• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Foreword
 A trip through the Everglades
 Sugar production in the Evergl...
 The economics of sugar
 Testimony on sugar legislation
 The fruit of the cane
 Advertising
 Back Cover














Group Title: Sugar and the Everglades
Title: Sugar and the Everglades ..
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075629/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sugar and the Everglades ..
Physical Description: 67 p. : illus. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States Sugar Corporation
Publisher: Tyrrel
Place of Publication: (New York
Publication Date: 1941)
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane -- Florida -- Everglades   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: In this booklet ... previous booklets have been revised, brought up to date, and combined.--Foreword.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075629
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01635521
lccn - agr42000323

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    A trip through the Everglades
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 2a
        Page 2b
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 6b
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 12b
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 16b
    Sugar production in the Everglades
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Pages 20-21
        Pages 22
        Pages 23
        Pages 24
        Pages 24a
        Pages 24b
        Pages 25
        Pages 26
        Pages 27
        Pages 28
        Pages 28a
        Pages 28b
        Pages 29
        Pages 30
        Pages 31
        Pages 32
        Pages 32a
        Pages 32b
        Pages 33
        Pages 34
        Pages 34a
        Pages 34b
        Pages 35
        Pages 36
    The economics of sugar
        Pages 37
        Pages 38
        Pages 38a
        Pages 38b
        Pages 39
        Pages 40
        Pages 40a
        Pages 40b
        Pages 41
        Pages 42
        Pages 43
        Pages 44
        Pages 45
        Pages 46
        Pages 46a
        Pages 46b
        Pages 47
        Pages 48
        Pages 49
        Pages 50
        Pages 51
        Pages 52
    Testimony on sugar legislation
        Pages 53
        Pages 54
        Pages 55
        Pages 56
        Pages 57
        Pages 58
        Pages 58a
        Pages 58b
    The fruit of the cane
        Pages 59
        Pages 60
        Pages 61
        Pages 62
        Pages 62a
        Pages 62b
        Pages 63
        Pages 64
        Pages 65
        Pages 66
        Pages 66a
        Pages 66b
        Pages 67
    Advertising
        Pages 68
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

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"The glory of the farmer is
that, in the division of
labors, it is his part to cre-
ate. All trade rests at last
on his primitive activity."
-EMERSON.





















"Tis the farmer's care
That makes the field bear."
-THOMAS FULLER.







oJoreword

In the past there have been distributed to our guests
on the tour of the sugar-house, the largest in the United
States, various booklets about the Everglades and Sugar.
In this booklet-Sugar and the Everglades-previous
booklets have been revised, brought up to date, and
combined.
In the hope the information may be both more inter-
esting and more comprehensive it has been divided into
five chapters, namely:
A Trip Through the Everglades ....... page 1
A short description of that area bordering on
the eastern and southern shores of Lake
Okeechobee.
Sugar Production in the Everglades .... page 17
A detailed but short description of the steps
taken to produce the sugar of industrial and
household use.
/ The Economics of Sugar............. page 37
An outline of the sources of our sugar supply,
the cost, wages and other factors involved.
Testimony on Sugar Legislation....... page 53
A statement of the attitude of the Florida sugar
producers on this much-discussed legislation
relating to a non-surplus farm product.
The Fruit of The Cane ................ page 59
Testimony before the Committee on Migratory
Labor and the solution adopted by the
Corporation.
We hope you have enjoyed your visit and will return
again next year because each year the Everglades unfolds
its story to a greater degree and is never-failing in
interest.
UNITED STATES SUGAR CORPORATION


January 1941








COMPARISON OF RESUL TS OF EIGHTH HARVEST
WITH RESULTS OF FIRST HARVEST
(FIGURES INCLUDE PRODUCTION OF CANE SUPPLIED SUGARHOUSE
BY INDEPENDENT GROWERS-EACH BAG REPRESENTS 1000 TONS OF RAW SUGAR)


HAD THE INCREASED NUMBER OF ACRES YIELDED APPLYING THE SAME AVERAGE RATE OF INCREASED
THE SAME AVERAGE PRODUCTION AS THAT OF THE PRODUCTION TO THE ADDITIONAL ACREAGE SHOWS
1931-32 CROP THE PRODUCTION FROM THE AN INCREASED PRODUCTION OF 17,640 TONS OF RAW
INCREASED ACREAGE WOULD HAVE BEEN ONLY SUGAR DUE TO IMPROVED CANE VARIETIES
14,019 TONS AND BETTER AGRICULTURAL METHODS.



DElDNWW a s 505l
0 ,3 1 19 w 9ElE 19 wommuduoul


1931- 32 PRODUCTION FROM 13,090 ACRES
WAS 23,915 TONS RAW SUGAR, AN AVERAGE
OF I.8 TONS OF RAW SUGAR PER ACRE.





B 8
Ng8N 8 8 BE
0888gg .g85


IMPROVED CANE VARIETIES AND BETTER AGRICULTURAL
METHODS HAVE INCREASED THE AVERAGE YIELD OF RAW
SUGAR PER ACRE FROM lB3 TONS TO 4.11 TONS, SO THAT
FROM THE ORIGINAL 13,090 ACRES A TOTAL PRODUCTION
WAS OBTAINED OF 54,004 TONS, AN INCREASE OF 30,091 TONS.






BOB1agg s11
u0rN 1 9 0 0 9 111
NN NN N


3793Z
TONS OF RAW SUGAR


8B663










A Trip Through the Everglades

The Everglades, vast and mysterious, with constant
allure and fascination for old and young alike, probably
contains more highly productive and extremely fertile
soil than any other area of comparable size in the world.
The land area of the Everglades exceeds four million
acres, the greater part of which has never been placed
under cultivation.
Lake Okeechobee (Indian for "Big Water") is the
largest fresh water lake in the United States with the
exception of Lake Michigan and is the "liquid heart" of
the Everglades. The land around the southerly shore of
Lake Okeechobee is protected by the levees, locks, gates
and other structures erected for the Okeechobee Flood
Control authority by the United States Army Engineers
as part of a cross-State canal for inter-coastal navigation
At all points around the south shore of the Lake will be
seen evidence of the excellent work of our Army Engi-
neers.
)The entire area around the southern rim of the Lake is
under drainage control The Everglades Drainage Dis-
trict constructed the main arterial canals; the subsidiary
canals and laterals, together with necessary pumping
equipment, are the works of various "subdrainage dis-
tricts". Where the landowner has supplemented the
public drainage facilities, as on the sugar plantations,
there is much work in connection with drainage that
cannot be seen. This underground drainage system
consists of a number of "mole drains", on fifteen-foot






centers, which empty the surplus water into field ditches
and hence into "subdrainage" laterals and canals. The
main arterial canals serve as a means of drawing water
off the land that is under cultivation and supplying any
water deficiency, and can also be used to regulate the
height of the water in Lake Okeechobee.
To all who visit the Everglades for the first time it
is more or less surprising to behold the vast flat surface
on all sides and it is only then that the name of the area
is fully appreciated-" EVER GLADE"-as far as one can
see it is ever a flat, grassy meadow or glade. The cause
of the almost universal misconception of the terrain of
the area is the fact that practically all school geographies
contain a picture of the Great Cypress Swamp labeled
"The Everglades".
Since no one can travel in two opposite directions at
one and the same time, it is necessary that the direction
of travel be determined. Traveling from East to West
unfolds the development of the Everglades in a logical
sequence, and for such reason this direction of travel
has been adopted in the descriptions herein.


Port Mayaca
Port Mayaca is situated at the western terminus of the
St. Lucie Canal (the eastern terminus of the Canal is at
Stuart), and to a large extent is the result of the develop-
ment work of one of the pioneering interests in the Ever-
glades. The development, laid out in neat precise rec-
tangles for the purpose of control and ease in operation,
is protected from high winds on all sides by trees brought
into the area for that purpose; a very slight grade or
slope will be noticed in each grove which has been pro-






vided for the purpose of facilitating both surface drain-
age and surface irrigation; pumps, operated by tractor
power, are so located as to serve several groves.
The highway which will be followed from Port Mayaca
to the Canal Point sugar-plantation headquarters is a
portion of what was formerly "The Connors Highway",
at one time a toll road from West Palm Beach to Okee-
chobee City, built by the well-known Great Lakes ship-
ping owner, for whom the road was named. East of the
highway after leaving Port Mayaca is a ridge of fairly
high ground that was under cultivation even before ade-
quate drainage facilities were available; the very excel-
lent small hotel recently built by the same interests as
have developed Port Mayaca will be seen on the way to
the Federal Sugar-cane Breeding Station.

Federal Sugar-cane Station
Just before approaching the town of Canal Point is
located the Federal Sugar-cane Breeding Station. Before
entering this station it is interesting to know that the
sugar-canes that have revived the sugar industry of
Louisiana were developed here. As described else-
where in greater detail, the commercial method of
planting sugar-cane is to plant the cane itself. Today
sugar-cane seed is used only for cross-breeding and de-
velopment of new varieties. To produce seed, sugar-
cane must reach full maturity and it is only in a few
areas of the world where sugar-cane is grown that it will
mature and produce seed. The Everglades is one of those
areas.
After the most extensive, thorough and careful studies
the Federal Government found the Everglades area






ideally suited for the purpose of maturing older canes,
cross-breeding them, and, from this cross-breeding,
inbreeding all the good qualities and eliminating all
the bad qualities of the older canes, thus developing and
propagating new varieties of sugar-cane. It is interesting
to note that long before private capital recognized the
potential possibilities of sugar-cane in the Everglades,
the Federal Government had decided that here was the
ideal location for the development of canes for other
areas. To any thoughtful person the fact that the Federal
Government had found the area ideal for the development
of products for other areas would indicate that it was
the ideal area to produce our own requirements of a
vital necessity-SUGAR.

Wages paid sugar workers in the Everglades are
higher than the average farm wages in the United States
and therefore are higher than wages paid in any other
sugar-producing area in the world, and yet Florida can
produce sugar cheaper than most of the "offshore" sugar-
producing areas that are now granted exclusive and
preferential rights to supply more than 70% of our needs
of this vital necessity.

Canal Point
After leaving the Cane Breeding Station of the Fed-
eral Government we enter the town of Canal Point
which has a most romantic history. Long before the
days of "G men" the Tracy house in Canal Point housed
a band of desperate murderers, bandits and bank
robbers, who brought a reign of terror to the whole of
South Florida, even as late as the third decade of the
present century. The "Ashley Gang" reigned supreme






from 1912 to 1923, with all the trimmings of modern,
present-day gangsters, even including a "Queen of the
Everglades".
Canal Point is the situs of the first commercial sugar-
house in the true Everglades; here is the western ter-
minus of West Palm Beach Canal, the eastern terminus
being in Lake Worth ("Hypoluxo" to the Indians) just
south of the City of West Palm Beach. The building, which
now houses the storeroom and some of the plantation
shops of Eastern Field Division of United States Sugar
Corporation, was formerly a sugar-house having a daily
capacity of 800 tons of cane. How new this entire area is
will be better appreciated when it is stated that Mr. F. E.
Bryant, now Superintendent of Eastern Field Division of
United States Sugar Corporation, brought all the ma-
terials, machinery and equipment for the sugar-house at
Canal Point, erected in the early 1920's, up the West
Palm Beach Canal on flat-bottom, shallow-draft barges
as neither railroad nor highway had, at that time,
penetrated the area.
While visiting the plantation at Canal Point, your
attention will undoubtedly be attracted by the clean, neat,
well-maintained cottages of the field workers as well as
the excellent school, religious and recreational facilities
and store available to them. If time permits a trip to the
cane fields at this point, to see the actual harvesting of
the sugar-cane that will go through the sugar-house at
Clewiston a few hours later, will prove most interesting.

Pahokee-Belle Glade
After leaving Canal Point, going south, around the
Lake, the next town is Pahokee (the original spelling of






which was Payhoiokee, the Indian name for the Ever-
glades) which is one of the several very active shipping
points for fresh green vegetables during the cold winter
months of the northern states when fresh vegetables can
be obtained from only a few sections of the United States.

Not only from here to the State Correction Farm, but
throughout the whole area, attention is directed to the
fertile soil and the excellent crops.

Shortly after passing the State Correction Farm the
traveler reaches Belle Glade. Here, after crossing the
Hillsboro Canal (the eastern terminus of which is just
south of Boca Raton) a left hand turn takes the traveler
to the Everglades Experimental Station of the University
of Florida. Farther along this road are the properties
of Brown Company of Maine. Turning at the bridge close
by the juncture of the Canals, about two miles southeast
of the Experimental Station, is the road to Palm Beach.
The Belle Glade-Pahokee area is one of the most in-
tensively cultivated winter-vegetable areas in the world.
Formerly this was a most prosperous and thriving section
of the State. The Cuban Trade Treaty provides for duty-
free entrance of Cuban vegetables, the same as those
grown in this area, only during that portion of the year
when vegetables are being produced in South Florida;
during the balance of the year, when South Florida is
not producing the same vegetables as Cuba, Cuban
vegetables must pay duty to enter the United States.
Naturally such discrimination has seriously affected the
farmers in this area.

Many of the farmers in the Belle Glade-Pahokee
area, now limited to the production of winter vegetables







in competition with peonage production in foreign coun-
tries, are desirous of an opportunity to diversify their
production and at the same time obtain an assured cash
crop. In an attempt to improve their own situation
through their own efforts, many such farmers joined in
the organization of Florida Cooperative Sugar Associa-
tion for the purpose of erecting a sugar-house to grind
their own sugar-cane and to further such purpose pledged
over 12,000 acres to cane production. Unfortunately the
Federal Government has, so far, denied these American
farmers the right to supply the non-surplus needs of their
fellow Americans.


Experimental Station
A visit should be made to the Everglades Experi-
mental Station of the University of Florida. This Sta-
tion has paid for itself many times over through its
studies of crops suitable for the area and soil studies
which it has conducted. The appearance of the Station,
its neatness and orderliness, is a constant source of inspi-
ration to the farmers of the area to so conduct their
plantations, because these qualities are necessary for
success in all lines of endeavor.
Leaving the Experimental Station the traveler should
retrace his route to Belle Glade and there turn west on the
road to Clewiston. It was in the vicinity of Belle Glade
that the greatest loss of life occurred during the hurricane
of 1928. The Okeechobee Flood Control Works have
made impossible a repetition of such a disaster.
During the trip from Port Mayaca to the University
of Florida Experimental Station the traveler has seen







and, until he leaves the Everglades, will continue to see,
many farms and plantations supplying fresh green
vegetables to the populous industrial centers of our
Nation, when fresh vegetables are available from only a
few sections of the United States. Until the advent of
the present Cuban Trade Treaty all these farms and
plantations were most prosperous; today, many of those
limited to winter vegetables are having a difficult time.

South Bay
Shortly after leaving Belle Glade the traveler will
see on both sides of the highway the South Bay
Plantation of the United States Sugar Corporation.
Here again are seen the neat, orderly and well-main-
tained cottages of the happy, contented plantation
workers.
Along the banks of the North New River Canal is
a new highway that will open up the entire 'Glades area
to the merchants of Miami.
Throughout the plantations, during both the current
and preceding sugar-cane harvests, over 85% of the em-
ployees were employed during preceding harvests. This,
in and of itself, is ample proof that the employees are
well-treated, happy and contented.
It might be well at this point to call attention to
the fact that no employee of the sugar operations is
permitted to be in debt to his employer. Cash wages much
higher than the average farm wage of the United States
are paid and in addition the employee is provided, with-
out cost, with adequate, clean, neat and well-maintained
housing, vegetable garden, free fuel, medical care for






himself and family and education for his children (chil-
dren are not allowed to work in the cane fields), as well
as religious and recreational facilities; in addition Com-
pany stores supply most of the necessities of life on a
cash-and-carry basis, operating substantially at cost.


South Shore and Miami Locks
A few miles beyond South Bay the traveler approaches
the South Shore Plantation and immediately west thereof
the Miami Locks Plantation. At Miami Locks, or, as it is
otherwise known, Lake Harbor, there is a junction of
Florida East Coast and Atlantic Coast Line railroads.
At Lake Harbor is the northern terminus of the Miami
Canal, its southern terminus being close by Hialeah just
north of Miami.

Ritta and Bare Beach
Just east of Clewiston the traveler leaves the main
highway to inspect Ritta Plantation which adjoins Bare
Beach Plantation; looking westward from these planta-
tions a view of the high stacks of the Clewiston sugar-
house can be had.
During the trip there have been seen six of the large
sugar plantations of the Everglades. These plantations
are typical of those throughout the area, with clean, neat,
sanitary, weather-tight homes of the field workers,
churches, schools, recreational facilities, stores, gardens
and other necessities and comforts of life.
Over one-half of the field workers remain on the
plantations throughout the year. During the non-harvest
season these men cultivate the fields, clean and maintain






drainage ditches, and repair the farm roads, bridges,
railroad sidings and other facilities. The peak labor
demand, during the harvest season, is met by giving
employment to many from more northerly plantations,
growing other crops, during their slack season. Thus a
relatively new agricultural development in South Florida
assists in giving year-round employment to those from
more northerly sections who, otherwise, would be un-
employed for a portion of the year.


Engineers' Headquarters
Just before entering the City of Clewiston, on the
right, between the highway and the levee, will be seen
the administrative headquarters and shops of the United
States, Army Engineers for the maintenance of the
Okeechobee Flood Control Works. These control works
consist, in part, of maintaining a cross-State canal from
Stuart on the East Coast to Fort Myers on the Gulf Coast
and, in part, of maintaining works similar to the flood
control works maintained by the Federal Government
along the Mississippi River and its tributaries.

A visit to the levee, at the Industrial Canal, in Clewis-
ton, will well repay the time and effort involved. Here
may be seen a set of the huge hurricane gates that may
be closed during times of threatened storm and thus pre-
sent an unbroken front to the Lake. With the high factor
of safety, calculated by the engineers in the construction
of the levee and hurricane gates, the Everglades should
never again witness the great loss of life experienced in
the past.






City of Clewiston
Before entering Clewiston it is of interest to note that
here is one of the few "custom-made" cities of these
United States, laid out and developed along preconceived
plans. The City was named in honor of one of the leading
citizens of Tampa, Alonzo C. Clewis, Sr.

The Sugar-House
The sugar-house at Clewiston is the largest in the
United States; few in other parts of the world are larger
but none more efficient. It is here that the sugar is ex-
tracted from the sugar-cane grown on the plantations
that have been visited.
At the loading hoists on the plantations the railroad
cane-cars, owned by the Sugar Company, are loaded
from the field wagons. Several times a day Company
locomotives make the rounds of the plantations, dropping
off empty cars and picking up loaded cars for transporta-
tion to the sugar-house. A trip through the sugar-house
under competent and courteous guidance is well worth the
time and effort.

Agricultural Research
To the west of the City, north of Sugarland Highway,
are located the agricultural research laboratories of
United States Sugar Corporation. Here continual ex-
periments are conducted in breeding new cane varieties
and cross-breeding existing types of canes. Here, also,
are tested new crops for the Everglades, many of which
are not grown elsewhere in the United States. After
passing rigid tests at the research laboratories, new canes

11







and new crops are planted in small experimental plots
throughout the area on the various soil types and with
varying soil correctives and adjustments, and with vary-
ing fertilization treatments. Careful records are main-
tained on all these experiments and a wealth of valuable
data is being collected for future use. It is interesting
to note that about a mile southeast of the Clewiston Sugar-
house is the only commercial-size planting of lemon grass
in the United States.
The scope of research undertaken by United States
Sugar Corporation is evidenced in studies of grasses, and
other feed crops for livestock, as well as feeding methods.
Florida is one of the leading states in number of beef-
cattle on range and large cattle ranches abound west and
north of Lake Okeechobee. Much of the cattle now bred
in Florida is sent elsewhere for "finishing" and reshipped
to Florida as roasts and steaks; tremendous savings would
be available to both cattle producers and the consuming
public if full advantage be taken of the lush vegetation
of Florida and the development of local feeds for "finish-
ing". About one mile west of Clewiston are the experi-
mental ranges and feeding pens of United States Sugar
Corporation; here the "good neighbor policy" is being
applied at home, where it will yield the greatest return, as
the results of these experiments are available to all the
cattlemen of Florida.

Clewiston Inn
On Sugarland Highway (Road 25), half way between
West Palm Beach on the East Coast and Fort Myers on
the Gulf Coast, is the Clewiston Inn, a new, modern hotel







of 80 rooms, so built in 1938 as to be fire-, termite-, and
wind-proof. The Inn, of southern-plantation architecture,
is built on three sides of a hollow square, the fourth
side being closed by a one-story, eight-apartment building.
Facing east, so as to receive the full benefit of the
prevailing winds, are deep porches, on the first and
second floors, overlooking the patio, or enclosed garden,
formed by the three hotel wings and the apartment wing.
The west, or front, wing of the Inn overlooks the City
Square and contains the dining room, lobby, and other
public rooms; the south wing, on the highway, contains
the kitchen and other service facilities; the north wing,
overlooking the tennis-courts, contains guest rooms. The
entire second floor is devoted to guest rooms.

The construction of Clewiston Inn is of special interest
as it is the first structure of its kind in South Florida. The
frame is balloon-type, constructed of Bethlehem light-
weight, expanded structural steel. The outer wall con-
sists of fireproof insulating material, with concrete
bricks set about one inch from the insulating material;
the void thus formed is filled with concrete, all firmly
bonded to the frame. The inner wall is plaster on metal
lath. This type of construction gives a "dead-air" space
of four inches in the walls and thus provides exceptional
insulation against the heat of the noon-day sun. Floors
are reinforced concrete. The roof, consisting of a poured,
light-weight, concrete slab, is covered with roofing felt
and asbestos shingles. An air-chamber is provided over
the entire structure, thus adding to the insulation of the
Inn. Circulating air ducts throughout the Inn add
measurably to summer comfort.







The wood trim in the lobby is birds-eye cypress, a
wood of unusual and interesting character. Guest-room
furniture, with the exception of easy-chair, is all-metal.
Dining-room, lobby and porch furniture is wood, rattan
and bamboo.
Clewiston Inn is a year-round hotel and in finish, fur-
nishing and appointments is the most modern in South
Florida and is the equal of the finest metropolitan hotels.
Opened June 2, 1938 it has established a reputation for
excellent food and service.


Sugar Office Building
Built in 1940, this structure embodies the most modern
facilities for the convenience, health and well-being of the
executive and clerical staffs of the Sugar Corporation;
built of hollow tile on steel frame, faced with old brick,
and having reinforced concrete floors, the colonial de-
sign complements Clewiston Inn, which faces the office
building across City Park.
The entrance lobby is panelled in rare black cypress
and has a tiled floor; directly in front of the visitor enter-
ing the lobby is a spiral stairway of excellent line, capped
by a large Palladian window, giving soft lighting effects
to the lobby and corridors; where necessary the rooms
have been accoustically treated. The first floor houses
accounting department and filing rooms in the north wing,
the south wing housing the offices of Clewiston Realty and
Development Corporation, together with purchasing and
personnel departments; on the second floor are engineer-
ing, drainage, transportation and western field offices as
well as the manager's offices, meeting rooms, etc.







West of the office building, on the same lot, is a 26-car
garage, storage rooms and mechanical facilities.

Moore Haven
Moore Haven, 14 miles northwest of Clewiston, on the
Lake, is the eastern terminus of the waterway from Lake
Okeechobee to the Gulf of Mexico; this waterway, using
for most of its course the Caloosahatchee River, has been
canalized in connection with the Okeechobee Flood Con-
trol Works. Moore Haven has suffered much from the
effects of the Cuban Trade Treaty, and could probably
be restored to its former state of prosperity if restrictions
and limitations were removed from the production and
distribution of a non-surplus crop-S U G A R.

West and Northwest
Clewiston is close to the western edge of the true
Everglades. Sugar plantations are located to the west,
immediately adjoining the City, and close to the Lake
toward Moore Haven. West and northwest of Clewiston,
and in a wide arc that covers the lands north of Lake
Okeechobee, are extensive cattle ranches.

Elsewhere
Florida contains much of interest. Almost due north
of Clewiston is the hill country of Florida, including Polk
and Orange counties, the greatest citrus center in the
world. Be sure to see the world-famous winter resorts
on both coasts, the Redlands district, the Tamiami Trail,
the Indian River citrus country, the citrus highlands and
the Bok Tower at Lake Wales, the phosphate mines, the







new tung-oil and slash-pine-paper industries, the lumber-
ing operations, the naval-stores industries, the University
at Gainesville, the Naval Station at Pensacola and the
Overseas Highway extending from the mainland to the
newly rebuilt Key West. All parts of Florida have much
of interest; only the high lights have been touched in this
brief summary.


Everglades sugar is produced under clean sanitary con-
ditions. Assure yourself of clean, healthful, sanitary food.
Insist that the sugar you buy be grown in the United
States.







sugarr Production in the Everglades
A pictorial flow chart of sugar production in the Everglades is shown
on pages 20 and 21 hereof.

Ever since the ceding of the Everglades to Florida by
the Federal Government, iinder the terms of the Swamp
and Overflowed Lands Actof 1850, by which Florida was
obligated to drain and develop the area interest in crops
suitable for that area has been continuous. Due to the
sub-tropical climate of the section, sugar-cane has been one
of the crops toward which great interest has been dis-
played. Owing to the high nitrogen content of the soil,
the almost ideal climatic conditions, the flat terrain and
methods of water control, sugar-cane culture in the Ever-
glades varies from the practices of other cane-growing
countries.
After extensive, thorough and careful studies of the
ideal location for the development of sugar-cane varieties
for cultivation in other areas, the Federal Government
found the Everglades area the most ideally suited for the
purpose of maturing older canes, cross-breeding them,
and, from this cross-breeding, inbreeding all the good
qualities and eliminating all the bad qualities of the older
canes, thus developing and propagating new varieties of
sugar-cane. To every intelligent person the fact that the
Federal Government had found the area ideal for the
development of seed-cane for use in other areas would
indicate that it was the ideal area to produce our own re-
quirements of such a vital necessity of life as SUGAR. Re-
search and experimental work, including the development
of new sugar-cane varieties, are conducted in the Ever-
glades not only by the Federal Government but also by
the State University and private enterprise; the most







extensive work of private enterprise is that conducted
by United States Sugar Corporation.
There are many kinds of sugar-cane, the majority of
which may be regarded as varieties of species hybrids.
Some five true species of Saccharum are now recognized
by botanists, but all the old sugar-canes, originally culti-
vated in the early days, belonged to the so-called "noble"
group or Saccharum officinarum. The cultivated types
such as are grown in the Everglades are distinguished
by a number of features including color of internodes,
shape of buds, earliness of maturity and other char-
acteristics.
The stem, or "cane", of sugar-cane is solid, with joints
at regular intervals, varying with the type or variety of
cane; the stems vary in diameter from one to three inches.
The ground tissue, having fibrous conducting strands run-
ning lengthwise through it, consists of relatively thin-
walled cells almost completely filled with sap, in which is
stored the dissolved cane-sugar manufactured by the
leaves.

Research
A famous scientist once said that if you wished good
health, a strong body and a sound constitution you should
be most careful in the selection of your grandparents.
A stalk of sugar-cane must be even more careful as it
should carefully select its forebears for eight generations.
Being unable to make such selections for itself our
botanists have undertaken such task. Since the estab-
lishment of the three botanical agencies for the develop-
ment of sugar-cane in the Everglades-the Federal Gov-
ernment, the University of Florida Experimental Station
and the agricultural research laboratories of the United
States Sugar Corporation-it is quite probable that up-






wards of half-a-million different crosses, varieties and
strains of sugar-cane have been developed by all three
agencies.
The agricultural research laboratories of the United
States Sugar Corporation have developed more than
150,000 different crosses, varieties and strains of sugar-
cane of which, after exhaustive field tests, less than 100
have been retained as having all or most of the desirable
qualities, or believed to be capable of further cross-
breeding to develop an ideal commercial cane; less than
a dozen of such new canes, a little more than an average
of one a year, have been developed for use as commercial
strains or varieties. Each year United States Sugar Cor-
poration develops many thousand new crosses, strains
and varieties of canes and conducts thereon exhaustive
tests in field plots, always striving to find new canes that
possess all the desirable qualities and, at the same time,
give high tonnage yields in sugar per acre-year. Patholo-
gists in the employ of the Corporation are constantly
studying, and taking protective measures against, plant
diseases; new cane varieties are exposed to determine
those that are susceptible to disease and those so found are
quickly eliminated.
Just as dietitians are constantly striving for improve-
ment in the nutrition of the human race, in the same way
soil chemists in the Everglades are constantly striving
to improve the nutrition of sugar-cane. In addition to
the three elemental necessities of sugar-cane, water, sun-
shine and carbon-dioxide, there are fourteen necessary
nutriments for sugar-cane, the most important chemical
elements of which are nitrogen, potassium and phos-
phorus. Nature has been most kind in the Everglades,
freely supplying, in adequate quantities, the necessary













PREPARING LAND
PREPARING LAND


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20 21






water, sunshine, carbon-dioxide, nitrogen and phos-
phorus; in fact the soil of the Everglades is so rich in
nitrogen that protective measures against soil fires are
necessary. As a result of this high nitrogen content, other
desirable soil conditions and the use of highly adaptable
cane varieties, sugar can be produced in the Everglades
at a lower cost than in the offshore areas guaranteed by
the Sugar Act of 1937 more than 70% of the United States
sugar market, and at the same time pay higher wages
than the average farm wages for the whole United States,
which, in turn, are higher than the farm wages in any
other part of the world.
It has been claimed that, if it were not for the parasites
which destroy the insect pests of our vegetation, within
two years the human race would perish from starvation.
In order to control the insect and other pests, that un-
molested would destroy the sugar-cane, entomologists,
employed by the Corporation, are constantly studying
such pests, the parasites and other means of combating
them, and placing in operation the methods developed
from such studies.
The foregoing methods, studies and operations, con-
ducted by the specialists employed by the Corporation
are the means of selecting the forebears of our present and
future sugar-canes, as well as improving and preserving
them. Much work, study and effort are expended long
before the actual planting of the seed-cane takes place.
The practice of these scientific methods has enabled the
Eveiglades to forge rapidly ahead to a point where the
yields and costs compare favorably with the best in the
world.
In addition to their primary function of breeding new
cane varieties and cross-breeding existing types of sugar-






cane and testing them comparatively with existing com-
mercial varieties, the agricultural research laboratories of
United States Sugar Corporation conduct studies and
tests of new crops for the Everglades, particularly those
which are not grown on a commercial scale in the United
States.


SLand and Its Preparation

The first glimpse of the Everglades is unusually sur-
prising to the visitor. For years many geographies car-
ried a picture of large trees, hanging heavy with Spanish
moss, on the banks of a narrow, sluggish stream, with
numerous repetitions in the background, and the caption
"A Scene in the Everglades". Such picture truthfully
and accurately portrayed the Great Cypress Swamp,
which, although adjacent to, is southwest of the Ever-
glades. The name of the Everglades is itself descriptive
of the area, a glade forever and ever, as far as the eye
can reach.
TThe great, flat, practically treeless expanse that is
the Everglades has been centuries in the making. It is
by far the most fertile area of its size in the world,
more fertile y far than the world-renowned Valley
of the Nili. The Everglades has been built up by the
continuous growth and decay of lush vegetation and
silt carried by the flood waters of the highlands. Lake
Okeechobee, the largest natural body of fresh water en-
tirely within the confines of a single state and, next to
Lake Michigan, the largest body of fresh water in the
United States, is the liquid heart of the Everglades. This
Lake is the receiving basin for the drainage run-off from
a watershed of some 5,300 square miles, extending north-






early through the Kissimmee River Valley to the highland
section of the State of Florida. The lake is circular in
form, being roughly 37 miles long by 31 miles wide, with
a shore line of 135 miles, covering an area of 730 square
miles. The contours of this basin recede from its water
surface to the lake bottom, which lies at exactly mean
sea-level. The waters of this basin originally overflowed
its southern rim, thereby inundating the land area of
some 4,000 square miles to the south, thus forming a
secondary basin within the confines of the sand dunes
and rock reefs which form the borders of the southern
portion of the peninsula of Florida.
An annual rainfall of approximately 55 inches, be-
ing the natural outlet for a drainage shed of over 5,000
square miles to the north, being less than 20 feet above
sea-level and having a slope to the sea considerably less
than that necessary to maintain a gravity flow of surface
water, quite naturally gives rise to problems not met in
other areas but at the same time creates conditions of
extreme value and importance to intensive agricultural
development and operation. Once means are supplied
to assure adequate surface drainage the problem of main-
taining the correct water table is greatly simplified; thus
it may be said that the best practice in the Everglades is
"water control" as differentiated from both drainage
and irrigation.
Drainage of surplus surface waters is through the
arterial canals of Everglades Drainage District, which
comprises some 4,500,000 acres. Localized water control
is provided by so-called "Sub-drainage Districts" by
means of embankments around their exterior boundaries,
to shut out extraneous waters, together with a system of
lateral ditches, spaced at half-mile intervals connecting






with a collecting canal leading to a central point at which
is located a pumping station so equipped as to be capable
of pumping excess water out of the area or pumping water
into the area should the water table fall below its optimum
point. To obtain the greatest value from the water-
control facilities just described the plantation owner must
provide additional facilities, much of which cannot be
seen during a more or less casual visit; such facilities
consist of small, semi-portable pumps for controlling
water supplies within a defined area or section, field
ditches communicating with the laterals of the Sub-
drainage District, and "mole drains" throughout the
plantation. Mole drains get their name from the re-
semblance of the finished work to the hole of a ground
mole; these drains, leading from field ditch to field ditch,
are approximately six inches in diameter, placed on fif-
teen-foot centers about three feet below the surface.
The method of constructing the mole drains is most
interesting and more or less a local procedure. After the
installation of the field ditches already described, an iron
slug, six inches in diameter and of the same general ap-
pearance as the ground mole, fastened to an iron blade,
which in turn is attached to the superstructure of a
tractor-drawn wagon, is inserted in the ground at the
field ditch and thence drawn through the ground to the
next field ditch. The result of this operation is the crea-
tion of a six-inch hole, the walls of which are constructed
of the compacted soil forced to the outer edges of the
hole by the iron mole already described.
Provision of water-control facilities is but one of many
steps in the preparation of the soil for the production of
non-surplus crops for the American market. Long before
the seed-cane is planted the preparation of the land is







begun, much in the same manner that the design and
construction of a house must be finished before it can be
furnished and become a home. The first step is the clear-
ing of the land of all heavy fibrous growth and the
"plowing-under" of all other vegetation; this is followed
by the mole-drainage already described and later by
"gyro-tilling", that is, ploughing the soil to a depth of
some twenty inches with a rotary plow, so as to aerate
completely the soil without altering the "soil-horizons"
and prepare it for the reception of certain mineral and
chemical substances that have been found to increase the
sugar yield in the Everglades. Depending upon the
chemical analysis of the soil, made prior to gyro-tilling,
one or more of certain minerals or chemicals, etc., are
added; these include copper, zinc, sulphur and man-
ganese. During the period of aeration, or shortly there-
after, depending upon the advice of the soil chemist,
potash and, on sandy soils, sulphate of ammonia are
added. After "resting" for a predetermined time the
field is planted.

7J / Planting and Cultivating the Crop
Sugar-cane is a most peculiar type of vegetation; in
some sections of the world it must be replanted after each
cutting, in others (like Louisiana) it must be replanted
after two cuttings, while in others (like Cuba) it has been
known to stand for twenty cuttings. In some areas (like
Louisiana) the growing period is but eight or nine months,
while in others (like Hawaii) the cane must be allowed
to grow almost two years. In the Everglades the cane is
growing and maturing throughout the year, although the
rainy season prevents its harvest during some months;
just how many cuttings can be made from one planting







in the Everglades is not known, but it is known that as
many as twelve cuttings have been made from one plant-
ing. The improved varieties of sugar-cane that have
been developed during recent years in the Everglades
have made it profitable to replant, on the average, once
every four years, although when the ideal cane and cul-
tural methods for the area have been developed, it would
not be surprising if cuttings could be made for upwards
of twenty years.
When the land has been prepared and has had its
"resting period", it is ready for planting and later
cultivation. As sugar is a non-surplus crop, every acre
planted, cultivated and harvested gives employment that
would otherwise be non-existent and thus the national
problem of unemployment is relieved to the extent the
Federal Government permits production of sugar in the
United States and its sale to supply the needs of our own
people.
When ready for planting, furrows are turned on four-
foot centers, any soil amendments the soil chemist finds
necessary are applied and short, four-eye, cuttings of
the best cane available-a healthy parent for a healthy
child-are laid in the furrows so that the end of each
cutting overlaps the next cutting, so as to prevent
gappyy" fields. Sugar-cane seed is used only for breed-
ing purposes, the cane itself being used as "seed" in
planting all fields to be harvested for sugar. After plant-
ing, the fields usually require three, sometimes four, cul-
tivations before the cane "closes-in", thus preventing
the growth of weeds and other unwanted vegetation. The
soil of the Everglades is so rich that numerous "volunteer
growths" assert themselves and the utmost care must be
exercised to keep the cane fields clean.






I.\ The Harvest
When the cane is ready to be harvested the plantation
employees cut the stalk close to the ground, using a special
type of knife designed especially for use in the Everglades.
The cane is then stripped of the top and leaves; the stalk
is cut in four-foot lengths and loaded into "cane wagons",
which are moved to the "loading hoist" where it is
loaded into standard-gauge railroad cars for transporta-
tion to the sugar-house.
Plantations in the Everglades are completely mechan-
ized, power being supplied by tractors instead of draft-
animals. The cane wagons mentioned in the preceding
paragraph are huge baskets, capable of holding five tons
of cane, mounted on crawler-type wheels; these wagons
are handled in "trains" by large tractors, the empty
wagons being "spotted" alongside the cane-cutters and
the loaded wagons hauled to the loading hoist. The
grab lines of the loading hoist lift the entire contents of
a wagon at one time and while transferring the cane to
the railroad car the cane is accurately weighed.
The railroad cars, used for transporting cane from
the fields to the sugar-house in the Everglades, are built
especially for that service and are owned by the sugar-
house operators. A railroad car holds the equivalent of
six cane wagons. Several times a day locomotives make
the rounds of all loading hoists, dropping off empty cars
and picking up the loaded cars for transportation to the
sugar-house. Upon arrival at the sugar-house the loaded
car is spotted on the "waiting siding" and just before it
is emptied the contents are again weighed.
To keep the sugar-house at Clewiston supplied with
cane requires that at least 7,000 tons of cane be harvested







each day, as field employees do not work on Sundays. To
assure this large supply on a continuous basis through-
out the harvest requires efficient work on the part of more
than 4,000 plantation employees.

Plantation Employees
The plantation operations, to keep the Clewiston
Sugar-house supplied with a constantly and continuously
available tonnage, require the efforts of more than 4,000
well-trained, efficient and contented plantation employees.
When it is stated that more than 85% of the employees
during the recent harvest were also on the plantations
during previous harvests it will be appreciated that the
labor turnover is exceptionally low and this factor
becomes even more impressive when it is stated that
over 40% of such employees are on the plantations only
during the harvest season, these temporary employees
returning to other seasonal occupations in the more north-
erly sections of the State and nearby States during the
summer months.
Plantation employees reside in ten villages located
throughout the property of United States Sugar Corpora-
tion and besides clean, sanitary, weather-proof cottages
for the employees and their families, each village contains
accommodations for single employees, office, store, shops
and equipment sheds as well as schools, churches, recrea-
tional and first-aid facilities. Employee hospitals are
maintained at Clewiston on the west and Canal Point on
the east. The plantation villages, actually small towns in
themselves, have attracted much favorable comment from
official and casual visitors not only on their sanitary condi-
tions and attractive appearance but on the many con-
veniences provided.







Homes are provided the family employee rent-free as
are likewise necessary housing accommodations for single
employees. Employees and their families receive medical
care, fuel, ground for vegetable gardens and education
without cost. Stores, operated by the Corporation on a
cash and carry basis, supply all the staple necessities
substantially at cost. Community facilities are provided
for reading, games, recreation and entertainment at each
village. Entertainment and recreation sponsored by the
Corporation include motion pictures, "home talent",
boxing, baseball, football, wrestling and other athletic
pursuits. In both the Eastern and Western Divisions
manual training and domestic science instruction are
available to the children of employees. Choral groups
have been organized on each plantation with competent
instruction guidance and direction supplied at the expense
of the Corporation; several bands have been organized
throughout the properties; both the choral groups and
bands give local performances and occasionally perform
on the radio.
One of the high lights of plantation village life is the
harvest festival at the end of each harvest. Huge open pit
fires are started the day before and steers, pigs and
chickens placed on the barbecue grills for the big day;
pots of Brunswick stew and Burgoo stew are started at the
same time, vegetables are cleaned and cooked, coffee and
lemonade prepared and ice-cream ordered by the truck-
load. Everyone from the plantation overseer to the
youngest child on the plantation prays for good weather.
In the morning are field events-obstacle races, relay
races, sprinting races, broad jumps and high jumps. At
noon, prizes for the athletic events are distributed as are
likewise prizes for length of service, regular work, care of
equipment and other reasons too numerous to mention.







After the prize distribution is the barbecue, followed by
a baseball game in the afternoon and boxing and movies
in the evening. At the recent harvest festival over 20,000
plates of barbecued lunch were served.
In addition to all the perquisites listed, as well as
others, a good harvest employee can earn more than $3.50
per day, six days a week and, subject to certain minimum
requirements as to length of employment, is eligible for
Employees' Participation Plan, the value of which is
indicated by individual participation during recent dis-
tribution in excess of $184. A well-paid, contented work-
ing force makes for efficient operation and explains why
sugar can be produced at lower unit cost in the Ever-
glades, despite the much higher daily wages, than in the
offshore area.
I a Independent Growers
United States Sugar Corporation purchases approxi-
mately 10o of its cane requirements from independent
farmers who operate their plantations along the same
general lines as the Corporation but on a smaller scale.
The cane is purchased in accordance with the Standard
Florida Sugar Cane Purchase Contract with Cooperative
Participation Supplement, under the terms of which the
price of cane is based upon New York price of raw sugar
and sucrose content of the cane, the grower participating
in the profits of the sugar-house under the formula set
fotth in the cooperative supplement; under the terms of
such contract the independent grower receives all the
benefits of cooperative enterprise without the necessity of
providing the required capital. The independent growers
receive, without charge, the benefits of the Corporation's
agricultural research and operating experience, the con-
tract providing that the grower must conduct his opera-
tions in accordance with the best agricultural practices.







Several hundred farmers in the Everglades, hard
pressed by the utterly unfair provisions of the Cuban
Trade Treaty, have expressed a desire either to supply the
United States Sugar Corporation with cane under the
standard form of contract or start a cooperative sugar-
house for themselves. The iniquitous provisions of the
Sugar Act of 1937, which prohibit the American farmer
from supplying the necessities of life to his fellow Ameri-
cans, most effectively and thoroughly prevent the accom-
plishment of such a worth-while purpose, which would
assure such farmers self-respecting, self-supporting live-
lihoods on a high American standard of living.

The Sugar-house
The Clewiston Sugar-house, consisting of cane
crusher, a twenty-one roll tandem, compound clarification
and auxiliary equipment, is the largest raw sugar-house
in the United States, with but few in the world exceeding
it in output and none exceeding it in efficiency of operation.
The sugar-cane is transported from the loading hoists
to the sugar-house in standard-gauge railroad cars, which
pass over # track scale for weighing just before being
emptied. YFrom the scale the car is moved to an
hydraulically-operated tiltng table where, after being
turned partly on its side, fhe contents are emptied onto a
continuous conveyor and rapidly transported to slashing
knives which shred it, and then to the crusher rolls, where
about 60% of the juice is extracted After leaving the
crusher rolls the crushed mass of fibre passes through a
"train" of seven sets of three rollers each, known techni-
cally as a "tandem", in which most of the remaining juice
is extracted. The fibre, or "bagasse"', which remains after
the juice is extracted is burned as fuel under the boilers







to supply the power for operating the sugar-house and
the steam used in the processes. The use of this waste
product for fuel is so efficient that it is usually necessary
to use other fuel only on the first day of the harvest.
From the crusher rolls and "tandem" the juices are
passed through a liming treatment, to correct alkalinity,
and brought to boiling point in juice heaters, after which
the juices are "clarified" in huge continuous clarifiers.
The clarification method in use in the Clewiston Sugar-
house is known as "compound clarification" and as it is
in use in the most efficient raw sugar-houses a brief, non-
technical explanation may be of interest. Juices from the
crusher and first four sets of rolls go to the "primary
clarifier" and thence are passed along for further treat-
ment as described hereinafter; hot water is sprayed on
the fibre mass just ahead of the fifth, sixth and seventh
sets of rolls and the juice extracted at these stations is
passed through the "secondary clarifier" and then
sprayed on the fibre mass just ahead of the first, second,
third and fourth sets of rolls, thence passing to "primary
clarifier" along with the other juice extracted at these
stations. The basic reason for these resaturations of the
fibre is the same as that employed by the reader when he
wishes to dry out a sponge-he will, after each squeeze,
let the sponge reabsorb a quantity of water, less than that
previously expressed, so as to aid in eliminating the water
remaining in the sponge.
From the primary clarifier the juice is passed to the
multiple evaporators, which are operated in series, where
the water is evaporated, and the heavy syrup is then
passed to the vacuum pans. In the vacuum pans the
heavy syrup is boiled to "crystals" or grains and thence
sent to the centrifugals. The "three massecuite system"






is used in the Clewiston Sugar-house ("massecuite"
means "cooked mass"). The syrup from the evapora-
tors is boiled with the purged third sugar and when ready
for purging is known as First Massecuite; molasses
separated from the crystals in the process of purging
is known as First Molasses, which is reboiled with third
sugar as a base and when ready for purging is known
as Second Massecuite; the molasses purged from second
massecuite is called Second Molasses. Second molasses
is boiled with a base of grains that has been formed from
syrup and is known as Third Massecuite when ready for
purging. The results of this final purging are Third
Sugar (the base for the First and Second Massecuites),
and Third, or Final, Molasses, which latter contains all
of the impurities not removed by clarification and filtra-
tion and is the by-product known to the trade as "black-
strap '".
The very heavy massecuite, from the three separate
operations just described, is passed to "centrifugals" in
which the sugar is purged of the various types of molasses
described in the preceding paragraph. This machine is
essentially a perforated drum or basket, quite aptly
likened to the kitchen colander, which revolves at high
speed within an iron casing; the centrifugal force thus
created spins the molasses off the sugar crystals, leaving
the sugar within the basket while the molasses passes into
the iron casing; after being purged from the sugar the
molasses is returned to the operations already described,
as is likewise the sugar from third massecuite; sugar from
first and second massecuites is conveyed to storage hopper.
From the raw-sugar storage hopper the sugar passes
through an automatic weighing device which weighs out
units of 325 pounds each, which are dropped into large






burlap bags, the weight checked, the bags sewed up and
either placed in storage or loaded into box cars for ship-
ment to refinery.

Plantation Machine Shops
As the agricultural operations of United States Sugar
Corporation are completely mechanized, extensive and
well-equipped shops are maintained at Clewiston, with
secondary shops at Canal Point and complete "service
stations" on each plantation. The shops at Clewiston
consist of tractor shop, truck and automobile shop, black-
smith, machine and woodworking shops, capable of main-
taining all the agricultural machinery and equipment in-
cluding railroads, rolling stock and motive power, trucks,
tractors, wagons, sugar extracting and concentrating
machinery and equipment, etc.

Conclusion
Sugar is only Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen, taken
from the air and water, and combined by the action of
sunshine and chlorophyll. To assure a perfect product,
absolute cleanliness and continuous chemical control of
all processes are essential. Sugar being a most necessary
and essential food, it should be produced under clean,
sanitary conditions. Americans have a deep appreciation
of pure, clean, wholesome food; such appreciation is not
shared by those who reside in many foreign countries.
To assure yourself a clean wholesome product, pro-
duced by American citizens, on an American standard of
living, insist that all sugar you buy is refined in the
United States from sugar-cane, or sugar-beets, produced
within the continental confines of the United States.
The American market for the American producer.








THE CONSUMER'S SUGAR DOLLAR.

CONSIDERABLE PUBLIC ATTENTION HAS. FROM TIME TO TIME. BEEN.DIRECTED, BY GOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITIES TO
THE BURDEN IMPOSED ON THE CONSUMER BY DOMESTIC PRODUCTION OF RAW SUGAR MANY OF SUCH STATEMENTS BEING UTTERLY
WITHOUT FOUNDATION IN FACT THE CONSUMER'S DOLLAR SPENT FOR EVERGLADES SUGARIS DISTRIBUTED AS FOLLOWS -
S TO OTHERS rH
rEN5 ____ ^









The Economics of Sugar
Sugar, or sweetening, is of many kinds, the principal
forms being: sucrose, which is the form of sugar we see
most frequently; glucose, an inversion of sucrose; dex-
trose, from corn and other grains; fructose, the sugar of
various fruits; and levulose, from honey and certain
vegetables such as the Jerusalem artichoke. Sucrose is
usually derived from sugar-cane and the sugar-beet,
although it is also obtained in smaller quantities from
sorghum and maple sap. Chemically all sugars are carbo-
hydrates, sucrose containing twelve atoms of carbon,
twenty-two atoms of hydrogen and eleven atoms of
oxygen, the chemical symbol of sucrose being C12H2201,.

History
The beginning of sugar-cane is lost in antiquity, but
it is generally conceded that it was first grown in India.
Legend tells us that many centuries before the
Christian era there lived in India a great and kind Rajah
who desired to experience the joys of heaven while still
on earth and accordingly commanded his chief magician
to create an earthly paradise; after enjoying his para-
dise for many years, he ordered that, upon his death, it
should be destroyed in its entirety-except for its
greatest blessing, which he ordered distributed amongst
his people; thus sugar-cane was left for the enjoyment of
those who followed.
Chinese history mentions sugar about 800 B. C.,
Alexander the Great carried the "honey-bearing reed" to
Europe, the Nestorians planted sugar in Persia in the







sixth century, and during the seventh century sugar was
part of the loot of Heraclius the Byzantine emperor.
With both Arabs and Egyptians sugar was accorded an
important place in their medical science and the Arabs
carried it to Spain during the Moorish invasion. During
the Middle Ages, Venice was the chief center for the
distribution of sugar from the East amongst the Nations
of the West. The search for a shorter route to India
was urged on by the desire for sugar and culminated
in the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.
Taxes on Santo Dominican sugar built the royal palaces
at Madrid and Toledo.
The history of the sugar-beet is just as interesting as
that of the sugar-cane. The sugar-beet is said to have
nourished the builders of the pyramids, but it was not
until the middle of the eighteenth century that Andreas
Marggraf demonstrated that the sugar could be extracted
and crystallized. Not until some fifty years later, during
the wars between England and France, when Napoleon
established the beet-sugar industry, was it on a commer-
cial scale in Europe. The production of beet-sugar in the
United States was first attempted at Philadelphia in
1830. During the last decade of the nineteenth century,
due in large part to encouragement by Federal and State
Governments, beet-sugar culture became important in this
country.
Unlike sugar-cane the sugar-beet is, well adapted to
the cooler sections of the temperate zone and, again unlike
cane-sugar, as ordinarily produced, refined sugar is made
directly from the sugar-beet. Lack of adequate chemical
control in the early beet-sugar houses resulted in a poorer
quality of sugar than was obtained from sugar-cane, but
today, with modern methods and adequate control, the






sugar produced from sugar-beets is equally as good as
that obtained from sugar-cane.
Sugar-cane grows almost exclusively in the tropical
and subtropical belts on both sides of the equator, the
three most essential factors being fertile soil, hot sun-
shine and ample moisture; these factors account for the
extraordinary success achieved in growing sugar-cane in
the Everglades.

Production
Sugar supplies 13% of man's energy and hence is a
most vital food. It is the only vital food which this
country imports to the extent of over 70% of our require-
ments. In recent years the Federal Government has
prohibited the distribution of sugar grown in continental
United States in excess of 28% of our requirements, the
balance of our market being given to foreign countries
and insular possessions.
Much misinformation has been widely spread about
our own production of this vital necessity of life-Sugar.
It has often been said that the continental sugar industry
costs the American sugar consumer $350,000,000 a year-
this is a very false statement. World sugar prices for
many years have been so low that all producers selling
at such prices have sustained losses and yet the Chief
of the Sugar Section of the Agricultural Adjustment
Administration, on August 9, 1937, told the Finance Com-
mittee of the United States Senate that, using world
prices as a base, the excess cost to the American sugar
consumer in 1936 was $313,000,000 and that the benefits
of this excess cost were divided as follows :-$123,000,000
to foreign countries, $100,000,000 to other offshore areas
and $90,000,000 to continental producers.







When we think of the very low standards of living and
the almost total absence of the comforts of life amongst
the people of these foreign countries and other offshore
areas, it seems strange that such very large bounties are
given the sugar producers in these areas and the giving
of such bounties is blamed on continental producers.
Those people who would deprive Americans of their live-
lihood in the production of their own necessities of life,
so that they may exploit labor in other parts of the
world, apparently stop at nothing to accomplish their
sordid ends.

We are often told that the continental sugar producers
are inefficient and have very high costs. These statements
are also false. The only official cost figures that are avail-
able for comparison are based upon studies conducted by
United States Tariff Commission. The table elsewhere
herein shows these costs on the basis of refined sugar,
f. o. b. refinery, for each area. In two years of the eight,
Cuba's costs exceeded the cost of beet-sugar. In only
two years and one year, respectively, were costs of
Hawaii and Puerto Rico as low as the cost of beet-sugar;
Philippine costs are only a trifle less than beet costs.
Florida's costs, not shown in the table, are as low as, if
not lower than, any other area.

When we consider the low wages paid in the foreign
countries it is very surprising that the cost of continental
production (where American wages and standards of liv-
ing prevail) is not very much higher. The fact that con-
tinental costs are lower than costs in our insular posses-
sions is ample proof that the continental producer is the
more efficient.






SUGAR

COST OF PRODUCTION ON REFINED BASIS, INCLUDING INTEREST, F.O.B. REFINERY


1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 1920-21 1921-22


Beet ............... 5.73
Cuba ............... 5.78
Philippines ..........
Puerto Rico ......... 6.55
Hawaii ............. 6.32
Louisiana ........... 7.49


7.50 8.39 8.72 5.51
6.34 11.01 6.06 3.85
Not Available


7.71 11.48
6.93 11.66
9.50 14.73


7.10
7.00
9.69


5.76
6.25
5.55


1929-30 1930-31 1981-32
4.11 4.00 3.67
2.91 2.80 2.51
3.71 3.71 3.19
4.12 4.42 3.76
4.32 4.10 3.89
6.02 5.20 5.17


The foregoing expressed as a percentage of beet-sugar costs shows the
numbers, or percentages:


following index


B eet ...............
Cuba ...............
Philippines ..........
Puerto Rico .........
H awaii .............
Louisiana ...........


100 100
101 85


100 100


131
Not Available


114 103 137
111 92 139
131 127 176


69


82 105
80 113
111 101


100 100 100
71 70 68
90 93 87
100 110 102
105 102 106
146 130 141


NOTE-The data from which this table was constructed are contained in Tariff Commission Report on Sugar 1926,
tables V to X, inclusive, and Tariff Commission Report on Sugar 1934, tables 74 to 76, inclusive.









COMPARISON GROSS FARM INCOME AND FACTORY PAYROLLS


GROSS FARM I INCOME
GROSS FARM INCOME--


PA YROLLS


[ SOURCE OF DATA
Gross Form Income from Agrlcultural Yearbooks.
Factory Payrolls from Biennial Census and Dep. of Lobor Index.
I I I I I I QI i I- I- II I I I I
QN 0, 4 s .
Ol d P ~ Oi Oi4 Oi Oi o i 0 > o i o > o j 0


13

12

I//

/0

3 9
%J

.,
8



S6

5







Fundamentals


Factory Payrolls in the United States closely follow
the trend of Gross Farm Income and for this reason, if
no other, the production of our own food requirements
should be encouraged so as to increase both agricultural
and industrial employment.

The reasons advanced for the necessity of limiting
our own production of our own sugar requirements,
include the claim that our own production, of our own
necessities, limits world trade and thus reduces our agri-
cultural exports. One of the most striking phenomena
disclosed by League of Nations, "World Economic Sur-
vey for 1935/36", is that of world-wide production of
foodstuffs. It states;

"The index of total production in the world as a
whole has not greatly changed in the last eight years.
It stood at 104 in 1928 and was still 104 in 1935, hav-
ing never risen above 106 or fallen below 103 in the
intervening years."

Taking some of the "Indices of World Production
of Foodstuffs", from League of Nations, "Statistical
Year-Book for 1935/36", we find:-

North United
Year World America States
Average for 1925-1929 = 100
1929 ......... 103 ..... 100 ..... 91
1932 ......... 104 ..... 100 ..... 96
1933 ......... 106 ..... 101 ..... 68
1934 ......... 106 ..... 105 ..... 66
1935 ......... 104 ..... 90 ..... 76







Thus while we were reducing our production of food-
stuffs to two-thirds and three-quarters of the average for
1925-1929 the rest of the world was producing more than
in the base period and trying, with a greater or lesser
degree of success, to sell their surplus to us. The statis-
tics clearly disclose a continuing and growing trend to
self-sufficiency in food supplies on the part of all other
geographical divisions of the world. The expansion of
agricultural production in industrial Europe was very
marked.
As other nations succeed in their justified attempts
to become self-sufficient in necessary food requirements,
it is but natural that international trade will shrink and
in such shrinkage we, in turn, will lose our export markets
for foodstuffs. The greater the success others have in
supplying their own food, the more we will be thrown
back to supplying our own needs; in this process it
will become more and more necessary for us to find em-
ployment for our own people, through the development of
our own resources, in the production of that which we
formerly imported.
Turning from agriculture to industrial production and
employment, as disclosed by League of Nations, we find:-

Production Employment
United United
Year World States World States
Base 1929 = 100
1932 ......... 69 .... 53 .... 78 .... 61
1933 ......... 78 .... 64 .... 80 .... 66
1934 ......... 85 .... 66 .... 89 .... 75
1935 ......... 95 .... 75 .... 92 .... 78






CUBA.
DOLLARS OF IMPORTS PER DOLLAR OF EXPORTS

53! ~2 Z 2 R 'Z % 18 ?; ?

s ; ss 5 .; t ; a c a a s s s a s ii s


__






















SIBE RIA.


CHINA.


INDIA.


SCALE OFMILES.


THE PHILIPPINES AND ASIA







Here again we very thoughtfully reduced both our
production and our employment below that of the world
as a whole so as to give others the opportunity of taking
our place in the world markets.

Offshore Areas
The United States Department of Commerce states
that the reciprocal-trade-agreement and sugar-quota leg-
islation were of great benefit to Cuba. A study of trade
figures between Cuba and the United States fully supports
such statement. Cuba is becoming more and more self-
contained insofar as necessary agricultural products are
concerned; in fact, Cuba is now exporting products for-
merly imported from the United States. Cuba, who under
the Sugar Act of 1937 is guaranteed more than 28% of
our sugar market, and under the Cuban Trade Treaty is
accorded preferential treatment on her fruit and veg-
etable production in direct competition with South
Florida's production of the same commodities, is gradu-
ally withdrawing from our markets for her needs.
The Philippine Commonwealth, under the Sugar Act
of 1937, is guaranteed over 15% of our sugar market
together with duty free access to our markets not only
for her sugar but for many other products directly
competitive with our own farmers. In return for these
exceptional privileges the Filipino makes his purchases
from other Asiatic countries producing on a coolie-
standard-of-living.
Puerto Rico and Hawaii, under the Sugar Act of 1937,
are guaranteed exclusive rights to their home market
and an exclusive right to 26% of our market.
The Federal Government, under the Sugar Act of
1937, prohibits Florida from filling her own sugar-bowl.







AUTOMOBILES PER THOUSAND PERSONS

I


CUBA


PUERTO PHILIPPINE
RICO. ISLANDS.


200


/00


FLORIDA






RADIOS PER THOUSAND PERSONS.


FLORIDA


CUBA


PUERTO PHIL/PPINE
RICO. ISLANDS.


/50


/00 ----


50 ----







Employment
The purchase of our necessities of life, such as sugar,
from foreign countries and insular possessions, prevents
many Americans from obtaining employment in the pro-
duction of our own necessities, and also prevents a great
number of other Americans from obtaining employment
in supplying the comforts of life to those Americans who
would, otherwise, be producing our necessities of life.
In Florida there is an automobile for every 5 persons,
in Puerto Rico only one for every 130 persons, in Cuba
one for every 230 persons and in the Philippines only one
automobile for every 490 persons. Think of the increased
number of automobiles that might be sold if we produced
all of our sugar requirements.
In Florida there is a radio for every 7 persons, in
Cuba one for every 48 persons, in Puerto Rico one for
every 100 persons and in the Philippines only one for
every 608 persons. Think of the increased number of
radios that might be sold if we produced all of our sugar
requirements.
When we stop to think of the great increase in number
of automobiles and radios and other necessities and
comforts of life that would be sold, thus creating em-
ployment for hundreds of thousands of persons now
unemployed, we are bound to believe and follow that
sound doctrine established by the founders of this great
Nation-The American Market for the American Producer.







SUGAR PRODUCTION IN THE EVERGLADES


Tons of
96 Bags of
Tons of Yield Tons of Raw Sugar
Tons 96* Percent Cane Sugar Days in (325
of Raw Sugar Per Per Harvest Pounds Polari-
Harvest Cane Sugar in Cane Acre Acre Season Each) nation

1928-29 12,969 745 5.83 } 94.12
1929-30 202,011 14,468 7.16 Information not available. 96.90
1930-31 351,051 26,645 7.62 97.14
S 1931-32 292,228 23,913 8.11 22.53 1.83 108 145,691 97.17
- 1932-33 410,882 36,501 8.89 34.31 3.04 137 221,000 97.59
1933-34 452,797 40,184 8.91 34.90 3.05 135 244,682 97.33
1934-35* 350,742 25,791 7.35 29.02 2.14 93 157,192 97.27
1935-36 451,369 39,268 8.72 35.55 3.09 115 238,057 97.76
1936-37 529,156 48,736 9.21 35.29 3.24 132 295,170 97.71
1937-38 582,834 53,246 9.13 35.02 3.09 138 322,361 97.74
1938-39 805,455 85,663 10.66 38.56 4.11 174 519,372 97.73

Beginning of governmental prohibition of, and limitation on, the production
and distribution of our own sugar requirements.











"The standard of living of the
sugarcane workers employed by
the United States Sugar Corpora-
tion is higher than the standard of
most other agricultural workers in
the continental area. The seasonal
migration of cane labor to Florida
does not appear to present any
problems except possibly that of
controlling the supply so that the
maximum amount of employment
is available for the year round
workers and for those who are em-
ployed only during harvesting.
On the whole sugarcane
workers in Florida constitute a
relatively privileged class of agri-
cultural workers."
-OTIs E. MULLIKEN, Chief,
Labor Section of Sugar
Division, United States De-
partment of Agriculture,
before Civil Liberties
Committee, United States
Senate.







EXCERPTS
From Testimony of Clarence R. Bitting Presented on
Behalf of the
FLORIDA SUGAR PRODUCERS
And Those Who Desire to Produce Sugar in Florida
Before a Special Subcommittee of The Committee on
Agriculture-House of Representatives-March
18 and 19, 1937

During his testimony at hearings on proposed sugar
legislation Mr. Bitting recommended:
1-There should be no restriction on continental pro-
duction of a vital food of which we now import
75% of our requirements.
2-There should be no tax imposed on a vital food
necessity of our people.
3-Benefit payments should be reduced and made only
to operators of family-size farms.

In support of these recommendations Mr. Bitting ap-
peared before the Special Subcommittee of The Commit-
tee on Agriculture-House of Representatives, on March
18 and 19, 1937. Excerpts from his testimony on these
days follow:


As Secretary Wallace has so well said, "Whatever
limits farm production limits farm employment." This
proposed legislation is, on its face, a limitation on con-
tinental farm production and thus, in turn, on continental
farm employment.







We are much concerned with finding means and
methods of relieving the burden of unemployment and
yet by this proposed legislation Congress would definitely
limit the opportunities available to Amercan farm work-
ers, particularly in finding employment.
How can we find employment for our people if the
Government insists that 70 percent of our needs be sup-
plied by alien people, having a much lower standard of
living ?



We, of Florida, desire to record our objection to the
limitation, in any way whatsoever, of the right of con-
tinental Americans to supply their own essential food
requirements.
We desire to record our objection to any limitation on,
or prohibition of, the right of Americans to produce their
own necessities of life.
We desire to record our objection to the limitation of
production to less than 30 percent of our requirements
of a necessary foodstuff, considered by our Army and
Navy as a critical wartime material.
We desire to record our objection to the American
housewife being placed in such a position as may compel
her again to pay five times the fair price for a vital food
when and if continental supplies may be exhausted.
We desire to record our objection to the imposition of
a tax, by any name, that is essentially a sales tax, upon
the food requirements of our fellow citizens. On March
4, our good President stated that one-third of the Nation
was ill-nourished. A tax on food will only increase the






THE AMERICAN SUGAR MARKET


THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES,THE HIGH-WAGE,LOW-COST PRODUCING
AREA.IS LIMITED TO LESS THAN IOF THE AMERICAN MARKET.
FLORIDA IS NOT PERMITTED TO FILL HER OWN SUGAR BOWL.







proportion of our people who are undernourished and
will inexcusably raise the cost of living for the rest of us.
We desire to record our objection to a sales tax, or its
equivalent, on any foodstuff. It seems more or less alarm-
ing to me that special interests should start putting a
wedge in here taxing foodstuff. Where are you going to
stop If they get away with a tax on sugar, then the man
producing bread has a right to come in here and get a
special tax. Butter, milk, and meat the same.


We desire to record our objection to legislation that
legalizes a raid, by special interests, on the Public
Treasury, even if, as this legislation provides, we are
entitled to membership in the raiding party.
The limitation on continental production to less than
30 percent of the continental requirements of a non-
surplus crop, and the distribution of gifts from the Public
Treasury for refraining from such production, may
logically be followed by the prohibition of production, and
the granting of gifts from the Public Treasury for re-
fraining from the production of all other necessities and
comforts of life.
If, to assist him to get back on his feet, financially and
otherwise, it is either necessary or desirable to grant
special consideration and favors to the farmer who tills
his own soil with the aid of his own immediate family
and not more than one hired man, all well and good. No
person, or persons, will more quickly and freely grant
that aid to the individual, independent farmer, the back-
bone of our national welfare, than the cane-sugar pro-
ducers of the Everglades. We do not, and will not, object







to such payments to operators of a family-size farm-a
farm operated by the producer, his family, and not more
than one employee. But 2,000 tons, or even 1,000 tons, of
sugar cannot be produced on such a farm.
The justice in, and necessity of, aiding that great body
of individual, independent farmers, operating family-
size farms, should not be used as a smoke-screen to pay
public funds to, and thus increase the profits of, employers
of large numbers of farm workers, whether those workers
be classified as share-croppers, tenant-farmers, adherent
planters, adherent farmers, or as plain farm labor. The
agriculturist who finds it necessary to employ a number
of assistants, either on a permanent or temporary basis
should, like the general storekeeper, so arrange his affairs
as to be able to operate without gifts from the Federal
Government.


It has been said that the per capital consumption of
sugar is often an index of the standards of living. If the
rest of the world had the same high standards of living
as continental United States, and thus as high a per cap-
ita consumption of sugar, the annual sugar requirement
would be more than three times the greatest production
the world has ever known.


All of the purposes sought to be attained by the pro-
posed legislation can be much more simply and surely
obtained without taxing food out of the mouths of our
people and without legalizing a raid on the Public Treas-
ury, while at the same time increasing employment in both
agriculture and industry, through unlimited continental







sugar production and provision for any balance required
being supplied by those areas which maintain living stand-
ards equal to those in continental United States.


Florida producers cannot agree to any restriction to
an amount less than the amount the State is capable of
producing. Florida can produce sugar at a cost which
compares very favorably with that of Cuba and still pay
higher than average American farm wages.
If Florida be prohibited from producing sugar to
meet the requirements of the American consumer, then
Florida sugar producers would rather see no bill what-
ever and a termination of all sugar legislation. If Florida
be not permitted to produce sugar on its fertile lands,
ideally adapted to that culture, to employ American labor,
and, in so doing, to meet the requirements of the American
market, let us put sugar on the free list and let foreign
countries, such as Java, have our market. The suspense
of those now supplying the American market with Amer-
ican products will be ended that much sooner. The "'shot
in the arm" to the sugar-producing industry of this coun-
try, so thoroughly discussed in 1934, would then be
promptly administered.
*









The Jruit of the Cane

During the course of her testimony before Committee Investigating Inter-
state Migration of Destitute Citizens, Mrs. Boosevelt praised the work of the
operators of sugar plantations in the Everglades. Such committee had
previously requested the president of United States Sugar Corporation to
present his views on the subject under investigation. Mr. Bitting appeared
before the Committee at Montgomery, Alabama on August 14, 1940. Abstracts
from Mr. Bitting's statement follow.



If our Nation is to endure, people are entitled to,
and must have, certain basic things. These basic things
are both spiritual and material. Man lives not by bread
alone. Every man wants the satisfaction of performing
a useful and worth-while service in exchange for the
things he needs or desires; he also wants the pleasures
of making a secure home and of rearing a family; self-
respect requires that he provide his family with all the
necessities and some of the fundamental comforts of life;
he needs congenial companions, an outlet for religious
aspirations, and availability of education and recreation;
all these things produce spiritual and mental satisfac-
tion. On the material side there are also basic needs;
these are fundamental if we are to have a healthy, happy
people; such needs include housing that will keep out the
weather, clothing that will protect his family, proper and
adequate food to keep them healthy, sanitary and medical
facilities to ward off disease, and facilities for religious
worship, education, recreation and companionship. These
are all simple and basic needs; to produce satisfactory
living they need be neither elaborate nor expensive.






The basic phenomena of interstate migration of
destitute citizens have been present since colonial days.
Poverty, wanderlust, love of adventure, restlessness, and
resistance to restraint, as well as the search for the pot
of gold at the end of the rainbow, have all combined
to cause the migrations which opened the country from
the Atlantic to the Pacific. Closely allied with such
migrations and often a part of them was the itinerant
worker. The itinerant worker is probably as old as
mankind. In colonial days we had itinerant cobblers,
blacksmiths, tinsmiths, clockmakers, tool grinders and
others; during the Middle Ages they had the wandering
minstrel.
Interstate migration of our people in search of health,
recreation, adventure, or the hope of improving their
economic condition is not something new, nor is it some-
thing inherently evil. Our forefathers faced hardship
and suffering during their migrations when this conti-
nent was opened to civilization. The evils in migrations
of our people in search of employment have become
aggravated during the past decade by reason of absence
of homesteading lands as well as unusual economic and
social conditions forced upon them, but the evils, hard-
ships and sufferings' are not generally as deplorable as
the overdrawn picture used as a background for recent
inexcusable widespread retailing of dirt, smut and de-
pravity.



The problem of migratory, seasonal agricultural
workers is bound up in the solution of all our economic
problems, both industrial and agricultural, but more







immediate relief will undoubtedly be found in a solution
of our agricultural problem. For years and years we
have talked farm relief and we have legislated farm
relief; in recent years we have spent billions for farm
relief. Based upon remarks of those in authority, the
farm papers, the heads of farm organizations, and mem-
bers of Congress, we are further away from realistic
relief for our farmers than ever before. Surely such a
condition indicates we have been on the wrong course.
Perhaps we have substituted words for thoughts and in
so doing the words have been worn smooth because the
thoughts expressed are worn empty.

Our agricultural economists have completely and
utterly failed our farmers; instead of finding ways and
means to cure the problems causing migrations of desti-
tute farm families, they have apparently wandered over
the earth with their heads in Olympian clouds. To illus-
trate, permit me to quote from one of the papers pre-
sented at the annual meeting of The American Farm
Economic Association held at Philadelphia, December
27, 28 and 29, 1939. "Part of the income from farm-
ing to the small owner-farmer, is the opportunity to
accumulate through investing spare-time family labor in
clearing land, fencing, construction or improvement of
buildings." That statement probably sounded deliciously
nice when read in the cozy warmth and luxury of a big
city hotel on a cold, wintry day. The starry-eyed, long-
haired, flowing-tied idealist could have been extremely
helpful had he described how the trash from the cleared
land could be served as a delicious and nourishing meal
to a growing family; how the fencing could be used to
replace the worn-out tire on the tractor or car; how the







building improvements could be made into attractive and
serviceable clothing for the family; and how all the left-
overs could be used for cash to pay the hired man.



The question has been raised at various times as to
the reason for the excellent cottages furnished rent
free to field workers and their families. The answer is
simple. The asbestos shingle used for siding is not only
weather-proof and fire-resistant but is also relatively
inexpensive to maintain and to keep clean and fresh
looking; a good, substantial roof adds to weather-tight
qualities; screens make life more healthy and more com-
fortable. It is poor economy to use shacks for housing
employees; the field worker and his family who reside in a
good house are healthy and happy; illness is common-
place in shacky construction; thus two shacks are neces-
sary to house two ill, miserable and unhappy families, as
against one well-built cottage to house one healthy, happy
family; the well-built cottage costs no more, if as much,
as two shacks, the total labor requirement on the planta-
tion is less, and those employed, by reason of steady earn-
ings, can enjoy a much higher living standard. As we
rebuilt the plantation villages the uplift in morale was
quite apparent; the workers and their families took more
pride in the appearance of their homes and gardens; they
were personally cleaner and wore cleaner and better
clothes. All these things combine to make better work-
men, and good workers are one of the secrets of success.
In practically every village, school buildings have been
furnished by the Corporation to the local school boards;
in the few villages where schools have not been provided







Company transportation is furnished to carry the children
to the school in the next adjoining village. As the colored
teachers are accorded the status of a Company employee
insofar as perquisites are concerned we have been able to
attract college graduates as teachers; domestic science is
a required study for girls and extension courses are
given for the older women; some of the schools now have
manual training courses for the older boys and our plans
contemplate extension of this training to all village
schools; the manual training courses were an experiment
during the past year and have proved very successful.
We insist that all children in Company villages attend
school; children have never been permitted to work on
the Company's operations. Choral groups and bands,
amongst both children and adults, are encouraged, the
Corporation supplying both instruments and instruction.




Recreation and opportunity for companionship are
important elements of life in a plantation village. Movies
and home-talent entertainment are regular features;
plantation boxing and inter-plantation bouts are also
regular features which often take the entire population
of a village on a visit to another village; inter-plantation
baseball and football leagues make Sunday afternoons a
joyous occasion throughout the property. Pool, checkers,
dominoes and the bridge experts help to while away rainy
afternoons. The village choral societies, of mixed voices,
are establishing an enviable reputation for their render-
ing of Negro Spirituals. The religious instincts of the
employees and their families are given full opportunity
to develop.

63







The harvest celebration, or barbecue day, is the big
event of the year. On this day, following the close of
the harvest, the many and varied prizes are awarded.
Prizes include those for length of service, daily turn-out
for work, care of equipment, best record in various and
sundry instances, etc., etc. Athletic events are held on
this day and numerous prizes are awarded in connec-
tion therewith. So that everyone may have a chance on
some prizes the payroll numbers of all employees are
placed in a huge box, a number of prizes set aside, and
as the number is called the lucky employee takes his choice
of prizes on the table. The big event of the day is the
barbecue, usually personally cooked by the plantation
overseer. On last barbecue day more than 22,000 plates of
lunch were served on all the plantations; glasses of lemon-
ade and dishes of ice-cream exceeded this number by
far, so the suspicion exists that repeaters showed up for
these items.
The cash wages received by workers on sugar planta-
tions in Florida are but a part of their compensation, as
they also receive, without any charge whatsoever, the use
of a well-built, weather-tight, sanitary cottage; fuel;
running water; outside laundry facilities; space for vege-
table and flower gardens; medical care and hospitaliza-
tion for employees and members of their families, except
medical care and hospitalization for "social accidents";
churches, schools and community facilities built and main-
tained by the Corporation in each plantation village;
wholesome entertainment and recreation for workers and
members of their families, conducted by experienced and
capable persons employed by the Corporation solely for
such work; modern and clean stores conveniently located
in each plantation village where the staple needs of the







family may be secured substantially at cost, on a cash
and carry basis, but complete and total absence of compul-
sion upon employees to trade in such stores; full protec-
tion and benefits of the State Compensation Statutes to
which the Corporation voluntarily subjected itself; par-
ticipation in wage dividend fund and eligibility to win
a number of valuable annual prizes. In addition to all
these valuable perquisites the average cash wage of
harvest workers during the past harvest was well over
$2.00 per day; the better workers exceeding $3.00 in
cash per day. The day is nine hours over-all, which means
less than eight hours actual working time.
S* *

The detailed explanation of employee relationship has
so far dealt exclusively with colored employees because
approximately 90% of the employees are negroes. The
white employees, mostly skilled mechanics, time-keepers,
foremen, store-keepers, overseers and clerical force also
receive their full share of attention. The center of their
social life is the Clewiston Inn; they have their own bar-
becue day at the sugar-house, with dancing in the evening;
the Clewiston baseball team plays throughout South
Florida, and the Sugarland Band, consisting of Company
employees, has long since ceased to fear radio-broad-
casting.
Another group closely allied to our operation consists
of independent farmers having part of their acreage
planted to sugar-cane and holding contracts for sale of
such cane to the Corporation. The price paid for cane
is determined by its sugar content and the quoted price
for raw sugar. These independent growers have full
access to our research and development work and freely

65


A







call upon our various experts for advice, counsel and
guidance. In smaller groups, whose operations are con-
tiguous, these farmers cooperate in the purchase and use
of the more expensive units of equipment. Under the
methods just outlined these independent farmers have
all the advantages of large-scale operation and, as a
result, they are consistent money-makers.


It is fundamental that neither agriculture nor indus-
try can long continue to pay out more than comes in.
Agriculture quite justly claims it cannot pay better wages
or give greater employment because of short seasons and
the existing relationship of prices and costs. Until and
unless these conditions are corrected there is little hope
for ending destitution and migration amongst our agri-
cultural population.


It might be well to direct attention to possible
injury from over extension of a plan fathered by some
persons deeply interested in the welfare of our agricul-
tural population. There are many share-croppers and
tenants who do not have either the ability or the desire
to operate their own property; these people would be
much better off as farm workers on a large operating unit
conducted along lines similar to sugar production in the
Everglades. We all know numerous laborers, croppers
and tenants upon whom would be perpetrated a most
ghastly joke if they were set upon a farm of their own
through government assistance; the tragedy would not
only be disillusionment and discouragement, but even
worse,-human failure.
*







If encouragement, either tacit or otherwise, is to be
given other countries to usurp our foreign markets and,
at the same time, we are prohibited from supplying our
own needs, in favor of the produce of foreign peonage
or worse, the outlook for our people is dark, dull and
dismal, as destitution is bound to increase. A realistic
approach to our own problems, for the benefit of our own
people, means a future for our country greater and better
than anything ever witnessed in the world.
In closing my statement I cannot resist the temptation
to direct attention to a most glaring, unjust and unfair
accusation made against the South. For years the South
has borne the cost of educating her youth, only upon
maturity to find them grabbed by the industrial, com-
mercial and financial North and East; this condition has
placed an unfair educational burden upon most Southern
states; in addition it has prevented the South's utilizing
the genius, ability and capability which she cradled and
fostered. The South has the most abundant supply of two
of the three essentials for plant life-rainfall and sun-
shine; she has an adequacy of the third essential-soil.
Every agency but nature has apparently combined to stifle
the resources and capabilities of the South; we, in the
Everglades, have shown that the highest standards of
living in agriculture can be maintained in the South;
we are sure this same condition can be proved in indus-
try; we are satisfied that once equality with the rest of
the Nation can be obtained, the South will forge rapidly
to the lead. Most emphatically the South is not a prob-
lem, economic or otherwise, to the Nation, unless such
problem be to find ways and means of continuing her
subjection.




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