Group Title: Saint Augustine, Florida : Sketches of its history, objects of interest, and advantages as a resort for health and recreation.
Title: Saint Augustine, Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075626/00001
 Material Information
Title: Saint Augustine, Florida Sketches of its history, objects of interest, and advantages as a resort for health and recreation
Physical Description: 62 p. : ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Yelverton, Thâeráese, 1832?-1881
Publisher: G.P. Putnam & son St. Augustine, E. S. Carr etc., etc.
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1869
 Subjects
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: governmental publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: By an English visitor. With notes for northern tourists on St. John's River, etc.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075626
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01571898
lccn - 01013468

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SAINT AUGUSTINE,



FLORIDA.






SKETCHES OF ITS HISTORY, OBJECTS OF INTEREST, AND
ADVANTAGES AS A RESORT FOR HEALTH
AND RECREATION.

.* .. : ." ....
..- .* ..-
S *, C *


. .' BY Aj I S :IT R. .*
* .." .. ....

/'h^A 7 .y;- 1 ,; i


WITH NOTES FOR NOTIIERN TOURISTS ON ST. JOHN'S
RIVER, ETO.






PRINTED FOR
E. S. CARR, St. Augustine--C. DREW & CO., Jacksonville, Fla.
NEW YORK:
G. P. PUTNAM & SON.
1869.










THIS VOLUME HAS BEEN
REVIEWED
FOR PRESERVATION

Date:S




.-. ": .*" : i-.-. ..
*.*, :.; .* .* .:
** ifered according to Act of Congress, in the yeat 1%8,bh
*'.'*.* B ,QA .* .
. JI Clerk's Offic Oft6 I Astylct.CofrtotheaUnited States fbtre.*
*E utahein.'Dlstriet vf'ie Y fk. .,









THE TROW & SMITI
BOOK MANUFACTURING COMPANY,
46, 48, 50 oGRENE ST., N. Y.




THIS VOLUME HAS BEEN
REVIEWED
FOR PRESERVATION.

Date:-^


SAINT AUGUSTINE.

A SKETCH BY AN ENGLISH VISITOR.

SAINT AUGUSTINE, the most ancient town of
North America, is situated in Florida, upon a
narrow slip of land formed by the St. Johns river
on the one side and the ocean upon the other.
Florida was discovered in 1512 by Ponce de
Leon, a companion of Columbus; one of the en-
terprising adventurers of the sixteenth century.
At that period, when the love of the marvel-
lous still held its sway equally over the lettered
as over the untutored mind, there was a story
prevalent, that away north beyond the West In-
dian Islands there was a land of Elysium, rich
with fruits and flowers, and possessing a river in
whose waters flowed the Elixir of Life, conferring
perpetual youth and beauty on whomsoever
should lave in or drink of them. Inspired by
this brilliant legend, and in hopes of making a
discovery which should far outreach that of Co-
lumbus, Ponce de Leon set sail from Porto Rico,
and coming in sight of the Peninsula of Florida,
and landing near the present site of St. Augus-
tine in April, it is no wonder he believed he had
realized the fable of the promised land in this







4 SAINT AUGUSTIINE.

Elysium of constantly renewed bliss of youth
and beauty. For nothing could look more like a
paradise than Florida in April. Then he beheld
it bathed in balmy light, redolent in fruit, flowers,
and sunshine. Not only flowers, shrubs, and un-
dergrowth by millions were in bloom, but the
very forest trees fill the air with the fragrance of
their blossoms. The palmetto spreads its fanlike
leaves to waft the breeze, the date palm waves
its majestic plumes in the translucent blue air,
and the feathery acacia and chaporell tremble to
the gentle kiss of wooing zephyrs.
The magnolia reflects the glowing sunshine
upon its glossy leaves and contrasts its creamlike
flowers with the radiant scarlet of the pome-
granate. The golden oranges hang in tempt-
ing clusters among their fresh green leaves, while
here and there peep out their scented blossoms.
The lilies, in their grace and purity, as of old,
put to shame "Solomon in all his glory:"
sleeping on the placid water, cushioned on
velvet leaves, or dancing in the air highly sus-
pended on their spiral stems, or humbly hiding in
mossy nooks and fairy dells; then appearing as
Sthe imperial oriflamme, the Fleur de Lis of France,
clothed in royal purple or gorgeous as the scarlet
trumpet lily, dazzling with its glory.
Not only the lilies bloom perennially in this
discovered land of Ponce de Lcon; the eglantine,
in its tender embrace of all whom it can reach, the








SAINT AUGUSTINE. 6

rose, the verbena, and jessamine entwine their
fragrance and their foliage. The vine clings with
delicate tendrils round every projecting rugged
trunk that.needs a shade.
The best loved West Wind sighs through
the pine barrens with a sweet and hallowed
tone, like the voices of our loved and lost ones
whispering us from the Spirit Land. The red-
bird radiates prisms of light from his flaming
wing, and when the heavens, which are always
blue, are bespangled with stars, the air is filled
with showers of fire-flies dashing to and fro like
brilliant heavenly messengers, skimming and
floating on the vast expanse of ethereal vault. If
they are not angels, Ponce de Leon might have
taken them for such, bearing to earth glad tidings
from their celestial home above, illuminating the
orange-groves; lighting up the dark cypress and
ancient cedars, hung with sepulchral moss, as
though the wood nymphs and forest sprites were
holding high carnival. All this and more than
this of beauty that pen fails to describe, Ponce
de Leon must have beheld when he landed in
Florida in April. It may be seen to this day by
every visitor to this enchanting spot.
He might easily have pictured in the semi-
lake-like waters of the St. Johns river the reali-
zation of his day dream, the Elixir of Life.
Flowing soft and silvery through bankless
flats of luxuriant foliage, draped with the funereal








SAINT AUGUSTINE.


moss hanging from the evergreen oak, or the
pine and orange alternate laving in its brim:
now spreading out to a placid lake where the
stately pelican floats at lonely leisure-anon clos-
ing in to the limits of a stream, every leaf and
spray reflected in its clear bosom, and the pink
crane in solemn meditation. The waters, having
a soft, sweet taste, might well have been mistaken
by Ponce de Leon for Elixir, and doubtless he
drank it by the quart in the true American fashion.
But alas! the proof of the pudding was in the
eating, or drinking in this case: he grew neither
young nor handsome. Quisa ? as the natives say,
if this may not be the original cause of the great
quantity of water consumed by Americans: even
now they grow not younger, but considerably
yellower; for quarts of ice water and pounds of
hot bread would destroy the beauty of Venus
herself.
Thus Ponce de Leon became disgusted
with his paradise, and finding the native Indians
fierce and implacable, he returned to Spain a dis-
appointed man.
In his hopes and aspirations he was fol-
lowed by other Spaniards, Narvaez and De Soto.
But the first permanent settlement was effected
by the French in the reign of Charles the
Ninth, after the Saint Bartholomew and during
the Coligny troubles.
The Huguenots obtained permission to exile







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


to America, where they are still traceable in some
of the Southern States, who, nevertheless, in
their own hour of discord and disunion, did not
allow those who dissented to retire, but rather to
force them by pains and penalties to succumb to
the new established order of affairs. So true it is
that those who have been oppressed are ever the
first to turn oppressors. And this fact should act
as a warning in the present emancipation of slaves.
The French had scarcely enjoyed the results
of their freedom and their labors in building
a fort near Saint Augustine, when Menendez,
the Spanish commander arrived from Spain, with
powers to take possession of Florida and govern
it in the king's name. He surprised the Hu-
guenots by night, and entered the fort during a
heavy thunder-storm. They, never anticipating
any attack save by sea, had left their fort on the
land side almost unguarded, and were most of
them butchered in their sleep. Some few escaped
into the woods, but were eventually obliged by
famine to surrender. They were given their
choice to renounce their faith or meet their death.
They unanimously chose the martyr's fate, and
were butchered in cold blood, "Dying as their
fathers died, for the faith their foes denied."
Their exile, toil, and labor had not saved them
from the fate of Coligny; they had flown from
their homes in France only to rush into the jaws
of Spanish Inquisitors,







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


The escutcheon of Menendez, the great Span-
ish commander, is traced in blood, and the foun-
dation-stone of Saint Augustine which he laid is
saturated with the gore of these brave and un-
daunted victims to religious tyranny and persecu-
tion.
Blood having been so cruelly spilt at the bap-
tism as it were of Saint Augustine, seems to have
flowed freely through its walls and towers for three
centuries of its history. For it has been watered
with its own blood from its very birth to its
hoary age, more than any city on this continent.
It has suffered more ravages of fire, sword, and
famine than any other city, and its inhabitants
have acknowledged more foreign rulers and
various flags than any other city.
It is necessary to bear this in mind in form-
ing any opinion of the present occupants of
Saint Augustine. Indeed, in coming to any
ethnological, metaphysical or moral conclusion as
to American character, it is essential to note the
various causes which have tended to populate
this vast and magnificent country.
It is not a country that has been conquered or
overrun by a stronger people. The native Indians
have retired before the white man, leaving little
trace behind. From the earliest date we find it
the sanctum of those brave men driven from
their homes by persecution-of the Huguenots,
who had sealed their belief with their heart's







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


blood. The dauntless followers of Ribault, the
first settlers of this little colony, were the heroic
victims of another St. Bartholomew. Historians
disagree about the number who fell, but it was
doubtless fiom three to four hundred.
Religious and political persecution at home,
have both tended to establish this great Nation
more than any other cause.
But for that, the Pilgrim Fathers would never
have landed on the wild New England shore, nor
the gallant Cavalier, South Carolina and Virginia.
Nor would the Irish and Germans have found
their way to the prairies of the West, save for
political persecution at home.
The penal laws against the Irish in the last
and beginning of the present century, have been
a prolific cause of immigration, and have done
more to depopulate Ireland and colonize Western
America than any other cause.
But where a man lives under a ban and is
branded for his religious or political opinions for
years; where the future is robbed of those ra-
diant tints which so dazzle and delight in our
forward gaze, which make anticipation the secret
charm of our existence, the guiding star and lead-
ing magnate which drives us on to exertion,
stronger effort and enterprise-when hope folds
her wings and sits brooding under the spurning
feet of persecution-the human heart casts abroad
in search of a spot where it may be free; free to







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


expand and glory in its thoughts and aspirations;
free to worship in a temple or on the mountain-
top. Such a spot was found in the benignant
continent of America. She lay with her fair wide
bosom open to take in all who mourned and were
afflicted. To gather them in her genial embrace,
and make them welcome to her fold. The per-
secuted patriot, loving his country more than his
own happiness, borne down in his zeal to stem
the purple tide of tyranny and usurpation; the
religious enthusiast, braving the faggot and in-
strument of torture for a conscientious principle
of faith, and bidding defiance to inquisitors and
hell's power to pain, rather than relinquish the
right to worship from his heart's pure inspiration;
the woe-begone Irish mother, with her brood of
starvelings; the sullen father, whose spirit is
nigh crushed to bitterness and evil from the long
weight of his wrongs; the timid young girl, whose
early lines of beauty are mingled with those of
care-all come trooping with eager steps to the
Land of the Free. To the land of corn, and fruits
and flowers. To the land of every clime, of every
sky; every temperature for every race. To all
who are overburdened and oppressed she extends
her snowy arms from the tops of her giant Rocky
Mountains, and steps out on her Californian feet,
clad in sandals of gold, to give them welcome.
She spreads her flower-enamelled lap over vast
prairies to the weary and worn; and the shelter







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


of her pine forests to each and every one. God's
mercy goeth not out of reach, and his dew falls
on the feverish eyelids of those who weep.
To the toilsome, patiently enduring German,
driven at last to bay by tyrannical exaction on
his down-trodden liberty, she offers her glowing
homesteads, with independent, healthful labor-
her waving corn-fields and lowing kine, wood
and water in reach of every hand; her seas, hav-
ing a thousand miles of coast, cast up their ma-
rine fruits and store with prodigal munificence.
Beautiful, generous land, offering every gift
to man that man's heart can rightly desire.
Surely Ponce de Leon might have been satisfied
with his portion of the discovery.
Such, however, is human nature. He had set
his affections upon a particular object, viz., youth
and beauty a perpetuetM; and not realizing that,
all the rest seemed unavailing to satisfy this
craving.
The same thing happens to this day on the
same spot, where the sweet and bitter orange
still abound. The fig, peach, lemon, and pome-
granate refresh the eye, and cool the palate.
Northern travellers are grumbling every day
because they cannot procure dirty tap-water, and
purchase lake ice.. Ice-water is an American
mania, an anti-hydrophobia sort of disease; and
it is quite certain, if there is not a good sup-
ply of ice-water in heaven, they will all peti-







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


tion St. Peter to be allowed to return to New
York.
They all repined because Wenham Lake ice
could not be raised in Florida; every other
growth was in vain. Ponce de Leon being dis-
gusted because the water did not perpetuate
youth and beauty, was yet less unreasonable than
these Northern travellers.
Hence youth and beauty d perpetuetM, can not
be offered as one of the productions of Florida.
Nevertheless, we can, on the authority of the
historian from whom we have obtained the dates
and facts relating to this portion of the country,
go so far as to state that at the period of the
evacuation by the Spaniards, numbers of the in-
habitants left the city who were over one hun-
dred years of age; and there still lives in the
town of St. Augustine a negro who is said to be
one hundred and eighteen.
Apropos of beauty, where all nature is so
lovely, it would be an anomaly for human nature
to form an exception.
As regards all those adjuncts which make our
exterior life enjoyable, Florida abounds. in a
larger share than any climate I have visited;
and St. Augustine, with her cool sea breeze and
cloudless sun, is doubtless the Eden of Florida.
Had Ponce de Leon only had the good fortune,
like his great forefather, to espy an Eve mirror-
ing herself in the blue waters of the bay, and







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


enamored of the reflection, he would no doubt
have followed suit and not only proclaimed it a
paradise but inhabited by Peris. So it is that
" Man never is but always to be blest." He, find-
ing the Indian squaws the reverse of Venuses, and
the men more like unto Mars, returned, we are told,
disconsolate to Spain. In 1580, shortly after the
death of Menendez, St. Augustine was attacked
by the celebrated English Admiral, Sir Francis
Drake. But after some ineffectual attempts to dis-
lodge the Spaniards from the fortifications which
they had established there, he abandoned the siege,
and sailed on his voyage.
About this period, the Franciscan missionaries
came to this country, with the purpose of Chris-
tianizing the natives. They settled in St. Augus-
tine, where they built the first church at the In-
dian village of Talmato, where the burying-ground
remains to the present time, most interesting to
visit, from the old Spanish tombs which remain
almost perfect. They are constructed of the
Coquina stone or shell, and bear a strong resem-
blance to some of the Egyptian sarcophagi or
stone coffins. Some of them were cut out from
a solid piece, the lid consisting of a large slab.
Some were put together in slabs and partly buried
in the earth. It is also interesting as the site of
the first martyr to religious zeal, the first Fran-
ciscan monk. This order, the rivals of the Jesuits,
in pioneering Christianity and civilization, were







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


indefatigable in their endeavors to civilize the
Indians, and for some time apparently succeeded.
But there seems to be something in the nature of
the red men of the forest which bids defiance both
to religion and cultivation, and is incompatible
with either.
Three centuries have now well nigh elapsed,
of continued effort; but the Indian tribes remain
as wild and primitive as the trees of their own
forests.
It was in vain that the Padre Corpa, the fore-
most of the missionary band, rejoiced in the con-
version of one of the chiefs with all his tribe.
Having dared to lecture his new convert
upon the unchristian number of his wives, his
doom was passed. He was barbarously murder-
ed at the foot of his own altar, as he was prepar-
ing to celebrated mass, by the chief and his tribe,
the devoted Padre stipulating in his sublime
agony only for sufficient time to perform the ser-
vice, which was accorded, his executioners lying
around whilst he prayed for their forgiveness for
the last time, and gloating over their prey like
famished wolves, and glaring upon him with the
eyes of the hyena. No sooner was the service con-
cluded and he turned to give them his benedic-
tion, than they rushed up him and tore him limb
from limb, his head being the only portion of him
ever found by his brethren.
This act alone was in' itself a startling proof







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


that no sentiment of Christianity had ever enter-
ed their savage breasts and in all probability
never would. ,The spirit of Christianity is in-
comprehensible to them.
The devoted missionaries, however, were not
of this opinion. They steadily pursued their sa-
cred calling, building over twenty churches and
mission-houses through Florida. Their head
house, the Franciscan Convent, is now the hand-
somest building in St. Augustine, having been
renovated and turned into a barrack fbr the
Union troops. It is still claimed as the property
of the Church, and the matter is one of intermin-
able litigation. The next handsomest building is
the Convent of the Sisters of Mercy, which has
recently been erected. The castle or fort, the
most picturesque, was built in 1620, principally by
the forced labor of the Indians, who, for sixty
years, were compelled to work as servants to the
Spaniards. This is more than the Americans have
ever been able to make them do, even for them-
selves; for the Indians consider it an indignity to
labor; and, up to the present day, neither argu-
ment, persuasive or forcible, has had the effect of
inducing them to live otherwise than in the com-
plete simplicity of unsophisticated nature. They
will neither construct nor provide for the future.
They will live upon the produce of the land, as
provided by nature, and upon the animals which
come within their power to destroy for food.







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


Any thing which we call improvement and culti-
vation, they are averse to; and when pressed upon
them, they retire further and further back to their
fastnesses and mountains, but cannot be brought
to adopt the ideas of the white man, or amalgamate
with him in social intercourse. These were the
primitive inhabitants of St. Augustine, then under
the name of Talmato, when the Spaniards first took
possession.
In 1665, the town of St. Augustine was again
besieged and captured, in spite of the castle and
fort, which was then octagon and flanked by
round towers, still in existence.
This time the unfortunate little town was cap-
tured and destroyed by an English buccaneer,
cruising upon his own account, in search of booty
and adventure.
Upon these occasions, which appear to have
been not unfrequent at poor St. Augustine, it was
the custom of the inhabitants to retire into the
fortress, carrying with them all their household
goods which were portable, and leaving the town
to the mercy of the invaders, or, in other words,
to be ransacked and destroyed. It would there-
fore be. difficult to determine at what precise pe-
riod any particular part of St. Augustine was
built.
After the retiring of the buccaneer, the un-
happy inhabitants were beset by the sea on the
other side, against whose encroachments they were







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


obliged to build a sea-wall, the remains of which
are still visible on Bay-street, much within the
limits of the present one, constructed at a much
later date, and now the fashionable promenade,
being about four feet broad, and extending the
whole way from the fort to the barracks-a dis-
tance of more than a mile. Admitting only of
two abreast, it is naturally the favorite resort of
lovers, who thus enjoy the sea-air and the pic-
turesque little bay.
In 1681, the famous "Friend," William Penn,
obtained, from Charles II. of England, a grant of
land in Florida, which he strove to colonize-
it is to be hoped, from his principles and char-
acter-by other means than by fire or sword, like
most of the colonizers of this period. He did not
interfere with St. Augustine.
But in 1702, England being at war with Spain,
the colonies seized this opportunity to have another
skirmish with little Spanish St. Augustine. The
English, under Governor Moore, once more took
possession of the town, driving the inhabitants
into the fortress, which resisted the attack of the
enemy. After remaining and devastating the place
for a month, they were frightened away by the
appearance, in the offing, of two ships, which they
mistook for Spanish men-of-war. They at once
prepared to decamp, and marched overland to
Charleston, a distance of three hundred miles,
burning all that was combustible before leaving.







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


The vicissitudes of the picturesque little town
seem, about 1712, to have been varied by a
famine, owing to the non-arrival of the vessels
from Spain, carrying the usual supplies upon
which they depended for their support. So that,
after one hundred years' settlement, they were
still unable to supply themselves with the neces-
saries of life, in a land abounding in fish, fowl,
game, fruit, and vegetables. Still stranger to re-
late, at the present time, a century and a half
later, almost every thing is supplied from the
north, and northern energy and capital furnish
much that is produced on the spot.
Spaniards were never good colonizers, and
rarely did more than simply stagnate upon the
country they took by conquest or otherwise.
The dolce far niente is still prevalent in St. Au-
gustine to the present time; and, having once
had their orange-groves destroyed by some acci-
dental frost, which had lost its way and come
there, they consider this a sufficient reason for
never planting or grafting any more. But war's
waste and ravages were not at an end for St. Au-
gustine, and seem never to have been; for at
the period of the late war of Secession, she had to
change hands three times.
In 1725, a party under Col. Palmer, from Char-
leston, made another incursion-the town falling
a prey. They burned, killed, and destroyed, and
then departed. Again, eight years later, Ogle-







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


thorpe laid siege to the place in regular form,
planting his batteries upon the island ofAnastasia,
and bombarding both fort and town therefrom.
This was the most formidable siege which St.
Augustine had ever sustained, and it lasted several
months-the enemy having at length to retire,
leaving the fort uncaptured. Previous to this, the
fort had been put in a thorough state of defence.
The ramparts had been heightened, bomb-proof
vaults constructed, entrenchments thrown up, and
ravelins projected. The fort then presented a
formidable appearance, and, although upon a
small scale, it was considered as impregnable as
any in Europe. Events realized this supposition;
for although Gen. Oglethorpe was considered one
of the greatest commanders of that day, and
although he displayed great talent and perseve-
rance, sparing no expense or effort, the fort, then
called San Juan, withstood him, and although sub-
jected to more than a score of attacks, it never
once yielded or fell into the hands of its besiegers.
With the exception of again laying the town in
ruins, and nearly starving out the garrison and
inhabitants refuged in the fort, amounting to
2,500, Gen. Oglethorpe was no more successful
than his predecessors, and had finally to abandon
his position.
In spite of this failure, he with true British
pertinacity made a detour by land, some two
years later, and appearing with a large army







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


before the fort, with drums beating and flags
flying, dared the garrison to come out and give
battle. The Spaniards, believing "discretion to
be the better part of valor," and choosing to leave
well alone, declined the challenge: and the
haughty general had ignominiously to walk back
again to Charleston. Reflection would doubtless
come, on the 300 mile road, for British foot was
never set within the brave little fort until it was
ceded by treaty in 1763.
Slavery, even at this early period, was showing
itself the apple of discord of this distracted land.
The excuse or pretext for these continual attacks
was the accusation that the Spaniards inveigled
and retained slaves belonging to the British, and
they stormed the place with a view of recovering
them. Slavery was also the. actual cause of the
long Floridian war which desolated the country
for so many years. And Slavery has, alas, del-
uged not only Florida but the whole of this fail
continent in blood. Pray heaven that this hydra-
headed monster in this last great struggle has
bled itself to death. Its history in peace or war
is written in human blood, not alone of the soldier
who perished at his post, to enforce barbarous
laws, or the wild Indian dyeing with his heart's
blood the green leaves of his hummuck, but of
helpless woman, screeching out her sad story un-
der the lash of the tyrant. One breathes more
freely this delicious air, to know that these atro-







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


cities are at an end for ever; to believe that the
worm corroding at the heart of the fairest land of
God's creation is destroyed; that the great skele-
ton looming over her youthful beauty has crum-
bled to ashes, and that now she may ripen to
maturity and perfection.
It is only just to say that Florida and St.
Augustine prospered more under the 20 years
which followed of British possession and rule,
than she had done in the two hundred years of
their predecessors.
The exports in indigo and turpentine rose to
forty and fifty thousand pounds yearly.
There was no question now of starving to
death in a land of plenty, as had been the case
under the Spaniards. Barely, however, had the
English obtained peaceable possession, and St. Au-
gustine began to prosper, before the Declaration
of American Independence took place, and placed
them at daggers drawn with the United States;
and the town was again made the point (dappui
for the British forces against the American, and
it was still her destiny to be kept in a state of
trouble and warfare.
1784 saw this province of Florida re-ceded
to Spain in pursuance of treaty between the two
countries.
The singular mixture of the inhabitants at
this time, and the strange confounding of tongues,
must somewhat have resembled Babel. English,







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


Spanish, French, American, Indian, African,
must have formed a curiously heterogeneous com-
pound-a real pot-pourri of nationality.
Until 1812 the country continued to be har-
assed by the Americans constantly yearning for
more territory. The King of Spain came to the
sage conclusion "que le jeu ne vallait pas la
chandelle," that the colony cost more than it
was worth. He sold it to the United States for
so many millions of dollars.

PRESENT CONDITION.
Saint Augustine is therefore interesting to the
moralist from its many and varied vicissitudes.
To the antiquary from its antique remains of old
Spanish customs and characteristics-its narrow
streets, projecting balconies nearly reaching across
and forming a constant shade-its verandas and
remains of ancient porticos. The old Catholic
Cathedral, with its quaint Moorish belfry and
chime of bells, which, if properly played, as in
the ancient days, would produce melodious sounds
enough, but which now send forth the frequent
call to prayer by being rattled with a stick. The
Angelus, which is kept up in Saint Augustine, as
in all Catholic countries, where the touching an-
nouncement of the Angel is softly pealed three
times a day, is here rattled out. If the Angelus
Domini was as uproarious as at St. Augustine, the
Virgin would not have cared for a second visit.







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


On Sunday the Episcopalians, who have their
pretty little semi-Gothic church on the opposite
side of the square, are brought to a summary stand-
still in their devotion. The minister has usually
arrived at the peroration of his sermon when the
rub-a-dub-dub commences in the Cathedral. The
congregation cannot hear another syllable to save
their souls, and the ringing or rattling continues
often for half an hour.
The fort is of course the chief object of interest
in Saint Angustine, especially by moonlight, and
there is not a more picturesque place anywhere.
Like Melrose, it may be said, "Who would see
Fort Marion right, should view it by the fair moon-
light." Few spots are more mysteriously ro-
mantic. The fort was built to command both
land and sea, with round towers at each corner;
cannon mounted on the walls and ramparts. It
is built entirely of the Coquina stone-a geologi-
cal marvel in itself. It is formed of a concrete of
small shells which centuries have massed together,
forming a hard rock, but in which each shell is
perfectly distinct and visible and sometimes com-
plete as though they had been tightly glued to-
gether but yesterday. The whole structure, upon
close examination, resembles one of those toy
shell castles we purchase for children at seaports.
Geologists and conchologists can probably deter-
mine how many centuries it has taken to amalga-
mate these myriads of tiny shells into one solid








SAINT AUGUSTINE.


peer through the branches, or see the brushwood
and undergrowth crushing under his agile spring,
or hear his war-whoop echoing through the oak
thickets.
The story of Coacouchee, as detailed by Gen-
eral Sprague, in his history of the Floridian War,
is full of interest and poetry.
He was the son of a great chief called King
Philip, and was thus an hereditary chief; added
to which, he possessed in his own person all the
requisites and qualifications of a great Indian
leader. Shrewd, active, daring, and enduring,
he was enabled to exercise commanding sway
over his tribe, and appears to have won somewhat
of the respect of his enemies. War to him was a
pastime, and he delighted in the excitement as a
hunter in the pursuit of game. Often when pur-
sued to a deep swamp, he would turn and laugh,
and jeer his pursuers, floundering with their arms
and accoutrements through the mud and water,
and enjoyed the sight of their disasters, whilst his
own lithe figure skimmed easily through. He
was as fleet as a deer, and as strong and fierce as a
wolf. HIe was about twenty-eight years of age,
slight im person, above the middle height, with a
countenance bright, intelligent, playful, and attrac-
tive. After many hair-breadth escapes, and won-
derful feats in flood and field, he was taken in the
.manner described, and confined in the fort, from
whence he effected his escape as described, and







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


succeeded in giving his captors a good deal of
trouble after that. When he was again captured
and brought into camp, he was informed that his
liberty would only be restored to him upon his
consent to immigrate with all his tribe to Arkan-
sas. That he must send for his family, and all his
warriors, who would be conveyed on the ship with
him. (Iron manacles were placed upon him to im-
press him with the futility of any attempt to es-
cape) and to urge him to influence his own and
other tribes to depart. For a time these irons
seemed to eat into the very soul of the warrior,
and deprive him of any spirit; his haggard and
ghastly countenance bespoke the secret suffering
of the wild animal caught in a trap; for to be
chained, is the deepest degradation which can be-
fall the free limbs of an Indian. Death in the open
field, would be regarded as a boon in comparison.
But by judicious talk and argument, he was finally
brought to understand that his future in Arkansas
would be free, and even more brilliant than in
Florida, and that, as his own destiny in that direc-
tion was inevitable, he ought to encourage the
other chiefs and tribes to join him. In these views
he at length coincided, and messengers were sent
bearing his authority to bring in the other chiefs,
the women and children. He divested himself of
his last and only garment, and sent it to his broth-
er, with his earnest entreaties to yield himself, and
spare him any longer the degradation of his chains.







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


The persuasiveness of this appeal could not be
refused; the greater part of his people came in.
The meeting between the tribe and their chief,
was touching in the extreme.
As this is not a history of the Florida war, but
a sketch of St. Augustine, it may be sufficient to
mention that Coacouchee did emigrate, with a
number of the warriors of his tribe, which once
more left St. Augustine in peace.
When his irons were struck off, and he once
more stood a free man, upon the vessel lying in
Tampico bay, ready to bear him to his new home
in Arkansas, he stood on the gangway gazing
intently, and with lingering regret, on the loved
land his foot might never press, on the land of his
birth, the haunts of his childhood, the graves of
his fathers. As the vessel heaved her anchor and
put to sea, two large tears filled his dark eyes, and
rolled down his bronzed cheeks. "I have taken
farewell," he exclaimed, "of the last tree of my
own land.'"
The existence of a Great Spirit was acknow-
ledged by Coacouchee and by all Indians, and
honored most devoutly by festivals, games, and
dances, and medicine making. To this Great
Spirit they believed themselves accountable for
, their acts.
Coacouchee's dream, as related to General
Sprague, is full of the highest sentiment of poetry
and spiritualized love and tenderness, which







SAINT AUGUSTINE. 33

proves that the Indian, amidst all his ferocity, has
yet a soul for high-toned chivalry, which has made
him the hero of song and story. They were very
opposite from the black race, who are neither
graceful, symmetrical, handsome, simple or mod-
est, and lacking all the dignity which marks the
Indian chief-the picturesqueness and simplicity.
The blacks are rather inclined to the ludicrous
than the sublime. Coacouchee's story ran thus:
"The day and manner of my death," he says,
are given out, so that whatever I may encounter
I fear nothing. The Spirits of the Seminoles
protect me, and the spirit of my twin sister,
who died many years ago, watches over me.
When I am laid in the earth I shall go to live
with her. She died suddenly. I was out on a
bear-hunt, and when seated by my camp-fire
alone, I heard a strange noise, a voice that told
me to go to her. The camp was some distance
off, but I took my rifle and started) The night
was dark and gloomy; the wolves howled about
me. As I went from hummuck, sounds came
often to my ear. I thought she was speaking to
me. At daylight I reached the camp. She was
dead I sat down alone, and in the long gray
moss hanging from the trees I heard strange
sounds again. I felt myself moving, and went
above into a new country where all was bright
and beautiful. I saw clear water ponds, rivers,
and prairies upon which the sun never set. All







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


was green; the grass grew high, and the deer
stood in the midst looking at me. I then saw a
small white cloud approaching, and when just be-
fore me, out of it came my twin sister, dressed in
white and covered with bright silver ornaments;
her long black hair, which I had often braided, fell
down her back. She clasped me round the neck
and said, 'Coacouchee! Coacouchee!' I shook
with fear. I knew her voice, but could not speak.
With one hand she gave me a string of white
beads, in the other she held a cup sparkling with
pure water. As I drank she sang the peace song
of the Seminoles and danced round me. She had
silver bells on her feet, which made a loud, sweet
noise. Taking from her bosom something, she
laid it before me, when a bright blaze streamed
above us. She took me by the hand and said,
'All here is peace !' I wanted to ask for others,
but she shook her head, stepped into the cloud,
and was gone. All was silent. I felt myself
sinking until I reached the earth, when I met my
brother Chilka. He had been seeking me, and
was alarmed at my absence."
Coacouchee fondly believed in the reality of this
vision. He declares that he lost the white beads "
in the St. Augustine prison-chamber. It is a pity
they cannot be shown as trophies at the present
time.
His subsequent history was not unworthy of
his previous career.







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


The same officer who had struck off his chains
at Tampa Bay and seen him safely landed in his
new home in Arkansas, chanced, in the course of
his duty years afterward, to be quartered upon
the Mexican frontier.
One morning, happening to look out from his
tent at day break, he was astonished and some-
what alarmed to see a cloud in the distance which
looked like a body of armed men; the sun's first
rays caught the glitter of steel. Summoning his
orderly, the officer rode to the crest of a hill,
in order to obtain a better view of the enemy, if
such it was. Here he saw a single horseman ad-
vancing bearing a white flag. This man stated
that his commander wished for an interview with
the General. Presently who should ride up but
the Indian warrior chief Coacouchee. He was
partly, but only partly, transformed into a Mexi-
can officer. He had commenced his habiliments
from the top; he had donned a plumed hat and
military full-dress long-tailed coat, with sword
and epaulettes. Then he considered he had con-
decended far enough to civilization, and the rest
of his person was still in the natural "state of
the red Indian."
Poor Coacouchee as Burns said of Cutter
Sark's garment,"


"Though in longitude t'was sorely scanty,
It was his best, and he was vaunty."







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


IIe met his old enemy and friend with af-
fectionate welcome, and upon equal terms, for he
was decorated with the insignia of a Colonel in
the Mexican service.
lie seemed delighted to prove to his former
captor that he was a great chief in spite of those
irons.they had placed upon him, and pointed to
the band of warriors under his command with
exultation and pride.

AS A WINTER RESORT,
St. Augustine is one of the most eligible and
attractive places within the limits of the United
States, especially for certain classes of invalids
needing a mild and genial climate.
The air is ever balmy, yet fresh and bracing,
there being more or less wind every day, and devoid
of that moist, oppressive heat which visitors find
so enervating upon the river. There is a large bath-
house built out in the bay for the accommodation of
guests, and is quite a rendezvous for young ladies in
the evenings, which are always cool, and, we might
almost say, always moonlight. But the fact is,
that the very smallest portion of moon, which in
other climates we should fail to notice, here gives
so brilliant a light that it is really light two-thirds
of the month. Save on the Bay of Naples I never
saw the moon appear so large. The planet Venus
was unusually large and brilliant, with a pale halo
round it, giving a light as though it were fast







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


growing up a young moon itself. It is no wonder
that swimming in these silvered blue waters be-
comes the favorite fashion of the belles of Augus-
tine, and there are few cities which can boast of
a fairer display of beauty. Being for the most
part of Spanish descent, they retain something of
the dark, flashing eye and much of the grace of
carriage; they are also particularly neat dressers,
and among the older ladies the practice of wear-
ing black veils over the head is still prevalent, and
also the inevitable fan at all times and seasons.
Even in church the congregation keep up a soft
flutter with the motion of these fans, like the
rustle of trees by the wind.
Every vegetable, fruit and flower can be cul-
tivated here with the least amount of labor.
Oranges could be as plentiful as apples in Here-
fordshire or peaches in Georgia, if cultivated with
the same care. Lemons, sour oranges, and the
bitter-sweet grow wild and form a most delicious
tonic drink, nearly equal to quinine for giving an
appetite. It is quite free from chills and fever,
the scourge of the South, and the summer is
equally healthy with the winter, and not so hot
as other places north or south, except the moun-
tainous regions. The same want of energy and am-
bition is observable here as in most Southern
cities. The same reason is invariably given-
"the war." Before the war every thing must,
from all accounts, have been in a state of pcrfec-







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


tion. But the whole South is in a terribly dilap-
idated condition at present. What with the four
years' ravages of war, the six years' ravages of
neglect, and the century of Southern laxity and
negro laziness, the South is almost as wild and
uncultivated as though it had only been settled a
couple of years instead of a couple of centuries.
St. Augustine must have retrograded consid-
erably in this respect. It is stated that the city
in the time of the Spaniards was beautifully kept.
No wheeled vehicle was allowed to enter inside
the gates, which are of stone, handsomely built,
and carved in the Moorish style, containing sentry
boxes in their thickness. The streets were all
paved with the coquina, and kept so clean that
ladies used to walk out to their evening entertain-
ments in their silk slippers. Now, the streets are
ankle deep in sand, the former beautiful pavement
lying still many feet deep beneath. The sea has
gradually washed up the sand, and this failing to be
moved regularly, no trace of the pavement now re-
mains. Sometimes after heavy rains it will leave
great holes, deep enough to bury a man if he got in.
Then, the authorities mend the road very much in
the Turkish fashion, viz., by making it worse. In
the latter country they mend the road by having
all the points of the stones upwards, and the
usual flattened part down. Here they have a
diabolical way of filling these holes with enor-
mous oyster shells, which they never take the small-







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


est trouble to crush or break, so that you would
feel yourself quite as comfortable in a rat-trap as
stepping in amongst them. The streets are so
narrow that the poor horses can barely find room
to pass without going over this ordeal of rough
oyster shells, and their hocks and feet get ter-
ribly lacerated.
There is no excuse here fbr not having a good
pavement, as the coquina is at hand, and the
streets merely require to be paved with it to make
walking perfectly agreable instead of a disastrous
punishment. Either your shoes are filled with
sand, or your ankles scraped with oyster shells.
There are still to be seen the remains of some
handsome buildings. The remains of the Treasury
show signs of architectural taste, as also the queer
old residence of the Governor, and the old Ca-
thedral, picturesque from its Moorish facade and
belfry. But it is probable that many of the best
buildings were burnt and destroyed from time to
time. The gates are the most perfect, and the fort,
all of which have architectural merit. The ruins of
these gates are quite a treasure to the artist; and
there are many other good points for sketching
and making small pictures in St. Augustine.
Photographs have been taken of numerous
portions of the city, and are eagerly bought by
visitors. But the great disadvantage of photo-
graphy, for this kind of picture, is that it fails to
convey the wonderfully beautiful gray coloring







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


which time and climate has lent, and destroys the
peculiar ancient appearance of the buildings, and
transforms them into the unpoetical, fresh, new
building of America. There are many pleasant
rides and drives round St. Augustine, along
the hard sand beach.
St. Augustine is somewhat of a cul-de-sac-
the end of creation in that direction, and to get
back into the world at large you must return
the way you came-for there is no exit elsewhere
-via Picolata and the St. Johns river, or by land
to Jacksonville by the road (now a mere sand
track) made by the English Governor when in
possession of Florida. The river steamers never
come to St. Augustine unless to bring or take
away troops, for in common with all other South-
ern cities since the war, it is garrisoned with
troops, which has the effect, at least, pro. tern., of
preventing the inhabitants from expiring of
inanition. They also bring a little money into the
place, which is greatly needed, the inhabitants
being for the most part in a wretchedly poor con-
dition, possessing no money, but heaps of Con-
federate bonds, which are not useful even to light
fires, where the pine wood will blaze up without
paper. They are, in many instances, literally
penniless, more especially the best people of the
country and in many small towns in the South.
There is a system of borrowing and lending and
bartering carried on quite amusing if it were not







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


too sad. There exists a listless apathy, a morbid
inertness, as of people who had expended their
last effort-a hopeless feeling very terrible to be-
hold, hanging over most of the Southern cities.
They are crushed, broken, ruined, ald humiliated,
if a people so proud can ever realize that senti-
ment.
Saint Augustine is not only unique for its pe-
culiar antiquity, but it possesses a speciality of
its own, for it can boast of a manufacture peculiar
to itself. Small and insignificant as it is, it is the
only town in this country we have visited which
has a speciality.* In England most towns have,
or have had, a special manufacture of their own.
As Sheffield for cutlery, Coventry for ribbons,
Nottingham for lace, Matlock for its spar and
marble ornaments, Tunbridge for its wood-carving
-every town, almost, is celebrated for something.
St. Augustine is thus celebrated for making hats,
baskets, fans and boxes, out of the palmetto-very
pretty and fanciful-and no strangers leave the
place without carrying away some little souvenir.
They also make baskets and mats of the strong
wire-grass, which are quite durable and useful.
The old-fashioned Spanish lace-making is the
prominent needle-work among the inhabitants,
but is not of the best style, and is very tedious
and trying to the eyes.
The author had evidently made a very limited examina-
tion of the United States when this remark was written.







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


Recently some French nuns have arrived from
Le Puys, in France, brought over for the instruc-
tion of the poor black as well as white, by the
energetic Bishop of Savannah. They come from
that part of France where the beautiful thread
and silk lace is made, such as Cluney, Passemen-
terie, Guissure, Valenciennes and Lille. They
are proficients in their art, and in their own coun-
try devoted their lives to instructing the poor in
religion, a simple education, and the means of
earning their own living, by teaching them to
make lace. They open large work-rooms where,
after the children have gone through their exer-
cises of reading and writing, they are each sup-
plied with a little frame or cushion, thread and
bobbins, and they are taught lace-making for the
rest of the day. A child of eight years old can
learn it, and can be taught as early as they could
be taught their notes on the piano, and little girls
take a great delight in it, especially in making
trimming for their dolls, and the first communion
veil. In that part of France every woman and
child, rich and poor, knows how to make lace.
When visiting that part of France three years
ago, we all took the mania, and commenced
cushion lace-making with great vigor. It is very
interesting work, and the satisfaction great in
wearing lace of your own manufacture. Ladies
all make it for pastime, and the poor for profit.
Old women almost blind and bedridden can still







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


continue making the same pattern they have done
all their lives, and earn enough to keep themselves
in a tidy little room until they go to a better
habitation. If the sisters could succeed in es-
tablishing the same work and class-rooms in St.
Augustine, there is no reason why it should not
speedily rival Cluny or Valenciennes. There are a
number of young persons in this ancient Spanish
city who are peculiarly adapted to this work from
their domestic habits, refusing to leave home for
any service, but having ingenuity and adaptability
of finger. These girls, if they were taught, could
make rapid fortunes for themselves and their
quaint and beautiful little city. Not a yard of
lace worn by any lady on this great continent
which is not imported, and half a dozen profits
levied therefore, besides the duty, before she can
touch it. Girls working it at home, at no expense
but the raw material, which is trifling, could sell
it, making a handsome profit, at less than two-
thirds the price paid for it at present in this coun-
try. In Malta, where the young girls all make
lace, and are very similar in habits and character
to the St. Augustinians, we bought rich black silk
lace (in wear ever since, five years) for exactly
one-third of what it is valued at in America; for
the reason that here, after it leaves the hands of
the girl who makes it, it passes through those of
half a dozen buyers, sellers, agents, merchants,
custom-house and store-keepers. The greatest







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


lace manufactories have been started by one or
two persons having the art, and settling down in
a spot. : The object of the sisters is simply to do
good to-their fellows. They have devoted their
lives'to charity in any and every shape and form,
whether it be teaching the ignorant, tending the
sick, soothing the miserable, teaching God's word,
or teaching the needy to earn their bread, and
thus putting them above temptation; they are
but fulfilling their vocation of charity. And so
much. respect do I bear to these devoted sisters
of charity,-whorm.[ have known as a body since I
was four years old, that I'cheerfully take this op-
portunity of testifying to their great merit,'and
trust, with all my heart, that their good works
may be crowned with success in this world, as
their earnest, devoted endeavor will surely be
crowned hereafter.
The- hats.are made by slitting and plait-
ing the palmetto,-which wheJn completed resem-
bles very much the coarse AtrawN hats of other
countries, being lighter or whiter, or it is said, not
cleanable. But the ornaments with which they
trim them constitute the beauty of the hat. -The
broad, smooth -palmetto leaf is cut into various
forms of leaves and flowers'aind feathers, and re-
sembles the finest Swiss wood work; frequently
the-sugar-cane flower is added as a feather, and
imitates a golden Maraborie. The trimming isin
fact the whole charm of the hat. The.o iSaihen-
..~.. t'







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


station upon fans, boxes, watch- pockets, and a
variety of small articles, is also very tasteful and
peculiar, and displays a talent and ingenuity re-
markable only as a generality in this little spot of
the Southern States, where there appears rather a
lack of original inventiveness. Other hats are
made from a strong grass called the wire-grass,
which when stitched with colored silk have a
very pretty effect, and are exceedingly'durable.
Mats and-all kinds: of basketss are made of the
same wire -grass, and resemble in appearance,
strength and durability the baskets made by the
Arabs in Algiers, on the coast of Africa. The
manufacture is so similar that it would lead one
to suppose that the Augustinans learned it from
the Spaniards; who took it from the- Moors in
Spain, who brought it from Tunis and the African
coast-a curious history for a basket.
There is little doubt that St. Augustine will
eventually become as fashionable a resort as West
Point, Newport, or Saratoga, and more vitally
important than any of the above-named places, on
account of its life-giving properties to all persons
afflicted with pulmonary disease, and all maladies
which require a mild and equable climate. Pleas-
ant summer resorts are rarely suitable for winter
residences, and many families and individuals find
it too incotivenient and expensive to change their
abode twice a year. The moving of all one's
belongings, and the packing up of household gods,







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


is often a consideration that weighs to keep many
a poor invalid in a climate which every day saps
the fountain of his life, which in a genial atmos-
phere might flow on softly for a number of years.
It is no uncommon case for consumptives to
live for ten or fifteen years with but one lung, in
a climate such as St. Augustine, where no bitter
eastern wind ever irritates the remaining lung,
where no biting frost ever congests the respiratory
organs the year round, where the summer knows
no enervating heat, or the winter any intense cold,
but glide imperceptibly into each other, wafted in
and out by a clear sea breeze, not keen enough to
chill the most sensitive, but cool enough to be a
grateful fan.
Fully realizing these great advantages, numer-
ous wealthy families from the North have estab-
lished themselves permanently at St. Augustine,
where they live the year round, in great comfort
and considerable elegance, which the climate
permits; going on pleasure-trips only for amuse-
ment and relaxation of change. Their houses are
unsurpassed, for luxury and convenience, by any
thing in the States. Commanding piazzas, inter-
laced with gorgeous flowery creepers and vines;
hanging baskets of drooping moss and lichens;
shady walks beneath the orange and magnolia;
fine airy rooms, catching the balmy gale of the
citron from one side or the other. There is always
one side of the house where, in the height of







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


summer it is quite cool. There is the advantage of
excellent fishing, and for gentlemen who are given
to sporting, there is an abundance of game-wild
turkey, wild duck, deer, bear, and smaller game;
oysters in plenty, crabs, mullet, sheepshead, and
others in great variety. It is almost needless to
say, that vegetables can be grown in the greatest
profusion and variety, and through the whole sea-
son-peas in January, and tomatoes in March.
Many northern families not only grow all their
own fruits and vegetables, but have such an exceed-
ing quantity, that they easily supply the tables of
various hotels and boarding-houses in St. Augus-
tine, which are usually full of visitors in the winter
months.
Of these, the Magnolia House, kept by Mrs.
Buffington, is a spacious, clean, commodious house,
with snug, airy rooms opening on to a wide balcony
or veranda, overhanging a quaint old-fashioned
garden, the walks marked out by coquina stone,
reminding one of some old cloister garden in
monastic enclosures. It is ever flowery the year
round with perfumed orange blossoms, scarlet
pomegranate, yellow chaporelle, pink, crape,
myrtle, and a variety of other blooming trees,
gladening the eyes of the weary invalid with
their cool, fragrant beauty. On the other side of
the garden, in a green field well shaded with trees,
is an old-fashioned Methodist chapel, from whence,
early on Sabbath morning, comes wafted the







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


sweet voice of young children, singing their
Sunday school hymn, "The river, the beautiful
river, that flows by the throne of God," So gold-
en floods the light over this scene, so deliciously
perfumed is the air these Sunday mornings, so
holy and benignant is all around, so sacredly all
nature seems to join with the heavens in "telling
the glory of God," that could one be sure there
was." peace and good will among men," it would
not be difficult to believe that this in truth was
the promised land the little children are singing of.
There is also a Presbyterian church, and the min-
ister, like most of his brethren of that denomina-
tion, delivers a sound, sterling, excellent discourse
twice every Sunday.
Besides these is the Roman Catholic church,
on the Plaza, already described, with the Moorish
belfry; and the Episcopal church, whose amiable
and intelligent minister resides at the Magnolia.
Also a Baptist assembly of negroes, which it is
worth any stranger's while to visit, if they wish to
form a correct idea of how far Christianity has
permeated into some of these dark skins.
There are two convents for the education of
all classes-black and white, rich and poor; for
these devoted Sisters rarely do any thing by
halves.
To Catholic families, with delicate girls re-
quiring a warm climate and tender care, as well
as education, this convent-which is a handsome







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


building, surrounded by a large garden-offers
considerable advantages rarely to be met with in
a school. There are a number of French Sisters
from whom they would have all the facility of
learning the language, together with all the usual
branches of an English education.
To those girls whose future livelihood de-
pended upon their own exertion, the lace-making
would prove a valuable acquirement; for a girl
able to work this lace can earn from four to five
dollars a day-sitting quietly in her own room,
with her little cushion before her-with half the
exertion of playing the piano. The St. Augus-
tine girls excel, as we have shown, in ingenuity
of fingers practised by Europeans.
Every Frenchwoman is a superior needle wo-
man, and their fancy-work of all descriptions is
spread over the whole world.
Germans are wonderful knitters, wool-workers,
and toy makers.
The Swiss-ivory-carvers and wood-cutters.
The Italians -mosaic-setters in stone and
wood, cameo and coral-carvers.
The Armenian Turkish woman's embroidery
in gold, silk, and pearls, excels the whole world.
In America there is little of this ingenuity of
finger, unless in St. Augustine,* where it is prom-
inent, and is destined to take rank with any Eu-
ropean continental city; for the same genius is
* Probably the writer's observation has been rather limited.







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


noticeable, the same gift is innate to the people,
and will sooner or later display itself in its own
way.
Some little incident to quicken the impetus,
and St. Augustine may rise like a Phcenix from
the ashes and blood which centuries of war have
heaped upon her devoted head. America is a
living marvel for the rapid rise of her new cities;
but her old ones need not crumble into dust for
all that-and such is not the fate of her oldest.
She will yet stand with pride among her children
and great-great-grandchildren cities-such as Chi-
cago-as alert and juvenile as any, only shaking
her hoary locks, as old folks will, over her long
experience and wisdom.
There is a large garrison kept in this city,
which tends largely to support and enliven the
place by the daily performance of the military
band, which plays alternately upon the Plaza, in
the evening, and the barracks.
This cheery music breaks the stillness and
monotony of a small town with a most exhilara-
ting effect. The inhabitants hear the enlivening
strains, and sally forth on to the Plaza. Young
men and maidens, children and old persons; and
of course all the negroes who can muster.
No doubt General Sprague, the commander of
this district, has discovered the beneficial effect of
soothing and conciliatory policy, for there is no
man who has filled this very difficult and arduous







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


post with more successful results, and who is more
admired and beloved by all parties.
In some towns there are Southern ladies who
will not allow their eyes to'fall on a Northern epau-
lette, however agreable its wearer may endeavor
to make himself. But a lady would have to be
something more or less than a woman if she could
resist or fail to appreciate the nobility and benev-
olence which nature has stamped upon the coun-
tenance of Col. Sprague, and the effect is manifest.
Surrounded by a charming family, his house is
hospitably open to all the best people visiting St.
Augustine.
The house itself is a most interesting object,
from its strongly marked Spanish character.
From the colonnade or veranda running around
it, you enter at once without hall or vestibule into
a large room about fifty or sixty feet long, only
broken by two Moorish archways, over which
curtains can drop to form two separate rooms.
The archways meeting in the centre form the
fire-place, back and front, for each side of the
room, whose capacious chimney, where half a
dozen persons might ensconce themselves cosily,
are ornamented with massive brass dog-irons, and
in chilly weather a brilliant log fire completes the
picture. There are eight doors to the room, all
partially glass, and as the family is large and en-
tertain all comers, the constant ingress and egress
is almost like a pantomine, and render it one of







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


the -most amusing and picturesque rooms I have
ever visited.
At door number one entered a gay-uniformed
officer, doffing plumed hat and proceeding to pay
his devoirs to a pretty girl seated in the shade of
the archway, where she seems to have expected
him. At door number two rush in such exquisite-
ly beautiful children, that one imagines they have
been made to grace this scene specially; at the
third door follows their ugly old black nurse, or
mamy; an orderly is waiting at the fourth for
commands; by the fifth enter a bevy of highly
worked up fashionable ladies from New York,
visiting Saint Augustine in order to say they have
been there. At number six appear a party of naval
officers from the cutter lying in the bay. At num-
ber seven glide quietly in two meek-looking Sis-
ters of Charity, for all have recourse to Mrs.
Sprague in their difficulties and trouble. She is
seated on a couch near her aged mother, who has
been an invalid, and whilst bending her classical-
shaped head gracefully towards the Sisters, and
listening with a placid smile to their wants and
requirements, she watches with tender devotion
every movement of her mother. She is all thought
and feeling for every one-for all but herself.
Mrs. Sprague was one of the beautiful daugh-
ters of General Worth, celebrated in the Florida
and Mexican war; she is, therefore, thoroughly
acquainted with the temper, feeling, and senti-







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


ments of the South, and thus is a most valuable
adjunct in this way to her husband.
St. Augustine has been fortunate in having
such a military commander, and fully appreciates
her good luck, for with such an open house and
the people who keep it, St. Augustine could never
be wanting in pleasant society.
Boating on the bay is a favorite amusement
on moonlight nights, and in the day, boating ex-
cursions to gather shells on the opposite beach of
the Island of Anastasia, which abounds in very
beautiful ones. Collecting sea mosses and lichens,
is a pleasant occupation; and for those who can
arrange them scientifically, it would be possible
to make a classified album, such as are made and
sold by the thousand in the Isles of Wight, Jer-
sey and Guernsey, in the old country. There are
several good sailing boats for hire, and the day's
amusement healthful and delightful, even tho'
"the shells we gather are soon thrown idly by."
Some ladies make excursions over to the pearly
white sand beach to bathe, in preference to the
bathing-house immediately on Bay street.
To Americans who have not visited Europe,
or only such modern portions of London, Paris,
and capitals which more or less resemble New
York, St. Augustine would possess a fund of in-
terest, from its antiquities and curious appearance;
for although it greatly resembles Italian, Spanish
Moorish towns, it is totally unlike any thing else-







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


in America, where all is comparatively modern
and new. A stranger may form a very correct
idea of what Cadiz, Tunis, Terracina may be like,
looking at St. Augustine, especially by moonlight,
when all its defects are hidden and all its beauties
enhanced. And it seems to be generally moon-
light. From the fact of the great clearness of the
atmosphere, the smallest portion of moon gives
a very strong light; whether crescent or waning
moon, it lights up the place with an astonishing
vividness which I have only seen equalled on the
Bay of Naples.
The star-light nights are wondrousry lovely,
and the myriads of fire-flies of such size and bright-
ness, that it looks as though the stars were de-
scending upon the earth. Heaven and earth
coming together, which no doubt would be a
very pleasant circumstance, if it would really
happen.
But these moonlight nights are the glory of
Saint Augustine. So bright and cool, and soft
and balmy, few can resist the enjoyableness of
a stroll, or the dreamy bliss of sitting out on the
veranda listening to the echoes of the band or
the tinkling of some distant guitar-dreaming
over all the happiness we know, past, present, or
to come.
Evening is the time for visiting, and there is
a great deal of cosy neighboring amongst the
townspeople, Of course it is the time for love-







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


making, and to the delicious moonlight nights is
no doubt attributable the unusual number of mar-
riages in this place, which seems to keep the
small city in a perfect flutter of anticipation and
excitement.
It certainly deserves to be patronized by New
England ladies, where, I understand, there is such
an overplus of the gentler sex. They could not
fail to find a mate under this specific of moonlight
at St. Augustine. One lady, we were informed,
had been married five times. It seems a great
number, but we suppose she could not help it un-
der the circumstances.
The great desideratum for St. Augustine is a
railroad from thence to Picolata, so that the route
would then be quite direct from New York, with
only one change of steamer at Charleston or Sa-
vannah. Splendid steamers ply almost daily from
New York to either of these towns, where several
fine steamers continue the route up the St. Johns
river to Picolata, the nearest point to St. Augus-
tine. There are at present, stages to carry the
passengers through the pine forests to St. Augus-
tine. The ride, to a lover of nature, is charming,
and not by any means monotonous. The whole
distance is garlanded by flowers of every variety
-lilies, honeysuckles, azelias, sunflowers, and a
thousand varieties of small flowers which enamel
the ground. Through forests of pine on the luxu-
rious hummuck land of green oak magnolia, herQ







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


and there you may see the milk-white heron float-
ing in the cloudless azure vault, looking like a
messenger angel bearing glad tidings to earth;
now and then a startled deer scudding away from
the appearance of man-and to those who can
appreciate all these beauties, the ride is delight-
ful. But the generality of travellers are intent
upon getting there and nothing else; therefore,
a railroad would convert the eighteen miles into
nine, and an uncomfortable stage carriage into a
comfortable railroad car.
It is therefore to be hoped that very shortly
a rail for these few miles will be established, and
there is no doubt it would be a profitable venture
for Northern speculators to unite St. Augustine
with New York, with only one change, in a space
of time of four or five days; so that persons
snowed up in New York, shivering through their
furs, having their extremities pinched blue and
red, and all sorts of unbecoming colors; tor-
mented with colds in the head, bidding defiafice
to troches, caudle, and Dr. Brown's lozenges, etc.,
etc.-such persons have only to put themselves
comfortably to bed in one of the excellent steamers,
take rather a long nap, and awake inhaling the
perfume of the orange blossom and the golden
fruit, hanging in rich clusters, ready to be plucked
and eaten.
Wrapped to the eyes in mufflers, the half-be-
numbed traveller pioneers his way to the steamer







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


wharf at New York, now over hillocks of drifted
snow, now through slushy swamps of melted
ditto; a bleak north-east wind is whistling
through the blocks of buildings, which look black
and dreary, as if they too suffered from the bitter
cold. Every one he meets is huddling himself
together to keep all the little warmth he has in
his body from escaping. The very animals stand-
ing to be burdened or unloaded, have on them a
look as if they had now once for all resigned all
hope of ever feeling comfortable again.
The steamer, when reached, is coated and
clothed and draped with ice and icicles; all her
spars are slippery with ice, her rigging and ropes
stiff and festooned in ice; she is united to every
thing round about her with ice, and when she
moves there will be a terrible smashing and
crashing and bursting asunder of icy bonds.
She looks as dreary as ever a ship can look,
and of the captain there is nothing whatever to
be seen or understood but his eyes; a great
fur cap and cape join with his beard and conceal
his nose and mouth, and a coat of similar material
disguises the rest of" his person. You discover
that this furry, hairy animal is the captain, from
hearing clear, distinct orders issue from thence.
How surprised you are two days after, when you
are greeted by a pleasant, fair-faced, white waist-
coated individual, straw hat in hand, "Fine day,
ma'am; making sixteen knots," and find it to be







SAINT AUGUSTINE.


the captain come out of his shell or rather his
furry skin. You, too, have done the same if you
had one, and are watching the porpoises play and
bask in the sun, running in past the famous Fort
Sumter at Charleston, where the roses hang
heavy on their stems, and where you are soon
eating pineapple and mangoes. Any one who
has experienced this rapid contrast will never
forget the delight of the sensation, the sudden re-
lief from wearisome precautions against cold-
the speedy exit of the enemy who has held us in
durance vile and siege of his bitter fangs for so
long; of the release of the respiratory organs,
which begin to exert their functions without a
conscious effort; of the feeling of exhilaration and
happiness, and the bound of enjoyment which
transports the whole existence.
This rapid change of climate from mid-winter
in New York to Florida, is one of the most aston-
ishing effects of steam. We know the enormous
distance we have come from the change in the
atmosphere, and thus realize the annihilation of
space by science. This short space of rail from
St. Augustine to Picolata,'would enable her to
send her early fruits and vegetables to New York
and other northern towns, in the same manner as
Jacksonville and Fernandina, at least six weeks
earlier,-peas, potatoes, tomatoes, grapes, oranges,
cucumbers, and every vegetable which will bear
carriage. England is supplied in this way from






SAINT AUGUSTINE. 59

France, Holland, Belgium, with fruit and vege-
tables, a month earlier than she can produce them;
and there is a much greater eagerness to possess
things in a hurry in America, than England. The
northern cities of America would pay any price
to obtain any thing a little before the natural
course of time- in fact, to "hurry up" the
seasons.
In speaking of Florida as a slip of land pro-
jecting from the American continent, it will be
curious to English readers to know that Florida
is about the exact length and breadth of England
and Scotland, together! with a magnificent river,
the St. Johns, flowing through the length, for
about three hundred miles, when it is met by the
Indian river; thus forming a national high-road
through the rich and luxuriant country.
A great river is one of the greatest blessings
to a new country. It is the providential high-
way," which needs no macadamizing; a railroad,
without the trouble of laying down the rails. It
also supplies rations gratis in its fish. In the St.
Johns is splendid fishing for bass, cat-fish, perch,
and other fish. Wild fowl abound. The stately
pelican floats on its broad waters, and the sea-gulls
skim the air,












ADDENDA.


THE WAY TO GET THERE; HOTELS, ETC.

From New York, travellers have the choice of three
conveyances, viz.:
I. Railroad, via Washington, Richmond, and Charles-
ton or Savannah; and thence by steamer to St. Johns
River: or railroad direct to Jacksonville, Florida.
II. By steamer to OHARLESTON; and thence by the
St. Johns River steamers to Jacksonville and Picolata,
via Savannah. Fare to Charleston, $15. Through
tickets to Picolata may be obtained at a cheaper rate.
N. B.-In this way the traveller has the advantage
of seeing Charleston and its surroundings, and of resting
there perhaps one or two days.
II. By steamers to SAVANNAH; and thence by con-
necting steamers of inland route to Florida, or by same
line of Florida steamers as from Charleston; as they
touch at Savannah.
There are three lines. Steamers sailing every Tues-
day, Thursday, and Saturday, from New York and
Savannah. Murray, Ferris & Co., 61 and 62 South street,
Livingston, Fox & Co., 88 Liberty street, and Wm. R.
Garrison, 5 Bowling Green, are the agents. See general
advertisement, Page 68.
The steamers now running from Charleston to East
Florida via Savannah, Fernandina, Jacksonville to Pa-
latka, are the City Point and Dictator; and those from Sa-
vannah are the Lizzy Baker and St. Mary's. All of these
boats are of good size with all the comfort of the
North River steamers of New York.







ADDENDA.


The fare to Palatka, the head of navigation for these
steamers, from Savannah is about $10. From Charleston
$15.
The route from the Northern States to Florida is not at
all difficult. One can take a steamship every other day
in the week from the city of New York direct to Savan-
nah or Charleston and then continue the journey to
East Florida on a smaller class of steamers. Through
tickets can be purchased in New York to Palatka on the
St. Johns River for $331y1. Five days time is suffi-
cient to finish the journey. Or if any one desires to
take a land route, through tickets can be obtained from
New York by rail to Jacksonville ; where the Savannah
and Charleston steamers call two or three times a week,
to land and receive passengers for St. Johns River.
To reach St. Augustine, through tickets should be
purchased to Picolata, and from thence take the stage 18
miles at a cost of $3 or $4 to the ancient city.
The largest town on the St. Johns River is Jackson-
ville, which is located some 25 miles above the mouth,
and the next town of importance is Palatka, a very
pleasant place about 65 miles south of the former.
Enterprise is considered the head of navigation for
St. Johns River steamboats, and is about 200 milesfrom
the mouth of the river. The fare from Jacksonville to
Enterprise is about $7. (Two boats a-week, via Palatka.)
The Magnolia House and the Florida House are the
principal hotels at St. Augustine, and these are moder-
ately comfortable-charges from $15 per week; but there
are a number of fairly kept boarding houses in the
place, which are well patronized by strangers during the
winter season. Essential improvements in the hotels are
promised for the season of 1868--9. The Florida House









is to be in charge of a host who "knows how to keep a
hotel," from a northern city.
At Jacksonville there are a number of hotels, and
they have just got a charter from the legislature to build
one on a large scale.
At Palatka there is a population of about 1,000; and
they also have a charter for an extensive hotel and park.
There are two large hotels, the Putnam House, and St.
Johns House, both of which have the reputation of being
as well kept as any hotels in the South. This place
is famous for orange-groves.
At Enterprise there is a large hotel which is hand-
somely situated on the Lake Shore. There is a hotel at
Hibernia, and one at Green Cove Spring, both being
romantic situations on the bank of the River St. Johns
between Jacksonville and Palatka.
The prices of board at all the public and private
houses named, range from $8 to $25 per' week.
The colored population in the Eastern part of the
State and in the towns mentioned, is quite small compar-
ed to other parts of the South, for the reason that the
St. Johns River country is newly settled, the lands bor-
dering on its banks not being suitable for the culture of
cotton, and only adapted to the cultivation of vegetables.
and fruit. Hence, of late there has been almost a mania
for orange groves, and now there can be seen thousands
of orange trees recently planted out on the river, by
Northern as well as Southern settlers, all of whom seem
to toil side by side, and try to forget, in the charms of
the climate and amidst their beautiful groves, that there
had ever been trouble between their respective sections
of country.


AtdtWbA.








AbbDENDA. 6

No Northern visitor to Florida should fail to make
the round trip up the St. John's River, as far as Enter-
prise.
Invalids returning North should graduate the change
of climate by stopping for a time at Aiken, S. 0.










XNEW YORK and FLORIDA
-VIA-
SAVANNAH, GEORCIA.

One of the following First-class Passenger Steams~ips leaves NEW
YORK and SAVANNAH every other day, as follows:
LEO, t Murray's Line.
CLEOPATRA, I From Pier 16, E. R., ft. of Wall st.
GEN. BARNES, Atlantic Coast M. S. S. Line.
H. LIVINGSTON, From Pier 36, N. R.
SAN JACINTO, j Empire Line.
SAN SALVADOR, From Pier 8, N. R.
Making close connections at SAVANNAH with the Central .R.E.
of Georgia for all Points in the SOUTH and SouTHWESsT; with the
new Steamboats Nic. King and Lizzie Baker for points on St.
Johns River and Florida via Inland Route; and with the Atlantic &
Gulf B.B. for all points in Florida.
Through Passage Tickets issued at reduced rates to
PALATKA, Fla. MACON, Ga. NEW ORLEANS, La.
PICOLATA, Fla. COLUMBUS, Ga. QUINCY, Fla.
Green Cove Springs, Fla. ATLANTA, Ga. TALLAHASSEE, Fla.
JACKSONVILLE, Fla. ALBANY, Ca. MONTICELLO, Fla.
FERNANDINA, Fla. ENFAULA, Ga, ORANGE HILLS, Fla.
HIBERNIA, Fna. Montgomery, Ala. ENTERPRISE, Fla.
AUGUSTA, Ga. MOBILE, Ala. LAKE CITY, Fla.
Passengers for ST. AUGUSTINE, purchase tickets to Picolata; thence
by Stage, three hours.
For further information apply to
MURRAY, FERRIS & C0,,
61 C 62 SouthStreet.
LIVINGSTON, FOX & CO.,
88 Liberty Street.
WM, R. GARRISON,
5 Bowling Green,
2TE-W YORIK.







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