• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 Some audience characteristics
 Headlines and makeup
 Content
 Some communication behavior
 Readership
 Readership by teenagers
 Editorial administration and...
 What the public thinks of...
 Miscellaneous














Title: News research for better newspapers
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075610/00004
 Material Information
Title: News research for better newspapers
Series Title: News research for better newspapers.
Physical Description: v. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
Publisher: American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
Place of Publication: New York N.Y
Frequency: annual
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 Subjects
Subject: Newspapers -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Newspaper reading -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with vol. 1 (1966).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4 (1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075610
Volume ID: VID00004
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Introduction
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Some audience characteristics
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Headlines and makeup
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Content
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Some communication behavior
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Readership
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Readership by teenagers
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Editorial administration and personnel
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    What the public thinks of its newspapers
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Miscellaneous
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
Full Text












NEWS RESEARCH FOR
BETTER NEWSPAPERS
VOLUME 4






Compiled and edited by
DR. CHILTON R. BUSH



American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
750 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017









PA FOUNDATION BOARD OF TRUSTEES

OFFICERS
si t: Eugene S. Pulliam, Indianapolis (Ind.) Star and News
~ resident: Davis Taylor, Boston (Mass.) Globe
Secretary: Barnard L. Colby, New London (Conn.) Day
Treasurer: Eugene C. Bishop, Peninsula Newspapers, Inc., Palo Alto,
Calif.
Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, Stanford Smith, ANPA, 750
Third Ave., New York
TRUSTEES
Harold W. Andersen, Omaha (Neb.) World-Herald
Peyton Anderson, Macon (Ga.) Telegraph and News
M. W. Armistead, III, Roanoke (Va.) Times and World-News
St. Clair Balfour, Southam Press Ltd., Toronto, Ont., Canada
Richard H. Blacklidge, Kokomo (Ind.) Tribune
Crosby N. Boyd, Washington (D.C.) Star
Peter B. Clark, Detroit (Mich,) News
John H. Colburn, Wichita (Kan.) Eagle and Beacon
Jack R. Howard, Scripps-Howard Newspapers, 200 Park Ave., New
York
James L. Knight, Miami (Fla.) Herald
Allen H. Neuharth, Gannett Newspapers, Rochester, N. Y.
Charles H. Peters, Montreal (Que., Canada) Gazette
Gene Robb, Albany (N.Y.) Times-Union and Knickerbocker News
William F. Schmick, Jr., Baltimore (Md.) Sun
Joe D. Smith, Jr., Alexandria (La.) Town Talk
Robert L. Taylor, Philadelphia (Pa.) Bulletin
J. Howard Wood, Chicago (Ill.) Tribune


MEMBERS OF ANPA NEWS RESEARCH CENTER
STEERING COMMITTEE
Representing:
American Newspaper Publishers Association
Eugene S. Pulliam, Indianapolis (Ind.) Star and News Chairman
Associated Press Managing Editors Association
Arville Schaleben, Milwaukee (Wis.) Journal
United Press International
Roger Tartarian, New York, N. Y.
American Society of Newspaper Editors
Arthur C. Deck, Salt Lake City (Utah) Tribune
National Newspaper Promotion Association
Newell Meyer, Milwaukee (Wis.) Journal
Bureau of Advertising of the ANPA
Dr. Leo Bogart, New York, N. Y.
Association for Education in Journalism
Dr. Galen R. Rarick, Ohio State University
Also:
Don Carter, Hackensack (N.J.) Record
Peter B. Clark, Detroit (Mich.) News
Alan Donnahoe, Richmond (Va.) Times-Dispatch and News Leader
Charles G. Murray, Speidel Newspapers, Reno, Nevada








INTRODUCTION


The very high utilization of the research data in vol-
umes One to Three of "News Research For Better News-
papers" has prompted publication of Volume Four-this
volume-containing all of the material published in ANPA
News Research Bulletins during 1968. (Almost 5,000 copies
of Volume I, issued in 1966, have been purchased.)
Data from a new area of research are reported for the
first time, viz., the Negro reader. Five of the studies de-
scribe Negroes' communication behavior and one reports
Negroes' evaluation of a newspaper's racial fairness. The
ANPA News Research Center has commissioned a parallel
readership study of Negro and white adult readers which
should be forthcoming in the early part of 1969.
As the first study in Chapter 4 ("Negroes' Use of the
Media") shows, 73% of Negro adults outside of the South
read a newspaper "yesterday" as compared with 83% of
white adults.
Three of the studies reported in this volume were spon-
sored by ANPA; one was sponsored by the Bureau of Ad-
vertising, ANPA. Individual newspapers did six of the 49
studies, and university researchers 21. Additional research
projects have been commissioned for 1969.
A note at the beginning of each chapter cites research
about the same subject matter reported in previous
volumes.
Chilton R. Bush





American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
750 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017

February 1969









(Numbers in parentheses refer to 1968 News Research Bulletins
carrying the material indicated.)




TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
NO.
CHAP. 1. Some Audience Characteristics
How People Use Their Leisure (2) .................................... ...... 1
--Men and Women Readers: Are They Very Different? (4) 9
Today's Young Mother Is Oriented Toward Her Family,
N ot O utw ard (19 ) .......... ................................................................. 10
Educational Attainment, 1970-75 (13) ......................... ....................... 11
Readers Are Hard to Reach (Cartoons I) (19) .................. 12
Readers Are Hard to Reach (Cartoons II) (18) ............... 12
SReaders Are Hard to Reach (Selective Exposure) (17) 14
Projected M edian Age for 1985 (17) ........................... ............. 16
The Audience for Financial News, 1968 (4) ............................. 16
How Much Do Readers Know? (Geography) (4) ............ 17
--How Much Do Readers Know? (Proximity) (5) ................. 17
How Much Do Readers Know? (Historical Persons) (16) 18
How Much Do Readers Know? (Bill of Rights) (17) ...... 18
How Much Do Readers Know? (Open Housing, The
P ill) (1 2 ) ..................................................................... .... ...................... 1 8
How Much Do Readers Remember? (9) ......................................... 19

SCHAP. 2. Headlines and Makeup
Perception of Headlines (5) ....................................... .. ....... 20
Do Subheads Convey Much Information? (7) ........................ 22

CHAP. 3. Content
Some Newspaper Content: 1952 and 1967 (12) .......... 24

CHAP. 4. Some Communication Behavior
Negroes' Use of the Media (10) ................. ...... ...... 34
Media Use in the Ghetto (6) ............................ ............ 36
Communication Among the Urban Poor (9) .............................. 41
Communication Behavior of Poor Negroes and Whites
C om p ared (11) ............................................................................ ........ 44
More Negroes Use TV and Newspapers in Presidential
Election Cam paigns (20) ................................................ ........ 46
-"Best Coverage" of Public Affairs News by Print and
Broadcast M edia (18) ...................................................... .............. 47
How People First Learned About The President's Deci-
sion not to R un (11) ...................................................... .... ....... 50
When Adults and Teenagers Read Their Newspaper (12) 51
Media Use by the Better Educated in Presidential
E election Cam paigns (8) ........................................... .......... ........... 52
Parent-Child Relation Affects Child's Media Use (10) ..... 52


















PAGE
NO.
CHAP. 5. Readership
-Reader Interest in Local and Non-local Public Affairs
Stories Is About Equal (16) ....................................... ....... 54
Dimensions of Interest in General News Stories (10) ...... 54
Readership of Radio and TV Logs Compared (3) .................. 59
Adult Readership of the High School Page (3) .................. 59
R leaders' Interest in Legals (1) ............................................................ 60
CHAP. 6. Readership by Teenagers
Toward Making Permanent Readers of Teenagers (20) 61
Adult-Teenage Readership Compared (19) .............................. 67
Sports, Comics, Front Page Interest Teenagers Most
( 1 9 ) ........................................... ......................................................................... 6 9
CHAP. 7. Editorial Administration and Personnel
A accuracy in N ew s Stories (1) .............................................................. 70
Main Causes of "Subjective" Errors in News Stories.
By David L. Grey and Gary C. Lawrence (21) ........ 72
Some Facts About "Action Line" Columns (14) ................. 75
Daily Newsroom Is Getting Larger Share of Journalism
G graduates (21) ....................................... ........................................ 77

CHAP. 8. What the Public Thinks of Its Newspapers
Racial Fairness in the Newspaper (9) ................................................ 78
How Readers Perceive "Unfairness" (16) .................................... 81
Accuracy and Ethics (British) (13) ................................................ 83

CHAP. 9. Miscellaneous
The Polls' Sam pling E rror (15) .......................................................... 88
Technique of the Interview (1) ........................................................... 89
High School Journalism and Civics Courses Fail to Teach
C citizen sh ip (8 ) ....................................... ................................. ........ 92
Criminal Arrests by Age (1) ......... ....... ......................... 96
"Credibility G ap," 1943 (6) ................................................. ..... 97








Only one of the types of activities is broken down, viz.,
time spent with the mass media. Reading includes books
and magazines as well as newspapers.
The data for time spent with the mass media is lower
than that which previously has been reported. The main
reason is that the activities reported here are "primary"
activities, as will be explained below.

TABLE 1.
DAILY ACTIVITIES OF ALL MEN AND ALL WOMEN DURING 7 DAYS
(HOURS AND MINUTES)
Activities: Men Women
Sleeping ................................................ 7 hrs., 36 m ins. 7 hrs., 36 m ins.
Work and work-related...... 7 hrs., 12 mins. 2 hrs., 42 mins.
Housework .................................. 36 mins. 4 hrs.
Family tasks* .............................. 1 hr., 18 mins. 2 hrs., 12 mins.
Personal care** ........................... 2 hrs., 30 mins. 2 hrs., 48 mins.
Education, organizations .. 30 mins. 24 mins.
Leisure*** ....... ..................... 1 hr., 48 mins. 2 hrs., 24 mins.
Mass media ...................................... 2 hrs., 30 mins. 1 hr., 54 mins.
R adio ........................................... (6 m ins.) (a)
Television ................................... (1 hr., 42 mins.) (1 hr., 24 mins.)
R leading ......................................... (42 m ins.) (30 m ins.)
Free tim e ............................................. 5 hrs. 5 hrs., 6 m ins.
*Includes child care, nonwork trips.
**Includes eating, resting, bathing, dressing, etc.
***Includes conversation, walking, sports, social life, amusements, etc.
(a)Less than 6 mins.

Primary and Secondary Activities
Since people sometimes engage in more than one ac-
tivity at the same time, the researchers asked this question
with reference to each activity: "Were you doing anything
else while you were doing (such and such) ?" When simul-
taneous activities were reported they were considered to be
either "primary" or "secondary" and a portion of the total
time was allocated to each of the two activities mentioned.
Thus, if a respondent reported one hour of television view-
ing while eating, half an hour of each was recorded.
The time reported in the tables, therefore, represents
only "primary" activities. For example, thirty per cent of
total television viewing (130 minutes) for the average
person was recorded as "secondary" (i.e., assigned to some
other activity as "primary"), leaving 90 minutes as a "pri-
mary" activity.
Nielsen's recent figure, after being adjusted for the
"younger, urban and working character" of the Survey Re-
search Center's sample, was 190 minutes. The adjusted
Nielsen figure is still one hour more than was found by the
Survey Research Center. The researchers admit that to
2








Chapter 1
SOME AUDIENCE CHARACTERISTICS

For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 21-35, Vol. 2, pp.
7-28, and Vol. 3, pp. 48-51.




How People Use Their Leisure
A national study shows that the average urban em-
ployed man has 4 hours of "free time" on a typical week-
day and the average unemployed woman has 5 hours
and 36 minutes.
On Sunday the average employed man has 8 hours and
24 minutes of free time and the average unemployed
woman has 8 hours and 12 minutes.
The average man devotes 2 hours and 12 minutes to
the mass media on a weekday and 4 hours on Sunday.
The average unemployed woman devotes 2 hours and 24
minutes to the mass media on a weekday and 2 hours and
54 minutes on Sunday.
The average man reads for 36 minutes on a weekday
and for one hour on Sunday. The unemployed woman
reads 30 minutes on a weekday and 48 minutes on Sunday.
Newspaper reading accounts for 7% of the free time of
both men and women over the seven-day week.
This data is for "primary" activities. But people some-
times engage in two activities simultaneously, and one of
them is considered a "secondary" activity. For all persons
in the sample, 90% of radio listening was a "secondary"
activity. The same figure for reading and for television
viewing was 30%.

The first national study of urban adult peoples' time-
budgets done on a scientifically-designed sample was carried
out in March-April, 1965.
The study was done by the Institute for Social Research
of the University of Michigan Survey Research Center,
under the direction of Professors John P. Robinson and
Philip E. Converse, in connection with a series of similar
studies in 11 other countries.
A total of 1,244 men and women in 44 urban cities of
more than 50,000 population recorded their activities for
one day-from midnight to midnight. This diary-keeping
was spread about equally over each of the seven days of the
week.
Table 1 shows the major daily activities of all urban
adult men and women in the United States for a seven-day
week. The data represent an average. The sample included
the unemployed (4% of the men and 51% of the women)
as well as the employed.








Only one of the types of activities is broken down, viz.,
time spent with the mass media. Reading includes books
and magazines as well as newspapers.
The data for time spent with the mass media is lower
than that which previously has been reported. The main
reason is that the activities reported here are "primary"
activities, as will be explained below.

TABLE 1.
DAILY ACTIVITIES OF ALL MEN AND ALL WOMEN DURING 7 DAYS
(HOURS AND MINUTES)
Activities: Men Women
Sleeping ................................................ 7 hrs., 36 m ins. 7 hrs., 36 m ins.
Work and work-related ...... 7 hrs., 12 mins. 2 hrs., 42 mins.
Housework ....................................... 36 m ins. 4 hrs.
Family tasks* ................... 1 hr., 18 mins. 2 hrs., 12 mins.
Personal care** ........................... 2 hrs., 30 mins. 2 hrs., 48 mins.
Education, organizations ... 30 mins. 24 mins.
Leisure** ...... ...................... 1 hr., 48 mins. 2 hrs., 24 mins.
M ass media ....................................... 2 hrs., 30 mins. 1 hr., 54 mins.
R adio .............................................. (6 m ins.) (a)
Television .................................... (1 hr., 42 mins.) (1 hr., 24 mins.)
Reading ......................................... (42 m ins.) (30 m ins.)
Free tim e ............................................. 5 hrs. 5 hrs., 6 m ins.
*Includes child care, nonwork trips.
**Includes eating, resting, bathing, dressing, etc.
***Includes conversation, walking, sports, social life, amusements, etc.
(a)Less than 6 mins.

Primary and Secondary Activities
Since people sometimes engage in more than one ac-
tivity at the same time, the researchers asked this question
with reference to each activity: "Were you doing anything
else while you were doing (such and such) ?" When simul-
taneous activities were reported they were considered to be
either "primary" or "secondary" and a portion of the total
time was allocated to each of the two activities mentioned.
Thus, if a respondent reported one hour of television view-
ing while eating, half an hour of each was recorded.
The time reported in the tables, therefore, represents
only "primary" activities. For example, thirty per cent of
total television viewing (130 minutes) for the average
person was recorded as "secondary" (i.e., assigned to some
other activity as "primary"), leaving 90 minutes as a "pri-
mary" activity.
Nielsen's recent figure, after being adjusted for the
"younger, urban and working character" of the Survey Re-
search Center's sample, was 190 minutes. The adjusted
Nielsen figure is still one hour more than was found by the
Survey Research Center. The researchers admit that to







some extent some of the respondents could have under-
estimated their television viewing for the reason of pres-
tige.
(There is great variation in the amount of TV viewing
per day reported by various researchers. Thus: Sindlinger in
1958 reported about 2 hours; a study sponsored by Mutual
Broadcasting Company in 1962 reported just over 2 hours;
the Michigan Survey Research Center in 1958, close to 3.5
hours; Louis Harris in 1966, about 2 hours.)
As to other media, 90% of radio listening was done as
a "secondary" activity and 30% of reading (the same as
for television).
Reading, before adjustment for a "secondary" activity,
(e.g., eating), was divided as follows: 30 minutes for news-
papers and 20 minutes for magazines and books. This gross
figure reported for newspapers is only slightly less than
the time estimated by respondents in numerous field stud-
ies for weekday reading by subscribers. Since the Survey
Research Center's sample was of the whole urban popula-
tion it probably contains a certain percentage of nonreaders
of newspapers.
When time devoted to the mass media and to "leisure"
activities are combined, it will be noted that the average
woman has available about the same amount of such time
as the average man-about 5 hours a day. The man, how-
ever, allocates more of this combined time to the mass
media and the woman allocates more to the "leisure" ac-
tivities.
Amount of "Free Time"
Table 2 shows the amount of daily "free time" available
to the average employed man and unemployed woman. It is
a little more than one-fifth of the day when the total "free
time" is spread over seven days. This is considerably less
than the oft-stated eight hours for weekdays.

TABLE 2.
AMOUNT OF DAILY "FREE TIME" OF SEVERAL TYPES OF ADULTS
DURING 7 DAYS (HOURS AND MINUTES)
Men Women
A ll ........................................................................ 5 hrs. 5 hrs., 6 m in s.
Em played .................................................. 4 hrs., 48 m ins. 4 hrs., 12 m ins.
Unem played ............................................ 8 hrs., 54 mins. 5 hrs., 54 mins.
Married, employed .......................... 4 hrs., 48 mins. 3 hrs., 54 mins.
Single, employed ................................. 5 hrs., 6 mins. 4 hrs., 48 mins.
Married, unemployed .............. 9 hrs. 5 hrs., 54 mins.
Single, unemployed ........................... 8 hrs., 36 mins. 6 hrs., 24 mins.
The unemployed married woman has about one hour
more "free time" than the employed married man and two
hours more than the employed married woman.









When the mass media behavior of both sexes combined
was analyzed as a percentage of total "free time" it was
found that newspaper reading accounted for 7% of all
"free time"; magazine and book reading for 2% each; and
radio listening for 1%. In contrast, men allocated 34% of
their "free time" to watching television and women al-
located 28%. (These percentages are not shown in the
tables).

Thursday vs. Sunday
Tables 1 and 2 have been presented for the whole week,
and most of the discussion in this summary is with reference
to the whole week. The data can be better understood, how-
ever, when we compare Sunday and a typical weekday. Table
3 reports time-budgets for Thursday and Sunday for em-
ployed men (96% of the men's sample) and unemployed
women (51% of the women's sample).

TABLE 3.
TIME-BUDGETS OF EMPLOYED MEN AND UNEMPLOYED WOMEN
ON THURSDAY AND SUNDAY


Employed men:
Work related .............................
House work ..........................
S leep in g ....................... ......................
Personal care .. ..................
Family tasks .................................
Education, organizations ..
Mass media ...................................
R a d io ........................... .... .......
T television ....................................
R ea d in g ........................................
L e isu re ...................................................
F ree tim e ... ...................................
Unemployed women:
Work related .....................
House work ...........................
S leep in g ................................................
Personal care .......................
Family tasks .......................
Education, organizations ..
Mass media ........................
R adio ........... ..................... .
Television ..............................
Reading .............................
L eisure ........................................
Free time ..............................


Thursday
9 hrs.
18 mins.
7 hrs., 24 mins.
2 hrs., 18 mins.
1 hr., 12 mins.
12 mins.
2 hrs., 12 mins.
(6 mins.)
(1 hr., 30 mins.)
(36 mins.)
1 hr., 6 mins.
4 hrs.

12 mins.
5 hrs., 12 mins.
7 hrs., 42 mins.
2 hrs., 48 mins.
2 hrs., 48 mins.
24 mins.
2 hrs., 24 mins.
(0)
(1 hr., 54 mins.)
(30 mins.)
2 hrs., 30 mins.
5 hrs., 36 mins.


Sunday
1 hr., 48 mins.
1 hr., 12 mins.
8 hrs., 48 mins.
2 hrs., 36 mins.
1 hr., 36 mins.
36 mins.
4 hrs.
(6 mins.)
(3 hrs.)
(1 hr.)
3 hrs., 18 mins.
8 hrs., 24 mins.

none
3 hrs., 12 mins.
8 hrs., 18 mins.
2 hrs., 48 mins.
2 hrs.
1 hr.
2 hrs., 54 mins.
(6 mins.)
(2 hrs.)
(48 mins.)
3 hrs., 42 mins.
8 hrs., 12 mins.


It will be noted that the employed man sleeps longer
on Sunday than on a weekday, spends a little more time on
"education and organizations" (which includes church at-
tendance), spends almost two hours more with the mass








media and devotes much more time to "leisure" (visiting,
walking, conversation, sports, etc.). He has 4 hours and 24
minutes more "free time." He doubles the time for viewing
television and almost doubles the time for reading.
The unemployed woman also sleeps longer on Sunday
and devotes considerably less time to housework and family
tasks. She devotes somewhat more time to "education and
organizations" and to the mass media and more than an
extra hour to "leisure." She has 2 hours and 36 minutes
more "free time" on Sunday. She increases the time she de-
votes to viewing television by only 6 minutes and to reading
by 18 minutes.
One of the great advantages to be derived from this
data (although it represents averages) is the demonstra-
tion of the extent to which one's pattern of daily living de-
termines the amount of time he can devote to the mass
media. Some things just have to be done and some of them
at a specific time. So the consumer of the mass media has
to adjust his time for reading, for example, to the specific
time slots that are available-after the dishes are done,
after the shopping is done, before or after a certain tele-
vision program, between the bridge party and the time to
prepare dinner, etc., etc.
These averages do not fit every individual, of course,
because individuals' "free time" and specific time slots dif-
fer. Also, mass media behavior is determined by the in-
dividual's interests, and these vary considerably.

Houses vs. Apartments
The study showed some differences between people who
live in houses and people who live in apartments. Both em-
ployed men and unemployed women who live in apartments
have more free time than do those who live in houses.
Unemployed women living in apartments allocate more
time to consumption of the mass media. They also devote
more time to watching TV but the same amount of time to
reading.
Employed men living in apartments do not allocate
more time to consumption of the mass media than do those
who live in houses. But they do more reading and less TV
watching than do employed men living in houses.

The Nature of Leisure
Table 4 compares the time-budgets of the average white
collar man and the average housewife. In the table, the
authors have transposed "eating" from the non-leisure to
the leisure classification. As was true of the previous tables,









these are "primary" activities. The table shows that the
housewife has more than one hour more leisure than the
white collar man, and most of the difference is accounted
for by "visiting" as an activity.

TABLE 4.
DAILY LEISURE AND NON-LEISURE ACTIVITIES OF WHITE COLLAR
EMPLOYED MEN AND OF HOUSEWIVES OVER SEVEN DAYS
(HOURS AND MINUTES)


Non-leisure (Hours):
Sleeping .............................
Work for pay ......................
C are of self ....................................
Transportation ......................
Household, children ...............
S h op pin g .............................................
Total work related
activ ities .......................................
Leisure (minutes):
E a tin g ......................................................
V isitin g ........... ............................
Entertainment ..............................
S p o rts ......................................................
M otorin g .............................................
C lu b s ................ .............................
R ead in g ................................................
R a dio ................. ............................
T television ..........................................
Miscellaneous .................................
Total leisure minutes ............
Total leisure hours ..................


White
Collar
Men


7 hrs.,
7 hrs.,
1 hr.
1 hr.,


mins.
mins.
mins.
mins.
mins.


18 hrs., 24 mins.
73
74
13
12
2
8
36
4
75
51
348
5 hrs., 48 mins.


Housewives
hrs., 30 mins.
12 mins.
hr., 18 mins.
hr.
hrs., 12 mins.
42 mins.


16 hrs., 54 mins.
79
138
10
2
3
12
40
2
75
65
426
7 hrs., 6 mins.


The Impact of Television
Table 5 shows the amount of time allocated to tele-
vision viewing and to reading by men of different occupa-
tions. Men in technical occupations (only 3.3% of the sam-
ple) allocate less time to television viewing than do un-
skilled men and about the same amount of time to reading
as do unskilled men.
The authors suggest that television viewing is ap-
proaching the saturation point. They point out that no ade-
quate study has been made of the motivation of the tele-
vision viewer to find out the extent to which he is seeking
a specific gratification or is just killing time by looking at
the tube. So they asked this question: "Were there any
times yesterday that you would have liked to watch TV,
but didn't because there weren't any programs worth watch-
ing at that time?" Only 10% of the sample answered yes,
including only 12% of the college-educated people in the
sample.









These responses led the investigators to suggest that
television may be reaching its maximum audience: the audi-
ence can't take any more even in prime viewing time. They
also suggest that improvement of programming (e.g. by
Public Broadcast Laboratories) would not increase viewing
but would merely supply a more satisfactory choice of pro-
grams.


TABLE 5.
MINUTES OF DAILY TELEVISION VIEWING AND READING BY MEN
OF DIFFERENT OCCUPATIONS DURING 7 DAYS*
TV
Viewing Reading
U n sk killed ................................................................................................ 162 24
Sem skilled ..................................................................................... 114 36
T e ch n ic al ................................................................................................... 6 0 24
L ow w hite collar ........................................................................... 96 36
H igh w hite collar ........................................................................... 96 36
P rofession al ......................................................................................... 78 48
*The data on radio listening is not statistically significant

Reading
This survey made only a slight effort to study reading
in depth. Some of the measures, however, are presented in
Table 6, which compares college-educated people with people
who had not finished high school.
Since newspaper reading is reported as a "primary"
activity for the seven-day period, the total reading time for
the college-educated would be 47 minutes and for the "did
not finish high school" group 37 minutes. As mentioned
previously, some nonreaders of newspapers were doubtless
included in this sample.


TABLE 6.
SOME DATA ON READING OVER 7 DAYS: BY EDUCATION


Time spent on newspapers (minutes) ......
Newspapers as pet. of all reading ..................
Read "yesterday":
S eriou s b ook s .................................................................
Analytical commentary mags .........................
News, business mags. .................................................
Pictorial, gen'l interest mags. ...........................
Newspaper part read closest:
E d ito r ia ls .................................................................... ............
G general new s .......................................... ....................
N at'l, int'l n ew s ................................... ....................


College
Educated
33
48.0%
5.8%
2.3%
8.2%
10.5%
15.0%
58.0%
9.0%


Did Not
Finish
High School
26
80.0%
0.9%
0
1.5%
3.6%
7.0%
35.0%
6.0%








Comparison With Earlier Studies
Although several similar time-budget studies have been
done, none is comparable to this one, which was done on a
scientifically-designed sample of the whole urban popula-
tion. Yet some of the data in the earlier studies have led the
present researchers to make certain inferences.

1. Time devoted to shopping is more than it was some
years ago. The researchers cite transportation studies done
in the Detroit area in 1953 and 1965, which show a 40%9
increase in the percentage of all trips taken for the purpose
of shopping.
2. "It is safe to conclude that Americans are spending
more time, perhaps up to 50 minutes, away from home than
they did ten years ago."
3. Possession of more household appliances does not
mean less time is spent on housework by their owners.
4. Radio has been the main casualty of television. Mov-
ies and reading books and magazines are the next hardest
hit, with newspaper reading being affected "very little."

Effect of a Shorter Workweek
Studies of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review
Commission (1960) and similar studies have reported data
on how people spend their leisure, and some have projected
an average shorter workweek in the future. For example,
36.6 hours in 1976 and 30.5 hours in the year 2000.
Because the average workweek has declined from 69.8
hours in 1850 to about 40 hours in recent years, some writers
have predicted that the (predicted) future increase in free
time will result in more time being devoted to reading (as
distinguished from alternative uses of "free time"). There
is no evidence to support such a forecast. There is reason to
believe, however, that the amount of reading will increase
because of a better-educated population, not necessarily be-
cause people will have more "free time."
(John P. Robinson and Philip E. Converse, 66 Basic Tables
of Time-Budget Data for the United States, 1966; same,
The American Behavioral Scientist, Dec., 1966, Appendix;
John P. Robinson, The Impact of Television on Mass Media
Usage: A Cross-National Comparison, paper read at the
Sixth World Congress of Sociology, Evian, France, 1966;
same, Social Change as Measured by Time-Budgets, paper
read at the meeting of the American Sociological Associa-
tion, 1967; same, Television and Leisure Time: Yesterday,
Today and (Maybe) Tomorrow, paper read at the meeting
of the American Association of Public Opinion Research,
1967; Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission,
Study No. 23, 1960.)









Men and Women Readers: Are They Very Different?
A reanalysis of some old data shows that readership of
the newspaper by men and women does not differ as much
as a casual inspection of readership scores suggests.
In 1955, Swanson published an analysis of the reader-
ship scores in 130 newspapers for which readership studies
had been made by the Advertising Research Foundation be-
tween 1939 and 1950.
The studies included 40,158 items. Circulations of the
newspapers ranged from 8,570 to 635,346. More than one-
half of the studies were done during World War II, although
war news accounted for only 8% of the total readership.
Swanson found that the average score for all items was
20%.
He did not compute a correlation coefficient for men's
and women's scores. However, it is .60 (a perfect correlation
is 1.0).
But when three categories of news of special interest
are excluded, the coefficient is .82, which is very high. The
three categories are: sports, "home and family," and "social
relations." (The latter two categories were not defined).
Table 1 presents the scores for all categories after
women's scores have been converted to index numbers to
compare them with men's scores. Thus, for sports, women's
scores are 23 % of men's scores and, for "home and family,"
are 560% of men's scores.

TABLE 1.
WOMEN'S READERSHIP SCORES CONVERTED TO INDEX NUMBERS
(100=Men's Scores for each category)


Index
Number
S p orts ..................................................... 23
F finance .................................. ........... 50
T ax es ................................... ............ 67
Political int'l relations ........ 67
L abor ................................... .......... 68
State government .................. 69
P politics ................................... ........ 70
National government ............ 71
W ar .................................. ............ 77
Econ. social int'l relations 77
Loyalty investigations ......... 78
Business, industry .................. 78
Agriculture ....................................... 78
Science, invention .................. 79
Local government ..................... 81
Minor crimes .................................... 84
D efen se ................................................... 87
Social significance ............... 91
M ajor crim es .................................... 92
Fire, disaster .................................... 93
Civil, judicial affairs ............ 94


Index
Number
Leisure activities ..................... 95
C om ics .......................................... .......... 98
Unclassified ....................................... 100
Consumer information ...... 100
A accidents ............................................. 100
W eath er ................................................ 107
Human interest ........................... 111
E du cation ............................................. 112
H ea lth ...................................................... 115
Individual .......................................... 116
Religion ................................................. 118
Entertainment features ...... 120
Country correspondence ... 122
Private benevolence,
ch arity ................................................ 127
Popular art, music, lit. ...... 139
Vital statistics .............................. 141
Fine arts, music, lit. ............... 150
Social relations ........................... 200
Home, family ................................ 560








It will be noted that,- for about one-half of the 40 cate-
gories, men's and women's scores differ by no more than
207 (80 to 120). These 19 categories account for 46% of
the total readership. In three of the categories the scores
are exactly the same.
Although the scores are quite old and much of the
subject-matter was published during a world war, they
nevertheless suggest that the reading behavior of men
and women does not vary greatly when we exclude three
kinds of news of special interest.
(C. E. Swanson, "What They Read in 130 Daily News-
papers," Journalism Quarterly, 32:411-421, 1955).



Today's Young Mother Is Oriented
Toward Her Family, Not Outward
A 1968 study by the Pillsbury Co., Minneapolis, Minn.
found that the typical 20-to-30 year-old mother of today
orients herself toward her own family to a much greater
extent than she did 10 years ago.
Ten years ago, the company conducted a similar study
and found that the typical young married woman of that
era was "very much oriented toward social activities and
interest in other groups.
"She was highly mobile, busy and active, but these were
all expressions of interaction with other groups such as
PTA, Boy Scouts, group membership and the like. She
could be visualized in a panelled station wagon hurrying to
and from her house. Her view was outward from her home
and her aspirations were for affluence and social status."
The 1968 Young Mother
The 1968 study, however, shows that the young mother
"turns sharply inward to her own family ... She completely
discards-on the day of her marriage-all relevance to the
teenage swing set, and on the other hand does not seek out
the roles and models upheld by the former group ....
"She seeks a great companionship of genuineness and
warmth with her husband and her family and she tries to
build within that framework a range of activities and in-
terests that compensate for any sense of loss from having
no access to other routes."
She Will Continue to Shop in Stores
Despite the advantages offered by the computer age,
the study says, the young married mother will continue to
shop in stores. This is because the process of shopping pro-
vides certain avenues of social experience.








The in-depth interviews were made in both big cities
and small towns and included psychological testing. The
Pillsbury Co. plans to modify its approach to marketing,
new product development and communications to correspond
more closely to the findings of the study.
(Address by A. L. Powell, director of communications, The
Pillsbury Co., 1968)




Educational Attainment, 1970-1975
The educational attainment of persons over 25 years of
age was recently projected to 1970 and 1975 by the United
States Bureau of the Census.
One prediction is that the average (median) number of
years completed in school will increase from 11.8 years in
1965 (the latest figure) to 12.4 or 12.5 years in 1975. As time
goes on, the older less educated people in the population are
replaced by younger people with greater amounts of educa-
tion.
The distribution of the projection on one assumption is
as follows (the differences are very slight on a second as-
sumption) :
1964-66* 1970 1975
Number years completed:
N one ......................................................................... ........... 1.8% 1.3% 1.0 %
Elementary
1-4 y ears ................................... ......................... 5.0 4.1 3.2
5-7 y ears ................................................................... 10.8 9.2 7.6
8 y ears ............................................................................ 15.5 13.3 11.1
High school
1-3 years ................................................................... 18.1 18.2 17.9
4 y ears ......................................................................... 30.6 33.6 36.7
College
1-3 years ........................................................................ 8.9 9.6 10.4
4 or m ore years ..................................................... 9.5 10.6 12.5
*An average of the three years
A difference between males and females 25 years and
older is shown in the following table which reports the pro-
jected percentage in the population with four or more years
of college:
1964-66 1975
M ales ....................... ............ 12.1% 15.2%
Fem ales ...................... ........... 7.1 9.3


(U.S. Bureau of the Census, Projections of Educational At-
tainment, 1970 to 1975. Current Population Reports, Series
P-25, No. 390. March 29, 1968)








Readers Are Hard to Reach (Cartoons-I)
Carl, in the autumn of 1966, showed 38 editorial car-
toons to three samples of readers and asked what the
cartoons meant. Previously, he had obtained from the car-
toonists the intended meaning of each cartoon.
The samples were randomly-selected readers in two
small towns (Candor, N.Y. and Canton, Pa.) and Ithaca,
N.Y., seat of Cornell University.
The cartoons were by 18 cartoonists and were selected
from 19 newspapers published in large cities. Interviewing
was done very soon after publication of the cartoons while
the subject-matter of the cartoons was still "live."
The accompanying table shows the extent to which the
readers and the cartoonists agreed as to the meaning of the
cartoons.
Small towns: Ithaca:
A g ree ...................................................... 15 % A g ree ...................................................... 22 %
Partly agree .......................................15 Partly agree .................................. .. 15
Completely disagree ............ 70 Completely disagree ............ 63
For one cartoon-about African tribalism-only 9%
of the readers agreed with the cartoonist's intended mean-
ing. Several cartoons which attacked racists were perceived
as pro-segregationist. He found little agreement as to
whether a cartoon advocated a Democratic viewpoint or a
Republican viewpoint.
Carl listed several possible explanations for the inabil-
ity of readers to perceive the cartoonists' meaning: ability
to perceive details, ethnic background, environment, psy-
chological set, knowledge of current events and history,
ability to see analogies, knowledge of allegories.
But, he says, the "fault" lies not only with the audience.
He suggests that cartoonists are often unaware of the com-
munication barriers between them and their readers.
(L. M. Carl, "Editorial Cartoons Fail to Reach Many
Readers," Journalism Quarterly, 45:533-35, 1968.)


Readers Are Hard to Reach (Cartoons-II)
It would seem that prejudiced persons involuntarily ex-
posed to anti-prejudice propaganda would either fight it or
give into it. But some people are unwilling to do either:
they refuse to face the implications of the message and
evade the issue psychologically by simply not understanding
the meaning of (say) a cartoon.
Cooper and Jahoda, in the 1940s, did a series of studies
of prejudice, using cartoons. One series was of an absurd
character called "Mr. Biggott." The caption explicitly said it








was ridiculous for the character to have certain ideas. Sub-
jects who were prejudiced understood the cartoon initially
but went to great lengths to extricate themselves from an
identification with "Mr. Biggott." They did this by mis-
understanding the point of the cartoon.
One cartoon, for example, showed "Mr. Biggott" lying
in a hospital bed with a doctor in attendance and with "Mr.
Biggott" saying that for his blood transfusion he wanted
only "sixth generation American blood."
Prejudiced subjects, in interviews, admitted that they
thought the idea was absurd but downgraded "Mr. Biggott"
as socially inferior and probably not having "the best blood
either." When asked about the cartoonist's intention, one
evasive reply was "to get the viewpoint of people to see if
they coincide with the artist's idea of character and all.
Some would and some would differ."
Imposing One's Own Frame of Reference
A second cartoon showed a Congressman who had a
native Fascist philosophy interviewing an applicant in his
office. The applicant had brought a letter of recommendation
saying he had been in jail, had smashed windows and had
started race riots. The Congressman is pleased and says,
"Of course, I can use you in my new party."
Prejudiced persons exposed to the cartoon evaded the
issue by imposing their own frame of reference. Some of the
interpretations brought out in interviews: "It might be a
new labor party." "He is starting a Communist party." "It
is a Jewish party that would help the Jews get more power."
The authors say this about cartoons: evasion is facili-
tated when the message is subtle or satirical; for prejudiced
persons the message needs to be simpler and more straight-
forward. However, the subtle and the satirical may be ap-
propriate for neutrals and for inactive sympathizers of the
anti-prejudice message: such persons when tested did not
show evidence of a tendency to evade the message. The
emotional impact of the satirical may make them stronger
supporters.
Predisposition Affects Interpretation
Several studies have shown that, for some persons,
their interpretation of a communicated message is distorted
by their motives, wishes and attitudes. For example, the
National Opinion Research Center, in 1946, asked a national
sample, "Do you think the newspapers you read generally
make Russia look better or worse than she really is?" An-
other question was "In the disagreements between Russia
and the United States, do you think one of the countries is
entirely to blame, or do you think both countries have some-
thing to do with the misunderstanding?"








Fifty-four per cent of those who blamed the United
States entirely or blamed both countries (27% of those in-
terviewed) said their newspapers made Russia look worse
as compared with 41 per cent who blamed Russia alone.
(E. Cooper and M. Jahoda, 'The Evasion of Propaganda:
How Prejudiced People Respond to Anti-prejudice Propa-
ganda," Journal of Psychology, 23: 15-25, 1947; H. H. Hy-
man and P. B. Sheatsley, "Some Reasons Why Information
Campaigns Fail," Public Opinion Quarterly, 11: 413-423,
1947)

Readers Are Hard to Reach (Selective Exposure)
Several studies have shown that a good many people
tend to avoid information and arguments that are in con-
flict with their predispositions. A few examples:
When Cannell and MacDonald, in 1954, asked a prob-
ability sample of adults in Ann Arbor, Mich. "How often do
you read health or science articles?" the results were as
follows (There are fewer female than male smokers):
Men Women
Smokers Nonsmokers Smokers Nonsmokers
Almost always ........... 32% 60% 59% 69%
Occasionally ........................ 54 29 37 26
Seldom or never ............... 14 11 4 5
They also asked this question: "From what you have
read about smoking and health, how well proved do you
think these statements are?" (about association of lung
cancer deaths and smoking). The results are in Table 2.
Table 2
Smokers Nonsmokers
A cce p t ................................................. ... .. ................... 2 8 % 54 %
Do not accept ........................................ 70 38
Don't know, not ascertained ................... 2 8
(Avoidance of exposure to evidence is not the same,
however, as exposure to news about a threat in the environ-
ment. Some of the best read news stories are of the latter
character: see "News Research for Better Newspapers, Vol.
3, pp. 20-233).
Who Views a Political Telethon?
Schramm and Carter, in 1958, asked a sample of San
Franciscans whether or not they had viewed a 20-hour TV
telethon by a Republican candidate for governor. They found
that Republicans were twice as likely to have viewed it as
were Democrats. They also found that the average Republi-
can viewer looked at the telethon for 2 hours and 33 min-
utes as compared with 1 hour and 28 minutes by Demo-
crats.








Their conclusion: "voters tend to expose themselves to
media in order to reinforce their predispositions and reduce
the [psychological discomfort] resulting from challenge to
those predispositions, rather than to see what the other side
has to offer."

Why Information Campaigns Fail
Prior to a campaign in 1947 by two organizations in
Cincinnati to disseminate information (not propaganda)
about the United Nations, the National Opinion Research
Center made a survey of local opinion and attitudes about
the UN. The results suggested that the target for the mas-
sive campaign should be those classes of people who had
been found to be most in need of enlightenment rather than
those who were interested and already informed. This was
done: a great amount of "ingeniously-developed" material
was circulated over a six-month period.
However, a survey made immediately after the cam-
paign had ended showed that the materials had added noth-
ing to the knowledge of the people at whom it was aimed
(e.g., women, the relatively uneducated, the elderly and the
poor). The people who had been reached were predominantly
men, the better educated and the young.
The conclusion of the authors was that, since lack of
interest is a psychological barrier to the spread of informa-
tion, one who wishes to inform must first create the interest.
This finding may have implication for Newspaper in the
Classroom programs.

The "Know-nothings"
In 1947 in a national study, Hyman and Sheatsley
found a "hard core" of "know-nothings." When they were
tested as to their knowledge of four contemporary events
it was found that most of those who were not aware of one
event were not aware of the other events (e.g., the Acheson-
Lilienthal report on atomic energy).
The authors concluded: "There is something about the
uninformed which makes them harder to reach no matter
what the level or nature of the information."
(C. F. Cannell and J. C. MacDonald, "The Impact of Health
News on Attitudes and Behavior," Journalism Quarterly,
33:315-323, 1956; W. Schramm and R. F. Carter, "Effective-
ness of a Political Telethon," Public Opinion Quarterly,
23:121-126, 1959; S. A. Star and H. M. Hughes, "Report on
an Educational Campaign: The Cincinnati Plan for the
United Nations," American Journal of Sociology, 55:389-
400, 1950; H. H. Hyman and P. B. Sheatsley, "Some Reasons
Why Information Campaigns Fail," Public Opinion Quarter-
ly, 11:413-423, 1947)








Projected Median Age for 1985
The median age of the population on July 1 was 27.7
years. That is, one-half of the population was above and one-
half was below 27.7 years.
In 1966, the median age was 27.8 years-for nonwhite
persons 21.4 years and for whites 28.7 years.
A recent computation by the U.S. Bureau of the
Census projects the median age of the total population in
1985 to 25.6 years if there should be a high level of births
during the projection period. If there should be a low level
of births, the median age would be 29.5 years.
The highest level assumes that an average of 3.35
children per woman will be born, and the lowest that 2.45
children will be born.
For nonwhite persons, the median age in 1985 could
range from 19 years to 25 years and for white persons
from 27 to 30 years. A higher level of births for nonwhite
persons is expected to persist over the projection period.
(U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
Series P-25, No. 388, March 14, 1968)



The Audience for Financial News, 1968
The New York Stock Exchange, in January, estimated
that 24 million persons now own stocks in a corporation or
an investment company. This is 12% of the population.
About 51% are females.
The proportion of adult shareholders now approaches
1 in5.
The rate of growth of shareholders since 1965 has been
about six times the percentage increase in population-
an average gain of 1.3 million new shareholders a year.
Data for prior years show how the number of share-
holders has grown since 1952:
Number Pct. of
(Millions) Pop.
1952 ...................................................................... 6.5 4
1956 .............................................................................. 8 .6 5
1959 ......................................................................... 12.5 7
1962 .............................................................................. 17.0 9
1965 .............................................................................. 20.1 10
1968 ......................................................................... 24.0 12
The last complete census of shareholders reported by
the exchange in 1965 found that 6.5% of all shareholders
were minors. That census also reported that 13.3% of share-
holders owned only shares in investment companies, and
that the average investor holds between three and four dif-
ferent stock issues.








The next comprehensive shareowner census is planned
by the exchange for 1970. It will report a breakdown by in-
come, education, geographic region and other characteris-
tics.
(New York Stock Exchange, press release, Jan. 17, 1968.).

How Much Do Readers Know? (Geography)
That a good many members of the adult public are
unfamiliar with the "where" of an event has been shown by
Gallup polls.
Gallup presented an outline map of Europe to a national
sample in 1955 and asked the respondents to identify eight
of the individual countries. Twenty-three per cent identified
none of them. The average correct identification was three
of the eight.
The results were as follows:
E nglan d ............................................ 65% A ustria ..................... .................... 19%
F ran ce ............................................. 63 Y u goslavia .................................... 16
S pain ......................... ....................... 57 R u m an ia ......................................... 11
P olan d .............................................. 32 B ulgaria ......................................... 10
None of them ......................... .. 23
When he asked the same questions in 1947, 72 % identi-
fied Italy.
Gallup also tested his sample in the same way about
ten states of the Union. The results were as follows:
C alifornia ....................................... 82% O h io ............................ ...................... 46%
Texas ................................................... 82 M ichigan ........................................ 45
Pennsylvania .............................. 59 New Jersey .......................... .. 45
New York ....................................... 58 M assachusetts ....................... .. 43
Illin ois ............................................... 50 M issou ri .......................................... 43

How Much Do Readers Know? (Proximity)
A textbook explains "proximity" as a factor in reader
interest in terms of the extent to which a reader identifies
with a particular place.
Carter and Mitofsky, in 1961, tested the hypothesis
that geography students in a southern university would
perceive southern cities as closer than equally distant cities
in other regions.
From datelines appearing in North Carolina news-
papers, they set up 24 matched pairs of southern and north-
ern cities, each pair being the same distance from Chapel
Hill, the seat of the University of North Carolina. The av-
erage distance was 575 miles. But the distances perceived by
the students were as follows:
Southern cities ................ 491 miles
Northern cities ................ 630 miles








For 22 of the 24 pairs, the southern city was perceived
as closer to Chapel Hill. This held for both well known
metropolitan cities and for smaller cities. Although Atlanta
and Philadelphia are approximately the same distance from
Chapel Hill, the average judged distance for Atlanta was
108 miles closer.
Dateline cities which the subjects had visited were not
perceived as closer than cities they had not visited, nor were
they judged with any greater accuracy.
(R. E. Carter, Jr., and W. J. Mitofsky, "Actual and Per-
ceived Distances in the News," Journalism Quarterly,
38:223-225, 1961)

How Much Do Readers Know? (Historical Persons)
The Gallup Poll, in 1955, asked a nationwide sample to
identify ten historical personalities. The results were as fol-
lows:
Men Women
Colum bus ....................................... 90% 89%
Shakespeare ................................................ 78 80
N ap oleon ........................ ................................. 73 60
Beethoven ........ .............................. 62 66
K arl M arx ...................................................... 39 26
A ristotle ...................... ............................ 33 34
R ap h ael ......................................................... 30 32
L eo T olstoy ................................................... 24 23
F reu d .................................................................. 2 2 2 1
R u b en s .............................................................. 15 15
A average ....................................... .......... 47 45
The average identification of the same personalities by
a nationwide sample in Great Britain was men 59% and
women 51%.


How Much Do Readers Know? (Bill of Rights)
The National Opinion Research Center asked this ques-
tion of a national sample in 1945: "What do you know about
the Bill of Rights? Do you know anything it says?" Correct
answers were 21% of the sample.
The American Institute of Public Opinion (Gallup)
asked this question in 1954: "What are the first ten amend-
ments in the Constitution called?" Correct answers were
33%.

How Much Do Readers Know? (Open Housing and
the Pill)
In March 1967, the American Institute of Public Opin-
ion (Gallup) asked this question: "In your own words, what
is 'open housing'-what does the term mean?" Fifty-eight








per cent of the respondents gave a satisfactory answer
and 42% could not.
When Gallup, in January 1967, asked respondents
whether or not The Pill was (1) effective and (2) safe, the
don't know answers were 32% for (1) and 31% for (2).


How Much Do Readers Remember?
A few days after the assassination of President Ken-
nedy on Nov. 22, 1963, a national survey asked respondents
to name the other Presidents who had been assassinated.
The same question was asked 19 months later (June, 1965).
The responses were as follows:
Nov. 1963 June, 1965
All three ...................................... .... 37% 16%
Lincoln alone ................................ ........ 22 41
Lincoln and one other .......... ................... 31 30
Garfield or M cKinley ........................................ 2 2
None ........................................ 8 11
One interpretation: Since most respondents learned
about Lincoln's assassination in school and about the others
from the mass media, the additional bits of information ac-
quired in November, 1963 were forgotten.
(Wilbur Schramm and Serena Wade, "Knowledge and the
Public Mind." Report to the U.S. Office of Education, 1967)








Chapter 2
HEADLINES AND MAKEUP
For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 76-89, Vol. 2, pp.
65-75, 102-105, and Vol. 3, pp. 1-19.
Perception of Headlines
This summary does not prescribe rules for writing
headlines, but it reports some of the evidence of experi-
mental psychology about how readers unconsciously per-
ceive headlines, viz., that readers' psychological needs fa-
cilitate their perception of certain words.
Experimental psychology offers a good deal of evidence
to demonstrate that we unconsciously select what we see
in terms of our psychological needs and tend to screen out
what we don't want to see.
Leo Bogart ("The Strategy of Advertising," 1967), in
discussing advertisements, cites a psychologist who sug-
gests that the eye movements of a reader may actually be
"anticipations" rather than "responses" to stimuli; that the
eyes are "searching" in terms of the individual's interests
somewhat like the trained reader for a news clipping service
with several clients.
Bruner and Goodman, in 1947, found that a group of
"poor" children overestimated the size of coins more than
did a group of "rich" children. A replication of the experi-
ment obtained different results, but the theory led Deutsch-
mann, in 1956, to compare the number of headline words
perceived by subjects who had high interest in a certain
news subject-matter with subjects who had low interest in
the same news subject-matter.
After testing subjects for their interest in certain
subject-matter, he determined the threshold of perception
for each of the individual subjects; the thresholds varied
from one-fiftieth to one-half of a second.
Next, he flashed headlines on a screen for the fraction of
a second which corresponded to each individual's threshold
and the subjects wrote the (whole) words they had per-
ceived. Each headline had four words in two lines (some-
times with a preposition, which didn't count). Some of the
headlines were: "Football Game/Ends in Tie" and "Stock
Market/Trend Upward."
The percentage of words perceived by all subjects in
one experiment was as follows:
N on e ....... ............. . ................................................................... 10.8 %
O n e ................................ ....................................................................................... 4 1 .3
T w o ................ .. ........... ................................... ....... ................ . .. 32 .6
T hree ............................. ........... .... ........ ... ....... .......................... 11.5
F our ............... ................. ................................... ............ ........... ..... 3.7
After he had scored the number of words recognized by
each subject, the results showed a significant relationship








between expressed interest in subject-matter and perception
for younger adults and for people of college age. That is,
the persons with high interest in the subject-matter of the
headlines were able to perceive more words than did those
with low interest.
He also found that sex interests affected the perception
of the college age subjects; the differences could occur by
chance less than one time in a thousand. For younger adults,
sex interest affected perception, but the differences could
occur by chance seven times in one hundred. These were
headlines with words which readership studies had shown
were predominantly "feminine" or "masculine," such as
"football" and "education."
He also tested for the subjects' special interests and
found a significant difference between those who owned com-
mon stocks and those who did not. But he found no dif-
ferences between members and non-members of a church
or a Parent Teachers Association.
He found no differences as to age, but suggested that
this could be accounted for by the fact that so many of the
subjects in the older age group were very elderly and, there-
fore, were not "good subjects."
Interest Cues
Although Deutschmann's experiments do not supply
any specific guidelines for writing headlines, they demon-
strate how words serve as cues for the individual reader's
interests. Each reader seems to be unconsciously ready to
respond (by reading) to cues representative of his per-
sonal needs and his learned attitudes.
Since so much of newspaper content is for those who
read in a role (e.g., as a citizen, as a member of a labor
union), the headline cues are especially important. Con-
sider, for example, the different audiences for these head-
lines: "City Council Will Meet Tonight" and "Labor Council
Will Meet Tonight."
Although it is generally agreed that the main function
of the headline is to describe the story, some textooks say
that a second function is to enlist the readers' interest. It
would seem that such a prescription should apply only to
certain kinds of feature stories and to magazine articles for
which a clever headline is calculated to facilitate reading
of the story or article. Stated in another way, the "to in-
terest" function is of secondary importance and should not
result in ambiguity, which could tend to screen out the per-
ception of a headline on a straight news story.
Position of Words Perceived
His experiment also showed Deutschmann something
about the position of the words most often perceived in a
one-column headline of two lines with a 12- to 14-character








count. This is shown as follows:
(1) (2)
Stock Market
(3) (4)
Trend Upward
Position 1 .................. 42.5% Position 2 .................. 75.2%
Position 3 .................. 10.2 Position 4 .................. 28.0
(The differences could occur by chance only once in one thousand times)
He also found that when only a single word was per-
ceived, it was most often in Position 2; when two words
were perceived they were most often in Positions 1 and 2;
and when three words were perceived they were most often
in a 1-2-4 pattern.
Since almost every subject had only one eye fixation,
the subjects fixed upon a point approximately in the middle
of the headline, thus placing the word in Position 2 in the
right visual field. In a second experiment, he placed a small
dot on the screen above the horizontal median of the head-
line image and to the left. This caused words in Positions 1
and 2 to be most often perceived. For wider headlines, of
course, there would be more than one fixation.
Perception on the Page
Deutschmann's experiments related to headlines on in-
dividual news stories, but somewhat similar experiments by
others have related to the whole surface of the newspaper
page. For example, Bogart, in his peripheral vision experi-
ments with an eye camera and with blank space in ad posi-
tions, has shown that "the reader who has once stopped on
the page is more likely to stop and look at other things-
including those which he would otherwise screen out as ir-
relevant in his initial scanning."
(Paul J. Deutschmann, The Relationship Between In-
terest and Perception of Headline-type Stimuli, Ph.D. dis-
sertation, Stanford University, 1956; J. S. Bruner and C. D.
Goodman, "Nature and Needs as Organizing Factors in Per-
ception," Journ. of Abnormal and Social Psy., 1947, pp. 33-
44; Leo Bogart, The Strategy of Advertising, 1967; Bogart
and Tolley, "The Impact of Blank Space: An Experiment in
Advertising Research," Journ. of Adv. Research, June, 1964;
Bogart, "How Do People Read Newspapers?", Media/scope,
Jan., 1962)

Do Subheads Convey Much Information?
The practice of some newspapers which use subheads
is to make a considerable effort to write complete sentences
to convey information-often on the assumption that the
subheads cause the reader to continue his reading of the
story. The practice on other newspapers is to use only one








or two words-on the assumption that the subhead is merely
one kind of typographic relief.
Hvistendahl, in 1965, found that readers believed sub-
heads made a story more attractive and easier to read than
did bold lead-ins or bold paragraphs. In 1967, he tested 445
subjects to determine whether or not subheads contribute
meaningfully to the readers' comprehension of the story.
Subjects were presented with four experimental condi-
tions in a news story about the troubles of a fictional air-
line, "Eagleroad Airlines." The first subhead reinforced the
text it headed by repeating a fact from the text-"Eagle-
road Loses Four Planes." The second subhead was merely
"The Accident Record." The third subhead was contradic-
tory to the first one-"Eagleroad Loses Six Planes." For the
fourth condition, subheads were omitted so that any infor-
mation gained from the story had to come solely from the
text.
Similar treatment was given to textual matter in three
other places in the story so that each of the readers was
subjected to all three kinds of subheads and to the no-sub-
heads condition.
He tested the subjects' recall of the information in the
story immediately after they had read it. He found that
most of the subjects who had read the version which had a
noninformative subhead and those who read the story which
had no subheads scored about as well as did those who had
read the story with the more informative subhead.
The data suggest that many readers either ignore sub-
heads or read them so casually that the subheads have
virtually no effect on comprehension. However, analysis
of the responses as to the contradictory subheads showed
that almost one-half of the subjects either had spotted the
contradiction or had answered the question based on the
information in the subhead, thus showing that they had
read the subhead.
Within the limits of his two studies, he concludes:
"Innocuous subheads appear to be about as good as
informative ones. Consequently, the time spent in preparing
carefully written subheads would appear to be wasted time.
In fact, it could be hypothesized that a line of typographic
ornaments could be substituted for the subhead. They would
provide the necessary relief and would require no time for
writing and less time for machine composition."
He suggests that further research should be done with
an eye-camera.
(J. K. Hvistendahl, "The Effect of Subheads on Reader
Comprehension," Journalism Quarterly, 45:123-125, Spring,
1968)








Chapter 0
CONTENT

For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 3, pp. 92-102.



The following analysis of compared content of 17
newspapers in 1952 and 1967 was sponsored by the
ANPA News Research Center with cooperation from
the following universities: Colorado, Syracuse, Oregon,
North Carolina, Iowa, Penn State, Ohio State, and
Washington. The project was financed by ANPA.


Some Newspaper Content: 1952 and 1967
An analysis of 17 newspapers compared content in 1952
and 1967. Some of the findings were:
Space allocated daily to business-financial information
increased 76%.
Increased attention was given to entertainment, but the
emphasis on culture increased only moderately.
In 1967, a majority of the newspapers in the sample were
using smaller wedding and engagement photos and several
were publishing shorter wedding stories.
In 1967, fewer newspapers were reporting local amateur
and Little League baseball, but more papers were reporting
auto racing, horse racing, soccer, pro basketball, hunting
and fishing, boating and skiing.
The average number of comic strips and humor panels
was about the same for 1952 and 1967.
In 1967, the newspapers published more of the following
kinds of syndicated matter: education, personal finance,
humor, science, travel, home making and advice to the
lovelorn.
The fifteen years between 1952 and 1967 represent a
period in which there has been considerable change-tech-
nological, economic, educational and social. To determine the
extent to which newspaper content has changed over this
period, the ANPA News Research Center employed journal-
ism students in nine universities to compare certain kinds
of content in 17 newspapers for corresponding weeks in
1952 and 1967.
One week in each year was selected plus additional
seasonal weeks for sports. Issues for seven days were
analyzed, but in the Sunday issue only that content was
measured which, for some papers, could have been pub-
lished on a weekday. In a few instances, an early edition
was analyzed.
The newspapers do not represent a cross-section of all
dailies. They were selected on the basis of availability of








files for both years and availability of student analysts.
Only papers which had a Sunday issue were selected. Ten
of the papers had a circulation of 100,000 or more and seven
had a circulation of less than 100,000, the average for the
smaller papers being 43,000. Nine were morning, six were
evening and two were all-day publications. They were:
Philadelphia (Pa.) Bulletin, Denver (Colo.) Post, Seat-
tle (Wash.) Times, Des Moines (Iowa) Register, Portland
(Ore.) Oregonian, Dallas (Texas) News, Columbus (Ohio)
Dispatch, Charlotte (N.C.) Observer, Raleigh (N.C.) News
& Observer, Syracuse (N.Y.) Post-Standard and Herald-
American (Sunday), Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Gazette, Lima
(0.) News, Eugene (Ore.) Register-Guard, Harrisburg
(Pa.) Patriot, Pueblo (Colo.) Chieftain, Yakima (Wash.)
Herald-Republic and Austin (Texas) American and Ameri-
can-Statesman (Sunday).
Although the sample is not representative of all dailies,
this method has the advantage of recording actual content
as compared with the impressionistic recollection of editors
over a 15-year period. The results exhibit a considerable
absence of uniformity among the papers rather than a defi-
nite trend for all the papers.
No attempt was made to analyze general news content
because adequate standards and guidelines could not be de-
vised that could be followed by several different analysts
who could not be supervised directly. The analysts' task was
mainly to record the presence or absence of the various
assigned categories of content, although they also made a
few measurements and supplied a qualitative evaluation
about certain kinds of content.
Business-Financial
The most significant change in content was that of
business-financial information. Although the total number
of pages of all 17 newspapers for the specific weeks increased
46% for the daily issues, the space allocated to business-
financial information daily increased 76%.
TABLE 1
Number of Newspapers Publishing Various Kinds of
Business-Financial Content Daily in 1952 and 1967
1952 1967
N.Y. Stock Exchange table:
C om p lete .................................................................................... 7 13
Selection of about 500 stocks ............................... ..... 4 4
Selection of fewer than 500 ................................... ...... 6 0
American Stock Exchange table:
C o m p lete ........................................................................... ............... 1 8
S election ....................................................................... ....... 0 5
A regional exchange table ................................................... 8 7
Over-the-Counter quotations .................................. ........ 5 12
Dow-Jones and/or other averages .............................. 13 16








1952 1957
M utual fund asset values ......................................................... 7 15
Dividends reported table .......................... ............. 4 10
Earnings reported table ......................................................... 5 8
C om m odity quotations .............................................................. 16 17
U .S B on d s .............................................................................................. 6 8
Advice to investors column .......... ............... 2 8
Local business colum n ............................................................... 6 12
Syndicated business column ................................ ........... 7 11
*Week's Range of Prices (N.Y.S.E.) ..................... 7 11
Foreign exchange quotations ............................................. 4 4
*Published Saturday or Sunday


Table 1 shows, in a general way, how the increased
space was allocated. Thirteen of the 17 papers in 1967 were
carrying the complete New York Stock Exchange table of
stocks whereas only seven had carried it in 1952. In 1952,
10 papers had carried a selected list of 500 or fewer stocks.
The number of papers which published on Saturday or Sun-
day the week's range of all stocks traded on the New York
Stock Exchange had increased from seven in 1952 to 11 in
1967.
Eight papers in 1967 were carrying the complete list of
the American Exchange whereas only one had carried it in
1952. By 1967 the volume of trading in the lower priced
and/or speculative stocks listed on the Amex had grown
enormously. A recent Amex survey showed that 25% of all
newspapers of more than 20,000 circulation are publishing
the complete tables and another 38% are publishing a
selected list.
The number of papers publishing mutual fund asset
values more than doubled between 1952 and 1967 from seven
to 15.
There is considerable evidence that many of today's in-
vestors are not just savers but have acquired some sophisti-
cation about investment and speculation.
Twelve papers in 1967 carried a local business column
as compared with only six in 1952. According to the student
analysts, the chief content of several of the local business
columns related to promotions of corporate officers and em-
ployees. As one analyst commented, such columns reflected
a step-up in the public relations activities of corporations.
Some local columns, however, supplied information about
the nature of the individual businesses.
Eleven papers in 1967 carried one or more syndicated
business columns as compared with only seven papers in
1952. Some syndicated columns are done by very competent
writers and are, therefore, contributing to the economic
education of readers, a service which fewer newspapers were
supplying a decade or more ago.








Culture and Entertainment
Table 2 reports the frequency of certain kinds of
culture and entertainment content. It shows the transition
from radio to television, with four papers having dropped
the AM radio log. It also shows a somewhat greater empha-
sis on entertainment and entertainers as a field of reader
interest. The emphasis on culture, however, increased only
moderately.
TABLE 2
Number of Newspapers Publishing Various Kinds of Content Once a
Week or Oftener About Culture and Entertainment in 1952 and 1967
1952 1967
A M radio log (daily) ............................................................... 17 13
FM radio log (daily) ............................................................... 9 10
Educational TV log (daily) ............................................. 0 11
T V log (d aily ) ............................................................................... 12 17
T V colu m n (d aily ) .................................................................... 6 15
Hollywood column ............................................... 12 10
B roadw ay colum n ...................................................... .......... 8 10
Night club column (local) ............................................... 3 8
Book reviews:
S taff w written .......... ................ ........................................... 13 15
S y n d icated ............... ...........................................................1 4
M ovie review s .. .......................................................................... 10 12
Movie-theater guide ................................................................ 15 13
Music:
R ev ie w ........................................................................................ ..... 9 10
Advance news story ............................................................... 9 12
Theater:
R ev iew .................................... ........................................................ 8 10
A advance new s story ........................................................... 11 12
A rt n ew s ......... ............................................................................... 11 14
R adio, tv personalities ............................................................... 6 11
P h o tos of ....... ........................................................................... 8 13
Artists, actors, photos of:
L o ca l ................................................... ..................................... 9 1 1
N on local .......................................................................................... 14 15
TV Guide for the Week ....................................................... 1 9

The student analysts were also asked to supply a quali-
tative statement about some kinds of content, basing it on
more than one week's issue in each year. Of the ten papers
with circulations of 100,000 or more, seven, or possibly eight,
reflected a recognition of the wider popular interest in
culture. They had more critical matter and more staff-
written critical and descriptive matter and more depart-
mentalization of such matter. The ninth newspaper, in the
opinion of the analyst, had not increased its emphasis on
culture and the tenth "in an overall sense, reflected a change
for the worse."
Of the seven smaller newspapers, two in 1967 allocated
a good deal more space for both culture and entertainment,








and one had a more sophisticated approach to its coverage,
had more reviews than advance stories and had more staff-
written reviews and stories. Three other of the smaller
papers reflected little if any change, and two almost ignored
culture as a field of reader interest.
The conclusion is that performance in this area was
spotty in both 1952 and 1967. The explanations may be the
variation from city to city of cultural facilities and of the
potential audience for culture.
Women's Interests
Table 3 shows the number of newspapers in 1952 and
1967 publishing various kinds of content presumed to be of
interest to women. The data are for once a week or oftener
for each kind of content. There was more use in 1967 of 11
of the 20 different kinds of content, less use of five and the
same use of four.
TABLE 3
Number of Newspapers Publishing Various Kinds of Content
of Interest to Women Once a Week or Oftener in 1952 and 1967
1952 1967
C lu b n e w s .............................................................................................. 1 7 17
P a rties ...... ........ ..................................... .................. ....... 15 12
R e cip e s ........................................ ......... .............. ..... . 14 14
Food preparation ................. ....................13 16
Beauty, charm personal care ........................................ 10 11
Consum er interests ............................ ...... ......... 8 9
Sew ing ................................................................ ........ ...... 4 6
Knitting, needlework ................. .............................. 4 6
P attern s .................................. ........................ .......................... .... 11 8
Home decoration, furnishings .......... ........... 11 11
H om em making ................................. ..................... ... .. ....... 7 16
S erv in g m e als ............................................ .......................... 7 8
D iet, red u cin g ............................................................. ................ 8 7
E n te r ta in in g ........................................ .............................................. 5 5
W ashington social column ........................... ........ 1 4
C a r e e r s ................................................ ........ .. ............ .... ... ... 3 4
Calendar of events .... .. ........... ..... .... ... ... 11 10
C h ild care .......................................... ................... ... .... ..... 9 3
F fashion photos .................................... ............. .. 10 13
Syndicated fashion column ......... ............. 4 7
The differences between 1952 and 1967 are not large
except for "homemaking," which shows a large increase,
and for "child care," which shows a large decrease. It is
possible that the interest in sewing has been underestimated
as measured by the extraordinary increase in sales volume
during this period of pattern companies and sewing ma-
chine companies. One estimate of the number of women
who sew at home is 40 million plus three to four million
teenage girls. The readership scores for sewing, knitting and
patterns are quite acceptable for both women and girls.
In 1952, 15% of the wedding stories and photos ran
daily as compared with 19% in 1967. In 1952, 15% of en-








gagement stories and pictures ran daily as compared with
81/2 % in 1967.
In 1952 (daily and Sunday) there was one wedding pic-
ture for every three stories. In 1967, there was almost one
photo for every story. About the same proportion held for
the ratio of engagement stories and pictures in 1952 and
1967.
Table 4 seems to show a trend toward the use of
smaller wedding and engagement photos and shorter wed-
ding stories. In 1952, however, a good many of the papers
included in the "about the same" category were using many
one-column and thumbnail cuts.


TABLE 4
Size of Photos of Weddings and Engagements and Length of Wedding
Stories Compared for 1952 and 1967: By Number of Newspapers
Wedding photos:
L a r g e r ........................................ ..... ... .......... .......... .... ...... 1
A bout the sam e size ......................... ..... .......... 7
S m aller ................................. .... ........ ................ ..... 9
Engagement photos:
L a r g e r ........................................ ........................ ...... .......0... 0
A bout the sam e size .................................... ................... 8
S m a lle r ............................................ ...................................... 7
N o t sta te d ........................................ ............ .......................... 2
Wedding stories:
L o n g e r ...................................... ................................ .... 1
About the sam e length ........................7....... ... 7
S h orter ............................. ..................... .......... ...... .. ..... ... 6
N ot stated .......... .... .. ..... ...... ......... ................. 3
The analysts were asked to determine whether or not
the content of the women's pages reflected a tendency in
1967 to recognize women as having interests other than
those of the housewife, party-giver and member of a
group. They found that six papers definitely perceived their
female audience differently than in 1952 and five definitely
did not; they did not make a determination for the other
papers.


Sports
Table 5 shows, on a once or more a week basis, various
kinds of sports content. The data will not surprise the
usual sports editor and they supply little guidance for al-
location of space. Most newspapers continue to allocate
about the same relative space to the major spectator sports.
Sports which were more frequently reported in 1967 than
in 1952 were: auto racing, pro basketball, horse racing,
soccer, hunting and fishing, skiing and boating.









TABLE 5
Number of Newspapers Publishing Various Kinds of Sports Content
Once a Week or Oftener in 1952 and 1967
1952 1967
Major league baseball:
Story .................................................................... .......... 17 17
Box scores ....................................................................... ...... 13 16
Line scores ........................................................................... 4 6
Minor league baseball:
S tory .................................................. ............................................ 15 14
B o x sco re s ...................................................................................... 10 1 1
Line scores ............................................................................ 7 5
M ajor league baseball standings ................................. 15 16
M major league baseball averages .................................... 5 4
M inor league baseball standings .................................... 14 13
Local am ateur baseball ....................................................... 12 7
Little League baseball ............................................................... 12 7
College baseball ....................................................................... ....... 15 15
High school baseball .................................................................. 15 16
Auto racing .... ............................................................................ 12 16
Sports car racing .......................................................... 0 8
Drag racing ............................................................................. ... 1 9
S o ftb all ............. ............................................................................... 5 5
Pro basketball ................................................................................. 10 15
College basketball ......................................................................... 17 17
High school basketball ....................................................... 16 15
W wrestling .................................................. ..... 13 8
College wrestling ....................................................... .......... 1 3
High school wrestling ........................................................... 6 10
Pro hockey ........ ........................................................................... 11 13
College hockey .. ....................................................................... 3 3
B o x in g .......................................................................................................17 17
Track and field ............................................................. 11 11
College track and field ....................................................... 15 15
H.S. track and field .................................................. ......... 17 16
Harness racing ............................................................. ............. 7 4
Horse racing:
Results ....... .................................................. ...... 14 15
Entries ................... ................................................................................ 9 13
Selections .................................................................. .............. 4 9
Dog racing ....... ............................................................................ 4 4
S o c c e r .......................... ................................................................................ 4 1 2
P ro g o lf story ...................................................................................... 16 16
Pro golf column ......................................................... ........... 11 8
Am ateur golf ............................................... ..............................13 15
High school golf ......................................................... ........... 4 3
College golf ............................................................................ 3 3
Outdoor colum n .......................................... .................................. 8 8
H u n tin g ........................................................ .................................... 4 8
F ish in g ............... ................................................................................ 3 10
C am p in g ....................................................... ..................................0 2
B o w lin g ..................................................................................................... 1 3 14
W ith tab les ............. ............................................................. 6 6
Swim ming ......... ............................................................................. 14 12
Skiing (snow ) ............................................ ..............................9 13
S k a tin g ............... ................................................................................ 8 1 1
"People in Sports" ........................................................................ 8 9
Sports colum n: local ................................................................. 12 13
Sports column: syndicated ................................................... 3 7
College tennis ...... ....................................................................... 4 4
B illia r d s ................. ................................................................................... 4 4
Boating, yachting ........................................................................... 6 11
30








Sports which were less frequently reported were local
amateur baseball and Little League baseball.
Sports editors are well aware of such potential audience
measures as game attendance, number of fishing licenses
issued, number of golf courses, etc. They are probably also
familiar with the usual readership scores. They may not
be familiar, however, with teenage readership scores be-
cause these have only recently become available. For ex-
ample, the Carl J. Nelson Research average scores for "Any
horse racing reader" are: Men 29, women 7, boys 9 and girls
1. Some scores in individual newspapers for auto racing,
however, average 18 for men and 15 for boys.
A Louis Harris survey suggests that the two demo-
graphic groups which most often follow sports are edu-
cated white people of relatively high income and Negroes.
No analysis of sports content was attempted from the
qualitative point of view. But most sports editors under-
stand the role of television in sports and, therefore, the need
for special story treatment and expertise.
Miscellaneous Content
Table 6, which reports several kinds of content, shows
some increase in the publication of weather information,
humor, and puzzles and quizes. More papers were publishing
an index, a news summary and a teenage column, page or
section. Four papers which in 1952 published short local
items under a standing head, such as "City Briefs," had dis-
continued the practice. Fiction had almost disappeared from
newspapers and only five papers were publishing a picture
page (or half page).


TABLE 6
Number of Newspapers Publishing Various Kinds of Content
in 1952 and 1967
1952 1967
Daily:
C om ic strip s .................................................................................... 17 17
A ve. num ber per paper ................................................ 15 15
H um or panels ........................................................................... 17 17
A ve. num ber per paper ................................................ 5.4 5.0
E editorial cartoon .................................................................... 16 17
C ross-w ord puzzle .................................................................. 16 17
W eath er m ap ................................................................................ 9 15
W weather in other cities ................................................. 14 16
Picture page (or half page) ....................................... ... 5 5
N ew s analysis ............................................. ........................... 4 6
In d e x .............................................................................................. 1 1 15
N ew s sum m ary ........................................ ........................... 4 8
N ew s roundup ........................................... ......................... 3 3
H um or, satire ............................................. .......................... 10 14
C ity B riefs .......................................................................... 11 7
Syndicated com m entators ............................................ 17 17
31









1952 1967
One or more times a week:
Opinion poll ................................................................................ 7 9
News analysis (Sunday) ............................................ 2 4
F iction ................................................................................................... 5 2
Puzzles, quizzes, games ...................................................... 10 15
Local labor column ........................................ 1 1
Syndicated labor column ............................................ 1 0
Real estate column .............................................................. 2 1
Farm column, page .............................................................. 9 9
Suburban news column ...................................................... 7 6
Teenage column, section ................................................... 5 12
Gardening column, page ................................................. 9 11

Table 7 reports the publication daily or Sunday of sev-
eral kinds of syndicated matter not mentioned in the other
tables. The largest increases were advice to the lovelorn,
bridge, education, health, science and travel.



TABLE 7
Number of Newspapers Publishing Various Kinds of Syndicated
Matter Once a Week or Oftener in 1952 and 1967
1952 1967
Advice to the elderly, retirement ............................... .. 0 5
Advice to the lovelorn ............................................................... 6 16
C career ad vice ...................................................................................... 0 2
A n tiq u es ...................................................................................................... 0 5
A v nation ............................................................................................. 0 3
Astrology-graphology ............................................................... 8 11
Auto, including repair ............................................................... 1 3
B rid g e ........................ ........................................................................... 9 1 5
College, preparing for ............................................................... 0 1
Children's books .............................................................................. 0 1
Do-it-yourself .................................................................................. 5 6
E d u cation ................................................................................................. 3 8
E tiq u ette ................................................................................................ 4 7
Family, personal finance ..................................................... 1 4
Food preparation (men's gourmet) ......................... 1 5
Fashion (men) ................................................................... ........... 3 2
H e a lth ...................................................... ..................................................... 8 1 1
Mental health ...................................................................................... 2 3
Home building, repair ............................................................... 9 10
In su ran ce ... .......... ...................................................................1 2
L a w ................................................. ............................................ . ......... 2 5
P e ts ................................................. ............................................ . ......... 1 4
P h otograp h y ....... .......................................................................... 5 6
Phonograph records .................................................................... 3 5
P o e try .......................................................... ......................................6 4
Questions and answers ........................................................... 7 7
S cien ce ................ ................................................................................ 3 9
Landscaping ...............................1 2
S tam ps, coin s ............................................... ............................... 7 8
T rav e l .................... ............................................................................... 5 12
V veteran s .... ........................................................................................... 4 4
Military affairs ....................................................................... ... 0 1








Public Record Statistics
Practice varies so greatly among newspapers as to
which kinds of public record are published that a count was
made to determine whether or not some kinds of statistics
published in 1952 had been discontinued or added. The re-
sults are in Table 8.



TABLE 8
Number of Newspapers Publishing Various Kinds of
Public Record Statistics Daily in 1952 and 1967
1952 1967
B irth s ............................................................................ . . . ............. 17 16
M marriage licen ses ........................................................................... 14 13
D iv o rce s ... ....................................................................11 9
T traffic cou rt ........................................................................................ 4 7
F ir e a la rm s ............................................................................................ 5 6
Court judgm ents .................................................. 7 7
Judgm ents satisfied ..................................................... .............. 3 4
B building perm its .................................................. ........................... 2 2
P property transfers ...................................................... ....... 1 2
M ech an ics lien s ...................................................................... ...... 1 0
B bankruptcy petitions .................................................................. 2 2
S to len au to s ........................................................................... 1 1
M issin g p erson s .. ......................................................................... 1 1
E states probated ........................................................ ......... 7 7
Reader interest in some of this kind of content has not
been adequately measured. But the data in Table 8 seems to
show that several editors have correctly estimated low
reader interest in those statistics that are of interest mainly
to a special class of reader.
Appreciation for their cooperation in this study is ex-
pressed to Professors James E. Brinton, Colorado; Jack
B. Haskins, Syracuse; John L. Hulteng, Oregon; Wayne A.
Danielson and Maxwell E. McCombs, North Carolina; Mal-
colm S. MacLean, Jr., Iowa; Robert M. Pockrass, Pennsyl-
vania State; Galen Rarick, Ohio State; and Merrill E. Sam-
uelson, Washington.








Chapter 4
SOME COMMUNICATION BEHAVIOR

For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 59-66, Vol. 2, pp.
55-64, and Vol. 3, pp. 20-47.




Negroes' Use of the Media
About three-fourths of the Negroes outside the South
read a daily newspaper "yesterday."
Young Negro adults use the newspaper more than do
older Negroes; the reverse is true for white adults.
Few Negroes read a weekly newspaper or a magazine
"yesterday."
Negroes have as favorable opinion of advertising as
whites have and "look forward" to the ads in all media
more than do whites.
The ANPA News Research bulletins in 1968 have re-
ported recent research about media use in the ghetto and
other low-income areas of individual cities (ANPA News
Research Bulletins No. 6, April 3 and No. 9, May 22). We
now have some data about media use by Negroes on a na-
tional basis.
The data have been extracted by Dr. Leo Bogart, vice
-president and General Manager of the Bureau of Advertis-
ing, ANPA, from a large-scale study which was reported in
the Dec. .6, 1967 News Research Bulletin ("When People
Want to Know... Where Do They Go to Find Out?"). Of the
1,991 adults interviewed for that study, 240 (12%) were
Negroes.
Table 1 reports the readership by whites and Negroes
of at least one daily newspaper on the weekday preceding
the interview ("yesterday").
TABLE 1.
READERSHIP OF NEWSPAPERS "YESTERDAY"
Proportion
% Reading In each Group
White Negro White Negro
T otal ......................................................................................... 80% 59% 100% 100%
M en ....................................................................... .......... 80 62 46 41
W om en .............................................................................. 81 56 54 59
S outh ............................................................................. 74 50 28 65
Other regions ......................................................... 83 73 72 35
M metropolitan areas ............................................ 85 61 62 75
O th er areas ..................................................... 73 50 38 25
U nder $3,000 Incom e ......................................... 65 44 14 42
Over $3,000 Incom e ........................................ 83 69 86 58
34









% Reading
White Negro


Proportion
In each Group
White Negro


A ge 21-34 ........................................ ................... 76 67 27 34
A ge 35 and over ...................................................... 83 54 73 66
Grade school education or less ......... 68 41 21 44
Some High School or better .................. 84 72 79 56
Although there is a great difference between whites
and Negroes, much of the difference can be explained by
geography: 65% of the Negroes in the national sample
live in the South. Outside the South, the difference in read-
ership is only 10%: about three out of four Negro adults
read a newspaper "yesterday." Education and income, as
one would expect, are also explanatory.
The data for age are reversed for whites and Negroes.
Young Negro adults read newspapers more than do older
Negroes, whereas young adult whites read 7% less than do
older whites.
Of adults who read a daily newspaper "yesterday," the
same proportion of whites and Negroes (39%) had read
two or more papers "yesterday." (This is not shown in the
table.)
More whites (11%) than Negroes (6%) reported hav-
ing read a weekly newspaper "yesterday." This could re-
flect the modest coverage which Negro newspapers achieve
within their community, and is confirmed by data previously
reported in ANPA bulletins in 1968.
Use of Other Media
Table 2- presents some data on the use "yesterday" of
magazines, radio and television. Twice as many adult whites
read a magazine and only 8% of Negroes read two or more
as compared with 20% for whites.


TABLE 2.
COMPARATIVE USE OF MAGAZINES, RADIO AND TV
White
Read a magazine yesterday ...................... ............... 39%
R ead 2 or m ore ................ .................................................... ........ 20
Listened to radio yesterday .................................. ................... 68
Of those who listened:
2 hours or m ore ... ............................................................... ..... 34
Watched TV yesterday ................................................................. 83
Of those who watched:
2 h ours or m ore ............... ........................................ ............ 54
Saw at least 1 TV newscast yesterday .................................... 62
Listened to at least 1 radio newscast
y esterd ay .. ............................................................................. .................... 56
Not exposed yesterday to a newspaper
or to any radio or TV newscast ............ ............................ 4
More interested in local news* .................................................... 55


Negro
19%
8
55
33
75
59
50
43
16
69








White Negro
More interested in national, international news* ........ 47 29
Gave favorable answers about advertising .................. 60 63
*A few respondents gave multiple answers.
But the amount of use of radio and television differs
very little. There are differences as to television programs
and in the time of day radio is listened to: fewer Negroes
than whites listen to day-time radio-possibly because a
larger proportion of Negro women are in the labor force
(50% of nonwhite adult females vs. 38% of adult white
females).
Advertising
When a scale of three questions about advertising was
asked, Negroes' responses were slightly more favorable than
were whites' (63% to 60%).
For each medium, respondents were asked to express
agreement or disagreement with this question: "When I
pick up a newspaper/magazine (turn on television/radio)
I look forward to the ads." The percentage of "agree" re-
sponses was as follows for each medium:
Whites Negroes
N ew paper ........................................................................ 66% 72%
M a g azin e .............................................................................. 55 62
R a d io ........................................................................................ 18 4 2
Television ........................................ 22 48
Dr. Bogart concludes that most of the differences in
media exposure between Negroes and whites reflects the
differences in social position and geography rather than any
self-conscious alienation of Negroes as a group.


Media Use in the Ghetto
Two studies show that Negroes who live in ghettos have
much more confidence in television than in newspapers.
In a Pittsburgh ghetto, 47% of the families own two or
more TV sets but only 14% receive a daily newspaper.
In the same isolated ghetto, little news information
reaches the Negroes and their interest is only in their near
environment.
In Los Angeles, a good many more Negroes seek infor-
mation than in the Pittsburgh area, but their main con-
cern is with race relations.
(In both studies, the sample contains a disproportionate
number of women, and in the Los Angeles study the sam-
ple is biased upward as to education).
T. H. Allen, last June, interviewed 100 respondents who
lived in the "Hill District" of Pittsburgh in which the popu-
lation was 87% nonwhite. The median family income (in
1966) was $2,800; the unemployment rate for males was
19% and for females 7%; 43% of the housing was sub-
standard; and there was a high incidence of family disor-








ganization and crime. The median age of male respondents
was 32 years and of females 30 years. Two-thirds of the
"residents" (not defined) were married.
Most of the respondents were females who were ques-
tioned about the communication behavior of other members
of their family as well as about their own. Allen's "inventory
of news media" in the households is shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1.
INVENTORY OF MEDIA IN THE HOUSEHOLD
More
Own/receive: One Than One
R adio set ................................................................................ 100% 64%
TV set* ........................................ ..... 95 47
D aily new spaper ...................................................... 14 0
Sunday new spaper ........................................ ........... 60 0
W eekly newspaper (Negro) ................................. 13 0
M ag azin e ...................................................................................... 42 0
*Ten percent had three TV sets most of them purchased secondhand.
Listening and Viewing Behavior
Most radio listening was from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. to "any-
thing that was on," virtually all of it being incidental to
housework. Nearly all of the listening was by women and
children. Four per cent listened to news-mostly men during
their lunch hour at home. Radio listening from Monday
through Friday averaged five and one-half hours-many
times the national average for listening in the home.
Very little TV viewing was done before 5 p.m. There-
after until bedtime close to 100% looked at the TV "all the
time" or "part of the time." The programs generally were
"anything." ("We never switch around for different pro-
grams. They're all the same anyway").
The "whole family" viewed one or more TV news pro-
grams from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m. These were mainly local pro-
grams; fewer respondents viewed network news programs
about national and international events. Almost three-
fourths of the respondents had not learned about the out-
break of the war in the Middle East (during the week of in-
terviewing) until at least 12 hours after the first news
flash at 6 a.m. Monday.
Newspaper Reading
As the "inventory" table above shows, the Sunday
paper was read much more than the daily paper. Three-
fourths of the women, one-half of the men, 28% of the teen-
age children and 43% of the children under 12 years of age
read a daily or Sunday paper. The favorite parts mentioned
by adults were "sales" (display ads) 32% and "styles"
24%. Children's favorite parts were comics 61% and sports
24%.
The respondents were "generally ignorant of the geo-
graphical location of such places as Vietnam and the Suez
37








Canal and the distinction between the war in the Middle
East and Vietnam."
As one respondent said:
"I'm not interested in what happens over there
in Vietnam-that don't affect me, but if a car hits
a child on my block or a friend's house burns or
somebody I know gets shot, this is what I'm in-
terested in. This is what I want to know about."
Magazines
Magazines "received in the home" were in these per-
centages for those who said they received a magazine (58%
of the households received none) :
E b ony .................................... 38% S ecret ..................................... 10%
True Detective ............ 19% Confidential .................. 3%
True Story .. .............. 15% Look ..................................... .. 2%
Modern Romance .. 12% Reader's Digest ......... 1%
No respondent reported receiving a news magazine,
"Life" or "The Saturday Evening Post." Of those who read
the magazines listed above, 83% were women, 12% men
and 5% teenage children.
Reliability of the Media
Respondents were asked: "Which news medium do you
think is the most reliable and factual?" Approximately the
same question was asked in a study made in the Los Angeles
area which will be summarized later. The findings were as
follows:
Pittsburgh Los Angeles
T television ............ .......... ................... ....... 77% 70%
R a d io ............. ............. ......................... ..... .. 12
N ew sp ap er ............................................................. 6 12
N o p referen ce ...................................................... 5 18
100 100
Two verbatim responses in the Pittsburgh study may
explain why some persons have more confidence in TV news-
casts than in newspaper stories. Apparently, "seeing is
believing":
"When you read about something in the news-
paper, you don't know for sure what happened. But
on TV you can hear what the man says happened,
and then you can see for yourself by watching the
pictures if it really happened. Then you can make
up your own mind. I can't always get what those
words mean, but I understand what I hear and see."


"You can see the actual event taking place on
TV, but with a newspaper you have to try to guess
what happened."








The Los Angeles Area Study
Lyle, in 1963 (two years before the Watts riot), in-
terviewed 168 Negroes in nine census tracts in Los Angeles
and a suburb. Three tracts were in the central city, two
were in the southern (Watts) area, three to the west of the
central area, and two in a suburban area 20 miles from the
central section. Negro density in the tracts ranged from
40% to 90%. Two tracts were of low income and the others
were of moderate or moderately high income.
The sample contained a disproportionate number of
women and was biased upward as to educational level. The
interviewers were Negroes.
Usage of Media
Regular listening to radio news was reported by 55%
of the respondents and regular viewing of television news-
casts by 84%. Newspapers read "regularly" were as follows:
T im e s ................. ..... ............. ............... .... ............... ............. .... 30 %
H erald-E xam iner .............................................................................. 32
N egro w eeklies (3) ................................................... ............. .... 86
When asked whether the newspaper or television was
more important to them, 56% said television and 35% said
the newspaper. Choice of the newspaper was twice as great
in the suburban area as in the city areas.
Respondents were asked which of the media was their
main source of information for different kinds of informa-
tion. Table 2 shows the daily newspaper is the preferred
medium for seven of the eight kinds of information and that
the largest Negro weekly (which carries classified but not
grocery advertising) is relied upon to only a slight extent.
When asked, "How much do you really need the Sentinel
(the largest weekly) ?", 42% of the respondents in the sub-
urban area said they didn't need the paper "at all."

TABLE 2.
MEDIA CITED AS THE MAIN SOURCE
FOR VARIOUS KINDS OF INFORMATION
Daily Negro
Paper Paper Shopper TV
Grocery shopping .......................................... 28% 1% 36% 2%
Clothes shopping ............................................. 44 1 19 7
Household shopping .................................... 43 0 23 4
School new s ....................................................... 30 2 14 7
C ivic affairs ....................................................... .. 40 11 10 9
E ntertainm ent ................................................... 43 14 4 5
N at'l, in t'l n ew s ............................................... 51 1 1 18
Sports ..................... ............................. 52 2 1 14
Ninety per cent of all respondents said they read mag-
azines regularly. The median number was three. General
magazines ("Life," "Look," "Saturday Evening Post") were








read by 60%; "Ebony" by just over half; "Jet" by 30%
and news magazines by 20%.

Knowledge
Lyle tested the knowledge of the respondents. Ninety
per cent correctly named the mayor of Los Angeles, one-
half knew the name of the city councilman for their district
and about one-half could identify their Congressman. The
Los Angeles postmaster (a Negro) was identified by 56%,
including 45% who had only an elementary school education.
The chief of police (who had been criticized for alleged un-
fairness to Negroes) was correctly identified by 82%.
News Interests
Lyle asked about the frequency with which the re-
spondents discussed various kinds of news. The answers are
reported in Table 3. The data emphasize (1) the differences
in the educational levels and (2) the importance to the re-
spondents of racial relations.


TABLE 3
PERCENTAGE WHO SAID THEY DISCUSSED CERTAIN TOPICS
"DAILY" AND "OFTEN": BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION
High
News topic: Elementary School College
Nat'l governm ent ............................................ 21% 40% 74%
International affairs .................................... 24 38 68
Business affairs .................... ..................... 40 36 61
Crim e new s ...................................................... 36 43 54
Segregation news in South .................. 76 81 85
Local race relations .................................... 67 76 84

Fairness of the Press
Table 4 reports the responses to three questions de-
signed to measure Negroes' perception of the fairness of the
two Los Angeles metropolitan newspapers.

TABLE 4.
OPINIONS ON FAIRNESS TO NEGROES IN TWO LOS ANGELES
METROPOLITAN NEWSPAPERS
1. Do you think a Negro church or organization has an equal
chance of getting a story published in the (name of paper)
as does a white church or organization?
Yes, equal 25% No, unequal 46% Don't know 28%
2. Do you think a Negro candidate for public office against a white
candidate has an equal chance of getting a story published in
the (name of paper) as does his white opponent?
Yes, equal 32% No, unequal 45% Don't know 19%
3. Do you think the (name of paper) prints both sides of issues
that involve Negroes and Whites?
Yes, always ........................ 13% Sometimes not ............... 43%
Yes, most of the time 31% Never ...................................... 11%








When asked which they would trust as to contradictory
stories-a metropolitan daily or a Negro weekly--36% of
the suburban Negroes chose the daily and 25% the weekly;
39 % expressed no preference.
A standardized test developed at Stanford University
which has been used in many communities included this
question: "Does the (name of paper) print both sides of is-
sues that involve different races ?" The responses in a typical
community in which most of the respondents were white
were as follows: Yes, always, 29%; yes, usually, 62%.
The same test also included this question: "If a Negro
got in a serious fight with a white man in this area, how
fair would the (name of paper) be toward the Negro?" Re-
sponses in the same typical white community were as fol-
lows: Not at all fair, 0.4%; not very fair, 3%; pretty
fair, 39% ; very fair, 53.5% ; don't know, 4%.
Neither of these studies presents an adequate report of
communication behavior in the ghetto. Both samples in-
clude a disproportionate number of women, and one includes
too many better-educated Negroes. The Los Angeles area
study did not purport to be a complete study of communica-
tion behavior but was intended to measure differences be-
tween Negroes in the relatively isolated ghettos of the city
and those in a suburban area. It is one of several case
studies of the ecology and sociology of the Los Angeles area
as they affect news coverage.
(T. H. Allen, Mass Media Use Patterns and Functions in a
Negro Ghetto, Master's thesis, University of West Virginia,
1967; Jack Lyle, The News in Megalopolis, 1967)


Communication Among the Urban Poor
Low income people (in Lansing, Mich.) use and like TV
more than do members of the general population.
The urban poor read newspapers almost as frequently
and almost as thoroughly as does the general population.
Greenberg and Dervin of Michigan State University,
in the winter and spring of 1967, compared the communica-
tion behavior of 312 residents of the lowest income areas of
Lansing, Mich., with a sample of the general population who
had telephones (206 respondents).
The racial composition of the poor residents was as
follows: 42% Negro, 48.1% white, and 9.9% other races,
mostly of Spanish origin.
Compared with the general population, fewer of the
low income respondents had jobs, had voted in the last state
election and belonged to clubs or other organizations. The
low income respondents said they talked with fewer neigh-
bors. They had an average of 10.9 years of education as com-
pared with 13.2 years for the general population.








TV Viewing
Table 1 shows ownership of black-and-white and color
TV sets in working condition, and responses to the question,
"On the whole, how much do you like television?"
Table 1.
Comparison Of Some TV Characteristics Of Low Income
And General Population Respondents
Low Gen.
Income Pop.
Ownership of working tv set:
N o n e .... .. ......... ..................................................................... 3 .2 % 2 .9 %
1 ................................. ................. . ............................. 63 .8 5 7 .8
2 or m ore ...................................................................................... .... 33.0 39.3
O w n color set ...................................................................... .... .......... 9.6 21.8
"How much do you like tv?":
A lot .......................................... 51.6 14.1
Q u ite a b it .......... .... ...............................................................................26.3 31.5
A little ................................................................ .................. ........ 19 .2 4 6 .6
N ot at all ...... .................. ............ ......... ................ 2.9 7.3
No answer .................................................................... 0.5
Table 2 compares the two groups as to their viewing of
the top 12 programs broadcast between October, 1966 and
January, 1967 as determined by Arbitron and Nielsen rat-
ings; movies and specials were excluded. The table shows the
percentage of each group which viewed the program "every
week or almost every week."
Table 2.
Percentage Who View Top 12 Programs Every Week Or Almost Every Week
Low Gen.
Income Pop.
B ev early H illb illies .............................................................................. 71.5% 31.1%
A n d y G riffith ................................................. .......................... .. 71.5 43.2
G re en A cre s ....................................................................................... .. 6 1.2 2 9.6
B o n a n za ......................... ..... .............................. ... ............ . . .. 6 0 .3 3 0 .1
E d S u lliv an ........... ................. ... ......... ......... ....... ....... ... .... 56.7 35.9
D ak tari ... ....... ... ............................... ....................... ....................... 57.6 40.8
L u cy S h o w .............. ........................................................ .......................... 5 1 .6 2 9 .6
J ack ie G season ...............................................................................51.6 43 .2
R ed S k elton ............................. ......................................... ......... ......... 52 63 52.6 32.0
W alt D isn ey ..................... ................................................................... 3 8.8 3 5.9
L aw rence W elk ... ......................................... .................24.7 25.2
B ew itch ed ............................ .. ...... ....... ...................... .. ........... 20.2 18.0
Newspaper Reading
Table 3 shows that low-income people read the news-
paper almost as frequently and almost as thoroughly (as
measured by number of sections read) as does the general
population.
Table 3.
Newspaper Reading
Low Gen.
Income Pop.
Frequency of reading:
E v ery d ay ...................................................... ............................ 64.4 % 77.2 %
1 to 6 tim es a w eek ....... ................................ .................... 27.9 18.0
42









Low Gen.
Income Pop.
N ev er ........................................................................................................ ... 7.7 4.8
Number of sections read:
1 .... ..................................................... .. ........... ........ . ................................. ... 1 7 .0 1 2 .1
2 .................... .......... ................................. ... .................................... 2 7 .2 2 3 .3
3 .................................................. ...... ..................................................... 19.5 23.8
4 or m ore ....................................................................................... 28.3 35.4
N ever reads ...................................................................................... ....... 7.7 4.8
*Includes those who read "all of the paper" but did not mention sections.
Yet, as Table 4 shows, the poor rely mainly on television
for local news somewhat more than does the general popu-
lation.

Table 4.
Medium Preferred For Non-Local And Local News
Low Gen.
Income Pop.
Non-local news:
Television ................... ........... .... ................. 63.5% 34.9%
R a d io ............................... ........................................ ........................... ... 1 7 .3 2 5 .7
Newspapers .................. .................. . ................ 15.1 31.5
Talking to people ................................ ......... 2.6 4.4
N o a n sw er ......... ............................... ........................................ 1.6 3 .4
Local news:
T elev isio n ...................................................................................... ..... 3 0 .4 2 0 .4
R a d io ....... ......................... .. ............ ......... ... .................................. ...... 3 1 .4 3 1 .0
Newspapers ......................................... ........ ..... 23.1 40.3
T walking to people .................................................................. 13.1 6.8
N o an sw er .......... .. ............. ................... ....................... .. ...... 1.9 1.5

Table 5 compares the two groups as to radio listening,
magazine reading, movie attendance and ownership of rec-
ords and a record player. The main difference is that the poor
spend more time listening to records than does the general
population. The expected differences as to other characteris-
tics are not very large.
Table 5.
Radio Listening, Magazine Reading, Movie Attendance
And Phonograph And Record Ownership

Low Gen.
Income Pop.
Magazine reading (never reads) ....................................... 16.7% 10.2%
"When was the last time you went
to see a movie?":
T h is w e e k ........ .... .. ........................................................................... 2 .6 6 .8
L a st w e ek ................................................................................. . .. ... 6 .0 8 .2
2 to 3 w weeks ago ................ ................ ............................... 5.4 14.6
A month or longer ........ .. ....................... ......... 85.9 69.9
Owns phonograph ............................. .......................................... 76.3 85.9
Number of records owned (median) ...... ... 50 53
Time spent listening to records (hrs.) ............. 1.1 0.5
Radio listening (hrs.) .......... ............................... ....... 1.7 1.8
*Only of those who owned a phonograph.








(Bradley S. Greenberg and Brenda Dervin, Communication
Among the Poor, Report No. 1. Michigan State University,
Nov., 1967)


Communication Behavior of Poor
Negroes and Whites Compared
Negroes with approximately the same education and
low income as whites (in Lansing, Mich.) do not use the
newspaper as a tool for daily living quite as much as do
the poor whites.
Greenberg and Dervin, of Michigan State University, in
1967, compared the communication behavior of a sample of
Negro and white residents of the lowest income areas of
Lansing, Michigan. The areas were designated by the Office
of Economic Opportunity. Almost two-thirds of the re-
spondents of both races were females.
The Negroes and whites had about the same median
family income (about $105 a week) although more members
of the Negro households had full-time or part-time jobs.
About two-thirds of the white respondents had been born
in Michigan as compared with only one-sixth of the Negroes
of whom 71% had been born in a southern state. The Ne-
groes had had about a half-year more formal education with
twice as many having gone beyond high school graduation.
A larger proportion of Negro respondents (43.3%) be-
longed to a club or social organization than did the white
respondents (32%).
Table 1 shows the frequency and amount of newspaper
reading and how the newspaper was obtained. The dif-
ferences are not very large. The table also reports some of
the parts of the newspaper that are usually read. The major
difference was the much greater reading of comics by Ne-
groes.
Table 1
Newspaper Reading
Negro White
Frequency:
Read every day ... ......... ........................... 53.8% 69.4%
1 to 6 tim es a w eek ............... ..... ....... ... 27.4 19.3
L ess than once a w eek ..................................................... 6.9 4.0
N ever read the paper ............................................... 6.9 7.3
Number of sections read:
3 or m ore .................................. .............. ................. 42.8 53.3
1 or 2 ................. ............... ...... ..................................... ..... 49.5 38.7
N ever read the paper ............................ ....................... 6.9 7.3
Parts read:
H eadlin es ........ ... .................................................... .............. 23.7 14.0
F ron t p ag e ............................................. .................................. 30.5 36.7
N e w s ............................................................................... .. ...... 2 4 .4 2 4 .7
A d v ertisin g * .......................................... .............................. 20.0 26.0
W om en 's in terest ... ........................... ...................... .............. 13.6 15.4
C o m ic s ......................................... ........................................ 4 2 .0 8 .7
44









Negro White
S p orts ............................................ ............. ................. .......... 17.6 14 .7
Editorials, opinion ................................................................... 7.7 8.6
How paper obtained:
D delivered ........................................................................................... 68.7 79.3
B uys at new stand .................................................................. 25.2 11.3
N ever reads the paper ............................................................ 6.1 8.7
*All types of general news.
**Display and classified combined.
The major differences shown in Table 2 are the Ne-
groes' higher evaluation of television and recorded music.


Table 2
Some Communication Characteristics of the Respondents
Negro White
Ownership of working TV set:
1 ...................................................... ........ .......................................... 59.5 % 66.0 %
2 or m ore ....................................................... 38.2 30.7
N o n e ....................................................... ......................................... 2 .3 3 .3
O w n color set ............................................... 9.2 9.3
Own record player ..................................................................... 84.0 70.7
Records owned (median number) ................................. 42 36
W watched TV yesterday ............................................................... 74.8 77.3
Listened to radio yesterday ........................................ 63.3 60.0
Listened to records yesterday ............................................ 71.0 46.0
"How much do you like TV?":
A lo t .. ..................... .................................................................... 5 9 .5 4 6 .0
Q u ite a b it .......................... .............................................................. 23 .7 2 9.3
A little or n ot at all ................................................................. 16.8 24.7

When the question, "How much do you like televi-
sion?", was asked of a sample of the general population of
Lansing, the responses were as follows:

A lo t ....................................................................................... 14 .1 %
Q u ite a b it ................................. ..................... 3 1.5
A little or not at all ................ ......................... 53.9
As inspection of Table 2 shows, the differences are very
great between the general population and both the poor
whites and Negroes.
Table 3 shows a somewhat greater preference by the
whites for the newspaper as a source of news. About one-
fifth of the Negroes said they got their local news from
other persons.

Table 3
Medium Preferred for World and Local News
Negro White
World news:
T elev vision ............................................................................................. 65.6 % 65.3 %
R ad io ............................................. . ............. ........................................ 19.8 12 .0
Newspaper ........................................ ....................... 10.7 18.0
N ot an sw ered ................................................................................... 0.8 2.0








Negro White
Local news:
Television ........................................ ............. 26.7 32.7
R a d io ...................................... .................... .. .... ............................. 3 2 .1 3 4 .0
N ew spaper ..................................................................................... 18.3 25.3
P eop le ..................................................................... .......... . .... 2 1.4 6.7
N ot answ ered ............................................................... .............. 1.5 1.3
Table 4 reports the responses to questions about where
the respondent would seek information when looking for a
job or a place to live. The table shows that the whites would
refer to the newspaper more than would the Negroes.
Table 4
Sources of Information for Job Hunting and Home Hunting
Negro White
When looking for a job:
N ew spaper ............................................................................... 10.7% 26.0%
A d s ......................................................................................... . . . ..... ... .. 10.0 8.0
A ll m edia ................................................................................. 1.3
Employment office ........................................ .... 52.0 50.0
When looking for a place to live:
N ew sp ap er ......................................................... ................... ........ 19.8 29.3
R adio or T V .......................................................... ............ 0.7
A d s ......................................................... ......................... ........................ 13 .7 4 .0
Real estate agent ........................................... 36.6 43.3
Although the differences are not large, this study seems
to show that Negroes of this class do not use the news-
paper as a tool for daily living quite as much as do whites
with approximately the same income and education. It is
possible that age accounts for some of the differences: the
median age of Negroes was 34.3 years and of whites 44.2
years.
(Bradley S. Greenberg and Brenda Dervin, Communication
Among the Poor, Report No. 3. Michigan State University,
May, 1968)


More Negroes Use TV and Newspapers
In Presidential Election Campaigns
Dr. Maxwell E. McCombs, of the University of North
Carolina, this year reanalyzed some of the data from the
quadrennial national studies of presidential election cam-
paigns by the University of Michigan Survey Research Cen-
ter from 1952 to 1964.
In all four campaigns, the study had asked specifically
about the use of newspapers and television for following
the campaign.
According to their answers to the questions, respon-
dents were classified as (1) high users of both newspapers
and television, (2) low users of both media, (3) high users
of newspapers and low users of television, and (4) high
users of television and low users of newspapers.








The accompanying table shows that the percentage of
Negroes classified as low users of both media declined from
63% in 1952 to 41% by 1964. By comparison, the percentage
of whites who were low users of both media increased dur-
ing the period by 12%.
Media Use Pattern, 1952, 1964: Whites and Negroes
Negroes Whites
1952 1964 1952 1964
High/Both Media ......................................... 9% 19% 23% 23%
High Newspaper/Low TV .................. 11 13 18 18
High TV/Low Newspaper .................. 17 27 30 18
Low /Both M edia ............................................. 63 41 29 41
The percentage of Negroes who were high users of
both media in 1952 was only 9%. But by 1964 the proportion
had increased to 19%. The percentage of whites who were
high users of both media did not increase at all. However,
the percentage of whites who had been heavy users of tele-
vision declined 12%.
Newspaper and TV
Dr. McCombs speculated as to why Negroes' high use
of newspapers increased only 2% in the 12-year period, as
follows: "As awareness of politics develops, television most
likely is the medium turned to first because it already is
available. Using a TV set for political information is quali-
tatively a far different and simpler act than purchasing and
reading a newspaper. As the appetite for political informa-
tion increases, it is likely that the newspaper is added as a
second source of information."
Negro Political Participation
Since the Supreme Court's school segregation decision
Negroes have become much more politically conscious and
more active in politics. Studies have shown increased voter
registration and much higher turnout: Negro turnout na-
tionally jumped from 32% in 1952 to 53% in 1960 while
white turnout remained stable at about 70%.
(Maxwell E. McCombs, "Negro Use of Television and News-
papers for Political Information, 1952-1964," Journal of
Broadcasting, 12:261-266, 1968)


"Best Coverage" of Public Affairs News
by Print and Broadcast Media
The 1967 Roper Associates study found that 64% of the
respondents in a national sample got most of their news from
television and 55% from newspapers. Since several respon-
dents had mentioned both media the total for these media was
119%. The Roper study had asked the same question in four
earlier surveys. The question was:
47








First, I'd like to ask you where you usually get most of
your news about what's going on in the world today-
from the newspapers or radio or television or magazines
or talking to people or where?
Carter and Greenberg, in 1965 suspected that if respon-
dents had been asked to state from which one of the sources
they got most of their news the answers would have been
different. This was because about half of the respondents
in the 1964 Roper study had mentioned more than one med-
ium-not just one.
Carter and Greenberg asked both versions of the ques-
tion of a split-half sample of 500 adults in San Jose, Calif.
The results were as follows:
Question allows Question allows
but one answer more than one
(theirs) answer (Roper's)
Newspapers 44% 79%
Television .................. 32 66
Other M edia ................. 24 85
Total ... ... ... ......... 100 230

As the table shows, the way the question is asked makes
a great difference, especially for television. A computation
shows that the inflation attributable to the Roper version
was 80% for newspapers and 106% for television.

Clarke and Ruggels, of the University of Washington,
criticized both versions of the question because neither
yielded a clear response as to whether the questions mea-
sured "how good" the sources were or "how much informa-
tion" the sources provided. They also thought that "news"
had not been clearly defined.

Restricting their definition to public affairs news, they
presented to a sample of 1,250 heads of households in the
Seattle area 20 synopses of public affairs news and asked the
respondents to state which medium supplied "the best cov-
erage."

The geographical origin of the news leads were interna-
tional, national, state, county and city. Some examples are
listed in Chapter 5. (See "Reader Interest in Local, Non-
local Public Affairs Stories Is About Equal").


Table 1 presents the findings. Responses mentioning
radio news and television news were combined; for all five
sources, radio accounted for 28% of the responses and tele-
vision for 72%.








Table 1.
Average Percentage of Best Coverage Mention*
News TV/Radio Daily
Mags.** Newscasts*** Newspaper
International ........................... 15% 35% 47%
N national ............. ..... ............. 15 30 52
State .......... ............................... 1 26 68
C county ... ................................... 1 21 69
City .. ....... ........... 1 25 66
*The rows do not total 100% because weekly newspapers were eliminated
from the table.
**Includes "Seattle Magazine."
***TV and radio newscasts combined.
Four of the news stories were about war in the Middle
East, Nigeria and Vietnam. When these were eliminated
from the computation the average percentages for interna-
tional news became: magazines 20% (instead of 15%),
broadcast 23% (instead of 35%) and daily newspapers 50%
(instead of 47%). The probable explanation is that news
about war lends itself to dramatic and spectacular presenta-
tion by a visual medium (See "News Research for Better
Newspapers," Vol. III, p. 24).
Table 2 shows the correlations between use of the sev-
eral media and preference for the medium as providing the
best coverage for each date-line kind of news. It is not nec-
essary for one to understand the exact meaning of the cor-
relation coefficients. One needs only to note the differences;
for example, that preferences for broadcast media correlate
very weakly with frequency of use of those media.
Table 2.
Correlation Between Exposure to News Medium and Preference
for Medium in Providing Best Coverage of Public Affairs News
Int'l Nat'l State County City
Preference for Broadcast
Frequency of 6 p.m.
TV news viewing...... .14 .13 .09 .08 .09
Frequency of radio
news listening .......... .00 .00 .02 .01 .06
Preference for Magazine
Number of news
magazines read ........... .34 .25 .05 .04 .01
Preference for Newspaper
Number of daily
newspapers read
regularly .................. .18 .17 .22 .21 .21
The researchers' interpretation of Table 2 is as follows:
"The low correlation between medium use and broad-
cast preferences suggests that public affairs coverage is not
a major factor in a person's decision to view or listen to
radio and television news.







"By comparison, use of the print media appears more
strongly associated with mentions of [news] magazines and
newspapers as best sources. This underscores the qualitative
difference between the print and broadcast fan. Not only
is the print fan more interested in public affairs, his use of
newspapers and magazines may be a function of how well
they are thought to cover public affairs."
The researchers also found a strong correlation between
education and choice of medium, but the data are omitted
from this summary.
(Peter Clarke and Lee Ruggels, "Media Source Preference
for News About Public Affairs," Unpublished MS., 1968;
Elmo Roper Associates, "Emerging Profiles of Television and
Other Mass Media Public Attitudes," Report to the Tele-
vision Information Office, 1967; R. F. Carter and B. S. Green-
berg, "Newspapers or Television: Which Do You Believe?",
Journalism Quarterly, 42:29-34, 1965)


How People First Learned About
The President's Decision Not to Run
Nineteen hours after President Johnson, on Sunday,
March 31 at 9:45 p.m. (EST), broadcast that he would re-
duce bombing of North Vietnam and would not run for re-
election, Allen and Colfax, of the University of Connecticut,
sent interviewers into the field to ask this question of a
probability sample of residents of Willimantic, Connecticut:
"During the past day or so, have you heard about
President Johnson's plans for the coming Presidential cam-
paign ?"
Forty-eight hours later, the researchers had completed
the interviewing. They found that 83% of the sample had
heard the news, although 11% had confused or partially
correct information.
Those who had heard the news were asked: "How did
you first hear this news-from TV, radio, the newspaper or
from some other person ?" The results were as follows:
Original broadcast on TV ....................................... 73%
Original broadcast on radio ............................ .. .. 5
A later broadcast on TV .............................. .. .. 3
A later broadcast on radio ........................................... 10
Read it in the newspaper ............... ............... 5
Heard via word-of-mouth ....................................... 5
Most of those who heard the news via word-of-mouth
had heard it within an hour from a relative in the household
or a neighbor. Thus 85 % of those who knew about the event
had heard about it within an hour.
The broadcast had been scheduled for maximum ex-
posure to television and had been announced well in ad-
50








vance as a major policy address. The broadcast was two
days prior to the Wisconsin primary when interest in poli-
tics was at a high level.
The foregoing data show that 78% of those who knew
about the event heard the news by instantaneous broadcast.
This is equivalent to slightly more than two-thirds of the
potential audience of adults.
Those who had heard about the event were asked,
"About how many persons have you talked to about the
news, including strangers, members of your own family and
friends?" The responses were as follows:
1 or m ore ............. ....... 87% 4 ...................................... 52 %
2 ................................................... 7 0 5 ........ ..................................... 4 7
3 ...................................... 6 0 1 3 ................................................ 1 5
Those who had talked to five or more persons said most
of them were work associates.
The knowers who had talked to five or more persons
were predominantly men, members of a white collar house-
hold and persons with a high school or higher education.
Other studies have shown that the way people first
learn about an event is related to the importance of the
event and to whether the event was unexpected or sched-
uled (See ANPA "News Research for Better Newspapers,"
Vol. I, pp. 59-61). The present study relates to a very im-
portant event which, in one sense, was both scheduled and
unexpected, and was announced at a time of maximum ex-
posure to television. The study did not relate to people's
evaluation of the event after being exposed to commentary
in the newspaper or on the broadcast media.
(I. L. Allen and J. D. Colfax, "The Diffusion of News of
LBJ's March 31 Decision," Journalism Quarterly, 45:321-
324, 1968)


When Adults and Teenagers
Read Their Newspaper
When the Richmond (Va.) newspapers, in the fall of
1967, surveyed 2504 adult and 598 teenage readers, one
question was "At what period of the day do you usually
read the Times-Dispatch (News Leader) ?" The results were
as follows:
Times-Dispatch News Leader
(morning) (evening)
Men Women Teens Men Women Teens
M morning ......................................... 73% 77% 50% 1% 4% 0%
A afternoon .................................... 3 6 20 6 9 16
Evening ......................................... 16 13 28 93 87 84
Both a.m., p.m. ..................... 8 4 2 0 0 0








Media Use by the Better Educated
In Presidential Election Campaigns
A declining proportion of better educated people have
been following presidential election campaigns on televi-
sion and radio, although this is not true for the whole
adult population.
Since 1952, the University of Michigan Survey Re-
search Center has conducted a study of each campaign and
has asked a question about usage of the various media
during the campaign.
Professor John P. Robinson, of the Survey Research
Center, correlated the usage responses with the education
of the respondents (after correcting for the respondents'
professed degree of involvement in the campaign. since
the better educated tend to be more involved). The table
below shows the correlation coefficients.
1952 1956 1960 1964
Television .......................... ............. 14 .16 .10 .02
Radio .................................... ............ .06 .01 .07 .01
M magazines ....................................... .31 .30 .35 .36
Newspapers ...................................... .25 .29 .24 .26
It is not necessary to understand exactly the meaning
of the coefficients in order to compare them. They show
little change since 1952 for newspaper readers and a higher
correlation for magazine readers. But television has lost
more ground than has radio. There is actually a small in-
verse correlation between usage of TV and radio and educa-
tion in some years.
An extensive analysis of media use in presidential elec-
tion campaigns was reported in "News Research for Better
Newspapers," Vol. 3, p. 36.
(John P. Robinson, The Impact of Television on Mass Media
Usage: A Cross-National Comparison. Paper read at the
Sixth Congress of Sociology in Evian, France, 1966)


Parent-Child Relation Affects
Child's Media Use
McLeod, Chaffee and Wackman, in 1966, studied inter-
personal communication within the family in relation to
media use. The 234 respondents were ninth grade children
in Madison, Wisconsin and their parents. They found these
four family types:
Protective: The child is encouraged to get along with
others by steering clear of the controversial realm of ideas.
Not only is he prohibited from expressing dissent, but is
given little chance to encounter information on which to
base his own view.








Pluralistic: The child is encouraged to explore new ideas
and is often exposed to controversial material. Thus, he can
make up his own mind without fear that reaching a different
conclusion from his parents will endanger social relations in
the family.
Laissez-faire: Children are neither prohibited from
challenging parental views nor exposed to information rele-
vant to expressing independent ideas.
Consensual: While the child is exposed to controversy,
he is also constrained to learn his parents' ideas and to
adopt their values.
The figures in the table below are correlation coef-
ficients. One does not need to know precisely what they
mean in order to note the differences: The higher the coef-
ficient, the greater the correlation. Some of the coefficients
represent an inverse correlation.
Analysis showed that families of higher socio-economic
status are more likely than others to be of the "pluralistic"
type. Yet this was not a determining factor.
Children in "pluralistic" families were also more active
in student government, in speech and debate and on student
publications.
Laissez-
Protective faire Consensual Pluralistic
No. of newspapers read .................... -.10 -.28 .09 .31
Time spent with newspapers ........ -.08 -.26 .13 .23
Number of news magazines
read .................................................................... .2 1 .00 .02 .22
Time spent with television ............ .42 .01 -.24 -,26
Viewing entertainment TV ............ .09 -.10 .09 -.06
Viewing public affairs TV ................. -.05 -.17 -.08 .26
(J. M. McLeod, S. H. Chaffee and D. B. Wackman, Family
Communication: An Updated Report. Paper presented at an-
nual meeting of Assn. for Education in Journalism, 1967)








Chapter 5
READERSHIP

For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 36-47, Vol. 2, pp.
29-41, and Vol. 3, pp. 52-60.



Reader Interest in Local, Non-local
Public Affairs Stories Is About Equal
In a study of 1,250 adults in the Seattle area this year,
sponsored by the Seattle (Wash.) Times, Clarke and Ruggels
found that the geographical origin of a news story about
public affairs is not highly related to reader interest.
They defined public affairs stories as those "which deal
with the exercise of decision or power by a political insti-
tution."
Interest in 20 synopses of stories of different geograph-
ical origin were tested. Some examples:
International: (1) Nigeria puts pressure on dissident
Eastern zone; and (2) Heavy Viet Cong fire pounds allies.
National: The Supreme Court clamps down on redis-
tricting plans in three states.
State: State Tax Commission adopts new sales tax
rates.
County: King county commissioners approve park
lands.
City: Billboard interests urge Seattle Council to ease re-
strictions.
The correlation between interest in international stor-
ies and interest in Seattle City Hall stories was very high.
"The follower of courthouse developments tends to be the
same individual who seeks information about national and
international affairs."
The researchers suggest that the departmentalization
of news by geographical origin is not necessarily an audience
convenience-when the stories are about public affairs as
they define the term.
(Peter Clarke and Lee Ruggels, "Media Source Preferences
for News About Public Affairs." Unpublished MS., August,
1968.)

Dimensions of Interest In General News Stories
The straight news story has two or three elements of in-
terest-(1) personality, (2) reference group and (3) sub-
ject-matter-not just one element.
"Proximity" is a psychological-not a geographical-
dimension.








A request for data on the readership of foreign news
has suggested summarizing a scheme for classifying news
content on the basis of reader interest.
Although hundreds of readership studies have been
made, we still don't have enough scores for categories of
items to determine an adequate hierarchy of interest. As for
foreign news, we do have the scores for 40,158 items from
130 newspapers measured between 1939 and 1950. More than
one-half of those studies, however, were done between
1939 and 1945. Of all of the items published between 1939
and 1945, only 9.1% had a foreign dateline. The average
readership scores by geographical origin are shown in
Table 1.
TABLE 1.
AVERAGE READERSHIP SCORES FOR 40,158 ITEMS
BY GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN (1939-1950)
U .S ., lo cal .............................................. ....................................... 19.9 %
U .S ., d om estic .............................. .... ....................................... 19.6
U .S ., W ashington ............................................. ........................ 18.0
A frica .............. .. ... ......... ........ .............. .... 31.7
N orth A m erica ... ............................................ ....................... 27.5
A sia ..................................... ............................................................... 2 7 .3
W western E urope .......................... ............... ............................... 27.0
U .S.S.R ., satellites ... ...... .. ................... ..... 25.5
B ritish Isles ................................. ................................... 24.2
L atin A m erica ................................................................... . 18.8
M id d le E ast ..................... .............................................................. 18.7
A u stralia, N .Z .................. .......... ..................................... 16.8
A v erag e of all ................................................................................... 20.2
The table shows that, with one or two exceptions, scores
were higher for items of foreign origin than for items with
a dateline somewhere in the United States. But 4.6% of the
items were about the war, and account for 8% of the total
readership.
The most recent study (1967) shows that subject-
matter sometimes determines the amount of interest more
than does the dateline ("News Research for Better News-
papers," Vol. III, p. 20). Of the 20 items in that study with
the highest scores, eight related to the war in Vietnam and
one was about a foreign political personality. Nine of the
other 11 items (local or national) were about some threat in
the environment or about personal health.
The same study asked a national sample about pref-
erence for national-international and local news. The pref-
erence for local news was only slightly higher than for na-
tional-international news with women expressing somewhat
more interest in local news than did men.
Three Elements of Interest
The geographical origin of a news story is only one
element of interest. As a measure of interest, "proximity"








is a psychological dimension for some readers. For a New
Jersey mother whose son is a GI stationed in Okinawa news
of a destructive typhoon in Okinawa has more interest than
if the storm had been in Ohio. A resident of Seattle who
used to live in Cedar Rapids is probably interested in read-
ing about an event in Cedar Rapids.
Every news story has two or more elements of interest.
For example, in a content analysis of news, a story about
de Gaulle and his "force de frappe" would be classified, ac-
cording to the system which will be described below, as
"Person Well known/Defense."
The system of categories mentioned above was de-
veloped in 1952 for a study of foreign news in American
newspapers on behalf of the International Press Institute.
Three groups of categories were developed from the general
news stories in six newspapers published for two months of
the cold war period. These were (1) personality, (2) ref-
erence group and (3) subject-matter.
The personality dimensions, which are defined at the
end of this summary, are: People well known; People not
well known; People in groups; and "Hollywood" (personali-
ties).
The reference group dimensions were: Our community,
our region; our nation; our allies; our enemies; and other
nations.
A reference group is any group to which a person re-
lates his attitudes. Such a group may be formal (organized)
or merely a reference point for making evaluations of one's
self and of others. It may be a "we" aspect of ego involve-
ment; a reader, for example, may perceive in a certain news
story a threat to "our" national security, to "our" football
team's win record or to "our" community's welfare.
When the system was used in a content analysis, the
coder categorized each item by assigning two or more ele-
ments, one of which was subject-matter. Thus: "Our Com-
munity/Crime," "People not well-known/Natural death,"
"Our Nation/Communism in the U.S.," etc.
Not enough readership scores for every category are
available for the development of adequate guidelines for
selecting news stories on the basis of interest. The editor
must still make his own estimate. His judgment, however,
can be assisted if he relates each story to the two or three
kinds of categories mentioned above; that is, if he evaluates
a story by two or three dimensions rather than by only one.
Most editors probably do this, but some do not: the study
mentioned at the beginning of this summary found that, of
the 130 newspapers measured, the best read paper had 80%
of the items with scores higher than the average for all
papers (20%) and the least read paper had only 28%.
56








This method of evaluation is not concerned with the
importance of the story-only with the estimated interest
of readers.
Definitions of Categories
People well known: Persons presumed to be well known
to most readers of the particular newspaper because -of their
fame or notoriety or particular accomplishment.
People not well known: Persons in the news because of
their particular accomplishments or activities or position,
but not well known to the usual reader of the particular
newspaper.
People in groups: Persons in the news because they are
officers or committee members of clubs, lodges, societies,
fraternal organizations, Boy Scouts, and other nongovern-
mental groups; pall-bearers, etc.
Hollywood: Persons not otherwise well known who are
associated with the Hollywood entertainment industries.
Excluded: activities of those persons classified as "People
well known."
Our community, our region: An element with which all
members of the newspaper's community (or region) identify
because of the place of the community in the news item or
the effect this news may have on the community.
Our nation: An element with which almost all readers
of United States newspapers might identify as members of
this nation. This does not imply that all events happening
within the boundaries of the United States have this ele-
ment; nor does this element apply only to events taking
place within these boundaries.
Our allies: During a "cold war" period, some political
and economic events in a country formally or informally
allied to the United States have a peculiar meaning to an
American reader because they are or seem to be related to
the security or welfare of the United States. Excluded: news
in which American men or equipment are directly involved
or in which the United States' interest is directly stated
(see "Our nation").
Our enemies: Most political and economic events in the
Communist-controlled nations affect the American reader
in a different way than do events in other foreign countries.
Such events may be threatening or reassuring.
Other nations: (a) News about happenings in foreign
countries other than those mentioned above; (b) those hap-
penings in the countries included in "Our allies" and "Our
enemies" which do not directly or indirectly affect the wel-
fare of the United States.
Prices: News about the fluctuation of the prices of con-
sumer items or the controls of these prices; cost-of-living
index.
Labor-major: News chiefly concerned with the con-








flict element of organized labor in society; strikes, expected
strikes, plans of labor which could affect the welfare of the
community of the particular reader or the welfare of the
nation; when the dispute is either nationwide or directly af-
fects a large section of the public.
Labor-minor: News concerned with the day-to-day ac-
tivities of organized labor; elections, peaceful settlement of
contracts, grievances, etc. News which might be of interest
to the reader simply because it deals with "labor" rather
than the "power" of labor in curtailing production or af-
fecting the welfare of the nation.
Communism in the U.S.A.: News of the activities of
Communists in the U.S.A.-proven or suspected-political
activities, investigations, trials.
Accidents, disasters: News involving disasters of na-
ture (fires, floods), explosions, transportation, accidents and
accidents befalling individuals. There are three orders:
First order: News stories which involve a con-
siderable number of fatalities and/or a great
amount of property damage.
Second order: News stories which report one or
only a few fatalities.
Third order: News stories which report prop-
erty damage and/or injury short of death. In-
cluded are expected disaster, exposure to disaster,
missing persons.
Money: News in which the amount of money involved
is a separate element of interest to the usual reader. Ex-
cluded: prices of consumer items (see "Prices").
Health, personal: News of diseases, cures, epidemics
with which most readers will be able to identify. Excluded:
atomic medicine (see "Atomic bomb-Atomic energy").
Health, public: News of public health, the communal
or national welfare, health agencies.
Children, welfare of: News of the activities of the
younger set, the next generation; juvenile delinquency. Ex-
cluded: Education of the next generation (see "Educa-
tion"); the human interest antics of young children (see
"Children, cute").
Children, cute: News of the cute, unexpected antics of
children.
The remaining 28 categories are not defined because of
lack of space, but are listed below. Their definitions will be
supplied by ANPA on request.

Governmental acts Social and safety measures
Politics Alcohol
Rebellion Science and invention
War Religion
Defense Philanthropy
Atomic bomb-Atomic energy Weather
58








Diplomacy and foreign Natural deaths
relations Transportation
Economic activity Education
Taxes Animals
Agriculture Marriage and marital relations
Judicial proceedings: civil Amusements
Crime The arts, culture
Sex Human interest
Race relations
Obviously, any list of subject-matter categories has to
change from time to time to reflect the current news. Some
of the categories mentioned above would probably be drop-
ped and others would have to be developed.
(C.E. Swanson, "What They Read in 130 Daily News-
papers," Journalism Quarterly, 32:411-421, 1955; C. R.
Bush, "A System of Categories for General News Content,"
Journalism Quarterly, 37:206-210, 1960)


Readership of Radio, TV Logs Compared
In a study done last November in which 756 men and
women were personally interviewed, the South Bend (Ind.)
Tribune measured "yesterday's" readership of the radio
and TV logs in the first five days of the week. The results are
reported below together with the five-day averages for a
similar study done in 1966.
Radio TV
Men Women Men Women
Sunday ................................. 3.0% 8.0% 74.0% 56.0%
M onday .............................. 3.0 1.0 58.0 68.0
Tuesday .............................. 4.0 3.0 62.0 61.0
Wednesday ............... 3.0 5.0 53.0 65.0
Thursday ................... 2.0 0.0 64.0 67.0
Average, 1967 ........ 3.0 3.4 62.2 63.4
Average, 1966 ......... 7.2 8.0 66.0 68.0
The radio log in the Tribune, which reports both AM
and FM programs, occupies almost three-eighths of the
total space devoted to radio and TV logs.


Adult Readership of the High School Page
A Sunday readership study completed in December,
1967 by the South Bend (Ind.) Tribune measured adult
reading of the items on two facing high school pages en-
titled "The New Generation". Some of the results were as
follows:
Men Women
Lefthand page ...................................... ........ .. 24% 53%
Righthand page ...................... ....... ... 24 58
A rt ............................ ..... ......... ... ...... ........ .......... 18 48
Voice of Youth (letters) ........................ 7 21
59








The highest read story by men (7%) was top record-
ings. The highest read story by women (18%) was a story
about school rebels being judged by a youth court.


Readers' Interest in Legals
The Minnesota Newspaper Association procured from
Readex, Inc., of Mahtomedi, Minn., copies of 84 newspapers
in 20 states which Readex had surveyed recently, and
anlayzed the scores for legal and official advertisements.
About one-fourth of the newspapers were small dailies
and about three-fourths were weeklies.
Readex mails to subscribers shortly after publication of
an issue an identical copy and asks the subscribers to check
those items which they remembered having read "with in-
terest." Such scores approximate the actual reading be-
havior found by the personal interview method when small
size papers are measured.
The average interest scores for men and women were
as follows:
Men Women
Probate legals ................................... .............. ........ 21% 20%
Sum m ons ................................................................................. 30 29
School board proceedings ................................. 43 33
City, village council proceedings .................. 53 39
A ds for state bids ....................................................... 35 11
A ds for county bids ................................................... 28 19
A ds for city bids ........................................................ 23 15








Chapter 6
READERSHIP BY TEENAGERS

For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 48-58, Vol. 2, pp.
42-55, and Vol. 3, pp. 61-77.



The ANPA News Research Center commissioned
Dr. Peter Clarke, of the University of Washington, to
study the newspaper reading interests of teenagers for
the purpose of identifying the kinds of interesting
"marginal" content that correlates with interesting
"central" content.
On the basis of his findings, Dr. Clarke recom-
mends that the newspaper publish the following types
of content:
Science and technology (for both boys and
girls).
Teen advice (mainly for girls).
Fashion and grooming (girls only).
The following types of content offer less promise
of increasing the number of teenage newspaper users
or the intensity of their readership:
Teen entertainments, such as popular music.
Cars and hot-rodding (boys)


Toward Making Permanent Readers
Of Teenagers
Dr. Clarke defined "marginal" content as the kind of
editorial matter usually published in teen sections and pages
such as (1) popular music; (2) advice to teenagers; (3) teen
fashion and grooming; and (4) cars and hotrodding. He de-
fined "central" content as the kind of existing content that
is published for adults, such as (1) accidents and crimes;
(2) public affairs; (3) science and technology; (4) spectator
sports; and (5) homemaking.
The assumption is that the newspaper maximizes the
probability of teenagers becoming permanent readers when
it adds a kind of "marginal" content that shares interest
(for teenagers) with existing content; and that permanent
readers are not developed if the "marginal" content does
not share interest with existing content.
(Ed. Note: Publications of such "marginal" content,
however, has been justified by some newspapers even though









it does not develop permanent readers on the basis that
teenagers, while they are still teenagers, are entitled to
just as much attention as are investors, hobbyists, house-
wives and other audiences with a special interest).

The Sample and the Items
Respondents were 631 boys and girls in the ninth and
twelfth grades in five senior and nine junior high schools
in the Highline School District just south of Seattle, Wash.
The 68 items were brief synopses (mainly lead sen-
tences) considered to be representative of eight types of
content. The youngsters were asked to indicate on a "ther-
mometer" scale (ranging from 0 to 100) the likelihood that
they would read further in the (complete) item. Some of the
items were:
Public affairs: Richard Nixon's supporters are taking
steps to alter the candidate's image among some voters as a
Goldwater conservative.
Science, technology: New surgical methods allow doctors
to replace a larynx with a substitute voice box made from
the patient's own tissue.
Sports: Jim Bouton of the Yankees tells how it feels to
be a major league pitcher who returns to the minors to re-
gain his form and confidence.
Crime, accidents: Lynn Eugene Pless, 27, of Seattle, was
shown leniency yesterday on a death-driving charge.
Homemaking: Here are some dos and don't's about caring
for a sewing machine.
Fashion, grooming: Sunglass fashions feature wild shapes
and lenses with different tints-light blue and orange, for
instance.
Teen-popular music: This week's list of the top-forty
record hits in the pop parade.
Teen-advice and teen opinion: Surprisingly, dating
sometimes intensifies personality conflicts between teen-
agers. Here's some frank advice.
Cars, hot-rodding: Dodge's GTS 340 comes on as a big
surprise. Not only does it wail for a little car, but the big
guys better watch out for it too.
The teenagers' interest in the eight types of content is
shown in Table 1. Respondents were divided into four
classes: fans (a rating of 80 or higher) ; likely readers (61
to 80); possible readers (41 to 60); and nonreaderss" (40
or less). In the table, the percentages for fans and likely
readers have been combined.
TABLE 1
Interest in Type of Content: By Sex and Grade (Percentages of "Fans"
and "Likely Readers" have been combined)
Boys Girls
9th Grade 12th Grade 9th Grade 12th Grade
"Central" content:
Accidents, crimes .. 50% 45% 57% 49%









Boys Girls
9th Grade 12th Grade 9th Grade 12th Grade
Science, technology. 60 72 49 51
Public affairs 9 24 15 25
Sports .............. ........ .. 38 45 7 4
Homemaking ....... 2 0 28 27
"Marginal" content:
Cars, hot-rodding .. 61 65 20 17
Fashion, grooming . 2 2 67 54
"Teen" ............... ... .... 41 47 80 62

(Ed. Note: Girls' comparatively low interest in homemaking
content should be noted. Readership studies confirm this finding.
See "Few Girls Read in the Role of Housewife," News Research for
Better Newspapers, Vol. 3, p. 73.
(It is also possible that some artificiality in the sports items
resulted in lower interest scores than would be obtained from a
measurement of the reading of "yesterday's" newspaper, as, for
example, during a baseball pennant race).
It will be noted that girls' interest in teen matter de-
clines after the ninth grade. When the scores for this kind
of content were broken down into (a) popular music and
(b) advice and teen opinion, it was found that the decline
in interest (31%) is mainly with respect to popular music;
the decline in interest in advice is only 7 per cent.
Another finding: Girls' interest in teen matter is much
higher than boys'.
Shared Interest in Content: Boys
Tables 2 and 3 show the extent to which interest in
each kind of content is shared with interest in the other
kinds. These are correlation coefficients. One does not need
to know precisely what they mean; only to note the dif-
ferences. Correlations are not shown for some items be-
cause the coefficients were not statistically significant.
Table 2 shows for both ninth and twelfth grade boys
that public affairs news correlates highly with science and
technology news (44 and 45). For ninth grade boys, public
affairs news also correlated modestly with sports (18).

TABLE 2
Boys' Shared Interest in Eight Types of Content (Correlation coefficients*)
Accident, Hot- Home-
Science Sports Crime Rodding making Fashion Teen
NINTH GRADE
"Central" content:
Public affairs ................... 45 18 20
S science ......... ................ 17 16
Sports 38 23
Accident, crime ........24 21 20
Homemaking ......... 65 20
'Marginal" content:
H ot-rodding .................... 47
Teen fashion ............. 32









Accident, Hot- Home-
Science Sports Crime Rodding making Fashion Teen
TWELFTH GRADE
"Central" content:
Public affairs .............. 44 22 19
Scien ce ....................................... 21 20
S p orts ......................................... 38 23
Accident, crime ............... 24 21 20
Homemaking ..................... 20
"Marginal" content:
H ot-rodding ....................... 47
Teen fashion ....................... 32
*Decimals omitted
Science news for boys in both grades correlates mod-
estly with news about accidents and crimes.
When we look at teen content (last column in Table 2)
we note that it correlates to some degree with all but one
(science) of the other kinds of content for ninth grade boys
and with all but two kinds (science and public affairs) for
twelfth grade boys. It shares interest with hot-rodding more
than with any other kind of content-"central" or "mar-
ginal (47)."
This means that boys who are avid readers of teen con-
tent have only a moderate interest in existing content, which
is published mainly for adults. It means, further, that teen
content makes only a small contribution to the objective of
making permanent readers of boys.


TABLE 3
Girls' Shared Interest in Eight Types of Content (Correlation coefficients*)
Accident, Hot- Home-
Science Sports Crime rodding making Fashion Teen
NINTH GRADE
"Central" content:
Public affairs ..................... 53 31
Science ................................. 27 25
Sports ........................................ 51 26 23
Accident, crime ............. 17 17
Homemaking .................... 59 21
"Marginal" content:
Hot-rodding ........................ 28 34
Teen fashion ..................... 60
TWELFTH GRADE
"Central" content:
Public affairs ..................... 44 22 19
Science ................................... 21 20
S ports ........................................ 19 33 41
Accident crime ............... 32 23
Homemaking ............. 47 28
"Marginal" content:
Hot-rodding ........................ 17 24 44
Teen fashion ........................ 34
*Decimals omitted








Shared Interest in Content: Girls
Table 3 shows certain content relationships for girls.
We see again the high relationship between public affairs
and science news. Looking at teen content, we note that it
correlates modestly with accidents-crime news for both
grades. But most of the other correlations are between the
several kinds of "marginal" content rather than between
the kinds of "marginal" and "central" content.
When there is no correlation or a very low correlation
between "marginal" content and "central" content this in-
dicates that the teenager finds very little else of interest in
the paper. It means, further, that the publication of such
"marginal" content does little to develop an audience of
permanent readers.
Dr. Clarke's findings show that the highest correlation
between teen content and "central" content is with sports
for twelfth grade girls (there is no correlation for ninth
grade girls). It also shows only a moderate correlation with
homemaking content.
Interest and Newspaper Use
Dr. Clarke also asked how often and how recently the
teenagers read their newspaper and divided them into
heavy users and light users. Heavy users were those who
said they read the paper "almost every day" and had read it
either "yesterday" or "today." Light users were those who
reported less frequent or less recent reading.
He compared both kinds of users as to their interest in
science and technology and found (1) a tendency among
both boys and girls for science fans to make heavier use of
newspapers than the less avid readers of science, and (2)
that about 10% of the teenagers who had a high or fairly
high interest in science were light users of newspapers.
He also compared boys' interest in cars and hot-rodding
with their newspaper use. Those who were most interested
in this content were light users.
He also compared girls' interest in fashion and groom-
ing with their newspaper use and found no relationship.
Thirteen per cent of the girls who were highly interested
or fairly interested in fashion and grooming were light
users.
After separating "teen" content into (a) advice and
teenagers' opinions and (b) entertainers and popular music,
he compared interest in advice and teenagers' opinion con-
tent with use. He found no relationship for either boys or
girls.
As for "teen" content, it was shown in Table 1 that
boys' interest is much lower than girls' interest. He also
found a sharp decline in girls' interest in "teen" content be-









tween the ninth and twelfth grades, especially for "teen"
content about entertainers and popular music (not shown
in Table 1).
Newspaper as a Good Source
Dr. Clarke asked the youngsters to rank the media as to
whether they were a good source of information about seven
kinds of content. Table 4 shows the percentage who specified
the newspaper as a good source.
TABLE 4
Percentages Ranking Newspapers First or Second as Good Sources of
Information: By Sex and Grade
Boys Girls
9th Grade 12th Grade 9th Grade 12th Grade
Politics and government 68% 74% 80% 74%
Science ........................................... 47 47 58 61
Sports .......... .... .. ....... 66 57 41 55
Popular music ............ .. 7 8 7 8
Ideas about clothes 16 18 17 26
Cars and hot-rodding .. 13 11 13 16
He suggests that the low preference for newspapers as
a source of information about certain kinds of content (e.g.,
popular music, fashion and grooming and cars and hot-
rodding) is an argument for not including that content for
the purpose of developing permanent readers.
(Ed. Note: To date there is no research data which
show that the use of the newspaper by those interested in
certain content is supplementary to their use of competing
media or that the other media usurp the audience for such
content).
Teenagers' Magazine Reading
The youngsters were asked to write the titles of mag-
azines they read. These were coded into 13 categories. Read-
ership for eight of the categories is shown in Table 5. Three
of these (general interest, news and women's) may be
thought of as benchmarks for comparison with the mag-
azines of special interest.
TABLE 5
Magazine Readership: By Sex and Grade
Boys Girls
9th Grade 12th Grade 9th Grade 12th Grade
General interest (adult) 55% 67% 57% 76%
N ew s ........................................ ......... .. 23 49 15 35
W om en's ............................... 5 4 29 49
T een .................. ......... ......... ... 4 2 63 17
Fashion and grooming ...... 0 0 51 62
Cars and hot-rodding 30 28 3 1
Mechanical and
electronics ........... ................... 26 19 1 2
Sports* ... ...... ..... ....... 40 29 8 8
*Does not include "Sports Illustrated"








The so-called "teen" magazines are Eye, Coed, Sixteen,
Flip, Hit Parade, Hullabaloo, KJR Beat, Teen Screen, Teen-
Set, Tiger Beat and Downbeat. It will be noted that these
have almost no appeal for boys and that girls' interest in
them declines between the ninth and twelfth grades (from
63% to 17%).
In contrast, girls show a high and persistent interest
in fashion magazines (Cosmopolitan, Elle, Glamour, Harp-
er's Bazaar, Hairdo, Ingenue, Madamoiselle, Seventeen and
Vogue).
About three out of ten boys in both grades reported
reading magazines about cars and hot-rodding.
Liked Content
Dr. Clarke also asked the youngsters to list what they
liked and disliked about newspaper content. The major types
of liked content are reported in Table 6.

TABLE 6
Percentages Mentioning Each Type of Content Among Newspaper Reading Likes:
By Sex and Grade
Boys Girls
9th Grade 12th Grade 9th Grade 12th Grade
Comics .......... ..... ..... ............. 62% 50% 52% 45%
Sports ........................................ .... 45 47 12 7
A advertising ..................... ................. 25 30 10 21
Advice columns ............... 24 16 38 28
Other entertainment
m edia* ...... ................ 8 16 11 10
*Includes TV and radio logs, recording stars, movies, etc.

Dr. Clarke interprets these preferences as a measure
of saliency; that is, they were the first things that came
to the youngsters' minds. They measure what is salient as
well as what is enjoyable. For that reason, they cannot be
compared directly with the data for the eight kinds of items
in Table 1. He suspects that the boys' score for advertising
refers mainly to used car offerings in the classified section.
Dr. Clarke's recommendations listed at the beginning of
this summary are inferences derived from the several kinds
of measurements reported here. These are interest in con-
tent, correlation of interest between one kind of content and
another kind, the newspaper as a good source for certain
kinds of content, use of the newspaper and readership of
special interest magazines.

Adult-Teenage Readership Compared
The Richmond (Va.) Times-Dispatch and News Leader,
in the fall of 1967, distributed questionnaires to a stratified
sample of readers and received a total of 3,102 usable re-
67








turns, including 598 from teenagers (13 to 19 years)-an
86% completion rate.
Readers were asked to check those items which they
usually read.
For some kinds of items, scores obtained by this method
are considerably higher than those obtained by the conven-
tional personal interview survey which measures readership
of items read "yesterday." For example, the average score
of all such studies done by Carl Nelson Research, Inc. for
"any editorial reader" is men 40 and women 29, as compared
with the higher scores listed below.
For a good many other items, however, the scores are
not very different when obtained by either method. The
main value of the Richmond study is the comparison it pro-
vides between adults and teenagers. The scores in the ac-
companying table are for the Times-Dispatch (morning)
except when otherwise noted.
Male Female
Adult Teen Adult Teen
Sports:
Major league baseball ........................................ 76 72 19 21
Richmond Braves baseball ..................... 69 74 20 21
Results and standings ...................................... 70 72 16 27
High school roundup ...................................... 52 83 26 71
C college roundup ......................... ............................ 59 65 16 40
Motorsport Report ........................................ 40 55 6 9
Outdoors column ......................................... 52 40 10 9
Local sports column ............................ 60 55 9 12
A b ou t D ogs .................................................... ................ 28 23 20 16
Tide chart .............................. ... ................... 34 23 8 8
Amusements:
Radio, TV listings ..................................... 80 84 85 86
T V colum n ................................... ................ .... 31 30 45 36
Movie reviews ........ .......................... 44 66 62 77
Theater reviews ........................ ........ 37 49 58 60
Editorial page:
E ditorials ...... ......... .................. ... ....... 79 23 72 27
Editorial cartoon ............................... ....... 78 59 71 60
Letters to the editor .............. ........ ... 70 25 75 45
General:
Weather (top p. 1) ................ ........ ... 81 63 81 72
Weather map, other cities .................... 42 20 33 18
O bituaries ....................................................... 63 16 80 34
Dept. index, page 1 ....................................... 56 47 59 51
Local new s .............. ............. .......... .... 92 69 90 62
State new s .. ........ ....................... .... ................ 90 60 87 54
National, int'l news ........................... 87 57 80 57
C lassified ads ......................... ............. ................ 56 30 51 30
Regular features:
Crossw ord puzzle ................................................ 25 24 36 34
B ridge colum n .................................................... .. 13 8 22 6
A sk A n dy .... .................................................. ............. 38 54 45 62
Special pages and features:
Saturday "religion" page ................. ........ 28 7 50 23









Male Female
Adult Teen Adult Teen
R religious colum n ......................................................... 19 5 33 9
Youth page (weekly) ......... ................. 15 48 38 66
People Around Richmond ......................... 36 12 47 20
G allu p P oll .............. .......................................................... 43 16 27 16
Women's section:
C lu b n ew s .......................................... ...... .............. 7 5 49 27
Weddings, engagements ............................. 18 14 79 75
F o o d p ag es ........................................................................ 18 4 76 23
Consum er colum ns ........................ ................ 17 5 54 23
Stories, pictures on fashion ............................. 8 9 76 67
Feature articles on women's news ........... 5 6 73 39
Home furnishings stories ............................... 14 4 73 29
Business and finance:
N.Y. Stock Exchange ... ........ .................. 47 15 19 10
American Stock Exchange ........... ................. 32 12 11 4
Richmond Stock Market ............ .......... 37 8 11 5
Dow-Jones averages ...... ........................... 40 7 10 5
Standard & Poor 500 index ..... ..... 26 2 6 2
Market review story .............................. 33 5 10 3
Stocks in Spotlight 37 8 11 3
D ividen ds ..... ............................. .. ................. 33 8 10 3
Mutual fund assets ... ......... 28 5 7 1
Items in News-Leader:
Vital statistics ........... ... ..... 41 31 52 31
People and Places column 50 29 62 40
Foreign D ateline ................... ...... ........ ...... 53 29 39 27
Book page (Wednesday) ...... 28 17 31 10
Saturday news summary ............ 60 29 50 24
Household hints column ... .... 13 12 82 33
Baseball box scores .... ... .......... 75 70 14 21
Arnold Palmer golf column .............. 40 42 10 7
Real estate transfers ....... ................ 49 13 36 5
Personal finance column ..... ..... 39 10 19 4
News of the Military ..... 50 33 40 29
Produce market ............ 27 10 14 3
Junior Editors ................. ............. .............. 19 37 28 44
Pattern ...................... ......... .. 12 17 46 31
H health colum n ............ .. .............. 52 31 76 47
Sports, Comics, Front Page
Interest Teenagers Most
One of the 80 questions asked in the 1968 Capital Area
Youth Forum, sponsored by the Harrisburg (Pa.) Patriot
and News, was "What interests you most in newspapers?"
The results were as follows:
Sports ...................................... ... 26.9% School new s .............................. 4.7%
C om ics .... ............................ 19.7 A advertising ............................ 3.6
Front page ................................ 17.0 Editorial page ......................... 2.3
W om en's new s ..................... 10.0 O their ........................ ..... 3.8
Local news .............................. 5.4 Not answered .................... 6.1
A total of 17,817 students in 30 senior high schools
filled out the questionnaire. The Harrisburg papers have
sponsored the Youth Forum for eight years. Tabulation of
the answers required nine hours of computer time.
69








Chapter 7
EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION AND PERSONNEL

For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 110-121, Vol. 2, p.
111, and Vol. 3, pp. 78-84.


Accuracy in News Stories
The accuracy of a news story is related to the way in
which the facts were obtained.
More objective-type errors were in stories about un-
expected events than in stories about scheduled events.
But the opposite was found for subjective-type errors.
The persons mentioned in 270 local news stories from
three newspapers were asked, in 1966, by Fred Berry Jr.,
to evaluate the accuracy of the stories. The newspapers were
the San Francisco (Calif.) Examiner, the San Francisco
(Calif.) Chronicle and the Palo Alto (Calif.) Times.
Berry clipped the items and mailed them to the re-
spondents on the day of publication or the next day. He did
not clip sports, society, business or entertainment stories.
Only one person per story was queried.
The respondents reported that 46.3% of the stories
from the three papers were entirely accurate. Previous stud-
ies have shown that about one-half of the persons mentioned
in a news story specified some kind of inaccuracy.
The accuracy of stories about scheduled events was
48% and of stories about unexpected events was 44%. This
difference was not statistically significant for the three
papers combined, but it was for the Palo Alto (Calif.) Times
(scheduled events, 56%; unexpected events, 34%.)
The kinds of inaccuracy he found are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1
PERCENTAGE OF INACCURACIES: BY KIND OF INACCURACY
% With error
O m mission ............................................................. 24.4
M isquote ............................................................ 20.0
M isspelling, typo .................................. ........... 19.6
Inaccurate headline .............................. ...... 19.6
O verem phasis ..................................................... 15.6
U nderem phasis .................................. ................. 15.6
N am e w rong ............................. ............... 10.7
Figures w wrong .................................................. 8.5
T title w rong ........................................................... 4.8
A ge w rong ............................. ................ .......... 3.3
A address w wrong ............................................... 3.3
Location w rong ............................................... 3.3
Tim e w rong ........................................................ 2.6
D ate w ron g .......................................................... 1.1
70








It will be noted that about one-fourth of the errors
specified were of the "objective" kind (name wrong, address
wrong, etc.). Most of the inaccuracies relate to something
about which the subject of a news story and the newsmen
disagree to some extent-emphasis, omission and headline
accuracy.

The inaccuracies listed in Table 1 were categorized as
"objective" and "subjective." Objective errors referred to
name, title, address, misquotation, figures, time of event,
location, date, misspelling and typo. Subjective errors were
inaccurate headline, overemphasis, underemphasis and omis-
sions. The average error per story for each of these kinds of
error are shown in Table 2. (Omitted from the table are
those kinds of error for which the difference was not statis-
tically significant.)


TABLE 2
AVERAGE ERRORS PER STORY: BY KIND OF INACCURACY
Average Errors Per Story
Unexpected Scheduled
Event Event
All objective errors: *
Including typos .......................................... 1.082 .765
Typos excluded ........................................ .719 .463
N am e w rong ........................................ .157 .067
Age w rong ................................................ .057 .013
A address w rong ........................................ .074 .000
All subjective errors: .............................. .545 .919
Inaccurate headlines** ..................... .165 .221
Overem phasis ................................................ .083 .215
Underem phasis ....................................... .099 .201
O m missions ................................................... 1.553 1.536
*Differences not statistically different for title, misquote, figures, time,
location, date, misspelling, typos.
**Difference not statistically significant.

On the theory that more time is available for preparing
a news story about a scheduled event, Berry hypothesized
there would be more inaccuracies in stories about unexpected
events. As Table 2 shows, this holds true only for the objec-
tive kind of inaccuracy. The opposite is true for the subjec-
tive kind of error. He did not explain the difference in error
contributed by typos.
Respondents were asked to state the way in which the
news was obtained; Berry calls this the "source" of the
story. Table 3 shows that stories obtained by telephone are
the least accurate and that stories written from press re-
leases were the most accurate.








TABLE 3
PERCENTAGE OF INACCURACY BY "SOURCE" OF STORY


P ress release ................................. ..............
Personal interview .......................................
Reporter at event ..........................................
P hone interview .............................................
Someone respondent knows ...............
O th er ................................................... ..................
Don't know source .................. ................


% No. of Stories
Accurate Using the Source
62% 50
55 58
45 95
36 56
53 19
45 33
39 38


The category designated in Table 3 as "other" is police,
letters and other writings, court records, and magazines and
other newspapers. More than one-half of these stories were
obtained from policemen and other law enforcement officers;
only 18% of these were free from inaccuracy, whereas court
records were 82% accurate.
(Fred C. Berry Jr., "A Study of Accuracy in Local News
Stories of Three Dailies," Journalism Quarterly, 44: 482-
490, 1967.)



Main Causes of "Subjective" Errors
In News Stories

The ANPA News Research Center commissioned
Dr. David L. Grey, of Stanford University, to make an
exploratory study of the causes of subjective inaccura-
cies in news stories by interviewing both the sources
of the stories and the reporters who wrote them.
Both news sources and reporters agreed that insuffi-
cient background knowledge was the main reason for
the problem. In several instances, reporters acknowl-
edged this and attributed it to insufficient time avail-
able for gathering the information and writing the
story.
Dr. Grey has been a reporter for the Wall Street
Journal, the Toledo (Ohio) Blade and the Ann Arbor
(Mich.) News. He is the author of "The Supreme Court
and the News Media" (1968).


By David L. Grey and Gary C. Lawrence
The study emphasized subjective types of inaccuracies,
such as overemphasis and underemphasis, distortions in
meaning and omissions. Excluded were the more mechani-
72








cal (objective) types of inaccuracies, such as misspelled
names, incorrect titles and typographical errors.
Nineteen of 21 news sources mentioned in local stories in
a newspaper published on the San Francisco peninsula were
interviewed about the "subjective" errors they had previ-
ously reported (via mailed questionnaires) as appearing in
the news stories. Nine of the 12 reporters involved were
then interviewed to get their reactions to the same news
stories.
As expected, there were some disagreements over whether
"errors" had actually occurred; but the purpose of this study
was not to judge rightness or wrongness but, instead, to try
to get at the reasons for any real or imagined inaccuracies.
Responses showed the following reasons-ranked roughly
by frequency of mention:
Causes Cited by News Sources
1. Reporter's insufficient background information.
2. Sensationalism, overdramatization and overemphasis
in phrasing.
3. Lack of personal contact between source and reporter.
4. News desk and editing practices, policies.

Causes Cited by Reporters
1. Reporter's insufficient background information.
2. Reporter's insufficient time for gathering information
and writing the story.
3. News desk and editing practices and policies.
4. Incompetence and laziness admitted by some of the
reporters themselves.
Most significant in agreement is that insufficient back-
ground information seems to be the primary cause of such
inaccuracies. Also interesting is that both the source
and the reporter cited news desk and other editing person-
nel as sometimes to blame. But the patterns of divergence
are perhaps even more significant-with the news source
stressing "sensationalism" and lack of personal contact
and the news reporters emphasizing the problem of too
little time. (It is also intriguing that reporters acknowl-
edged the problem of laziness and incompetence-though,
as expected, they tended to stress these as problems for re-
porter colleagues rather than for themselves).
Lack of Personal Contact
The problem of personal contact (either by phone or
in-person) turns up especially interesting patterns when
compared against "seriousness of error" (based on an in-
dex of the news source's view of the seriousness and on a








rating of the story's general importance in the community),
as shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1
Number of Contacts by Reporter With News Source
2 or more One No
times time contact
Type of error:
"Most serious" 0 0 8
All other 2 6 2
Although it cannot be said that lack of personal con-
tact "causes" more serious inaccuracies, it can be said that
--even with such a small sample-the two factors seem
clearly to go together. Or phrased another way: no con-
tact between a newsman and a news source increases the
likelihood of "serious" subjective errors being perceived as
occurring or actually occurring. This point may be especially
revealing when it is noted that news sources tend to stress
lack of contact as a reason for inaccuracy while newsmer
hardly mention it.
The obvious implication is that newsmen should re-
assess carefully their practices or personal interaction with
news sources-if for no other reason than the fact that
news sources see lack of contact as frequently a cause of
inaccuracy.
Recommended Safeguards vs. Inaccuracy
The findings, while far from definitive, also suggest
other specific practices that newsman might consider for
reducing the number and the possible seriousness of both
real and alleged subjective types of errors:
1. Whenever possible, reporters should routinely ask news
sources such questions as "What is the significance of this
event ?" or "What should the public know about this event ?"
And near the end of each interview should come the double-
check: "Is there anything that we have not covered or
that we should go back over?" Such efforts to get a news
source's view of the "news" would not seem to be comprom-
ising a reporter's independence-if such comments and opin-
ions are weighed as coming only from one involved par-
ticipant.
2. Whenever possible, a reporter assigned a kind of
story he has never reported before should be given extra
time to gather background information and to write the
story. Among the obvious devices here might be extra free-
dom to examine thoroughly the morgue and clipping files and
to talk with experts and fellow knowledgeable newsmen.
Such an approach suggests going even to the point of pre-
paring packets of clippings and reference materials which
could be taken along on assignments. In sum: first-time








assignments should perhaps "automatically" be given ex-
tended deadlines-extra time for preparing and assembling
the final news product.
3. Whenever possible, reporters and editors should
work even more closely together to avoid errors in copy
editing and revision (including, especially, headlines-an
apparently frequent source of both "objective" and "sub-
jective" inaccuracies).
In addition, it is especially significant that three news
sources said they felt some responsibility for helping the
reporter get the news story "complete" and "straight" so
as to avoid some unintentional omission of an important
fact or point of perspective. Newsmen should take ad-
vantage of this empathy. In particular, the reporter should
try to cultivate in his news sources an understanding of
the partial responsibility of the source in determining the
accuracy of the final news product.



Some Facts About "Action Line" Columns
The APME Content Committee last spring queried 65
editors of newspapers which run an "Action Line" type of
column. Fifty-six answered the questionnaire. Thirty-one
of their newspapers had circulations in excess of 50,000
and 25 had less than 50,000.
Called by various names since it was originated in
1961 as WATCHEM by William P. Steven, then of the
Houston Chronicle, (Trouble Shooter, Help, Zip Line, Quick
Line, Hot Line, Live Wire, Readers' Exchange, Do-It Man,
Gotta Gripe, Call Quest, etc.), the column is handled dif-
ferently by the responding editors. Most papers solicit com-
plaints from readers and obtain redress, reporting some of
the cases in the column. Some papers, however, also answer
questions about sports, entertainment and/or women's in-
terests.
Table 1 reports editors' estimates as to whether or not
the feature has increased circulation. Almost one-half
(46.4%) think the feature has definitely increased circula-
tion and another 18% say circulation increased slightly.
Table 1. Estimated circulation gain: Number of papers
Has
Has Increased Has Not Not
Circulation Increased Slightly* Increased Certain
O ver 50,000 .................................... 15 5 1 10
U nder 50,000 .................................... 11 5 6 3
T otal ................................................... 26 10 7 13
*Includes such responses as "a little," "probably," "some," and "marginal"









Table 2 shows the average cost of conducting the col-
umn broken down by circulation size. The range of cost esti-
mates is very large for both sizes of papers.
For papers with larger circulations, the average (medi-
an) number of editorial employees assigned to handle the
column was 2.3 and the average number of clerical em-
ployees was 1.7. These are in addition to the papers which
use the whole staff on a part-time basis with or without
clerical assistance. One paper uses six full-time editorial
employees and another, which uses three full-time editorial
employees, also uses eight full-time clerical employees.

Table 2. Average (median) Weekly cost ($)
Average Range
Over 50,000 .................................... $381 $0-$1,600
U nder 50,000 .............................. 96 5-250
The papers with smaller circulations use fewer editorial
and clerical staff members, the highest being two editorial
employees for two papers and three clerical employees for
one paper.
Table 3 shows the average (median) number of ques-
tions received per week. For the papers with the larger cir-
culations, the data are shown separately by the length of
time the column has been running. The numbers in paren-
theses are the number of papers in each length-of-time
category.
Table 3. Average (median) number of questions received per week
Ave. Ave.
Circl. Number
Number months running: (000) Received
Over 50,000:
50 months or
longer (3) .................................... 270 195
21-29 m months (8) ........................ 250 1375*
Less than 21 months (20) ... 180 455
Under 50,000 (25) ........................... 23 114
*After excluding one paper which reported receiving 8,750 questions per week
No inferences can be made as to whether the number
of questions decreases or increases over time. This is be-
cause some of the papers supply answers to questions in
addition to handling ombudsman-type complaints. The sur-
vey report did not specify the individual papers which op-
erated a Q and A service. However, the data for one paper
were eliminated from the table because it reported receiv-
ing 8,750 questions per week.
Of the 56 papers, 21 run the column on Page 1 and 35
run it inside. Five of the papers, however, introduced the
column on Page 1 and later shifted it to an inside page. Few
of the larger papers run the column on Page 1, but 56% of
the smaller papers run it on Page 1.









The survey asked editors whether or not they expected
the column to be running in 1970 and in 1975. Table 4 pre-
sents their answers. If the "yes" responses for 1975 are
interpreted as a measure of intense satisfaction with the
column, it would seem that at least 35% of the editors are
enthusiastic.
Table 4. Number of editors who expect the column will be running in
1970 and 1975
1970 1975
Y es ............................................ 50 2 0
Probably ............................. 4 4
No or doubtful ............ 1 3
Not certain .................. 1 29
56 56
The available readership scores for the ombudsman-
type column are in the 70s for both men and women when
the column is on Page 1. A good many teenagers also read it.



Daily Newsroom Is Getting Larger Share
Of Journalism Graduates
A survey by The Newspaper Fund found that the num-
ber of degrees granted by schools of journalism increased
28.7% in 1967 over 1965, although the percentage of gradu-
ates who went into some form of journalistic work was only
44% as compared with 50% in 1965.
However, a larger percentage have been going into the
daily newsroom and into the wire services. For eight se-
lected kinds of journalistic work, the table below shows the
increase or decrease between 1965 and 1967; decreases are
in parentheses.
% Increase/
Number Decrease
in 1967 1965-1967
Daily newspapers* 717 56.2
Wire services 64 106.4
TV news 75 (11.7)
Radio 88 19.0
Advertising (nonnewspaper) 340 50.0
Public relations 345 50.6
Magazines 101 (22.3)
Weekly newspapers 75 (21.9)
Total 1805 36.3
*Newsroom is 88.1% of total for daily newspapers
Of those who received the B.A. or M.A. degree and did
not go into some form of journalistic work, 532 (12.8%)
did graduate study and 474 (11.6%) went into military ser-
vice. An unknown percentage of both of these categories
are expected to enter journalism at a later time.









Chapter 8
WHAT THE PUBLIC THINKS OF ITS NEWSPAPERS

For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 122-129, and Vol. 2,
pp. 106-107.



Racial Fairness in the Newspaper
One study shows that most whites and Negroes think the
newspaper is fair in its treatment of different races.
But more Negroes than whites make an unfavorable evalu-
ation of the newspaper in this dimension.
A second study suggests an explanation.
The Indianapolis (Ind.) News last October administered
to a probability sample of 500 readers a test to measure the
public's attitude toward its newspaper in 12 attitudinal
areas. The test was developed several years ago at Stanford
University.
One area was racial fairness, which-with religious
fairness-has ranked as the most favorable area in all of the
many instances in which the test has been used.
The newspaper's sample was large enough to permit
valid inferences to be made as to the differences between
whites and Negroes. Although we cannot say that the
Negro responses are representative of all Negro readers of
the News, the differences between the white and Negro re-
sponses are large enough to be significant at a high level of
statistical confidence. Negroes were 12%o of the sample of
readers. Nonreaders were not interviewed.
One of the questions was: "Does the News print both
sides of issues that involve different races?" The responses
were:
Negro White All
Yes, always ........... .... .. ........... .... 17% 23% 22%
Y es, usually .................................... .... 48 61 60
N o, not very often ..... .................................. ... 27 10 12
No, alm ost never .. ........ ...... ......... 3 3 3
D on 't k n ow ........................................................... .. ....... 5 3 3
100 100 100
We can look at this data in two ways. One way is to
compare the responses of whites and Negroes. A second way
is to observe the proportion of each race which is favorable
or unfavorable to the newspaper: whereas the ratio of un-
favorable white readers is 1 in 6.6 the ratio of unfavorable
Negro readers is almost 1 in 3. Nevertheless, two out of
three Negroes had a favorable attitude.









Another question was in the area of "representative-
ness"; that is, the partial or impartial treatment in the
newspaper of citizens and segments of society, including
those of low social status. The question was: "Do you think
the News really cares about the poor people in this town ?"
The responses were as follows:

Negro White All
Y es, very m uch ............................................................. 27% 45% 43%
Y e s, so m e ................................................................................. 4 1 4 1 4 1
No, not very much ................................. 27 8 11
N o, n ot at all ........................................ ................... 5 3 3
D on't know ...................................................................... 3 2
100 100 100
As the table shows, the responses were about the same
as for the race question.
Some of the Negroes' responses probably reflect a
generalized attitude; that is, they tended to answer all or
nearly all attitudinal questions in a favorable or unfavorable
frame of reference. This is indicated for Negroes to some
extent by their answers to the question, "Does the News
seem fair to all religious groups ?" The responses, which com-
pare the attitudes of whites and Negroes, were as follows:

White Negro All
Yes, very fair ........................................ 42% 58% 56%
Y es, pretty fair ............................................................. 47 38 39
N o, not very fair ............................................................... 8 2 3
N o, not at all fair ............................................................ 3 1
D on 't kn ow ........................................................................... 2 2
100 100 100


A Possible Explanation
There is some indication that, regardless of the fairness
and impartiality of the newspaper, some hostility may be
projected onto the paper, perceived as an Establishment
institution, by those Negroes who are embittered and frus-
trated.
The Lemberg Center for the Study of Violence at
Brandeis University, on a Ford Foundation grant, com-
missoned Roper Research Associates to interview 500 Neg-
roes and an equal number of white persons in each of six
cities between September, 1966 and April, 1967. Three of the
cities had riots in 1966 and the others had not. The cities
were Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Dayton, Akron, San Francisco
and Boston.
Responses to three of the questions in the six cities
combined show a great amount of dissatisfaction by Negroes.
The answers are in Table 1.









TABLE 1.
NEGROES' AND WHITES' SATISFACTION OR DISSATISFACTION IN THE
AREAS OF JOB OPPORTUNITY, RACIAL INTEGRATION IN SCHOOLS,
AND HOUSING
Do you feel the growth of job
opportunities in (name of city)
is going too fast, too slowly, or
about right?
Negroes Whites
T oo fast .............................................................................. 1% 14%
T oo slow ly ............................................................... .... 60 14
A b ou t right t .. ..................................................... ........ .. 32 53
D ep en d s ........... . ..... ......... ........................................ ............ 2 3
N o op in ion ........................................................ .................. 5 16
100 100
Do you feel that racial integration
in the (name of city) schools is
going too fast, too slowly, or about
right?
Negroes Whites
T o o fast ....................................... ......... 2............. ......... 2 % 19 %
T oo slow ly ............................................... ............. 48 7
A bout right ................. ......... ......................... .... 37 46
D ep en d s ....................................................................... .......... 2 5
N o op in ion ....................................... .......... ............... 11 23
100 100
In another area-that of housing.
Do you think efforts to provide op-
portunities for Negroes to live
where they want to live in (name
of city) are going too fast, too slow-
ly, or about right?
Negroes Whites
T oo fast .... .... .... ... .........................................1....... 1% 25%
T o o slo w ly ........................................................................... 76 16
A b ou t right t ................................................. .............. 19 4 1
N o opinion ........... ....... ............. ........... ........... ... 4 18
Total ....... 100 100


A fourth question in the study was "Who do you think
is more likely to start the racial violence, whites or Neg-
roes ?" The responses were as follows:
Negroes Whites
W whites ........................................................................... ... 48 % 15%
N egroes ........................................ ......... .... ........9. 9 44
B oth ... . ..... .............................................................. 32 33
N o op in ion .................................. .......... ............. 11 9
100 100


(Roper Research Associates, "What to Do About Riots,"
The Public Pulse, Oct., 1967)









How Readers Perceive "Unfairness"
Dr. Walter Wilcox, of the University of California at
Los Angeles, last year studied the extent to which news-
paper readers react to unfair and inaccurate statements as
compared with their evaluation of the persons or objects to
which the statements refer.
He calls the statement a "situation" and the person,
institution or other object an "attitudinal object." For ex-
ample, when a newspaper says in an editorial that members
of a labor union should not be granted a wage increase be-
cause it would cause inflation, do readers react more to the
situation or to their evaluation of labor unions?
A sample of 240 adults in the West Los Angeles area
(who are fairly typical Californians) were asked about 10
situations and 10 objects. To measure reaction to the situa-
tions, the respondents checked a six-interval scale of re-
sponses ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly dis-
agree." For their evaluations of the objects, respondents
checked a scale ranging from "highly positive" to "strongly
negative."
The situations-some of which are actual and some
hypothetical-were as follows:

A newspaper accuses a mayor of a city of poor judg-
ment in granting a garbage removal franchise. The mayor
should have the legal right to reply to the attack.
A newspaper columnist reports a rumor that a movie
starlet plans to elope to Mexico. She should have the legal
right of reply to correct the rumor.
A socially prominent woman entertains a number of
couples at dinner and the theater. The newspaper report
on the society page lists half the guests but not the other
half. She should have the legal right to correct the omis-
sion.
A sports columnist writes that the coach of the high
school football team should be fired because his plays are
old fashioned and his training methods are slipshod. The
coach should have the legal right of reply to defend his
methods.
The president of a local college is accused in the news-
paper of being incompetent because of student demonstra-
tions. He should have the legal right to state his position in
a reply.
A teenaged youth is formally charged by the police
with possessing marijuana. The newspaper gets the report
from the police and prints it. Later, it turns out that a
mistake has been made. The youngster, or his parents,
should have the legal right to demand a correction.
A newspaper makes a mistake in the rank of an army
officer, designating him a non-commissioned officer (ser-
geant) instead of commissioned officer (captain). The
officer should have the legal right to demand a correction.








In an editorial, a newspaper says a labor union should
not be granted a pay increase because it would cause in-
flation. The union should have a legal right to give its posi-
tion on the matter.
A newspaper prints a letter from a former patient in a
hospital who says that the hospital is filthy, that the food
is bad and that the attendants are inattentive. The hospital
should have the legal right to give its side of the matter.
A newspaper carried a story to the effect that the city-
owned bus line is failing to meet schedules, has abandoned
routes without notice, and is generally run in an incom-
petent way. The city disagrees. A spokesman for the city
should have the legal right to present the city's side of the
question.
The accompanying table shows that the average re-
action to the 10 situations is 79% in favor of right of re-
ply, although the overall evaluation of the attitudinal
objects was only 48% positive. Dr. Wilcox's interpretation
is that readers tend to react more to the situation than to
the object.
One way to analyze the table is to observe the dif-
ferences between the situation and the object percentages.
For example, the respondents made a relatively low evalua-
tion of the city-owned bus lines but 90% thought the city
should have a legal right of reply.
The study, Dr. Wilcox said, "is inherently 'loaded'
against the newspaper inasmuch as it is cast in terms of the
rights of the individual rather than the rights of the press..
If the questions were framed in another way, the results
might have been somewhat different. For instance, the
questions might be framed: 'Do you think the press should
be compelled by law to print . .?' This might have
elicited a quite different pattern of response."
He also asked for agreement/disagreement on two gen-
eral statements. (1) "Newspapers usually correct errors if
the involved person requests a correction" (Agree 60%,
not sure 19%, disagree 21%) and (2) "Newspapers usually
give both points of view on controversial issues" (Agree
30%, not sure 9%, disagree 61%).
Some continental European countries have a right of
reply law. Nevada for many years has had such a law but
the question of its constitutionality has never reached the
courts and few Nevada editors, when queried last year,
knew there was such a statute.
A law professor recently argued that, since the First
Amendment is for the benefit of the public rather than for
the press, a right of reply in a newspaper would be on the
same constitutional grounds as the "equal time" statute that
affects the broadcasting industry (Sec. 315, Federal Com-
munications Act of 1934): "it is open to the courts to fash-
ion a remedy for the right of access, at least in the most
arbitrary cases, independently of legislation." (J. B. Barren,









"Access to the Press-A New First Amendment Right,"
Harvard Law Review, 80:1641, June, 1967).
Per Cent of Positive, Neutral and Negative Responses
for the Situation and the Object.


Teenager:
Situation .......... .........................
O bject .............. ...........................
College President:
S itu ation .............................................
O b ject .............. ...........................
Mayor:
Situation ......... ..........................
O bject .............. ...........................
Bus Line:
Situation ......... ..........................
O b ject .............. ...........................
Hospital:
Situ ation ......... ..........................
O bject .............. ...........................
Football Coach:
S itu ation .............................................
O b je c t ...................................................
Labor union:
Situation ......... ..........................
O b ject .............. ...........................
Army Officer:
S itu ation .......................................
O bject .............. ...........................
Movie Starlet
Situation ......... ..........................
O bject .......................................
Society Matron:
S itu ation .............................................
O b ject .............. ...........................
Mean%:
S itu ation .............................................
O b je c t ...................................................
(Walter Wilcox, "Right of
Gazette, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1958)


Pct.
Positive
95


48
Reply in


Pct.
Neutral
1


Pct.
Negative
4


32 20
the United States,"


Accuracy and Ethics (British)
More than one-half of the complaints addressed to the
British Press Council are rejected.
The leading complainants are local governments, readers
and social organizations and movements.
The periodicals most complained of are suburban and
provincial newspapers and the popular national dailies.
An important function of the Council is to protect the
press against secrecy and censorship.








Several studies have been made of inaccuracies in in-
dividual American newspapers, but none has explored in
depth the subjective kind of error. This is often a situation
in which the reporter or editor and the subject of the news
story have a different view of the circumstances.
We now have, however, a report on more than 400 cases
in which a complaint has been considered formally by the
British Press Council whose membership is comprised of
20 newspaper representatives (publishers, editors and news-
men), five lay members chosen by the newspaper repre-
sentatives and the lay chairman (currently Lord Devlin).
H. Phillip Levy, a barrister who heads the legal de-
partment of the London Daily Mirror, has just published a
history of the Council in which he describes all of the cases
for the first thirteen and one-half years of the Council's
existence. Because of the similarities of the two cultures,
the report should be of interest to American newspapermen.
The Council was established in 1953 and was recon-
stituted in 1963. It probably would not have come into ex-
istence had not the alternative been the establishment of a
somewhat similar body by Parliamentary legislation on
which there could have been a different representation of
the press and one which could have imposed sanctions in-
consistent with freedom of the press.
The Council's constitution does not provide for sanc-
tions. Its adjudications are published in annual reports
which may be purchased by members of the public. When a
periodical is reprimanded it is morally bound to publish a
statement; in only two cases has this not been done since
1961.
Adjudicating complaints is only one of the Council's
functions. It also intervenes to prevent secrecy in govern-
ment and censorship in much the same way that the Free-
dom of Information Committees of American newspaper
societies operate. It considers itself a guardian of the press
as well as a court of honor.
How Many Complaints Are Justified?
Table 1 shows the proportion of complaints that have
been upheld and rejected and the kind of complaint. The
table includes complaints that relate to the ethics of the
press as well as the alleged inaccuracies.
As the table indicates, there has been an average of
about 30 complaints a year. Any person or organization may
complain whether or not they have a direct interest. No com-
plaint is accepted until after the complainant has asked the
newspaper for redress and has not been satisfied. A special
committee of the Council screens out the most frivolous
complaints.




w


TABLE 1.
PERCENTAGE OF COMPLAINTS UPHELD AND REJECTED
No. of
Kind of complaint: Cases Upheld Rejected
Confidential occasions ......................................... 4 0.0% 100.0%
Confidential documents .................................... 12 17.7 83.3
Eavesdropping ................................... ....... ... 3 100.0 0.0
E m bargoes* ................................................................... 5 60.0 40.0
Fair com m ent ....................... ................................. 26 19.0 73.0
Misreporting, misrepresenting ............... 94 39.3 50.0
Sensationalism, distorton ............................ 11 63.6 36.3
Letters to the editor** .......................... 49 34.7 61.2
Corrections, apologies ......................................... 33 54.5 36.4
Taste .. ................. ............ .......... 26 34.6 61.5
Intrusion, privacy ..................................................... 35 40.0 57.1
Reporting court proceedings ........................ 12 83.3 8.3
Persons who should not be
nam ed*** ..................................... 21 61.9 33.3
Conduct of the journalist .............................. 12 41.7 50.0
R reporting crim e ...................................................... 3 33.3 33.3
Treatm ent of sex ................ ....... ................ 4 25.0 75.0
Reporting the schools ......................................... 10 80.0 20.0
H hospitals, doctors ...................................... ........ 14 50.0 28.5
Politics, political parties .................................. 11 36.3 63.6
Advertisers, advertisements ........................... 24 45.9 50.0
T o ta l ................................................. ............... .... 409 42 .8 50 .6
*Complaints by other newspapers
**Refusal to publish and treatment of
***Both juveniles and adults
NOTE-When the percentages in the rows do not total 100% it is
because some of the decisions (6.6% of the total) were non-
committal; meaning that the decision did not equate with
either censure or rejection.
The table shows that more complaints were rejected
than were upheld. Some decisions (6.6%) could be consid-
ered as noncommittal.
There appear to be about five situations in which the
Council has tended to uphold a complaint. One is "sensa-
tionalism and distortion," a fault that has virtually dis-
appeared from the American press. The others relate to the
identification of persons and to the reporting of schools,
courts, and hospitals and doctors. With reference to the
latter, the Council in 1956 negotiated an agreement between
the press, on the one hand, and the medical profession and
hospital administrators, on the other hand, which resembles
the agreements made in several communities and states in
this country. The Council has devoted a considerable effort
on behalf of the press in instances in which doctors and
hospitals have failed to comply with the agreement.

Who Should Be Named?
Of the 21 cases in which complaint was made about the
identification of persons, one-third were rejected (a few
decisions were noncommittal in that the Council held that









the decision should be a matter for editorial judgment).
Here are some of the situations which the Council rejected:
Identification of a member of Parliament as a relative of a man
accused at a court-martial. The defending officer had publicly re-
ferred to the accused's background.
Identification of the wife of a man accused of shooting at a
bank official after the wife had testified in open court.
In connection with a trial in Germany, names and addresses
were published of two Englishmen who had answered "lonely
hearts" ads.
Identification of the purchaser at an auction of a house in con-
nection with which the purchaser wanted anonymity.
Publication of a photograph of the father of a Briton charged
with spying for a foreign power. Justification: enormity of the
charge.
In the following instances, the Council upheld the com-
plaint:
Publishing a photograph of a reformed criminal.
Disclosure of the place of employment of an accused man
given a probationary sentence after a former employer had offered
to re-employ him.
Identification of a young woman who had befriended a crim-
inal after the judge had refrained from identification.
Identification of a female victim of an indecent assault.
Identification of a female victim of rape.
A mother of six children who had an affair with a young man
who committed suicide was interviewed after both she and the
coroner had requested that her name not be used.
Identification by name and address of the parents and sister
(who had two school-age children) of a man convicted of murder.
Identification of a female relative of a man charged with in-
decency.
Identification of a convicted murderer's wife who had adopted
another name and had moved to a different community.
Reproduction of a marriage certificate of a man sentenced as
a spy which identified by name and address his wife and her father.
Publication of a picture of the daughter of the man who had
shot at the South African prime minister and who had committed
suicide, and disclosure of her coming marriage and the name of the
future bridegroom.

Who Were the Complainants?
Table 2 classifies the complainants. Identification of the
complainant was not made in about one-fifth of the cases.
As the table shows, more than one out of eight com-
plaints were from an officer or board member of a local
government-town, borough, county or urban district auth-
ority.
TABLE 2.
WHO WERE THE COMPLAINANTS?
Number
L ocal gov 'ts, officers ........................................................................... 56
A r e a d e r .............................. .................. .......... .. .................. ...... .. 4 4
Social organizations, movements .................................. 26
Political parties, candidates ................................... ...... 19
Relatives of persons in the news ..................................... 19
P aren ts ............................................................ ... ...... 12
O their relatives ..................... ..... ........... 7
86









Number
Trade assns., chambers of commerce ........................... 18
Individual com plainants ............. ................................ .......... 18
Business firms, business men ......................................... 16
T h e cle r g y ..................................... ......... .................. ....................... 1 4
University dons, students ......... ................................. 14
School administrators, boards ........................................... 13
Solicitors on behalf of clients ..................................... 12
L ab or u n ion s ........... ................... ........................... ............................ 10
D doctors, dentists ........................ ... ............... ................ ........ 9
S p o r ts a ssn s ... ........................................ .. ...... ....... ......... 9
N ation al g ov 't, M P s .......................................................................... 7
H o sp ita ls .................................. ............................................................... 6
T h e ju d icia ry ............................................................ ........................ 6
A u th o rs, critics ... ............................. ........................................ 5
Foreign gov'ts (A frican) ............................................. .......... 4
R oy a l fam ily .................................. ................................................. 4
O th e r s .................................. ... ......... ........ ...................................... 8 0
About one out of six complaints were from "A Reader,"
often a person who had no direct interest but who thought
that the decision would have been different if he or she had
been the editor.
About one out of 12 complaints were from various
social organizations and movements (four were from Earl
Russell and the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation).
Only one out of 16 complaints were from a political
party or candidate. Of the 19 complaints, however, nine
were from the Labour (Socialist) Party many of whose
members twenty years ago had an authoritarian attitude
toward the press.
Complaint About Which Periodicals?
Table 3 lists the periodicals complained about. Four per
cent were magazines and trade journals.

TABLE 3.
PERCENTAGE OF COMPLAINTS
AGAINST SEVEN KINDS OF PERIODICALS
N ation al dailies: qu ality .................................................................... 8 %
N ation al dailies: popu lar ................................................................ 29
L on d on ev en in g .................................................................. ............ 4
Suburban, provincial, Scottish ...... ......................................... 32
N national Sunday: quality ....................................................... 7
N national Sunday: popular ........................................................... 16
M again es, trade journ als ..................... ........................................ 4
The largest number of complaints concerned provincial
and suburban papers. Next were the popular national dailies
and third were the popular Sunday papers. Almost one-half
(45%) of the complaints were about the so-called popular
newspapers (daily and Sunday) which have a larger audi-
ence for sensational news than exists in this country be-
cause of the statutory school-leaving age of 15 years.
(H. Phillip Levy, The Press Council: History, Procedure and
Cases. 1967)









Chapter 9
MISCELLANEOUS




The Polls' Sampling Error
Sampling error is the variability due to chance. Thus,
when the sample is about 1,400 and the preference for Candi-
date A is 52%, the pollster knows that, if he were to take
100 polls, in 68 of the polls his finding could vary by as
much as 1.34%. That is, it could be within a range of
53.34% and 50.66% (52 + 1.34 and 52 1.34).
If his criterion were 95 times in 100 on the same sample
size, the sampling error could be about twice as large, viz.,
2.54.
Adequate Sample Size
The pollsters' samples recently have been about 1,400
respondents. The pollsters could reduce the sampling error
by one-half by increasing the sample size four-fold (i.e., to
5,600). They could reduce the sampling error by two-thirds
by increasing the sample size nine-fold (i.e., to 12,600).
This is because the sampling error diminishes as the
square root of the sample increases.
This fact explains why professional pollsters assume
that the sample size they use is large enough: very little re-
duction in sampling error results from having a larger
sample.
Why Isn't the Sampling Error Reported?
There are practical reasons why the professional poll-
sters do not report the sampling error in every release: the
statistical concept would not be comprehended by many
readers, an explanation would require too much space and,
in successive releases, would be repetitive. The sampling
error is usually reported for marketing and audience stud-
ies because space is not a consideration and it is assumed
that the readers of the report understand its meaning.

A Sample Large Enough for What?
A sample of 1,400 is large enough to estimate, within
the limits mentioned above, the national popular vote pref-
erence at a given time when two candidates are running.
But it is not large enough to estimate, with the same pre-
cision, many breakdowns of the total, such as the voting
preferences of Negro females between the ages of 30 and
39.








Nor the preferences of voters in the 50 individual
states. To estimate with the same precision the vote in
each state, each of the 50 subsamples would need to be about
as large as the sample for the whole nation. Since this would
be prohibitively expensive the pollsters report only the na-
tional popular vote estimates and the breakdowns for re-
gions, sexes and age groups.
See also, "Some Guidelines for Reporting Opinion and
Election Polls, in Volume 3 of News Research for Better
Newspapers, pp. 85-90.


How the Error is Computed
The technical name for sampling error as used in polls
is the "standard error of a percentage." It is defined as
the square root of
the product of the percentage for Candidate A (52%) and
100%-52% divided by the size of the sample.
In the nomenclature of statistics, the formula is written as

pxq
N
in which p is 52 and
q is 100-52 and
N is the size of the sample.

Thus, when the sample is 1,400 the computation is as
follows:

1400 = 1.78 = + 1.34%

This means that the obtained percentage (52%), sub-
ject to the standard error, could occur by chance 68 times
in 100. But if we multiply the standard error by 1.96, mak-
ing it 2.54, the obtained percentage, subject to the larger
error, could occur by chance only five times in 100.


Technique of the Interview
Webb and Salancik, in a "Journalism Monograph"
(1966), reviewed and evaluated all of the available research
literature on methods of interviewing. The following pas-
sages report the research that relates to the verbal be-
havior of the interviewer and the duration of the question
and the answer:









Verbal feedback has often been studied by social sci-
entists for its influence on respondents. "Reinforcers" are
the grunts, "mm-hmmms," "goods," and other brief utter-
ances of the interviewer. Any experienced interviewer
knows that they work to produce something, and social
science research has been concerned with estimating the
character and magnitude of bias that these extraneous com-
ments produce....
The majority of the studies showed that smiling, lean-
ing forward, nodding the head, and saying "mm-hmmm"
or "good" significantly influenced what the respondent
said....
Hildum and Brown (1965) found that some reinforcers
are more effective than others. Working over the telephone,
they found that "good" biased results, while "mm-hmmm"
did not. As the reporter gains in experience, he may learn
what techniques work for him, and under what conditions
they work.
The Effect of "Mm-hmmms"
For the interviewer who wants to get his source to say
more, it might be instructive to look at studies on the
length of answers. Matarazzo (1963) measured what effect
saying "mm-hmmm" had on the length of respondents' re-
plies, when the length and subject matter of questions were
constant.
An interview was divided into three segments. In the
first and third segments, the interviewer gave no "mm-
hmmms;" in the middle segment he did. The results for
two different interviewers:
Question Response
Duration Duration
5.1 seconds 36.8 seconds
Interviewer 1 5.2 seconds (Mm-hmmm) 48.3 seconds
5.3 seconds 39.1 seconds
5.4 seconds 31.7 seconds
Interviewer 2 5.6 seconds (Mm-hmmm) 58.3 seconds
5.4 seconds 28.6 seconds
Clearly the mumbling of "mm-hmmm" has an effect.
Matarazzo's concern for keeping the duration of the ques-
tion constant was based on other research (Matarazzo et
al., 1963). He had found that varying the duration of the
question varies the duration of the response. If one wants
to get a long response, one should ask long questions.
Kennedy Press Conferences
Checking on this phenomenon in a journalistic setting,
Ray and Webb (1966) studied transcripts of Kennedy press
conferences and compared the length of reporters' questions
to the length of President Kennedy's answers in 61 press
conferences. Although one would not have expected an









articulate and well-prepared president to be influenced
markedly by question length, the results support Mataraz-
zo's laboratory findings. As an illustration, here are the
results of the conference of April 24, 1963:
Reporters' President's
Questions Answers
1st Third of Conference .............................. 4.8 lines 14.2 lines
2nd Third of Conference .............................. 7.6 lines 23.2 lines
3rd Third of Conference .............................. 5.5 lines 16.1 lines
Ray and Webb expected that a more experienced pres-
ident would be less affected by extraneous factors such as
question duration. However, they found no real difference
in the effect of question duration over the three years of
President Kennedy's press conferences....
Alderman (1965) asked journalism students to write
reactions to statements about advertising. By varying the
word count of these statements, but holding content con-
stant, he learned that long statements get long written
replies and short statements get short replies. Moreover,
students replying to the longer statements gave more rea-
sons to support their evaluations. Thus, at least in this
situation, one is getting not just longer answers, but more
information.
Moving out of his laboratory, Matarazzo and his col-
leagues (1964) imaginatively employed data provided by
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-tape
recordings of communications between astronauts and
ground control. Tapes and transcripts from two separate
orbital flights were analyzed in a fashion similar to methods
employed in the earlier laboratory research. It was found
that "without exception, a relationship appears between
mean speech duration of the ground communicator and
the corresponding mean duration of speech of the astro-
naut."
Other variables may be at work. There may be a sub-
ject matter contamination such that a more involved ques-
tion from the reporter or ground communicator requires a
more involved reply. To the degree that complexity is as-
sociated with duration there can be uncontrolled variance.
This hypothesis does not explain, however, the experimental
laboratory findings of Matarazzo or Alderman.
Eternal truths are as hard to find here as anywhere,
but it does seem reasonable that the use of grunts, nods,
head leanings and smiles, and the duration of questions may
influence response. Most writers view these influences as
invidious. For us, they may be effective ways to keep a
respondent talking. These tactics probably work by sug-
gesting to the respondent that the interviewer is sympa-
thetic or understanding.









Non-word cues in general may help the respondent to
define what type of person the interviewer is and what he
sees as important. If the interviewer can effectively ex-
ploit the elements which create these ideas within the
source, a bias is transmuted into an asset.
(Eugene J. Webb and Jerry R. Salancik, The Interview or
The Only Wheel in Town. Journalism Monograph No. 2,
Sept., 1966.)

H. S. Journalism, Civics Courses
Fail to Teach Citizenship
A Colorado study reports only very slight differences
in attitudes toward government control of the mass media
by students who had and those who had not taken a course
in high school journalism.
The national Purdue Opinion Poll of high school students
tested those who had and those who had not taken a civics
course and found no differences as to their attitudes toward
civil liberties.
A 1965 University of Michigan study interviewed a na-
tional sample of high. school students who had and had not
taken civics courses and found no overall differences in
political knowledge and seven other dimensions of "politi-
cal socialization."
Explanation: Most of the course content is redundant in
that it is a duplication of knowledge and cues previously
learned from the mass media, parents and other sources.
However, there were differences as to lower-class Negro
students because the course content was not redundant for
them.
Hickey and Brinton, in May, 1967, surveyed 603 stu-
dents in 14 Colorado high schools in communities in which a
daily newspaper was published. Among the 39 questions
were five which asked about control of the mass media by
government.
Almost one-half of the students were enrolled in a
journalism class and the others were not. The researchers
did not inquire as to the content of the journalism courses.
Table 1 compares the responses of the journalism and
nonjournalism students. The differences between students
enrolled in journalism courses and those not enrolled is
barely significant statistically with reference to control of
false statements in advertisements and obscene words and
pictures; the journalism students were somewhat more
authoritarian than were the other students. For the other
questions the differences could be due to chance.

TABLE 1.
Question: "To what degree do you believe local, state or
federal government should control the mass communications
media with regard to (a) false statements in advertising,
(b) obscene words and pictures, (c) statements promoting




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