• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 ANPA News Research Center
 Some audience characteristics
 Some communication behavior
 Content
 Readership
 Credibility and accuracy
 Newspapers' use of internal...
 Headlines and makeup
 Editorial policies
 Editorial administration and...
 Performance
 The communicator
 Miscellaneous














Title: News research for better newspapers
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 Material Information
Title: News research for better newspapers
Series Title: News research for better newspapers.
Physical Description: v. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
Publisher: American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
Place of Publication: New York N.Y
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Newspapers -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Newspaper reading -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with vol. 1 (1966).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4 (1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075610
Volume ID: VID00005
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Introduction
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    ANPA News Research Center
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Some audience characteristics
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Some communication behavior
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Content
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Readership
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Credibility and accuracy
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Newspapers' use of internal criticism
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Headlines and makeup
        Page 115
    Editorial policies
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Editorial administration and personnel
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Performance
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    The communicator
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Miscellaneous
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
Full Text







NEWS RESEARCH FOR
BETTER NEWSPAPERS
VOLUME 5







Compiled and edited by
DR. CHILTON R. BUSH
Director, News Research Center,
American Newspaper Publishers Association








American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
750 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017






S ". JOUR NALISM

D PA FOUNDATION BOARD OF TRUSTEES
OFFICERS
Eugene C. Bishop, Peninsula Newspapers, Palo Alto, Calif.
%9s Ident: Harold W. Andersen, Omaha (Neb.) World-Herald
e dent: Stanford Smith, ANPA, 750 Third Ave., New York,

Se.' ry: Barnard L. Colby, New London (Conn.) Day
asurer: Joe D. Smith, Jr., Alexandria (La.) Daily Town Talk
TRUSTEES
Donald B. Abert, Milwaukee (Wis.) Journal and Sentinel
M.W. Armistead III, Roanoke (Va.) Times and World-News
St. Clair Balfour, Southam Press Ltd., Toronto, Ont., Canada
Richard H. Blacklidge, Kokomo (Ind.) Tribune
Crosby N. Boyd, Washington (D.C.) Star
Otis Chandler, Los Angeles (Calif.) Times
Peter B. Clark, Detroit (Mich.) News
John H. Colburn, Wichita (Kan.) Eagle and Beacon
John Cowles, Jr., Minneapolis (Minn.) Star and Tribune
W. H. Cowles III, Spokane (Wash.) Spokesman-Review and Chronicle
Joe M. Dealey, Dallas (Tex.) News
Marshall Field, Chicago (Ill.) Sun-Times and News
David K. Gottlieb, Lee Enterprises, Davenport, Iowa
Jack R. Howard, Scripps-Howard Newspapers, New York, N. Y.
James L. Knight, Miami (Fla.) Herald
Allen H. Neuharth, Gannett Newspapers, Rochester, N. Y.
Charles H. Peters, Montreal (Que.. Can.) Gazette
Eugene S. Pulliam, Indianapolis (Ind.) Star and News
Bernard H. Ridder, Jr., St. Paul (Minn.) Pioneer Press
William F. Schmick, Jr., Baltimore (Md.) Sun
Franklin D. Schurz, Jr., Hagerstown (Md.) Herald and Mail
Davis Taylor, Boston (Mass.) Globe
Robert L. Taylor, Philadelphia (Pa.) Bulletin
J. Howard Wood, Chicago (Ill.) Tribune

MEMBERS OF ANPA NEWS RESEARCH CENTER
STEERING COMMITTEE
Representing :
American Newspaper Publishers Association
Eugene S. Pulliam, Indianapolis (Ind.) Star and News-Chairman
Associated Press Managing Editors Association
John C. Quinn, Gannett Newspapers, Rochester, N. Y.
United Press International
Roger Tartarian, New York, N. Y.
American Society of Newspaper Editors
Arthur C. Deck, Salt Lake City (Utah )Tribune
National Newspaper Promotion Association
Newell Meyer, Milwaukee (Wis.) Journal and Sentinel
Bureau of Advertising of the ANPA
Dr. Leo Bogart. New York, N. Y.
Association for Education in Journalism
Dr. Galen R. Rarick, Ohio State University
Also:
Don Carter, Hackensack (N.J.) Record
Peter B. Clark, Detroit (Mich.) News
Alan Donnaboe, Richmond (Va.) Times-Dispatch and News Leader
John McClelland, Longview (Wash.) News
Charles G. Murray, Speidel Newspapers. Reno, Nevada
F. Robert Woodward, Dubuque (Iowa) Telegraph-Herald







INTRODUCTION


Publication of this volume was prompted by recent
evidence of the high utilization of the research data sum-
marized in News Research Bulletins: a 1970 master's thesis
by Arnold H. Ismach, a former city editor, found that 90
per cent of responding APME members "have regular ac-
cess to research studies, primarily through ANPA News
Research Bulletins." He also found that 85 per cent of the
managing editors pass along the bulletins to other members
of their staff.
Some changes in the direction of newspaper research
in 1969 and 1970 are reflected in three chapter headings
previously not appearing in these volumes.
One is "Credibility and Accuracy" under which 12
studies are reported. However, a definitive study to explain
credibility and lack of credibility remains to be done.
A second heading is "Performance." The ten studies
reported are evaluations of the content, goals and responsi-
bilities of newspapers.
The heading, "The Communicator," reports studies
about any kind of newsman-reporter, deskman and editor
-mainly about his attitudes. More research of this kind
would be helpful.
A half-dozen of the studies relate specifically to broad-
cast news, although they are not grouped under a separate
chapter heading. Little research has been done to date
about television news because neither the networks nor
the stations have had a financial motive for doing such
research.
Volume 4 reported five studies which related to the
communication behavior of the Negro. The present volume
summarizes five additional studies plus a parallel readership
study of Negro and white adults in Indianapolis.

Chilton R. Bush





March 1971

I








(Numbers in parentheses refer to the numbers of 1969 and 1970
News Research Bulletins carrying the material indicated.)






TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
NO.
CHAPTER 1. ANPA News Research Center
How It Began and Where It's Headed-By Chilton R.
B u sh (10 :19 7 0 ) .............................................................................................. 1

CHAPTER 2. Some Audience Characteristics
H ow Old Is the Voter? (1:1970) ........................ ..... ........ 4
Educational Attainment: March, 1968 (9:1969) .................. 5
The Audience for Financial News, 1970 (20:1970) ............ 6
Young Shareholders Increase (15:1970) ...................... .......... 8
Population Mobility, 1968 to 1969 (18:1969) .......................... 9
In Detroit: "Black" 43%; "Negro" 46% (7:1969) ............ 9
In Indianapolis: "Black," 11%; "Negro" 68%; More
Younger Adults Prefer "Black" (16:1969) ..................... 9
Most of Metropolitan Population Growth Since 1969 Has
B een in Subu rbs (8 :1969) .................................................................. 10
1969 Population by Race and Age (14:1970) .............................. 12
Selective Exposure to News (2:1969) ................................. 13
Increase of Leisure Is a Myth? (6:1970) .................................... 13
"Alienation" Is a Characteristic of Writers to the Love-
lorn Colum nist (7:1969) ................................. ....................................... 14
The Low-educated Who Depend on Broadcast News Have
Less K knowledge (18:1969) ................................................. .......... 14
Newspaper May Be Better Textbook Than the Usual
Ones-For "Problem" Youths (3:1970) ........................ 15
A Youth Survey About Morals and Race (2:1970) ............ 16
Youth Survey Data Help Mental Health, School Officials
(6 :1 9 6 9 ) ................ ................... ............... ..... .. ................................... 1 8
Characteristics of Students Who Are Critical of the
Nation's Foreign Policies (19:1969) ........................................................ 20
How Much Do Readers Know? ("The Pill") (19:1969) 21
How Much Do Readers Know? (Jurisdictional Strike)
( 2 :1 9 6 9 ) ............................. ......... .. ............................... ............ ...................... 2 1
How Much Do Readers Know? (NATO) (4:1969) ............ 21
How Much Do Readers Know? (Welfare Proposal)
( 2 1 :1 9 6 9 ) ........... ........... .. .. .................... ...... .......................... 2 2
How Much Do Readers Know? (Congressman) (18:1970) 22
How Much Do Readers Know? (Who Are the Poor?)
(3 :1 9 6 9 ) .......................................... ............ ............ ........................... ............ 2 2
Fewer Below the Poverty Level in 1968 (16:1969) ............ 23
How Much Do Readers Remember? (3:1969) ............................ 23








PAGE
NO.
CHAPTER 3. Some Communication Behavior
A Campaign That Changed Attitudes (20:1970) .................. 24
Interpersonal Communication and the Editorial Writer
(2 2 :1 9 7 0 ) ............................................................................................................... 2 6
Communication Behavior of Poor Urban Negroes in
C leveland (19 :1970) ..................................... ..................................... 27
The Media Do Reach the Urban Poor (8:1970) ........................ 29
Newspaper Best Source for Scheduled Event (7:1970) 30
Diffusion of News of Six Assassinations (3:1970) ............ 32
Milwaukee Negroes' Major Source of News (15:1970) ...... 33
Delivery Time of an Evening Newspaper (15:1970) ...... 33
Less Interest in TV News Than in TV Entertainment
( 1 :1 9 6 9 ) .................................................................................................................. 3 5
Only 3 out of 8 Teenagers Are Exposed to TV News-
ca sts (13 :19 69 ) ......................................................................... ............... 36
What TV Means to Teenagers in the Low-income Class
(2 :1 9 6 9 ) ................................................................. ....................... 3 7
Audience for TV News Increased With Age (7:1970) ...... 40
Most Viewers of TV News Watch Only One Show Daily
( 7 :1 9 7 0 ) .................................................................................................................. 4 1
U se of Food Shopping List (2:1969) ................................................ 41
CHAPTER 4. Content
Comparing Newspaper and TV Wordage (9:1969) ............ 42
Two-thirds of the TV News Show Is Governmental Hard
News (14:1970) ............................................................................. 42
The Usage of 50 Expressions (12:1970) ................................ 43
A "Media" or a "Medium"? (9:1970) ............................................ 47
Poll Gets Immediate Reaction to Firing of Baseball
M manager (22:1969) ........................................................................... 48
Minneapolis Papers' Poll Sample Used to Explain Elec-
tion R results (13 :1969) ............................... .......... ..... .................. 48
What Is an "Interpretative" News Story? (18:1970) ...... 49
The Flow of News Between Cities Within One State
(2 1 :1 9 6 9 ) ................................................. .................................................... 5 1
CHAPTER 5. Readership
Negro, White Readership Compared: Parallel Surveys
(1 5 :19 6 9 ) .................. .......................................... ...... ................ ... ........ 5 3
Sports Readers' Interest in 21 Kinds of Sports News
(17 :1969 ) ................................................................................. . . . .......... ..... 65
31% of Sports Readers Turn to Sports Pages First
( 1 8 :1 9 6 9 ) .............................................................................................................. 7 0
Older Women Read More Society News (2:1970) ............ 71
Some Benchmarks for Readership of Society News
(4 :1 9 7 0 ) ............................................................ ............ .. .. ......... 7 1
N um ber of Com ics Read (11:1969) ..................................................... 72
5 of 8 Households Kept One or More Sections of Sunday
Oregonian From 3 to 7 Days (14:1969) ............................ 74
Survey Shows Approval of Editorial Changes (10:1970) 74
Teenagers' Interests (17:1969) .......................................... .. 75
Readership of High School Pages Increases (12:1969) 75

III









PAGE
NO.
CHAPTER 6. Credibility and Accuracy
How Skeptical Are Readers and Why? (21:1970) ............ 76
Newspapers' Correction Policies (16:1970) .............................. 82
Ohio High School Students Rate Newspapers Last in
Accuracy; 47.7% Are Satisfied (22:1970) ........................ 84
Newspapers' Use of Internal Criticism. By William B.
B lankenburg (9 :1970) ................................................................................. 86
Public Favors Right of Reply Whether Question Refers
to Newspaper or Individual. By Walter Wilcox
(10 :1969 ) .... . .......... ........................... ......... ............. ........... .............. 97
Rebuttal to TV Editorials (21:1970) ................................................ 107
Credibility of Well-known Newsman Higher Than That
of U .S O official (1 :1969 ) ........................................................................ 107
Teenagers' Readership of Their Hometown Paper
(2 1 :1 9 6 9 ) .............................................................................................................. 1 0 8
Is Youth Skeptical About the News? (19:1969) ................. 111
Inaccuracies in News Stories (2:1970) .......................................... 112
Checking Accuracy of News Stories Is Not Just a Recent
P practice (5:1970) .................................... ...................... .................. 113
Attitudes on Accuracy and External Controls (4:1970) 114

CHAPTER 7. Headlines and Makeup
Two Advantages of the Six-column Page (11:1970) ............ 115

CHAPTER 8. Editorial Policy
Identification of Race in Crime Stories (20:1970) ................ 116
Handling Letters to the Editor in a Time of Harass-
m ent (17 :1970 ) .............................................. ................ ........ ............... 1 6
The Suggestibility of Suicide and Crime News (15:1970) 118
Obscenities: To Print or Not Print (13:1970) ........................ 120
15-year-old California "Shield" Law Seldom Invoked,
B ut E ditors V alue It (13:1970) ..................................................... 120

CHAPTER 9. Editorial Administration and Personnel
New Sources of News: Exploiting Local Data. By Max-
w ell E M cCom bs (3:1969) .............................................................. 123
First Step to a Newspaper Job. By Dick Fogel
(1 3 :1 9 7 0 ) ............................................ ........... ............ ... .............. 1 2 6
Who Decides Political Endorsement? (7:1969) ........................ 127
Newspaper Editorial Promotion on Radio, TV (11:1969) 128
The Newspaper Fund Reports Salaries of Scholar-In-
ternes, 1960-1968 (2:1970) ............................................................... 128
1 of 6 Journalism Graduates in 1968 Went Into Daily
N ew spaper W ork (12:1969) ........................................................ 129
Few Editorial Employees Are Negroes; Few Journalism
Majors Are Negroes (8:1969) ........................................ 130
Negroes Hold 2% of Newsroom Jobs; Constitute 4.1%
of School M ajors (18:1970) .................. ........ ........................ 132
Daily Newspapers Hired One-sixth of 1969 Journalism
Grads Who Work for the Media (8:1970) ........................ 132
Anticipated Demand by Florida Newspapers for Edi-
torial Employees Through 1980 (3:1969) ........................ 133









PAGE
NO.
CHAPTER 10. Performance
Decline of Comic Strip Violence, 1911-1966 (14:1969) 134
Are Newspapers Lacking in Creative Ideas? (6:1970) 134
Conflict News, 56%; Cooperation, 38% (22:1969) ........... 136
Amount of Population-Family Planning News Same in
Cities With High Need and Low Need (3:1970) ...... 137
"Prestige" Papers Favored Humphrey Slightly
( 3 :1 9 7 0 ) ............................................................. .................................... ........ 1 3 8
Network Television and Major Newspaper Coverage of
the 1965 Dom inican Crisis (4:1969) ................................... 138
How Much Is Editorial Endorsement Worth? (20:1969) 139
Does Pretrial Reporting Affect the Verdict? (8:1970) ..... 141
City Managers Compare Local Media as to Coverage,
Involvem ent and Influence (7:1970) ....................................... 141
"You Print Only the Bad News About Youths"
(1 4 :1 9 6 9 ) .......................................................... ........................................... 1 4 3

CHAPTER 11. The Communicator
Racial Attitudes of "Gatekeepers" (5:1969) .......................... 144
A Wire Editor's Selection of News (5:1969) ............................. 146
Telegraph Editors' Choice of Science Stories Match Only
One of Their Own Criteria (4:1969) ............................... 147
Note-takers Made More Errors Than Did Non-note-
takers (5 :1970 ) ................ .... ...................... ..... ....................... 148
Writing Is Chief Motive for Majoring in Journalism
( 5 :1 9 6 9 ) ..................... .................... ........... ..... ................. ....... ......... 1 4 8
Employees Evaluate Their Newspaper (7:1969) ................. 149

CHAPTER 12. Miscellaneous
Averages: Mean and Median (4:1969) .................... ........ .... 151
In Limbo: Access to the Police Blotter (19:1969) ................. 152
Does "the Press" Include Radio and TV? (19:1970) ..... 153
Four-letter Words in the College Press (7:1969) .................. 153
A Communication Gap at the State Capital (4:1969) ...... 154








Chapter 1


ANPA NEWS RESEARCH CENTER:
How It Began and Where It's Headed

By CHILTON R. BUSH


In 1963 the Associated Press Managing Editors Associ-
ation requested ANPA to establish a News Research Center.
ANPA conducted a feasibility study in which 30 editorial
executives and university and commercial researchers were
interviewed. The study found that, although a few news-
papers had large research departments, few editors of other
newspapers had been exposed to significant research find-
ings; the main reason was that university research had
been reported at considerable length and often in a jargon
that editors did not understand.
In September 1964, ANPA extended the feasibility
study by publishing in fortnightly bulletins summaries of
different kinds of editorial research which had been done
by newspapers and universities. After some months, mem-
ber editors and publishers were asked to evaluate the sum-
maries. The responses showed that a great majority valued
the research bulletins highly. In early 1966, the News
Research Center reprinted in an indexed volume (News
Research for Better Newspapers) the bulletins which
had been published in 1964 and 1965. By late 1969 the edi-
tion of 5,000 copies of Volume I had been sold and a second
printing was made. Four volumes of News Research for
Better Newspapers have been published thus far. The high
acceptance of these volumes seems to be the most valid test
that could be made of the value of such research for editors.
As important as is technological research for the news-
paper publishing business, it is likely that the future accept-
ance of the newspaper by the public will continue to depend
primarily on the quality of the editorial product.

400 Studies Summarized
From its beginning, however, the News Research Center
has recognized that newspaper research in itself is not
creative; its main value is testing by scientific method the
hypotheses and ideas that editors and others develop. Pub-
lications of the News Research Center, therefore, have not
tried to prescribe how to edit. It is expected that individual








editors will apply the data within the frame of their own
needs, goals and theories. Since much of the data were
found to be unfamiliar to some editors, the research reports
have helped eliminate some of the guesswork in editing.
Approximately 400 studies have been summarized in
bulletins. Most have related to the newspaper audience, com-
munication behavior of adults and teen-agers, readership,
makeup, headlines, legibility and aesthetics of types (includ-
ing column width), the audience for television news, and
editorial personnel and administration. The indexed bulle-
tins form the basis of the series of volumes News Research
for Better Newspapers.

Sponsored Research
Reporting the research of others is only one of the
functions of the News Research Center. The Center has also
perceived the need for new research and has commissioned
several studies to university and commercial researchers.
Some of these have been:
Parallel readership studies of white and Negro adults
Which typefaces are appropriate for women's pages
Toward making permanent readers of teen-agers
Content of youth sections
Inaccuracies in news stories
Public attitudes on right of reply
Newspapers' use of internal criticism
The News Research Center itself has done two studies:
(1) eye movements in the reading of newspicture captions,
and (2) changes in editorial content between 1952 and 1967.

Method
Another function of the News Research Center is the
assistance given to individual newspapers and APME Con-
tinuing Studies committees in connection with their own
research. In repsonse to requests from small dailies with
limited funds who wish to do their own research, the Center
commissioned a study by a university researcher to test
some assumptions about self-administered questionnaires as
compared with personal interviews. The findings made it
possible for the Center to prepare and distribute to ANPA
members in 1970 a booklet, How to Conduct a Readership
Survey of Features. Numerous requests for additional cop-
ies have been received, indicating that more research by
individual newspapers has been generated because of the
easy availability of a clear explanation of the method. Prep-
aration of similar booklets on method are under consider-
ation.








Workshop for Newspaper Researchers
Such booklets, however, cannot supply the depth of
training needed by the personnel on large newspapers who
either do research or buy research. Since not enough re-
search personnel have been trained to meet the requirements
of all newspapers, the Center in 1967 inaugurated an annual
five-day Workshop for Newspaper Researchers. A joint
sponsor has been the INPA because the instruction relates
to marketing as well as to editorial research. Some of the
topics discussed are sampling, questionnaire design, inter-
viewing, readership surveys, consumer analysis and opinion
polling.

Utilization
As a clearinghouse, the News Research Center has han-
dled numerous requests from ANPA members for informa-
tion and has supplied advice on several occasions about re-
search methods. More than a hundred requests were received
for additional copies of bulletins which explained opinion and
election polls. More than 13,000 copies of Writing Captions
for Newspictures have been distributed since the first print-
ing in 1966.
Some of the bulletin summaries are being used as the
basis for discussion in state editorial seminars and some of
the data are beginning to be incorporated into journalism
textbooks.

Looking to the Future
The News Research Center can now be considered es-
tablished and generally accepted as an important asset of
daily newspaper journalism. Growing interest in its bulle-
tins, growing use of its facilities and growing acceptance of
the value of editorial research indicate a continuing role
for the News Research Center. Additional research is being
planned to help editors solve their problems by the assembly
of reliable facts. Research is no substitute for editorial judg-
ment but its findings can help editors make decisions. This
is the goal of the News Research Center.








Chapter 2


SOME AUDIENCE CHARACTERISTICS


How Old Is the Voter?
News Research bulletins at various times have reported
the average age of the population and of some members
of the newspaper audience who read in a specific role. For
example:
The average (median) age of the population was 27
years and 8 months on July 1, 1967; and
The average age of the owner of common stocks was
48 years and one month in 1970. Persons under the age of
21 comprised 7.3% of shareowners.
A recent survey by the U.S. Census reports the ages
of persons of voting age, actual voters, and nonvoters in
the 1968 presidential election. We have computed the me-
dian ages as follows:
Persons of voting age* 45 yrs., 5 months
Persons who/voted 46 yrs., 3% months
Persons who did not vote 35 yrs., 8% months
*Includes persons living in four states in which the minimum
voting age is below 21 years: Alaska (19), Hawaii (20), Georgia (18)
and Kentucky (18).
Only 67.8% of persons of eligible age said they had
voted for President in 1968, according to the Census survey.
However, the official count shows that the survey overesti-
mated the number by 7.4%: the official count shows that
only 62.6% actually voted for President. The percentage
who were not registered at the time was 23.1%.
Ages of Nonvoters
Table 1 shows the percentages of persons of voting age
who did not vote, including those who had not registered.
It will be noted that almost one-half of the youngest age
group did not vote, including about 40% who did not regis-
ter.
TABLE I
Percentage of Persons of Voting Age Who Did Not Vote, In-
cluding Those Who Did Not Register: By Age
Did Not Not
Vote Registered
21 to 24 years* ............................. .................... 48.9% 39.9%
25 to 34 years .. ..................................... 37.5 29.6
35 to 44 years .. ....................................................... 29.2 21.0
45 to 54 y ears ..... ......... ...................................... ... 24.9 16.6
55 to 64 years .................................................. 25.3 16.2
65 to 74 y ears ............................................................. 28.5 17.6
75 years and older ... ............................................. 43.7 27.6
*Includes those below 21 years who were eligible to vote in four states
4








Negroes, who represented about 9.4% of all persons
of voting age, did not vote in the same proportions as did
whites. This is shown in Table 2. Only about 3 out of 8
Negroes in the youngest age group actually voted as con-
trasted with 2 in 3 in the 45-54 years age group.
TABLE 2
Percentage of Whites and Negroes of Voting Age Who Did
Not Vote: By Age
White Negro
21 to 24 years* .................................. .................... ..... 47.2% 61.2%
25 to 34 y ears ........................................ .......................... 36.4 43.7
35 to 44 years ......... ................. ...................... 28.2 35.4
45 to 54 years .......................................................... 23.9 33.8
55 to 64 years .............. ................................. ...... 23.9 37.8
65 to 74 y ears .................... .......................................... 27.0 43.5
75 years and older ...................................................... 42.0 59.8
*Includes those below 21 years who were eligible to vote in four states
Why Some Didn't Register
About 78% of those who did not vote had not regis-
tered. The main reasons they gave were as follows:
N ot a citizen .. ....................... .......... .................................... ..................... 9.9 %
Residence requirement not satisfied ......... ........................ 11.2
N o t in there sted ............................................................................. ........ 53 .3
U n ab le to register .................................... ................................................... 13.4
O th e r re a so n s ....................................................... ....................................... 9 .5
D o n 't k n o w .. .......................................................................... ... .................... 2 .6
*Because of illness, lack of transportation, inability to take time
off from job, etc.
The data for the 1968 study, when compared with the
data for a 1966 study, suggest that there were substantial
increases in registration among Negroes who were white-
collar workers, those in families with income of $7,500 and
above, and those with some college education.
The proportion of Negroes and other nonwhite races
in the South who actually voted increased from 44% in
1964 to about 51% in 1968. (Bureau of the Census, Voting
and Registration in the Election of November, 1968. Current
Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 192, December 2, 1969).

Educational Attainment: March, 1968
By March, 1968, 76% of young adults (22 to 24 years
of age) had completed high school as compared with 53% of
adults who were 25 years of age or older.
Comparable percentages for those who had completed
four or more years of college were 14% and 10%.
The breakdown by sex is shown in Table 1.







TABLE 1.
Educational Attainment, March, 1968: By Age
Completed
Completed College
High School (4 years or more)
22 to 24 years ........ ........................... 76% 14%
25 years and m ore .............................. 53 10
M ale ......... ...... ................... .... 52 13
F em ale ...................... ......... ... 53 8
The data were based on sample surveys conducted by
the Bureau of the Census.
The survey also compared the differences in educa-
tional attainment for 1964 and 1968 by color. Table 2, which
reports the median school years completed by persons 25
years and over, shows a larger percentage increase in educa-
tional attainment for nonwhites than for whites.
TABLE 2.
Median School Years Completed by Persons 25 Years and
Older, 1964 and 1968: By Color
1964 1968 Increase
A ll races ...... ........................................ ... 11.7 12.1 0.4
W h ite .............. ......................... ....... 12.0 12.1 0.1
N onw hite ........................................... 8.9 9.5 0.6
Median income for whites and Negroes 25 to 64 years
of age with the same educational attainment vary consider-
ably. Table 3 shows this for white-collar and for blue-collar
and service workers.
TABLE 3.
Median Income in 1967 of White and Negro Males 25 to 64
Years Old Employed in Nonfarm Occupations: By Level of School
Completed
White Negro
White-collar workers:
4 years of college or more................. $11,480 $7,384
1 to 3 years of college ....................... ......... 9,267 6,960
4 years of high school only .......................... 8,631 6,216
Blue-collar and service workers:
4 years of high school only............................ 7,652 5,345
3 years of high school or less .................... 6,432 4,437
There was some evidence in the surveys that employed
white males aged 25 to 64 years were more likely to be
white-collar workers than were Negro males of the same
ages and at the same educational level.
(U.S. Bureau of the Census, Educational Attainment:
March, 1968. Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No.
182, April 28, 1969)
The Audience for Financial News, 1970
The accompanying table shows for each state the num-
ber of shareowners reported by the New York Stock Ex-
change's 1970 Census of Shareowners.
The number increased 53.3% between 1965 and 1970.








This means that almost one of every six persons and one
of every four adults owns shares of public corporations and
investment companies.
Number of Pct. 1970 1970
Share- Increase Share- Pop.
owners Since owner
(Thousands) 1965 Rank Rank
Total, U.S. ....................................... 30,850 53.3 -
Alabama ...................................... 318 84.9 25 21
Alaska ........................................... 18 100.0 51 51
Arizona .......................................... 292 63.1 28 33
Ark ................................................. 172 83.0 37 32
Calif. ... ........................................ 3,833 50.9 1 1
Colorado ...................................... 367 52.9 23 29
Conn. ............................................. 798 58.0 11 24
Dela ........................................... 140 77.2 42 47
Dist. of Col .............................. 148 22.3 40 40
Florida ........................................ 1,232 75.0 9 9
Georgia ........................................ 463 90.5 20 15
Hawaii ......................................... 74 89.7 45 41
Idaho ............................................... 53 23.3 48 43
Illinois ....................... .................... 1,956 49.5 3 5
Indiana ........... ................ 568 48.7 16 11
Iowa ............................ .. 471 133.2 19 25
Kansas ........................................... 313 41.6 26 28
Ky ...................................................... 296 83.9 27 23
La ...... ......................................... 220 47.7 30 20
M aine ........................................ 214 74.0 31 38
M d ................................................. 7 15 68.6 13 17
M ass ................................................ 1,214 50.8 10 10
M inn ................................................ 476 83.1 18 19
M ich ............................................... 1,403 48.3 5 7
Miss ................................................ 181 96.7 35 30
Missouri ....................................... 728 45.3 12 13
M ontana ....................................... 98 60.7 44 44
Nebraska .................................... 211 113.1 32 35
Nevada ....................... ....... 62 47.6 46 48
N. Hamp ....................................... 182 80.2 34 42
N. Jersey ................................... 1,345 23.8 7 8
N. Mexico ............................. 104 73.3 43 37
New York ............................. 3,103 28.9 2 2
N. Carolina ............ ........ 611 89.8 15 12
N. Dakota .................................... 33 10.0 50 46
O h io ................................................... 1,335 54.3 8 6
Okla. ....................................... 337 86.2 24 27
Oregon ............................................ 283 41.5 29 31
Penn. ............................................. 1,849 31.3 4 3
R. Island ................................. 173 41.8 36 39
S. Carolina ................................. 206 76.1 33 26
S. Dakota .................................. 54 35.0 47 45
Tenn .............................................. 369 83.6 22 18
Texas ....................................... 1,383 85.9 6 4

7







Number of Pct. 1970 1970
Share- Increase Share- Pop.
owners Since owner
(Thousands) 1965 Rank Rank
U tah ................................................. 150 92.3 39 37
V erm ont ....................................... 144 100.0 41 49
V irginia ....................... ...... 694 64.5 14 14
W ash ........................................ 447 70.6 21 22
W V irginia ............................. 167 67.0 38 34
W ise .............. 558 55.0 17 16
W yom ing .................................... 51 24.4 49 50

Young Shareholders Increase
The 1970 Census of Shareowners compiled by the New
York Stock Exchange shows that, early in the year, 30,-
492,000 persons owned shares of public corporations and in-
vestment companies. This was an increase since the 1965
shareholder census of 10,730,000 (53.3%).
This means that almost one of every six persons in the
population, one of every four adults, and one of every 36
minors is a shareholder.
An analysis of the additional shareholders since 1965
shows that 29.9% were under 21 years of age and 25.7%
were between 21 and 34 years.
The average (median) age of the additional stockhold-
ers was about 32 years. This compares with the average of
48 years for all stockholders in 1970.
Effect of Uniform Stock Gifts Act
Although the age composition of the population has
changed somewhat since 1965, a major explanation of the
large increase of young shareholders was the tax advantage
provided by the Uniform Stock Gifts act; some three million
of the 10.7 million additional shareholders first acquired
shares by gift or inheritance.
Employee stock purchase and company bonus plans ac-
count for some increase among the young adult group (21-
34 years).
Recent readership studies show that a considerable
number of boys and a few girls refer to the daily stock quo-
tations. (News Research for Better Newspapers, Vol. 3, p.
68). Of all minors who are now shareholders, 60% are male
and 40% female.
The total number of shareholders has grown enormous-
ly since 1952-from 4.2% of the population to 15.1% in
1970.
The 1970 census shows that 12.9% of the shareowners
own stock only in investment companies, although some per-
sons who own shares in public corporations also own in-
vestment company certificates.







The census findings are based on an analysis of the
shareholder records of some 10,000 public corporations. The
characteristics of the shareholders were found from a sur-
vey on a national probability sample of shareholders. (New
York Stock Exchange, 1970 'Census' of Shareowners: A
Preliminary Report, July, 1970).

Population Mobility, 1968 to 1969
Between March 1968 and March 1969, more than 18%
of the population (persons one year and older) changed their
place of residence. More than 6% moved to another county
and about 12% moved within the county.
The average size of the household in March 1969 was
3.19 persons, a decline from 3.33 persons in 1964. The total
number of households was 61,805,000.
(Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
Series P-20, No. 189, Aug. 18, 1969)

In Detroit: "Black" 43%, "Negro" 46%
When the Detroit (Mich.) Free Press in October 1968
conducted a follow-up survey of Detroit Negroes' attitudes,
the 482 respondents were asked whether they preferred to
be called "black" or "Negro." The results were:
B lack .................................................................. 43 %
N e g r o ................................................................. 4 6
D on't know .................................................. 11
The study was made to examine the trends in Negro
attitudes since the study made after the riot in July, 1967.
A key finding was that Negroes felt their lives had im-
proved somewhat and were more optimistic about their fu-
ture.
Two other questions were: "Do you think the TV sta-
tions in Detroit (the newspapers in Detroit) reported last
summer's riot fairly or unfairly ?" The responses were:
TV Newspapers
Fairly ................................ ....... 49% 43%
U unfairly ....................................... 39 40
D on't know .................. ....... 12 18
It will be observed that more respondents answered
"don't know" with respect to newspapers.
(Detroit Free Press, Return to 12th Street, October,
1968)

In Indianapolis: "Black," 11%; "Negro," 68%;
More Younger Adults Prefer "Black"
In connection with a readership survey of the April 23








issue of the Indianapolis (Ind.) Star, sponsored jointly by
the Star and the ANPA News Research Center, the Negro
sample of adults (18 years and older) was asked this
question:
"When people of your race are mentioned in the Star,
would you rather they be referred to as black, as Negro, as
Afro-American, or don't you care which?"
Only 16% of the men and 14% of the women said they
preferred a term other than "Negro." However, 47% of
the young adult men (18 to 29 years) and 25% of young
adult women preferred some other description than "Negro."
The accompanying table shows the preference of each
sex and age group.
Responses to the question, "When people of your race are men-
tioned in the Star, would you rather they be referred to as black, as
Negro, or as Afro-American, or don't you care which?": By sex
and age
18-29 30-49 50-64 65 years
All years years years and older
Men:
Black .............................. 11% 29% 5% 5% 7%
N egro ............................. 68 47 74 73 78
Afro-American.... 5 18 2 0 0
Don't care ................ 16 6 19 22 15
100 100 100 100 100
Women:
Black ............... .. 9 15 10 4 6
Negro ................ 56 61 51 67 47
Afro-American... 5 10 4 4 5
Don't care ................ 30 14 35 25 42
100 100 100 100 100

Most of Metropolitan Population Growth
Since 1960 Has Been in Suburbs
Between 1960 and 1968 the annual rates of growth in
both metropolitan cities and their suburbs declined con-
siderably as compared with the 1950-60 period.
These findings were reported April 21 by the U.S. Bu-
reau of the Census. The data for the years since the com-
plete decennial census in 1960 were derived from sample sur-
veys of approximately 50,000 households.
Table 1 presents the average annual change by color.

TABLE 1.
Average Annual Percent of Change in Population: By Place of
Residence and Color, 1950-60 and 1960-68
(Minus sign (-) denotes decrease)
1950 to 1960 to
1960 1966
White: 1.6% 1.2%
M metropolitan areas .............................................. 2.2 1.3








1950 to 1960 to
1960 1966
In central cities ....................................... 0.5 0.5
In suburbs ............ ........................ ....... 4.0 2.8
Nonm metropolitan areas ....................................... 0.7 1.0
Nonwhite:
M metropolitan areas .................................................. 3.9 2.9
In central cities .................. ................. 4.1 2.6
In su b u rb s ............................................................... 3.2 3.8
Nonm metropolitan areas ...................................... 0.1 0.5
Between 1960 and 1968 the population (exclusive of
members of the Armed Services living in barracks) in-
creased by about 20 million persons, of whom about 15 mil-
lion were added to metropolitan areas, mainly in the suburbs.
In contrast, the population of central cities did not change
very much.
Although 77% (11 million persons) of the increase in
metropolitan areas between 1960 and 1968 was of white
persons, the white population of central cities declined by
almost 2 million persons.
In the suburbs in this period the white population grew
by about 13 million and in nonmetropolitan areas by almost
5 million. The percentage of whites and Negroes in the popu-
lation are shown for 1960 and 1968 in Table 2.


TABLE 2.
Percent Whites and Negroes in the Total Population, 1960 and 1968
(Nonwhites other than Negroes have been omitted)
1960 1968
While Negro White Negro
Metropolitan areas ............. 88.3% 10.8% 87.0% 11.9%
In central cities ............ 82.1 16.8 78.2 20.4
In suburbs ................ ... 94.9 4.5 94.5 4.7
Nonmetropolitan areas...... 88.9 10.1 89.3 19.8
Total ................................ 88.6 10.5 87.8 11.1
There is some reason to believe that the exodus of the
white population from the central cities gained momentum
after 1965. Table 3 shows the change in metropolitan areas
during the 1960-1965 and the 1965-1968 periods by number
of persons.
TABLE 3.
Average Annual Population Change in Metropolitan Areas, 1960-65
and 1965-1968
(Minus sign (-) denotes decrease)
1960 to 1965 to
1965 1968
White:
In central cities........................... 54,000 515,000
In suburbs .................................... 1,739,000 1,452,000








1960 to 1965 to
1965 1968
Nonwhite:
In central cities.......................... 418,000 197,000
In suburbs .................................... 79,000 130,000
It will be observed there were 515,000 fewer persons in
the central cities in the latter period as contrasted with
54,000 fewer persons in the 1960-65 period. The table also
shows an increased growth of nonwhites in the suburbs.
Table 4 shows the age distribution, by color, of the
population in April, 1960 and April, 1968.

TABLE 4.
Age of the Population in April, 1960 and April, 1968: By Color
All Persons Nonwhite
1960 1968 1960 1968
Under 25 years .................................. 44.3% 46.2% 51.8% 55.3%
25-64 years ............................................... 46.6 44.2 42.1 38.5
65 years and over............................... 9.1 9.6 6.1 6.2
(U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Re-
ports, Series P-20, No. 181, April 21, 1969)

1969 Population By Race and Age
The Bureau of the Census recently estimated the distri-
bution of the population by race and age. The distribution
of the nonwhite population (excluding members of the
Armed Services who live in barracks) was as follows:
Metropolitan areas
Central cities ....................... 17.8%
Outside central cities ............... 5.1
Nonmetropolitan areas ................ 11.5
Total ................................ 11.4
The accompanying table shows the age differences be-
tween the whole population and the nonwhite population
arranged cumulatively. The report does not compare whites
and nonwhites-only nonwhites and "all races."
Cumulative Percentages of Population in Metropolitan and
Nonmetropolitan Areas: By Race and Age for Both Sexes.
Excluding Members of the Armed Services Living in Barracks
Outside Nonmetrop*
Central Cities Central Cities* Nonfarm*
All Non- All Non- All Non-
Races white Races white Races white
Under 20 years 35.0% 42.2% 40.0% 45.8% 40.5% 50.2%
20 to 24 years 41.4 48.8 45.3 52.3 46.2 56.0
25 to 34 years 54.5 63.5 59.0 65.8 57.8 66.2
35 to 44 years 68.1 77.3 73.8 78.4 70.1 76.2
45 to 64 years 90.2 94.6 92.7 94.7 90.1 92.5
65 and over 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Includes farm (about 3% of population outside central cities)
** Farm population is about 18% of the total nonmetropolitan population








The table shows that about one-half of the nonwhite
population in all areas is under 25 years of age.
The data were derived from a sample census as of April
1, 1969. (U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Re-
ports, Series P-20, No. 197, March 6, 1970).

Selective Exposure to News
At various times the American Institute of Public
Opinion (Gallup) has asked a national sample of adults as
to their knowledge of certain subjects in the news at about
the time the subjects were current. The percentage who
had heard of or read about six different subjects and who
could describe them correctly is shown below. The other
respondents either were totally unfamiliar with the sub-
jects or demonstrated incorrect or vague knowledge of them.
M marshall Plan (1948) ..................... ... .............. ..... 52%
H ydrogen bom b (1950) ..................................................... 52
President Truman's Point Four program
(195 0 ) ................................................................................... ....... 5
Hoover Comm mission (1951) ......................... ....... 24
Bricker Am endm ent (1954) ........................................... 13
European Common Market (1961) .............. ...... 13

Increase of Leisure Is a Myth?
Some labor leaders and other prophets have been pre-
dicting a four-day week for the nineteen-seventies or nine-
teen-eighties because of a great expected increase in the
productivity of labor.
Gilbert Burck, an editor of Fortune, analyzed such data
and concluded that most of the prophecies are "nonsense or
illusion."
"Productivity" is the value of production minus the
values of materials and services divided by man-hours con-
sumed in the production.
Productivity will continue to increase in some manu-
facturing, transportation, utilities, communications and
construction, he said. But little increase can be expected
from services and governments, and these will constitute
a larger proportion of the GNP.
A study of how people use their free time was reported
in News Research for Better Newspapers, Vol. 4, pp. 1-8.
One conclusion was that, if people do more reading in the
future, it will be because of higher educational attainment,
not necessarily because they will have more free time.
(Fortune, March, 1970, pp. 86-89, 162-166)








"Alienation" Is a Characteristic of
Writers to the Lovelorn Columnist
Richard H. Stone, for a master's thesis at the Univer-
sity of Washington in 1966, interviewed a sample of persons
who had written to the lovelorn columnists of Seattle news-
papers and also a control sample of persons who had not
written. The two samples matched very closely as to age,
occupation, income and education.
Both groups were asked to state their agreement or
disagreement with a series of questions which measured
"alienation," which was defined as feelings of discourage-
ment, despair, resignation and other hopelessnesses concern-
ing one's society and loss of faith in the social order. The
questions were an adaptation of Leo Strole's scale for the
measurement of anomiaa."
Two of the statements are illustrative:
1. These days a person doesn't really know whom he
can count on.
2. Most people don't really care what happens to the
next fellow.
Stone found that "alienation" was more characteristic
of those who had sought help from the newspaper than of
those who had not. The differences could have occurred by
chance only twice in one hundred times.
There were no differences between the two groups on
impersonal and abstract factors, such as conditions under
which a person has to live.
One of the conclusions was that persons who seek help
of a personal nature are more likely to be alienated than
persons who seek help of a community or general nature.
The conclusions support the findings of Gieber, who analyzed
the content of 420 "problem" letters written to a lovelorn
columnist in 1959 (See "News Research for Better News-
papers," Vol. 1, p. 29) that the columnist serves as a
friendly, non-threatening authority which provides support
to help-seekers who have poor communication with formal
social institutions. For such persons the newspaper provides
contact with the community and the outside world.
(R. H. Stone, Alienation as a Factor in Seeking Help and
Advice From Newspaper Columnists. Master's thesis, Uni-
versity of Washington, 1966)
The Low-educated Who Depend on
Broadcast News Have Less Knowledge
People whose educational attainment has not been be-
yond high school graduation and whose major sources of
information about public affairs are the broadcast media
14








have less information than do people with the same educa-
tional attainment who depend on print for their public affairs
information.
Wade and Schramm reanalyzed data from several na-
tional studies which had asked questions about health and
science information as well as about some of the information
that is regarded as commonplace. As an illustration, some of
the findings about the latter kind of information are reported
below, the table showing the percentage of respondents who
gave correct answers.
High
Less Than School
High School Graduate
Print Broadcast Print Broadcast
Heard of John Birch Society 78% 63% 90% 81%
Heard of American Com-
munist Party ......... .......... 79 69 93 77
Knew Lyndon B. Johnson's
Home State ........ ......... 95 90 100 95
For respondents whose educational attainment was be-
yond high school, the differences in knowledge were not sig-
nificant.
An Explanation: The more education one has the more
likely he is to use print as his major source of news and in-
formation.
(Serena Wade and Wilbur Schramm, "The Mass Media as
Sources of Public Affairs, Science and Health Knowledge,"
Public Opinion Quarterly, 33:197-209, 1969)

Newspaper May Be Better Textbook
Than the Usual Ones-For "Problem" Youths
An experiment conducted in the 1968 autumn semester
in a Santa Monica (Calif.) continuation high school in which
42% of the students were on probation or parole, suggests
that the newspaper may be a more efficient textbook for
"problem" youths than are the conventional teaching ma-
terials.
The experiment was conducted by Robert Drake,
teacher-principal of the Garfield Continuation School, in co-
operation with the Santa Monica Outlook and the Milwaukee
(Wis.) Journal. (The Santa Monica school district the fol-
lowing year included in its textbook budget funds for copies
of the Outlook for use in the "Newspaper in the Classroom"
courses).
Eighty students with approximately equal IQ's (aver-
age=102.5) participated in the experiment. One English
class (Group A) was taught by Mr. Drake and newspapers
were used for daily assignments and for class discussion.
A second English class (Group B), taught by Frank Kied-
aisch, used newspapers "to further the students' personal
15








interests" but were used less for class discussion. A third
English class was a control group (Group C) in which the
students were exposed to conventional textbooks-such as
anthologies of literature-and had some instruction in
United States history.
There was also this difference between students in
Groups A and B. The previous record of Group A students
was such as to justify their aspiring to attend a junior
college or a technical school. The previous record of Group
B students had led them to believe they should terminate
their education with high school graduation.
The main theory tested was that students who have an
almost total lack of interest in enforced reading of the
printed word would be motivated positively by words writ-
ten by people "who know that the product they sell must
invite the reader rather than repel him."
The test results are shown in the following table. In the
course of a five-month semester, the student is expected to
have gained normally one-half (0.5) a year in achievement.
Initial Test
Score* Score" Gain
Reading:
Conventional class (C) ........................... 10.4 11.0 0.6
G rou p A ....................................... ......................... 10.6 11.7 1.1
G rou p B .................................................................. 10.3 11.2 0.9
Social studies:
Conventional class (C) ......... ......... 10.3 11.1 0.8
G group A .................. ................... ... ....... 10.1 11.5 1.4
G roup B ................................................................... 9.9 11.2 1.3
*Results of tests taken in September
**Results of tests taken in February
We cannot regard these findings as definitive because
the total number of students tested was only 80, which
yielded a small number for each group. The magnitude of
the gains, however, suggest that the teaching methods used
in this pilot experiment should be used in a larger scale
experiment.

A Youth Survey About Morals and Race
The South Bend (Ind.) Tribune published a youth ques-
tionnaire in the November 2 issue of its Sunday magazine,
"Michiana." A total of 1,689 boys and girls responded and
the results were published in the December 14 issue.
The sample of respondents was as follows:
Males 39.8%
Females 58.7
Ages:
14-15 34.1
16-17 48.3









18-19 16.3
Not specified 1.3
It will be noted that about one-half of the respondents
were 16 or 17 years old.
Table 1 shows the responses to 14 questions about
morals. The yes and no responses do not total 100% because
the "no answers" are not shown.
TABLE 1.
Responses to Questions Relating to Morals
Yes No
D o you sm oke?* ........................................ ... .................................. 18.0% 81.6%
Are antism oking ads successful? ......................................... 40.0 57.6
Have you ever smoked marijuana?.......................... .. 9.6 90.2
Do you think that marijuana should be
legalized?** ......... .... .......................... ......... ..... 26.4 72.3
Do you go to movies that are recommended
for adults only? ......................................................... .. 48.7 50.2
Do you think indecent literature has a
relation to sex crim es? ....................................... 59.9 38.5
Do you approve of sex education in schools?......... 87.5 11.'
Do you believe in premarital sex?*** ...................... 32.9 65.6
Do you think marriage soon will be obsolete?...... 16.7 82.6
Is there too much emphasis on beauty contests? 52.1 46.2
A re m orals declining? ........................................................... 69.3 29.0
A re adults strict enough? ........................................................... 50.9 44.6
Do you believe in the Ten Commandments? ...... 90.5 8.1
Is the church fulfilling its role in
today's society ..................................................................... 29.2 68.8
About the same proportion of boys (53) to girls (49) said they smoked.
** Some who favored legalization thought it would reduce consumption.
*** A few respondents thought "sex" equated with "necking."
A 1968 survey by the Harrisburg (Pa.) Patriot and
News of students in grades 10 to 12 in 30 schools in the
Harrisburg area reported virtually the same responses to
questions about premarital sex and to some of the racial
questions. Only 2.9% of Harrisburg youths said they had
smoked marijuana as compared to 9.6% in South Bend.
Questions About Race
Table 2 reports the responses to three questions about
race asked of both whites and Negroes. It should be kept in
mind, however, that slightly less than three per cent of the
sample were Negro youths and too small a number to break
down by sex. Twelve per cent of the Negro youths did not
answer the question, "Would you marry a white?"
TABLE 2.
Responses to Questions About Race
White Negro
Yes No Yes No
Would you object if a Negro
(a white) family moved next
door to you? ..................................................... 16.3% 81.5% 12.0% 84.0%
Would you date a Negro (a white)?... 29.4 68.1 72.0 24.0
Would you marry a Negro (a white)? 13.7 82.8 38.0 50.0

17








The youths were also asked, "Do you believe in busing
to establish racial balance in the schools?" The responses
were: Yes, 22.5% ; No, 75.6% (1.9% made no response), and
they were not broken down by race.
Table 3 reports the responses to eight miscellaneous
questions.
TABLE 3.
Responses to Miscellaneous Questions
Yes No
Do you approve of teacher strikes?................................... 57.4%c 40.7%
Do you approve of violence in campus riots?...... 5.0 93.9
Do you favor immediate withdrawal of all
U S. troops in V ietnam .................................................... 39.5 58.8
Do you believe the U. S. should grant
amnesty to all those who avoided the
draft by reason of conscience? ................................... 35.6 61.7
Are high school subjects geared too much
to the college-bound student? ................................ 46.3 52.1
Do you believe in capital punishment? ................... 46.5 50.6
Should the U. S. attempt to land a man on Mars? 52.0 45.4
D o you ow n a stereo player? .................................................. 56.5 43.2

Youth Survey Data
Help Mental Health, School Officials
The Phoenix (Ariz.) Gazette last October surveyed
nearly 8,000 students in 23 junior and senior high schools
with 90 questions about drugs, sex education, politics, drink-
ing, religion, national and world problems and school regu-
lations. The findings were published in seven issues of the
Saturday "Teen Gazette" and have been reproduced in a
pamphlet entitled "Tip-off" ("Teens in Phoenix Opinion,
Facts and Fancies").
The questions were developed by a teenage steering
committee working with educators and newspaper personnel.
The findings are being used by school officials to develop
future curricular content and to analyze certain practices,
such as school dress, grading and requirement of physical
education courses.
"Dope Stop" Campaign
An outgrowth of the survey was initiation of the
"Phoenix Dope Stop" campaign by the County Mental Health
Association. "Dope Stop" utilizes a local post office box to
which students can write to seek advice on problems or
questions they have about drugs. Those who seek help are
referred to the appropriate agencies, and the questions are
referred to a panel of experts whose answers are published
in a weekly "Teen Gazette" column.
Seventy-eight per cent of the students said they had
18








never taken drugs and 71% said they would not take drugs
if they had the chance, although 14% said they had used
marijuana and 12% had used nonhabitforming drugs. Fifty
per cent said they had been offered the opportunity to ob-
tain illegal drugs. Nineteen per cent said they would use
marijuana if it were legalized.
Forty per cent said they had never drunk alcoholic
beverages, but 19% said they drink whiskey, 41% beer
and 23% wine. Twenty-three per cent said they obtained
alcoholic beverages at home with their parents' consent
and 17% had a friend over 21 purchase for them.
Twenty-six per cent said they do not attend church.
Forty-eight per cent thought birth control pills should
be made available to unmarried girls.

Sex Education
Students were asked what they thought was the proper
approach to sex education (biological, psychological, spiritual
or a combination of these). Seventy-one per cent said they
would like to take a course in sex education which had the
kind of approach they had indicated.

School Practices and Regulations
When asked which things should be regulated by school
dress codes, the students replied as follows:
B oys' hair ........................ ......... .............. 50%
Girls' skirts ................. .. ... ... 40
Footwear ............................................ 26
Fads (e.g., Nehru jackets) ....... ................. 18
Boys' beards, mustaches .............. ... 44
B erm udas ................ ..... ..................................... 51
B lue jeans or Levis ................................... 15
N one of these ........................... ........ 21
Other questions related to the physical education course
requirement, length of the school term, grading systems,
and grouping students in classes according to their abilities.

Politics
Responses indicated a considerable distrust of public
information supplied by "the government": 41% thought
the government either withholds or distorts a good deal of
information or that public information, for the most part,
is propaganda.
Offered a choice of voting age eligibility from 17 years
to 21 and over, the average student opted for about 17
years, 9 months.








Asked "Who has the most influence on the development
of your political opinions?" 30% specified the news media
and 29% parents.
Newspaper Reading
Of those who read a newspaper each weekday (92%),
the average student said he devoted 19 minutes to news-
paper reading. The students' favorite "sections" were in this
order: comics 62%, front page news 59%, teen sections
44%, sports 40%, and fashion and society 24%.
Forty-four per cent said they had been in a class (either
in grade school or high school) that had a Newspaper in
the Classroom program.
The data were not broken down by sex.
A somewhat similar survey has been conducted for
eight years by the Harrisburg (Pa.) Patriot and News.

Characteristics of Students Who Are Critical
Of the Nation's Foreign Policies
Anast recently tested 314 students at East Washington
State College to determine whether those who are most
critical of the nation's foreign policies are faddists or have
more intellectual maturity than other students.
Using an "index of national blame," related to eight
"conflict areas" of which only one was Vietnam, he dichot-
omized the students into those who expressed high blame
and those who expressed low blame of the United States.
Some of the characteristics of the two kinds of students
are shown in the accompanying table.

Some Characteristics of Students Expressing High Blame and Low
Blame
High Low
Blame Blame
Academic rank
Freshmen-sophomore ...................................... .......... 24% 29%
Junior, senior, graduate ............................................. .... 31 16
News interest in
Foreign new s ............................ ..................................... 26 15
N ation al n ew s .................................................................................... 20 19
L ocal n ew s .......................................................................... 7 13
Time spent per day reading news
30 m minutes or m ore ................................. .... ......... .... 24 13
Less than 30 m minutes .............................. ................ 29 33
Most relied-on news medium
P rin t m e d ia .................................... .................................................... 2 5 18
B broadcast m edia ........................................................................... 23 34
Degree of altruism
H ig h .............................................. .... ........... ............................... 3 1 17
L o w ................................. .................................................... ................. 2 3 2 9
20







Degree of altruism was measured by the students' ex-
pressed desire to serve in the Peace Corps or in VISTA.
He concluded that the high blame type:
1. Had more intellectual maturity.
2. Spent more time seeking news.
3. Had a greater interest in news about foreign affairs
rather than local matters.
4. Relied more on print media (mainly newspapers)
than on broadcast media for news (true of males but not of
females).
5. Were more altruistic.
He added: "A danger exists if national blame among
the better educated should develop into national guilt, an
attitude which can lead to derogation of most American
ways and values. Russian propaganda has for years relied,
in part, on attempting to create feelings of guilt in the
West."
(Philip Anast, "Blaming the Nation-Fad or Maturity?"
Journalism Quarterly, 46:552-557, 1969)

How Much Do Readers Know? ("The Pill")
In connection with a study in 13 communities of the
diffusion of the news of the Papal Encyclical of March, 1967
relating to birth control, Adams, Mullen and Wilson asked
about the respondents' knowledge of "The Pill." All of the
communities were in the vicinity of a university.
Of those who had heard of "The Pill," (89.7%), 59.6%
had heard of the Encyclical. Of those who had not heard of
"The Pill," (10.3%), only 15.8% had heard of the Encyclical.
About 5% more Catholics than non-Catholics had heard of
the Encyclical.
(J. B. Adams, J. J. Mullen and H. M. Wilson, "Diffusion of
a 'Minor' Foreign Affairs News Event," Journalism Quar-
terly, 46:545-551, 1969)

How Much Do Readers Know ? (Jurisdictional Strike)
When the Gallup Poll, in February, 1947, asked the
question, "What does the term 'jurisdictional strike' mean?"
12% of the national sample gave "reasonably correct" an-
swers and 88% either gave incorrect answers or said they
didn't know.

How Much Do Readers Know? (NATO)
In a national Gallup survey conducted during the 1964







presidential election campaign, it was found that 28% of
the adults had not heard or read about "the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization-NATO, that is."
Those who had heard or read about NATO (72%) were
asked whether the United States, Russia and Sweden were
members. The percentage of correct responses were as
follows:
United States (Yes) 58%
Russia (No) 38
Sweden (No) 21
(Lloyd A. Free and H. Cantril, The Political Beliefs of
Americans, 1967)

How Much Do Readers Know (Welfare Proposal)
On Aug. 8, President Nixon, in a nationwide television
address, proposed a reform of the welfare system which
would provide a minimum annual federal payment of $1,600
for needy families. A Gallup poll one week after the address
found that 75% of the sample had heard or read about the
welfare proposal.

How Much Do Readers Know? (Congressman)
Since 1942 the American Institute of Public Opinion
(Gallup) has asked a sample of readers whether or not they
knew the name of their Congressman. In an early Septem-
ber poll, 53% could identify their congressman by name.
The following question was also asked: "Has he done
anything for the district that you definitely know about?"
The results were: Yes 19%; No 81%.
The answers can be interpreted as a measure of the
respondents' knowledge or of what, if anything, the con-
gressman has done or how well the congressman has in-
formed his constituents as to what he has done (many
Congressmen mail news-letters to their constituents).

How Much Do Readers Know? (Who Are the Poor?)
In a questionnaire about urban affairs in the August
issue of "Psychology Today," one of the questions was
"Which medium provides the most reliable information on
racial and urban problems?" The answers from 16,582
readers were reported in the January, 1969, issue as follows:
Radio 1%
Newspapers 8
Television 17
Books 31
Magazines 34
Not answered 9







Seventy-six per cent of the subscribers are college
graduates.
However, 84% of the white subscribers and 82% of
the black subscribers in this relatively well-informed audi-
ience were wrong in their answers to the following question:
"Who would get the largest share of federal education aid
if distributed to poor families regardless of race or re-
gion?" Of the white subscribers, 53% specified urban black
people, 19% urban whites and 7% rural whites, whereas
more of the poor are rural whites.
(Psychology Today, Jan., 1969, pp. 22-23, 64-65)

Fewer Below the Poverty Level in 1968
The number of persons below the poverty level declined
by about one-third between 1959 and 1968, as shown by the
following table:
Negroes
and Other
Total White Races
Number (millions):
195 9 ........................................ ........................ .. 3 9 .5 28 .5 1 1.0
1 9 6 8 ........................................ ............................ 2 5 .4 17 .4 8 .0
Per cent:
1959 .......... ... ... .. ............................ 22 18 56
1968 ......... ... ...... ........ ......................... 13 10 33
The. table shows that, although about 68.5% of all of
the technically "poor" were white persons, 1 in 3 non-white
persons was "poor" as compared with only 1 in 10 white
persons.
The poverty threshold for a non-farm family of four in
1968 was $3,553. In 1959, by a revised definition, the thresh-
old was $2,973.
The median family income of all families in 1968 was
$8,600. This was an increase of 8.3% from 1967, but a real
gain of only 3.9% because of price increases during the
one-year period.
(Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
Series P-20, No. 189, Aug. 18, 1969)

How Much Do Readers Remember?
In a Gallup survey in September-October, 1964, 74%
of the national sample of adults could name the Republican
vice presidential nominee (Miller) and 79% could name the
Democratic vice presidential nominee (Humphrey). But only
31% could remember the Republican vice presidential candi-
date who had run with Nixon in 1960 (Lodge).
(Lloyd A. Free and H. Cantril, The Political Beliefs of
Americans. 1967)







Chapter 3


SOME COMMUNICATION BEHAVIOR



A Campaign That Changed Attitudes
News Research bulletins have reported studies of prop-
aganda campaigns that were ineffective in changing peo-
ples' attitudes (see "Readers Are Hard to Reach," Ne ws
Research for Better Newspapers, Vol. 4, pp. 12-15). Most of
the experimental literature suggests that those who change
their attitudes because of information in the media or else-
where were already predisposed to change.
A recently reported study, however, shows that an
information campaign can raise the information level, can
induce attitude change in a predicted direction and also
that the change in attitude is related to the gain in informa-
tion-under certain conditions.

Douglas, Westley and Chaffee, in 1965-66, studied the
effects of a six-month information campaign about mental
retardation of children. Respondents in two communities in
Wisconsin were tested. The information campaign was con-
ducted in only one community (experimental), but before-
and-after tests were made in both communities.
The population of the communities was about the same
(4,000-5,000), both had weekly newspapers and local radio
stations, were equally distant from Madison in which two
daily newspapers were published and which had television
stations. Demographic characteristics were about the same
in both communities. The experimental community had
more members of an association for retarded children and
more facilities for the retarded, but both had members and
facilities. Neither had a day-care center.
The campaign consisted of 20 news stories, five feature
stories and a "Mental Retardation Week" advertisement
in the weekly newspaper of the experimental community.
There were also posters, radio news broadcasts and meetings.
Ten "knowledge" questions about information which
had been supplied during the campaign were asked in both
communities after the campaign had ended. The percentage
of respondents who gave correct answers to two of the
questions is illustrative of the differences in the whole test.







Control Exper.
Community Community
What per cent of the mentally
retarded can be trained to go
out and make a living?.......... 13% 33%
Name at least one teacher of
the mentally retarded in your
community .................... 13 66

Respondents were asked where they got their informa-
tion. The mean use of the sources of information about the
campaign was as follows:
Exper. Control
Community Community
Local newspaper ... ....... ....... ...... 3.7 1.4
L ocal radio ........ .......... ... ... .............. 1.9 0.9
C lubs ........... .... ........ .... .... ..... ............. 0.8 0.5
State paper* ..................... ......... 0.6 0.7
*Not included in the campaign
Attitudes toward retardation were also measured before
and after the campaign. The measures showed a significant
gain in favorable attitude in the experimental community
but no significant gain in the control community. An analysis
showed that the changes in attitude were functionally related
to gain in information.


The Explanations
Some of the researchers' explanations of the success of
the campaign are:
The size and nature of the community: results could
have been different in an urban community.
The issue of retardation is not one on which many
deep-seated, ego-involved personal values are based, nor is
retardation a controversial topic. "Had the issue been sex
education in the schools, or water fluoridation, the results
might have been quite different."
The campaign seems to have reached the great major-
ity of people in the experimental community and to have
penetrated most deeply among those with little education.
This finding is contrary to previously reported studies which
found in their samples a high proportion of chronic "know-
nothings" who were impervious to information.
(D. F. Douglas, B. H. Westley and S. H. Chaffee, "An
Information Campaign That Changed Community Atti-
tudes," Journalism Quarterly, 47:479-487, 492, Autumn,
1970).







Interpersonal Communication
And the Editorial Writer
We summarized in 1965 a series of studies which sug-
gest that the editorial writer who thinks he is communica-
ting to each reader separately and directly may actually be
talking to a word-of-mouth communication network (News
Research for Better Newspapers, Vol. 1, pp. 99-102).
A recent study, a part of which was reported on page 24
(see "A Campaign That Changed Attitudes"), tends to
confirm the hypothesis. A before-and-after study in two
Wisconsin communities to measure the effects of a six-
month information campaign about mental retardation of
children found that, in the community in which the cam-
paign had been conducted, more people had knowledge of
the local retardation program and had more favorable
attitudes toward it than did people in a matched com-
munity in which a campaign had not been conducted.
One of the questions asked respondents was where they
had got their information about the program. The mean use
of sources of information is shown below.
Experimental Control
Community Community
Friends .............................................. 4.2 1.9
*Local paper ............................................. 3.7 1.4
*L ocal rad io ........................................................................ 1.9 0.9
C lu b s ....................................................................................... 0 .8 0 .5
S tate p ap er ..................................................................... 0.6 0.7
O their .......... .................................... 0.6 0.7
*Information campaign included in these sources
It is an interesting finding that people in the community
in which the campaign was conducted mentioned "friends"
more often than they did either the local newspaper or the
local radio, although the "friends" must have got much of
their own information from the mass media.
The Role of the "Influential"
Some of the findings from the previous studies which
were mentioned above were these:
1. Certain people in a group are better informed than
are others in the group because they expose themselves more
to the informative mass media, especially newspapers and
magazines. Social psychologists call these people "opinion
leaders" or influentialss." Their superior knowledge gives
them a certain prestige.
2. These influentialss" are dispersed through all social
classes. Their influence is within their own social class be-
cause most (although not all) of their associations are with
people in their own social class. There are as many "influ-
entials" as there are heavy consumers of the information in







the mass media. But there are also influentialss" who influ-
ence other influentialss."
3. The content of the mass media supply the agenda for
conversation within the group. Some of this content is sup-
plemented, reinterpreted and re-evaluated by the "influen-
tials" so that the initial interpretation of the content by
many members of the group is altered.
4. The evaluation or interpretation tends to be that of
the group "norm." That is, there is a pressure toward con-
formity because most people belong to groups and associate
with others whose opinions are congenial.
Application to Editorials
One can speculate as to what this could mean for the
editorial writer. The following propositions need to be
tested:
1. The editorial writer who wishes to maximize his in-
fluence with reference to an important and complex issue
should address his arguments and explanations only to the
influentialss" in his audience because the arguments will
filter down by word of mouth to other readers in all social
classes.
2. The most effective editorial is one that is long enough
to accommodate all of the writer's arguments and their sup-
porting facts-and sometimes refutations of anticipated
counterarguments; otherwise the "influential" who is ex-
posed to counterarguments from another source is not con-
vinced.
3. Short editorials about important and complex issues,
which merely tell the reader which side the newspaper is
on, are ineffective and-from the point of view of influence
-wasteful of the writer's and reader's time.
4. The least influential newspapers are those which
publish only short editorials about important and complex
issues.
(D. F. Douglas, B. H. Westley and S. H. Chaffee, "An
Information Campaign That Changed Attitudes," Journal-
ism Quarterly 47:479-487, Autumn, 1970).

Communication Behavior of
Poor Urban Negroes in Cleveland
Dr. Bradley S. Greenberg and associates, of Michigan
State University, who have conducted the Communication
of the Urban Poor Project for the past three years, inter-
viewed 366 black adults "in the inner city of Cleveland" in
August, 1969.







The respondents lived in those areas which had the
highest rates of dilapidated housing, aid to dependent
children, incidence of juvenile delinquency and similar as-
pects of poverty. Eighty per cent had lived in Cleveland
for more than ten years. More than 95% had at least one
working television set and about 40% had two or three sets.
The average age of the respondents was about 37 years and
60.7% were females. Seventy-two per cent said they had
voted in the 1968 presidential election and 76% belonged
to one or more organizations (mainly school and church
groups).
Newspaper Reading
The percentage who read a daily Cleveland newspaper
five to seven times a week was 66.1%. Only 6.5% said they
never read a newspaper.
TV News Viewing
More than 64% said they had watched television "yes-
terday." But only 16.9% said they planned to watch tele-
vision news "tonight." When respondents were asked "Are
there any TV shows you usually talk about when you're
with other people?" the answers of those who had viewed
television "yesterday" were as follows:
A pollo m oon shot ............................................................... 2.2%
News programs other than moon shot........... 9.8
Soap operas .......... ....... ................................... 33.6
Shows with blacks appearing regularly...... 23.0
68.6
Radio News Listening
More than 83% said they listened to radio daily. The
frequency of listening to radio news programs was as
follows:
N ever listen to radio....................................................... 16.9%
Less than once a day ..................................................... 12.3
O nce a day ....................................................................... 21.3
T w ice a d ay ............................. ............................................. 14.2
M ore than tw ice a day ...................................................... 35.2
Source of Specific Information
Respondents were asked as to several needs: "Where
would you go or who would you talk to about" them. Some
of the answers were as follows:
Best Place Finding
Finding to Buy a Place
a Job Groceries to Live
New spaper ............................................................ 11.2% 31.4% 24.9%
Ohio State Unemployment ..................... 52.5 -
Other sources, no answer ........................ 36.3 42.1 28.4
Supermarket ...................................................... 26.5 -
Realtor .................................................................... 46.7
The studies have been supported by a grant from the
Educational Foundation of the American Association of








Advertising Agencies. A volume, Use of the Mass Media by
the Urban Poor, was scheduled for publication by Praeger
Publishers, New York, in October.
(B. Greenberg, J. Bowes, and B. Dervin, Communica-
tion and Related Behavior of a Sample of Cleveland Black
Adults. Report No. 13, Communication of the Urban Poor
Project, Sept. 1970.)
The Media Do Reach the Urban Poor
Block, in August, 1968, interviewed 350 St. Louis adults
in 55 blocks which included the greatest concentration of
low income households. The average annual household in-
come was $2,382. One-half of the respondents were under
35 years of age.
He concluded that the mass media "do reach the urban
poor." He found that about 70% were regular television
viewers, about 58% were regular radio listeners, and nearly
two thirds "read or at least look at a newspaper almost
every day." About 40% read one or more magazines every
week.
He also found that those who watch little or no tele-
vision are less likely to read newspapers than are the mod-
erate to heavy television viewers.
He presented a hypothetical situation regarding the
purchase of a television set and asked where they would
seek advice in choosing the product. More than 60% said
they would not ask any one for advice, but considered the
newspaper as the best single source of product information.
Other sources were ranked in this order: television, friends,
radio, store window signs, sales clerks, magazines and social
workers.
Block found that exposure to the mass media was not
related to racial differences, confirming a finding in an
earlier study by the Bureau of Advertising, ANPA.
He found that the amount of time spent reading corre-
lated highly with whether the respondents ranked price or
store location as higher in their selection of a food store.
Table 1 shows that those who read the most ranked price
higher as a criterion and those who read the least ranked
store location higher.
TABLE 1
Amount of Reading as Related to Criteria
for Selecting a Food Store
Location Price
D o not read at all ....................................................... 44.0% 24.0%
Less than 1 hour ............................................................ 40.5 26.1
At least 1 hr., but less than 3 hrs................... 43.7 29.6
At least 3 but less than 8 hrs. ...................... 28.6 49.2
8 hrs. or m ore .................................................................. 23.9 46.3
The amount of time spent reading per week is shown
in Table 2.








TABLE 2
Time Spent Reading Per Week
D o not read at all ....................... ........ .................. 7.2%
Less than 1 hr ............................... ......... ................... 31.8
At least 1 hr. but less than 3 hrs. ................ 20.3
At least 3 hrs. but less than 8 hrs ............... 18.1
8 hrs. or m ore .......................................................... 19.2
N ot ascertain ed ................ ...... ......................... ...... 3.4
The table suggests that the average respondent (includ-
ing those who do not read at all) read about 18 minutes a
day. Since Block reported that male respondents read more
than females and since 65% of the sample were females,
the time spent reading would be somewhat higher than
Table 2 indicates if the data were weighted proportionately
for men.
(Carl E. Block, "Communicating With the Urban Poor,:
An Exploratory Inquiry," Journalism Quarterly, 47:3-11,
1970)

Newspaper Best Source for Scheduled Event
A study by Greenberg, Brinton and Farr illuminates
the information-seeking behavior of adult men with refer-
ence to a widely-publicized scheduled event-the Clay-Liston
fight in February, 1964.
A total of 291 men in northern California were inter-
viewed by telephone within 48 hours after the event, four-
fifths being interviewed the evening after the event.
It was found that 95% had read or heard about the
result, 82% being able to recall both the name of the winner
and the deciding round. Eighty-eight per cent said they had
planned to listen to the live radio broadcast and 67% said
they did listen (There was also a closed circuit television
broadcast in certain theaters).
The men were asked how interested they were in box-
ing. The results were: very interested, 6% ; quite interested,
15%; a little interested, 28%; not very interested, 33%;
not at all interested, 18%.
Table 1 reports the medium which the men said was
their best source of information before and after the fight.
The more interest the men had before the fight the more
they relied on the newspaper both before and after. The
newspaper was also the main source of information for all
of the men who knew about the fight.
TABLE 1.
Best Source of Information: By Amount of Interest in the Event.*
Very and Not Not
Quite Very Interested
Interested Interested at All Total
Pre-event:
Newspaper best source ......... 82% 70% 49% 64%
30








Very and Not Not
Quite Very Interested
Interested Interested at All Total
Radio, TV best source ............ 18 24 24 21
Other persons best source .. 0 6 27 8
Made plan to listen .......... 91 80 38 88
L istened ................................................. 89 64 36 67
Post-event:
Newspaper best source ...... 84 61 56 60
Radio, TV best source ......... 11 25 22 24
Other persons best source .. 5 14 22 7
*The response category, "little interested," has been omitted
from the table for easier reading.
Table 2 shows that those with high interest relied heav-
ily on the newspaper after the event whether or not they
had listened. The table also shows that 50% of those with
low interest and who did not listen but who knew about the
result said the newspaper was their best source of informa-
tion after the fight.
TABLE 2.
Percentage Who Relied on Newspaper: By Amount of Interest
and Listening Behavior
Newspaper best source:
Before After
Event Event
Listened:
High interest, planned to listen ...................... 73% 79%
Low interest, planned to listen .................. 70 62
Did not listen:
High interest, no plan to listen ............................. 53 80
Low interest, no plan to listen ....... ...................... 35 50
The study suggests that this is one kind of event which
the newspaper can report best before and after even when
the event is broadcast by radio.
This was also the kind of event that many people talked
about. Of those who were "very" and "quite" interested,
95% said they had talked to someone else, 56% having
talked to at least 10 different persons. Even among the least
interested men, 60% said they had talked to others. One
explanation was the surprising outcome of the fight, most of
the boxing experts having predicted Listen would defeat
Clay.
For a summary of research about the diffusion of news
of certain non-scheduled events, see News Research for Bet-
ter Newspapers, Vol. 1, pp. 59-61: also Vol. 4, pp. 50-51 and
News Research Bulletin No. 3, Feb. 11, 1970.
(B. Greenberg, J. E. Brinton and R. S. Farr, "Diffusion of
News About an Anticipated Major News Event," Journal of
Broadcasting, 9:129-142, 1965.)








Diffusion of News of Six Assassinations
Levy conducted a nationwide study in 1968 for the Na-
tional Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence
to find out how adults learned about six political assassina-
tions during the five-year period beginning in 1963. Louis
Harris and Associates interviewed 1,200 persons aged 18
years and older.
The victims were President Kennedy, Senator Kennedy,
Martin Luther King, Medgar Evers, Malcolm X and George
Lincoln Rockwell, the right-wing extremist. According to
the researcher, the respondents' memories were "quite
good."
Table 1 shows the percentages of whites and nonwhites
who said they had heard of some of the assassinations.
TABLE 1
Percentage Who Had Heard of Each of the Assassinations:
By Race
Whites Nonwhites Total
President K ennedy ..... .. .............................. .... 100 100 100
Senator Kennedy .. ..... ................. ............... 100 100 100
M artin Luther King .......................... .... ........ 100 100 100
Medgar Evers .. ... .......... 58 82 63
M alcolm X ... ......... ........ ... ... ..... .. ..... 69 81 75
George Lincoln Rockwell .................... ......... 55 45 55
It will be noted that a larger percentage of nonwhites
than whites had heard about the less well-known assassina-
tions of two of the Negroes. Forty-two percent of the white
adults, for example, had not heard of the assassination of
Medgar Evers.
Table 2, which refers only to those who had heard of
some of the assassinations, shows the media source of their
information.
TABLE 2
Of Those Who Had Heard: Source of Information (%)
Pres. Sen.
Kennedy Kennedy King Malcolm X Evers Rockwell
TV .............................. 47 55 64 50 46 40
Radio .................. 29 30 22 20 22 30
Newspaper..... 0 1 3 16 18 19
Magazine .. 0 0 0 1 1 1
Informal* ......... 24 14 11 13 13 9
*Family member, friend or other person
It will be noted that the use of television decreased
and of newspapers increased for the less well-known assassi-
nations. The time of day of the assassinations determined
to a considerable extent the medium from which the re-
spondents acquired their information.
For a previous report on the diffusion of news, see
News Research for Better Newspapers, Vol. 1, pp. 59-61.
32








(S. G. Levy, "How Population Subgroups Differed in Knowl-
edge of Six Assassinations," Journalism Quarterly, 46:685-
698, 1969).

Milwaukee Negroes' Major Sources of News
The Milwaukee (Wis.) Journal, in the autumn of 1965,
commissioned Bisbing Business Research to make an atti-
tude study among Negro and white residents in the Mil-
waukee Negro residential areas.
The median age of the white adults (18 years and older)
in those areas was about eight years higher than the median
age of the Negroes.
One of the questions was "Where do you get most of
your news ?" The results were as follows:
Negro White
R ad io ....................................................................................... 4 9.5 % 4 5.0 %
N ew spapers ...... .................................................... 66.3 71.0
T television ............................................................... 80.0 67.0
M ag azin es ............................................... ......... 10.0 1.0
T alk to p eop le .............................................................. 15.8 7.0
The percentages total more than 100% because some
respondents cited more than one source.
Negroes with family incomes of $8,000 a year and
higher mentioned newspapers more often than they did
television.
The study also found the following readership of a daily
newspaper:
Negro White
M ilw aukee Journal ............................................... 69.8% 82.0%
M ilw aukee Sentinel ............................................. 18.0 25.0

Delivery Time of an Evening Newspaper
A large metropolitan evening newspaper asked these
questions of a sample of readers on a Thursday last Octo-
ber:
"Do iou know what time your paper was
delivered Wednesday?"
"As far as your household is concerned, by
what time should the paper be delivered?"
"About what time of day did you first start
reading the issue ?"
The responses are shown in the table below after an ad-
justment was made to eliminate purchases of news-stand
copies and those who gave "don't know" answers. The lat-
ter adjustment was made because no "don't know" answers
were reported for the time the reader started reading the
paper (Column 3).








Actual Preferred Time
Delivery Delivery Started
Time Time Reading
Before 5:00 ..... ........................ 73% 65% 24%
5:00-5:29 ...... ............................... 17 22 18
5:30 or after .......................... 10 13 58
100 100 100
The following question was also asked: "Suppose you
had a choice between getting your paper earlier in the day
with less recent news in it or later in the day with more
up-to-date news in it; which would you choose?"
The responses were as follows: All
Men Women Readers
Earlier in the day ....................................... 8% 8% 8%
Later in the day .................................. ..... 64 77 71
O their response ................................................ 9 8 8
N o op in ion ............................................................... 19 7 13
Another question was "Have you read all of Wednes-
day's paper that you intend to read?" Presumably, the in-
terviewing was done Thursday afternoon and evening. A
copy of the issue was shown to the respondents. The an-
swers were as follows: All
Men Women Readers
Y es ......................................................................... 85 % 8 1% 83 %
N o ........................................................................... 12 19 15
N ot answ ered ........................................... 3 0 2
100 100 100
Thirty-eight per cent of the respondents said they had
read one or more other papers between the time they first
read the Wednesday issue and the time of the interview.
Sixty per cent still had a copy of the Wednesday issue in
the home.
Fifty per cent of the respondents said they had read
the Wednesday issue at one sitting and 43 per cent said
they had read it at two or more sittings, the average addi-
tional time for the later sittings being about 45 minutes.
The average time spent reading by all readers was about
36 minutes.
Readers were also asked "How did you go about read-
ing Wednesday's paper? Did you go through page by page,
or did you turn to some specific item right away?"
Sixty per cent said they went through the paper page-
by-page and 40 per cent said they turned immediately to
some specific item. These were the items mentioned:
All
Men Women Readers
Sports ........................................ 17% 5% 11%
Regular features ......................... 5 8 7
N ew s ................................................. .. 5 7 6
C om ics ............... ...................................... 1 7 4
Classified ads .................................... 3 5 4
W om en's section ................................ 3 1
E ditorials ............................................ 2 1
O their answ ers .................................... 5 6 6








Less Interest in TV News
Than in TV Entertainment
Interest in television news as compared with the enter-
tainment fare on television is shown in the Nielsen Second
Report for January, 1968, which measured the percentage
of sets in use for various kinds of programs.
In Table 1, the ratings (average percentage of TV
household sets in operation) have been converted to index
numbers. For evening viewing, it will be noted that, when
dinner hour news is assigned a value of 100, all other pro-
grams are more popular. Thus, science fiction is 36% and
feature films 70% more popular than dinner hour news.
When daytime news is assigned a value of 100, the
other daytime programs are from 19% to 48% more pop-
ular than daytime news.

TABLE 1
Relative Interest in Television Programs
Ave. % of Index
TV Households Number
Evening
D inner hour new s ............................................... 12.5 100
Science fiction ...... .................................... ........ 17.0 136
A adventure .. . ...................... ................... 18.0 144
W western ......... ..... .............. ......... ....... 18.1 145
Suspense/mystery
60 m inu tes ......... ...... ............. ............. .... 17.0 136
30 m in u tes ... .... .................................................... 18.1 145
Situation com edy ..... ................. ......................... 19.6 157
General drama
60 m in u tes .......................................... .................. 16 .3 130
30 m minutes ....................................... 19.7 158
V variety ................................................... ............... 20.4 163
F eatu re film s ........................................ ..... ................ 21.2 170
Daytime
N e w s ....................................................................... ...... ....... 6 .7 1 0 0
Q u iz ......................... ......... ......................................... 8 .0 1 19
Situation com edy ......................................... .............. 8.6 128
S eria ls ..................... ................ ..................................... .... 9.9 148
When the rating for daytime news, assigned a value
of 100, is compared with dinner hour news and two kinds of
week-end programs, the comparisons were as follows:
Ave. % of Index
TV Households Number
Daytim e news ............ .... ....... .. 6.7 100
D inner hour new s .......................................... .... ...... 12.5 186
Week-end children's programs .......... .......... 7.3 109
W eek-end sports ........................ .... 7.1 106
It should be noted that the week-end sports rating was
for January.








Only 3 out of 8 Teenagers
Are Exposed to TV Newscasts
A 1966 national study on a probability sample of 1,991
adults and 479 teenagers, measured, among other things,
adults' exposure to the media and to news supplied by the
media. It also measured teenagers' exposure to news.
The study was sponsored by the Newsprint Information
Committee and was planned and designed by the Bureau of
Advertising and Opinion Research Corporation.
The accompanying table shows that 60% of adults and
37% of teenagers (12 to 20 years of age) were exposed to a
television newscast on a given day ("yesterday").


"Yesterday's" Exposure of Adults
and Teenagers to News
Adults
Total newspaper ............ 78%
Total television ............ 60
Total radio ................ 55
Newspaper only ............ 12
Television only ............ 6
Radio only ................ 5
Newspaper and TV only ..... 21
Newspaper and radio only ... 17
TV and radio only .......... 5
All three media ............ 28
No exposure .............. 6


Teenagers
68%
37
54
16
6
11
25
13
4
14
11


Looking only at the percentages for adults in the table,
we also get a measure of the proportion of adults who had
an opportunity to hear about some event which was pre-
sented by the newspaper and also by one or more of the
other media. It was 66% (21%+17%+28%).
The table below shows a difference-as to television
and radio-between adults being exposed to the medium and
being exposed to a newscast. The corresponding data for
teenagers was not reported.
Exposed to
Medium News
Newspaper ................ 78% 78%
Television ................. 82 60
Radio .................... 66 55
The table shows, for example, that, although 82% of
adults were exposed to television on a given day, only 60%
were exposed to a newscast.
(Bureau of Advertising, ANPA, "When People Want
to Know ... Where Do They Go to Find Out?" June 1967)







What TV Means to Teenagers
In the Low-Income Class
More low-income white and Negro teenagers in one ur-
ban community perceive reality (rather than fantasy)
in tv programs than do middle-class teenagers.
More low-income white and Negro teenagers use tv as
a learning device than do middle-class teenagers.
Low-income Negro youths watched tv for 6.3 hours on
a Sunday-much of the watching being in the forenoon
and after midnight.
Greenberg and Dominick, of Michigan State University,
in a study done in "a major eastern city" last May, found
that youths emerging from a below-standard economic en-
vironment are greatly dependent on a single mass medium
-television-for their information and for their attitudes
about the world outside their own neighborhood.
They administered a questionnaire to a sample of 206
tenth and eleventh graders in a high school in a low-income
area (60% white, 40% Negro) and to 100 students in a
middle-class and upper middle-class high school. The samples
were evenly divided as to boys and girls.
Television viewing, radio listening and music listening
were measured by asking, "On Sunday, how many hours
did you watch television (listen to radio) (listen to a record
player) ?" The results, as exhibited in Table 1 and measured
in number of hours, show that middle-income youths did
less tv viewing than did the other youths, and that Negro
youths viewed tv more and listened to radio less than did
the other youths. Negro teenagers listeried more to a record
player than did the other groups.
TABLE 1
TV Viewing and Radio and Music Listening
Middle Low Income
Income Whites Negroes
Television viewing:
% w ho w watched .......................................... ..... 79 75 86
Average number of hours .................... 3.7 4.6 6.3
Radio listening:
% w ho listened ............................................ 91 87 75
Average number of hours ..................... 2.5 2.5 1.95
Listening to record player:
% w ho listened ........ ....................................... 62 48 65
Average number of hours .... ....... .... 1.14 1.03 1.57
The greater amount of time devoted to tv on Sunday
by Negro teenagers was partly accounted for by the finding
that 52% of the Negro youths, as compared with 21% of
the middle-income youths and 31% of the low-income white
youths, watched in the forenoon and that 26% of the Negro
youths, as compared with 3% of the middle-income youths
and 14% of the low-income white youths, watched between
midnight and 3 a.m.








The teenagers were also asked about the amount of
time adults in their family watch tv on an average day.
The results were as follows:
M iddle-incom e ............... .. .......... ........................ 2.37 hours
Low-incom e whites ....... .................... .... ...... 3.34 hours
Low -incom e N egroes .................................................. 3.60 hours
An interesting finding was that no Negro youths listed
tv comedies (e.g. "Rowan-Martin Laugh-In" and "Smothers
Brothers Show") among their top ten favorite programs,
as did the other youths. The Negro teenagers' favorites
were "Mission Impossible," "Dark Shadows" and "It Takes
a Thief."
TABLE 2
Newspaper and Magazine Reading and Movie Attendance
Middle Low Income
Income Whites Negroes
"How often do you get a chance
to read a newspaper?"
Every day (7 days) ......... ............. 69% 58% 46%
"In the last week, how many magazines
have you read or looked at?"
A average num ber ......................................... 2.99 2.23* 2.61*
"In the last month, how many times
did you go to see a movie?" ............... 1.71** 1.76** 1.37**
*The difference between these groups is not statistically sig-
nificant
**These differences are not statistically significant
Table 2 shows that the lower-income youths-especially
the Negroes-had less opportunity to read a newspaper
every day, and were less likely to have read or looked at a
magazine in the past week. There is also a hint in the table
that Negro teenagers attend fewer movies, although the
group differences are not statistically significant.
Perceived Reality in TV Programs
Three items were designed to indicate whether or not
the teenagers perceived any similarity between the world
they saw in television programs and the world they saw
around them. The teenagers were asked whether they
agreed or disagreed with these statements:
A. The people I see on tv are just like the people I
meet in real life.
B. The programs I see on tv tell about life the way it
really is.
C. The same things that happen to people on tv happen
to me in real life.
The "agree" responses are shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3
Perceived Reality in TV Programs
Middle Low Income
Income Whites Negroes
Question A .................................. ........ 11% 10% 31%







Middle Low Income
Income Whites Negroes
Q question B ............................... ........ 13 30 43
Q question C ................................. ....... 23 32 41
Media "Credibility"
Two items designed to compare the "credibility" of
the media showed great differences among the groups. They
were:
"Suppose you got different stories about the same
thing from radio, tv and the newspaper. Which one would
you believe?" and
"Which do you think does his job best?"
The responses,.shown in Table 4, suggest that "credibil-
ity" may be related to perception of reality in tv programs.
TABLE 4
Measures of Media "Credibility"
Middle Low Income
Income Whites Negroes
Would believe:
R adio ......................................... .. 9% 15% 15%
N ew spaper ....................................... 35 18 18
T television ........................................ 51 66 63
N o answ er .................................... 5 1 4
Does his job best:
Newspaper reporter ............ 42 29 14'
TV news announcer .......... 45 55 65
Radio announcer ................ 11 16 17
N o answ er ....................................... 2 0 4
The researchers make this statement about the data in
Table 4: "This [step-wise progression of income classes]
pattern is similar to that found in studies with adults, sug-
gesting that stable notions of inter-media believability are
formed in the pre-adult years."

Why They Watch TV
The researchers were interested in learning what moti-
vations the teenagers had for watching television. The data
obtained from responses to a large number of items show
that, while television serves some general functions for all
teenagers, it also serves some specific functions that vary
with social class and/or race.
Eleven of the items mentioned ways in which television
was used as a learning device (e.g., "The programs give les-
sons for life" and "Without it, I wouldn't know much about
the world"). In all 11 items, the Negro teenagers were
shown to have used television as a learning device more
than did the other groups, with the middle-income teenagers
using television least for this function.
Six other items had the same step-wise progression by
class and race. They were "I watch tv because it ... ."







brings my family together
keeps me out of trouble
keeps my mind off other things
excites me
[it's] almost like a human companion
Only one reason-"I watch tv because I have nothing
better to do"-was distinctively a white student reason.
Negro teenagers said they watched least for that reason.
(Bradley S. Greenberg and Joseph R. Dominick, "Television
Usage, Attitudes and Functions for Low-Income and Middle-
Class Teenagers," Report No. 4 of Communication Among
the Poor Project. November, 1968)


Audience for TV News Increased With Age
A re-analysis of a previously reported study sponsored
by the Bureau of Advertising, ANPA, "When People Want
to Know ... Where Do They Go to Find Out?" (News Re-
search for Better Newspapers, Vol. 3, p. 20) shows apprecia-
ble differences in exposure to news by different age groups.
The 1967 national study measured exposure to news
"yesterday" of 1,991 adults and 479 teen-agers. The accom-
panying table shows the percentages exposed to news from
newspapers, radio and television.

Exposure to News on a Given Day From Three Media: By Age
All Teen- 21- 35- 50- Over
Adults agers 34 49 64 65
Newspaper................. 78% 68% 74% 79% 83% 73%
Television.......... 60 37 54 57 63 75
Radio.......................... 55 54 50 55 54 48
Radio only ..... 5 11 7 4 4 5
Newspaper only... 12 16 13 15 12 5
Television only.... 6 6 6 7 4 12
It will be noted that exposure to newspapers and to
radio news was rather uniformly distributed among the
adult age groups, whereas the audience for television news
increased with age.
It will also be noted that more older adults got their
news from television exclusively than did younger adults,
whereas the opposite was true for those who depended ex-
clusively on newspapers for news.
These findings are reflected in the ratings for early
evening network news shows. Almost three times as many
women over 50 years watched New York City area tv news
last November than did women in the 18-34 group. The cor-
responding ratings for men were about two and one-half
times. Three times as many adults watched those news
shows than did teen-agers.







For late evening shows (11:00-11:30), however, there
were no appreciable differences among the adult age groups.
But four times as many adults watched the late evening
shows than did teen-agers.

Most Viewers of TV News
Watch Only One Show Daily
A 1966 national study found that 60% of adults
watched a television news show "yesterday" (78% read a
newspaper). Of those who watched television news, 35%
said they saw two shows and 65% saw one show.
The study was done by Opinion Research Corp. and
sponsored by the Newsprint Information Committee and
the Bureau of Advertising, ANPA. Other findings were re-
ported in News Research for Better Newspapers, Vol. 3,
p. 20.

Use of Food Shopping List
The Indianapolis (Ind.) Star, in 1967, asked a sample
of 1,503 female heads of household what use, if any, they
made of the food shopping list published on Thursday morn-
ing.
Fifteen per cent of the sample reported using it for
one or more purposes. Of these, 6% used the list as a guide
for their own shopping list. An additional 8% clipped it
either for use in the store or as a guide for their own shop-
ping list.
Women from the age of 35 to 54 made more use of the
published list than did younger or elderly women.







Chapter 4


CONTENT



Comparing Newspaper and TV Wordage
When Carolyn E. Barr did a master's thesis at the Uni-
versity of California comparing newspaper and television
coverage of the 1966 gubernatorial election campaign, she
found it necessary to develop a formula for equating news-
paper words and television words because of the different
rates that written words are read and spoken words are
heard.
She taped eight one-minute samples of actual newscasts
of the 5:00 to 6:00 p.m. weekday programs on the station
she was to analyze (KGO-TV, San Francisco). She found
the average number of spoken words per minute was 165,
the range being 150 to 175 [Chet Huntley's rate is 180].
She next consulted four specialists in reading who
estimated that the average adult reader reads 300 words
per minute in his newspaper. Her "potential word equiva-
lent" index, then, became
Average newspaper wpm 300
__ 1.82
Average TV wpm 165
Thereafter, in her quantitative content analysis, she
counted each newspaper minute of reading time as equal
to 1.82 minutes of TV time.
Her thesis was directed by Dr. Douglas A. Fuchs.
(Carolyn E. Barr, Newspaper vs. Television Coverage
of the California Gubernatorial Race in the Bay Area. Mas-
ter's thesis, University of California, 1967).


Two-thirds of the TV News Show
Is Governmental Hard News
Lyle and Wilcox, in 1963, monitored the news programs
of the six television stations and analyzed the general news
content of the four newspapers in Los Angeles for two
days, ignoring such newspaper content as sports, financial
tables, and women's pages. They counted the number of
stories and categorized them.
The accompanying table shows the average number of
stories in each of the two kinds of media by category.







Television Newspapets
Ave. No. Ave. No.
of Pct. of of Pct. of
Stories Content Stories Content
Gov't and politics, nat'l,
state, local, defense .. 6.5 32.5% 13.5 17.0%
Int'l foreign relations, "cold
war," foreign countries 5.2 25.8 9.3 11.6
Crime; major accidents;
disasters ....... 3.5 17.5 13.2 16.7
Human interest; "soft"
news of prominent peo-
ple; oddities; animals 1.7 8.3 11.5 14.5
Education; health; trans-
portation; business 0.7 3.3 6.5 8.2
Other* .. ... ...... ...... .. 2.5 12.5 25.5 32.1
*Routine obituaries; wide variety of special news, such as the arts, culture,
philanthropy, amusements, etc.
It will be noted that the first two categories accounted
for 58.3% of the TV news shows' content as compared with
28.6 % of the general news content of the newspapers. How-
ever, the average newspaper presented twice as many news
stories (22.8) in these two categories as the TV pro-
grams (11.2).
The average TV news show presented 20 stories and
the average newspaper 80.
The total amount of time per day devoted to news by
the stations ranged from 30 minutes to one hour and 25
minutes with the network-affiliated stations presenting
mainly national and international news.
Lyle and Wilcox did not measure the news by time or
space. Another study (see News Research Bulletin No. 9,
May 21, 1969) found that each newspaper minute of reading
time is equal to 1.82 minutes of TV news time. Thus, a 30-
minute newscast (actually about 23 minutes) is not quite
the equivalent of the front page of a newspaper. The length
of a TV news item, including talk and video, ranges from
20 seconds to four minutes.
(J. Lyle and W. Wilcox, "Television News--An Interim
Report," Journal of Broadcasting, 7:157-166, 1963).

The Usage of 50 Expressions
Modern dictionaries have not been prescriptive or very
proscriptive, but descriptive. That is, they have merely re-
corded usage. Lexicographers and their part-time collabor-
ators are "word watchers" who read periodicals and other
literature systematically over a span of years, writing the
quotations on "citation slips." Eventually, the lexicograph-
ers construct definitions of the words as determined by the
context of the quotations. This means that they define a
word in the sense that the writer had used it; not as the







lexicographers thought the writer should use it.
This means also that not only are new words recorded
but that some words have been found to have been used in a
new or different sense. Some expressions are considered
worthy of being used in formal writing and speech, some
are considered as "nonstandard," "colloquial," "regional,"
and "slang" (meaning that the "slang" expressions are not
likely to survive and are used only by certain classes of
users). In accepting some new words, the editors of Web-
ster's Third International Dictionary (1961) were criticized
by some persons as having been too permissive. The New
York Times, for example, adopted it only for certain new
and scientific words and continued to use the Second edition.
The editors of The American Heritage Dictionary
(1969) appointed a Usage Panel to resolve dubious or con-
troversial locutions. The 100 members of the panel were not
"scholarly theoreticians" but professional writers of whom
14 were newspaper writers or editors.
About two hundred of the panel's usage decisions were
appended as notes to the definitions. An analysis of 176 of
the notes shows that the panelists divided about 50-50, the
average (median) percentage of acceptance being 47. Al-
though the dictionary's editors had apparently considered
all of the referrals to the panel as being controversial, there
was a wide range in the panelists' acceptance and rejec-
tions.
Fifty of the expressions are summarized below to illus-
trate the variety that was referred to the panel. The figure
at the right of each expression is the percentage of the pan-
elists who voted acceptance (The dictionary in some instan-
ces reported the percentage of unacceptable votes and these
have been transposed to acceptability votes on the assump-
tion that all the panelists had voted with respect to each
expression; that is, there were no "no opinion" or qualified
votes.)
The panelists' lexical opinions, as reported here, refer
only to writing, not to speech.
Pet.
Accepting
alibi (noun). Literally and legally, it means
elsewhere. In its nonlegal sense it is synonymous
with excuse 41
As a verb, as in "They never alibi" 21
anticipate (verb). In the sense of looking forward to, as in "He is
anticipating a visit with his son" 62
anxious (adj.). In the sense of eager as in . .anxious to see
your new car" 28
bug (verb). In the sense of electronic eavesdropping 69
bus (verb). As in "bus children" 48









Pet.
Accepting


careen (verb). In nautical language, it means to turn a ship on its
side for cleaning; to tilt. For many writers, however, it has
come to mean "to move rapidly and in an uncontrolled man-
ner," as in "The car careened across the icy pavement and
into a group of pedestrians" 62
celebrant (noun). Not necessarily restricted to a priest or other
participant in a religious ceremony or rite, it means one who
participates in any celebration (e.g., New Year's celebration) 51
cohort (noun). A group or band united in some struggle. Some
writers use it as meaning an individual companion, associate
or follower 31
comprise (verb). In the sense that the parts comprise the whole
(as well as the whole comprises the parts) as in "Fifty
states comprise the Union" 39
"The Union is comprised of 50 states" 47
consensus of opinion. Although it is a redundant expression, it
was accepted by 31
debut (noun). When used as an intransitive verb as in "The
singer debuts tonight" 7
as a transitive verb as in "The company will debut its new
models at the auto show" 3
different than instead of different from. As in "This illustration
was different than that" 11
"This was different than we expected it to be" 17
done (past part. of do). In the sense of completely accomplished,
finished as in "The entire project will not be done until
next year" 53
dropout (noun). From school or from a social group 97
due to. As in "He hesitated due to fear (instead of "His hesitancy
was due to fear") 16
enthuse (verb). A back-information from enthusiasm. "The ma-
jority leader enthused over his party's gains" 24
"He was considerably less enthused by signs of factionalism" 28
epithet (noun). Used in the narrow sense of being derogatory-
a term of abuse or contempt 53
equal (adj.). In the sense of "more nearly equal" as in "Our aim
is a more equal distribution of the burden" 71
escape(verb). Used without from as in "Three prisoners escaped
the penitentiary" 26
finalize (verb). As in "finalize plans for a class reunion" 10
head up (verb). Instead of head as in "head up a committee to
study tax reform" 15
hopefully (adv.). In the sense of "it being hoped," as in "Hope-
fully, we shall complete our work in June" 44
idle (verb). In the sense of causing a person or thing to be in-
active or unemployed as in "The dock strike has idled many
crews and their ships" 62
individual (noun). When it has no meaning that the word person
would not convey as in "Two individuals sought to influence
the witness' testimony" 38
less for fewer. As in "The industrial trend is in the direction of
more machines and less people" 23









Pct.
Accepting


like (conj.) In an elliptical expression in which a verb is not ex-
pressed as in "He took to politics like a fish to water" 76
(If the example were a full clause containing verbs, the ap-
propriate conjunction is as, as in "He took to politics as a fish
takes to water." Like is always acceptable when it functions
prepositionally as in "works like a charm")
materialize (verb). A substitute for happen or occur as in "Noth-
ing new materialized during the hearing" 33
However, in "The plans materialized" 69

media (noun). Used in the singular form when referring to mass
communication as in "Television is an unpredictable media." 10
none (pronoun). Must always take a singular verb 28
(noun) When used as an attributive adjective as in
"sex-education courses" 87
"resigned for health reasons" 29
"disaster proportions" 57
"beatnik-type beards" 63
O.K. or OK. As a noun, as in "His O.K. is considered a formality" 57
As a verb in "to O.K. an arrangement" 42
As a predicate adjective, as in "All is not O.K. in their re-
lationship" 23
As an adverb, as in "The radio was working O.K." 20
practically (adj.). As a synonym for virtually, as in an application
to a family whose sole surviving members are two aged sis-
ters, as in "practically extinct" 51
As a synonym of nearly or almost as in "He had practically
finished his meal when I arrived" 46
premiere (verb) 14
quote (noun). Instead of quotation 15
rambunctious (adj.). As in "Jackson's subordinates did not need
whisky to become rambunctious" 84
rate (verb). In the sense of "to merit" or "to deserve" 26
In the sense of having status or influence 35
rattle (verb). As in "He was obviously rattled by her testimony" 86
regards (noun). As a substitute for respects as in "in some
regards" 16
responsible (adj.). As a substitute for answerable or accountable
as in "Defective construction was responsible for the crash" 70
reverend As a title, reverend is an adjective and thus is preceded
by the. However, omission of the, as in "Reverend (or Rev.)
Dr. Joseph Holmes," was accepted by 41
simultaneous (adj.). Used an an adverb, as in "The referendum
was conducted simultaneous with the general election" 0
will (verb). Instead of shall as in "We will be in London next
week" 62
(split infinitive). Accepted by a majority of the panel except when
to and its verb are separated by a succession of modifying
words that slow the reader's comprehension needlessly:
"We are seeking a plan to gradually, systematically, and
economically relieve the burden" 23








Pet.
Accepting
"If you want to really help a patient, you must respect his
feelings" 41
"To better understand the miners' plight, he went to live in
their district" 50
sustain (verb). As a substitute for suffer or receive as in "sustain
a fractured skull" 56
"sustain losses in the stock market" 56
transpire (verb). Used in the sense of happening, occur or come
to pass 38
try (noun). As in "The speech was a good try at restoring unity" 59
try and (verbal). A substitute for try to as in "It is a mistake to
try and force compliance with something so unpopular" 21
unique (adj.). In general when preceded by certain adverbs that
qualify with respect to degree, such as rather, very and most 6
(However, in some other senses, unique can be modified by
almost, nearly, really, and quite)
win (noun). As in "An impressive win in the primary would
strengthen his position greatly" 33
(However, win as a noun is appropriate for sports writing)
-wise (as in clockwise). When attached to a noun indiscriminately
as in "Taxwise, it is an attractive arrangement" 16

A "Media" or a "Medium"?
The fairly frequent use recently of "media" in the
singular form suggests that some writers are confused and
also that a good many lay persons think of television as
being synonymous with the media of mass communication.
In most contexts, a medium is an agency by means of
which something is accomplished; for example, an adver-
tising medium.
"Media," of course, is the plural form of "medium."
Borrowed from Latin, "medium" is a neuter noun of the
second declension whose plural form is "a"; another instance
in Latin is "bellum" ("war") whose plural is "bella." So is
"stadium," but the plural, "stadiums," has recently become
acceptable-possibly because of its wide use by sports
writers.
When a writer is referring to a spiritualistic medium,
the plural form is "mediums."
As to the misuse of "media" in the singular form, 90%
of the members of The American Heritage Dictionary's
Usage Panel condemned its use when it refers to mass com-
munication.
It is an interesting fact that in much of the staff report
to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention
of Violence (Violence and the Media), the term "media"
was frequently synonymous with television, as in the sec-
47







tions on "Media Incitement to Violence" and "Influence of
Media Presence" (pp. 89-93).
The plural of "criterion" is "criteria" (Greek) yet
"criteria" is used in the singular form often enough for
The American Heritage Dictionary to include this warning
as to usage: 'Criteria' is a plural form only. It cannot
properly be used for 'criterion' in any of the following: 'a
criterion,' 'one criterion,' 'the only criterion.' "
Poll Gets Immediate Reaction
To Firing of Baseball Manager
President Calvin Griffith, of the Minnesota Twins, an-
nounced the firing of Manager Billy Martin at 9 a.m. on
October 13. The Minneapolis (Minn.) Star telephoned a
probability sample of 275 adults for their reaction between
3:30 and 9:30 p.m. and published the results in the next
afternoon issue.
The sample had been designed prior to Oct. 13. Members
of the Star and Tribune research staff did the telephoning.
Although women constituted 56% of the total sample,
84% of men and women combined were aware of the Griffith-
Martin controversy.
Of these, 72% disapproved of the firing, 2% approved
and 26% had no opinion. Sixty per cent thought the man-
ager had been treated unfairly.
Respondents also were asked whether the firing would
help or hinder the Twins' performance and ticket sales next
year. About one-half said, "hinder."

Minneapolis Papers' Poll Sample
Used to Explain Election Results
On the first day after the June 10 mayoral election in
which Charles Stenvig, a police detective running as an
independent candidate, won 62 percent of the vote, the
Minneapolis (Minn.) Tribune was able to explain to its
readers exactly which kinds of voters determined the result.
That was because the Tribune and the Star had (1) de-
veloped a 25-precinct scale model sample which matched
the aggregate of 195 city precincts, (2) had determined the
population characteristics (race, voting history, education,
income level, religion, and labor union strength and activity)
of each sample precinct, and (3) had obtained the election
results from the 25 precincts as early as possible.
Stenvig's opponent was Dan Cohen, a Repubican. Sten-
vig ran on a law-and-order platform.
A few of the election results are listed below to illus-
trate the utility of the scale model sample for explanatory
purposes:








1. Although Stenvig received 50 per cent of the vote
in the precincts in which most voters had higher-than-
average income, he received 68 per cent in those precincts in
which the income level was average or below average (much
of it blue collar vote).
2. Stenvig ran best in precincts populated by working
men, by those whose education ended with high school or
before, and in those precincts which previously had been
regarded as Democrat-Farmer-Labor strongholds (66 per
cent to 76 per cent).
3. Only one of the two precincts most heavily populated
by Negroes went Republican and Stenvig in both of those
precincts ran 24 percentage points behind Humphrey's 1968
vote.
Although the news stories after the election quoted the
explanations of several political leaders, the scale model
sample supplied a more exact explanation of voters' be-
havior.
The Star and Tribune, which operate "The Minnesota
Poll," developed a 100-precinct scale model sample of the
state electorate in 1968 which projected the outcome in
Minnesota of the presidential election within five-tenths of
one per cent of the actual result. Robert D. Coursen is
research manager.
For a discussion of the utilization of computer "files"
of local social and political data, see ANPA News Research
Bulletin No. 3, Feb. 5, 1969.

What Is an "Interpretative" News Story?
Some of the findings in a recent study:
1. The writer of the interpretative story injects his awn
opinion more frequently than does the writer of a straight
news story.
2. The writer of the straight news story also frequently
injects his own opinion but to a lesser degree.
3. The interpretative story tends to be longer, to con-
tain more background and more extensive explanation.
4. The subject-matter of the interpretative story more
often relates to race relations, education, the local commu-
nity and its problems, and transportation.
What are the characteristics that distinguish an inter-
pretative news story from a straight news story?
Professor John De Mott of Northwestern University, in
1967, had asked several editors to supply a definition of the
interpretative story. Later he employed three coders to make
a content analysis of 184 stories.
One-half of the stories were supplied by 21 editors
who had been requested to send examples of interpretative
stories which had appeared in their newspapers between
July 1, 1967 and June 30, 1968. These were compared with
49








92 stories on the front pages of the same issue which had
the greatest display.
There was 81% agreement among the coders as to which
stories were straight reports of hard news. About two-thirds
of the interpretative stories were categorized by the coders
as situationer, backgrounder, commentary, analysis and in-
depth report.
Interpretative stories, on the average, tended to be con-
siderably longer than the other stories.
The subject-matter of the interpretatives more often
related to race relations, education, the local community and
its problems and transportation. The other stories were more
often about crime, diplomacy and foreign relations, govern-
ment and war.
Extensive exposition was found in almost one-half of the
interpretative stories but in only about one-fourth of the
others.
Extensive background of events was found in more than
60% of the interpretatives but in only about 35% of the
other stories.

Opinion
The three coders were supplied with definitions and ex-
amples of eight kinds of opinion. For example, some of the
guidelines for identifying "reactions of the reporter to the
turn of events" mentioned the use of such expressions (main-
ly adjectives) as "critical," "crisis," "crucial," "menacing,"
"vital," "successful," "dramatic," "surprising," "ironic
twist," and "profound impact."
The three coders made 276 judgments of each of the
two types of stories (3 x 92 stories). The results are shown
in Table 1.
TABLE 1
Number of Kinds of Opinion Found
Interp. Other
None .. .......... ..... 3% 11%
O ne .... .. ...... ....... .. 1 17
T w o .. .............. ......... ............. ... ....... 7 21
Three ............... ..... 16 26
Four ..... ....... . . .. . 26 16
Five ..... ........... ... . 30 7
Six ........ 12 2
Seven 4 0
Eight 1 0
An interesting finding was that, for only 11% of the
judgments made of the non-interpretative stories was there
absence of opinion.
An inspection of the table also shows that the interpre-
tative stories contained an average (median) of about four








different kinds of opinion and the other stories about two
kinds.
Kinds of Opinion
The frequency of the eight different kinds of opinion are
shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2
Frequency of Eight Kinds of Opinion
Interp. Other
Reporter's reaction to the turn
of events .................. ......... ... ....... 91% 66%
Evaluation of statements made by
new s source .................. ......... ........ .... ...... 77 62
Judgments concerning persons involved
in the reported event ................. ...... 77 49
Statements concerning cause or effect
of the event ............................. ........ ... 78 36
Speculation about the future course
of ev en ts .......................... ................. ................... 58 30
Predictions concerning the future ........... 29 6
Proposals for solving some problem
reflected in the reported event .................. 8 0
Advice to the reader by the reporter..... 5 0
The table shows that the main difference between the
two kinds of stories is the frequency with which the writer
injects his own opinion.
This finding, Professor DeMott says, "appears to sup-
port the contention of critics who argue that interpretative
reporting leads to opinion inevitably, and appears to refute
the counter-argument of interpretative reporting advocates
who argue that such reporting is no less objective than other
reporting."
He suggests that the greater frequency with which
cause/effect statements are found in interpretative reflects
either the reporter's effort to explain the event or "the edi-
tor's preference for such explanatory writing in defining a
news story an interpretative."
(A standard textbook on news writing asks this ques-
tion: "When is a reporter justified in abandoning objective-
ness by making evaluations on his own responsibility ?" and
answers: "1) Only the most competent reporter should be
entrusted by his editor with this freedom; a reporter of
mediocre ability should not attempt this kind of reporting.
2) The competent reporter should always remind himself of
his own fallibility").

The Flow of News Between Cities Within One State
Discussing possible solutions to urban problems, a
writer in Harper's magazine for November said: "A city's
newspapers and broadcasting media do not carry what hap-
pens in another city unless there is a riot, a catastrophe, a
51








particularly interesting murder or an election."
That question has not been studied. However, Schramm,
in 1956, hypothesized that distance between cities in Oregon
and the population size of the cities were related to the
number of non-local Oregon news items published in each
of 19 Oregon dailies.
He found for the month of October, as would be ex-
pected, that the metropolis (Portland), the capital (Salem)
and the two university cities (Eugene and Corvallis) gener-
ated more non-local Oregon items which were published in
other dailies than the number of such items they published
which had originated in other cities, the average ratio being
2.8 to 1 and the Portland ratio being 5 to 1.
The corresponding average ratio for such items origin-
ating in the smaller dailies and published in other dailies
was 0.38 to 1.
For all cities, he found that distance between cities
made no difference but that population size did make a
difference.
Population size but not distance also explained the flow
of news to Portland. But neither population nor distance ex-
plained the flow of news from Portland. The explanations
for the last finding were: (1) the circulation of Portland
newspapers in the other cities and (2) the filing in Portland
of the state and regional wires of the wire services. "By
the very nature of such networks, then, some of the tele-
graph desk functions of the small dailies are delegated to
the network headquarters in the metropolis."
While the findings are about what would be expected
in these circumstances, Schramm speculated that the news
network pattern in (say) Ohio, which has several large
cities, would differ from that in Oregon.
(Wilbur Schramm, "Newspapers of a State as a News
Network," Journalism Quarterly, 35:177-182, 1958)







Chapter 5


READERSHIP


Negro, White Readership Compared:
Parallel Surveys
Some of the survey findings:
Negroes read fewer pages than whites did and spent
less time reading.
Negro readers' viewing of TV news programs was
about the same as whites'.
Reading of sports news by Negro men and women was
about three-fourths that of white men and women.
The same was true of Negro women's reading of society
news, but Negro women's readership of women's features
was only about half that of white women.
Negroes rated much below whites in readership of
opinion content and considerably below whites' readership
of comics and panels.
Negroes' readership of display ads was about the
same as that of whites. Since scores for individual adver-
tisements were reported only to The Star, they are not
included in this Bulletin, which is devoted to editorial re-
search.
The two reader populations studied differed greatly as
to education and income.
A reproduction of the newspaper surveyed may be obtained from te
ANPA Foundation as long as the supply lasts. Price: $2.
The Indianapolis (Ind.) Star and the ANPA News Re-
search Center jointly commissioned Carl J. Nelson Research,
Inc. to conduct parallel surveys of white and Negro adults'
readership of the April 23 (Wednesday) issue of the news-
paper (morning). The study was financed by the Star and
the ANPA Foundation.
They were standard readership surveys in which 250
adults (18 years and older) of each sex and each race were
interviewed on an area probability sample within Marion
county on April 24.
The sponsors of the study had no hypotheses. The pur-
pose was to measure actual reading behavior on the basis
of which hypotheses might be developed for future research
to explain whatever differences emerged from the studies.
No similar study had been done on a sample of this size.
As is well known, the generalizations that can be made
from a readership study of a single issue of a newspaper
are limited, whether the study measures the behavior of
white or Negro readers.
Several studies of Negro communication behavior have
been reported, but the sample for most of them was biased
to some extent as to sex or age. In the present study, the
age and sex groups were balanced. The big differences, of
course, are with respect to income, occupation and education,








which are characteristic of the two races in the usual met-
ropolitan community. It is these socio-economic differences
which account for differences in readership more than the
difference in race per se. The considerable socio-economic
differences are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Education of Respondents, Occupation of Head of
Household and Income of Family: By Race and Sex
Men Women
White Black White Black
Education of respondent:
Some high school or less 25% 58% 29% 62%
High school graduate 36 29 43 32
Some college 18 6 18 5
College graduate 21 7 10 1
100 100 100 100
Occupation of head of
household:
Business-professional 15 2 15 2
Salaried and semiprofessional 23 6 25 7
Skilled tradesmen 47 47 47 46
Unskilled workers 15 45 13 45
100 100 100 1 100
Family income:
White Black
Under $5,000 20% 42%
$5,000-$7,999 25 33
8,000-$9,999 21 13
$10,000-$14,999 23 10
15,000 and over 11 2
100 100

Negroes compose about 15% of the population of Marion
county, most of them living in Indianapolis. Compared with
the United States as a whole, Negroes in Marion county
have higher incomes, greater educational attainment and
greater family stability; more of them are homeowners and
fewer live in delapidated houses.


General News

Table 2 compares the readership of several types of
general news. It will be noted that Negroes' reading is con-
siderably less than that of whites; also that few Negroes
bother to read the continuation of jumped stores. Thorough-
ness of reading of front page stories was measured by parts
of three stories: Negro men were not as thorough readers
as were white men, but Negro women were at least as tho-
rough readers as were white women (not shown in the
table).







Table 2. Readership of Certain Kinds of News: By Race
and Sex
Number of
Items in Men Women
Paper White Black While Black
General news stories
(num ber) .............................................. 88 12 7 12 8
% of total ..... .................................... 14% 8% 14% 9%
Local stories (%) ....................... .... 32 16 16 16 9
W ire stories (% ) ..................................... 56 14 5 13 9
All Page 1 stories (%) ....................... 9 33 23 28 24
Read jump from page 1 (%) ......... 5 16 7 13 6
%. loss from jump ....................... 52 72 55 76
The News Summary (%) ................. 18 15 16 15
Index (% ) ............................................ ... 11 17 16 15
Personalities in the News (%)... 22 16 41 18
Any obituary (% ) ..................................... 11 13 9 22 13
Any weather news (%) ...................... 55 44 52 48
W weather (ear) (% ) ................................... 40 30 37 35
The Weather (p. 1) (%) .................... 30 18 26 18
W weather m ap (% ) ..................................... 12 4 9 6
W weather data (% ) ................................... 8 4 4 6

For the first time, a measurement was made of reader-
ship of the separate obituaries. There were 11. No reader
read all of them. The range of scores for the individual obits
were as follows:
White men 6%-10%
Negro men 3%- 5%
White women 11%-18%
Negro women 3%- 6%

Negroes did not read as many pages as did white read-
ers, as shown by the "Any for Page" averages for all inside
pages. The readership scores have been converted to index
numbers to show the differences. For example, when the
white men's score is taken as 100, the Negro men's score is
60% of white men's (28/47).
Index
Average Number
White men 47% 100
Negro men 28 60
White women 57 100
Negro women 33 58

About as many Negroes read something on the front
page as whites did. This can be seen by noting the scores on
the supplement reproduction of the issue.
Although the analysis in the supplement reports the
best read general news stories, an easier comparison can be
made by comparing the readership of only those stories
which had scores higher than 20% by Negroes. One-fourth







of the stories were on inside pages. This comparison is shown
in Table 3. (White men read 17 stories with scores higher
than 20%, Negro men read 7, white women read 20 and
Negro women read 9)

Table 3. Readership of General News Stories Having Scores of
Over 20%: By Race and Sex
Men: Black While
Beesley, Beck Move up as Eli
Lilly Steps D ow n ............................................. 30% 50%
5 Police Hurt in Irish Fighting .................. .......... 30 32
Enemy Attacks Dwindle; Signs of
N ew O offensive ................................................... . 29 32
'Voice of Apollo' Haney Loses Job;
M ay A ppeal .......... ..... .. .... ....................... 26 49
Saigon Asks Asia Alliance .......................................... 26 38
Flames Ravage 14 Apartments ...................... 25 33
High Court Bars Fingerprinting in
Illegal Arrest; Black Dissents ................. 21 34
Women:
Beesley, Beck Move up as Eli
L illy Steps D ow n ....................................................... 34 44
'Voice of Apollo' Haney Loses Job;
M ay Appeal ........................................... .......... 30 44
Flames Ravage 14 Apartments ................................ 27 39
5 Police Hurt in Irish Fighting ............................ 26 26
Enemy Attacks Dwindle; Signs of
New Offensive ... ......................... ..... ..... 26 22
Rent for 'Filthy' House Refunded ........... .... 25 48
Saigon Asks Asia Alliance ...................................... 21 27
Jury Deadlock in Sirhan Trial? .............................. 21 37
2 Children Perish in Fire .............................................. 21 47

Readers were asked how much time they had spent
reading this issue of the Star. Estimated time by Negro men
was 67% of that of white men and by Negro women it was
71% of that of white women.
This question was asked of Negroes only: "How often
does the Star print names of local people you are interested
in?" The responses are shown below:
Men Women
Very often 19% 17%
Once in a while 31 34
Hardly ever 32 40
Never 4 1
Don't know 14 18
100 100

Since no bench-mark was supplied we do not have a
reliable interpretation of these results, but the negative re-
sponses do not seem to be excessive for a metropolitan com-
munity.








This question, also, was asked only of Negroes: "From
your own point of view, what kind of news would you like
to have the Star print more of than it does now?" Of the
500 respondents, 97 said the Star "is very fine as it is" or
gave a similar answer. Forty-four respondents mentioned
kinds of news that were definitely Negro-oriented ("more
about Negroes in Vietnam") and 14 mentioned kinds of news
that possibly were Negro-oriented ("something positive
about teen-agers"). Other kinds of news mentioned were
those that are characteristic of white readers who are asked
such a question.


Role of Television
Studies in some communities have shown that Negro
adults view television more often than do white adults. This
was found not to be true of viewing news by readers of the
Star. Table 4 shows the responses to these questions: "How
often do you look at a television network (local) news pro-
gram that gives news of the world and the nation (of Indian-
apolis) ?"


Table 4. Frequency of Viewing Television Newscasts: By Race
and Sex
Men Women
White Black White Black
Network news program:
Nearly every day ...................... 67% 63% 72% 66%
More than once a week......... 14 9 15 11
O nce a w eek .................................... 6 8 4 10
Almost never ................................... 13 20 9 13
100 100 100 100
Local news program:
Nearly every day ........................... 68 65 73 67
More than once a week ......... 15 11 15 13
Once a week ..................................... 5 6 3 7
Alm ost never ................................... 12 18 9 13
100 100 100 100


Whether or not all households in the sample owned a
television set that was in working order was not ascer-
tained, but it is not likely that there were appreciable differ-
ences between white and Negro households in this respect.
However, there could be a difference in television news view-
ing between Negro readers and Negro nonreaders since the
sample was of readers, not of the Negro population.








With respect to three items on page 1 (indicated in the
supplement), this question was asked of readers who had
not read the item: "Can you think of any reason why a
person like yourself might not have read this item?" A total
of 421 white and 439 Negro readers supplied some reason
with respect to one or more of the three items. Of these,
16.9% given by white readers mentioned having heard one
or more of the items on television or radio; 13.4% of Negro
readers said they had known about the event from a broad-
cast.
Readers were also asked specifically if they had seen
each of the items on television or had heard them on radio
before they read the Star. The results are in Table 5. The
results could mean that about half of those who had been
exposed to a newscast did not mention that as a reason for
not reading the items.

Table 5. Responses to the question, "Which of these items, if
any, had you seen on television or heard on radio before you read
the paper?"
Item 1I
Men Women
White Black White Black
Had seen or heard ....................... 34% 32% 26% 26%
Had not seen or heard ........... 66 68 74 74
Item 2*
Had seen or heard ...................... 33 32 27 27
Had not seen or heard ........... 67 68 73 73
Item 3*
Had seen or heard ....................... 27 32 19 27
Had not seen or heard ............ 73 68 81 73
*Items are shown on the supplement (front page)

The results not only show the proportion of readers who
had known about the events which were of enough interest
to have been broadcast and placed on the front page of the
Star; they also show little difference between white and
Negro readers' exposure to broadcast news. Since, however,
the samples are representative only of readers of the Star,
the results do not tell us anything about the communication
behavior of nonreaders.


Sports
Negro men are avid sports readers-at least they were
during the early part of the baseball season and the tail-end
of the basketball season. Negro women were less interested
than Negro men but, as the index numbers in Table 6 show,
their readership approached that of white women. As Table
6 shows, Negro men read 14% of the 29 available sports
stories as compared with 17% by white men.








Table 6. Readership of Sports News: By Races and Sex


Men


Any sports news or picture
Any sports news reader......
Baseball standings
(3 leagues) ..................................
Any for first sports page ......
Any for second sports page
Any for third sports page
Any for fourth sports page
% of 29 sports stories read
N um ber read ....................................
Local sports column ...............
High school tennis .....................
Late line scores ..............................
High school golf .........................
C college golf .....................................
G olf notes ................................. .....
Arnold Palmer (golf) ............
High school track .................
Hunting and fishing
c olu m n .......................................
Line scores, high school
g am es ....................... ...............
A.B.A. box scores ...................
College tennis ....................
Softball notes ........................
Pro basketball .........................
Junior baseball ........................
City Prep Patter ...................
R ace results ...............................


White
68%
65
29
64
68
53
45
17
5
33
14
12
13
6
6
10
14
18
14
9
10
8
9
9
14
7


Index
Black No.
52% 76
48 73


Women
White Black
26% 21%
25 18


Of the 17 categories of sports news and comment, Negro
men's readership exceeded that of white men in nine cate-
gories, was the same in two and was less in six. Negro men's
interest in golf and in high school athletics was about the
same as that of white men.
One measure of intensity of interest in baseball is the
readership of box scores. The comparative men's readership
by races is shown below for the 10 baseball stories. The index
numbers show that 90% of white men and 85% of Negro
men who read the stories also read the box scores.


Read stories
Read box scores
Index number


White
17%
15
90


Negro
17%
14
85


Table 7 shows the readership of the 10 highest read
sports stories by Negro men and compares it with white


Index
No.
81
72
50
83
80
60
50








men's readership of the same stories. With one exception,
the differences are so small as to be statistically not signifi-
cant.

Table 7. Best Read Sports Stories by Negro Men Compared
With White Men's Readership of the Same Stories
Scores
Black White
*Onrushing Pacers M ash M iami ............................... ............. 26% 40%
Won't Play if Bills' Price Isn't Right; Word
F ro m O .J ............................................................................................ 2 5 2 7
Pitching Only Problem as Tribe Boss Sees It ................. 22 27
Royals Capture Fight-spiced Ball Game .......................... 21 18
'Hawk' Changes Decision Will Join Cleveland ............ 20 23
Pascual Falters in Ninth Fram e ..................................................... 20 17
WBA Champ Frazier Rips 'Zygy' in 1:36 ........................ 18 19
Angels Batter White Sox, 8-0 ................................ .............. 18 15
Panther Senior N o-H its Park ............. .......................................... 17 17
Stonem an Expos-es Losing Cards ............................................ 17 17
A basketball story

Age did not seem to be an important factor for either
race in the readership of sports news: it was only the read-
ers who are 65 years and older of both races and both
sexes who differed in readership from other age groups.



Women's Interests

Table 8 shows the comparative reading behavior of
white and Negro women of society news and of six women's
features.

Table 8. Readership by Women of News and Features of Inter-
est to Women: By Race
White Black Index
No.
Any society news or picture ......... ........... 37% 30% 81
Any society news reader ...................................... .. 21 16 76
D ress p attern ............................ ...................................... ......... ... 20 11 60
N eedlew ork pattern ........................................ ..... 12 8 67
A dvice to lovelorn colum n ............................................... 64 32 50
Housekeeping hints column ....................................... 54 20 37
E tiqu ette colu m n .................................. ............................. 16 12 75
G gardening column n ........................................ .................... 16 17 106
Average of all women's features ............................... 27 13 48

It will be noted that for "any society news or pictures,"
Negro women's readership is 81% of that of white women,
and for "any society news" is 76%. Negro women, however,
are much less interested in women's features: their average
readership of all such features is 48% of white women's
readership.








Comics and Panels
The Star published 16 comic strips and 11 panels. The
table below shows the number and percentage of comics and
panels read. Negro men read few comics or panels. Negro
women read more than men, but fewer than white women.
However, in stating their preference for individual comics,
Negro men and Negro women ranked the same four favorite
comics that white readers did.


Number of comics read
% read
Number of panels read
% read


Men
White Black
5 2
31% 13%
4 1
29% 7%


Women
White Black


5
31%
4
29%


4
25%
2
14%


The table below shows the readership of "any comic"
and "any panel" with a breakdown for adult readers. It will
be noted that young Negro adults read more comics than
their elders did. This was especially true for young female
Negro adults.


Any comic reader:
All readers
18-29 years
Any panel reader:
All readers
18-29 years


Men Women
White Black White Black

57% 38% 60% 49%
56 45 61 69


Opinion
Table 9 shows the comparative readership of the opin-
ion pages, including editorials, cartoons, columnists and
letters to the editor. It will be noted that Negro readership
of the editorial pages and the opposite editorial page is less
than half that of whites. The differences are even greater
for the individual features on those pages.
Table 9. Readership of Matter on Opinion Pages: By Race
and Sex


Any for editorial page ......................
Any for op editorial page ...............
Any editorial page item ...................
Any editorial reader .............................
Any letters to the editor ........................
Editorial cartoon (ed. page) ...............
Syndicated editorial cartoon ..........
Syndicated editorial cartoon ..........
Average of all syndicated
colu m n ists ......................... .......... ......


Men
White Black
53% 21%
52 21
53 51
24 9
28 11
20 5
24 7
20 4


Women
White Black
51% 24%
57 28
21 24
17 5
30 14
13 6
13 6
14 9


5.3 8.0 3.4


15.0








Financial News
The table below shows the comparative readership of
some of the matter published in the business-financial pages.
Negroes' readership of "any financial news" was two-thirds
that of whites. More Negro women read the stock tables
than did white women.

Men Women
White Black White Black
Any financial news reader 30% 20% 18% 12%
N.Y. Stock Exchange 18 10 5 7
American Stock Exchange 11 10 2 7
Mutual fund quotations 5 4 3 0

Readers of the stock tables were asked to specify the
New York Stock Exchange quotations they had read. The
average number for white men who had read the table was
4.3 stocks and for white women was 1.5. The comparable
number on the American Exchange was 3.8 for men; the
number of white women was too small to justify a computa-
tion. The data for Negroes was also too small to be signifi-
cant statistically.
An inspection of the data (not presented here) sug-
gests that it is the Negro man and Negro woman under 50
years of age who most often refer to the quotations; for
white persons, it is those over 50 years of age who most
often read the quotations.



Pictures
Picture readership scores of Negroes were somewhat
lower than those of whites, as shown in Table 10.
Table 10. Number of Pictures Read by Readership Scores: By
Race and Sex
Number Read
Men Women
White Black White Black
Readership scores:
Less than 29% ................................. 18 19 17 18
30% to 49% .......................................... 3 7 3 7
50% to 69% .................... ........... 5 0 5 0

Table 11 compares readership scores for several cate-
gories of pictures. In only two instances were Negroes' read-
ership scores higher than whites': a few more Negro women
(but not Negro men) saw two posed pictures in each of
which one of the subjects was a Negro.









Table 11. Readership of Selected Categories of Pictures: By
Race and Sex


A nim al (p. 1) ...... ....... ...
Fire (p. 1) ..
Action (p. 1) ......
Society (3 cols.) ................
Society (2 cols.) ........
Posed (2 cols.) ............
*Posed (2 cols.) .. ...
M ovie stars .. ....... ...........
Sports action (3 cols.)
**Sports posed ...... .......... ...
Last page (% picture page; 3
pictures):


Men
White Black
S 37% 26%
51 39
S24 12

S 10 4
5 4
S 7 2
41 31
18 12


Women
White Black
46% 40%
54 43
21 11
14 7
13 10
10 4
6 12
11 10
10 8
2 3


*A Negro pastor posed with a white man and a white woman
**A Negro boxer posed with two white men


General Features

Table 12 shows the readership of 14 general features
and news categories. In no instance did Negro women's
readership exceed that of white women. Readership by
Negro men of "any amusement news" and of the bridge
column was higher than that of white men, and men of
both races had the same score for readership of music news.
Table 12. Readership of Selected General Features and News:
By Race and Sex


Any amusement news reader ........
Any music news reader ..........
Any radio or TV program
or news
TV Wednesday ............
Wednesday radio log ............
TV m ovies . ....................................
Any puzzles and games reader ..
Public records statistics
Any obituary reader .........
Indianapolis Area Deaths .....
Health column ............. ......
B ridge colum n ..... ..............................
L ocal colum n ................................ ...... .
Cross-word puzzle ...........................


Men
White Black
13% 18%
8 8


Women
White Black
23% 15%
14 10


White readers' interest in a health column was very
much higher than that of Negro readers.
Negroes' readership of TV and radio programs and
news was considerably lower than that of white readers.
This could be explained by the fact that Negroes are some-
what less selective for programs than whites are. In ana-

63








lyzing the television behavior of Negroes, it should be kept
in mind, as was said earlier, that the sample is of Negro
readers of the Star, not of the Negro population.


Readership of Advertising

A most significant finding of this pioneer study was
that, in general, the differences between the races as to
readership of display advertising were slight. Table 13 shows
the percentage who read "any" of six types of advertise-
ments. In columns 3 and 6 the percentages have been con-
verted to index numbers to show the differences. For each
kind of advertisement, white readers' scores are taken as
100 per cent; thus, for "any display ad," Negro men's reader-
ship is 97 % of white men's readership.

Table 13. Readership of Advertising: By Race and Sex
Men Index Women Index
White Black. No. White Black No.
Any display .................... 72% 70% 97 89% 76% 85
Any national ................ 55 48 87 62 46 74
Any local ............ ..... 61 62 101 86 76 85
Any department store 24 28 117 60 54 90
Any Classified .. 44 37 84 40 35 88
Any amusement ......... 18 18 100 22 21 96
When readership of all department store ads was aver-
aged the median scores for whites and Negroes were found
to be exactly the same. The same median scores were found
for readership of national ads.
One explanation is that households of both races are
consuming units; the differences in education, occupation
and income are not determinants except for certain products
or prices.
For some reason the readership of drug store ads by
Negroes was considerably lower than for whites. The reader-
ship by Negro men of ads for groceries and meats was con-
siderably lower than whites' but only slightly lower by
Negro women.
Although the scores in Table 13 suggest an equal reader-
ship of classified ads by Negroes, their readership was much
lower when an average was taken for all of the 80 classifica-
tions. Negro men's scores were only one-half as high as
white men's and Negro women's scores were two-thirds as
high as white women's.
The highest read classifications by Negroes were: Per-
sonal Notices (by men), Employment-Men, Employment-
Women, Employment-Men and Women, Autos for Sale (by
women) Rentals, Lost and Found, Sports and Foreign Autos,
and For Sale-Miscellaneous.









Sports Readers' Interest
In 21 Kinds of Sports News
The Associated Press, the sports committee of the
Associated Press Managing Editors Association, and Carl
J. Nelson Research, Inc., in May and June, conducted a sur-
vey of 789 males and 188 female adults who said they were
interested in reading sports news. Interviews were con-
ducted in 97 cities by reporters on cooperating newspapers.
Larry Jinks, managing editor of the Miami (Fla.) Herald,
was chairman of the APME sports committee.
Excluded from the sample were persons who said they
were not interested in reading sports news. (In a national
survey in September, Sindlinger & Co. asked 1,378 adults
to name their favorite sport. Football was named by 33.1%
of the men and 16.3% of the women, and baseball was
named by 27% of the men and 27.2% of the women).
With respect to each of 21 sports, respondents were
asked whether they were "very interested," "interested" or
had "no interest." Table 1 reports both the "very inter-
ested" and a combination of the "very interested" and the
"interested" percentages for men and women.


Table 1. Percentage of Respondents* Who Were "Very Interested"
and "Interested" in Reading About 21 Kinds of Sports


Men
Interested+
Very Very
Interested Interested


Pro football ........... 80%
College football .... 71
Baseball .... ... 58
Pro basketball ... 42
College basketball. 40
Indianapolis type
car racing ............... 25
G olf ......... .......... ......... 31
B oxing .......... ..... 22
Track ......... .. ....... 21
Fishing .......... ..... ..... 27
Horse racing ........... 19
H ock ey ............................... 21
H hunting ........................ 24
Stock car racing........ 12
B ow ling ......................... 14
Tennis .............. ...... 7
B oating ...................... 7
S kiin g .... ............. .... 8
Drag racing ............. 8
Amateur wrestling 5
Soccer .................... 5
* Screened out of the sample were
interested in reading sports news.


97%
96
95
85
82
75
71
69
69
60
60
57
52
48
47
41
37
35
31
30
28
respondents


Women
Interested+
Very Very
Interested Interested
57% 90%
54 90
42 89
31 73
29 76


13
25
5
16
9
14
15
5
5
19
14
10
16
3
4
2
who said


62
69
29
52
39
60
45
26
34
45
54
40
55
20
13
17
they were not


I








It will be noted from the second column for each sex
that women had more interest than men in reading about
tennis and skiing. Women were much less interested than
men in reading about hunting, fishing, amateur wrestling,
soccer and boxing. In all of the other sports, women and
men had about the same amount of interest.
However, the first and third columns show that men's
interest is much more intense than women's in most cate-
gories. Exceptions are bowling, tennis, boating and skiing.
Table 2 shows the breakdown by age groups of men
(only) who were "very interested."


Table 2. Percentage of the "Very Interested" Men for 21 Kinds of
Sports: By Age

18-24 25-34 35-49 50-64 65 and
Years Years Years Years Older
Number in sample .94 196 322 102 75
Pro football ................... 78% 87% 82% 79% 63%
College football .......... 69 76 73 80 49
Baseball ....... ........... 60 57 57 61 59
Pro basketball .......... 53 45 41 38 29
College basketball.... 45 43 40 44 24
Indianapolis type
car, racing ... ........ 41 29 24 14 16
Golf ...... .......... 25 33 32 40 16
Boxing ... 28 23 22 21 18
Track .... .. 28 22 21 21 11
Fishing 28 27 28 27 29
Horse racing ...... ..... 18 17 20 21 20
Hockey ....... ............... 23 22 23 18 17
Hunting ........ ....... 24 29 23 21 16
Stock car racing .... 27 17 8 6 4
Bow ling .............. .. .... 14 9 18 14 9
Tennis ..................... ......... 10 5 7 11 5
Boating ...... ................. 11 7 8 7 4
Skiing ....... 10 10 8 7 5
Drag racing ........ 22 10 5 3 1
Amateur wrestling 5 7 5 4 4
Soccer .......................... 10 3 4 5 5

An interesting finding was that, with very few ex-
ceptions, age makes almost no difference among the highly
interested. This is shown more clearly in Table 3 in which,
for six selected sports, there has been a conversion of the
"very interested" percentages to show their proportion in
the total sample. Table 3 shows that, for baseball, pro foot-
ball and golf, the proportions correspond almost exactly
with the proportion of each age group in the total sample.
Thus, for all men in the sample who are "very interested"
in pro football 12% are in the 18-24 age group, 27% in the
25-34 age group, etc.









Table 3. Percentage in Each Age Group of Men Who Are "Very
Interested" in Six Selected Sports
18-24 25-34 35-49 50-64 65 and
Years Years Years Years Older
% in total sample......... 12% 25% 41% 13% 9%
Pro football ........................ 12 27 42 13 7
Baseball ................................. 12 25 40 14 10
G olf ............................................. 10 26 42 17 5
Indianapolis type
car racing .................... 19 29 39 7 6
Stock car racing............ 27 36 27 6 3
Drag racing ................ ..... 34 33 21 10 2

In interpreting the findings, the sports editor may find
it useful to note that about two-thirds of the potential audi-
ence of fans ("the very interested") for most sports in
1969 was in the 25-49 age groups. It is the youngest groups,
however, who are "very interested" in stock car and drag
racing.
Statistics
The respondents were asked how often they read the
statistics reported about six sports. The results are in
Table 4.

Table 4. Frequency of Reading of Statistics of Six Sports


Men
Some-
Always times


Baseball box
scores ......... 53%
Daily golf
tournament
scores ............ 27
Basketball
box scores 42
Football sum-
maries ........ 67
Hockey sum-
maries ........ 16
Race track
entries and
results ......... 15
League and
conference
standings:
Baseball 66
Pro foot-
ball ........ 75
College
football 61
Pro bas-
ketball 43
College
basket-
ball ...... 39
Hockey 19
Top Ten
team s ............ 74


Women
Some-
Never Always times


Never


37% 10% 26% 50% 24%

41 32 12 40 48

39 19 21 46 33
26 7 38 41 21
27 57 8 20 72

31 54 8 30 62


29 5 32 57 11

20 5 37 44 19
30 9 35 44 21
37 20 21 40 39

40 21 20 46 34
29 52 10 21 60


23 3

67


49 40 11








As to baseball box scores, the findings seem to agree
with those in a readership study of the April 23 issue of the
Indianapolis (Ind.) Star reported in the ANPA News Re-
search Bulletin of September 5, which showed that 17%
of white men read the average baseball story and 90% of
those read the average box score. Carl J. Nelson Research,
Inc. reports that 21% of all male readers, as found in 125
recent readership surveys, read the box score. Table 4,
however, shows that more than one-half of the sports-
oriented men never read the hockey and race track statistics.
Respondents in the APME survey were also asked this
question: "Do you want the box scores and statistics of all
games played the preceding day, just those involving your
local team, or neither?" The answers were as follows:

Men Women
All box scores ..................... .................. 73% 51%
Just local box scores ........................................... 21 36
N either .................................................. 6 13

A majority of men preferred short separate stories
about baseball games "other than local or nearby major
league games" to a roundup story. The ratio was 58% for
separate stories to 35% for a roundup story. Women's
preference for separate stories over a roundup was 46%
to 40%. Men's preference for separate stories was even
higher for pro football games-67% to 26%-and women's
preference was in the ratio of 53% to 33%. For pro basket-
ball games, however, there was little or no difference in
preference for either form.
Respondents were asked whether they had more or
less interest in 10 different sports than they had five years
ago. The answers for men are in Table 5; except for hockey
and boxing-in which women have less interest than men
-women's scores differed only slightly from men's.
TaLle 5. Men's Interest in Ten Sports as Compared With
Five Years Ago
More Less About the
Interest Interest Same
Now Now Interest
Pro football .... ........ ... 68% 3% 29%
College football ..... ........ 50 8 42
Pro basketball ......................... 47 10 43
G olf .... .................... ....... ....... 40 13 47
Pro basketball ....... ....... .... 37 21 42
College basketball ......... 37 14 49
Pro hockey ......... .......... 32 19 49
Horse racing ...... ..... 27 14 59
Auto racing .... .................. 25 17 58
Boxing ........ ..... .... 17 37 46








Western respondents were less interested in horse
racing than were respondents in other sections of the
country. Eastern respondents were less interested than
those in other sections in car racing (all types), hunting
and fishing. Respondents in the West and Central regions
were less interested in hockey than were eastern respon-
dents. Those in the East and Central. regions were less
interested in boating than were those in the West.
Respondents were asked how often they read the list
of winners and amount of prize money reported at the end
of golf tournaments. The results were as follows:
Men Women
Usually read .. ......... .. .............. ... 45% 36%
Som etim es read ............. ............................... .. 37 36
N ever read ................. ............ ............ 18 28
100 100
Answers to this question are reported below: "For
other than local games, do you prefer a detailed account of
the game, or would you rather have just background, ex-
planatory material about the players and why certain things
happened?
Men Women
Detailed account ..... .... ..................... 27% 24%
Background story .................... ............. .. 42 52
B oth ...................... ........ .... ........ ... ... 28 18
Don't know ......................... ....... 3 6
Stories about sports stars that "tell what they are like
at home and off the field" were liked by both men (78%)
and women (92%).
Readership of stories about "upcoming sports events"
was as follows:
Men Women
Usually read .. ............. 72% 53%
Sometimes read ....... ...... 26 44
Never read ...... .......... ... 2 3
Respondents were asked, "Are you more or less in-
clined to read a newspaper account of a game that you have
seen on television?" The answers were as follows:
Men Women
M ore inclined ... ..... ............... .. 51% 57%
Less inclined ....... ...... ... ........ ..... .... .......... ... 32 25
T he sam e ................................................................... 17 18
Respondents were asked whether or not they liked
sports cartoons and comic strips on the sports pages. The
answers were as follows:
Men Women
Y es .... ................. ... ............... ............... 63% 62%
N o .... ............ .. ........ .............. .. . 37 38







With respect to four sports, the interviewers estimated
the number of miles each respondent lived from (a) the
nearest major league team and (b) the nearest professional
team. The average (median) distances in miles for men
were as follows:
Major league team: Professional team:
B baseball .................. ... ..... .. 85 26
Basketball ............... ... ... 81 71
Pro-football ...... .... 68 40
Hockey ..... ..... .. .... 91 38
In 1967, the APME sports committee asked sports edi-
tors to indicate the percentage of their readers they be-
lieved were interested in each of the 21 sports. The rank
order of the sports editors' percentages was exactly the
same as the rank order in the readership survey for nine
sports and differed from the readership survey by only two
rank orders for seven other sports. For four sports, how-
ever, the rank order of the sports editors differed from
that of the readership survey by three or more ranks:
sports editors underestimated interest in pro basketball
and boating and overestimated interest in golf, fishing and
hunting.

31% of Sports News Readers
Turn to Sports Pages First
Thirty-one per cent of men who are "interested" or
"very interested" in sports news read the sports pages first
and 48 % read the front page first.
This was one of the findings in a survey made last
May and June by the Associated Press, the sports commit-
tee of the Associated Press Managing Editors Association
and Carl J. Nelson Research, Inc, in which 789 men and
188 women were interviewed in 97 cities by reporters of co-
operating newspapers. Persons who had said they were not
interested in reading about sports were screened out of
the sample.
Respondents were asked as to 'the sequence in which
they read nine kinds of news and features. The results were
as follows: Read
Read Read Read Fourth
First Second Third to Ninth
Men
Page One ...................... ............... 48% 15% 10% 27%
Sports new s ............... .................... 31 25 13 31
B business new s ............................... 4 5 7 84
Editorial page ....... ........................ 2 5 9 84
International news ..................... 3 10 12 75
N national new s ............................... 3 12 22 63
L ocal new s .................... .................. 7 18 17 58
W omen's news .............................. 1 1 98
C om ics ........... ............ ....... .... ... .. 2 7 6 85








Read
Read Read Read Fourth
First Second Third to Ninth
Women
Page O ne ................................... 62 13 5 20
Sports new s ................................ .. 9 10 12 69
Business new s .............................. 1 3 2 94
Editorial page .................... ....... 3 8 10 79
International news ................. 3 9 12 76
N national new s ................................. 2 11 19 68
Local new s ....... ................. ...... 7 24 18 51
W om en's news ............................ 8 15 13 64
C om ics .... ...... ................... ... 6 6 6 82
It is likely that the percentages for the fourth column
include some persons who did not read certain categories
at all.

Older Women Read More Society News
An inquiry as to possible differences in readership of
society news by women of different ages prompted an anal-
ysis of 14 surveys of metropolitan newspapers made by
Carl J. Nelson Research, Inc. between October, 1965 and
March, 1967.
The average (median) scores were as follows:
Any society news or pictures:
18-29 years 50%
30-49 years 50
50 years and older 61
All women 53
Nelson's all-study average 49
Any society news:
18-29 years 37
30-49 years 35
50 years and older 47
All women 42
Nelson's all-study average 36
Although the averages of all women readers of the 14
papers are somewhat higher than the Nelson-all-study aver-
ages for all women, the analysis shows a significantly higher
readership by the oldest class of women.

Some Benchmarks for Readership
of Society News
How well read is society news as compared with other
kinds of editorial content? An analysis was made of reader-
ship studies of 16 metropolitan newspapers surveyed by Carl
J. Nelson Research, Inc. between October, 1965 and March,
1967.








Seven of the 16 issues were published on Thursday, four
on Wednesday and the others on other weekday days except
Monday.
The average readership by women is shown below:
Any editorial page item .............. ........................... 59%
Any society news or picture ................................. ...... 54
A ny w weather reader ............................................................ 50
Any tv, radio program or news .............................. 49
Top 10 news stories (average) .............................. 41
Any sports news or pictures ................................... 37
Any society news reader ......... .............. ................. 37
A ny obituary reader ............................................................ 36
A ny am usem ent new s ...................................................... 34
A ny sports n ew s ................................................... ......... 32
A ny financial new s ......................... ........................ 28
A ny editorial reader .......................................... ...... 28
A further analysis was made of society news readership
(defined as weddings, engagements, clubs and personals).
The average item was read by 10% of women when the
story was not accompanied by art, and by 21% when there
was related art. The average of stories ranged from 5% to
13% when there was no art and from 10 per cent to 43%
where there was art.
For four of the papers, scores were reported for "any
engagement." The average was 30%, all of the stories being
accompanied by art.
It is well known that readership of several continuing
features-local and syndicated-is fairly high. The range of
scores for some of these in the 16 papers were as follows:
Advice to the lovelorn ....................................... 50% -76%
H household hints .................................................... 9% -61%
Fashion stories ...................................... .............. 12% -40%
F fashion art ........................................................................ 19% -59%
Personal care ............................ ............... ...... 18% -34%
S ew in g .................................................................................. 10 % -38 %
Food preparation ...................................................... 19% -50%
No average scores could be computed for locally-written
feature stories in the women's section, but generally the
scores were quite high, especially when there was related
art.


Number of Comics Read
There is a good deal of data about the reading of comic
strips which an editor can apply when considering which
comic to drop when he wishes to substitute a new strip or
to reduce the number.
Haskins, in 1955, analyzed readership scores of daily
comics in the Minneapolis (Minn.) Tribune and Star over
a five-year period. The data for the Tribune in 1954 when
10 comics were published were as follows:
Pet. who read no comics ................... 32







Pet. who read all ......................... 23
Pet. of other comics readers ............... 45
100
The percentages correspond closely to the more recent
averages found by Carl J. Nelson Research, Inc., who re-
ported these "All-Study" averages in 1967, the average
number of comics published being 17.
Men Women
Pet. who read any comic.......... 60 60
Number of comics read ........... 6 5
Pet. of 17 comics read ............ 35 29
Haskins' data for the five-year period for the Tribune
are reported in a different form in the accompanying table.
Percentage of Readers Who Read a Certain Percentage of Comics
Pet. of Readers
Scores Men Women
0% 20% ....................................................... 41.7% 43.5%
21% 40% ............................................................... 8.5 10.7
4 1% 60% .............................. ................................ 7.3 9.6
61% 80% ............................................................. 8.1 8.8
81% 100% .................... ...... .................... 34.4 27.4
100.0 100.0
It will be noted that more than 40% of men and women
either read no comics or fewer than 20% of the available
comics, and that one-third of the men and more than one-
fourth of the women read more than 80% of the available
comics.
The data imply and other studies have shown there are
about three classes of comic strip readers: (1) the voracious
reader, who reads all or nearly all of the comics published;
(2) the selective reader, who reads only a few comics but
would squawk if certain comics were dropped; and (3) an
in-between class.
When the scores from a readership study are broken
down by these three classes (i.e., by the number of comics
read), the newspaper is likely to receive few complaints from
the voracious reader about those comics which have the
lowest scores. This type of reader likes comics but is not
committed to many specific comics. Comics should be re-
tained when they have fairly high scores and are read by
the class which reads only a few comics.
Such analysis is useful when the paper publishes a
good many comics. It is not very helpful when fewer than
a dozen comics are published.
(Both the Haskins and the Nelson data are from con-
ventional readership studies which measured readership
"yesterday." When a self-administered questionnaire is
used, readers tend to check those comics which they have
read at some time in the past but do not read "regularly" or







had not read "yesterday." The data from a recent self-
administered questionnaire study, for example, reported
readership of at least one comic strip in the high nineties).
(Jack Haskins, "Trends in Newspaper Reading: Comic
Strips, 1949-54," Journalism Quarterly, 32: 422-433, 1955)
5 of 8 Households Kept 1 or More Sections
Of Sunday Oregonian From 3 to 7 Days
Five out of eight households which receive the Portland
(Ore.) Sunday Oregonian were found recently to have re-
tained one or more sections as late as Tuesday through
Saturday.
Of the households which still had a section at the time
of the interview, the sections retained were as follows:
Northwest Magazine
including TV section .................. 89.7%
Parade ................................ 67.1
General news .......................... 62.5
Forum ................................ 62.5
W om en's .............................. 61.2
Sports ................................. 60.8
Com ics ................................ 60.7
The questions were: "Is there any part of the Sunday
Oregonian still in your home at this time?" and "What parts
do you have?"
The questions were included in a random telephone sur-
vey of 2,415 adults in the Standard Metropolitan Area done
during three different seasons of the year (spring, fall and
winter). The questions were asked on each day of the week
beginning with Tuesday and going through Saturday.

Survey Shows Approval of Editorial Changes
The New London (Conn.) Day recently surveyed a
large sample of readers to measure their acceptance of
certain editorial changes which had been made in the past
two years. Some of the results are as follows:
"I enjoy reading The Day more today than I did two
years ago."
Agree 73%, Uncertain 21%, Disagree 7%
"I think The Day is better looking today (more attrac-
tively laid out) than it was two years ago."
Agree 77%, Uncertain 19%, Disagree 5%
"The Day is devoting more space to local news of wide
general interest affecting the majority of readers. Should
we use more news of social and club activities of interest
mainly to those persons directly involved?"








Yes 36%, Uncertain 21%, No 43%
"The Day in recent months has placed more emphasis
on photography. How to you rate The Day's photographic
coverage?"
Good 80%, Fair 19%, Poor 2%
"The Day has been devoting more space to cultural
news (theater, art, music, etc.). How often do you read such
stories?"
Usually 42%, Sometimes 50%, Never 8%

Teenagers' Interests
A survey of 901 high school boys and girls by the South
Bend (Ind.) Tribune last April found that these were the
kinds of news and features the teenagers were most inter-
ested in:
Boys Girls
Sports .............................. .... .... 50.2% 6.5%
Com ics .... ........ ....... .. .. 23.4 21.4
Local news .............. 21.2 20.3
W orld news ............... ..... 21.2 11.4
TV listings .............. .... .. 14.3 13.4
Movie news ...... .. 13.4 15.9
National news ...... .......... 13.0 11.8
Society ............................2.4 15.8
Women's features 1.6 41.5

Readership of High School Pages Increases
Since 1963 the South Bend (Ind.) Tribune has measured
teenagers' readership of its high school pages published on
Sunday ("The Next Generation"). A comparison between
surveys done in 1963 and 1969 shows an increase in "every
Sunday" readership, as follows:
Boys Girls
1963 1969 1963 1969
Reads every Sunday .......... 30.5% 41.9 56.2 74.8
Reads occasionally ............... 53.8 35.9 37.3 18.5
Never reads .... ................. 15.7 16.7 6.5 5.1
No answer. ............ ............... 5.5 1.6
Adult readership in 1967 of the two facing pages, by
parts, was reported in ANPA News Research for Better
Newspapers, Vol. 4, p. 59.







Chapter 6


CREDIBILITY AND ACCURACY



How Skeptical Are Readers and Why?
Some of the findings of a 1970 APME national "image"
study were:
Fifty-one per cent of the respondents do not believe
that newspapers confine their opinions to their editorials.
Forty-nine per cent believe that their newspaper's
stand on politics affects the news stories in the paper.
However, only 17% believe that editors select those
political columns that agree with the editor's opinions.
Only 10% believe that newspapers print only those
letters to the editor which agree with the editor's opinions.
Thirty-four per cent think that newspapers should
report less news about race relations.
Courtney R. Sheldon, of the Christian Science Monitor
and chairman of the Image Committee of the Associated
Press Managing Editors Association, directed a survey last
May of 625 adult respondents in 36 states to test certain
dimensions of the credibility of newspapers.
Reporters on each of 65 participating newspapers com-
pleted an average of about 10 interviews, respondents being
selected in different geographical areas of the cities. The
four largest cities in the country were not represented.
An equal number of men and women were interviewed.
The average (median) age was 47 years-about four years
higher than the average age of adults in the United States.
This sampling method yielded a higher proportion of
the well-educated than do the samples of professional poll-
ers. For example, 33% held one or more college degrees and
an additional 30% had attended college for one or more
years.
The sample also yielded a higher proportion of Repub-
licans and a somewhat lower proportion of Democrats than
did a recent Gallup poll, as shown below:
Gallup APME
R republicans ........................................................ 28% 33%
D em ocrats ............................................................... 42 33
Independents ...................... ................................. 30 24
Other response, no answer .................. 10
Since the interviewers were newspaper reporters that
fact might have influenced some of the responses, but we
don't know.

Does Editorial Policy Influence News?
As many editors have suspected, a large number of








people think that the news reflects editorial policy. This
question was asked: "Newspapers say that they express
their own opinions only in editorials but never in the news
columns. Do you... ?
Strongly agree ............................. ....... ...................... 5%
A gree .................... .......... ............................................ 36
D disagree ............................... ................................................ .............. 4 1
Strongly disagree ......................................................................... 10
Other response, no answer .... ........................................ 8
Later in the interview, this question was asked: "Would
you describe the editorials in the principal newspapers you
read as...?
Moderate or liberal Republican ......................................... 28%
Conservative Republican .............................................................. 21
Moderate or liberal Democratic .......................................... 14
Conservative Democratic .. .............................................................. 6
In d ep en d en t ............................................................... ................ .............. 14
Other response, no answer ...................................................... 17
When respondents were asked, "Do you feel these edi-
torial stands have any effect on the news stories in your
paper?" The answers were as follows: Yes 49%; No 30% ;
Other response, no answer 11%.
When those who had answered "yes" to the question
were then asked "Where and how often do you find this kind
of prejudice?" the answers were as follows:
Placement Content
Headlines Of Stories Of Stories
N ever ............... ............................................. 6% 7% 4%
A lm ost never ........................................ 12 9 9
O occasionally .......................................... 55 52 58
O ften ............................................................... 27 32 29
When all respondents had previously been asked how
they rated the headlines "in the newspaper you read," the
responses were as follows:
A accurate and fair ............ ........................................................ 17%
Usually accurate and fair ...................................................... 63
Usually inaccurate and unfair .............................. 6
Inaccurate and unfair .................................................. ....... 1
Other response, no answer .................................................. 13
Unfortunately, the responses to this series of questions
were not cross-tabulated by political party affiliation. As
was mentioned earlier, however, the sample contained an
equal proportion (33%) of Republicans and Democrats.
Also, if the respondents are considered without respect to
party affiliation but as "conservatives," "moderates or liber-
als," and "independents," we get this sample:
M moderate or liberal ......................................................................... 44%
C on serve ativ e ............................................................................................ 22
In d ep en d en t ............................................ ......... ................................ 24
O their, n o answ er ........................................................................ ....... 10








Although about half of the respondents had said they
believe that the newspaper's opinions are expressed in the
news columns, a more favorable answer was received to
this question: "Would you say that the news columns of the
paper you read regularly are open to stories reporting all
political viewpoints?" The answers:
Y e s .............................. ..................................... .............. ............. 5 3 %
N o ......................................... ....................... .... ................................. .. ... 2 9
Don't know, no answer ................ ..... 18
The 29% who had answered "no" to the question were
then asked "Which political viewpoint would you say is
discriminated against?" The answers:
D em ocrats ........................................ .......... .................................. .. 40 %
Liberals (or a sim ilar term ) .................................. 21
R e p u b lic a n s ............................................................................................... 16
Conservatives (or a similar term) ................................. 15
"Party in power" or "those which
disagree with the newspaper," etc.................... ......... 8
(A Gallup survey in December, 1969, found that 45%
of the whole sample and 60% of the college-trained sample
thought that newspapers tend to favor one side in present-
ing news that deals with political and social issues. Corre-
sponding percentages for television were 42% and 53%).


Washington Columnists
Do readers perceive newspapers as fair in their selec-
tion of the political columnists they publish? This question
was asked: "Newspapers publish articles by Washington
columnists. Most editors say that when they select the col-
umns, it doesn't matter whether the columnists agree with
the editor's own opinion. How true do you think this is of
the papers you read regularly?" The answers:
T r u e ...................................................................................................... ............. 3 4 %
N early alw ay s tru e ........................................................................... 37
A lm ost n ev er tru e ................................................................. ........... 13
N e v e r tr u e ................................................................................................... 4
Other response, no answer .............................................. 12
Respondents were asked for the names of some colum-
nists "whose opinions you generally share." The number
for each columnist mentioned is shown below-a total of
300 mentions. An inspection of the list seems to-show that
the majority were either conservatives or moderates.
Jam es Reston ....................................... 62 Jam es Kilpatrick ................... 14
W illiam Buckley .............................. 57 Evans-Novak ......... ...................... 13
Art Buchw ald .................................... 54 Victor Riesel ......... .......... ...... 12
David Lawrence .............................. 21 Russell Baker ................. .......... 11
Carl Row an ............................................. 18 Joseph A lsop .. 11
Tom W icker ......................................... 17 W illiam W hite ......... .................. 10








This question was also asked: "Which do you find more
reliable... ?"
C olu m n ists ................................................................................................... 3 1%
E editorials .................................................. . ....... ................................ 23
N o d iff eren ce ......................................................................................... 36
O their response, no answ er ..................................................... 10

Letters to the Editor
To what extent do readers who disagree with a paper s
editorial position feel that they have access through letters
to the editor? This question was asked: "Most newspapers
do not have the space to print all reader letters they receive.
Do you think your newspaper selects letters which agree
with its own opinion or those which are most worth read-
ing ?" The answers:
Agree with editors' opinion ........................................... 10%
M ost w orth read in g ....................................................................... 77
O their response, no answ er ................................................... 13

Publishing Corrections
These questions were asked:
1. "When your newspaper makes mistakes does it print
corrections ?"
2. "As prominently as it should ?"
3. "Can you cite any examples of your newspaper's
failure to correct serious errors ?"
To the first question, only two per cent said "no" and
12 per cent said "not often enough." Seventy per cent said
either "yes" or "most of the time."
To the second question, 18% said "no" and 11% said
"not often enough." Fifty-two percent said either "yes" or
"most of the time."
Only 13% said they could cite any example of failure
to correct serious errors. Eighty-seven per cent either said
"no" or did not answer.
Respondents were asked to rate the seriousness of four
kinds of errors "as they affect a newspaper's credibility."
The answers were as follows:
Not Very
Serious Serious Serious
Typographical errors ........................... 67% 24% 9%
Misspelled names or places ............ 51 37 12
Items which do not identify
the source of news ............................. 51 29 20
Items which quote only one
side of a controversy ........................ 14 43 43
An interesting finding was that one-third of the re-
spondents thought that typos were "serious" or "very
serious."








Comparison of Media Credibility
When the following question was asked 68% said
"yes": "Do you find that newspaper, magazine, radio and
television reports differ from one another or from your per-
sonal knowledge of a news event?"
Of those who answered "yes," 23% said this happened
"often," 61% said "occasionally," and 16% said "almost
never."
The "yes" respondents were then asked: "When this
happens, which source do you generally believe?" Responses
were as follows:
N ew paper ....................................... 32% M magazine ............... ............ 9%
Personal know ledge ............... 27 Radio ........................................ 4
Television ........................................ 18 Other response, no answer 10
One value of this study is that it asked some questions
which had never been asked before. So it is an interesting
finding that 27% of the "yes" respondents said that some
medium reported an event which, in some respect, did not
correspond to their personal knowledge.
The responses differ from those reported in 1967 by
Roper Research Associates because of the difference in the
samples and the question wording, especially as to personal
knowledge as a benchmark of credibility. The Roper ques-
tion was: "If you got conflicting or different reports of the
same news story from radio, television, the magazines and
the newspapers, which of the four versions would you be
most inclined to believe?" The responses were as follows:
N ew spapers .................................... 24% M magazines ....................................... 8%
T elev ision .......................................... 4 1 R ad io ..................................................... 7
Don't know, no answer...... 20
The Medium and the Message
Some questions were asked which may supply a partial
explanation of some of the skepticism found among readers.
A much more sophisticated study, however, is needed to
obtain complete explanations.
One question was: "There is much violence, conflict,
unrest, crime and drug abuse in the world today. Some edi-
tors say that readers do not fully appreciate this and are
thus unfairly critical of newspaper stories on these sub-
jects. Do you agree or disagree?" The answers: Agree 50% ;
Disagree 36%; Don't know, no answer 14%.
Another question was "Should your newspaper report
more, less or the same amount of news in these areas to
present life as it is?" The percentage who said "less" are
reported below for some of the listed areas. Some respond-
ents mentioned more than one of the 22 listed areas.
Race relations ............................... 34% V ietnam w ar ................................ 19%
C rim e ................................................... 27 E nv ironm en t ................................. 8
This question was asked of all respondents: "If there








are statements in your newspaper that you feel should not
have been printed, are they on any of these subjects?" The
answers:
R acial new s ........................... ........ 27% R religion ................... ............................... 9%
Vietnam war ................................. 17 International affairs .................. 8
C rim e .................................................. 12 L abor ................. ..................................... 7
Local politics ................................. 10 W ashington politics .................. 5
Previously, the respondents had been asked "If your
newspaper reports statements or events you find personally
objectionable, are you more likely to ... ?"
Respect the newspaper because
it did not censor new s ................... .................................... 61%
or
Criticize the newspaper for printing what
you felt was not in the public interest .............. 28
N ot an sw ered ................................................................... . ................... 11
When the following question was asked, 76% said
"yes": "Do you feel those in high political office in Wash-
ington try to manage the news so it is favorable to them?"
Of those who answered "yes," this question was asked: "Are
they successful in getting favorable news of themselves into
newspapers?" Sixty-seven per cent said "yes." Approxi-
mately the same proportion said "yes" when the question
referred to the success of high politicians in Washington
getting favorable news of themselves on television.
When the following question was asked, 36% said
"occasionally" and eight per cent said "often": "Do you feel
reporters for your newspaper deliberately misquote or mis-
represent the opinions of public officials?" Those respond-
ents were then asked "Does it occur in any of these
areas ... ?" The answers:
L ocal politics ................................. 25% C rim e ................................................. 10%
Racial new s ...................................... 17 International affairs ............... 7
W ashington politics ............... 13 Labor .................................. ........ 6
V ietnam w ar ................................. 13 R religion ................................................ 4

Credibility of the Byline
This question was asked: "Some news items have the
reporter's name at the top and some do not. Does the writ-
er's name above the item cause you to believe that the item
is more accurate and fair?" The responses were: Yes 24%;
No 65%; Other response, no answer 11%.
Some studies have tried to find out the degree of credi-
bility contributed to news reports by certain television
anchor men and commentators, but the data were not valid
because respondents had seldom been exposed to the same
personalities. One carefully-executed study, however, found
that a well-known newsman (Eric Sevareid) was consid-
ered fairer and more expert than a high federal official
(Secretary of State Rusk). See News Research Bulletin
No. 1, Jan. 8, 1970.








Influence of Advertisers
This question was asked: "Do you see any evidence that
the content of your newspaper is influenced by advertisers ?"
The answers: Yes 26%; No 55%; Don't know,,no answer
19%.
Those who mentioned such influence cited coverage of
the automobile industry and newspaper sections designed to
promote specific commercial activities, such as shopping
centers.

Best Sources of News
Respondents were asked where they got "most of the
daily news about what's going on in your local and metro-
politan area" and "in the world today beyond your local
community." Although the findings cannot be compared with
those of the Roper surveys because of differences in the
samples and in the question wording, they do show consider-
able differences as to sources of local and nonlocal news.
The answers:
In the
World Local
N ew spapers ....................................................... 41% 58%
R ad io ......................................................................... 11 16
T elev ision .............................................................. 35 19
M again es .................................................................. 8 2
O th er people ................................... ...................... 6 5
When the respondents were asked which of the media
supplied "the most accurate and fair" information they
answered as follows:
N ew spapers .................................. 46% R adio .................................................... 5%
Television .................................. ........ 22 Equally fair ............................... 3
M magazines ......................................... 7 N o answ er ........................ ........... 17

Newspapers' Correction Policies
An average of about 2.75 corrections are published in
an average month.
About nine per cent of the stories corrected had a degree
of possible libel.
One-half of the newspapers have a formal policy for
handling correction of errors.
Two-thirds of the newspapers identify a correction as
a correction in the headline.
The Image Committee of the Associated Press Man-
aging Editors Association last spring studied the correction
policies of approximately 300 newspapers. The study was
done by Joe D. Smyth of the Dover (Del.) Delaware State
News. The Image Committee was headed by Courtney R.
Sheldon of the Christian Science Monitor.
The average (median) number of corrections pub-
82








lished per month was found to be 2.75. The range was from
zero (19 papers) to 21 or more (three papers) ; ten papers
published an average of 11 or more corrections.

The responses to 11 questions were as follows:
Yes No Sometimes
Does your newspaper have a formal pol-
icy for handling the correction of er-
rors? ........ ............................ .......................................................... 51% 49 %
Are corrections generally cleared through
a senior editor such as the managing
e d ito r ? ............................................................................................. 9 0 1 0
Are you able to give a correction more
prominence than a short or box at the
bottom of the page? ................................................. 69 20 10
Are you able to run corrections generally
on the page where the error occurred? 63 24 3
Specifically, if an error occurs in a page
one story, do you run the correction on
page one? .............................. ................................. .. 58 25 17
Are corrections identified as corrections
in the headline? ....................... ............... .................. 67 13 20
Do you ever run a correction if a head-
line has been misleading or erroneous,
even though the story was correct?........... 63 35 2
Do corrections apologize for the mistake
in addition to correcting the error? ........... 52 33 15
Do you consider the printing of a correc-
tion letter on the editorial page the
equivalent of printing a correction on
the page where the error occurred?........ 24 86 10
When a caption on a photo is erroneous,
do you usually rerun the photo? ............. 6 81 13*
Do most of the corrections result from
reactions by an offended or critical
reader? .................................................................................... 77 23
SUsually, depending on whether it was a local photo.
The responding editors reported that about nine per
cent of the stories corrected had a degree of possible libel.
This is an average for all of the responding newspapers.
Although 77% of the managing editors said that most
of their corrections were made in response to a reader's
complaint, some queried news sources from time to time
about the accuracy of selected stories. One newspaper runs
a 5 x 15 inch ad at least once a month inviting readers to
clip any story in the paper and comment on its accuracy.
Some newspapers publish corrections under a standing
head ("Beg Pardon," "Correction") but others "disguise"
the headline to suggest it is a fresh news story. Some of
the editors commented that "overplaying" corrections tends
to increase the "credibility gap," but others believed that
admission of error tends to increase or reinforce readers'
confidence in the newspaper. One comment was "How much

83








of a thing do radio and television make of correcting
errors?"
In deciding whether or not to publish a correction,
some editors said they differentiated between serious errors
and such minor errors as wrong telephone number and age
in an obit.
Although nearly all newspapers cleared requests for
corrections through a top editorial executive, some require
the reporter and deskman who were involved in the error
to handle the correction. "It acts as a reminder," said one
editor.
Only about half of the responding papers have adopted
a formal policy for handling corrections. Of those which
have a formal policy, some have prepared elaborate state-
ments of policy.
Several studies of accuracy in newspapers have been
reported in News Research for Better Newspapers, the
last being in Vol. 4, pp. 70-75.

Ohio H.S. Students Rate Newspapers
Last in Accuracy; 47.7% Are Satisfied
A study conducted late last spring of the attitudes of
Ohio high school students (top three grades) toward cur-
rent- social and political issues included a few questions
about the news media. A total of 1,097 students in a state-
wide probability sample filled out questionnaires in the
classrooms of 80 public and private high schools.
The study was conducted under a grant received by
Kent State University by R. H. Goettler and Associates,
Columbus, Ohio, in cooperation with Market Opinion Re-
search, Detroit. It was sponsored by the Buckeye Associa-
tion of School Administrators.
One of the questions was "How would you rate each of
the following for accuracy-that is, accurate information ?"
The combined "very accurate" and "more accurate than in-
accurate" percentages are shown in Table 1. Fewer than
2%7 said "don't know."
Table 1
Accuracy Ratings of Sources of Information
N ew spaper new s stories ........................................................................ 29.8%
R ad io n ew s ............................................................ . ....... ............................. 62.5
T elev ision n ew s ......................................................................................... 5 1.2
Your textbooks ..................... ................................... ..... 55.9
Y our school new spaper .................................................................. .. 55.1
W hat your teachers tell you ............................................................ 50.8
Although the answers seem to represent a generalized
attitude of. skepticism, it will be noted that newspapers were
rated last.
When asked "What is the one thing that you would do
84








to improve newspapers (television, etc.) 38.9% of the stu-
dents gave such responses with reference to newspapers as
"tell the truth," "write honest facts," "less one-sided," "un-
biased," and "more objective."

Satisfaction With the Media
A second way of evaluating the news media was the
question, "How satisfied are you now with . .?" The com-
bined "very satisfied" and "somewhat satisfied" responses
are shown in Table 2.

Table 2
Satisfaction With the News Media,
Curriculum, Teachers and "Your SchooL"
N ew sp ap ers ........................................................................................................... 47.7 %
R a d io .............................. .................... .................. ............ .... ........................ 6 9 .4
T elev vision ................ ..... ...................5........... .. .................................................. 51.9
W ith subjects you are taking ......................................................... 67.4
Y our teachers ....... ......................................................... ............ 51.8
Y o u r sch oo l ..................................................................................... ................. 60.5
The scores in Table 2 also appear to be measures of
generalized attitude.
The questionnaires were administered a short time
after the Kent State University incident when four students
were killed (May 15-June 2). Of those who were aware of
the incident (98.3%), this open-end question was asked:
"Who would you say is more at fault for their deaths ?"
The results, shown in Table 3, are compared with a
poll of registered voters in Michigan taken at the same
time as the high school poll.

Table 3
Imputation of Blame for Kent State Killings by
Ohio Students and Michigan Adults
Mich.
Students Adults
President Nixon for sending troops
Into Cam bodia ......................................................... .... 11.4% 15.2%
Students for gathering and throwing
rocks at the troops ............................ ..... ......... 58.3 58.0
The troops for using tear gas and
live am m unition ...................................................... 17.7 19.0
The university administration ....................................... 7.7 17.6
N one of the above ............................................................. ... 4.5 4.6
O th e r ....................................................................................................... ... 1 1.0 15 .2
Outside troublemakers ........................................... ... 3.7 -
D on 't k n ow ........................................................................ ......... ... 0.2 1.9

(Barbara Everitt Bryant, High School Students Look
at Their World: Issues, Government, School, Family, Fu-
ture. R. H. Goettler and Associates, Columbus, Ohio, 1970.)








Newspapers' Use of Internal Criticism

The ANPA News Research Center commissioned
Dr. William B. Blankenburg, of the University of Wis-
consin School of Journalism, to study the methods of
internal criticism used by various newspapers. The
study shows that internal criticism seems to be widely
practiced.


By WILLIAM B. BLANKENBURG
Journalists are often admonished to be critical of their
own work. "The need is for constant self-appraisal," said
the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of
Violence in its final report. Yet little study has been given
the press's own criticism. Speeches and articles that cite
"self-improvement" speak mainly of circulation and capital
expenditures, and it remains both fair and pertinent to ask
journalists how they take stock of themselves.
This study explores the practice of internal criticism
on daily newspapers-criticism that goes on between and
among journalists in the same newsroom.
Internal criticism is one of four kinds of press evalua-
tion that can be distinguished by source. External criticism
comes from any nonjournalist-a reader, a member of a
local press council, or even the Vice President of the United
States. Intramural criticism arises within the profession and
passes between media. The Chicago Journalism Review,
API seminars, and the proposed ASNE Grievance Commit-
tee are vehicles of intramural criticism. Self criticism is a
newsman's analysis of his own performance.
In February, 1970, questionnaires on internal criticism
were mailed to 340 newspaper executives whose names were
drawn primarily from the APME membership list. Respon-
ses were received from 234 newspapers in 43 states and the
District of Columbia, for a return rate of 69 %. The respond-
ing newspapers ranged in size from the El Reno (Okla.)
Tribune (circulation 4,507) to the New York (N.Y.) Daily
News (over 2 million). The median size was 50,000. For
some of the following analysis, the newspapers are grouped
by circulation quintile (i.e., approximately 47 papers in each
group) in order to determine whether size affects critical
practices. (For example, one might expect larger newspa-
pers to make greater use of impersonal methods-such as
bulletin boards-than do smaller newspapers.)
The questionnaire defined criticism as an evaluation of
performance that could include praise as well as blame. The
respondents-mainly editors-were asked if their news-








papers used any of five general methods of internal criti-
cism: critical notes posted on newsroom bulletin boards,
memoranda written to individual staffers, an employee publi-
cation that carries criticism, conferences with individual
staffers to evaluate their work, and group meetings that
have some critical content.
What Methods Do They Use?
A three-page questionnaire cannot do full justice to the
phenomenon of internal criticism, but the responses do paint
a broad-stroke portrait of current practices. Table 1 shows
the percentage of newspapers that use each method of criti-
cism at least occasionally and those that use each method
with some regularity.
TABLE 1
Methods of Internal Criticism
Used
Used Regularly
Individual Conference ............................. 92.7% 43.3%
Group conference ................................ 73.5 56.4
M em oran d a .............................................................. 74.4 57.4
B ulletin board ......... .................................... .. 53.8 42.9
Employee publication ................................. 19.7 -
Mean number of methods used......... 3.1
Table 2 shows the differences in usage by circulation
size.
size TABLE 2
Methods of Internal Criticism Used by Daily Newspapers
of Varying Size
Size of Newspapers*
Medium- Medium-
Small Small Medium Large Large
Methods
of (4,000- (25,000- (40,000- (65,000- (165,000+)
Criticism 24,999) 39,999) 64,999) 164,999)
Individual
Conference
Used 89.8% 95.7% 93.3% 93.6% 91.5%
Regularly 40.9 40.9 52.4 54.5 27.9
Group
Conference
Used 77.6 84.8 68.9 72.3 63.8
Regularly 50.0 56.4 51.6 55.9 70.0
Memoranda
Used 69.4 67.4 71.1 89.4 74.5
Regularly 58.8 54.8 62.5 59.5 51.4
Bulletin Board
Used 48.9 45.7 55.5 57.4 61.7
Regularly 45.8 33.3 52.0 40.7 41.4
Employe
Publication
Used 14.3 10.9 20.0 29.8 23.4
Mean No. of
Methods
Used 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.4 3.1
*Approximately 47 newspapers in each size-group.
87







Internal criticism appears to be widely practiced. Only
two newspapers, with circulations of 5,3C0 and 46,000, re-
ported no critical activities. The most widely used method,
individual conferences, is also the most personal and flexible.
There is little variation by size of newspapers regarding this
technique. However, the regularity of its use drops sharply
among the largest newspapers.

Almost three-fourths of the newspapers conducted
group meetings that contained critical content. The smaller
newspapers were more likely to have these meetings, but
the very largest held them most regularly. Because a meet-
ing can cover a variety of topics, the editors were asked
whether criticism was only incidental to other matters.
About 58% said it was not incidental, and some were quite
vehement about its importance.

The less personal methods of conveying criticism-
memoranda and bulletin boards-were more heavily used
by larger newspapers. Even so, at least half of the smaller
papers employed these techniques. Some editors, however,
were appalled at the thought of using bulletin boards for
criticism. Several said it was their policy to "praise in pub-
lic, condemn in private"; hence the attractiveness of indi-
vidual conferences. (Contrary to stereotype, a great number
of editors showed solicitude for reporters' feelings.)

Employe publications were used by about one-fifth of
all respondents as a means of criticism. While several edi-
tors expressed favor for a "Winners & Sinners" type of
publication, many also found its production a considerable
chore. About half of the respondents who used a publication
said theirs carried words of praise only.

As might be expected, several respondents used addi-
tional and more specialized methods than the five shown in
the table. Accuracy surveys, suggestion boxes, and internal
circulation of a marked copy of the day's issue were among
those mentioned.

On the average, the newspapers surveyed used three
of the major methods, with little variation by size of news-
paper. The "medium-large" papers were the most inclined
to use more.

The editors were allowed to define "regular use" as they
saw fit. However, they were asked for the frequency of use
of four of the methods, and their responses are summarized
in Table 3.








TABLE 3
Frequency of Use of Four Methods of Internal Criticism
Indi-
vidual Group
Bulletin Memo- Confer- Confer-
Board randa ence ence*
Frequency:
D aily ..... ................................................ ... 9.2% 12.9% 1.8% 9.7%
Daily to W eekly........ .................... 10.9 1.2 2,7 1.9
B iw eek ly .................................................. 17.6 3.5 6.3 25.3
M on th ly ............................ ............ ......... 2.5 1.2 .9 8.4
Monthly to Semi-annually 3.4 1.2 4.5 24.0
Sem i-annually ................................... 0 0 23.4 7.8
A nn ually .............. .......................... ... 0 2.4 9.0 0
Occasionally or
"as needed" ................ .. ............. 56.3 77.6 62.2 22.7
*If more than one kind of conference was cited, the highest frequency
was used.
The majority of respondents stated no regular interval
for the use of bulletin boards, memoranda, or individual con-
ferences. These methods, which require no elaborate plan-
ning, were generally used as the need arose. However, group
meetings do present logistical problems, and it is not sur-
prising to find them used less casually. The smaller news-
papers were more likely to call meetings "as needed." Larger
newspapers reported more daily group meetings-but in the
form of executive "news conferences" rather than full-staff
or departmental sessions. The 23.4% of newspapers that
reported semiannual individual conferences typically used
them for salary reviews.

Who Directs the Criticism?
The publisher, executive editor, and editor were rarely
the sole directors of critical activities (their participation
was highest on the smallest newspapers), but they frequent-
ly joined with middle-rank executives to provide criticism
(see Table 4).
TABLE 4
Leadership of Internal Criticism: Per cent of Respondents
Citing Leaders of Each Critical Activity
Critical Activity
Indi-
Company vidual Group
Source or Bulletin Memo- Publi- Confer- Confer-
Director Boards randa cation ence ence
Publisher ........ .8% 2.9% 2.2% 1.4% 2.9%
Executive
Editor ............. 4.9 4.6 2.2 2.3 5.8
Editor .. 4.1 5.2 10.9 3.7 13.4







Indi-
Company vidual Group
Source or Bulletin Memo- Publi- Confer- Confer-
Director Boards randa cation ence ence
Managing
Editor .............. 31.9 27.2 13.0 24.7 39.5
Other News
Executive* ..... 9.8 9.2 43.5 22.3 11.0
Combination
of Executives 42.6 50.3 19.6 45.6 26.7
Other** ..... ... 5.7 .6 8.7 0 .6
*Most often the city editor or his assistant.
**Non-editorial sources, including personnel managers, outside experts,
and readers.

Often there was no single leader. A "combination of
executives" predominated in the areas of individual confer-
ences, bulletin boards, and memoranda. However, the leader-
ship of staff meetings fell mainly to one person, the manag-
ing editor, who, by the way, was the most frequently cited
single leader.
Because the critical activities were usually initiated
by executives, it may be fair to assume that much of the
criticism was one-way, from the top down. Certainly the
less personal modes of criticism-bulletin boards, memos,
and company publications-are inherently unilateral. Sev-
eral of the editors' comments support this assumption. An
executive of a leading Eastern daily said, "I cannot believe
that working journalists from several levels can meet as
'equal' professionals because their responsibilities are far
from equal."
However, conferences do provide an opportunity for
dialogue, and although executives usually lead the discus-
sions, 35% of those who used group conferences did men-
tion that they sought topics or feedback from junior editors
or reporters.
Individual conferences may be less egalitarian than
group meetings. The majority of editors (65.6%) said the
former were called because of a reporter's performance-
usually bad performance. (One-fifth said the meetings were
part of a regular pay review.) Still, some crosstalk is pos-
sible, as Warren R. Gardner, editor of the Meriden (Conn.)
Morning Record indicated: "Beginners are counseled fre-
quently, and we point out how they may improve their work.
It's a dialogue in which they are invited to ask questions
about whatever they want to know about their work or the
paper."
There is a sufficient variety of conferences to make an
evaluation of equality hazardous. Forty per cent of the edi-
tors used more than one kind of group meeting (e.g., full
staff, executives-only, or departmental), and as might be
expected, the smaller newspapers made more use of full-







staff meetings while the larger papers turned more to spe-
cialized groups. Table 5 shows a pattern of usage of multiple
meetings.
TABLE 5
Percentage of Newspapers Using
More Than One Kind of Group Meeting
Medium- Medium-
All Small Small Medium Large Large
43.7% 25.0% 34.8% 74.0% 50.0% 38.5%
It may be that the medium-sized newspapers are at a
point where it is both necessary and desirable to use a va-
riety of meetings. Smaller newspapers can assemble the full
staff with relative ease, and larger newspapers must make
do with departmental or executive meetings.
Are They Satisfied With What They Are Doing?
The editors were asked to evaluate their present meth-
ods of internal criticism, and their answers suggest that
they are generally satisfied. Only one of the 234 respondents
said that his newspaper's methods were "not very valuable."
Twenty-eight per cent held their criticism to be "highly
valuable"; 56% assessed theirs as "quite valuable"; and
16% felt theirs was of "uncertain value." Little variation
was apparent by size of newspaper. The largest newspapers
expressed the highest satisfaction, but the difference is not
significant.
The editors were also asked for "ideal" ways to conduct
internal criticism. Here too they indicated some satisfaction:
their most frequent first choice was to refine their present
practices. Table 6 summarizes these responses.

TABLE 6
How Can Internal Criticism Be Improved?
(Pet. of First Choices)
All Small Med-S Medium Med-L Large
Refine present
methods ....... 28.7% 12.5% 40.0% 24.1% 38.7% 29.0%
Have more indi
vidual confer-
ences .................... 24.8 25.0 23.3 37.9 12.9 25.8
Add regular
group confer-
ences ..................... 20.3 43.7 16.7 24.1 6.5 9.7
Add full-time
critic or
supervisor....... 9.8 6.3 3.3 0 19.4 19.4
Use "Winners
& Sinners"
publication ..... 7.8 3.1 3.3 3.4 12.9 6.5
Use outside
consultant ..... 2.6 3.1 3.3 0 6.5 0







All Small Med-S Medium Med-L Large
Seek more staff
participation
in criticism ..... 2.6 3.1 3.3 3.4 0 3.2
Other* ..................... 3.9 3.1 0 6.9 3.2 6.5
For example, marked copies and suggestion boxes.

More face-to-face criticism, by means of both individual
and group conferences, was generally desired. The smallest
newspapers were the least inclined to stick with their pres-
ent methods and most desirous of additional group meetings.
Metropolitan editors were not inclined to add more meetings,
but did show interest in designating a "house critic." The
use of a newsroom publication like the New York (N.Y.)
Times' "Winners & Sinners" was a frequent collateral choice.

Some Notes on Quality and Quantity
The picture that emerges is one of extensive critical
activity, with virtually every participating newspaper re-
porting the use of at least one method of self-examination.
Much of the criticism is conveyed personally on an "as-
needed" basis by various hands in middle management. The
editors were generally pleased with what they were doing,
but saw room for improvement.
Yet while the quantity of internal criticism is exten-
sive, its quality is less certain. It is not even clear that in-
ternal criticism is altogether virtuous. Some executives may
regard it as harmful to a team spirit. Some reporters may
view it as a thumbscrew to enforce "policy." Insensitively
applied, internal criticism may be a tool of what editor Ed-
ward T. Fairchild of the Athol (Mass.) Daily News deplores
as "factory management in news departments."
Some comments from the respondents reveal problems
with internal criticism:
"We've found that daily staff news conferences, or
weekly or monthly staff conferences, produce little of value
and generate little staff interest," wrote Jerry Schniepp,
managing editor of the Springfield (Ill.) State Register.
"Too often discussions can bog down on extraneous
comment-excuses for doing this or that," said E. Curtiss
Pierson, managing editor of New London (Conn.) Day. A
Southern executive editor said that group discussions were
"too often dominated by the gabby."
Another major problem was noted by a Midwestern edi-
tor: "Reporters (editors, too) are very sensitive to criticism,
often resent it thoroughly. Their attitude often is, 'Nobody
could have done it any better, considering the poor info
available and the pressure of deadlines.' "
Despite its difficulties, internal criticism seems neces-




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