• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Part I. European trade in agricultural...
 Part II. The European market for...
 Back Cover






Group Title: <1972>-1983: Agricultural trade review
Title: Agricultural trade in Europe
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075616/00001
 Material Information
Title: Agricultural trade in Europe recent developments (prepared in 1968), the European market for viticulture products: wine and table grabes
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United Nations -- Economic Commission for Europe
United Nations -- FAO/ECE Agriculture Division
United Nations -- FAO/ECE Agriculture and Timber Division
Publisher: United Nations
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1969
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Produce trade -- Periodicals -- Europe   ( lcsh )
Produce trade -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Europe   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Europe   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statistics   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Economic Commission for Europe.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with 1963?
Dates or Sequential Designation: -1983.
Issuing Body: Prepared by: the ECE/FAO Agriculture Division of the secretariat of the Economic Commission for Europe (varies slightly), <1964-1976>; by the ECE/FAO Agriculture and Timber Division of the Secretariat of the Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, <1979>-1983.
General Note: Description based on: 1964.
Funding: Agricultural trade review.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075616
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07677980
lccn - sn 87029880
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Agricultural review for Europe

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Introduction
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Part I. European trade in agricultural products: Recent developments
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Part II. The European market for viticultural products: Wine and table grapes
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text



ST/ECE/AGRI/32


ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE








AGRICULTURAL TRADE IN EUROPE



Recent Developments (Prepared in 1968)
The European Market for Viticultural Products:
Wine and Table Grapes










ECE/FAO Agriculture Division of the Secretariat
of the Economic Commission for Europe
Geneva


UNITED NATIONS
New York, 1969







335 /10 t-


ST/ECE/AGRI/32


UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION

Sales Number: E69.ILE/Mim18


Copies of this document may be obtained from the Sales Section, United Nations Office at Geneva.
1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland, or United Nations. Room 1059. New York, NY 10017. at the price of $1.75,
or may be ordered through the Distributors for United Nations publications in local currencies.








t


ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page i


CONTENTS


Introduction . .. .. . . . ..

Part I: European Trade in Agricultural Products:
Recent Developments ................ ..
Part II: The European Market for Viticultural Products:
Wine and Table Grapes .................




























SGE, 69-4539


Page
ii





79







3T/ECE/AGRI/32



INTRODUCTION
Like its predecessors, this study on agricultural trade in Europe was prepared
by the Secretariat as working paper for the annual session of the ECE Committee on
Agricultural Problems. It was discussed during th- 20th session of the Committee in
December 1968. The comments mad. during the discussion and the suggestions received
subsequently were all taken into account in preparing the final version of the study
which, in accordance with the established practice, is published on the responsibility
of the Secretariat.
The review of' recent divoccpments in the European trade in agricultural products
is mainly concerned with the principal groups and geographical distribution of such
products. For three.of the large groups-of foodstuffs briefly considered in this
paper (cereals, meat and dairy products) a more detailed analysis will'be found in
the Review of the Agribultural Situation in Europe at the End of 1968. The present
paper also contains a review of the European markets for wine and table (dessert)
grapes.
Recent developments in the European trade in agricultural products can be
summarized by considering both the trade flows themselves and the general background
pattern that affects them.
In 1967, because of the abundance of supplies in the principal importing countries,
world trade in agricultural produce declined both in volume and in value, and prices
were generally lower. This setback, which had not been experienced for many years,
shows that the expansion of international trade is often hindered by the isolated
development of excessive production capacities strictly confined to particular
countries. The changes which took place in the pattern of the agricultural trade in
western Europe in 1967 participated fully in this decline of international trade.
While western European imports, which had expanded regularly and substantially from
1960 to 1966, declined slightly (by 0.7 per cent in value) in 1967, western European
agricultural exports in that year expanded at a faster rate (by 7.6 per cent in
value). Accordingly, western Europe is a shrinking market for outside countries,
notwithstanding the facts that it includes the world's two leading importers the
European Economic Community dnd the United Kingdom and that its net imports still
amount to over $US 9100 millions.
In 1967, the European Economic Community's share both of western Europe's imports
and of its exports was 54.4 per cent. With the unification of the cereal, pig-meat,
egg and poultry markets on 1 July 1967, Community preference was further strengthened.
In the period from 1960-1962 to 1967, the share of intra-EEC trade in total imports rose
from 22.7 to 30.9 per cent; the corresponding figures for exports were 45.5 and 56.6
per cent.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page iii


Agricultural exports from western to eastern Europe, which had increased
considerably in 1966 through massive shipments of cereals from France, declined by
19 per cent in 1967 and represented 3.5 per cent of the total. Western European
imports from eastern Europe advanced by 14.4 per cent and amounted to almost $US 1100
millions, as against about $US 400 millions'for exports. However, they accounted for
only 5.4 per cent of western European imports.
With regard to the small number of particularly important products, some
interesting facts emerge. From 1966 to 1967, western Europe's imports of maize declined
in-value by 9 per cent. This contrasts strikingly with the trend in previous years.
Together with live animals, meat, fruit and vegetables, maize, an essential raw material
for meat production, has been a commodity the import demand for which has increased
considerably over the past eight years.-/ Another noteworthy feature was the sharp
reduction in western Europe's wheat sales. It was'essentially due to the considerable
reduction in shipments from France consequent upon eastern Europe's good harvests in
1966 and 1967. In the meat and livestock sector thure was again a decline in the
rate of growth of western Europe's imports as a result of the upswirgin production.
However, Italy again substantially increased its purchases in 1967 and continued to
obtain supplies on a large scale from eastern Europe. A noteworthy feature of the
dairy products market was the rise in western Europe's imports of butter, despite the
increase in production and the accumulation of stocks. This phenomenon was mainly
due to increased purchases of butyric concentrates by the United Kingdom. In cheese,
the EEC has become a net exporter in volume, while in eggs western Europe's external
trade has continued to contract, with a corresponding effect on world trade. Finally,
western Europe's sugar imports have declined in both volume and value, production
having increased much faster than consumption. However, because of the weakness of world
prices, sugar has been increasingly used, particularly in the European Economic Community,
for livestock feeding and for industrial purposes.
The flow of trade is partly determined'by the pattern of agreements or arrangements
concluded or in preparation, and even by that of mere statements or attitudes affecting
the views of trade partners. In 1968, this pattern has continued to develop at the
level of both European and world trade.
At the world level the major event affecting international trade policies was the
second session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, whose agenda
included, inter alia, an item concerning the access of primary commodities from the
developing countries to the industrialized countries' markets and an item on the world

1/ See FAO Commodity Review 1968 (TD/B/C.1/53), p.22.






ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page iv


food problem. With regard to agricultural products of direct concern to European
agriculture, the Conference recommended the conclusion of an international agreement
on sugar and action to improve the situation of the markets for oilseeds, oils and
fats, bananas, citrus fruits, tobacco and wine. As for sugar, the Conference held in
1968 in Geneva, under the auspices of UNCTAD, resulted on 24 October in an international
agreement providing mainly for tht. assignment of export quotas, the volume of which may
be adopted to the development of world prices.
One of the topics discussed by the Contracting Parties of GATT at their twenty-
fourth session, in November 1967, was the obstacles to trade in agricultural products.
They recognized that in view of the modest results of the Kennedy round negotiations
in connexion with these products it was necessary to assign an important placu to
agriculture in their programme of work. An Agricultural Committee was therefore set
up with a view to future negotiations. The International Grains Arrangement, concluded
in 1967, which comprises a Wheat Trade Convention and a Food Aid Convention, entered
into force on 1 July 1968, but it is difficult as yet to say what repercussions it will
have on the European trade in agricultural produce. The European Economic Community,
which is to provide 23 per cent of the 4.5 million tons of cereals it has been agreed
to distribute each year for three years, decided early in the summer of 1968 that most
of the cereals sent to recipient countries would come from the Community. The United
Kingdom and Sweden, whose shares under the Convention are respectively 5 and 1.2 per
cent, have agreed to distribute all or part of their contribution multilaterally
through the FAO/UN World Food Programme.
At the European level the important event constituted by the unification of the
agricultural markets of the six countries of the European Economic Community made
further progress in 1968. On 29 July 1968 the common market in dairy products and
bovine meat became effective. However, above and beyond the price-fixing and marketing
machinery, the essential problem is to define and implement a new livestock policy
designed to do a number of things at once, i.e. to promote the production of meat rather
than milk and hence to balance the markets more satisfactorily, to limit the financial
burdens on the Community, to improve producers' earnings and to avoid hampering the
necessary transformation of production structures. On 1 July 1968 a single market for
sugar was also established; the system of national production quotas is to be applied
over a transitional period continuing until some time in 1975.
The review of the European market for wine and table (dessert) grapes which
constitutes Part II of this paper was undertaken in conformity with a decision adopted
by the Committee on Agricultural Problems at its nineteenth session, in December 1967,
at the suggestion of the delegations of Italy; Romania and Spain.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page v


Typical at present of the international wine market, which is for thu most part
European, is an excess of availabilities. In the countries with a high per capital
consumption the total demand io aLnost stationary, while in tht other countries it is
increasing slowly, As a result, many producing countries are finding it difficult to
market their rising production. The main reason for the glut on the international
market in recent years has boun the cut in France's purchases from Alguria. Keener
competition and changes in consu-mer tastes have comp-lled the various countries' vine-
Ja;ds to produce quality %-ine without increasing prices jxcessively. These new
conditions, together with the rapid decruass of the agricultural labour force, which
markedly affects the wine-growing industry, explain the far reaching changes nowtaking
place.
Anouiier factor of crucial importance is the European Economic Community's plan to
create a single market. Such preference as would be accorded to the production of
member countries or associated countries would inevitably remould the pattern of the
trade profoundly. In view of thes, difficulties and uncertainties of the international
wine market, several international organizations have put studies in hand in the
endeavour to circumscribe moru precisely the problems involved, despite the fact that
the I-aternational Vine and Wine Office (IWO) had long been regularly publishing papers
cn technical and economic questions coming within its purview. Following the survey
of world trade and prospects for ordinary wine carried out by GATT in 1966, the UNCTAD/
GATTInternational Trade Centru is now conducting a survey of consumption habits, prices
and -rofit margins, distribution channels, import regulations, and the like, UNCTAD;
in the report on its second session (New Delhi), recommends suitable surveys and
apprcpriate action concerning a number of commodities, including wine.
Finally, FAO has taken a special interest in wine and vine products over the past
year. At its fourteenth session, in November 1967, the FAO Conference considered the
difficulties being encountered by a number of wine-producing developing countries such
as Algeria, in marketing their wines. Following a recommendation by the Conference, an
ad hoc Consultation on Wine and Vine Products was held at Rome in June 1968. Its
conclusions were then submitted to th, Committee on Commodity Problems, which, on
1 October, approved the establishment of a study group on wine and vine products.
The decision by the Committee on Agricultural Problems to study the situation of
the European wine and vine-products market was prompted by a similar movement of concern
and taken in an economic and trade context from which it derives the fullest importance.
The present survey relates solely to wine and table (dessert) grapes. With regard to
dried vine fruit, the reader is referred to a recent FAO paper (CCP: ad hoc'WI 68/2),
which contains, in particular, the provisions of the International Sultana (Raisin)
Agreement.








ST/tCE/AGRI/32
page 1


PART I
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN EUROPE

A. General
I. Overall Trend
II. Structure by Product Groups
III. Geographical Structure

B. Movement of Trade in the Principal Agricultural Products


I. European Trade
II. European Trade
III. European Trade
IV. European Trade
V. European Trade
List of Main Tables


Table I


Table II

Table III

Table IV

Table V

Table VI

Table VII


Table
Table


VIII
IX


Table X

Table XI

Table XII


Cereals
Live Animals and Meat
Dairy Products and Eggs
Fruit and Vegetables
Sugar


- Western Europe's Trade in Agricultural Products by Origin and
Destination

- Western European Countries Imports and Exports of and Net Trade in
Agricultural and Food Products in 1967
- Share of the Trade in Agricultural Products in the Total Trade of the
Countries of Western Europe
- Western European Trade by Groups of Agricultural Products and by Origin
and Destination in 1966 and 1967
- Breakdown by Certain Important Items of Western Europe's Imports of
Foodstuffs
- Breakdown by Certain Important Items of Western Europe's Exports of
Foodstuffs
- Imports from Countries Outside Western Europe as a Proportion of the
Region's Total Gross Imports
- Trade in Agricultural Products of the European Economic Community
- Value of Imports of Food Products into the Member Countries of the
European Economic Community by Origin
- Percentage Distribution of Imports of Food Products into the Member
Countries of the European Economic Community by Origin
- Value of Exports of Food Products from the Member Countries of the
European Economic Community by Destination
- Percentage Distribution of Exports of Food Products by the Member
Countries of the European Economic Community by Destination








ST/ECE/AGRI/32


page 2


Table XIII
Table XIV
Table XV

Table XVI

Table XVII

Table XVIII


- Intra-Community Trade in Food Products
- Trade in Food Products between Western and Eastern Europe
- Trade of Western European Countries in Food Products with Eastern
Europe
- Imports of Certain Important Food Products by Western European Cot
from Eastern Europe by Destination in 1966
- Imports of Certain Important Food Products by Western European Coi
from Eastern Europe by Destination in 1967
- Imports of Certain Important Food Products by Western Europe from
Eastern European Countries by Origin in 1966 and 1967


entries

mtrie s


Table XIX Exports of Certain Important Food Products from Western European
Countries to Eastern Europe by Origin in 1966
Table XX Exports of Certain Important Food Products from Western European
Countries to Eastern Europe by Origin in 1967
Table XXI Exports of Certain Important Food Products from Western Europe to
Eastern European Countries by Destination in 1966 and 1967
Table XXII Imports of Certain Important Food Products into Western Germany from
Eastern European Countries in 1966 and 1967
TableXXIII Imports of Certain Important Food Products into France from Eastern
European Countries in 1966 and 1967
Table XXIV Imports of Certain Important Food Products into Italy from Eastern
European Countries in 1966 and 1967
Table XXV Imports of Certain Important Food Products into the United Kingdom
from Eastern European Countries in 1966 and 1967
Table XXVI Imports of Wheat, Barley and Maize into Certain Western European
Countries
Table XXVII Exports of Wheat, Barley and Maize from Certain Western European
Countries
TableXXVIII- Imports of Cereals, Flour and Other Processed Products into Western
European Countries from Eastern European Countries in 1966 and 1967
Table XXIX Exports of Cereals, Flour and Other Processed Products from Western
European Countries to Eastern European Countries in 1966 and 1967
Table XXX Imports of Live Animals and Meat into Certain Western European Countries
Table XXXI Exports of Live Animals and Meat from Certain Western European Countries
Table XXXII Imports of Live Animals and Meat into Certain Western European Countries
from Eastern European Countries








ST/ECE/AGrI/32
page 3


Table XXXIII -

Table XXXIV -
Table XXXV -
Table XXXVI -
Table XXXVII -
Table XXXVIII -
Table XXXIX -


Exports of Live Animals and Meat from Certain Western European Countries
to Eastern European Countries
Imports of Dairy Products and Eggs into Certain Western European Countries
Exports of Dairy Products and Eggs from Certain Western European Countries
Imports of Fruit and Vegetables into Certain Western European Countries
Exports of Fruit and Vegetables from Certain Western European Countries
Imports of Sugar into Western European Countries
Exports of Sugar from Certain Western European Countries.







S /ECrc/AGRI/32
ptgo 4


A. GENERAL

I. Overall Trend
(a) World Background
According to the data available, which are still provisional, the volume of world
exports2/of agricultural products declined by 1 per cent in 1967, and unit values
declined by an average of 1 per cent, so that the value of agricultural exports at
current prices fell by 2 per cent in relation to 1966, reverting to the 1964 level.
During this period world trade as a whole continued to expand, at the rate of 5 per cent.
In 1967 the economic growth rate of the developed market-economy countries was
lower thn in 1964. F.wever, the demand for agricultural products is relatively
insensitive to short-term variations in economic activity, and the regression of world
trade in agricultural products is not explained by the slowing-down of the economy in
1967. The cause lay rather in over-supply. For many commodities the production
capacity exceeds the demand, and in 1967 the increase in availabilities particularly
of cereals due to the developing countries' excellent harvests increasingly glutted
the international markets and sharpened competition. The shortage of outlets led to a
proliferation of export subsidies, particularly for cereals, dairy products, sugar,
fruit and vegetables. All these factors weighed on prices.
The variations in world agricultural exports in 1967 are summed u,. in the following
table:
Table 1
Variations from 1966 to 1967 in World Agricultural Exports
(percentages)


Commodity Volume Average unit Value at
C oo value current prices
Agricultural products -1 -1 -2
Food products and
feeding stuffs -2 unchanged -2
Cereals -10 +4 -7
Sugar +7 +2 +10
Vegetable oils and oil
seeds -6 -5 -7
Frnit -1 +1 unchanged
Meat .. -3 +1
Dairy products .. -5 +7
SourceD FAO, The State of Food and Agriculture 1968

SCf. FAO, The State of Food and Agriculture 1968; FAO Commodity Review 1968.
2/ Excluding eastern Europe, USSR and mainland China.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 5


The decline in volume of cereals was particularly noticeable in the case of wheat
(14 per cent), for which there was less demand. The drop in unit values is
attributable in the case of meat to the increase in availabilities, in that of butter
to growing stocks in the United States and the European Economic Community, and in that
of eggs to the sharp rise In production in the importing countries of western Europe.
As regards dairy products, including eggs, the increase in volume, particularly in the
case of butter and skim milk powder, has more than offset the decline in unit values.
The volume of world agricultural imports did not increase in 1967, a phenomenon
which had not occurred since 1958.
(b) Trend in Western Eurrpe
(Tables I to III)
According to provisional FAO estimates, western Europe's agricultural imports by
volume were 1.6 per cent lower in 1967 than in 1966. They declined slightly in value
(0.7 per cent). Although small, this decline is noteworthy in that it interrupts the
substantial and regular progress recorded since 1960. Its explanation is to be sought
me.inly in the steady increase of national production, particularly marked in 1967, when
western European agricultural output was 6 per cent above that of 1966. However,
exports rose faster, increasing by 8.8 per cent in volume and by 7.6 per cent in value
(as against an increase of 5 per cent in value from 1965 to 1966). Consequently,
leaving aside the different bases adopted in evaluating imports (c.i.f,) and exports
(f.o.b.) respectively, the rate of coverage of imports by exports rose from 45.7 per
cent in 1960-62 and 51 pe.o cent in 1966 to 55.3 per cent in 1967.
Table II shows for e,,ch western European country the imports and exports of and net
trade in agricultural and food products in 1967. The United Kingdom retains its
position as the leading importer at a level slightly above that of 1.966. It is followed
by western Germany, whose agricultural imports show a clear decline from the 1966 level.
The European Economic Ccmmunity alone accounted for 54.5 per cent of western European
imports of agricultural products in 1.967. Among exporters, the Netherlands, still
heading the table, increased its sales by 9.8 per cent from 3.966 to 1967. It was
followed by France and Denmark. Despite lower exports (3.1 per cent) than in the
previous year, Denmark continues to be first among net exporters. Table III shows for
each western European country the share of agricultural products in total trade in 1963
and 1967.








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 6


II. Structure by Product Groups
(Tables IV to VI)
For both imports and exports the relative shares of the various product sections
and divisions scarcely altered from 1966 to 1967. In the latter year the percentage
structure was as follows:
Section 0 Section 1 Sectijon Division 22 Division 29 Total
Oil-seeds, C anital A utal
Food products Animal Oil-seeds, Crude animal
and animal and tobac and vegetable oil and vegetable pructs
feeding stuffs oils and fats kernel materials

Imports 78.2 8.0 4.3 5.6 3.9 100.0
Exports 76.1 14.8 3.7 0.5 4.9 100.0

It will be noted that the decline in imports from 1966 to 1967 (1.7 per cent) was
more pronounced for the ten principal foodstuffs listed in Table V than for agricultural
products as a whole (0.7 per cent). In recent years, when agricultural imports were
developing, it had already been observed that the rate of increase was lower for these
principal commodities, Their relative share in trade accordingly continued to decline
in 1967 as national output increased.
The reduction in grain imports is the most noteworthy feature and very largely
accounts for the reduction in western Europe's total imports. The rates of decrease
for 1967 should be compared with the rates of increase recorded for 1966: wheat +0.6
per cent; barley +12.0 per cent; maize +10.1 per cent. Butter imports, which had
declined by 8 per cent in 1966, rose by 3.6 per cent in 1967, while egg imports continued
their marked downward trend. Sugar imports, which had advanced by 5.1 per cent in
1966, fell by 6.7 per cent.
The variations in exports of these principal items from 1966 to 1967 are shown in
Table VI.
III. Geographical Structure
(a) Western Europe: Overall Situation
(Tables IV and VII)
The origin and destination of western European trade flows in agricultural
products as a whole continued in 1967 to follow the trends already existing. Western
Europe's relative share in imports rose appreciably, from 35.6 per cent in 1960-62 to
42,4 per cent in 1967, Its share in exports also increased slightly. For the second
year in succession, the share of purchases from eastern Europe in western Europe's
imports increased, while that of sales to eastern Europe in western Europe's exports
declined substantially.


-








ST CE / AGR/32
page 7


The changes in the origin and destination of food products (section 0) from 1966
to 1967 are shown in Table 2. They are similar to those recorded for agricultural
products.
Table 2
Western Europe's Trade in Food Products in 1966-1967
Destination and Origin
(million US dollars and percentages)

Total Origin and destination (percent)
Year (million Western Europe Eastern Rest of the
dollars) total of which: EEC Europe world

Imports
1966 16 082 41.0 22.3 5.0 54.0
1967 15 988 43.9 24.6 5.5 50.6
Exports
1966 8 015 76.1 46.1 4.6 19.3
1967 8 621 76.7 46.9 3.2 20.1

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics

Consideration of the ten principal foodstuffs listed in Table VII reveals that
purchases made outside western Europe generally continued to decline in relation to
total imports, in line with the trend observable since 1960-62. From 1966 to 1967
this decline was particularly sharp in the case of barley. It was relatively
pronounced also in the case of wheat, maize and eggs. Western Europe became more
heavily dependent on imports of meat and livestock between 1964 and 1966, but this
trend was reversed in 1967 by abundant supplies. In fruit and vegetables, the volume
of purchases from outside the region rather tends to increase.








0-d

Table I
Western Europe's Trade in Agricultural Products-/by Origin and Destination
(million US dollars and percentages)


Imports c.i.f. Exports f.o.b.
Origin or destination 963-65 195 1966
1963-65 1965 1966 1967 1963-65 1965 1966 1967

Total-/ (million dollars) 17 942 i19 622 20 620 20 468 8 8 90 10 019 10 524 11 327

Per cent of the total

Origin Destination

Western Europe 38.1 39.2 39.5 42.4 71.8 72.3 72.0 72.6
of which: EEC 20.6 21.9 22.0 24.2 42.2 44.0 43.7 44.4
Eastern Europe 4.1 4.2 4.7 5.4 4.2 5.1 4.6 3.5
Rest of the world 57.8 56.6 55.8 52.2 24.0 22.6 23.4 23.9

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 i 00.0

Source: OECD, Foreign Trade: Analytical Abstracts; Series B, 1963
United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics, 1964 to 1967
a/ Sections 0, 1, 4 and divisions 22 and 29 of the SITC
b/ The 1963 total does not include the trade turnovers of Finland and Yugoslavia, which are
equivalent to 2 to 3 per cent of this total.










Imports and Exports of and


Table II
Western European Countries
Net Trade in Aqricultural'and Food Products-/ in 1967:


(million US dollars)

Agricultural products' Food products
Region and country
Imports Exports Net trade Imports Exports. Net trade

European Economic Community 11 152.8 6 150.2 + 5 002.6 8 525.3 4 821.8, + 3 703.5
Belgium-Luxembourg 1 099.1 622,9 +- 476.2 862.0 504.6 + 357.4
France 2 250.0 1 866.0 + 384.0 1 680.0 1 414.1 + 265.9
Germany, western 4 273.0 665.1 + 3 607.9 3 245.5 460.9 + 2 784.6
Italy 2 141.4 971.8 + 1 169.6 1 714.5 807.3 + 907.2
Netherlands 1 389.3 2 024.4 635.1 1 023.3 1.634.9 611.6

Other countries of western Europe 9 315.3 5 176.8 + 4 138.5 7 462.2 3 799.0 + 3 633.2
Austria 313.6 109.2 + 205.4 238.4 99.2 + 139.2
Denmark 449.5 1 181.4 731.9 298.4 1 047.4 749.0
Finland 208.5 64.4 + 144.1 155.1 55.7 + 99.4
Greece 178.1 307.3' 129.2 168.6 133.2 + 35.4
Ireland 192.6 443.1 250.5 156.9 411.2 254.3
Norway 272.4 299.7 27.3 206.5 249.4 42.9
Portugal 205.9 178.7 + 27.2 149.0 107.6 + 41.4
Spain 690.2 633.2 + 57.0 480.9 496.4 15.5
Sweden 621.7 145.8 + 475.9 469.6 122.2 + 347.4
Switzerland 691.7 194.4 + 497.3 528.2 137.8 + 390.4
Turkey 11.5 327.2 315.7 5.0 191.0 186.0
United Kingdom 5 260.4 )39.6 + 4 320.8 4 431.0 462.7 + 3 968.3
Yugoslavia 219.2 353.8 134.6 174.6 285.2 110.6
Western Europe 20 468.1 11 327.0 + 9 141.1 15 987.5 8 620.8 + 7 366.7
Source: United Nations Trade Stati tics,
/ + net imports net exports,
/Section 0 of the SITC.


.JC
Chj


_ I M








ST/EC /AGRI/32
page 10

Table III

Share of the Trade in Agricultural Products in the


TPota1 Tr~Ade


of the Countries of Hea e


(percentages)


1963 1967
Region and country
Imports Exports Imports Exports

European Economic
Community 21,0 11.3 20,3 11,0
Belgium-Luxembourg 13,6 7.4 15.3 8,9
France 21.8 16.4 18,2 16,4
Germany, western 25,4 2,5 24,6 3.1
Italy 21.1 14.6 22.1 11,2
Netherlands 16.8 29.7 16.7 27.8

Other countries of
western Europe 25.4 15.6 20.4 15.0
Austria 15,4 5.7 13,6 6.0
Denmark 17.1 55.6 14.3 47.7
Finland 16,6 3.8 12.3 4.2
Greece 14,3 68,8 15,0 62.1
Ireland 19.4 63.6 17,9 58.3
Norway 13,0 17.9 9.9 17.3
Portugal 16.4 27.2 19.4 25.5
Spain 23.8 53.4 19.9 45,7
Sweden 14,1 3,9 13.2 3,2
Switzerland 17.3 5,9 16,9 5.6
Turkey 13,9 62.8 1.7 62,6
United Kingdom 37.8 7,0-/ 29.7 6,9
Yugoslavia 20,8 32.4 12,8 28.3

Western Europe 23.0 13.0 20.4 12.5

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics; FAO Trade Yearbook.
a/ Including re-exports.








Table IV

Western European Trade by Groups of Agricultural Products and


by Origin and Destination in 1966 and 1967


(million US dollars)


Western Europe Eastern
T a of which Efrope
Total EEC
| EEC


Rest of
the
World


Total


T I


-6 032.4
1 622.0
881.6
1 223.0
811.0


592.4
756.6
291.2
44.4
464.6


Imports 1966


3 590.2
447.8
152.2
27.3
342.8


802. C
38.~
53.7
30.c
34. E


8 688.0
826.6
536.7
1 147.7
311.6


014.5
554.9
372.1
49.4
533.2


De tination


Western Eurnpe

Total Iof w>li


Exports 1966


6 099.2
765.1
247.8
35.1
433.8


3 691.6
460.2
146.2
27.1
270.2


368.1
77.1
21.5
3.5
14.6


Total agricultural ..
products 20 620.0 8 149.2 L 560.3 960.J11 510.6 10 524.1 7 581.0 4 595.3 484.8 2 458.3


Section 0
Section 1
Section 4
Section 2;
Section 21


5 987.5
1 636.9
883.9
1 152.0
807.8


Imports 1967


7 019.4
804.7
327.8
40.4
488.2


3 935.0
468.0
161.2
28.1
366.5


883.2
35.S
95.9
49.
35.9


8 084.9
797.0
460.2
1 062.4
283.7


Exports 1967


620.8
677.6
422.3
52.6
553.7


6 619.4
814.3
299.1
39.7
455.2


- r-


Total agricultural
dnr r,! c+


2n /'A. 1


1 099q.


688.2


11.327.018 227.71


8p ,6821.2.1 2.


4 049.4
471.5
196.1
33.9
281.4


5 032.3


274.1
86.-1.
14.5
3.1
15.1


392.9


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


r T


Total


Origin


Commodity


Section 0
Section 1
Section 4
Section 2;
Section 21


1 547.2
712.7
102.8
10.8
84.8


1 727.3
777.2
108.7
9.8
83.4


2 706.4


d ca


----


I I


- -- -


ft 68. 5







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 12


Table V
Breakdown by Certain Important Items of Western


Europe's Imports of Foodstuffs


(million US dollars and percentages)


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade
a/ Sections 0, 1 and 4 and divisions
b/ SITC, divisions 00 and 01


Statistics
22 and 29 of the SITC


Value of imports in Change Percentage of total
1967 1967/1966 value of agricultural
Commodity 1967imports a/
Commodity (million dollars) (per cent) imports a
1966 1967
Wheat 793.8 -13.8 4.5 3.9
Barley 368.7 3.9 1.9 1.8
Maize 1 138.5 9.0 6.1 5.6
Live animals
and meat / 3 118.5 + 2.3 14.8 15.2
Butter 482.1 + 3.6 2.3 2.4
Cheese 434.7 + 4.3 2.0 2.1
Eggs 125.3 -10.5 0.7 0.6
Fruit 1 905.1 + 1.6 9.1 9.3
Vegetables 1 019.6 + 0.8 4.9 5.0
Sugar 576.8 6.7 3.0 2.8

Total 9 962.9 1.7 49.3 48.7

Foodstuffs 15 987.5 0.6 78.0 78.1

Agricultural products 20 468.1 0.7 100.0 100.0








ST/ECE/ACRI/32
page 13


Table VI
Breakdown by Certain Important Items of Western
Europe's Exports of Foodstuffs
(million US dollars and percentages)


Percentage of total
Commodity Value of exports in Change value of agricultural
y 1967 1967/1966 exports
(million dollars) (per cent)
1966 1967

Wheat 256.9 -19.3 3.0 2.3
Barley 299.0 +14.0 2.5 2.6
Maize 194.2 +18.6 1.6 1.7
Live animals
and meat 2 198.7 + .8.9 19.2 19.4
Butter 275.6 + 9.5 2.4 2.4
Cheese 452.2 + 5.6 4.1 4.0
Eggs 98.2 -.4.9 1.0 0.9
Fruit 891.9 + 7.3 7.9 7.9
Vegetables 637.1 + 0.8 i 6.0 5.6
Sugar 154.3 -9.8 1.6 1.4

Total 5 458.1 + 5.4 49.3 48.2

Foodstuffs 8 620.8 + 7.6 76.2 76.1

Agricultural products 11 327.0 + 7.6 100.0 100.0


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade


Statistics








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 14


Table VII
Imports from Countries Outside Western Europe as a


Proportion of the Region's Total Gross Imports
(percentages)-


Source: United Nations Commodity
./. Calculated from value data


Trade Statistics


Commodity 1963-65 1965 1966 1967

...heat. 83.7 79.7 79.5 75.8 ..
Barley 45.2 43.7 38.3 27.0
Maize 88.9 85.2 85.9 81.3
Meat and live
animals 41.4 43.1 44.5 39.9
Butter 56.5 53.2 51.6 49.5
Cheese 24.9 24.4 20.0 18.9
Eggs 32.6 38.5 38.0 34.4
Fruit 53.4 53.0 52.7 53.1
Vegetables 32.1 32.5 33.3 34.1
Sugar 83.2 84.2 85.8 85.7


I








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 15


(b) Trade of the European Economic Community
(Tables VIII to XIII)
In 1967, the trend of the Community's trade in agricultural products was in line
with the overall movement for western Europe. Imports dropped slightly (by 0.5 per
cent) in relation to 1966, while exports rose by 7.3 per cent. From 1960-62 to 1967
the rate of coverage of imports by exports rose from 49.3 to 54.9 per cent. In 1967
the strengthening of Community preference continued. From 1960-62 to 1967 the share
of intra-EEC trade in total imports rose from 22.7 to 30.9 per cent. The corresponding
figures for exports were 45.5 and 56.6 per cent. The strengthening of Community pre-
ference in agricultural trade is further confirmed by the share of agricultural products
in total trade. With non-Community countries the share tends to diminish in both
imports and exports. In intra-Community trade, however, it tends to increase. It
can be concluded from this that in recent years Community preference has been stronger
in agricultural than in industrial products.
A few figures are enough to show the impact of the common organization of markets
on the Community's trade. The following table shows, in per cent, the increases that
occurred between 1962 (the first year of effective operation of the common agricultural
policy) and 1966.
Imports Exports
Difference Difference
Intra- ,Extra- Intra- Extra-
EEC 1 EC .EEC EEC nE
increase increase
All products 70.9 I 37.5 33.4 71.3 42.5 28.8
Agricultural products
as a whole 62.1 25.7 36.4 59.5 26.2 33.3
Regulated agricultural
products 75.5 23.2 52.3 71.8 40.3 31.5

Source: Office Statistique des Communautes Europeennes, Statistique agricole, 1967,
No.10.

In imports the difference in increase between intra-EEC trade and extra-EEC trade is
much more marked in the case of regulated products than in that of agricultural products
as a whole. Thus the common organization of markets enables the Community, the world's







3T/MC /.AGRI/32
page 16


leading importer, increasingly to supply its own needs. In exports the difference
in increase is greater in the case of agricultural products than in that of "all
products", which well reflects the operation of Community preference. But the
influence of common regulation does not show in the same way as in the case of imports;
since the Six are becoming increasingly self-sufficient with regard to a growing
number of products, and since their exports are developing faster than imports, trade
with third countries is likely to play a larger role for agricultural exports than
for agricultural imports.
For food products, which accounted for 76.4 and 78.7 per cent of the Community's
agricultural imports and exports respectively in 1967, Table 3 shows each member
country's rate of trade growth. Particularly noteworthy for imports are the sub-
stantial decline (of 4.4 per cent) in western Germany's and the slight decline (of
0.3 per cent) in Italy's imports. Equally worthy of note on the export side is the
vigorous rise in western Germany's sales, which contrasts with the steadily diminishing
growth rate of French exports.

Table 3

Annual Rates of Change of Food Imports and Exports by
Member Countries of the European Economic Community
(percentages)


Period Germany, Belgium-
eriowestern Luxembourg France Italy Netherlands EEC

Imports
1964/1963 8.6 16.7 13.9 2.6 15.4 10.0
1965/1964 22.7 15.2 2.6 20.5 2.8 15.0
1966/1965 1.5 9.3 9.2 9.4 4.2 5.5
1967/1966 4.4 9.9 1.5 0.3 11.5 0.7

Exports
1964/1963 22.9 1.2 16.7 2.3 8.9 10.3
1965/1964 25.4 32.2 13.4 22.0 13.0 17.2
1966/1965 3.8 8.5 7.1 0.6 0.2 2.6
1967/1966 29.3 20.0 2.1 4.8 10.0 9.1








ST/ElC-/AGRI/32
page 17

Consideration of the origin of imports reveals that Community preference
in 1967 became stronger in the case of food products also. This observation,
true for each of the Community countries, is particularly true for Italy, whose
purchases from other Community countries increased by 26.6 per cent. The
proportion of Community purchases from eastern Europe continued its slow advance
while the proportion of Community imports from the United States declined
sharply. The pattern of Italy's trade with those two sources of supply merits
attention in that it exhibited variations distinctly wider than the average
for the Community. Italy's imports from eastern Europe advanced by 29.4 per
cent, while its imports from the United States fell by 55.8 per cent.
With regard to the destination of food exports, a noteworthy feature is
the continuing intensification of intra-Community trade. Western Germany in
particular derived great benefit in 1967 from the common organization of
markets. Its sales to fellow-members increased by 65.7 per cent over the 1966
level. Eastern Europe's share never large in Community exports declined
by more than one-half in 1967. This was mainly a consequence of the drop in
France's exports (principally of cereals), which, after accounting for 69 per
cent of the sales of the six countries in 1966, declined from $US 118.4 millions
in 1966 to $US 33.7 millions in 1967.
Table XIII shows the development of the trade in food products among the
Community's member countries. From 1966 to 1967 Italy almost doubled its
purchases from western Germany, and it increased those from France by 20.6
per cent.
Over the same period, western Germany's imports from Italy declined by
5 per cent and France's remained unchanged. All the other Community members
increased their purchases from the Netherlands, and especially western Germany
(purchases up by 9.1 per cent over 1966). A final point to be noted is the
massive increase (61.2 per cent) in French purchases from the Belgo-Luxembourg
Economic Union.







o>
o
Qg





Table VIII

Trade in Agricultural Products of the European Economic Community
(million US dollars and percentages)


Agricultural product


Total Extra-EEC


Intra-EEC


2 504

3 155
3 447


2 447

3 108
3 z,64


Extra-EEC
intr C:trade in
Intra-EEC
all
(per cent
of total) products


26.4
28.2
30.9


50.2

54.4
56.6


26 705
30 756
30 767


24 300
29 419
31 627


Share of agri-
cultural products
in total extra-
EEC trade
(per cent)


26.1
26.2
25.0


9.8
8.7
8.5


Intra-E
trade i
all
product


17 993
22 918
24 163


18 385
23 228
24 509


Share of agri-
BEC
cultural products
n
in total intra-
EEC trade
S (per cent)


13.9
13.8
1L..3


13.3
13.4
14.1


Source: Statistical Office of the European Communities, Statistique mensuelle du commerce exterieur
OECD, Trade by Commodities, series B


Year


Imports
1963-65
1966
1967


Exports
1963-65
1966
1967


9
11
11


-I ----`-I-------`----- -I- --^--------~--"--I~--~~- -'


- ~----i~-- -~p----- I--I-


---------- ---------------------------


--- -- --


---- --


---------- ------ -------- -- ---








Table IX

Value of Imports of Food Products (SITC, section 0) into the Member Countries of
European Economic Community by Origin
(million US dollars)


; Origin Europear
"- Economic
Destination Community


Belgium-
Luxembaurg


France


Germany,
western


Italy




Netherlands


Ehropuan
Economic
Community y


1963-65
1966
1967


1963-65
1966
1967


1963-65
1966
1967


1963-65
1966
1967


1963-65
1966
1967


1963-65

1966
1967


237.1
315.0
356.4


318.0
36: .4
416.4


037.1
34'.1
354.5


EFTA


38.7
48.0
67.1


73.2
92.8
88.4


294.3
286.2
258.9


Other western-i Eastern Europe;


European
countries


28.6

34.0
34.5


110.3
115.9
149.5


214.3
235.8
204.4


18.2

29.2
35.2


37.4
65.3
63.7


129.4
152.9
151.9


Rest of the world i


total


302.3
358.5
368.8


891.8
981.3
962.


183.1

377.8
275.8


+ -**---+ 4---------- -, .-


318.
36..4
448.7


132.6
183.7
237.7


993.2

553.7
813.7


Source: United Nations Commodity


73.2
92.8
197.3


59.2
42.7
51.2


644.5

641.9
662.9


110.3
115.9
173.3


31.1
35.7
39.3


509.9
586.6
601.:


37.4
65.3
217.


23.6
35.6
31.1


34 .5

453.7
498.9


Trade Statistics.


891.8
981.3
678.2

582.3
619.3
664.


633.,

235.9
948.8


of which
United States


1 3.3
142.3
116. .

119.0
167.0
165.1


247.0

315.2
251.7


119.0
167. ,
99.2

25,.6
276.9
24,. '


65 .8

1 125.7
872.


Total


624.9

784.7
862.0

1 43w.7
1 655.7
1 680.0

2 858.0

3 392.8
3 245.5


1 430.7
1 655.7
1 714.5

825.8
917.0
1 023.3
7 121.0

8 468.8
8 525.3


D -~i

'.2

I-Hi


- I----I'--` -~II----


--- ---~-


L_ ~ --- -- -Y- i


1 -


- --~----~cl-


,


,


,


- ` ------------~


,


,


,


, ,


II~--- ----ICI- -


I


- '-------~ -- --- --


.


,


, .


- -I


ty






Table X
Percentage Distribution of Imports of Food Products into the


European Economic Community by Oriein


rdc
CDb
lJtr


Member Countries of


Origin European Other western Rest of the world
Economic EFTA European Eastern total of which Total
Des n Community countries Europe United States
Destination___________
Belgium- 1963-65 37.9 6.2 4.6 2.9 48.4 16.5 100.0
Luxembourg 1966 40 6.1 4.3 3.7 45.8 18.1 100.0

1967 41.3 7.8 4.0 4.1 42.8 13.5 100.0
France 1963-65 22.2 5.1 7.7 2.6 62.4 8.3 100.0
1966 21.8 5.6 9.4 3.9 59.3 10.1 100.0
1967 24.8 5.3 8.9 3.8 57.2 9.8 100.0

Germany, 1963-65 36.3 10.3 7.5 4.5 41.4 8.6 100.0
western 1966 39.5 8.4 7.0 4.5 40.6 9.3 100.0

1967 41.7 7.9 6.3 4.7 39.4 7.8 100.0
Italy 1963-65 19.4 13.0 9.1 9.8 48.7 9.5 100.0
1966 20.6 10.0 7.3 9.8 52.3 13.1 100.0
1967 26.2 11.5 10.1 12.7 39.5 5.8 1007.0

Netherlands 1963-65 16.1 7.2 3.8 2.5 70.4 3C.3 100.0
S1966 20.0 4.7 3.9 3.9 67.5 30.2 100.0
1967 23.2 5.0 3.8 3.0 65.0 23.5 100.0
European 1963-65 28.0 9.0 7.2 4.8 51.0 11.9 100.0
Economic
community 1966 30.2 7.6 6-9 5.3 50.0 13.3 100.0
1967 33.0 7.8 7.0 5.9 46.3 10.2 100.0


" -I~--


-







T bl-e XI
Value of Exports of Food Products front the Menber Countries of the
*European Ecunonic C:ormuni:iy by Destination
millionn US dollars)


i"'-....i" Rest of the world
S.Destination European I i'her :-es ern
Eastern
-- Econonic EFTA Eurooean ast rn
Origin Europe of i'-ich: Total
CrCmuni y cuni tl United States

SBlgium- 1963-65 229.8 39.7 9.4 5.4 39.2 5.3 323.5
Luxenbourg 1966 290.4 47.1 11.2 3.3 68.4+ 19.6 420.4

1967 372.9 49.5 10.7 0.2 71.34.9 504.6
Fran>c 1963-65 43.8 1 56 i
France 1963-65 488. 181.5 59.6 76.2 331.1 17.3 1 136.4
1966 731.4 164.7 66.6 118.4 303.7 20.9 1 384.8
1967 786.8 195.8 74.5 33.7 323.3 25.1 1 414.1
I------------------------------------------_ --------
I Germany, 1963-65 118.3 14.7 6.9 22.3 49.9 14.3 302.1
western 1966 152.0 118.3 11.1 14.5 60.5 15.1 356.4

1967 251.9 117.9 12.0 9.0 70.1 15.2 460.9
--1 -______
Italy 1963-65 352.9 181.0 8.2 30.9 96.2 6.5/ 669.2
1966 431.9 192.7 10.1 27.5 108.4 38.2 770.6
1967 422.4 201.8 13.7 34.7 134.7 41.C 807.3

Netherlands 1963-65 805.1 230.0 28.9 11.3 263.7 46.9 1 339.0
1966 928.3 229.0 35.4 7.8 286.1 66.8 1 486.6
1967 1 016.9 251.0 44.7 8.3 314.0 34.9 1 634.9 I

European 1963-65 1 994.2 736.8 113.0 146.1 780.1 120.3 3 770.2j D
Economic 41
Community 1966 2 534.0 751.8 134.4 171.5 827.1 160.6 4 418.8 Q
Conrunity 1 I
1967 2 850.9 816.0 155.6 85.9 i 913.4 181.1 i 4 821.8

Source: United Nations Connodity Trad, St'atistics









F31r:c~ltrr.Fo Di'tr~i' U


T- ble XII
i.r-n -,f Export rf Fioc~ Products from C-'h i.i:ab r Counrri of;


1 Eu p 'ma conua aii r


Europ,'. n
Econrnic.
Eocmunii .


Ori Dstin-tion

Origin "--


Belgium-
Luxenbourg


1963-65
1966
1967


71. 0
69.1

73.9


O',h:- r *, 'rn
Euro .- '*'n
c',un.ri -..-


11.2
9.8


2.9
2.7
2.1.


_____________________________________________________ *- I ---------


Fr .nco


1963-65;
1966
1967


42.9
52.8
55.(


1 .0
11.9
13.8


Eu-. -rn
Europ


1.7
0.8


6.7
8.6
2.4


.- T- -
Uni ". 3- es !

-< -r--* -i--. ---- i-* -
12.1 1.6 10'
16.2 :.7 10
14.2 3.0 I 0 .

29.2 1. 00.
21.9 1. 1 '.0
22.9 1. 10. 0


G, r,,K, 1963-6 39. 34.7 2.3 7.4 16.4 4.7 1 .0
eastern 1966 42.6 33.2 3.1 4.1 17.0 10n.'

1967 54.7 25.6 2.6 2.0 15.1 ,3.3 1.

It aly 1963-65 52.7 27., 1.2 4.6 14., 0.5 100.
1966 56.1 2.0 1.3 3. 14. *
1967 52.? 25.0 1.7 4.3 16.6 5.1 1. n

Netiherl'mnds 1963-61' 6 C. 17.2 2.2 0.8 19.7 3. 10 .
1966 62./ 15.4 2.4 0.5 19.3 10 .0

1967 62.2 15.4 1 2.7 0. 19.2 5.2 i .0

SEurop- 196 -6 52. 5 .9 20.7 3.2 10.0
Europon.n 1963-u- 2.S0-'-
Econoic 1966 57.? 17.0 3.0 3.9 18.8 3. 107.0
C Dmunit 676.9 3.2 819.
1967 59.7- 16.9 3.2 1.8 19. r3 1070
S1 ________ _'-_~ -.. *- .-. I 1


CD

N


1_ .._ __


1 --------- _- i


I---t~-------+-----------+-- ---t


tl, Eur-m an Econtmic omrmuni-,v


by D stin, tion








Table XIII
Intra-Cocr.nuniity Trade in Food Products (SITC, Section 0)
(imports c.i.f. million US dollars)


Origin


Destination


Belgium-
Luxembourg


France


Germany,
western


Italy


Netherlands


Belgium Luxembourg 1963-1965 66.9 15.5 20.5 133.9
1966 100.0 24.6 28 .4 162.0
1967 121.4 35.3 31,8 167.9

France 1963-1965 63.8 / 39.6 67.7 1Z6.9
1966 74. S 50.5 94.6 140.5
1967 120.6 53.4 94.1 148.3

Germany, western 1963-1965 80.2 271.6 276.8 408.6
1966 101.9 426.0 .o 323.4 488.8
1967 111.5 402.3 / 307.3 533.4

Italy 1963-1965 20.4 113.1 39.2 / 95.3
1966 22.3 152.2 53.0 / 126.9
1967 29.9 183.5 102.8 / 132.5

Netherlands 1963-1965 58.8 36.3 23.9 13.5
1966 82.9 44.7 34.8 21.3
1967 90.2 63.0 60.6 23.8

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


slci
0s
0D


C~~_I~I ~r__ ~_









ST/ECE/AGRI/32
pagtL 24

(c) Trade between Western and Eastern Europe
(i) In Overall Terms
(Table XIV)
Western Europe increased its purchases of food products from eastern Europe by 10,i
per cent from 1966 to 1967, after an increase of 13,4 per cent from 1965 to 1966. Its
exports declined heavily, by 25.5 per cent, following a decline of 5.8 per cent from
1965 to 1966. Accordingly, western Europe's net imports rose by $US 175.2 millions
in 1967, almost doubling the 1965 figure.

1966 1967
Imports 802.0 883.2.
Exports 368.1 274.1

Net imports 433.9 609.1
The European Economic Community accounted for 56.4 per cent of the imports and
31.3 per cent of the exports in the total trade of the western European countries with
their eastern neighbours in 1967.
(ii) Principel Western European Customers and Suppliers
(Table XV)
In 1967, as in 1966, imports of food products to western from eastern Europe were
effected principally, in descending order of magnitude, by Italy (24.6 per cent of the
total), the United Kingdom (18.4 per cent), western Germany (17.2 per cent) and France
(7.2 per cent). Imports by the first two of these countries increased very
substantially (by 29.4 per cent and 28.4 per cent respectively) over 1966, while those
of western Germany .and France remained at virtually the same level.
In _e2orts to eastern Europe, five countries, i.e. Turkey, Italy, France, Spain
and Denmark, together accounted (in approximately equal amounts) for 61.6 per cent of the
total. Because of the drop in its cereals exports, France's sales to eastern Europe
were considerably reduced, falling from $!?US 118.4 millions in 1966 to $US 33.7 millions
in 1967. After being a net exporter to the amount of $US 53.1 millions in 1966, France
became a net importer to the amount of $US 30 millions in 1967. Greece's exports also
declined substantially (by 38.9 per cent). Those of Italy and Turkey rose considerably,
by 26.2 and 29.2 per cent respectively.






ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 25

(iii)Structure by Principal Products
(Tables XVI to XXV)
Imports
Consideration of the seven groups of products included in Tables XVI and XVII
reveals that the structure of western Europe's imports from eastern Europe varied as
follows from 1966 to 1967 (percentages):
Live
S animals Butter Cheee Cereals, Fruit and Sugar and Total
and meat flour, etc. vegetables honey foodstuffs
and meat

1966 53.9 4.2 0.6 4.3 10.8 18.9 7.3 100.0
,11967 48.8 4.5 0.6 3.7 19.1 i 16.8 6.5 100.0
The relative share of the live animals and meat section, which had constantly increased
in recent years (42.0, 45.8 and 53.9 per cent in 1964, 1965 and 1966 respectively),
declined sharply in 1967. The share of cereals rose appreciably as the result of an
increase of $US 44.6 millions in imports, the increase being mainly due to British and
western German purchases from Romania and to Italian purchases from Bulgaria and
Romania.
As in the previous years, by far the biggest importer of live animals and meat
was Italy, which has increased its purchases by a factor of 2.6 since 1964 and accounted
for 43 per cent of the western European total in 1967. Western Germany was next, with
17.4 per cent of the total. Its purchases were 20.8 per cent lower than in 1966 after
rising by 73.6 per cent from 1964 to 1966. The United Kingdom accounted for 15.1 per
cent of the total.
In cereals, western Germany accounted for 34.1 per cent of the total. Two-thirds
of deliveries came from eastern Germany. Western Germany was also the principal
customer for fruit and vegetables (42.7 per cent of western European purchases); the
United Kingdom and the Netherlands were next, but far behind.
The origin of western Europe's imports of the seven groups in question changed as
follows (percentages):
Czecho- Germany, Eastern
Albania Bulgaria eran Hungary Poland Romania USSR ope
slovakia eastern Europe
1966 ,0 11.8 6.9 14.4 18.8 29.1 12.3 7.6 100.0
1967 0.1 9.7 6.9 14.1 17.3 25.5 17.6 8.8 100.0
The decline in Poland's share, already apparent in 1966, was accentuated in 1967. On
the other hand, Romania considerably strengthened its position in the western European
markets. In the case of meat and live animals, for example, Poland accounted in 1964 for
more than one-half of east-west sales, but by 1967 its share had fallen to 32.1 per cent.
Bulgaria, whose sales of meat and live animals to western Europe had increased by a
factor of 7.1 from 1964 to 1966, experienced a drop of 42.4 per cent in its sales to
western Europe in 1967. However, Romania's sales rose by 25.1 per cent.






ST/ECE/LGRI/32
page 26

In cereals, too, Romania's exports increased considerably (by a factor of 4.3) from
1966 to 1967. Those of the USSR reverted to their 1965 level.
Exports
For the seven groups considered (Tables XIX and XX), western Europets exports to
eastern Europe declined by 30.8 per cent from 1966 to 1967. This decline, representing
something of the order of $US 100 millions, followed one of 3.1 per cent from 1965 to
1966. It was mainly caused by the drop of $US 86.9 millions in French cereals exports.
The structure of west-east sales altered as follows:
Live animals Butter CheesCereals, Fruit and Sugar and Total
and meat tterflour etc vegetables honey foodstuffs
1966 12.9 0.3 2.0 1.2 49.6 33.7 0.3 100.0
1967 .19.7 1.1 1.9 2.0 25.5 49.3 0.5 100.0
For the reason just mentioned, the share of cereals fell from one-half to about
one-quarter. However, France continued to be the principal exporter (48.3 per cent of
the total). The share of fruit and vegetables rose from one-third to about one-half,
but the increase in value was only slight. As in 1966, the principal suppliers were
Turkey, Italy, Greece and Spain. The value of live animals and meat sales to eastern
Europe likewise scarcely increased. Although Denmark and western Germany succeeded in
stepping up their exports, Yugoslavia's declined.
The destination of exports from western Europe changed somewhat from 1966 to 1967,
as can be seen from table 4, which also shows western Europe's net imports.
Table 4
Trade in Food Products Between Western and Eastern Europe
Destination of Exports and Net Imnorts
(million US dollars and percentages)

Czecho- Germany, Eastern
Year Albania Bulgaria echo-ngay Poland Romana USSREastern
slovakia eastern H y Europe

Destination of exports (percentages)
1966 6.5 18.0 26.6 7.6 20.1 1.7 19.5 100.0
1967 3.8 11.3 28.4 i 7.0 20.8 3.1 25.6 100.0
Net imports into western Europe (million dollars)
1966 0.79 72.84 3.56 28.71 124.72 1165.47 83.39 2.52 469.84
1967 0.75 76.68 35.73 61.41 136.16 177.62 1148.66 21.18 658.19

Net trade by product groups, in million dollars moved as follows:
Live animals Cereals, Fruit and Sugar and Total
Butter Cheese Eggs
and meat flour etc. vegetables honey foodstuffs
1966 385.74 32.55 1.35 29.88 74.54 41.52 56.04 469.84
1967 384.48 37.35 1.12 28.02 111.44 37.15 55.74 655.30
Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 27

Table XIV
Trade in Food Products between Western.and Eastern Europe a
(Imports c.i.f., exports f.c.b.)


(million US dollars and index 1960-62 = 100)


Imports from eastern Europe b
of which
Year Western Europe EEC UK

i nill.$ Index m ll.$ Indox mill $ Index

1963-65 663.4 115.1 340.5 135.7 123.6 87.9
1965 707.0 122.7 3C7.2 158.4 113.0 80.4
1966 802.0 139.1 .450.7 179.7 126.5 90.0
1967 883.2 153.2 498.9 198.9 162.5 115.6

Exports to eastern Europe b/

of which
SWestern Europe C
EEC Denmark
i ---------
m; ill. Index rill.$ Index mill. : Index

1963-65 321.6 191.1 146.1 261.2 34.9 143.6
1965 390.7 232.1 i63.5 292.5 43.0 177.0
1966 368.1 218.7 171.5 306.8 1 27.7 114.0
1967 274.1 162.9 85.9 153.7 30.8 126.7
i I i

Source: OECD, Foreign Trade: Analytical Tbstracts, Series B;
United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics
a/ Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, eastern, Hungary, Poland,
Romania, USSR
b/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany








Table XV
Trade of Western European Countries in Food Products with Eastern Europea
(million US dollars)


Region and Country


Belgium-Luxembourg
France
Germany, western
Italy
Netherlands

European Economic Community

Austria
Lenmark
Finland
Greece
Ireland
Norway
Portugal
pain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
lugoslavia


Other western European countries


1966


Imports

29.2
65.3
152.9
167.7
35.6


450.7

49.2
14.4
18.6
17.5
0.2
9.9
6.4
12.7
25.4
29.4

126.5
41.1

351.3


Exports

3.3
118.4
14.5
27.5
7.8


---- -----~-- .


171.5

2.0
27.7
14.7
33.9

14.1
0.6
30.6
6.1
0.7
29.1
7.8
29.3

196.6


1967

Imports j Exports


35.2
63.7
151.9
217.0
31.1

498.9

37.7
13.9
23.2
11.8
2.4
13.6
5.9
20.4
25.8
30.6
0.1
162.5
36.4

384.3


----*--I----II.- ~I -- __.I


368.1


883.2


L- -------_._. .----..-----.-I__________


western Europe 802.0

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


a/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany


w o
CD 1
0


09H


0.2
33.7
9.3
34.7
8.3

85.9

2.3
30.8
11. C
2L, 7
20.7

14.9
.7
32.1
4.1
1.1
37.6
12.7
20.2

188.2


274.1


~-~-----~







Table XVI
Imports of Certain Important Food Products by Western European Countries from 'astern Europe
by Destination in 1966
(million US dollars)

Cerals,
flour and Sugar .f
Meat and f r a Fruit and Sugar Total
Destination Butter Cheese Eggs other etetables and foodstuffs
live processed vegetables honey foodstuff
n processed honey
animals products

Belgium-Luxembourg 3.52 8,91 0.36 1.33 4.12 .1.83 20 07
France 46.96 0.20 0.28 3.96 1.59 52 99
Germany, western 94.39 0.04 0.94 9.86 44.90 61.77 12.,5 224 25
Italy 144.36 0.31 0.97 5.10 8.9r6 2.34 2.38 164 92
Netherlands 2.66 0.84 27.13 0.32 30.95
Eurorean Economic
Community 291.89 9.26 2.47 14.96 56.31 99.82 18.47 493.18
Austria 22.86 0.12 6.27 8.13 8.26 1.89 : 47.53
Denmark 0.12 0.01 1.89 2.15 4.17
Finland 0.94 0.62 4.33 7.03 12.92
Greece 11.21 0.08 1.75 0.09 0.33 0.04 1.19 14.69
Ireland 0.12 0.08 0.20
Norway 0.06 0.75 1.49 4.32 6.62
Portugal 0.75 0.67 3.59 1.30 0.12 6.43
Spain 10.03 0.34 0.01 0.45 0.92 0./. 12.29
Sweden 4.16 0.05 0.74 2.50 8.58 3.25 19.28
Switzerland 9.63 0.08 5.84 2.78 6.70 3.60 28.63
Turkey -
United Kingdom 59.16 22.33/ 0.52 2.37 6.48 15.36 3.70 109.92
Yugoslavia 16.53 0.84 3.52 3.36 1.19 10.88 36.32
Other western European
countries 135.45 24.26 2.53 18.83 29.00 50.18 38.75 299.00
Western Europe 4 27..34 33.52 5.00 33.79 85.31. 150.00 57.22 792.18

Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics.
g/ Tables XVI to XXII include trade between western Germany and eastern Germany.
b/ Statistics from the United Kingdom indicate 19.36 million dollars.


o~ =~
0~





Table XVII
Imports of Certain Important Food Products by Western uropean Countries from Eastern Europe


by Destination in 1967


(million US dollars)
S- Cereals,
Meat and flour and Fruit and Sugar Total
Destination live Butter Cheese Eggs other and food
animals vegetables foodstuffs
animals processed honey
products

Belgium-Luxembourg 5.81 10.96 0.95 2.90 5.04 1.02 26.68
France 42.10 0.25 '0.33 0.13 6.95 2,00 51.66
Germany, western 74.71 0,06 1.13 10.38 57.36 62.93 15.79 222.36
Italy 171.96 0.21 0.73 4.68 31.34 3.17 1.29 213.38
Netherlands 2.76 0.68 0,04 0.03 7.86 14.09 0.92 26.38
European Economic
Community 297.34 12.06 3.18 15.09 99.59 92.18 21.02 540.46

Austria 11.54 0.12 5.56 8.09 9.43 1.31 36.05
Denmark 0.09 0.44 1.89 1.67 4.09
Finland 0.42 6.95 3.76 7.27 18.40
Greece 7,78 0.05 0.42 0.62 0.24 0.62 9.73
Ireland 1.68 0.25 0.45 2.38
Norway 0.13 3.08 2.02 4.32 9.55.
Portugal 2.30 0.57 2.75 0.26 5.88
Spain 15.35 0.33 0.26 0.13 0.28 1.13 2.46 19.94
Sweden 4.98 0.04 0.68 3.39 7.89 3.52 20.50
Switzerland 10.72 0.07 5.25 3.49 7.17 3.04 29.74
Turkey 0.02 0.11 0.13
United Kingdom 64.65 24.42 0.99 2.61 31.05 19.58 5.77 149.07
Yugoslavia 13.02 2.38. 0.25 3.06 6.78 1.56 5.39 32.44
Other western European
countries 130.98 27.75 2.15 17.29 68.62 55.29 35.82 337.90

Western Europe 428.32 39.81 5.33 32.38 168.21 147.47 56.84 878.36

Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics
a/ Statistics from the United Kingdom indicate 18.72 million dollars


( r







Table XVIII
Imports of Certain Inportant Food Products by Western Europe from Eastern European
Countries bL Origin in i966 and 1967
(million US dollars)


Origina


Albania
Bulgaria
Czechoslovakia
Germany, eastern
Hungary
Poland
Romania
USSR


Albania
Bulgaria
Czechoslcvakia
Germany, eastern
Hungary
Poland
Romania
USSR


Meat and
live
animals


------------------~-----i---0-- --U--1 I I--


Butter


Cheese


Eggs


Cereals,
flour and
other
processed
products


Fruit and
vegetables


Sugar
and
honey


Total
foodstuffs


1966


0.21
55.10
11.42
55.84
108.18
142.57
42.53
11.49


0.06
31.71
19.13
61.71
104.90
137.48
53.20
20.13


0.94
0.11
2.35
2.03
14.61
6,69
6.79



1.07
1,07
1.40
3.01
17.66
7.44
8.14


2.22
0.28


1.25
0.41
0.84


49-
4.94
1.96
5.63
5.41
11.62
4.33


4.14
12.00
39,70
1.21
8.70
14.79
4.77


1967


2,0 5
0.66
0.01
1.45
0.54
0.66


3.74
1.99
6.45
7.14
10,46
3.43


15.22
12.04
40.90
1.33
5.57
63.67
29.66


0.76
25.96
14.62
2.01
26.41
39.21
18.99
22.04


0.77
28.63
15.32
2.39
30.46
37.36
25.05
7.56


0.51
14.15
8.80
4.77
13.07
0.77
15.15



2.62
11.33
11.42
3.40
14.45
1.98
12.25


0.97
93.71
54.54
114,33
149.26
230.19
88.94
60.24


0.83
85.05
60.74
124.28
1351.69
223,52
155.43
77.74


Scurce: UN Commodity Trade Statistics


~____ --


- ~--


- --~-









Tale XIX

Eorts of Certain Impgrtant Food Products from Western European Countries to
Eastern Europe by O rigin in 19_66
(million US dollars)


Origin


Belgium-Luxembourg
France
Germany, western
Italy
Netherlands
European Economic
Community

Austria
Denmark
Finland
Greece
Ireland
Norway
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Yugoslavia
Other western
European countries

Western Europe


Meat and


live
animals


0.01
0.59
9.43
0.02
0.82

10.87

0.46
10.80
1.12


1.00


1.37
0.20
2.17
0.24
13.37

30.73

41.60


Butter
Butter


0.95


0.95


0.02'













0.02


Cheese





0.12
1.78

0.23


2.13


0.59
2.98





0.52
0.13




4.22
4.22


Eggs


0.01


0.01



3.73








0.17


3.90


Cereals,
flaur and
other
processed
products

3.12
113.56
8.62
0.31
0.81


126.42

0.33
7.06
0.94
10.37



5.52
2.26
0.02
0.57
4.06
2.30

33.43


0.97 6.35 3.91 159.85


Fruit and
vegetables


0.45
0.75
25.58
1.88


28.66


1.27
0.01
23.21


0.05
23.51
0.05

24.87
'0.35
6.50

79.82


108,48


Sugar and
honey


0.34
0.21

0.39


0.94













0.24

0.24

1.18


Total
foodstuffs


3.13
116.01
20.79
25.92
4.13


169.98

0.79
19.-74
8.78
33.58

1.00
0.05
29.03
4.20
0.35
27.61
4.82
22.41

152.36

322.34


Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics


W i
0o

-


__ __I__ ~__ __1







Table XX

Exports of Certain Important Food Products from Western European Countries to Eastern Europe
by Oriin in 1967
(million US dollars)


Origin


Belgium-Luxenbourg
France
Germany, western
Italy
Netherlands
European Economic
Community


Austria
Denmark
Finland
Greece
Ireland
Norway
Portugal
Spain
Swede-
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
Yugoslavia
Other western
European countries

Western Europe


Meat and
live
animals


0.06
0.44
13.70
0.01
1.16


15.37

0.44
16.43
0.40
M-

0.60


1.03
0.17
0.02
0.49
8.89


28.47


43.84


Butter


0.94





0.94


-



1.5


Cheese


0.02
0.40
0.07



0.49


Eggs


0.01


0.01
3.84









0.51
0.5


Cereals,
flour and
other
processed
products


0.05
27.40
0.51
4.34
0.07


32.37


Fruit and
vegetables


0.01
0.20
0.56
28.98
2.18


31.93


Sugar and
honey


0.16
0.12

0.31

0.59


1. 1 L .L


2.01
1.12





0.43
0.16


-----4--~------ .c--- --4--.---- --- -


1.52


2.46


3. 2


4.21


4.36


4.36


0.84
3.65

0.53



11.30
1.14
0.05
0.70
5.62
0.57


24.40


56.77


0.02
0.98
0.01
20.03



19.40
0.03

32.01
0.05
5.86


78.39


110.32


0.06


0.42
0.03

0.51
-
-


1.10


Total
foodstuffs



0.12
29.16
15.29
33.40
3.72

81.69

1.30
23.08
5.37
20.56

0.60

30.70
2.69
0.38
32.73
8.61
15.35

141.37


223.06


Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics


w' \
dCJ
*>r

g
NU


I I_ I,,,.


---- --- -------c------------- ----------~- L


-C------- ---- L---~~---------L --






Table XXI

Exports of Certain Important Food Products from Western Europe


to Eastern European Countries by Destination in 1966 and 1967
(million US dollars)


Destination


Albania
Bulgaria
Czechoslovakia
Germany, eastern
Hungary
Poland
Romania
USSR

Albania
Bulgaria
Czechoslovakia
Germany, eastern
Hungary
Poland
Romania
USSR


Meat'and!
live
animals


0.02
0.49
9.93
17.16
1.90
2.84
0.08
9.18

0.01
1.47
6.27
26.08
2.86
2.32
1.07
3.76


Butter


0.95




0.02





0-0/

0.94
1.53


0.01


Cheese


0.05
0.31
3.28
0.03
0.02


2.66





0.54
1.84


.0.03
0.02
1.80


Cereals,
Eggs flour and
other
processed
products

1966
I 0.02


- ]


0.18


- t


3.73
1967-


0.53


L2.63
34,32
40.52
10.12
49.24
0.06
12.94

0.03


1.35
4.85
5.92
3.31


31.88
0.21

3.84 9.19


Fruit and
vegetables


0.14
7.45
13.54
24.43
11.20
12.62
5.39
33.71

0.04
5.48
13.34
28.08
8.15
12.12
5.38
37.69


Sugar,
and
honey.


0.25


0.05
0.34


0.02
0.52



0.05
0.01
0.42
0.27'


0.09
0.27


Total
foodstuffs-


0.18
20.87
58.10
85.62
24.54
64.72
5.55
62.76


0.08
8.35
25.01
62.87

15.53
47.89
6.77
56.56
LI----


" Source: .UN Commodity Trade


qI



i-.


--~----"I----c


- ---~llly~-b--li


----L------i-----


Statistics









Table XXII
Imports of Certain Important Food Products into Western Germany
from Eastern European Countries in 1966 and 1967
(million US dollars)


t Origin
Products

Meat and live 1966
animals /_


Butter


1966


1967


Cheese


Eggs


1966


1966


Albania Bulgaria


1967


Cereals, flour and 1966
other processed 1967
products
Fruit and 1966
re e-ta+ O kl .


1.43


Cz ech-'1 Germany,--'-~


Czecho-
slovakia

3.18


Germany,
eastern

27.78


Hungaryj Poland Romania


25.41


0.85 3.24 27.98 12.73

0.04 -


0.76


1.27
0.71





11.33


v-s .1967 13.14


Sugar and honey


1966


1967

Total foodstuffs 1966
1967


0.49
2.32

15.32
17.89


0.01


0.49
0.10

2.58
2.58

7.70
7.12

1.07
1.63

15.03
14.67


5.63
6.45

37.93
38.30

1.81
1.35

7.23
8.45

80.38
82.53


0.11
0.17

0.80
1.48

0.92
0,57

11.69
12.28

0.43
0.63

39.36
27.86


31.56


5.03


25.23 4.67


0.04

0.86
0.69

2.66
0.65

18.41
16.51
-- -- --4-
2.87
2.39

56.36
45.51


0.06
0.05

0.81
0.95

0.81
13.27

9.44
10.04

0.26
0.37


16.41
29.35


USSR Total

94.39


0.01


0.06


1.99

1.39
2.49




1.39
4.55


74.71

0.04
0.06

0.94
1.13

9.86
10.38

44.90
57.36

61.77
62.93

12.35
15.79

224.25
222.36


Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics


cbzj
CM
vr\
H


lyol
lyoll -
----i-m------l---- ------ -- -----l-------s ii


I


1967 0.87


I --






Table XXIII
Imports of Certain Important Food Products into France from Eastern European


Countries in 1966 and 1967


(million US dollars)


Origin Czecho- Germany
Po t Albania Bulgaria He eran ungary Poland Romania USSR Total
Products slovakia eastern

Meat and live 1966 3.83 2.72 9.46 16.79 9.29 2.28 2.59 46.96
animals 1967 2.39 2.23 10.05 11.80 9.95 2.33 3.35 42.10

Butter 1966 -
1967 0.07 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.15

Cheese 1966 0.16 0.04 0.20
1967 0.11 0.07 0.05 0.10 '0.33

Eggs 1966
Eggs 1966 -
1967 -

Cereals, flour 1966 0.27 -- 0.01 0.28
and other 1967 0.02 0.01 0.10 0.13
processed
products

Fruit and 1966 0.37 0.80 0.28 1.70 0.59 0.22 3.96
vegetables 1967 1.61 0.49 0.02 0.74 1.99 1.72 0.38 6.95

Sugar and Honey 1966 0.20 1.29 0.10 1.59
1967 0.03 0.18 1.65 0.14 2.00

Total foodstuffs 1966 4.63 3.52 9.46 17.31 12.29 2.97 2.81 59.99
1967 4.14 2.86 10.07 12.81 13.63 4.42 3.73 51.66


Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics









Table XXIV
Imports of Certain Important Food Products into Italy from Eastern European
Countries in 1966 and 1967
(million US dollars)

Origin Czecho- Germany
OriProd sgn Albania Bulgaria zcho- Germany Hungary Poland Romania USSR i Total
Products ---. slovaki Eastern

Meat and live 1966 0.21 23.90 3.02 11.01 41.76 33.95 28.90 1.61 144.36
animals 1967 0.06 19.40 i 11.26 16.99 61.76 32.52 28,43 1.54 171.96

Butter 1966 0.18 0-04 0.09 0.31
1967 0.10 0.05 0.06 0.21

Cheese 1966 0,05 0.13 0.45 0.20 0.14 0.97
1967 0.03 0.11 0.01 0.31 0.20 0.07 0.73

Eggs 1966 0.13 0.02 2.33 1.39 1,23 5.10
1967 0.09 0.02 1.53 2.37 0.67 4.68
Cereals, flour and
Cerea, 1966 0.86 1.81 0.09 0.38 3.07 2.75 8.96
other process 1967 10.64 1.33 0.08 1.40 13.85 4.04 31.34
products
Fruit and 1966 0.12 0.13 0.55 0.04 0.47 1.06 0.47 2.84
vegetables 1967 0.20 0.27 0.83 0.06 0.43 0.91 0.39 0.03 3.17

Sugar and honey 1966 -1.16 1.06 0.03 0.13 2.38
1967 0.30 0.58 0.06 0.35 1.29

Total foodstuffs 1966 0.33 25.07 6.69 11.05 46.34 37.05 33.90 4.49 164.92
1967 0.26 30.43 13.90 17.06 64.79 37.45 43.53 5.96 213.38

Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics






1NI
7')
tM







g-3


Table XXV
Imports of Certain Important Food Products into the United Kingdom from Eastern
European Countries in 1966 and 1967
(million US dollars)


Origin Alani
Products

Meat and live 1966
animals 1967

Buttera/ 1966
1967

Cheese 1966
1967

Eggs 1966
1967
Cereals, flour and 1966
other processed 1967 -
products
Fruit and 1966 -
vegetables 1967
Sugar and honey 1966
1967
Total foodstuffs 1966
1967 -


Bulgaria


0.03
0.01

0.85
1.04

o.0'
0.33--


0.01


0.46

5.15
5.19

0.26

6.07
7.30


Czecho-
slovakia

0.93
0.73




0.01
0.04

0.11
0.10




0.78
0.89
2.25
1.62

4.08
3.38


Germany,
eastern


0.06

0.04
0.03
0.09
0.28

0.13
0.37


Hungary

2.61
2.98

1.54
1.86

0.18
0.22

0.04
0.27

0.05
0.05

3.79
5.42
0.03
0.05

8.24
10.85


Poland


55.00
57.86

14.34
16.51

0.17
0.27

1.94
2.03

0.05
0.02

4.53
5.14
1. 18
3.46
77.21
85.29


Romania


0.47
3.07

5.27
5.00

0.12
0.13

0.28
0.20

6.38
28.26

1.03
2.84
0.06
0.10

13.61
39.60


USSR


0.12


0.33
0.01








2.20

0. 04
0. 07
.- -----
0.09


0.58
2.28


Total


59.16
64.65

22.33
24. 2

0.52
0.99

2.37
2.61

6.48
31.05

15.36
19.58
3.7U
5.77

109.92
149.07


Source: UN Commodity Trade Statistics
a/ Statistics from the United Kingdom indicate: for 1966: Romania 2.30; for 1967: Bulgaria 1.06, Hungary 1.89,
Poland 15.28, Romania 3.28. Possibly the difference is partially due to the devaluation in mid-November 1967.
b/ 0.34 according to statistics from the United Kingdom.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 39

B. MOVEMENT OF TRADE IN THE PRINCIPAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
I. European Trade in Cereals
(a) The World Market in 1961/
In 1967/68 the world production of wheat was excellent, though it had declined
by 2.2 per cent from the record level of 1966/67. This decline was principally due
to a decline in the USSR harvest by 18.3 per cent from the previous year's exceptionally
high level. However, the important feature was the expansion of 11.7 per cent in the
developing countries' production. Particularly in the Far East, where the two
previous harvests had been bad, favourable climatic conditions, together with
technical advances and the introduction of high-yield strains of both wheat and
rice, enabled production to resume its advance. Accordingly, the world production
of wheat was better distributed in 1967/68, and this improvement in the geographical
distribution of supply led to a contraction of the import demand.
The strong upward trend of the international wheat trade, which had been a
conspicuous feature over the previous six years, was followed by a decline of
8.7 per cent in the 1966/67 season. As a result of the present abundance of supplies
and the favourable harvest prospects for the northern hemisphere in 1968, a further
decline in international trade took place in 1967/68. The growing scarcity of
outlets, together with the appearance of such new exporting countries of secondary
importance as Greece and Spain, has stiffened competition and depressed 1967/68
prices. The world's five principal exporters held, at the end of the 1967/68 season,
stocks which, while abundant (38 million tons approximately), were not excessive.
The world market tends to oscillate rather abruptly between the threat of
shortage and the threat of over-supply. It is very difficult to foresee whether the
international trade in wheat, now faced with a general rise in national productions,
is destined to fall regularly and lastingly. The movement of the market may be
substantially altered by mere vagaries of climate.



1/ For the different groups of products considered in this document (cereals,
meat, dairy products, sugar) the presentation of the world market situation
follows the main lines of the FAO Commodity Review 1968.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 40


In 1967/68, the world wheat price was below the minimum price fixed by the
International Grains Arrangement concluded in 1967 and which came into force on
1 July 1968. This price is approximately 12 per cent above that which was in force
under the International Wheat Agreement. It was established at a time when there was
still a threat of a shortage and in 1967/68 it was sometimes felt that the market
situation could make it rather difficult to implement the Arrangement. Since July 1968
world export prices of most major wheats have in fact generally been above the minimum
in the new International Grains Arrangement and, when necessary, steps have been
taken by exporting countries to see that prices have been maintained.
World production of coarse grains continued to progress (1.6 per cent) in 1967/68.
The biggest rises were recorded in the United States (11.2 per cent), the European
Economic Community (15.0 per cent) and the United Kingdom (6.8 per cent). Production
increased slightly (0.6 per cent) in the developing countries, while in the USSR
it remained practically unchanged. World production of barley and maize increased
by 5.2 per cent and 9.7 per cent respectively to a record level, while the production
of oats, with a decline of 3.9 per cent, continued its long-term trend.
It is estimated that world exports of coarse grains declined in volume by
5.4 per cent in 1967 (an increase of 9.3 per cent in barley and a decrease of
3 per cent in maize). The fall-off in maize transactions is noteworthy in that it
succeeds the persistent and substantial advance recorded since 1955. Its explanation
is to be sought mainly in the fact that western Europe, the principal importing
region, had two successive excellent harvests of feed grain in 1966 and 1967. World
prices of maize declined substantially in 1967, and the slowing down of international
trade raised the level of stocks at the end of the 1967/68 season. However, these
stocks are not excessive in view of the general trend in the demand for feeding
stuffs.
(b) Trade of Western Europe: Structure by Products and Geographical Distribution
(i) IpoErt
(Tables 5 to 8 and XXVI)
In 1967 western Europe's wheat production rose by 16.2 per cent, with the result
that import requirements fell substantially (by 16.5 per cent in volume and 13.8 per cent
in value). The European Economic Community's purchases remained, in value, at the
same level as in 1966, the rise in western Germany offsetting the decline in Italy.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
paEe 41

For the second year in succession the United Kingdom's purchases diminished substantially:
by 5.3 per cent from 1965 to 1966 and by 4.8 per cent from 1966 to 1967. But the
biggest decreases were those, subject to abrupt variations, of imports into Turkey
($US 17.2 millions in 1966 and $US 2 millions in 1967) and Yugoslavia ($US 98.3 and
29.5 millions).
For coarse grains, western European production increased by 8.0 per cent from
1966 to 1967 (a rise of 14.1 per cent for barley, but a decline of 6.6 per cent for
maize). This abundance of feed-grain supplies caused a reduction, in value, in
imports of barley (by 3.9 per cent) and, more particularly, maize (9.0 per cent).
The decline in maize imports contrasts with the trend in previous years: from 1959
to 1966 maize purchases had increased at a compound annual rate of 21.1 per cent
for the European Economic Community and of 4.6 per cent for EFTA. The increased
importance of maize in livestock raising is explained in the case of producing
countries by the gains in productivity and the growth of availabilities and in that
of users by the cost advantage over other coarse grains. In the last few years
the industrialized countries' imports of foodstuffs have increased particularly in
regard to three groups: maize; live animals and meat; fruit and vegetables. These
are products the demand for which grows with rising incomes and levels of living,
maize being an essential raw material in meat production.
The decline in western European maize imports in 1967 was principally due to
Italy, which reduced its purchases from the 1966 levels of 5 407 thousand metric tons
and $US 355.7 millions to 3 389 thousand metric tons and $US 221.8 millions
respectively. The reason for this was the raising, in July 1967, of both the target
prices and the intervention prices for coarse grains under the common agricultural
policy. The continuous rise in the demand for livestock products in Italy, together
with the change in the price relationships between coarse grains and meat and live
animals, resulted in a decrease in maize imports by 37.9 per cent in value terms,
while meat and livestock imports increased by 22.6 per cent, after having risen
by 15.9 per cent in 1966.
Spain's imports of coarse grains, which had increased considerably in recent
years, fell off slightly in 1967. If the agricultural policy adopted in that country
under the Second Development Plan (1968-1971) attains its targets, a further decline








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 42

must be expected, for, with a view to adapting output to the pattern of demand and to
reducing the deficit in external trade in agricultural products, the Plan makes
provision for a decrease of 700 000 hectares in the area under soft wheat and for
respective increases of 600 000 hectares in the area unaer barley and oats and of
300 000 hectares in that under maize and sorghum. For the purpose of effecting this
shift, changes in the price relationships between the various cereals have been
decided upon, but too substantial a rise in the price of coarse grains must be
avoided if stock-breeders' production costs are to be kept at their present level.
The problem is similar for Greece. Its imports of maize increased in value
by a factor of 4.3 between 1960-62 and 1967. In 1966 and 1967 Greece appeared as
a new exporter of wheat to the extent of 440 000 tons on an average. The measures
taken with regard to the 1967/68 season therefore sought to accelerate the
re-organization of production in such a way as more fully to meet the demand for
livestock feedingstuffs. The prices and subsidies system was modified in favour of
coarse grains.
Despite the decrease in western European maize imports in 1967, the shares of
both maize and barley were increasing by comparison with that of wheat.

Table 5
Relative Proportions of WheatL Barley and Maize
in Western European Imports
(percentages)


Commodity 1963-65 1965 1966

Wheat 40.5 38.2 36.0
Barley 13.7 14.3 15.0
Maize 45.8 47.5 49.0

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0


1967

34.5
16.0
49.5


100.0


Source: Table XXVI


_ _








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 43


Table 6
Movement of Western European Cereals Imports
y Pr(milion U dllas anid pReg rientg
(million US dollars and percentages)


Commodity



Wheat 1963-65
1965
1966
1967

Barley 1963-65
1965
1966
1967

Maize 1963-65
1965
1966
1967


Total
(million
US dollars)


859.1
915.7
921.0
793.8

291.4
342.2
383.5
368.7

970.4
1 136.6
1 251.3
1 138.5


Origin (per cent of total)
- -.... .... . .. .. ... .......... ..- --


Western


Europe

16.3
20.3
20.5
24.2


54.8
56.3
65.2
73.0

11.1
14.8
14.1
18.7


Eastern
Europea/

2.1
0.2
0.9
6.3

5.2
8.7
2.7
2.3

5.4
4.0
0.8
3.9


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics
a/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany.


Rest of
the world

81.6
79.5
78.6
69.5

40.0
35.0
32.1
24.7

83.5
81.2
85.1
77.4


I







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 44

Table 7
Cereals: Development of Selected Prices of International Significance


Commodity 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967

SWheat a/ 1.66 1.76 1.95 1,97 2.05 1.94 2.07 2.04
b/ 24.,3 2, ; 25.7 25.6 2).7 25.4 27.0 26.9
SBarley 21.0 21.5 2.4 22,3 22.7 24.6 25.5 ...
Liaiz d/ 20.8 20 0 19.6 22.0 22.3 23.4 23.8 23.0

Souc-:e: FAO Month~_-ly Bulletin of Agricultural Econoimics and Statistics

/ Canadra No. 1 INorthern basis in store, Fort William Fort Arthur, export price
(Class II), Can.$/601b.
.b/ Australian, United Kingdom, nearest forward shipment, c.i.f., /long ton.
c/ Canada No. 2, European ports, nearest forward shipment, /long ton.
d/ US No. 3, yellow (No. 2 from June -to September 1965) United Kingdom, nearest
forward shipment, c.i.f., /long ton.

Table 8
Unit.Values of Western European Cereal Imports
(US dollars per metric ton)


'Commodity 1963-65 1964 1965 1966 1967
----- -- --+-----------------i-~-----,--------.
Wheat 74.8 76.2 73.7 75.6 78.0

Barley 67.1 66.0 70.6 76.5 74.5-

Maize 64.2 64.0 67.1 67.0 65.1

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics

(II) EXortS
(Tables 9, 10 and XXVII)
From 1966 to 1967, western European exports of wheat decreased by 26.9 per cent
in volume and by 19.3 per cent in value. Exports of barley and maize, on the other
hand, increased respectively by 21 per cent and 31.9 per cent in volume and by 14 per
cent and 18.6 per cent in value. Variations in the net trade in these three cereals
were as follows:







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
pago 45


Table 9
Western Eurojpe's Net Trade in Wheat, Barley and Maize in 1966 and 1967
(million US dollars and thousand m.t.)


Million dollars Thousand m.t.
Commodity
Imports Exports Balance Imports Exports Balance

1966
Wheat 921.0 381.4 602.6 1 12 188.6 4 377.3 7 311.3
Barley 383. 262.2 121.3 i 013.2 374. 1 638.7
Maize 1 251.3 163.7 1 07.6 18 668.9 2 097.9 16 571.0
Total 2 555.8 744.3 1 811.5 35 870.7: 10 349.7 25 521.0

1967
-heat 793.8 256.9 536.9 10 177.0 3 563.2 6 613.8
Barley 368.7 299.0 69.7 4 948.4 4 083.5 864.9
Mi izo 1 138.5 194.2 944.3 17 489.0; 2 766.1 14 722.9
Total 2 301.0 750.1 1 550.9 43 614.4 10 412.8 33 201.6


reduction in


only


wheat exports is, of course, attributable to France, western


large exporter. As a result of the poor harvest of 1966, France's


sales in 1967 were 40 per cent below the average of 1965 and 1966, but they were very
little (3.3 per cent) below the average level of the period 1960-66. France also
largely accounts for the increase in western European exports of barley and maize.
French sales of those two cereals reached a record high level in 1967; in value they
exceeded the 1966 levels by 20.6 per cent in the case of barley and by 17.9 per cent
in that of maize. Since 1960-62 they have increased by a factor of 3.1 in the case of
barley and 6.5 in that of maize. Barley exports from thu United Kingdom, although
8.9 per cent below the 1966 level, reflect the expansion in production and are still
well above the average level for the years 1960-65. Sweden's exports reached a record
high level exceeding by a factor of 2.3 the average for the period 1960-66. Exports
of maize from Yugoslavia, which are subject to wide variation from year to year, were
particularly high in 1967.
Table 10 shows the destination of western Europe's exports of cereals by large
regions.


The
Europe's


i









?aw;e 46



Western Europe s Cereals Expozts by Principal
Region of Destination in 1966 and 1967
(nmi D7 ,l' r? I o lr.q nd percentages)


Total _Destination (per cent of total)
Commodity (million
oC y llios Western Europe Eastern/ Rest of
/ Total of which Europe the
S E world


Whset 3:8.4 43.0 22.4 40.1 16.9
Barley 262.2 92.9 60.4 3.4 3.7
Maize 163.7 98.5 64.6 1.2 0.3


Wheat 256.9 64.4 41.2 4.4 31.2
2arl.ey 299.0 87.8 62.0 7.5 4.7
Maize 1.94.2 96.7 56.6 0.4 2.9

Soaure: United Nations Cormodity Trade Statistics
a'' Excluding trade between western Giermany and eastern Germany.
It is still too early to evaluate the influence on the western European cereals
-:arkjt of the international agreements concluded in 1967. It is only possible to note
that since the unification of the Colmmunity market on 1 July 1967 the share of French
wheat in Community imports has increased. In coarse grains, comparison of the second
half of 1967 with the second haif u~ i966 shows that intra-EEC purchases accounted
for a larger share (15.5 per cent, as against 11.8 per cent) of the imports of t1h S6fx.
However, western Germany, the principal irpor'ter, bought a smaller proportion from its
partners (23 per cent as against 32.9 per cent),
The International Grains Arrangement came into force on 1 July 1968, and it is
difficult to foresee its effects on European trade. The Food Aid Convention, which it
includes, requires the Community to contribute 23 per cent of the 4.5 million metric
tone of cereals which it was decided to distribute annually for three years. The other
Eurcpean signatory countries represent a further 8J. per cent, including 5 per cent
as the United Kingdom's contribution. The aid may be in the form of wheat, of the
equivalent in coarse grains, or of cash, and be either bilateral or multilateral.








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 47


Donor countries may specify the recipient countries. Those which are large importers
of cereals, such as western Germany and the United Kingdom, might increase their
imports in consequence. However, they might also meet their undertakings in cash,
which must be used by the recipient countries to purchase cereals, giving priority to
exporting developing countries. There are two final questions: where will the
food-aid cereals come from, and to whom will they be distributed? There are many
uncertainties in this connexion. Early in the summer of 1968 the Six decided that
in most cases the cereals sent to recipient countries would-came from member countries
of the Community.
(c) Trade between Western and Eastern Europe
Tables 11, XXVIII and XXIX)
As Table 11 shows, the year 1967 brought a reversal of the 1966 situation which
principally affected the trade in wheat.
Table 11
Cereals Trade of Western Europe with Eastern Europe in 1966 and 1967
(million US dollars)


1966 1967
Commodity
Imports Exports Balance Imports Exports Balance

Wheat 8.1 127.8 -119.7 50.3 11.4 38.9
Barley 10.4 8.9 1.5 8.3 22.4 -14.1
Maize 10.4 1.9 8.5 44.0 0.8 43.2

Total 28.9 138.6 -109.7 102.6 34.6 68.0

The strong decline of western European wheat exports is mainly attributable to
France, whose sales fell from $US 110 millions to $US 10 millions and from 1 890 000 to
174 000 metric tons because of the good harvests of 1966 and 1967 in eastern Europe.
Greece, which had placed a substantial proportion of its wheat sales in eastern Europe
in 1966, also sold virtually no cereals there in 1967. On the other hand, east-west
deliveries of wheat and maize increased considerably over the 1966 level. This was
mainly because of Italy stepping up its wheat purchases from the USSR and its maize
purchases from Bulgaria and Romania. The latter country also sold much more wheat
and maize to the United Kingdom than in 1966.






ST/ECE/AG c /38
?age 48


Imports of Wheat, Barley


Table XXVI
and Maize into Certain Western European Countries
(million US dollars)


Region, country and commodity


European Economic Community
wheat
barley
mai ze
of which: Germany western
whea t
barley
maize


Ital
wheat
barley
maize
Netherlands
wheat
barley
maize


wheat
barley
maize


of which: Denmark
wheat
barley
maize
United Kingdom
wheat


barley
maize


Spain


whe at
barley


1963-65


321.6
168.7
593.1


125.2
83.9
135.9


51.0
45.5
259.7


52.0
15.9
112.3


'376.3
77.9
274.7


1.2
20.6
9.4


299.8
21.6
213.8


9.5
35.8


1965 1966


354.5
210.3
727.1


120.0
103.1
177.0


81.8
55.6
337.7


59.2
21.1
111.9


4.04.2
85.3
283.4.


0.6
21.3
10.7


320.5
20.0
215.0


9.5
35.9


maize 79.5 103.7

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


368.5
253.6
765.0


126.1
133.1
192.5


96.3
68.4
355.7


42.4
16.8
122.9


403.8
83.6
297.7


0.6
25.7
14.2


302.1
10.1
216.4


5.1
40.1
160.7


1967



368.8
249.6
645.7


148.2
130.8
173.3


74.3
56.6
221.8


51.8
16.7
144.0


373.6
85.9
299.9


2.0
25.1
13.7


287.6
15.3
235.6



31.6
166.6


M I m


i --.~-----~~~.~1I.II-~- -pl---i--l---r---^l^- ---:


i---s-------^----U'--~"---- --


EFTA I


------------------------+------- 3------------~------- -








Sr: .CE/AC. GRI/32
page 49



Table XXVII
Exports of Wheat. Barley and Maize from Certain Western European Countries
(million US dollars)

Region, country and commodity 1963-65 1965 1966 1967

European Economic Community
wheat 240.5 309.7 273.9 189.4
barley 147.4 146.3 171.7 203.8
maize 101.3 148.8 140.8 147.6
of which: France
wheat 206.5 270.6 240.2 154.0
barley 128.3 124.7 152.0 183.3
maize 48.4 51.5 109.0 128.5
Netherlands
barley 14.5 15.5 11.8 12.7

EFTA
wheat 21.7 24.8 13.5 16.8
barley 27.9 41.6 84.5 83.5
maize 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.5
of which: United Kingdom
barley 9.6 -13.2 66.9 59.4
Sweden
wheat 14.7 19.2 8.7 14.2
barley 6.0 7.4 3.4 9.4

Yugoslavia
maize 3.6 3.5 22.4 46.1


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics









Table XXVIII'

Imports of Cereals, Flour and Other Processed Products into Western European Countries from Eastern


European Countries in 1966 and 1967
(million US dollars)


S -... Origin

Destinationr--.


Belgium-Luxembourg
Germany, western
Italy
Netherlands
European Economic
Community


Bulgaria


1966 1967


- -

0.02 -
0.86 10.64
-


1.15 10.64


Czecho-
slovakia


SGermany,
eastern


S1966 1967 1966 1967


2.58i
S0.62
1.81,
. 0.54;


5.55


2.58 37.93 38.30
0.76 -

1.331 -
0.27! 0.27! 0.78


4.94L


Poland


Romania


USSR


1966 1967 1966 1967 11966 j1967


2.66
0.68
0.38


S0.65
S0.28

S1.40
.0.03


:i -s-- -


38.20 39.08


3.73i


2.36


0.81 13.27|
- 1.69

3.07 13.851
0.03 -0.27


I 3.91 29.081


-
0.011
2.75
- i


1.99
0.17

4.04
6.49


2.76 12.69
i


Total


1966 j1967

44.90! 57.36
1.33. 2.90
8.96. 31.34
0.8/z 7.86

56.31 99.59


Austria

Denmark
Finland
Portugal
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom
Yugoslavia


0.04




2.89;


0.02


o.04


0.05

0- 39
0.39
1.27

0.46
0.02


2.39


0.79


-- I

0.02
-

0.65
1.97
2.06


0.56:




0.03'


0.72:

2.44!
2.40!


I





0.101
0.021
1.26;


0.13
0.04


0.06
0.26
0.02

1.09


4.10


0.17


0.05!
0.171
0.03
-


1.41
0.311
0.25

0.55
0.02

0.55
0.05
-


3.07; 2.271




0.68 0.90i
6.38 28.26


0.75i 0.95
0.83!


Source: U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics


A'-
0
,a L


3.33


- i


0.45




1.561

- !


8.13
0.01
0.62

3.59-
6.48;
2.50i
2.78

3.36:


2.20
1.84


8.09

0.44
6.95
2.75

31.05
3.39
3.49
6.78


Western Europe 4.1415.22 12 12.12.04139.70'40.90 8.70 5.57 14.79 63.67' 4.77 29.66 85.31 68.21


I w


------ --- I --


* -- -


I I I I


_ -c--4--~


__ ~I i ._~I I -C -h -L1


I


'~----`


I


T I


- ----------- --


1


i_ i i i -t----~----e


-T


i











Table XXIX
Exports of Cereals, Flour and Other Processed Products from Western European Countries to
Eastern European Countries in 1966 and 1967
(million US dollars)


Belgium-Luxembourg
France
Germany, western
Italy
Netherlands
European Economic
Community

Denmark
Greece
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
Yugoslavia


Bulgaria Czechoslovakia


1967 1 1966


0.04
0,43
- i
-


0.33
0.01
0.01


0.43
31.39
1.33

0. 02


0 47 0.35 32.77 1


0.03 1
10.14 0.50 0.02 C
0.15 0.37 1.05 1
0.25
0.15 C

S1.87 0.13 -


Germany,
eastern


1967 1966 1967


0.05
0.04
0.06
1.57
0.01


-.73


.40
:.01
-.44
- 1
1.24
).01


1.46
30.70

0.12
0.32


32.60


4.20

0.70
0.48
0.37
2.00
0.17


Hungary


1966


4.32
4.51
0.16


0.01


0.01


2.20

0.06
1.13
0.34
1.74
0.12


8.99

i-

0.211
0.61

0.05

0.25


1967


0.01
0.28
0.91
0.01


Poland


1966 1967


1.22
36.94
2.35

0.46


1.21 40.97


0.02
1.36

0.06

0.32


2.81

1.52
1.52

1.48


24.23
0.16
1.82
- ~


26.21


0.03

1.88

0.06
3.70


USSR


1966


0.41
10.15

0.01
-


10.57


0.02

1.49
0.01

0.56
0.01


Total


1967 1966 1967


2.70


0.01


3.12 0.05
113.545 27. 0
8.62 0.51
0.29i 4.34
0.80g 0.07


2.71 126.37i


0.01

6.19
0.01

0.12


32.37


7.061 3.65
10.371 0.53
5.52: 11.30
2.261 1.14
0.57i 0.70
4.06: 5.62
2.30i 0.57


Western Europe 12.63 1.35 34.32 4.85 40.52 -5.92 10.12 3.31 49.24 31.88 12.94 9.19 159.85i56.77
_______ --____________a~~S~l,;~J~~;;~ 31. 88~l~


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


tJ)


cD


lid


---


i


--- -I Iy-


i- -------*---------*--- -C-----r-- ---- ------c---i-----c------- ~-----g-------------t -----~----


-C


----


------). ----------c.-~-~t-- ------c- ------c---t-----3- -------t------+------r


I








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 52


II. European Trade in Live Animals and Meat
(a) The World Market in 1967
World meat production and world trade in meat continued to develop in 1967. The
production of meat of bovine animals increased by 3 per cent over 1966 a smaller rise
than in 1966, when the increase had been exceptional. In western Europe the production
of meat of bovine animals increased by 5 per cent, and in the USSR the progress was
even more marked (8 per cent) as a result of the increase in the numbers of bovine cattle
The volume of world exports of meat of bovinou nimals rose by 4 per cent in 1967..
In particular, exports of carcass beef from western Europe, especially from Irr(-and,
increased substantially. In consequence of the rise in production in the importing
countries, beef prices declined for the second year in succession. Mainly on account
of cyclic fluctuations, the production of pig-meat rose substantially (by 5 per cent),
more particularly in North America and in western Europe (the European Economic
Community principally). The volume of world exports was 2 per cent higher than in
1966. The abundance of supplies together with the increased production of other meat
brought about a decline in the import demand in such countries as western Germany,
France and Spain. On the other hand, Italy's imports increased considerably.
Generally speaking, pig-meat prices declined substantially on the principal markets
in 1967.
World production of mutton advanced by 4 per cent and mutton exports by 2 per cent.
United Kingdom purchases, which represent more than one-half of world imports, were
8 per cent higher than in the preceding year, though they did not reach the high level
of the early 1960's. Production of poultry meat increased in most of the important
producing countries. The increase was, for example, of 16 per cent in western Germany,
the principal importer, and of 12 per cent in the USSR. Considerable surpluses
accumulated as a result of the development in recant years of large production units
for raising broilers.
(b) Western European Trade
(i) Imports (Tables 12, 13 and XXX)
Western European imports of live animals, meat and meat preparations increased
by 2.3 per cent in value from 1966 to 1967. The rates of increase over the previous
year had been 2.6 per cent in 1966 and 8.6 per cent in 1965. The slowing down noted
in 1966 in the growth of imports had thus become even more marked in 1967. Just as
the considerable rise in imports in 1965 had been caused by the rather low level of
production, the slightness of their increase from 1966 to 1967 was due to the marked
recovery in production.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 53

Imports into the European Economic Community, on the contrary, rose more steeply
in 1967 than in 1966 by 6.6 as against 1.1 per cent. Italy was principally
responsible for this rise, its purchases increasing further by 22.6 per cent. From
1960-62 to 1967 the value of Italian imports of livestock and meat quadrupled. In
1967 Italy accounted for 21.6 per cent of western Europe's imports, as against 8.9 per
cent in 1960-62. Its imports comprise more than 300 000 metric tons of meat and 1.3
million head of livestock, principally young bovine animals intended for fattening.
The Italian production of pig-meat having been stationary in recent years, imports of
this product increased considerably in 1967.
In contrast, western German purchases dropped appreciably for the second year in
succession: by 9.9 per cent in 1966 and by 15.1 per cent in 1967. While imports of
carcass beef advanced somewhat, those of livestock from Denmark, traditionally the
principal supplier, declined markedly by 51.6 per cent in live weight.
Imports of live animals and meat into EFTA fell off slightly (1.8 per cent) in
1967, mainly on account of Austria (35.1 per cent) and the United Kingdom (1.9 per cent).
The reduced quantities of carcass beef imported by the latter country from Oceania and
Argentina were not offset by the increased purchases from Ireland. However, imports
of Irish store cattle rose very considerably in numbers (from 567 000 head in 1966 to
650 000 head in 1967) and in value (by 6.4 per cent).
Table 12
Western European Imports of Meat, Live Animals and Meat Preparations-
by the Principal Regions of Origin
(million US dollars and percentages)

SOrigin (per cent of total)
ear i Total
millionn dollars) Western Eastern/ Rest of the
Europe Europe world
1963-65 2 653.4 58.6 09.0 42.4
1965 2 971.2 56.9 10.2 32.9
1966 3 047.0 55.5 13.1 31.4
1967 i 3 118.5 60.1 12.8 27.1

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics
a/ SITC 00 and 01
b/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 54

Table 13
Meat : Development of Selected International Prices


Commodity 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967

Meat of bvine
animals / 28.6 26.5 27.8 25.9 32.7 35.1 33.0 31.9
Bacon b 283 262 259 278 297 282 322 321

Source: FAO, Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Economics and Statistics
a/ United Kingdom, Smithfield Market, London; Argentine meat of bovine animals,
hindquarters, chilled; pence/lb.
b/ United Kingdom, Danish bacon, selection A, ex quay, London Provision Exchange;
sh/112 lb.
(ii) Exports Tables 14, 15 and XXXI)
Exports of meat and livestock from western Europe had remained practically
stationary in 1966, at a level slightly above $US 2 000 million. In 1967, as a
result of the abundance of supplies of bovine meat and pig-meat, they rose by 8.9 per
cent over the preceding year.
Sales by the European Economic Community had also remained unchanged in 1966;
they increased by 20.7 per cent from 1966 to 1967. From 1960-62 to 1967 they
doubled in value. The 1967 advance was mainly attributable to western Germany, which
almost doubled its 1966 deliveries. Its sales to the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic
Union increased by 70.3 per cent, and its sales to the Netherlands by 8.4 per cent.
The share of the Netherlands in Community sales was 51.2 per cent in 1967. The
Netherlands and Belgium together substantially increased their exports of pig-meat;
they were helped in this connexion by the establishment of the single Community
market on 1 July 1967.
EFTA exports declined somewhat (3.3 per cent), to a level lower than that of
1965. This decline was due to Denmark, whose exports fell by 6 per cent, in
consequence of the considerable reduction in its sales of bovine animals to western
Germany. However, Danish exports of pig-meat remained at approximately the same
level as in 1966, despite a decline in sales to the EEC.
After having reached a record level in value terms in 1964 and remained stationary
in 1965 and 1966, Irish exports in 1967 attained a new maximum in the neighbourhood of
fJS 300 millions. For the first time since 1960, sales of livestock (principally
store cattle supplied to the United Kingdom) were lower than those of meat; from
1960 to 1966 they had represented, on the average, 60 per cent of the combined exports
of live animals and meat, but in 1967 their share fell to 45.5 per cent.








ST/ECF /A CRI/32
paF5 55


The following table shows the pattern of western European exports of live animals
ai.d msat in 1966 and 1967, by principal destinations:
Table 14
ITestern Europ.n: Exports of Live Aniimals and Meat by
Principal Regions of Destination
(million US dollars and percentages)


Destination (per cent of total)
Commodity Total
(million dollars) Western Europe jEastern Rest of
Europe# i the world
Total of which: EEC Eurpe

1966

Live animals (00) 452.7 91.5 53.0 1.5 7.0
Meat (01) 1 566.3 82.5 43.8 j 1.6 15.9

Total 2 019.0 84.5 45.8 1.6 13.9
1967
Live animals (00) 524.8 93.3 57.4 1.0 5.7
Meat (01) 1 673.9 82.6 44.6 1.5 15.9

Total 2 198.7 85.1 47.6 1.4 13.5

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


a/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany
Table 15 shows, for some western European countries, how net


trade has developed,


in value, over the last few years. There has been a trend towards an increase in the
deficit for the European Economic Community, although the trend reversed in 1967.
This changing situation is attributable to Italy's trade. Other notable features
have been the decrease in western Germany's net imports, which in 1967 wore below
the 1960-62 level; the clear confirmation of the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union's
creditor position; and the advance in Dutch net exports.








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 56
Table 15
Net Trade in Live Animals and Meat of Certain European
Countries in Value
(million US dollars)

Region and country 1963-65 f 1965 1966 1967

European Economic
Community 608.5 730.0 736.5 681.5
Belgium-Luxembourg 11.2 16.4 12.1 47.0
France 102,5 120.4 136.4 125.1
Germany, western 368,2 485.7 441.4 327.7
Italy 418.6 452.1 521.9 652.7
Netherlands -292.0 -344.6 -351.1 -377.0
EFTA 491.0 487.7 510.1 513.8
of which:
Austria 17.0 16.8 2.7 24.2
Sweden 5.1 0.3 15.6 8.7
United Kingdom 1 015.3 1 032.0 1 087.1 1 065.3
Yugoslavia 140.9 -158.9 -144.7 147.0

(c) Trade between Western and Eastern Europe
(Tables XXXII and XXXIII)
Eastern Europe's share in western European livestock and meat imports in 1967
declined slightly from the level of 1966, in which year it had increased substantially.
The value of e'st-west deliveries remained unchanged at some $US 400 millions. Italy,
eastern Europe's biggest customer by far, increased its purchases still further and
substantially so in 1967 (by 19.1 per cent), after having increased them by 55.4 per
cent in 1966. In particular it was imports of meat, which rose in 1967, especially
those from Czechoslovakia and Hungary. The latter country also sharply increased
(by 47.3 per cent) its livestock sales to Italy. Western Europe's second largest
outlet for eastern European livestock breeders is western Germany, whose purchases fell
by more than 20 per cent, and which obtains the bulk of its supplies from eastern
Germany and Poland, A very large proportion of the United Kingdom's imports come from
Poland. They consist mainly of ham and meat preparations.
The percentage shares of eastern European deliveries in the total livestock and
meat imports of the main customers in 1967 are compared with the 1966 level in the
table below:
France Germany, western Italy United Kingdom
1966 16.2 19.4 26.3 5.0
1967 14.1 17.0 25.5 5.6
Sales to eastern Europe account for only a small proportion of total western
European livestock and meat exports. In 1967, three-fifths of these sales were to
eastern Germany, and were effected by western Germany and Denmark.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 57'

Table XXX
Imports of Liva Animals and Meat into Certain
Western European Countries
(million US dollars)


Region and country 1963-65 1965. 1966 1967

European Economic Community 1 20.5 21 450.5 1 466.4 1 562.8
Belgium-Luxembourg 67.3 85.9 76.3 103.6
SFrance 249.5 274.9 290.1 298.8
Germany, western 419.6 538.7 485.5 412.3
Italy 438.9 474.4 549.9 674.2
Netherlands 65.2 76.6 64.6 73.9

EFTA 1 270.3 1 323.5 1 361.0 1 33616
of which:
Austria 22.6 26.1 37.3 24.6
Norway 4.6 4.7 6.4 5.8
Portugal 8.5 10.0 8.5 22.7
Sweden 25.7 32.8 31.6 35.2
Switzerland 80.7 84.0 87.5 81.3
United Kingdom 1 126.1 1 163.4 1 186.7 1 164.2

Finland 1.5 2.1 10.3 1.9
Greece 46.2 67.4 67.5 71.8
Spain 53.6 84.9 99.4 86.8
Yugoslavia 6.9 10.5 19.7 27.8


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 58


Table XXI
Exports of Live Animals arid Meat


West rn European Countries
(in million US dollars)


from Certain


Region and country 1963-65 1965 1966 1967

European Economic Community 632.0 720.5 729.9 881.3
Belgium-Luxembourg 56.1 69.5 88.4 150.6
France 147.0 154.5 153.7 173.7
Germany, western 51.4 53.0 44.1 84.6
Italy 20.3 22.3 28.0 21.5
Netherlands 357.2 421.2 415.7 450.9


EFTA 779.2 835.8 850.9 822.8
of which:
Austria 39.6 42.9 34.6 48.8
Denmark 582.4 614.8 657.3 617.7
Norway 8.0 7.6 6.4 7.2
Sweden 30.8 32.5 47.2 43.9
United Kingdom 110.8 131.4 99.6 98.9

Ireland 249.6 251.0 252.8 296.8
Turkey 16.2 17.6 10.1 9.1
Yugoslavia 147 8 169.4 164.4 174.8


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics









Table XXXII
Imports of Live Animals and Meat into Certain Western European Countries from Eastern
European Countries

(million US dollars)

Origin
Bulgaria vzecho- Germany, Hungary Poland Romania USSR Total
._eovk astern _______ ________________________

Destin1966 1967 1966 1967 1966 19671 1966 1967 1966 1967 1966 1967 1966 1967 1966; 1967
Destination

Belgium-
Luxembourg 0.19 0.10 0.04 0.17 1.43 .2.38 0.03 1..30 1.64 1.61 0.17 0.25 0.02 3.521 5.81
France 3.83 2.39 2.72 2.23' 9,46 10.05 16.79 11.80. -9.29 9.95. 2.28 2.33 2.59 3.35146.9642.10

Germany, 1.43 0,85 3.181 3.24 27.78 27.98 25.41 12.73 31.56 25.23 5.03 4.67 0.01.94.3974.71
western i I j
Italy 23.90 19.40 3.02 11.26 11.01 16.99 41.76 61.76 33.95 32.52 28.90 28.43 1 1.61 1.54414..36 1-7L96
Netherlands 0.02 0.32 0.26 0.31 0.38 0.24 0.39 0.75 0.71- 0.01 1.02 1.01 2.661 2.76
European
Economic 29.37 22.74 9.28 17.16 49.99 57.78 84.23 86.98 77.19 70.02 36.38 35.69 5.24 5.91'291.89 297.34;
Community ,-i

Austria 5.00 1.56 0.77 0.75t 3.23 2.14 8.98 3.80 2.35 2.06- 1.88 1.04 0.65 0.19 22.86 11.54
Greece 7.12 4.35 0.06 0.09 2.47 2.08 1.54 0.97 0.02 0.29 11.21i 7.78
Spain 3.45 0.12 0.21i 1.62 1.43 0.42 1.48 0.78 1.14 8.97 0.79 4,97 10.03 15.35
Sweden 0.01 0.07 0.06 1.50 1.70 2.01 2.61 0.23 0.30 0.35 .30 4.16 4.98
Switzerland 0.13 0.61 0.18 0.11 0.21 0.82 6.29 5.53 2.73 3.03 0.06 0.52 0.03 0.10 9.63!10.72
United Kingdon 0.03 0.01 3 0.93 73 2.61 2.98 55.00 57.86 0.47 3.07 0.12 59.16 64.65
Y i 9 1 1.92 4.17 8'816 il70
Yugoslavia .9.97 1.52 0.02 0.78 0.95 0.01. 0.02 0.01 .1.60 1.92 4.17 8.58 16.53 13.02
..-.Western Europ.. 55 .72 114219 0 57 137. 49..
Western Europe 55.10 31.72 11.42-19.13 55.84 61.71 108.18 104.902.57 137.48 42.53 53.20/ 1. 4920..13 427.34 4283
---,------------i -----J55-- i 425-5.2-1_92_347i_3_4_ 3


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics
a/ Including Portugal, 0.75 in 1966 and.1.40 in 1967


V.
C-
c0
^!
ylK

a
w^
rM


__






Table XXXIII
Exports of Live Animals and Meat from Certain Western European Countries
to Eastern European Countries
(million US dollars)

Destination Bulgaria! Czechoslova Germany, Hungary: Poland USSR Total
eastern
Origin 1966 1967 1966 1967 1966f 1967 1961967. 196611967! 1966 19671 1966 1967
!European Economic
ICommunity 0.15 0.77 0.10 0.06 9.17 13.90 0.53 0.46 0.23 0.12 0.65 0.25 10.87 15.37
of which:
Germany, western 0.02 9.15 13.25 0.18 0.400.05 0.03 0.05 9.43 13.70

Austria 0.03 0.02 0.08 0.03 0.030.05 0.03 0.01 0.27 10.251 0.46 0.44
Denmark 0.03 0.26 2.63 0,53 6.46 11.06 0.7011.86 0.84 1.88 0.13 0.17110.80 116.43
Finland i 0.02 0.11 1.12 0.27 1.12 0.40
Norway 0.74 0.39 0.26 0.21 1.00 0.60.
Sweden .01 0.01 0.1 0 0.90 0.56 0.35 0.31 0.02 0.02 0.09 0.121 1.37 1.03
Yugoslavia 0.16 0.28 6.33 5.23 0.37 0.81 0.14i0.07 1.64 0.02 4.73 2.48 13.37 8.89

Western Europe 0.49 1.47 9.93 6.27 17.16 26.08 11.9012.86 12.84 2.32 9.18 3.76i41.60 43.84
0e4r 9ur32o9.18 '1 L 1.2.


Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


-a 02

01
o \
t
S.-


[Source: United








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 61


III. European Trade in Dairy Products and Eggs
(a) The World Market in 1967
Woorld milk output continued to expand in 1967, particularly in EEC, where a
3 per cent increase was achieved through higher yields per cow. Milk production in
the USSR increased by about 4 per cent, The volume of international trade in dairy
products increased substantially (by 10 per cent) over the 1966 figure. The increase
was most pronounced as regards butter and skim milk powder, whereas cheese sales
showed only a slight increase.
There was a general increase in butter production in 1967: 11 per cent in the
United States, per cent in EEC. 1 per cent in the other western European countries
and 3 per cent in Oceania, Despite this increase, consumption remained virtually
static, even declining slightly in EEC, where stocks again increased. Consumption
in the United Kingdom increased by about 4 per cent. On the whole, butter exports
showed a marked increase in 1967. The volume of EEC butter exports was 40 per cent
greater than in 1966, whereas those of the other western European countries decreased
by 3 per cent. So far as imports are concerned, EEC again was the most active source,
with an increase by volume of 25 per cent; some butter was imported from the USSR and
eastern Europe for re-export to third countries.
Production of skim milk powder increased considerably in 1967: by 6 per cent
in the United States, 28 per cent in EEC and 19 per cent in the other western European
countries. This increase in output resulted mainly from greater butter production and
a decline in the use of liquid skim milk for feeding livestock. Exports of skim
milk powder generally followed the some upward trend as production. United States
exports, mainly in the form of gifts, increased by 5 per cent, while those of EEC and
Oceania increased by 19 and 82 per cent respectively,
Cheese production continued to increase in most countries and regions (5 per cent
in western Europe). Generally speaking, demand continued to grow, but prices
stimulated supply more than demand, with the result that the main producers increased
their stocks. Trade expanded slightly in 1967, with an increase of 2 per cent by
volume in both imports to and exports from western Europe.
World egg production increased by 5 per cent in 1967 (2 per .cent in western
Europe, 6 per cent in the USSR and 3 per cent in eastern Europe). The tendency for
the main importers to become self-supporting gained strength. Thus western Germany,
the worlds biggest importer, increased its output ay 7 per cent in 1967 and now meets









ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 62



more than 90 per cent of domestic demand. This steady increase in national outputs
-nvolvces aacocntinuous declineiinworld-trade, which dropped a further 5 per cent in
volume and 12 per cent in value in 1967.
(b) Western European Trade
(Tables 16 to 18, XXXIV and XXXV)
(i) Butter
In 1967, despite the increase in production and the inflation of stocks,
western European imports of butter rose above the 1966 level, by 6.7 per cent in
volume and 3.6 per cent in value. This increase is due to the fact that the United
Kingdom; which accounted for 83.9 per cent of the value of these imports in 1967,
stepped up its purchases by 25 600 tons. The increase-mainly affected-imports of
the butyric concentrates described as "near-butters", consumption of which is growing
rapidly; these imports increased from 10 000 tons in-1966 to 30 000 tons in 1967.
Three-quarters of the supply came from EEC. Eastern Europe's share in western
European imports increased in 1967 as a result of larger purchases by EEC and the
United Kingdom from Poland, Romania and the USSR.
Western European butter exports increased in value by 9.6 per cent. Those of
EEC showed a considerable advance (23 per cent), whereas Danish exports declined
(by 5.4 per cent).
(ii) Cheese
Western European imports and exports of cheese increased by 4.3 and 5.6 per
cent respectively from 1966 to 1967. Net exports, in value terms, were recorded
for the second year in succession. Price increases in most of the producing countries
nade cheese a still more expensive commodity, as can be seen from the increase of 3 per
cent in import unit values in 1967, over and above the 15 per cent rise which occurred
between 1963-65 and 1966. EEC imports declined by 3.3 per cent (or 9 500 tons) in
volume and slightly in value. Because of the increase in threshold prices, the
decline mainly affected purchases from third countries. In volume terms, the
Community has become a net exporter of cheese. Up to and including 1965, import unit
values for western Europe were invariably higher for butter than for cheese, but the
situation was reversed in 1966 and this development was confirmed in 1967, when the
unit value of imported cheese was 7.4 per cent higher than that of imported butter.


1







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 63


(iii) Eggs
Following or rather, largely determining the pattern of world trade,
western European foreign trade in shell eggs and egg products continued to
shrink in 1967. The value of imports dropped by 10.4 per cent, to less than half
(49.4 per cent) of the 1960-62 figure. Exports declined by 7.5 per cent in 1966
and by 5.4 per cent in 1967. Import unit values dwindled further owing to the
continued reduction in outlets and trade, although they remained above the 1960-62
level in 1967.
Because of increased domestic output, and notwithstanding record consumption figures
western Germany's imports again diminished appreciably (by 13 per cent in 1966 and
15.2 per cent in 1967). Their value in 1967 was only two-fifths that of 1960-62.
Western Germany's main suppliers were Belgium and the Netherlands. Purchases by
Italy, the second largest importer in western Europe, also diminished in 1967,
standing at only 36.7 per cent of the 1960-62 value. The United Kingdom on the
other hand, in spite of increased production, stepped up its imports to some extent,
although their value was only half that recorded in the early 1960's.
As far as exports are concerned, sales from the Netherlands fell because of
a sharp decline in output which even obliged this country to import 10400-tons,
mainly from Belgium. As a result, the latter country's exports increased
substantially in 1967. Denmark's sales continued to decline, while its output
remahied at roughly the 1965 and 1966 level.


i







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 64


Table 16
Development of Imports of Certain Dairy Products and Eggs
into Western Europe by Principal Regions of Origin


millionon US dollars and percentages)


Source:


United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


a/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany.


Total Origin (per cent of total)
(million i
Commodity and year mollons) Western Eabtern / Rest of 'the
dollars)urope Europe world

Butter 1963-65 496.5 43-5 5.1 51.4
1965 506.1 46.8 4.8 48.4
1966 465.2 48.4 7.2 44.4
1967 482.1 50.5 8.3 41.2

Cheese 1963-65 336.9 75.1 1.5 23.4
1965 390.6 75.6 2.0 22.4
1966 416.8 80.0 1.2 18.8
1967 434.7 81.1 1.3 17.6

Eggs 1963-65 176.5 67.4 18.6 14.0
1965 162.1 61.5 22.2 16.3
1966 139.8 62.0 20.1 17.9
1967 125.3 65.6 20.7 13.7







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 65


Table 17
Unit Values of Inports of Dairy Products and
Emgs into Western Europe
(US dollars per netric ton)


Commodity 1963-65 1963 1964 I 1965 1966 j 1967

Butter 932.5 900.0 937.9 959.6 874.6 849.0
Cheese 769.7 701.9 761.0 846.2 885.3 911.5
Eggs 626.4 663.5 568.3 635.7 607.2 581.9

Source: United Nations Connodity Trade Statistics

Table 18
Dairy Products and Eggs: Development of Selected Prices
of International Significance


Comnodity 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967

SButter a/ 327 300 325 374 387 i368 363 373
b/ 309 256 298 i326 338 333 302 300

Cheese / 237 231 231 231 246 258 ;256 256
1 d_' i II __.8_ _
Eggs d .24 3.191 2.84 3.67 3.33: 3.79 3.69 .3.68
e/ 193 186 163 200 153 222 185 193

Source: FAO, Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Economics and Statistics
a/ United Kingdom: Danish butter, salted, London Provision Exchange, Sh/112 lb.
b/ United Kingdom: New Zealand butter, salted, finest, London Provision Exchange,
Sh/112 lb.
2/ United Kingdom: New Zealand cheese, waxed, finest, white, London Provision
Exchange, Sh/112 lb.
d/ Denmark: price of eggs paid to producers by the Danish Egg Export Co-operative,
Kroner/kg.
e/ Netherlands: Price to producers, Roermond auction sales, Quilders/100 kg.






Table XXXIV
Imports of Dairy Products and Eggs into Certain Western


European Countries


(million US dollars)


Region and country 1963-65 1965 1966 1967

Butter
European Economic Community 72.0 80.5 60.8 60.5
of which' Germany, western 22.2 14.8 14.4 14.1
Italy 30.9 42.1 28.8 36.8
EFTA 420.5 421.9 401.4 406.3
of which: Switzerland a 6.8 6.1 4.2 1.0
United Kingdom- 412.4 414.4 395.5 40'4.4
Cheese
European Economic Community 202.3 239.3 276.6 283.8
of which: Belgium-Luxembourg 30.0 36.3 42.5 43.4
France 25.7 35.3 37.1 38.0
Germany, western 87.8 98c6 118,7 123.9
Italy 54.6 62.7 71.5 70.6
EFTA 124.6 136.2 130.8 143.0
of which: Sweden 6.4 6.8 7.1 7.7
Switzerland 10.7 12.4 13.2 13.9
United Kingdom 103.7 112.8 106.1 117.0

European Economic Community 132.4 114.9 96.4 86.5
of which: France 4.7. 4.7 5.2 3.1
Germany, western 97.2 82.2 71.5 60.6
Italy 29.1 26.1 17.3 16.9
EFTA 40.0 41.1 37.4 34.2
of which: Austria 8.6 9.7 10.4 9.1
Switzerland 13.1 13.8 11.8 10.0
United Kingdom 15.9 15.3 12.2 12.6
Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


._/ According to statistics from the United Kingdom: 1965: 411.6, 1966: 386.4, 1967:


I-o

ON
-L-j


^


392.0







Table XXXV
Exports of Dairy Products and Eggs from Certain Western European Countries
(million US dollars)

'Region and Country 1963-1965 1965 1966 1967

Butter
European Economic Community 81.9 103.8 95.1 122.5
of which: France 36.2 34.1 45.2 56.0
Netherlands 30.6 31.7 34.9 39.8
EFTA 125.0 128.8 120.4 114.8
of which: Denmark 106.9 112.8 107.9 102.1
Ireland 18.8 19.5 21.3 25.1
Cheese
European Economic Community 188.2 224.9 262.3 280.4
of which: Belgium-Luxembourg 5.2 8.1 10.9 11.3
France 50.1 62.0 75.9 85.9
Germany, western 20-.9 26.8 31.7 33.9
Italy 35.0 38.9 37.8 35.9
Netherlands 77.0 89.1 106.0 113.4
EFTA 119.0 125.5 138.5 145.1
of which: Austria 8.6 10.5 11.1 12.7
Denmark 54.6 55.7 60.1 61.6
Switzerland 42.8 47.0 52.6 55.6
Ireland 5.9 7.0 9.6 13.2
Eggs
European Economic Community 101.3 85.8 73.0 69.5
of which: Belgium-Luxembourg 20.6 20.0 16.0 21.7
France 4.6 5.5 4.9 7.3
Netherlands 75.0 59.3 1 50.0 38.9
EFTA 24.8 19.9 22.3 20.3
of which: Denmark 18.3 13.4 13.0 11.8

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics


Cr2

HN


--








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 68

IV-; European Trade in Fruit a d Vegetables
(Tables 19 to 21, XXXVI and XXXVII)
(a) Fresh Fruit
The rate of increase in the value of western European imports of fresh fruit
diminished further in 1967, to only 1.6 per cent as against 2.5 per cent in 1966 and
17.8 pur cent in 1965. In the European Economic Community, the increase in imports
was the same as for western Europe as a whole. The Netherlands in particular increased
its purchases (by 15.7 per cent). As to the other western European countries, the
United Kingdom's purchases showed virtually no change in comparison with 1966.
As to imports of bananas, those of eastern Europe, accounting for 48.0 per cent
of the world total by volume, remained virtually unchanged at 2 630 000 tons. The
volume of EEC's banana imports declined by 2 per cent. Imports into western Germany,
which is second to the United States among world markets, showed no change. Those of
France dropped by 4 per cent owing to the sharp fall in production in Cameroon. Italy's
imports doubled in 1965 following the abolition of the State banana monopoly, but
showed no subsequent increase.
Imports into the United Kingdom dropped by 4 per cent because of a shortfall in
supply from the Caribbean. Purchases by.the Scandinavian countries, on the other
hand, increased by 12 per cent.
Western Europe has been an expanding market for the producing countries in recent
years. Its imports increaoud by 32.6 pur cent between 1962-64 and 1967. Competition
for this market is increasingly keen, the main criterion being quality. The adoption
cf the new practice of packing in cartons for shipment, which brings the fruit to the
market in better condition, is now being followed by the introduction of brands. This
competition in quality is likely to become even keener, since the EEC Commission is
in the process of drafting proposals for bringing bananas into the Community trade
system. The price mechanism which would be adopted for third countries might have
the effect of reducing price competition.
The volume of trade in citrus fruit is subject to fluctuations in output. In
1966-67, for example, world trade increased by about 6 per cent. This rate of increase,
which is considerably higher than that of previous seasons, mirrored a sharp increase
in production. In 1967-68, owing to unfavourable weather conditions, output fell by
about 10 per cent, and the volume of trade declined in the same proportion.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 69

Among importing countries as a whole, the demand for citrus fruit declined in
1967 owing to increased competition from other fruit and the slackening of economic
activity. In western Europe the development of trade was also affected by the fall
in output in Greece, Italy and Spain. The fixing of high reference prices in EEC,
the foremost importing region, was a further factor in the stagnation of demand. The
development of Community consumption in the near future will depend on the outcome of
the negotiations with Spain, the North African countries and Israel, and on the price
policy applied to third countries.
Purchases of oranges, tangerines or mandarines and clementines by EEC declined in
value in 1967. Western Germany was almost solely responsible for this decline, having
reduced its imports by 14.9 per cent from the 1966 figure, to a level scarcely higher
than that of 1960-62. Imports into EFTA declined by 3 per cent; all the member
countries except Austria contributed to that decline.
While western Europe's imports declined, those of eastern Europe showed a further
rapid rise, totalling 125 per cent by volume between 1962-63 and 1966-67.
The 1967-68 apple season in western Europe was one of over-supply as a result of
bumper harvests in several importing countries, particularly western Germany. Despite
the glut, France continued to increase its exports, whereas those of Italy in particular
fell off considerably. A few years ago France was a net importer; it is now the
second largest supplier ofthe European market, Italy being the first. The European
pear trade has declined by some 20 per cent, probably as a result of the fall in
Italian output.
Table 19
Development of Fresh Fruit Importsa into Western Europe
by Principal Regions of Origin
(million US dollars and percentages)


Year Total Origin (per cent of total)
(million dollars)
(m n Western Easter / Rest of the
Europe Europe- world

1963-65 1 615.2 46.6 1.3 52.1
1965 1 830.7 /47.0 1.5. 51.5
1966 1 875.7 47.3 1.2 51.5
1967 I 1 905.1 46.9 1-.4 51.7

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics
j/ SITC 051
b/ Excluding trade between western and eastern Germany.








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 70


Table 20
Development of Imports of Oranges, Tangerines or Mandarines
and Clementines into Western Europe/


Unit 1963-65 1965 1966 1967

A 445 479 498 474
B 2 708 2 832 2 925 2 797
C 164 169 170 169

A = million US dollars
B = thousand metric tons
C = unit value: dollars/ton
Source: FAO Trade Yearbook and United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics
/ SITC 051.1
While western European fresh fruit imports increased only slightly in 1967,
exports rose by 7.3 per cent. They had already risen by 5.8 per cent from 1965 to
1966. In 1967 they went to the following destinations:
Total Western of which: EEC Eastern Rest of the
(million dollars) Europe Europe/ world
(destination (per cent)
1966 831.6 87.0 59.4 9.0 4.0
1967 891.9 87.7 62.1 8.6 3.7
a/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany.
EEC sales, which remained unchanged between 1965 and 1966, increased by 9.2 per cent
in 1967. Mainly as a result of the increase in apple sales, France stepped up its
exports by more than 35 per cent from 1966 to 1967. Between 1960-62 and 1967, the
Community's net imports increased by more than $US200 million, exceeding $US640 million
in 1967.
In the 1967-68 winter season, citrus fruit production declined in Spain; this
explains the drop in exports.
(b) Vegetables
Western European imports scarcely increased at all in 1967, whereas they had
increased by 4.6 per cent in 1966. Western Germany, the biggest importer, reduced itis
purchases by 2.6 per cent, whereas France and the United Kingdom increased theirs by
10.3 and 7.2 per cent respectively.









*TT/ECEi/AGRI/32-
page 71


Table 21
Development of Imports. of Vegetables- into Western Europe
by Principal Regions of Origin
(million US dollars and percentages)


Origin (per cent of total)
Year Total Western Eastern Rest of the
(million dollars) Europe Europeb/ world


865.6
967.0
1 011.3
1 019.6


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics
a/ SITC 054
/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany.
Western European exports also showed only a slight increase. They
following destinations
Total Western of which: EEC Eastern
(million dollars) Europe Europe


__________________________________________ j


5.0
7.2
7.3
6.4


went to the


Rest of the
world


destination (per cent)


1966 632.1 89.7 61.4 1.4 8.9
1967 637.1 89.5 ....... 61.7 1.2 9.3
Between 1960-62 and 1967 the Community's net imports increased from about
4US 30 millions to more than $US 125 millions. In 1967 exports from France dropped
by 15.7.per cent, whereas those of the Netherlands continued to increase steadily, with
a rise of 5.9 per cent.


1963-65
1965
1966
1967


67.9
67.5
66.7
65.9


27.1
25.3
26.0
27.7


,


'









ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 72

Table XXXVI
Imports of Fruit and Vegetables into Certain Western European Countries
(million US dollars)


Region and country 1963-65 1965 1966 1 1967

Fresh fruit (051)
European Economic Community 983.2 1,139.1 1,150.5 1,168.9
Belgium-Luxembourg 56.0 66.2 73.6 77.6
France 289.1 312.2 341.3 338.1
Germany, western 534.4 627.0 598.2 604.3
Italy 41.7 65.8 63.4 63.3
Netherlands 62.0 67.9 74.0 85.6


Austria 49.4 63.4 60.0 52.0
Denmark 24.2 26.4 29.7 30.6
Finland 25.4 26.5 30.8 28.6
Ireland 13.1 14.3 16.5 17.4
Norway 33.6 36.8 40.0 39.1
Sweden 74.7 80.8 87.0 84.9
Switzerland 74.2 83.8 81.7 86.2
United Kingdom 322.6 340.7 365.2 367.3

Vegetables (054)
European Economic Community 523.7 609.2 635.2 634.5
Belgium-Luxembourg 36.0 39.3 49.7 44.8
France 149.1 144.6 163.6 180.5
Germany, western 271.3 1 328.8 321.2 313.0
Italy 36.4 I 48.5 44.1 45.8
Netherlands 30.9 48.0 56.6 50.4

w n 28.3 27.4 32.9 30.3
Switzerland 35.4 39.3 40.7 41.5
United Kingdom 208.6 200.0 217.1 232.8


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade


Statistics







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 73

Table XXXVII
Exports of Fruit and Vegetables from Certain Western European Countries
(million US dollars)


Region and country 1963-65 1 1965 1966 1967

Fresh fruit (0.51)
European Economic Community 416.9 481.2 480.9 525.0
of which: France 58.4 82.7 68.0 91.9
Italy 321.1 355.8 375.8 386.4
Netherlands 22.7 27.2 19.6 21.4
Greece 19.2 23.9 26.0 30.8
Portugal 5.4 6.7 6.4 6.3
SSpain 180.2 187.6 235.8 215.8
Turkey 65.5 73.3 67.0 98.7
Yugoslavia 7.1 4.9 3.2 3.7

Vegetables (0.54)
SEuropean Economic Community 439.3 497.3 500.6 508.4
Belgium-Luxembourg 48.9 53.9 47,7 50.8
France 43.8 56.6 56.2 47.4
Germany, western 19.5 20.1 18.7 21.9
Italy 84.9 95.4 107.1 101.5
Netherlands 242.2 271.3 270.9 286.8
-A1
Greece 4.3 5.3 6.7 9.1
Spain 53.8 55.2 52.5 54.9
STurkey 4.7 6.5 7.6 6.3
United Kingdom 10.3 17.8 22.3 17.8
SYugoslavia 11.8 12.2 12.6 11,3

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 74


V. European Trade in Sugar
(a) The World Market in 1967
Between 1966/67 and 1967/68 world production of sugar increased by about 2.4 per
cent. High yields of sugar beet made the rate of increase much higher in western
Europe (7.2 per cent) and eastern Europe (10.5 per cent). World consumption increased
by 2.6 per cent from 1966 to 1967. In the developed countries, such as those of
western Europe, the increase was smaller (1.4 per cent) and per canita consumption is
levelling off. Eastern Europe showed a greater increase in total consumption (3.4 per
cent). Over the last three years, owing to the low level of world prices, increasing
quantities of sugar have been used for animal consumption or for industrial purposes.
More than 500 000 tons were used for such purposes in 1967, mainly in the United States
and EEC.
Although world sugar production and consumption are more or less in balance, prices
on the free market are very low because the stocks left over from the 1964/65 season
are still heavy. However, world trade in sugar expanded considerably in 1967, total
exports increasing in volume by 9.1 per cent. Western European exports dropped by
about 10 per cent in volume, while those of eastern Europe rose in the same proportion,
The world market is still marked by the collapse of prices, and this situation will
persist until such time as an international agreement is concluded to co-ordinate
national sugar policies and to control supply.
(b) European Trade
(Tables 22 to 24, XXXVIII and XXXIX)
Between 1966 and 1967 western European imports of'sugar declined both in volume
(3.8 per cent) and invalue (6.3 per cent). This decline results from the fact that
production has risen considerably faster than consumption. In the European Economic
Community, output in the 1967/68 season totalled about 6.7 million tons, as against
6.1 million tons in 1966/67. This is 260 000 tons above the production quota fixed
by the Community. However, as a result of lower yields, output in France and its
overseas departments, at an estimated 2 million tons, remained well below the allotted
quota. Production in Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands, on the other hand, increased
considerably. The upshot was that the Community's imports were 5.0 per cent lower in
volume and 8.7 per cent lower in value in 1967 than in 1966. The most striking case is
that of Italy, whose imports averaged 435 900 tons a year for the period 1963-65 and
fell to 118 500 tons in 1967.









ST/ECE/AGRI/32
*nae 75


EFTA imports also declined in 1967 (3.9 per cent by value). This decline is mainly
attributable to the United Kingdom, which accounted for 48.6 per cent of the total value
of western European imports, and which bought 37 000 tons less than in 1966.
Western European exports dropped by 9.8 per cent. They went to the following
destinations:
Total
(million Testern of which: Eastern Rest of the
dollars) Europe EEC Eurooe/ world
destination (per cent)
19o6 171.0 46,8 28.0 0.4 52.8
1967 154.3 52.8 6.7 0.5 46.7
a/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany.
A noteworthy feature is the sharp drop (33.5 per cent) in sales from France as a
result of the fall in production.

Table 22
Development of Imports of Sugara/into Uestern Europe by
Principal Regions of Origin
(million US dollars and percentages)


Total Origin (per cent of total)
Year (million
dollars) Western Eastern Rest of the
Europe Europeb/ world

1963-65 845.3 16.8 10,7 72.5
1965 588.6 15.8 8.8 75.4
1966 618.5 14.2 8.1 77.7
1967 576.8 14.3 8.4 77.3

Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics
a/ SITC 061
b/ Excluding trade between western Germany and eastern Germany










ST/ECE/ACGRI/32
page 76



Table 23
Sugar: Development of Selected Prices of International Significance

1 --- ------
Transaction 1960 196 1962 '1963 19 162 !965 1966 1967


A 5.80 5.74 5.82 '7.56 .27 6.12 6.37 6.65

B .. 2.77 2.80 8.31 5.73 2.03 1.76 1.87

Source: FAO Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Econonics and Statistics
A United States Raw sugar, 960, c.i.f. New York, US c/lb.
B Cuba Raw sugar, 960, world sugar price calculated for implementation
of International Sugar Agreement, US c/lb.





Table 24.
Unit Values of Imports of Sugar into Western Europe
(US dollars per metric ton)


S1963-65 1965 1966 1967


S137.6 92.3 101.5 95.3

Source: United Nations Commfodity Trade Statistics







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 77


Table XXXVIII
Imports of Sugar into Western European Countries
(million US dollars)..-


Region and country 1963-65 1965 1966 1967

European Economic Community 252.8 173.7 172.4 157.4
Belgium-Lukembourg 10.5 4.7 8.4 8.1
France 78.6 74.8 82.5 73.5
Germany, western 50.0 40.4 49.3 43.4
Italy 77.0 34.2 12.4 7.5
Netherlands 36.7 19.6 19.8 24.9

EFTA 494.1 352.7 370.6 356.2
Austria 3.8 2.1 2.7 2.2
Denmark 5.3 3.2 4.6 4.0
Norway 29.1 23.3 16.2 15.7
Portugal 19.4 18.5 -. 20.5 -."23.1
Sweden 15.4 6.8 10.6 10.0
Switzerland. 32.1 24.3 20.1 20.7
United Kingdom 389.0 284.5 295.9 280.5

Other western European
countries
Finland 24.1 11.2 12.9 15.8
Greece 11.2 5.1 5.0 5.4
Ireland 7.0 4.9 7.5 5.6
Spain 44.9 22.7 29.9 26.9
Turkey -
Yugoslavia .30.6 8.4 20.2 9.5


Western Europe


68 4.7 578.7 618.5 576.8


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics








ST /ECE/AC T/32
pago 78


Table XXXIX
Exports of Suear from Certain Western European


(million US dollars)


Countries


Region and country 1963-65 1965 1966 1967

European Economic Community 162.1 155.6 121.4 101.4
of which:
Belgium-Luxembourg 16.8 19.7 14.8 18.9
France 133.1 120.3 88.4 58.8
Germany, western 3.5 3.2 4.3 6.6
Netherlands 7.3 12.3 13.4 15.0

EFTA 86.1 47.2 36.7 37.6
of which:
Denmark 14.9 7.9 3.8 4.6
United Kingdom 69.7 38.0 31.1 30.1

Ireland 3.6 1.2 2.1 2.0
Turkey 13.5 8.9 8.1 7.8
Yugoslavia 4.0 0.5 0.5 1.6


Source: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 79


PART II

THEJ EUROPEAN Mi1KET FOR VITICULTURAL PRODUCTS:
WINE AND TABLE GRAPES


A. The Euroe Jie Market
I. Production
(a) Vineyards
(,J) Principal i-roCucing Countries
II. C nsu ption
III, Trade
(a) Irports
(b) l-ports
E. p Tn__migQoe~en MNrkret for Toble Grapcs
I. Production
II. Trade





l_.L of Pri.nc:Jis .. 's] To.D s


Table I


Table
, .:.b'Le
Tablo



Table
Thble
Tableo
Table


Table
Tabl-;
Table


II
r

IV


V
VII
STI
VITI
IX


ii:
XII


Table X.I.I.


- ..'as L'.ldur FroUuctive Vines
-- Strcture of Somiu National Vineyards
Wine PJ:roction of European Countries
-DistriLbution by Principal Categories of the Wine Production
of Some p-ortant Producers
- Long-termi Trend ci peer capital Wine Consumption in Some European Countries
Mdium-term Trend of per capital Wine Consumption in European Countries
... Y:< r.p Wi7e. Imports of European Countries
- Volume of Wine Imports of European Countries
- Unit Values of Wine Imports of European Countries
SPrincipal Wine-Importing Countries Imports by Categories
- W's.bri-. Ge:.i.anfy Wine Imports by Volume and by Value According to Origin
Belgiiuma-Luxembourg Wine Imports by Volume and by Value
According to Origin
- France Wine Imports by Volume and by Value According to Origin


I









ST/pC/ 8ARiT/32
page 80


Table XIV


Table XV


Table
Table

Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table


XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX
XXI
XXII
XXIII
XXIV
XXV
XXVI
XXVii
XXVII
XXIX


Table XXX


Table XXXI


Table
Table
Table


XXXII
XXXII
XMVT


Table XXXV


Table XXXVI


- United Kingdom Wine Imports by Volume and by Value According
to Origin
- Switzerland Wine Imports by Volume and by Value According to
Origin
- Volume of Wine Exports of European Countries
- Valuo of Wine Exports of European Countries
- Unit Values of Wline Exports of the European Countries
- Principal Wine Exporting Countries Exports by Category
- Spain Wine Exports by Volume and by Value According to Destination
- Brance Wine Exports by Volume and by Value According to Destination
- Italy Wine Exports by Volume and by Value According to Destination
- Portugal Wine Exports by Volume and by Value According to Destination
- Net Wine Trade of European Countries by Volume and by Value
- Table Grape Production in European Countries
- Consumption of Table Grapes in Europe
- Volume of Table Grape Imports of European Countries
I Value of Table Grape Imports of European Countries
- Western Germany Table Grape Imports by Volume and by Value
According to Origin
United Kingdom Table Grape Imports by Volume and by Value
According to Origin
Switzerland Table Grape Imports by Volume and by Value
According to Origin
Volume of Table Grape Exports of European Countries
I Value of Table Grape Exports of European Countries
Italy Table Grape Exports by Volume and by Value According to
Destination
Spain Table Grape Exports by Volume and by Value According to
Destination
France Table Grape Exports by Volume and by Value According to
Destination


I








ST/ECE/ACGRJ/32
page 81

A. THE EUROPEAN WINE MARKET
European viticulture which produces mainly wine-making grapes is at present
undergoing rapid development. In particular, the general trend towards a reduction in
the agricultural labour force has a strong impact on viticulture, which has traditionally
been labour-intensive. In France, labour currently accounts for 40 per cent of the
production cost of wine. Furthermore, in the Mediterranean countries, which rank
among the foremost wine producers, where natural vineyard-planting conditions (relief)
require a great deal of labour, the reduction in the population engaged in agriculture
is necessitating the most profound changes in production conditions.
Another salient feature of European viticulture is the steady improvement in yields
attributable to two basic causes: (1) technical advances motorization and
imetanization, which are being tentatively applied even to grape-harvesting, action
to combat diseases, pests and bad weather and the use of chemical weed-killers;
(2) the rejuvenation and improvement of vines. Domestic viticultural policies are
strongly oriented towards the maintenance of improvement of production levels. The
.D'ropoan grape-growers' dynamic attitude is founded on the conviction that there are
important potential markets which can be conquered if the two conditions of price
and quality are satisfied,
The production of the finest wines from small vineyards cannot be greatly expanded
and marketing problems hardly arise. Table wines, on the contrary, often encounter
marketing difficulties. On the one hand, the main producing countries whose home
markets are virtually saturated, often have to face problems of surpluses and storage.
On the other hand, consumption in some countries is low, but capable of being developed
The development of trade at the European level in order to dispose of surpluses
requires a twofold effort by productors.
Flist, with regard to prices: in countries where wine is not a common beverage,
consumption is fairly sensitive to price fluctuations. The introduction of wine into
eating habits implies a substitution phenomenon. Competitiveness in price with competing
beverages is decisive in that connexion. Even in a country like France, where per capital
consumption is highest, the effect on the consumption level of a price increase following
on a poor harvest may last for several years.
It is therefore important for producers to limit production costs without lowering
the quality. In the traditional grape-growing countries, the establishment of large
cultivating, wine-making and distributing units is a necessity (regrouping of undertakings








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 82


and development of co-operatives). In the countries of eastern Europe and in the USSR,
vast undertakings covering 1500 to 3000 hectares have been established on rational
lines to minimize production costs, in contrast with the traditional viticultural sector,
which is gradually being eliminated.
Secondly, intensification of wine production, consumption and trade at the
European level calls for an effort with respect to quality. In the general context of
economic expansion and of changing tastes, the quality of wine is becoming increasingly
decisive. Today, the consumer favours certain qualities, which must be ascertained.
He prefers wines which have a distinctive, fruity flavour, and are light and dry, as
well as sparkling wines. It is therefore essential that the increase in yield and
production should not be detrimental to quality, that it should be achieved without
replacing fine traditional wines by new high-yield varieties producing mediocre wines
and without transferring vineyards to low-lying fertile land which is suitable for
delicate crops. Mediocre wines sell poorly, even at low prices.
Wines must be individualized through control of appellations of origin in the case
of producers and by a marking system in the case of distributors. In view of the
development of international trade in wine, the organization of-a unified system of
appellations of origin is of growing importance. For several years, work has been
proceeding under the auspices of the Council of Europe on the preparation of a convention
containing provisions concerning the protection of appellations of origin with a view
to facilitating the circulation of wines and spirits.
The three main aims of European viticulture are at present the development of
production to meet requirements the limitation of production costs and concern for
quality, which helps to convert requirements into actual demand. As for publicity, which
is of importance, it presupposes effective price and quality control.
The importance of wine quality shows that statistics in terms of volume alone are
inadequate. In order to compensate for this inadequacy to some extent, certain figures
relating to value and a breakdown by category of products have been included in this
study wherever possible. As a rule, the compilation of statistics is hampered by the
diversity of products and the imprecision of definitions. Wine is a difficult commodity
to define. There are a multitude of wine categories: ordinary wines, quality wines,
base wines, industrial wines, still wines, sparkling wines, spirituous wines, liqueur
and aromatic wines and musts with varying degrees of fermentation. How can an ordinary
wine be distinguished from a quality wine? The distinction between the various categories








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 83


differs from country to country, and statistical methods generally vary. Although
these difficulties arise with most commodities, they are probably more acute in the
case of viticultural products-/. During a survey on viticulture carried out in 1936,
the International Institute of Agriculture at Rome was impressed by the difficulties
inherent in viticultural statistics and suggested improved methods in order to increase
international comparability. It should therefore be borne in mind that the figures
given below are often the result of putting together heterogenous data.
I. Production
(a) Vineyards
(i) Total Area
(Table I)
According to the statistics of the IWO, world vineyard area has increased over a
long period in all continents, rising from an average of 6 million hectares in 1927-36
to 9 million hectares in 1957 and 10 million hectares at present. In Europe, since the
beginning of the current decade, developments in the western European countries have
contrasted quite sharply with those in eastern Europe. In the former, areas have
developed under more or less stringent legislative provisions, but in the final analysis,
they depend on the profitability of the vine itself or its profitability as compared
with other crops. Vineyards of long-standing tradition, are highly fragmented. In the
European Econonic Community, the average size is 0.8 hectare- Table I shows the
recent development of production areas.
In western Germany, where approximately 84 per cent of the vines produce white
wine, production areas have increased very considerably, from 49 500 ha in 1950'to
69 500 ha in 3967. An act of 1961 prescribes, however, that permission may not be
granted to plant in areas incapable of producing a minimum quality. In Luxembourg,
planting and grafting are strictly regulated; special permission is required for new
plantings.
In France, the Wine Code of 1936 lays down stringent regulations for vineyards and
grafting in order to encourage the establishment of vineyards in the areas best suited
for high-quality production. As a principle, a new planting may be authorized only if


I/ See Journal official de la Republique francaise, Avis et rapports du Conseil
6conomique et social, 15 June 1968, Los statistiques de la viticulture, report
submitted by Mr. J. Milhau.
2/ In France, where there were 1175000 grape-growers in 1967, as compared to
1573000 in 1950, 50 per cent of those declaring a crop consume all they produce
and maintain a vineyard just as others maintain a garden or a family orchard








ST/ECE/AC I/32
page 84


it is compensated by a corresponding uprooting and if certain varieties are used.
A right to new plantings may, however, be granted for sone "appellations" for which
outlets exist. The steady reduction in areas over the last. fifteen years started with
the decree of 30 September 1953, which provided compensation for uprooting, and it has
continued after the abrogation of the decree. That reduction concerns primarily vines
producing table wines, while those producing "appellation contre10e" winos are tending
to increase. The decrees of May and August 1964 provide for the transfer of vineyards
from land suitable for general agriculture to land particularly suited tc viticulture.
The purpose is to eliminate vineyards from fertile soils whore certain varieties
produce large yields but mediocre wines.
In Italy, viticulture enjoys groat freedom. The areas cultivated are declining
substantially, mainly on account of the labour shortage. As in France, this decline
is accompanied by an even greater reduction in the number of viticultural undertaings.
Approximately two-thirds of the vines are the sole crop and one-third are associated with
other crops. The latter type of vineyard is steadily declining in comparison with total
area. The Second Green Plan (1966-1970) provides for subsidies to extend vineyards in
the most appropriate areas.
The total vineyard area of the Community, which still accounts for less than one
third of the world total, is gradually shrinking, and has declined by 75000 ha in five
years.
In Austria, viticulture is of special importance for some areas. Two of then,
Lower Austria and Burgenland, have enacted regulations limiting vine growing. Since
1964, vineyard area has been declining in Spain. There was an increase in the area
under productive vines between 1966 and 1967 because a substantial proportion of the
young vines whose area has sharply declined, began to bear. In much of the area suited
to viticulture, namely the coastal regions and particularly Catalonia, the rise in the
price of land owing to tourism and the increasing shortage of labour are contributing
to a decline of the vineyard area. As is often the case in Mediterranean countries,
vineyards are, however, an enterprise to develop unused land, offering the best
possibility of turning poor and hilly land to account. None the less, in view of
surplus production, the decline in vineyard area is insufficient, and in October 1967
the Government prohibited new plantings and, the replacement of old vineyards.
In Switzerland, viticulture is confined to the areas suitable for wine production, as
defined by the viticultural survey. The planting of new vineyards outside those areas
is prohibited; within then, a permit is required.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 85



In Yugoslavia, the decline in vineyard area is explained primarily by the age of
the vineyards, which were planted before World War II, and by the failure to renew them
during the war, by the elimination of vineyards planted with old hybrids and of vines
which do not lend thensolves to mechanization. In 1966, the socialized sector accounted
for 11.2 per cent cf vineyard area, as compared to 8.6 per cent in 1960 and 6.2 per cent
in 1954. The expansion of that area nay be expected to continue, as it will facilitate
the organization of production in large units.
In the eastern European countries as a whole, the vineyard area has remained fairly
stable in recent years, but it will probably be extended because the plans, which
provide for vigorous action either to transform traditional viticulture fundamentally
or to expand vineyard areag have not yet achieved their objectives. In Bulgaria,
vast areas of old vines unsuited to mechanization have been pprooted and replaced.
Front 1951 to 1960, the state farms and co-operatives planted more than 100000 ha of
young vines. According to the current plan, the total area is to roach 200000 ha in
1970. Although Hungary has reduced its vineyard area in recent years, it has undertaken
to renew old plantings. The special effort nade in that connexion during the Second Plan
in 1961-65 is, however, to be slowed down in 1966-70 in order to concentrate on storage
facilities, processing and bottling. In Ronania, viticulture is being developed by
transferring vines from the plains to hilly areas unsuited to the cultivation of grain
crops. Total vineyard area is to reach-approximately 450000 ha by 1975 (70 per cent for
wine-making grapes and 30 per cent for table grapes). In the past decade, the USSR has
considerably expanded its vineyard area; increasing it from a total of 480000 ha in 1956
to 1064000 ha in 1967. Viticulture is especially encouraged in the Central Asian republics
and in some areas at altitudes of up to 4000 n. Although the expansion of total area
tapered off during the Seven-Year Plan 1959-65, the increase in productive vines has been
constant owing to the proportion of young vines. Production will be increasingly carried
out by recently established undertakings which are gradually replacing the old fragmented
vineyards and are endeavouring to obtain higher yields without sacrificing quality.
(ii) Structure of Vineyard Area
(Tables 1 and II)
The picture of the development of national vineyards may be supplemented by
considering the relative proportion of non-productive vines. Table 1 shows the contrast
between the slowly evolving viticulturein western European countries (with the exception
of western Germany and Austria) and the viticulture in full renewal in eastern Euopean
countries.


____







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 86


Table II shows the distribution of the vineyards of several of the principal
producers by nain categories of vines. It will be noted that table-grape vines are
of considerable importance in Bulgaria, whereas they are virtually negligible in
Portugal.
For Yugoslavia, the following figures on vineyard composition, in percentages,
may be added:
1966 Forecasts
Vines producing first quality wine 10 15
Vines producing quality wine 10 30
Vines producing ordinary wine 60 35
Hybrids 10
Vines producing table grapes 10 20

100 100

(b) Principal Producing Countries
(Tables III and IV)
Thanks to'the increase in areas and yields, world production has risen since
1950 to an average annual rate of 3 per cent. Between 1960-62 and 1963-65, it rose
by 12.1 per cent. In 1966, world production was distributed among the main
producing regions as follows:
,million hectolitres percentages
European Economic Community 130.6 48.0
Eastern Europe 31.7 11.7
EFTA 11.2 4.1
North Africa 12.2 4.4
Latin America 29.1 10.7
Other countries 57.3 21.1
Total 272.1 100.0


Surnel : Bulletin de 1'OIV, October 1967, page 1092.








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 87





Table 1
European Iine-producing Countries -
Area under Young Vines as Compared
with Total Area under Vines
(percentages)
r ~ --" -- --- -- -- "- --- .- .- -- -- -- -- ------ -- ---
Country 1960 1963 1967
------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------- -------
Austria 11.5 20.9 12.3
Belgium i.. 4.8 1.9
Bulgaria 18.7a/ 16.2 14.3
Czechoslovakia 14.0 17.1 31.0
France 7.2 6.0 5.8
Germany, western 17.8 14.1 17.1
Greece 1.1 4.2 5.9/
Hungary 9.4 9.2 23.6
Italy 2.8 2.5 2.0
Luxembourg 9.5 5.8 4.5
Portugal 1.5 1.3 0.3
Romania 7.8/ 11.6 15.2b/
Spain 7.1 7.1 5.4
Turkey 3.4
USSR 56.4 31.0_/ 26.3-
Yugoslavia 11. 9.0 6.9-/
---------------- ----------------------------------------

Source: Bulletin de 1'OIV
a/ 1961
b/ 1964
c/ 1966








ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 88


From 1960 to 1966, European production accounted for approximately 78 per cent
of the world total. Its upward trend (11.4 per cent from 1960-62 to 1963-65), while
still largely dependent on weather conditions, was marked by sharp and irregular
ups and downs (e.g., western Germany: decline of 51.9 per cent from 1960 to 1961;
F-ance: increase of 57.3 per cent from 1961 to 1962; Portugal: decline of 36.8 per
cent from 1960 to 1961 and increase of 103.5 per cent from 1961 to 1962; Hungary:
decline of 55.5 per cent from 1964 to 1965).
The European Economic Community accounts for approximately two-thirds of
European production. The share of the eastern European countries is steadily
increasing, mainly owing to. developments in the USSR.
Tatle 2 shows the diversity and variability of yields for several countries.

Table 2
Yields in Several European Grape-Growing Countries
(hectolitres per hectare)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Country 1960-62 1963-65 1966 1967
-------------------------------------------------------------------+------------
Austria' 35.2 61.3 40.8 64.4
Bulgari 35.2 23.3 27.7
Czechoslovakia 14.7 24.9 16.2 34.9
France 47.0 48.6 49.0 49.3
Germany, western 83.1 88.7 69.5 87.3
CGeece- 28.6 21.7 31.9
Italy 36.4 40.0 42.2 49.5
Portugal' 36.4 41.4 26.1 28.5
Spain 15.4-/ 19.6 22.2 15.6
Switzerland 66.4 75.9 i 65.8
----------------------------------------
Source: Tables I, II and III
a/ Figures relate to 1963, 1964 and 1965.
_b/ Figures relate to 1960, 1963 and 1965.
c/ 1961-1962.









ST/TCE/ACTGKI/32
page 89


(i) Western European Countries
In 1967, 84 per cent of western German wine production consisted of white wine
and 16 per cent of red wine. The Viticulture Act of 29 August 1961, drawn up after
the bumper harvest in 1960, which h.a glutted the market, calls f6r the establishment
of o wine stabilization fund to regulate the market by encouraging storage, the
conclusion of contracts and publicity. The increasing share of the co-operatives,
which accounts for approximately 30 per cent of production, is an important market
stabilization factor,
France occupies a very exceptional and decisive position in the world and
European wine markets because it was for many years both the leading producer
(overtaken by Italy since 1964) and by far the major importer and exporter, The
following have long been salient features of the French market: surplus supplies since
Algerian production, which entered France freely until 1962, was added to home
production, as were large quantities from I'orocco and Tunisia; decline in quality
owing primarily to the increase in viticulture in the plains, e.g. in Languedoc, where
there has grown up what some experts call "a mass-production vineyard", which produces
an "ordinary wine sold at low prices in large quantities in a large market i/; static
consumption of around 60 million hectolitres; the existence of surpluses partially
eliminated by a costly policy of distillation; and lastly, the need to organize the
home market to support the income of many grape-growers.
Since the promulgation of the Vine Code in 1936, extensive and complex legislation
has been passed in an attempt to control the quantity and quality of production. For
ordinary wine, the decree of 16 May 1959 instituted market regulation by dividing the
crop into two parts, i.e. the marketable quota, corresponding to normal market
requirements, and the "extra-quantumrn non-marketable portion for which storage contracts
could be concluded up to 8 million hectolitres, or which could be sent to distilleries.
For marketable-quota wines, the Institute of Ordinary Table Wines intervened to
maintain floor and ceiling prices related to a target price for the vintage year. In
1964, the system was changed; the crop is divided into one portion which may be freely
sold and another portion which is temporarily blocked and stored until the end of the
following year.
In France, viticultural co-operatives are of long standing and account for
42 per cent of production; the proportion reaches 70 per cent in the four major


1/ Quoted by J. Milhau, Rapport au Conseil 6conomiquc ot social, page 546. There are
other mass-production vineyards in Italy (Apulia), Spain (La Mancha) and Algeria,









ST/cCE/ACRI/32
page 90


producing "d6partements"' in the South. In 1967, red wines accounted.for .73 per cent
of production and white wines for 27 per cent. Tublo IV shows that the quality
policy followed is gradually bearing fruit since the proportion of "appellation
control6e" wines is slowly increasing. This policy assumes added importance in view
of the prospective organization of a Community wine market.
Since 1964, Italy has boon progressively replacing France at the first place
among wine producers. Nevertheless, the decline in the agricultural labour force, which
has been absorbed by rapid industrial expansion, has slowed down the development of
viticultural production. This production is gradually adjusting to the new conditions,
for example, by concentrating on more easily worked land where mechanization is possible.
Thb increase in production and yields is explained by the gradual disappearance of
vinos cultivated in association with other crops and by the development of viticulture
in the plains. There are no statistics for the proportions of the various categories
of wine produced. For 1965 and 1966, it is estimated that "appellation contr616c"
wines accounted for 10 per cent of total output. Red wines make up three-quarters of
total output.
Austria primarily produces white wines (approximately 90 per cent). Ordinary
wines make up three-quarters of the output and quality winos one-quarter. In Spain,
viticulture is faced with a twofold problem: first, thLt of surpluses and secondly,
that of the concentration of undertakings in order to facilitate mechanization,
increase yields and reduce costs. The government fixes a minimum price, which is
guaranteed by the intervention of the Wine Surplus Purchase Commission. Since
14 January 1964, the Commission can purchase any wine sold by producer co-operatives,
whereas formerly its stocks could not exceed one million hectolitres of wine or the
alcohol-equivalent, and the minimum price was therefore not fully guaranteed. -As
is the case in France, production is now being increasingly concentrated on quality
wines (Tabl_ IV).
In Greece, production is largely carried out by co-operatives. Red wines
account for 60 per cent of production and white wines for 40 per cent. "Appellation
contrl66e" wines make up 12 per cent of the total. In Portugal, where about 70 per cent
of vineyards are on slopes, topographical conditions, together with intensified
migration to the towns, are making it necessary to transfer plantings to areas more
conducive to mechanization. However, as in Greece, the planting of vines is
sometimes the best way of using hilly, dry and poor land.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 91


In the context of its Seven-Year Plan (1964-70), Yugoslavia aims at improving
the classification and standardization of viticultural products; production is to be
concentrated on quality wines and special wines.
(ii) Eastern European Countries
In Bulgaria the output of must in 1965 was used as follows:

thousand
percentages
hectolitres percentages
Ordinary wines 584.0 16.9
;Appellation contr6l6e" wines 924.0 26.8
Dessert wines 630.0 18.3
Distilling wines 960.0 27.7
Concentrated musts 292.0 8.5
Grape juice 61.5 1.8

Total 3 451.5 100.0

Source: Bulletin do 1'0IV, October 1966, p. 1223.

The output of the USSR in 1966 was distributed approximately as follows:
dessert wines, 82 per cent; dry wines, 15 per cent and sparkling wines, 3 per cent.
Wino-making is becoming increasingly industrialized.-/ The development of the
sparkling-wine industry, based on research, is particularly important.
II. Consumption
(Tables V and VI)
Wine consumption is a part of national or regional eating habits, which are
fairly stable and not easily changed. The per capital consumption figures given for
each country are only averages which mask wide regional variations. As a rule,
consumption in producing regions is higher than the national average. Social and
economic differences are also important and deserve particular attention because they
may change.
With respect to wine consumption, countries can be divided into three categories:
(a) Mlajor Producing Countries
In those countries (France, Italy, Portugal and Spain) per capital consumption is
high. Wine is a common, everyday beverage consumed at virtually every meal and on
many other occasions. This habitual consumption is usually fairly stable and
relatively insensitive to income and price fluctuations. For example, the price-
elasticity of demand in France is estimated at 0.12. Consumption in these countries
does, however, undergo long-term changes (see Table V), and these appear to have been

_/ The lr :Gst end most modern wine-making establishment in 1-uropo is to bo built at
iloscow with French assistance; it will be able to store 500 000 hl, fill 120 000
bottles an hour and will comprise 1 725 vwts and 580 telo-operated circuits.







ST/ECE/AGRI/32
page 92


speeded up in recent years. Under the influence of economic expansion and rising
incomes, mechanization and the reduction of manual labour, urbanization and the
development of leisure, the consumption of ordinary wine is gradually declining, while
demand is being directed towards quality wines.
In Spain social and economic developments have operated in two opposite directions,
explaining both the long-term decline from 1900 to 1960 and the recovery in recent
years. In past decades, the rural population and other manual workers were the
principal consumers. For those social classes, a rise in the standard of living is
accompanied by an increase in wine consumption. However, economic progress exerts
other influences on that consumption: first, it causes a sharp decline in the heavy-
consumer rural population; secondly, and above all, urbanization renders the income-
elasticity of demand for ordinary wine negative. When that happens, extra-family
social influences outweigh family habits and habitual consumption gives place to more
selective and limited consumption on special occasions. Nevertheless, this quality
consumption has a positive income-elasticity which can make possible a recovery of
demand. In recent years in Spain, for example, the marketing of ordinary wine in
bottles has brought with it an improvement in quality which has stimulated consumption
despite the increase in retail prices (the price of a litre of red wine, which varied
from 5 to 7.50 pesetas in 1961, ranged from 6 to 10 pesetas in 1966).
In France average per capital consumption is slowly declining. It is expected to
reach 109 litres by 1980. Demand for ordinary wine is dropping, while that for
quality wines is rising. Apart from the general causes outlined above, this
development can be explained by the importance of the young sectors of the population,
who are consuming less and less alcohol and by the anti-alcohol campaign which has been
waged for fifteen years by the public authorities.
The long-term evolution in Italy suggests a marked downward trend from 1900 to
1960. During the present decade, that trend has been reversed. The general increase
in purchasing power, the desire of producers to cater for consumer tastes, the
improvement in the quality of products and sale in bottles instead of by the litre
from the cask are factors which explain the recent rise in consumption. Thanks to the
1963 legislation for the protection of appellations of origin and the basic law of 1965
on the suppression of fraud, this movement may be expected to continue.








ST/ICE/ACRI/32
page 93


In Portugal, per capital consumption fluctuates sharply from year to year, mainly
on account of irrogulur harvests. In recent years, those fluctuations have been as
follows (in litres):
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967
85.0 60.0 70,0 114.0 92.0 98.0 105.0 84.5
It is ncvertholoss possible that the gradual emergence of the same phenomena as in
Italy will load to an increase in consumption.
(b) Secondary Producing Countries
Those countri-s comprise a scored category, in which per canita wine consumption
can be said to be moderate to fairly low, ranging from fifteen to forty litros. In
these countries (western Gormany, Austria, Groece, Luxembourg, Switzerland,
Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania) wine, a semi-luxury item, is consumed
occasionally. Consumption fluctuates from year to year according to the size of
harvests, which governs the supply, the quality and, hence, the price of wine.
However, in tho countries of this group where income is highest, e.g. western Germany
and particularly Switzerland, fluctuations in harvests can be offset by imports in
order to moot the increase in demand. Nevertheless, consumption in this group of
countries is highly sensitive to variations in price and income. An economic
recession quickly results in a decline in consumption, especially as, in some countries
like western Germany and Austria, competition from national beverages such as beor is
strong. Competition also makes itself equally felt in terms of quality. The
develonmont of wine consumption must be based on a trade policy aimed at improving
wine-rmakuing, distribution, bottling and trademark control.
In u stern Germanya the average per capital consumption has increased considerably
since the.beginning of the century and has continued to do so steadily in recent
years (11.3 litres in 1960, compared to 15.1 litres in 1967). This progress is
primarily explained by the rise in living standards, but also by the efforts of
grapo-growers to improve tho quality of their products and by publicity campaigns.
It is also possible that the development of tourism is playing a fairly important part,
for the inhabitants of north-western Europe who travel each year to the southern
European countries, acquire new eating habits which may influence them. In western
Germany, wine consumption outside the producing regions is often due to quality-
conscious amateurs. The most spectacular development, revealing of the transformation
of tastes, concerns the consumption of sparkling wine. Although that phenomenon is
fairly general, world consumption of sparkling wine having increased from 90 million
bottles in 1950 to 380 million in 1964, it has assumed exceptional dimensions in


1




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs