punta Gorda on the south, with
which points there is constant communication by coasting
steamers running to the river towns on Manatee and Sara-
sosta Bay.
The county is a great cattle range, with its principal ship-
ping point at Charlotte Harbor (see Route 81). The fishing
is good in all the lakes and streams as well as along the coast,
and deer are found within a few miles of any of the settle-
ments. The Manatee and the Myakka Rivers are navigable
for small boats far up into the interior, and these afford the




MANATEE COUNTY-MARION COUNTY. 61

easiest access to the best hunting-grounds, since camp equip-
age can be more easily carried by boat than by any other
means of transportation.


Marion County.
Area, 1,557 sq. m.-Lat. 28 55' to 29 30' N.-Long. 81 35' to 82" 52' W.-
Population (1890), 20,783.-Pop. (1880), 13,046.-Assessed valuation (1888), $4,-
222,200.-County seat, Ocala.
Marion County lies on the central ridge of the Florida
Peninsula, the natural drainage being toward the Atlantic on
the east, and toward the Gulf of Mexico on the west. The
extent from north to south is thirty-eight miles, from east
to west fifty-four miles, and it is one of the richest orange-
growing counties in the State, possessing besides some of the
most attractive natural scenery and many of the most popu-
lar winter resorts.
The land is divided into the usual grades of hammock,
first, second, and third class pine'and scrub, the last named,
however, being confined almost wholly to the townships
lying east of the Ocklawaha River, omitting, however, the
bend of the stream from Moss Bluff to Eaton, where there
are high rolling hills and excellent soil. The rest of the
county is very attractive, even to one who sees it only from
a passing train. The gently swelling hills clothed with open
woods, and often carpeted with green grass, suggest, even in
midwinter, some of the most beautiful parts of the North.
There is an almost total absence of the scrub palmetto, with
which the traveller becomes so familiar as the almost ever-
present undergrowth of the pine forests, and while there are
wide reaches of inferior pine barrens, the general impression
conveyed is of a naturally rich and productive country. The
native growth of wild orange-trees suggested grafting to the
first settlers, and the result has been some of the finest groves
in the State, or even in the world. In 1889 valuable phos-
phate beds were discovered in the southwestern part of the
county. Their extent is not definitely determined. (P. 302.)
Of veritable high hammock land it is estimated that
Marion County contains nearly one. hundred thousand acres,




02 MARION COULN''Y.
covered with a rich and practically inexhaustible vegetable
mould. These lands were under cultivation h, the abl(rig-

b, \^ i" __ L









: i\ +.. .j ^^'' ,^^V^/r
-77-I
t/ ,.L

-- "" I- '" /i, lut
1I



.. ...r + _i" ../












inloles made their most resolute stand a..ainst the Unit.ed
Ii-














States forces during the war that resulted practically in their
extermination or expulsion.





MARION COUNTY. 63

Orange Lake, Lake Weir, Lake Kerr, Lake Bryant, and
countless smaller bodies of water are within the borders of
the county, and Lake George, forming part of the St. John's
River, touches its eastern boundary. The Ocklawaha River
runs across the county from south to north, navigable for the
entire distance. To this stream are tributary, Silver Spring
Run, navigable to its source, and Orange Creek, the outlet
of Orange Lake. The Withlacoochee River defines the
southwestern boundary, with Blue River, a wonderfully beau-
tiful spring run" as a tributary.
The main line of the Florida Southern Railway (J., T. & K.
W. system) enters the county from Palatka, etc., on the
north. The stations near and within the county are:

45... 3icanopy Jc. (Alachua Co.).....101
47....Boardma...................... 99 N
49....McIntosh .................... 97 A
52 ....Lochbie........................ 94
55... Oak Lawn ................... 91
57....Reddick ................... .... 89
Dist. ft. 63. Martin ................. ........ 83 Dist. fr.
Platka. 70....F. C. & P. Crossing .......... 76 Brooklle
72 ....cala ......................... 74
82...Welshton ....... ........... 64
85....Candler ....................... 61
88....Oldawaha....................... 58
V 89 ...Weir Park..................... 57
S 93.... South Lake Weir............. 53
96....Conant (Lake Co.).............. 50

I Branch east to Citra, 6 m. (see below).
2 Connects with Silver Spring, Ocala & Gulf Railway (see p. 64), and South-
ern Division F. C. & P. (see below).
For continuation south, see p. 48; north, see p. 4.

The Southern Division F. C. & P. crosses the outlet of
Orange Lake from Alachua County on the north. Its sta-
tions in and near Marion County are :

111....Citra ................. .. ...67
117... Sparrs .......................61 N
120... Anthony................... 8 A
Dist. fr. 124... Spring Park .................... 54 Dit
Fernandn. 126 .... Silver Spring J. 2 ........52 Dit. r.
Fernandina. 130 .... Ocala I3 ........................ 48 Tvares.
V 141 ...Belleview ..................... 37
S 146.... Summerfield ..................32
151....Oxford (Sumter Co.).... ..... 27
1 Branch west to Oak Lawn, 6 m. (see above).
2 Branch west to Silver Spring, 1 m.
3 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system (above); Silver Spring, Ocala & Gulf
Railway to Homosassa (see p. 64).





64 MARION COUNTY-MONROE COUNTY.

The Silver Spring, Ocala & Gulf Railroad runs southwest
from Ocala. Its stations in and near the county are:
0....Ocala'....................... 48
3....Anew ........................45 NE
s....Martel ........ ..................40 A Dist. fr.
Dist. fr. 13M. Leroy ........................34 Homa-
Ocala. 2,, fBlue Spring ,/ syoma-
V 20z j uliette in ...............2 sassa.
SW 26....Dunellon ................. 22
34....Citronelle (Citrus Co.)..........14
1 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system, and F. C. & P. (see p. 63).


Monroe County.
Area, land and water, 2,600 sq. m.-Lat. 24' 30' to 250 60' N.-Long. 80O 40'
to 82" 55' W.-Population (1890), 18,764.-Assessed valuation, $1,408,458.-
County seat, Key West.
The county as it exists is far smaller than prior to 1887,
when the whole northern portion, now Lee County, was
separated for convenience of administration. The popula-
tion prior to the division was 10,940 (1880).
Nearly one-half of the present county is on the main pen-
insula of Florida, the most southerly portion of the territory
of the United States. The rest comprises the long line of
keys and reefs that reach from Cape Florida on the east
coast of the peninsula to Key West and the Dry Tortugas
in the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of about one hundred and
forty miles. The peninsula section is almost uninhabited,
and has been only partially surveyed, owing to the nature of
the country, which has not yet proved inviting to settlers,
save hunters or fishermen. The northern and western part
of this tract is more or less available asa cattle range, but to-
ward the coast innumerable bayous wind in and out, forming
a labyrinth known as the Ten Thousand Islands. This re-
gion has been partially mapped by the United States Coast
Survey. It affords an attractive cruising-ground for sports-
men provided with small boats. The more important part
comprises the chain of keys or islands, almost wholly com-
posed of coralline rock, which sweeps in a grand 1cul'e around
the end of the peninsular and forms the northern bank of
the Gulf stream, at its very source.
Monroe County lies between the twenty-fourth and twenty





NASSAU COUNTY. 67

nue of commerce between Florida and the North, enters the
county at the northwestern angle, running in a southeasterly
direction to Jacksonville, in Duval, the adjacent county.
Stations near and within the county are :
35 ...Folkston (Georgia) ............41
D s. fr. I 40 ...Boulogne ......................... 36 NW t fr.
Dist.f 46 llare.......................... NW Dist. fr.
Way 56... Callahan' ................... 20
Cros. SW 64....Dinsmore (Dural Co.)............12 sonville.
76....Jacksonville 2 (Duval Co.)......... C
I Crosses F. R. & N.. Southern Division (see below).
2 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system F. C. & P. (see pp. 25 and 26); Jack-
sonville, Mayport & Pablo Railway (see p. 26). Also with ocean steamers to the
North, St. John's River steamboats.

The Southern Division F. C. & P. (Fernandina to Orlando)
has the following stations in and near the county:
0... .Fernandina I.......... ......47
11....Hart's Road Jc.2.................6 NE
Dist. fr. 19....Italia ....... ........... ...28 A
Fer- 27 ....Callahan .......................23 Dit. fr.
nndin 32 ... Crawford.........................15 Baldwin.
nandina. V 37....Dutton..........................10
SW 41 ...Brandy Branch................... 6
47....Baldwin 4 (Duval Co.).......... 0
1 Connects with ocean steamers.
2 Connects with Jacksonville & Fernandina Branch F. R. & N. (see below).
3Crosses 8. F. & W. Ry., Jacksonville Division (see above).
4Connects with Western DivisionF. C. & P. (see p. 7).

The Jacksonville and Fernandina Division F. C. & P. runs
nearly north from Jacksonville to Hart's Road, thence east to
Fernandina. Its stations are :
0....Jacksonville 1 ................ 387
Dist. fr. 5....Jacksonville Jc ...............2 32.
Jack- v 16....Duval.........................22 A Dist.nfr.
sonville. 27 ....Hart's Road 2 .............. ......10 ernandina.
37....Fernandina ............... .... 0
I Connects with railroads and steamers out of Jacksonville (see pp. 25 and 26).
2 Connects with Southern Division F. C. & P. (see above).
s Connects with ocean steamers.








Oran'e Counity.
Area, 1,2530 sq. m.-Lat. 2m. 21' to 20 52' N.-LTon. 00 5;' lu st1 40' W.-
Population (1S9o), 12,"79.-l'p. (1SO0), (6,(1.--As-sed va Ual:o $4,652,573.
-County s;t, Or]iiido.
Orange Couity, as its name implies, is in the central orange
belt of the peninsula, and includes some of the most exten-


4 -:
Q


sive groves in the State. The head waters of the St. John's
River form its eastern boundary, and a group of lakes adds
greatly to the natural attractions of the region. Lake


ORAN(;E COUNTY.





ORANGE COUNTY.


Apopka, lying mainly within the western boundary of the
county, is second in size only to Okeechobee, and Lakes
Monroe, Jessup, Harney, Butler, Conway, Maitland, and
many others, range from a few acres up to thousands of
acres in extent. Almost without exception the land rises
from the water in gently rolling hills, securing immunity
from malarial influences and affording unsurpassed sites for
homes and for the cultivation of the various crops.
The face of the country is varied and the soil corresponds.
There are high and low hammocks, high, medium, and flat
pine lands, bay-heads and savannahs, all of which are capable
of,different uses for the agriculturist and horticulturist. A
partial list of the fruits that can be successfully and profit-
ably grown in this county includes oranges, lemons, limes,
grape-fruit, shaddock, citron, guava, pineapples, pomegran-
ates, Japanese plums, figs, etc. Rice, sugar-cane, cassava,
strawberries, plums, and early vegetables are cultivated with
success.
The central and northwestern townships are the most at-
tractive, and contain most of the population. Toward the
east and south there are few or no settlements and an abun-
dance of game during the winter months.
The larger lakes and the St. John's River above Lake
Monroe are navigable for launches and small craft, but there
are at present no regular boats running above Sanford.
The main line of the J., T. & K. W. system enters the
county from the north, with stations in and near Orange
County as follows:

Dist. fr. I 0....Enterprise Jc.' (Volusia Co.)....... 7 N Dist. fr.
Enterprise V 4,.... onroe 2............... ......... .... Sanfor.
Jc. S 7....Sanford 3.................. .......0 Sanford.

1 Connects Indian River Branch J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 97).
2 Connects Orange Belt Railroad (see p. 70).
3Connects South Florida Railway (see p. 70); and Sanford & -Indan River
Railway (see p. 71).
For continuation of this line north, see p. 97; south, see below and p. 70.

The South Florida Railway, connecting with the J., T.
& K. W. system at a station used in common, has stations as
follows within and near the county :






70 ORANGE COUNTY.

0....Sanford I...... .............124
3....Belair... .... ...................121 N
5,...Lake Mary............... .....119 A
10 ...Longwoo ...................114
13....Altamonte Spring...............111 Dist. fr.
Dist.fr. 15....Maitland .......................109 Port
Sanford. s1.... Winter Park...................106 Tampa.
22.... Orlando ....................102
V 27....Pine Castle....... ........... 97
S 34....McKinnon.................... 90
40 ...Kissimmee4 (Osceola Co.)....... 84
1 Connects J.. T. & K. W. system (p. 69), and Sanford & Indian River Rail-
way (p. 71), and St. John's River steamboats.
SConnects Florida Midland Railway (below).
3 Connects Tavares, Orlando & Atlantic Railway,
4 Connects Kissimmee River steamers.
The Orange Belt Railroad, Monroe to Petersburg on Tampa
Bay, has stations in and adjacent to the county as follows:
0....Monroe '.......................149
2....Sylvan Lake...................147 NE
4 ...Paola ........ .. .... ........145 A
6....IslandLake.....................143
9....Glen Ethel .....................140
11... Groveland .....................138
12....Palm Springs 3.................137
-....Granada .................. .....- Dist. fr.
Dist. fr. 15.... Forest City ...................134 St Peters-
Monroe. 18....Toronto -....................... 131 burg.
20....Lakeville............ ....... 129 rg.
21....Clarcona5 ......................128
24....Millerton.................... ...125
26....Crown Point.................... 123
30....Winter Garden ...............119
V 32....Oakland .................. ...117
SW 34....Killarny ........................l11
39 ...Mohawk (Sumter Co.) .........110
I Connects J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 69).
2 Crosses Sanford & Lake Eustis Branch J., T. & K. W. system.
s Crosses Florida Midland Railway (see below).
4 Connects Tavares, Orlando & Atlantic Railway.
6 Crosses Florida Midland Railway.
For continuation southwest, see p. 87.
The Florida Midland Railway lies wholly within the coun-
ty. Its stations are:
0....Longwood .....................27
3....Palm Springs2 .. ...............24 N
4....Altamonte... ..............23 A
6....Lake Brantly................21
8 ....Fitzville............ ...........19
Dist. fr. 10... East Apopka........ ...........17 Dist.fr
Longwood. 11 .... Apoka3 ...................... 16
15 ....Clrcona ........................ Englewood
18.... Villa Nova... ............. 9
O t....Ooneo ........................... 7
V 21... .Minorville ...................... 6
S 23... Gotha.......... .............. 4
27....Englewood ..................... 0
I Connects J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 69).
2Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see above).
3 Crosses Tavares, Orlando & Atlantic Railway.
4Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see above).





ORANGE COUNTY-OSCEOLA COUNTY. 71

The Sanford & Indian River Railroad (S. F. Ry. system),
is completed to Lake Charm. The stations are:
0....Sanford........................ 19
2....SpeerGrove............. ........17 N
3....FortReed....................... 16 A
3.5 ...Onoro......................... 15.5
4....Silver Lake......... .............15 Dist. fr.
Dist.fr. 5....Rutledge. ...................... 14 Lake
Sanford. 6... Lords....................... 13 Charm.
7.... Clde...... ..................... 12
12....Clifton................... .. 7
V 14... Tuscawilla...................... 5
S M.. (Oviedo,
19.Lake Charm ................



Osceola County.
Area, 2,520 sq. m.-Lat. 27 10' to 285 30' N.-Long. 80 50' to 810 35' W.-
Population (1890), 3,122.-Assessed valuation (1888), $1687,5895.-County seat,
Kissimmee.
Osceola County, named after the famous Seminole Chief,
was formed by act of the State Legislature in 1887, from
parts of Orange and Brevard Counties. A series of largo
lakes, Tohopekaliga, Cypress, Hatcheneka, and Kissimmee,
connected by canals and natural channels, form the head-
waters of the Kissimmee River, flowing southward to Lake
Okeechobee, and thence through the Caloosahatchee River
to the Gulf of Mexico. This whole system of inland water-
courses is navigable to Kissimmee at the head of the chain
of lakes. The surface of the country is generally level or
slightly rolling, with vast tracts of rich, low-lying prairie
land. The soil is especially adapted to the cultivation of
vegetables, which can be brought to perfection, in ordinary
seasons, in January and February.
The latitude of the northern extremity of the countyis 280
30', assuring almost entire freedom from frosts and an abun-
dance of grass for stock-raising during the whole year. A
large number of cattle, sheep, and swine range the woods with-
out shelter, and are rounded up" at stated seasons, afford-
ing one of the most profitable industries of the county.
Large quantities of sugar-cane have been planted on the re-
cently reclaimed lands, with every prospect of a speedy and
bountiful yield.





OSCEOLA COUNTY.


The temperature at Kissimmee rarely rises above 90 in
the summer, -and the natural healthfulness of the locality

S0 "' *R A N G E .e'
IF- ~-'~r- 'w^-f ; -.L-: .-; -I -


D E S 0 T 0


SCALE OF MILES
0 5 10


has been singularly confirmed by the experience of the white
workmen on the dredging machines of the Okeechobee drain-




OSCEOLA COUNTY.


age company. Since 1881 these men have been employed
without intermission, even in summer, and have enjoyed un-
interrupted health. Not a single death had occurred up to
March, 1889, and it had never been necessary to send for a
physician. As the work is carried on in a region usually
supposed to be highly malarial, this record is certainly note-
worthy.
Osceola County is settled only at its northern extremity.
To the south of Lake Tohopekaliga the wilderness is almost
unbroken. Game abounds, and a large part of the region is
accessible in small boats by taking advantage of the creeks
and numerous small lakes that abound throughout this re-
gion.
Within a few years past large drainage operations have
been undertaken under State patronage by the Okeechobee
Drainage Company, which have reclaimed extensive tracts of
land in Osceola County, and bid fair largely to increase the
sugar product of the State.
The South Florida Railway from Orange County on the
north crosses the northwest corner of the county with sta-
tions near and within the boundaries as follow:
S834....McKinnon (Orange Co.).... ......90 N Dist. fr.
Dist. fr. 40 .... Kissimmee..................... 84 A Port
Sanford. V 44....Cambells...................... 80
S ST....Davenport (Polk Co.).............67 Tmpa.
For continuation of this line north, see p. 70; south, see p. 79.




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