• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 Makeup and typography
 Some communication behavior
 Some audience characteristics
 Readership
 Readership by teenagers
 Editorial administration and...
 News and editorial policy
 Content
 Research method
 Miscellaneous














Title: News research for better newspapers
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075610/00003
 Material Information
Title: News research for better newspapers
Physical Description: v. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
Publisher: American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
Place of Publication: New York N.Y
Frequency: annual
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 Subjects
Subject: Newspapers -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Newspaper reading -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with vol. 1 (1966).
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4 (1969).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075610
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 03329209
lccn - 00227239

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Introduction
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Makeup and typography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Some communication behavior
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Some audience characteristics
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Readership
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Readership by teenagers
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Editorial administration and personnel
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    News and editorial policy
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Content
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Research method
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Miscellaneous
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
Full Text






NEWS RESEARCH FOR
BETTER NEWSPAPERS

VOLUME 3
1968



Compiled and edited by
DR. CHILTON R. BUSH



American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
750 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017








ANPA FOUNDATION BOARD OF TRUSTEES
OFFICERS
President: Robert L. Taylor, Philadelphia (Pa.) Bulletin
Vice President: Eugene S. Pulliam, Indianapolis (Ind.) Star and News
Secretary: Barnard L. Colby, New London (Conn.) Day
Treasurer: Eugene C. Bishop, Peninsula Newspapers, Inc., Palo Alto,
Calif.
General Manager/Asst. Secretary and Asst. Treasurer: Stanford
Smith, ANPA, 750 Third Ave., New York

TRUSTEES
Peyton Anderson, Macon (Ga.) Telegraph and News
M. W. Armistead, III, Roanoke (Va.) Times and World-News
St. Clair Balfour, Southam Press Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Richard H. Blacklidge, Kokomo (Ind.) Tribune
Crosby N. Boyd, Washington (D.C.) Star
Peter B. Clark, Detroit (Mich.) News
John H. Colburn, Wichita (Kan.) Eagle and Beacon
M. J. Frey, Portland (Ore.) Oregonian
Jack R. Howard, Scripps-Howard Newspapers, 200 Park Ave., New
York
David Lindsay, Jr., Sarasota (Fla.) Herald-Tribune and Journal
Irwin Maier, Milwaukee (Wis.) Journal and Sentinel
Charles H. Peters, Montreal (Que., Canada) Gazette
Gene Robb, Albany (N.Y.) Times-Union and Knickerbocker News
William F. Schmick, Jr., Baltimore (Md.) Sun
Joyce A. Swan, Minneapolis (Minn.) Star and Tribune
William Davis Taylor, Boston (Mass.) Globe
Walter W. White, Lincoln (Neb.) Star
J. Howard Wood, Chicago (Ill.) Tribune

MEMBERS OF ANPA NEWS RESEARCH CENTER
STEERING COMMITTEE:
Representing:
American Newspaper Publishers Association
Eugene S. Pulliam, Indianapolis (Ind.) Star and News Chairman
Associated Press Managing Editors Association
Arville Schaleben, Milwaukee (Wis.) Journal ,,\*
United Press International
Francis T. Leary, New York, N. Y.
American Society of Newspaper Editors
Arthur C. Deck, Salt Lake City (Utah) Tri u
National Newspaper Promotion Association
Newell Meyer, Milwaukee (Wis.) Journal -
Bureau of Advertising of the ANPA 5
Dr. Leo Bogart, New York, N. Y.
Association for Education in Journalism
Dr. Wayne A. Danielson, University of North Carolina







INTRODUCTION


Volume 3, like previous volumes of "News Research for
Better Newspapers," is a compilation of the summaries of
news-editorial research reported in the ANPA News Re-
search bulletins during 1967.

Three of the longer reports are of research sponsored
in 1967 by the American Newspaper Publishers Association
Foundation and done in universities. Additional projects
have been commissioned for 1968.
One of the studies, "Comparison of Two Methods of
Measuring Item Readership," is methodological. It compares
the personal interview method with the method of the self-
administered questionnaire. It was done to provide indi-
vidual newspapers with adequate standards for making such
studies on which editorial decisions are based. It shows
that some kinds of items can be reliably measured by a
self-administered questionnaire but that other kinds can-
not be.

To improve research done by individual newspapers,
ANPA last June held a five-day Workshop for Newspaper
Researchers at Boulder, Colorado. A second Workshop will
be held at Boulder June 23-28, 1968.

Of the 44 studies reported in this volume, 20 were
done by universities; 10 by individual newspapers; 9 by
research agencies; and 5 by others. Four of the reports
are of studies sponsored or directed by the Bureau of
Advertising, ANPA.

A note at the beginning of each chapter cites research
about the same subject-matter reported in previous volumes.

Chilton R. Bush

American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation
750 Third Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017
February, 1968








TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
NO.
- CHAP. 1. Makeup and Typography
Which Type Faces for Women's Pages? ...................................... 1
"Flip This Section to Continued Story" .................................... 9
Readership of Jumps: Some Recent Research Findings ...... 9
Some Determinants of Readership: A Series of Split-run
S tu d ie s ....................................................................................................................... 1 3
Research on Alphabet Length, Line Length and Spacing...... 18
Greater Production for TTS-set Type in 15-Pica Width...... 19


CHAP. 2. Some Communication Behavior
When People Want to Know . Where Do They Go
to F ind O ut? ....................... ............................................................. 20
When Teenagers Want to Know . Where Do They Go
to F in d O u t ? ....................................................................... ....... ........................ 3 4
When Evening Newspaper Is Read ...................................................... 35
Media Use in Presidential Election Campaigns. By
Maxwell McCombs and Walter Wilcox ................................ 36
Type of Residence Affects College Students' Communi-
cation B eh av ior .............................................................................................. 40
Change in Media Use in Sacramento ............................................ 41
Most Educational Television Viewers Are Print-
O rien ted .................................................................................................................... 4 1
Denver Teenagers' Communication Behavior .......................... 43
Media Behavior of St. Louis Teenagers ................................ 44
H ow Church Page Is U sed ........................................................................ 46


CHAP. 3. Some Audience Characteristics
The Demand for Business News .................................................... 48
What Kind of People Have Knowledge of Foreign
E v en ts ? ..................................................................................................................... 4 9
How Much Do Readers Know? (XI): World War II
T e r m s .......................................................................................................................... 5 1
How Much Do Readers Know? (XII): News Vocabulary,
1 9 5 0 ................................................................................................... ..................... 5 1


CHAP. 4. Readership
The News Summary and Index .......................... .................. 52
Readership of the News Summary .................................................. 57
Diaries Show 6-Day Readership of Children and Adults ...... 58
Readership of Special Pages ............................ .................... 60








PAGE
NO.
CHAP. 5. Readership by Teenagers
Profile of the Teenager Reader ........................... ................... 61
Few Girls Read in the Role of Housewife ................................ 73
Teenagers' Interest in Baseball ............................ ................. 74
Preferred Content in Youth Section ................................................ 76
Effect of Age on Teenagers' Reading of Newspaper
C on ten t ................................................................................................ ..................... 7 6


CHAP. 6. Editorial Administration and Personnel
More Papers Now Have an "Education Beat" .................... 78
Testing for Journalistic Aptitude: Curiosity .......................... 78
Causes of Story, Headline Errors ............................................................ 79
What Happened to Talented Journalism Seniors Ten
Y ears A after G radiation .................................................................. 80
What Happens to Scholarship Winners? ................................ 82
Career Interests of 289 College Journalists .......................... 83
5 Out of 8 Schools Were Visited This Year by News-
p ap er R ecru iters ....................................................................... ......... ..... 84


CHAP. 7. News and Editorial Policy
Some Guidelines for Reporting Opinion and Election
P olls ........................................ . ...................... .................. .......... .................... 8 5
More Stories Are Favorable to Youth ...................... ........... 91
Teenagers' Image Is Favorable ......................................... 91


CHAP. 8. Content
An Inventory of Editorial Content .................................................. 92
The Content of Youth Sections, Pages and Columns.
B y J ack L yle ...................................................................... ........................ 95


CHAP. 9. Research Method
Comparison of Two Methods of Measuring Item Reader-
ship. B y G alen R R arick ........................................................................ 103


CHAP. 10. Miscellaneous
Attitude Changing Effect of News and Photos .................... 122
News Commentators Rated Higher Than the Media
T h ey U se ................................................................................................................. 12 5










Chapter 1


For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 76-89 and Vol. 2,
pp. 65-75, 102-105.

Which Type Faces For Women's Pages?
Garamond Italic and Coronet Light were rated higher by
women on various feminine qualities than were eight other
type faces.
Bodoni, Stymie Light, Caledonia Bold, Radiant Medium,
Onyx, Spartan Medium and Spartan Medium Italic were
judged as essentially neutral on most feminine qualities.
Garamond Italic, an ultra feminine typeface, was com-
pared with Spartan Black, an ultramasculine type face.
There was no effect on ratings on page attractiveness, page
reading interest, or item reading interest.
In general, type face effects were the same for all kinds
of women regardless of their age or socio-economic status
when they rated page attractiveness.
Samples of the ten type faces, and the image profiles for
four type faces on each of 16 semantic differential scales
are shown in Figs. 1 and 2 at the end of this survey.

The ANPA News Research Center sponsored a study by
Dr. Jack B. Haskins, John Ben Snow, research professor,
and Lois P. Flynne, research associate, at Syracuse Univer-
sity, to test the feminine-masculine qualities of several type
faces for use on women's pages.
Drawing both on the experience of Professor Edmund
Arnold and previous studies, Haskins and Flynne selected
ten typefaces for testing: Garamond Italic, Coronet Light,
Bodoni, Onyx, Radiant Medium, Stymie Light, Caledonia
Bold, Spartan Medium, Spartan Medium Italic, and Spartan
Black.
The first nine were chosen either because of their com-
mon usage on women's pages or because previous research
suggested their suitability for such pages.
The tenth, Spartan Black, was chosen for contrast as
an example of an extremely "masculine" typeface to be com-
pared with Garamond Italic as an example of an extremely
"feminine" type face.
A kit of ten identical women's pages, differing only as
to the type used in the headline, was presented to a repre-
sentative sample of 150 women in the Syracuse area. The
women were asked to rate each of the headline types on a
specially constructed set of 16 semantic differential scales
of polar adjectives.
The scales were selected from among an extensive list
by means of a pilot study designed to determine which scales
best discriminated among type faces as to feminine char-
acteristics. In this way, an "image" profile was arrived at
for each of the typefaces.







Comparative judgments were also obtained on a 0 to
100 thermometer scale on overall page attractiveness, inter-
est in reading something on the page, and interest in read-
ing each of five articles on the page-judging from the head-
lines alone.
For these ratings, the women were randomly divided
into three groups. The first group saw a suburban newspaper
in which the Garamond Italic page had been inserted. The
second group saw the same paper with Spartan Black head-
lines. The third group was shown five headline types of the
insert page typed on plain white cards.

The Findings
1. Garamond Italic and Coronet Light were rated high-
er by the women than eight other type faces on various
feminine qualities, such as graceful, soft, beautiful, expen-
sive, elegant, weak, slow, delicate, feminine, light, and shy.
(See Figures 1 and 2 on pages 7 and 8)
In addition, Coronet Light was rated as more ornate
and more exotic. Generally speaking, Coronet Light rated
higher on many of the qualities named above than did Gara-
mond Italic and is, therefore, considered the most appro-
priate "image" for a woman's page. (The table which shows
the comparative values has been omitted from this summary
but may be obtained from ANPA.)
2. As predicted, Spartan Black, the contrast type face
included in the study for comparative purposes, had an
image quite different from the nine others. It rated very
high on such qualities as loud, plain, ugly, cheap, inelegant,
strong, repelling, fast, rugged, ordinary, masculine, heavy
and bold.
3. The remaining seven type faces were all judged as
essentially neutral on most qualities.

4. An ultra-feminine type face, Garamond Italic, was
compared with the same headlines set in an ultra-masculine
type face, Spartan Black. There was no effect on page at-
tractiveness ratings, page reading interest ratings, or item
reading interest-as judged by the women.
5. In general, type face effects were the same for all
kinds of women regardless of their age or socio-economic
status.

6. Headline content rather than headline type face is
the most important factor in a woman's decision to read or







not read a newspaper item. Reading interest in an item can
be determined just as well from typed headlines on a plain
white card as from headlines set in newspaper type on a
newspaper page: reader interest ratings were identical for
the two kinds of presentation.
7. Spartan Medium and Spartan Medium Italic were not
significantly different from each other. However, another
type face from the same family, Spartan Black, was sig-
nificantly different on the various masculine qualities men-
tioned in (2) above. This indicates that image differences
within a type face family can be greater then differences
between families: The family classification method may
have descriptive meaning but no functional meaning in
terms of effect on the reader.

The Attributed Characteristics
The characteristics of each type face are listed below.
Italicized characteristics are statistically significantly dif-
ferent from the neutral point (i.e., from 3.5 on the seven-
interval scale). For purely descriptive purposes, any values
falling within the scale interval either side of the middle
scale interval (i.e., less than 3 and more than 4) are taken
as attributes for the purpose of assigning characteristics.
Where an attribute is preceded by "very" this means that
the score was two-scale points from the neutral point.
Coronet Light: Graceful, very soft, ornate, beautiful,
expensive, elegant, weak, slow, very delicate, exotic, very
feminine, very light, very shy.
Garamond Italic: Graceful, soft, beautiful, interesting,
expensive, elegant, weak, slow, delicate, feminine, light, shy.
Stymie Light: Soft, plain, weak, delicate, ordinary,
light, shy.
Onyx: This type face had a neutral image with no char-
acteristics attributed.
Bodoni: Plain, interesting, inviting, ordinary.
Radiant Medium: Graceful, plain, interesting, inviting,
delicate, ordinary, light.
Caledonia Bold: Graceful, plain, interesting, strong, in-
viting, fast, ordinary, boring, bold.
Spartan Medium: Graceful, plain, interesting, strong,
inviting, ordinary.
Spartan Medium Italic: Graceful, plain, interesting,
strong, inviting, ordinary.
Spartan Black: Very loud, plain, ugly, interesting,
cheap, inelegant, very strong, repelling, very heavy, very
bold, fast, rugged, ordinary, very masculine.








Rank Ordering by Attributes

The rank ordering of the type faces by their feminine
or positive attributes was as follows:


Feminine
1. Coronet Light
2. Garamond Italic
3. Stymie Light
4. Radiant Medium
5. Bodoni
6. Onyx
7. Spartan Medium
8. Spartan Medium Italic
9. Caledonia Bold
10. Spartan Black
(Masculine)


Elegant
1. Coronet Light
2. Garamond Italic
3. Radiant Medium
4. Caledonia Bold
5. Spartan Medium Italic
6. Spartan Medium
7. Stymie Light
8. Bodoni
9. Onyx
10. Spartan Black
(Inelegant)


Slow
1. Coronet Light
2. Garamond Italic
3. Stymie Light
4. Onyx
5. Bodoni
6. Radiant Medium
7. Spartan Medium Italic
8. Spartan Medium
9. Caledonia Bold
10. Spartan Black
(Fast)


Interesting
1. Caledonia Bold
2. Spartan Medium
3. Spartan Black
4. Spartan Medium Italic
5. Radiant Medium


Graceful
Garamond Italic
Coronet Light
Radiant Medium
Spartan Medium
Spartan Medium Italic
Caledonia Bold
Bodoni
Stymie Light
Onyx
Spartan Black
(Awkward)


Beautiful
Coronet Light
Garamond Italic
Radiant Medium
Bodoni
Spartan Medium
Caledonia Bold
Stymie Light
Spartan Medium Italic
Onyx
Spartan Black
(Ugly)


Coronet Light
Garamond Italic
Stymie Light
Radiant Medium
Bodoni
Spartan Medium
Spartan Medium Italic
Onyx
Caledonia Bold
Spartan Black
(Loud)


Weak
Coronet Light
Garamond Italic
Stymie Light
Radiant Medium
Onyx








Interesting

6. Garamond Italic
7. Bodoni
8. Coronet Light
9. Onyx
10. Stymie Light
(Boring)


Delicate


1. Coronet Light
2. Garamond Italic
3. Stymie Light
4. Bodoni
5. Spartan Medium Italic
6. Spartan Medium
7. Onyx
8. Caledonia Bold
9. Radiant Medium
10. Spartan Black
(Rugged)



Expensive

1. Coronet Light
2. Garamond Italic
3. Radiant Medium
4. Spartan Medium
5. Spartan Medium Italic
6. Onyx
7. Caledonia Bold
8. Bodoni
9. Stymie Light
10. Spartan Black
(Cheap)



Exotic

1. Coronet Light
2. Garamond Italic
3. Onyx
4. Radiant Medium
5. Caledonia Bold
6. Stymie Light
7. Spartan Medium
8. Spartan Medium Italic
9. Bodoni
10. Spartan Black
(Ordinary)


Weak

6. Bodoni
7. Spartan Medium Italic
8. Spartan Medium
9. Caledonia Bold
10. Spartan Black
(Strong)




Ornate

1. Coronet Light
2. Garamond Italic
3. Onyx
4. Radiant Medium
5. Caledonia Bold
6. Spartan Medium
7. Bodoni
8. Spartan Medium Italic
9. Stymie Light
10. Spartan Black
(Plain)



Inviting

1. Radiant Medium
2. Caledonia Bold
3. Spartan Medium
4. Spartan Medium Italic
5. Bodoni
6. Garamond Italic
7. Onyx
8. Stymie Light
9. Coronet Light
10. Spartan Black
(Repelling)



Light

1. Coronet Light
2. Garamond Italic
3. Stymie Light
4. Radiant Medium
5. Bodoni
6. Spartan Medium
7. Spartan Medium Italic
8. Onyx
9. Caledonia Bold
10. Spartan Black
(Heavy)







Shy Loose
1. Coronet Light 1. Garamond Italic
2. Garamond Italic 2. Coronet Light
3. Stymie Light 3. Stymie Light
4. Radiant Medium 4. Radiant Medium
5. Bodoni 5. Spartan Medium
6. Spartan Medium Italic 6. Spartan Medium Italic
7. Spartan Medium 7. Caledonia Bold
8. Onyx 8. Bodoni
9. Caledonia Bold 9. Spartan Black
10. Spartan Black 10. Onyx
(Bold) (Tight)


The authors acknowledge the considerable assistance of
Professor David Norton, who obtained the type faces and set
the headlines, and George Wortley III, publisher of the
Fayetteville (N.Y.) Press, who set and printed the ten ver-
sions of the simulated women's page and also provided cop-
ies of his newspaper as a medium in which to "bury" the
experimental treatments.
For a previous report on the aesthetic qualities of type
faces as judged by laymen and professionals (printers and
commercial artists), see "News Research for Better News-
papers," Vol. 2, pp. 67-72.
In sponsoring this study and in presenting the findings,
the ANPA News Research Center is not offering a prescrip-
tion. The editor and publisher, in deciding the type dress for
women's pages, needs to consider the type face used in other
pages and (in some instances) the face used in the second
paper.
Moreover, they might feel more comfortable by using a
somewhat feminine or neutral face. In the rank orders of
aesthetic qualities, for example, Radiant Medium was chosen
in fourth place for nine of the qualities and Bodoni in fifth
place for six of the qualities. The main value of the findings
is that they supply the editor and publisher with some ob-
jective data from which they can make their own inferences.
Ed. Note: The corresponding chart on page 7 gives the
ten type faces used by Dr. Jack B. Haskins and his asso-
ciates, in their determination of preferred type faces for
Women's Pages. The chart on page 8 gives image profiles
for four typefaces on each 16 semantic differential scales.
This study was sponsored by the ANPA News Research
Center.









FIGURE 1: SAMPLES OF THE TEN TYPEFACES


Home study
library can
aid grades
GARAMOND ITALIC


Home study
library can
aid grades
RADIANT MEDIUM

Home study
library can
aid grades
CALEDONIA BOLD


Home study
library can
aid grades


BODONI


Home study
library can
aid grades


ONYX


rarpuy can
aid grades
CORONET LIGHT

Home study
library can
aid grades
SPARTAN MEDIUM

Home study
library can
aid grades
SPARTAN MEDIUM ITALIC


Home study
library can
aid grades
SPARTAN BLACK


Home study
library can
aid grades
STYMIE LIGHT













FIGURE 2: IMAGE PROFILES FOR FOUR TYPEFACES ON
EACH OF 16 SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALES


AWKWARD : : : : : : :GRACEFUL

SOFT : --" : :LOUD

PLAIN : : :_ : ____: ORNATE

UGLY___ : : :____ BEAUTIFUL

INTERESTING __- : :BORING

CHEAP_____ : : : :EXPENSIVE

INELEGANT___ __ : : : : :ELEGANT

STRONG : : : :____:WEAK

REPELLING : : : : : : INVITING

FAST : : : : : :SLOW

DELICATE_ :_ _: : :RUGGED

ORDINARY :_ : __ ___:EXOTIC

MASCULINE_ __: __ : :- ;: :FEMININE

LIGHT ::H--- .-:: :HEAVY

SHY :. ____:BOLD

TIGHT_____ __: : : :LOOSE



KEY:

SPARTAN BLACK

CORONET LIGHT -------

GARAMOND ITALIC

BODONI --------.







"Flip This Section To Continued Story"
The Johnson City (Tenn.) Press-Chronicle last Decem-
ber polled its readers and found that more than 90% liked
its new way of jumping stories from Page 1, and none ob-
jected. A few readers were noncommital.
The new way is to jump stories to the last page of the
first section and to print that page upside down.
To complete reading a jumped story, the reader merely
lifts the section up from the bottom.
After publishing experimental editions on Nov. 28 and
Dec. 3 and polling its readers, the Press-Chronicle adopted
the practice regularly on Dec. 9. That issue had two 10-page
sections.
When possible, the jumped story is placed in the same
column on the jump page as it occupied on Page 1.
On a few occasions when multi-color ads or editorial
pictures must run on the last page, because of mechanical
requirements, the paper reverts to its former policy of
jumping stories to Page 2.
Several years ago the Louisville (Ky.) Courier-Journal
and Louisville Times adopted the practice of jumping all
Page 1 stories to the last page of the first section. This is
also the practice of the London (England) Daily Telegraph.



Readership of Jumps:
Some Recent Research Findings
Of those who started to read the average page 1 story
that was jumped, about three out of four completed all of
the story that was on page 1.
Of those who read the last "part" on page 1, about four
out of five read all or some of the continuation on an
inside page.
Of those who started to read the continuation, about
five out of six men and four out of five women read all
of it.
Slightly more than one-half of the readers who began
the average story on page 1 that was jumped read all of
the story, including the continuation. The range of the total
loss of readers was from 6% to 82%.
Corresponding percentages for teenagers' readership
were lower than those mentioned above.
Readership of the continuation is highly related to the
amount of display given it on an inside page.

Carl J. Nelson Research, Inc. made "Survey-of-the-
Month" studies of 17 metropolitan newspapers between
October, 1965 and January, 1967 (See p. 61 for the list
of newspapers). For several stories in the studies, scores
were reported by readership of "parts." A "part" is about







one-fourth of the item. The measurement by "parts" per-
mits an analysis of the readership of jumped stories more
meaningful than the analysis that could be made of previous
studies in which stories were not measured by "parts."
The number of jumped stories in' each paper ranged
from one to eight. The median number of jumps per paper,
including the paper which did not jump any story, was 4.6.
How Much Was Read on Page 1?
Of those men who began a story on page 1 that was
jumped, 77% read the last "part" on page 1. The corre-
sponding readership by women was 75%. That is, the aver-
age loss of readers on page 1 was: men, 23%, women 25%.
How Many Read First Part of the Jump?
Of the men who had read the last "part" of a jumped
story on page 1, 78% read the first "part" of the continu-
ation. The corresponding readership by women was 82%.
That is, 22% of the men and 18% of the women did not
read the first "part" of the jump.
This does not mean, however, that 78% of the men and
82% of the women turned immediately to the jump. Some
apparently read the jump only after they came to it. In
some instances, it was the display given the jump that in-
duced them to read it.
Display of the Jump
The scores were analyzed by the amount of display
given the continuation. Some of the jump heads were
very large and at the top of the page; others were quite
small and below the fold. Some jumps were accompanied by
art.
Table 1 shows the percentage of those readers who had
read the last "part" of the story on page 1 who also read
the first "part" of the continuation.

TABLE 1.
PERCENTAGE OF THOSE WHO READ THE LAST "PART" OF A STORY ON
PAGE 1 WHO ALSO READ THE FIRST "PART" OF THE CONTINUATION:
BY AMOUNT OF DISPLAY OF THE CONTINUATION
Display of Jump: Men Women
H ig h ................. ..................................................................... 83 % 88 %
M ed iu m .............................................................................. 70 68
L o w ............................................................ ............. 5 4 5 4
A ll stories .................................................................................... 78 82
The data in the table show a high relationship between
readership of the jump and the display given the jump.
Actually, in nine instances the first "part" of the jump
showed a gain in readership over the last "part" on page 1.
That is, more readers read the first "part" of the jump than







had read the last "part" on page 1. These percentages
ranged from 1% to 27%.
The extent to which content rather than display ex-
plained readership of the jump could not be measured. A
correlation analysis was made of 41 jumped stories. When
either the initial score or the percentage of loss of reader-
ship on page 1 was considered a measure of interest in con-
tent, with amount of display being held constant, the analy-
sis showed there was no relationship of reader interest in
the story and readership of the jump.
In the absence of exact data, we can speculate that the
percentage of readers who did not read the jump when it
had low display-46% (100-54)-represents a readership
loss that is caused solely by the jump. To the extent that
this is a correct inference, it is, then, an argument against
the jumping of many stories.
How Much of the Jump Was Read?
For the 41 stories for which readership of the jump
was measured by "parts," the average loss from the first
"part" of the jump to the last "part" of the jump was: men
17%, women 19%. Thus, of those men who had read the
first "part" of the jump, 83% read the last "part," and for
those women who had read the first "part" of the jump, 81%
read the last "part."
Readership of the Whole Story
For 80 jumped stories the percentage of readership
loss from the initial score on page 1 to the end of the story
was 45% for men and 44% for women. For about one-half
of the stories, the end of the story means the last "part"
of the jump, but for the other half it means any part of the
jump (presumably the first part) since readership of the
jumps for those stories was not measured by "parts."
If readership of jumps for all stories had been mea-
sured by "parts," the loss could have been greater (See dis-
cussion above of "How Much of the Jump Was Read?").
This would mean that probably less than one-half of the
readers who started the average jumped story on page 1
read all of it.
When we consider that the average initial score for all
of the 80 stories was 40 for men and 32 for women, and, fur-
thermore, that only about one-half of the readers read the
whole story, it becomes apparent that the jumped portion of
the average story was for the information of a small per-
centage of all readers of the newspapers.
Obviously, this is justifiable for some important and/or
interesting stories, but in a few instances, it seems from a
reading of the individual stories, that the news editor over-
estimated reader interest in the details in the latter part of
the story.







Whether the latter part of such stories would have had
more complete readership if the stories had not been jumped
can be ascertained only from a split-run study.
Sports Stories Jumped
Nine sports stories were jumped. Their initial scores
for men ranged from 36 to 58. Five were judged to have
high display, two medium and two low. Of those who began
a story on the first sports page, 64% read the continuation
on a following page.
Teenagers' Readership of Jumps
Table 2 shows the reading behavior of teenagers.

TABLE 2.
TEENAGERS' READING OF JUMPED STORIES
Boys Girls
A average initial score ..................... ................... .. 15 15
% who began story who read last part
on p. 1 ...... .. .............. ... ................. 70 70
% who read last part on p. 1 who read
first part of jump...... ..................... 62 59
% who read first part of jump who read
last part of jum p ...................... ......... ................. 81 70
% who began story who read all or some
of th e ju m p .................. ............. ..................................... 42 36
*% of all teenage readers who completed a
story ......................................................................................... 6.3 5.4
*42% and 36% of 15 (initial score)
It will be noted that 58% (100-42) of the boys and 64%
(100-36) of the girls who began the average jumped story
on page 1 either read none of the jump or did not finish
reading the jump. This compares with 45% for men and
44% for women (See "Readership of the Whole Story"
above).
Some Causes of Jumps
The number of inferences that can be made from the
data presented here-which refer only to readership-are
limited. There are other considerations which are matters of
editorial judgment, and for which research probably cannot
supply a definite rationale.
Because, however, there is so much inconsistency
among newspapers-not necessarily those analyzed here-
some of the reasons for jumping stories are listed and
discussed below.
1. When an important and/or interesting news story re-
quires a considerable amount of space. As an example, a
newspaper allocated four columns for a particular story.
Eleven inches of text and 28 inches of art were put on page







1. A jump of 16 inches, a sidebar of 10 inches, and 17 inches
of art were put on an inside page. This had the advantage of
grouping the text and art on an inside page as well as of
accommodating to the requirements of importance and esti-
mated reader interest.
2. A tendency in some papers to use a skyline eight
columns wide above the nameplate. This has the effect of
shortening the columns below the nameplate, thus leaving
less space for the accommodation of other stories and art
on page 1.
3. An increased tendency in recent years to use more
art on page 1 while maintaining a rule of thumb that a cer-
tain minimum number of stories must be on page 1. As to
the latter practice, there is great inconsistency among news-
papers. For some papers the rule means having an abso-
lute number of stories-at least above the fold (to give a
"newsy" appearance to the paper). For other papers the
rule means merely having a representation of readers' inter-
ests and/or datelines.
4. In the conflict between utility value and aesthetic
value with the latter being preferred. This is observable
in those papers which jump a good many stories-some as
many as 13.
Reading continuations in a newspaper is not as easy as
reading them in a magazine. The magazine format is small-
er, the continuations are easier to locate, and the reader has
no difficulty in finding the place in the front part at which
he left off reading. It would seem that in some newspapers
a striving for a kind of perfect aesthetic balance is over-
emphasized when it makes the paper as a whole harder to
read.
5. Inadequate trimming of some stories, This, of course,
is a matter of judgment about reader interest and/or im-
portance-except when it is a function of an undermanned
desk.
Some Determinants of Readership:
A Series of Split-run Studies
Where in a newspaper an item is published is not as im-
portant a determinant of readership as are "how it is pre-
sented" and "how it is said."
The most important determinant is "what is said."
Dr. Galen R. Rarick, of the University of Oregon
School of Journalism, in the spring of 1963, developed 13
hypotheses to test "the validity of some of the folklore of
journalism."
Three of the hypotheses related to the position of an
item in the newspaper; four to typographical presentation
of the item; two to writing style; and three to illustration.
The thirteenth hypothesis related to spot color in an ad.
The items tested were news stories, ads and headlines.
13







Each hypothesis was tested two or more times on two
or more different days with different samples of readers
and different stories, ads or headlines. Separate split-run
studies were done on six different days over a 32-day period.
Dr. Rarick used the conventional recognition method of
measuring readership with split-run samples that were
comparable as to sex, age and education of readers of the
Eugene (Ore.) Register-Guard.
The studies were supported by grants from the Reg-
ister-Guard and the Bureau of Advertising, ANPA.
Dr. Rarick's findings are summarized as follows:
Position
1. There is no significant difference in readership be-
tween left-hand pages and right-hand pages.
Previous studies have reached the same conclusion, but
they were not entirely convincing because they had not
controlled the content of the item, position of the item in
the newspaper or the matter surrounding the tested items.
Dr. Rarick did control these variables.
2. There is no significant difference in readership be-
tween above-the-fold and below-the-fold positions.
It is content that determines readership of an item, not
whether the item is above or below the fold.
3. Readership of an item is no greater for a well-for-
ward position (near but not on the front page) than it is for
a further-back position when the positions are no more than
four pages apart. But there probably is at least somewhat
greater readership for the well-forward position when the
two positions are eight or more pages apart.
The issue measured by Dr. Rarick contained 26 pages.
Typographical Presentation
4. Setting the body of a news story two-column mea-
sure rather than single-column measure does not increase
readership.
In this test, the item was under the same two-column
headline for both runs. Nothing else on the page was
changed.
5. Setting the body of a news story single-column mea-
sure and breaking it into seven columns of type in eight
columns of space without column rules (sometimes called
the 7-in-8 technique) does not increase the readership of the
story as against running it in eight columns with column
rules.
Apparently, the value of this practice is aesthetic.
6. An inside page with a six-column or wider headline
attracts no more readers than does the same page with no
headline wider than two columns.







Nor did the larger and longer headlines increase read-
ership of the items. See scores under (7) below for the
first three news stories.
7. Increasing the size of the headline on a news story
increases the readership of that story up to a point. How-
ever, increasing the size of a headline beyond about two
columns by two lines of 86-point type does not increase
readership.
In the six tests of this hypothesis, made on three dif-
ferent days, the headline sizes and readership scores of the
news stories are shown in the accompanying table.
Smaller Larger
Story Head Head
Haitian Gov't .................................... 2 cols., 2 lines 6 cols., 1 line
36 pt. + kicker 48 pt. + deck
25.0% 22.0%
Nixon Moves to N.Y. .................. 2 cols., 2 lines 6 cols., 1 line
36 pt. 48 pt.
51.1% 45.5%
Rom ney ...... ...... ...... ......... ............ 2 cols., 2 lines 3 cols., 2 lines
24 pt. 36 pt.
27.8% 26.3%
Rain, Hail Storm .............................. 1 col., 3 lines 2 cols., 2 lines
24 pt. 36 pt.
31.8% 42.4%
Helicopter Crash .............................. 1 col., 3 lines 2 cols., 2 lines
24 pt. 36 pt.
30.4% 42.4%
Sex Offender
Legislation ............................................. 1 col., 1 line 1 col., 3 lines
18 pt. 24 pt.
25.0% 40.8%
The data show a readership gain when a larger head-
line is substituted for a small headline (the last three news
stories in the table).
Dr. Rarick believes that the findings suggest a new
hypothesis, viz., that the optimum headline size for in-
creasing readership is probably about two columns by two
lines of 24-point to 36-point type; smaller headlines than
those do not attract maximum readership.
Writing Style
8. A news story gets more readership when both it and
the headline are written in narrative style than it does when
the story is written in the traditional inverted-pyramid style
and the headline is the conventional summary type. How-
ever, writing the story in narrative style does not appear
to increase the story's readership if the summary type of
headline is used.







The difference in style is shown in the two following
stories; the readership of the first story was 27.5%, of the
second 55.4%.
Traditional
EWEB
Authorizes Tunnel Repair Work
The Eugene Water and Electric Board Monday authorized
extra work to repair a tunnel in the $28.5 million Carmen-
Smith hydroelectric project.
The work must be done on a power tunnel that connects
the Smith Reservoir with the Carmen powerhouse. It de-
veloped cracks during pressure tests this month.
Some leakage was expected, but Engineer E. W. Peter-
son of Bechtel Corp., project engineering firm, said a loss
of 23 cubic feet per second was measured after the tunnel
had been in operation for five days....
Narrative
'Stopper' Authorized
For Leaky Tunnel
The Eugene Water and Electric Board's $28.5 million
Carmen-Smith hydroelectric project once held the dubious
honor of having the "wettest tunnel in the West."
It may now have the leakiest.
Rounded up Monday for a special meeting, board mem-
bers were told that the power tunnel which connects the
Smith Reservoir with Carmen powerhouse developed
cracks during pressure tests this month.
Some leakage was expected, but Engineer E. W. Peter-
son of Bechtel Corp., project engineering firm, said a loss
of 23 cubic feet per second was measured after the tunnel
had been in operation for five days....
9. The data do not clearly demonstrate whether or not
an editorial gets more readership if its headline is written
in narrative or "intrigue" style than if the conventional
label headline is used. However, it appears that, if there is
a gain in readership, it is slight.
10. It is tentatively concluded that a news story gets
more readership when it is in juxtaposition with a related
photograph than it does when it is in juxtaposition with an
unrelated photograph of the same size and of about the same
readership.
To illustrate: For one run, a three-column picture of
James R. Hoffa was adjacent to a news story about his
union winning a representation election over a rival union.
For the second run, a three-column picture of some Catholic
sisters playing pool was substituted in the space adjacent
to the Hoffa union story.
11. It is tentatively concluded that the inclusion of a
thumbnail photograph of a person who is mentioned in a
business news column increases the readership of that
column.
12. Art (drawings or photographs) tends to increase






the readership of a newspaper ad, and the more dominant
the art the greater the gain appears to be.
In one experiment, in which the art in the illustrated
ad was subdued, there was no gain in readership. A con-
siderable increase ensued, however, when the art was dom-
inant or moderately dominant.
Spot Color
13. The use of spot color in a newspaper ad usually
increases the readership of that ad.
In the first test, a reverse plate headline-illustration
was printed in black in one part of the run and in red in the
other part. The large increase in readership with addition
of color was great enough that it would be expected to occur
by chance in the hypothesized direction no more than one
time in 100 tests.
In the second test, an ad for a funeral home was printed
in black and white in one part of the run. In the other part,
the carnation in the ad was printed in red. Again there was
an increase in readership, but it was of such a magnitude
that it would be expected to occur by chance almost 25 times
out of 100.
On the third day, an ad for an appliance store was
printed in black and white in one part of the run. In the
other part, the entire ad was underprinted in olive green.
The increase in readership with the addition of color was so
great that it would be expected to occur by chance fewer
than five times in 1,000 tests.
Dr. Rarick speculates that "good" black and white
ads benefit less from color than do "poor" ones, and his
evidence seems to support that hypothesis.
The 13 hypotheses that Rarick tested are not an ex-
haustive list. Editorial and advertising executives will think
of other hypotheses which can be tested by the split-run
method.
The foregoing summary is from a 78-page monograph
(81/2 x 11 format) which reproduces all of the tested items.
A better understanding of the findings and the method can
be had by examining the reproduced items and pages. The
monograph may be obtained from the School of Journalism,
University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore., for $2.00 per copy.
A commendable aspect of the research was the excellent
cooperation of the editorial, advertising and mechanical
staffs of the Register-Guard.
(Galen R. Rarick, Field Experiments in Newspaper Item
Readership. 1967)






Research on Alphabet Length,
Line Length and Spacing
Dr. Richard H. Wiggins, of Louisiana State University,
in 1964, tested the effect on reading speed of lower-case
alphabet length; line length of three different 8-point fonts
of Regal type; and constant spacing (using thin spaces)
versus variable spacing (using spacebands).
The three Regal type fonts were No. 1B TTS with a
lower-case alphabet length (a-z) of 110.6 points; No. 1 TTS
with a lower-case alphabet of 118.1 points, and No. 2 with a
lower-case alphabet length of 126 points.
The three line widths were 10, 11 and 12 picas, thus,
nine specimens without leading were used.
The findings were as follows:
1. The type with the shortest lower-case alphabet length
was read 3.8% faster than the face with the longest.
2. Reading speed increased as the line length was in-
creased-7.7% faster for a 12-pica than for a 10-pica line.
3. The combination read fastest was No. 1B set 12
picas wide; the slowest read was No. 2 set 10 picas wide.
The difference in reading speed between these two extremes
was 13.3%.
In a second experiment, Regal No. 2 8-point was set solid
in five line lengths-10, 14, 19, 24 and 29 picas-and with
two spacing arrangements. Thus, ten specimens were tested.
One-half of the specimens were set with thin spaces to
give constant spacing and the other five were set with space-
bands which produced variable spacing. Constant spacing
resulted in an uneven right margin and variable spacing pro-
duced even right margins.
The findings were as follows:
1. Text set with constant spacing can be read at about
the same speed as text set with variable spacing.
2. Speed of reading increased as the line length in-
creased from 10 through 19 picas, but decreased for 24- and
29-pica lines. The optimum line length (for this 8-point type
set solid) was found to be between 14 and 24 picas, and the
ideal line length should be between 39 and 52 characters
(i.e., from one and one-half to two alphabets).
3. The size of the average space produced by using space
bands (i.e., variable spacing) was 108.3% larger than when
thin spaces were used to produce constant spacing.
The data from the two experiments imply that wider
characters and wider spacing reduce speed of reading be-
cause of the eye span. Narrow letters and small spaces enable
the eye to see more characters within each eye span. (This
reduction, however, could be carried to a point at which the
eyes would have difficulty in distinguishing the letter forms).






No definite inferences could be made as to the effect of
spacing that produces even and uneven right margins under
the condition of these experiments. A different research de-
sign would be required for the measurement of effect of
spacing as such.
(Richard H. Wiggins. Effects of Three Typographical Vari-
ables on Speed of Reading (MS. to be published in the Journal
of Typographic Research); "Insight Gained on Effect of
Line, Alphabet Length and Spacing on Reading and Compre-
hension," Iowa Publisher, March, 1966; Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Iowa, 1964)



Greater Production for
TTS-set Type in 15-Pica Width
Rolufs, of South Dakota State University, conducted an
experiment this year which seems to show that a TTS oper-
ator can set type 22.7% faster in 15-pica measure than in
11-pica measure.
Twenty-five TTS operators on newspapers in Minne-
sota, Iowa and South Dakota punched tape for ten minutes,
using two different pieces of copy-for five minutes on one
line width and for five minutes on the other line width. The
copy order was rotated from operator to operator to de-
crease the possibility of sequence bias.
After the operators had finished, the TTS tape was run
through a linecasting machine and proofs were pulled. The
proofs were read for errors and hyphenations, and the num-
ber of ems of type and the words per hundred ems were de-
termined.
In addition to the finding about output production,
Rolufs reported these conclusions:
1. Errors are an operator function and are not re-
lated to line width.
2. Hyphenation is related to line width and, by in-
ference, relates in some way to operator speed.
3. Words per 100 ems is not a function of line width,
but rather is a function of "set width" of the particular type
used.
A previous report of research about line width by J. K.
Hvistendahl, of South Dakota State University, is at pp.
72-74 of Volume 1 of "News Research for Better News-
papers," 1966.
(Larry E. Rolufs, "An Analysis of the Production Output
Difference Between an 11-Pica and 15-Pica Line Width
When Type Is Set by the TTS Method," Master's thesis,
South Dakota State University, 1967)







Chapter 2


For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 59-66 and Vol. 2,
pp. 55-64
When People Want to Know...
Where Do They Go to Find Out?
When a national sample of adults was asked "What is
the best way to find out?" about 120 news-editorial items,
television was the "preferred" medium for finding out
about those events which could best be captured by action
pictures.
The newspaper was the "preferred" medium for learn-
ing about those matters which require explanation and
which were not particularly enhanced by visualization.
The items in which people had the highest interest
were those which reported some threat in the environ-
ment or which related to some problem in the individuals'
lives.
Of 120 advertising items, the average item had an in-
terest score three-fourths as high as that of the average
news or editorial item.
Editors' estimates of the public's interest in the news-
editorial items are also reported.
Opinion Research Corp. interviewed a national prob-
ability sample of 1,991 adults (and 479 teenagers) in No-
vember 1966, to ascertain what sources people turn to for
the information they want on a daily basis. The study was
sponsored by the Newsprint Information Committee and
was planned and designed by the Bureau of Advertising,
ANPA and by Opinion Research Corporation.
The respondents were handed a set of cards containing
"statements" and asked to indicate, by means of a sorting
board, "the best way to find out about what's on the card."
One-half of the statements related to advertising and one-
half were one-sentence synopses of news stories, news
broadcasts and magazine articles.
There were a total of 120 advertising and 120 news-
editorial statements, but each respondent was asked to
consider only 24 of the 240 statements.
The statements had been selected from 12 local news-
papers of various sizes, in 12 cities, of the same date; all
national magazines having one million or higher circulation;
12 television broadcasts and 12 radio broadcasts in each of
12 cities for Nov. 3-4, 1966.
Although the statements do not represent a probability
sample of content, they were selected by a random method
and are, thus, fairly representative of the information that
the adult public could have been exposed to on the specific
dates.
Sorting boards were also used by the respondents to
indicate their interest in the individual statements--a great







deal; some interest; a little interest; and no interest. When
the responses were weighted, the index of interest for the
individual news-editorial statements ranged from a low of
15 to a high of 73.
The study did not report separate scores for men and
women: the index scores represent a combination of the
sexes. This should be kept in mind when comparing scores
on such kinds of information as sports and fashions. (See
Table 2 for the individual items).
Categories of Interest
For the purpose of analysis, we have categorized the
120 "news" items as to subject-matter. There are 37 cate-
gories (see Table 1). These are subjective classifications:
another person who examines the 120 items in Table 2
might use a different system of categorization.
Table 1 shows for each category the average score on
the interest index, the number of items in each category (in
parentheses), and the number of times each medium was
designated by the most respondents as the best source for
the particular information. When the difference between
the two highest media was less than 5 per cent we have
assumed there was no significant difference. (See the last
column in Table 1.)
TABLE 1.
RELATIVE INTEREST IN 37 KINDS OF NEWS ITEMS AND
"BEST WAY TO FIND OUT"


Ave.
Score Newsp.


No
TV Radio Mag. Dif.


Accident-Disaster:
Ambiguous order (2) ...
Personal health (4) ............
U .S. at W ar (7) ........................
The President:
Politics (1) ..........................
Accident-Disaster:
First order (2) ..................
War: Local angle (4) .
Traffic (3) .. ........................
Children, welfare of (1)...
Aerospace (3) ......................
Accident-Disaster:
second order (5) ...............
Crime: murder (2) ............
Consumer prices (3) ..
Accident-Disaster:
third order (1) ..................
Child care (1) .......................
A alcohol (1) ........................
Weather (6) ....................
F ire (3) ......... ..........................
Labor: strike (2) ..................
China-Russia I .4)..


62 0 1 0 0 0


(Continued on next page)
21







(Continued from preceding page)


City government (3) .........
The economy-
business (9) .....................
Diplomacy (2) ........................
Transportation (1) ...............
Crime: other than
murder (12) .......................
Well-known
persons (6) ...........................
Practical advice (2) .
Education (2) ...........................
Science (1) .......................
Homemaking (2) ..................
Foreign politics (2) ............
Leisure activities (2) .
Radio personality (1) ..
Sports (10) .........................
Local personality:
fem ale (1) ......................
Fashion: men (1) ..................
Culture (4) ..........
Fashion: women (2) .
Not classified (3) ..................
TO TA L (120) ........................


Ave. No
Score Newsp. TV Radio Mag. Dif.
45 3 0 0 0 0


40 11


0 1 0 0


These medium "preferences" are taken from a table
which shows the percentage of persons who specified each
medium as the best source. For example, for the two items
about "Crime: murder," the percentages were as follows
(The original table shows that all people do not make choices
of one medium over another: there is a considerable overlap
for the specific item) :


Newsp. Mag.


TV Radio


1 ................................................... 53% 3% 19% 14%
2 ................................................... 3 7 3 3 2 18
A average .................................... 45 3 26 16
(Other sources and don't know responses have been omitted)
Only one of the categories seems to require definition:
"Accidents: Disaster." This category was broken down into
three sub-categories, depending upon the number of fatali-
ties and amount of property damage mentioned. They are
designated as accidents or disasters of the "first order,"
"second order," and "third order." There is also a fourth
sub-category, "ambiguous order" (The item: "There has
been an auto accident near the grade school").
The totals at the bottom of Table 1 show the total
number of times each medium was "preferred" as the best
way to find out. These were: newspaper, 64; television, 29;
radio, 5; and magazines, 10: In 12 instances there was no
significant difference between the two most preferred
media.


Item:






What Interests People
Without attempting to develop a complete theory of
news interest, we can make certain observations about
the interest index scores.
Of the 15 highest categories (all those with an average
score higher than 50), nearly all seem to relate either to
some perceived threat in the environment or to some prob-
lem in the individuals' lives (e.g., personal health, traffic,
consumer prices). The "preferred" media for information
about these high interest categories total: newspaper, 18;
television, 14; radio, 2; and magazine, 1.
The highest interest category-"Accident: Disaster:
ambiguous order"-refers to two items, viz., "There has
been an auto accident at a grade school around here"
(score=72) and "There has been an auto accident near the
grade school" (score=67). One can speculate that the inten-
sity of interest can be accounted for by the very ambiguity
of the report, the details of which were supplied by the
respondents' imagination (e.g., "Was my child injured?").
Forty per cent of the respondents said the best way to
find out about this accident was from the radio. This com-
pares with newspaper, 24%; television, 14%; family,
friends or neighbors, 12% ; no medium specified, 12%.
News Generates Anxiety
As Walter Lippmann remarked recently, "The world is
a disorderly and dangerous place." Since most of the mass
media assist the individual in making a surveillance of his
environment by merely reporting what has happened in the
world, they generate a great amount of anxiety, especially
at certain times.
Dr. Harold Mendelsohn has stated that if the media
reported nothing but news of the kind mentioned above,
individuals "over long periods of time [would] develop
mechanisms of reaction that [would] render them incapable
of functioning realistically." ("There's nothing I can do
about it, so why bother?").
But this does not happen, he adds, because the media
present entertainment and interpretation which seem to
"dull the edges of anxiety that are generated by the news."
This statement probably should be amended to read
"because the newspapers present interpretation.. ." There
is reason to believe that television has portrayed the war
in Vietnam and some of the race riots in ways that have
caused some people to make false evaluations. But the
careful newspaper reader has not been victimized by this
illusion of such events.
News of Lesser Interest
When we compare the kinds of items which have






average scores higher than 50 with the kinds of items
which have average scores of 50 or lower, we find the fol-
lowing media "preferences":
Newsp. TV Radio Mag.
A bove 50 ....................................... 18 14 2 1
50 or low er ................................. 46 15 3 9
T otal ............................................. 64 29 5 10
One explanation for the difference between the news-
paper and television could be that much of the kind of news
that is in the top interest categories is of the kind that lends
itself to dramatic and spectacular presentation by a visual
medium. This "action" kind of news could be the kind that
some people have in mind when they say they get "most of
their news" from television. Many newspaper-type items
are those which require explanation and which are not
particularly enhanced by visualization.
The Individual Items
Table 2 reports for each of the 120 items the average
score and rank of the item on the weighted interest index
(Columns 1 and 2). Column 4 shows the medium which re-
ceived the highest mention, Column 5 reports the percent-
age of those respondents who mentioned that medium; thus,
for the first item, 40% mentioned television, (which is
shown), 32% newspaper, 1% magazine, 18% radio, and
10% no medium.
When the difference between the percentages for the
two highest media was less than 5, an asterisk in Columns
4 and 5 indicates there was no significant difference.
Because of its length, Table 2 appears at the conclusion
of the regular text, beginning on page 111.
Editors' Estimates of the Public's Interest
Column 3 shows the rank when 52 managing editors
estimated the public's interest in each item on the same
interest scale. For 11 items editors' estimates are desig-
nated as "M" and "F" for one sex only. All other editors'
rankings and all of the public's rankings are for the com-
bined sexes.
The correlation of the public's interest and editors'
estimates of the public's interest (.33) is 11% better than
chance.
Editors underestimated the public's interest in the
big stories about the Vietnam war. But they overestimated
public interest in some of the stories in which the reader
reads in a role (e.g., a hunter reading about the opening
day of the deer-hunting season).
The explanation for this difference by Dr. Leo Bogart,
vice president and general manager of the Bureau of Ad-







vertising, is that newspaper editors "are constantly making
judgments on how much space to allocate to stories which
may have intense interest for only a small number of
readers and how much to stories which have a blander
kind of interest for a greater number."
In broadcasting, however, such dilemmas do not exist
because it is the size of the audience which is all important
to the sponsor, not the intense interest of a small minority.
The newspaper's strength, therefore, "lies precisely in its
capacity to serve diverse and segmented interests."
Of the first 15 highest ranked items by editors, 14 are
those which the public said it would most often look for in
a newspaper. This suggests that many of the editors were
thinking only about the "newspaper" kind of news.
Some of the difference in ranking also might be ac-
counted for by the fact that the editors rated all 120 state-
ments, whereas the respondents were asked about only 12
news-editorial items.
Education Makes Some Difference
Table 3 breaks down by education the respondents'
specification of the best source for finding out about all of
the 120 items. One of the interesting facts shown in the
table is the difference between high school graduates and
persons with grade school or less education in the choice of
the newspaper as a source of information-40% and 28%.
(The percentage of those with "some high school" education
who "preferred" the newspaper was 39%.) Possibly, varia-
tion in reading skill accounts for the difference.
The percentages shown in Table 3 relate to the average
item. When looked at another way, the study shows that
newspapers were thought to be the best way to find out for
59% of the statements, television 29%, magazines 8%, and
radio 4%.
TABLE 3.
Best Way to Find Out: By Education
Grade High
School School College All
or Less Grad. Grad. Adults
Newspaper ............... ............... 28% 40% 42% 37%
Television ........... 28 26 19 26
M magazine ..................... ..... 3 9 12 7
R adio .................................................. 14 14 14 14
Family, friends, neighbors 3 3 3 3
D on't know .......................................... 24 8 11 13
Local vs. International, National News
When respondents were asked whether they were per-
sonally more interested in what is happening in their own







city or town or in the national or international scene, the
percentages were as follows:


Own city or town .....................
Nat'l or int'l ....................................
No answer ..........................................


All
Adults
57%
45
3


Men Women
54% 59%
48 43
3 3


(The percentages total more than 100% because some people
mentioned both categories).
Despite the slight preference for local news, several of
the highest interest scores were for individual national and
international news items.

Interest in Advertising
An analysis of the interest scores for all 240 statements
shows that of those ranked in the top half, one-third re-
lated to an advertising message. Also, that the average
score for advertising statements was three-fourths of the
average score for news-editorial statements.
TABLE 2.
Relative Interest in 120 News-Editorial Items, "Preferred"
Medium, and Editors' Estimate of Public's Interest
N=newspaper, T=television, R=radio, M=magazine, *=no difference
WEIGHTED
INTEREST INDEX
Edi-
Respondents' tors' Pfd.
Score Rank Rank Medium Pct.
The U.S. 7th Fleet has bom-
barded the shore line in Vietnam... 73 1 51 T 40


There has been an auto accident
at a grade school around here ......... 72
A new vaccine is being devel-
oped that could put a stop to one
of the childhood diseases by next
year ................................. ..... 70
U.S. military leaders in Viet
Nam believe that intensive bomb-
ings may have stopped a major
enem y attack ........................................ ........ 70
A brand of dried food is being
ordered removed from stores be-
cause it might not be safe to eat...... 70
The local electric utility com-
pany was ordered to reduce its
ra te s ................................................................................. 6 8
The weather tomorrow will be
clear and cool .................... 68


(Continued on next page)
26


- R 40


5 2 N 40



5 31 T 54


5 9 T 36


7 1 N 58

7 20 T 53








(Continued from preceding page)


Respondents'
Score Rank


Edi-
tors' Pfd.
Rank Medium


American ships are seeing ac-
tion on the North Vietnamese
co ast ................................................................. ....... 67
There has been an accident near
the grade school ......................... .............. 67
The Defense Department re-
ported the shooting down of 2
more jets in North Vietnam ............ 66
A local youth was the lone sur-
vivor of a North Korean ambush... 65
Researchers are finding out
which viruses cause most colds 64
A Yank patrol was ambushed
below the Korea armistice line ...... 63
A local area soldier safely re-
turns from active duty in Viet
N am ...................................................................... ..... 63
A fire killed eight men on an
aircraft carrier in the Pacific ......... 63
The President has criticized
foreign policy statements made
by a Republican leader ...................... 62
A world leader is going to have
a series of operations ........ ............... 62
A news medium takes a stand
against inflation in the U.S. ............... 60
Patients had to be evacuated
from a nearby hospital because
of a fi re ........................................................................ 60
Early snowstorms have killed
18 persons in the U.S .................... 59
Traffic signals will be installed
at a local intersection by the
State Highway Dept. ................................. 59
The Food and Drug Adminis-
tration is checking for bacteria in
antibiotics .......................................................... 59
Women across the country are
protesting high prices by not
shopping in supermarkets ............. 59
The state highway death toll
rose by 68 last year .......................... 59
A soldier from a nearby city
was killed in action in Vietnam..... 58


9 50 T 40

9 28 R 40


10 82

11 3

12 10

15 45


15 80

15 33


17 65

17 24

19 117


19 36

24 81


T 43

N 40


T 37


N 54

T 43


T 41

T 53

N 46


T 34

* *


24 79 N


24 39


24 14

24 90

25 71


N 46


N 52

N 40

N 51


(Continued on next page)
27







(Continued from preceding page)
Edi-
Respondents' tors'
Score Rank Rank


A tornado struck a southern
state today with several people
h u r t ........................ ................... ...................
An explosion at a large plant
killed one and injured two today...
Unemployment is at its lowest
level in eight years ....................................
A missing man and his wife
were found murdered at a moun-
tain cam p ........................... ....................
The Space-Defense Center keeps
track of every man-made object
in sp ace ................................ ..................
A total of 14 men have died
fighting brush and forest fires in
Southern California ................................
A school for brain-damaged
children uses special teaching
tech n iqu es ........................ ....................
Another space capsule will be
launched from Cape Kennedy
n ex t w eek ......................... ...................
Tension is rising in Red China
because of the activities of the
R ed G u ard .................................. .........
Thousands of travelers are
stranded because of the worst
snowstorm on record in the Mid-
w e s t .................................................... ..........
Brush fires in California de-
stroy m any acres ................. .........
An avalanche has trapped 200
people in Switzerland ..................
A new plant for manufacturing
defense products will open near
h e r e .................................................... ..........
The photographs astronauts take
help scientists study the earth ......
A woman was rescued unhurt
from her car which was sub-
merged in a nearby creek ...............
Record blizzards struck early
th is y ear ....................................... ...........
A charge has been made that
the U.S. is shipping large quanti-
ties of liquor to troops in Viet-
n am ..................................................................... .


30 66

30 23

30 52


Pfd.
Medium


T 43

T 34

N 47


30 21 N


30 94


31 55


* *


T 48


34 73 N


34 84


34 26



38 18

38 102

38 32


38 12

39 68


T 52


T 39



T 42

T 42

T 38


N 55

T 46


43 19 T 42


43 49


T 41


51 43 17 N 43


(Continued on next page)
28







(Continued from preceding page)
Edi-
Respondents' tors' Pfd.
Score Rank Rank Medium


If a child can think for himself,
he can handle emergencies better... 51
The Secretary of Defense will
confer with the President at his
ranch hom e .................................................... .. 50
The workers in a large corpora-
tion are still on strike with no
hope of an early settlement ............ 50
Small businesses are getting a
larger share of defense contracts... 50
A nationally-known politician
has been sentenced and fined for
contempt of court ..................................... 50
Traffic on the highway was held
up for two hours today because
of a restaurant fire .................................. 49
Inexperienced motorcycle op-
erators cause a sharp rise in the
accident rate .................................................... 49
Russia casts its 104th veto in
the U united N nations ...................................... 47
An empty rowboat was found,
but two local men are missing ...... 46
A mother stabs herself and her
children in a murder-suicide at-
tem p t .......................................... ........................ 4 6
A labor union may call a strike
against one of the nation's largest
com panies ....................................................... ...... 46
U.S. and Russia have reached
an agreement on direct airline
flights between New York and
M oscow .............................................................. ..... 45
Works of art destroyed by van-
dals near here .............................................. 45
A foreign government ordered
a U.S. diplomat to get out of their
cou n try ............................................................. ...... 45
The city's mayor said that a
Community Center plan will be
announced soon ........................................ ... 45
A new city hall is being pro-
moted by all of our civic organi-
zation s .................................................................. .... 45
Students were given a holiday
because of a threatening tele-
phone call ........................... .......................... 45


43 43F M 35


47 104 T


47 97


47 101 N


4 N 43


49 44


49 77


R 36


N 48


50 111 T 43


53 5


53 13


53 47


59 40

59 69


N 43


N 53


N 47


59 54 *


59 25


59 16


59 38


N 48


N 50


R 31


(Continued on next page)
29








(Continued from preceding page)
Edi-
Respondents' tors'
Score Rank Rank


Former President Eisenhower
has defended a Republican leader
who was criticized by the Presi-
d e n t ................................................................. ............
A local zoning board has put
aside requests for rezoning and
will consider them later ................
A bad snowstorm hits area
from Alabama to Michigan ..............
Scientists are probing the
Rockies for oil to increase our
dw indling reserves .....................................
A diesel passenger train travel-
ing 75 miles an hour struck and
killed a m an ....................................... ..............


Florida citrus crops have been
threatened by a northern cold
fr o n t .............................................. ................... ..... 4 3
Two young men in the South are
taking a lie detector test in con-
nection with the disappearance of
tw o girls ..................................................... ........ 43
A man disappeared from town
eight months ago and so far there
are no clues to his whereabouts 43
A fire in a garage and rear sec-
tion of a dwelling caused $2,500
d am ag e ............................................................. ...... 42
A U.S. ambassador met with
the Pope to report on recent
Presidential activities ......................... 42
Stock market experts say that
it will remain steady ............................ 42
New ideas in trains will lead to
faster and better railroad trans-
p ortation ........................................................ ..... 41
An ex-convict was arrested on
a burglary charge .................................. 41
A bandit gets a 20-year sentence
for a $2,000 robbery of a finance
com p any ........................................................ ...... 40
When you choose plants for the
garden, there are a number of
things to keep in mind ........................... 40
A well-known dictionary re-
flects a new trend toward accept-
in g slan g ...................................................... ....... 39


44 61


61 85

67 60


67 100


67 34


67 75


Pfd.
Medium


76 T 44


N 64

T 47


N 36


N 44


T 41


67 53 N


67 61


70 112


N 53


N 49


70 108 *

70 37M N 42


72 78

72 110


74 67


N 50

N 51


N 25


74 88F M


80 72 N


(Continued on next page)
30








(Continued from preceding page)
Edi-
Respondents' tors'
Score Rank Rank


A clergyman was found guilty
of assault and battery ..........................
A local girl will spend a year
in Viet Nam with the Red Cross
C lu bm obile ............................................. ..........
An aging state governor has
been reported to be critically ill
Parents can have fun making
toys for their children .......................
Installment buying should be
done in proportion to a family's
in co m e ............................................................. .......
There will be a school board
meeting this afternoon at 2:00
p .m ......................................................... ...... ...........
Swedish educators are in favor
of sex education programs for
teen agers ........................................... ...... ...
A woman was arrested on a
charge of embezzlement at a
nursing home this morning ...............
Many of China's top scientists
and engineers hold degrees from
American universities ...........................
Two trays of diamonds are
missing from a local jewelry
sto r e .................................................................... .
When checked regularly a
heating system lasts from 20 to
30 years ...............................
A stock market average was
down slightly at the latest report
Business firms are still com-
Flaining about the lag in mail de-
ivery in a large nearby city .........
The Nobel prize for physics
went to a French scientist ..................
The leader of the German gov-
ernment is having political diffi-
cu ltie s ...................... ....................... ...........


80 15


80 86


39 80


Pfd.
Medium Pct.

N 54


N 54

N 36


80 106 M


80 62


81 114


* *


N 30


83 35 N


83 48 N


36 86


86 29


86 116

89 96


N 42


N 42


N 29

* *


89 93 N 52

89 83 T 35


91 109


N 41


A 51-year-old woman's first
pregnancy yields twins ................... 34 91 7
Undercover detectives raided a
coffee house which was being
used for gambling ..................................... 33 92 30
(Continued on next page)
31


N 45


N 45








(Continued from preceding page)


Edi-
tors' Pfd.
Rank Medium


A large company is doing re-
search on methods of packaging 32
A woman was sworn in to a
cabinet post in one of the new
A frican nations ........................................... 32
Three players from a college
football team are sick with a
v iru s .............................................................................. 32
The founder of a multi-million
dollar business is now on relief
because his fortune is tied up ...... 30
A race track operator claims he
bribed three state legislators ......... 30
The second annual cross-coun-
try championship will be held
this Saturday ........ ......... .......................... 29
Cookies can be used as orna-
ments to make an original Christ-
m as tree ............................................. 29
The cold snap is perfect
weather for opening day of the
deer-hunting season ............................. 29
College students are protesting
prices in the snack shop ................ 28
A boxing commission orders a
champion to defend his boxing
title or give it up ................... ..... 28
A local charity organization is
having a rummage sale ........................ 28
A local girl is playing with the
hockey team in an out-of-town
tournam ent .......................................................... 27
A local radio personality is to
play at a gathering of young
people ........................ ................. .... 26
During the Kennedy adminis-
tration many antiques were ac-
quired by the White House .......... 26
The college's leading passer will
miss Saturday's football game
because of a pulled muscle ............ 25

Two local girls are participat-
ing in a sewing contest in Paris
th is w eek ...................................................... ....... 25


95 118


95 115


N 38


N 40


95 56M N 46


97 11

97 8


100 107


100 92F


100 27M

103 57


103 58

103 119


N 50

N 42


N 48


M 48


* *

N 42


N 42

N 47


104 91 N 47


106 105 R 44


106 103 *


6M N 45


109 70


(Continued on next page)
32


N 54


Respondents'
Score Rank








(Continued from preceding page)


Respondents'
Score Rank


Edi-
tors' Pfd.
Rank Medium


There are many new adult
games for entertaining at home ... 25

A clothing manufacturer makes
men's suits with wider lapels and
deep side vents ........................................... 24

Rare paintings from an out-of-
town gallery are being exhibited
in the art museum this week ......... 24

College students volunteer to
remove snow from stadium for
the com ing gam e ........................................ 22

At least 70 cars are expected to
compete in the race on Sunday .... 20

Feathers are making a come-
back in women's high fashion
cloth in g .......................................................... ..... 19

The "pants suit" for women is
becoming more popular every
d a y .................................................................................... 1 9

Daily walks can help put' a per-
son into condition for skiing ......... 19

A well-known actress sews for
her entire fam ily ..................................... 16

The latest James Bond movie
was filmed amid wild confusion
and at great expense ............................ 16

250 horses were sold for more
than a million dollars at a nearby
h orse sale ............................................................. 15

An American poet is touring
Latin A m erica .............................................. 15


109 95 T


111 98M


111


112 64


N 32


N 45


N 42


113 87 N


116 42F M


116 22F M

116 113 M

118 59F M


118 89


120 63

120 120


N


N

N


(Bureau of Advertising, ANPA, "When People Want to
Know ... Where Do They Go To Find Out?". June, 1967)


38


32

23

34


33


50

39







When Teenagers Want to Know...
Where Do They Go to Find Out?
The fifth national study of newspaper reading, done
last November-December for the Newsprint Information
Committee and the Bureau of Advertising, ANPA, mea-
sured the exposure to news of a national probability sample
of teenagers. Adults were also interviewed by Opinion Re-
search Corporation.
Teenagers were asked whether they got their news
"yesterday" from a newspaper, a television news broad-
cast, a radio news broadcast, or whether they did not expose
themselves to news. Altogether, 89% had some news ex-
posure on the average weekday.
Table 1 shows the exposure to the different media for
both teenagers and adults. The percentages are not mea-
sures of exposure to the media, but of exposure to the media
to obtain news. Respondents were shown a list of items on
cards and asked, one card at a time, about "the best way to
find out about what's on the card."
TABLE 1.
YESTERDAY'S EXPOSURE TO NEWS FOR COMBINATION OF MEDIA
Teenagers Adults
Total new spaper ............................................................... 68% 78%
T otal radio ................................................................................. 54 55
T otal television ..................................................................... 37 60
N ew spaper only .................................................................. 16 12
T television only ..................................................................... 6 6
R adio on ly ................................................................................. 11 5
Newspaper and radio only .................................... 25 17
Newspaper and tv only ............................................. 13 21
Television and radio only ....................................... 4 5
A ll three m edia .................................................................. 14 28
No exposure to media news
yesterday ..................................................................... .. 11 6
(The percentages add to more than 100 because respondents were
exposed to several media)
The grand totals for all media are 159% for teenagers
and 193% for adults. These indicate the extent to which
people use one medium to supplement other media for
obtaining news.
Advertising as "News"
Respondents were asked whether they agreed or dis-
agreed with these statements: "When I pick up a news-
paper/magazine (turn on television/radio) I look forward to
the ads (commercials)."
Table 2 shows the percentage of those who agreed.







TABLE 2.
PERCENTAGES WHO AGREED WITH THESE STATEMENTS: "WHEN I
PICK UP A NEWSPAPER/MAGAZINE (TURN ON TELEVISION/RADIO) I
LOOK FORWARD TO THE ADS (COMMERCIALS)"
12-14 15-17 18-20 Adults
Newspaper ....................................... 44% 54% 60% 67%
M magazine .......................................... 47 54 70 56
Television ....................................... 29 17 24 25
R adio ....................................... .......... 20
*The study did not report the responses by teenagers.
This question was also asked: "Suppose there were no
ads at all in the newspaper/no television commercials, but
everything else was exactly the same as it is now. Do you
think the newspaper/television would be more satisfying to
you personally in your life, less satisfying, or just about the
same?"
The percentages of those who said "less satisfying" are
shown in Table 3 for teenagers and adults.

TABLE 3.
PERCENTAGE WHO ANSWERED "LESS SATISFYING" IF NEWSPAPERS
AND TELEVISION PROGRAMS HAD NO ADS
12-14 15-17 18-20 Adults
Newspaper .................................... 46% 48% 65% 63%
Television ....................................... 21 18 26 20
For many years it has been believed that most news-
paper readers appreciate the kind of information that is
supplied by advertisements. Table 3 seems to provide a
measure of the extent to which this belief is confirmed. It
also shows that the older teenagers value advertisements to
about the same extent that adults do.
(When People Want to Know ... Where Do They Go to Find
Out?, 1967)



When Evening Newspaper Is Read
When Belden Associates (Dallas) interviewed house-
wives for the Houston Chronicle's Continuing Market Study,
they asked when they read the evening newspaper. The
results were as follows:
Noon to 6 p.m. .................... 28%
6 p.m. to 8 p.m. ................... 38
8 p.m. to 10 p.m. .................. 19
After 10 p.m. ..................... 8
Before 8 a.m ..................... 3
8 a.m to noon .................... 9
*105







*Some housewives read the paper in more than one time period
(The Houston Chronicle Continuing Market study of Metro-
politan Houston, 1966-67)



Media Use in Presidential Election Campaigns
By
Maxwell McCombs and Walter Wilcox
University of California, Los Angeles
Secondary analysis of statistics concerned with news-
paper vs. television as the primary news medium brings into
serious question the assumption that the broadcast media
have eroded the newspaper audience.
The analysis provides convincing evidence that the com-
parison of the newspaper to television lacks validity, as
comparing apples to pears or sheep to goats. Further, it
creates doubts that audiences themselves are comparable, as
in Paul Lazarsfeld's studies which show that heavy con-
sumers of one medium are likely to be heavy consumers of
another, and that there is no such thing as a neat separation
of media audiences. And third, the data raise a question
about the role of the various media in terms of the kind
of information they carry, and the consequent pitfalls in
creating a direct confrontation.
The analysis involved: (1) interpretation of the survey
research statistics themselves, and (2) examination of the
validity of the questions asked the news consumer public.
The Michigan Survey Research Center data cover four
presidential election studies done from 1952 to 1964, a
period of 12 years. Two questions were asked about media
use during the national election campaign. The point is not
the relative standing of the newspaper, but rather the trend
over the 12-year period. (In this era of electronic campaign-
ing, questions about political campaigns tend to enhance
the advantage of the broadcast media. Election campaigns
carry heavy loadings of drama, conflict and visibility, ap-
peals suited to television.)


TABLE 1
Question: "Of all these ways of following the campaign
which one would you say you got the most information
from?"







1952 1956 1960 1964 Net
Change
N=1557* N=15950 N=1729* N=1372* 1952-64
Newspapers* ..... 25% 27% 24% 25% 0
Television* ....... 34 54 63 60 +26
Radio* .......... 30 12 6 4 -26
TV Households** .. 37 70 88 90 +53
*Source: Survey Research Center, University of Michigan.
**Source: Bureau of the Census.
(Note: Some respondents gave some other medium as the
source of "most" news, e.g., but these were minimal and are not in-
cluded in the total.)
The data in Table 1 show that:
-The newspaper held steady across the 12 years. (The
minor variation is undoubtedly due to sampling error.)
-Television quite obviously appropriated its share of
gain from radio. The possibility that television gained from
the newspaper which in turn restored its loss from radio
seems remote.
-Television failed to keep pace with the gain in the
percentage of households with television sets. It leveled off
at a point in time between 1954 and 1960, whereas the house-
hold set percentage continued to rise.
-In the same period radio almost went out of business
as a primary source for election news, slumping from an
advantage over the newspaper to a minimal 4% as the
primary medium.
What do these figures mean? Unfortunately, the data do
not probe for reasons. But some inferences are tenable.
Aligning broadcasting against the newspaper, at least on
the basis of a question such as this one, is probably an error
of comparison, of aligning unlike things. In changing media
patterns over the 12 years, the newspaper seems to have
remained isolated, unaffected, stabilized, whereas television
fed from radio. The logical comparison then, is television to
radio. Television cannot be said to have made inroads into
the newspaper, which did not have the audience preference
in the first place.
Within the context of the question asked, the audience
preferences seem to have reached a state of equilibrium.
Table 1 shows that the relative preference for broadcast and
newspaper election news has held steady for about ten
years.
Further data were extracted from a second series of
questions in the same Survey Research Center studies.
These data, also concerned with election campaigns, mea-
sured the proportion of the audience in terms of whether
they had obtained any (rather than most) information
from the various media. The data are given in Table 2.
37








TABLE 2
The question was not the same for each year. Generally,
it was: "Did you (watch, read, listen) about the campaign
in . .?"
Data: Percentage of those answering "NO."
Net
Change
1952 19560 1960 1964 1952-64
Newspapers ...... 21 31 21 22 + 1
Television ........ 49 26 13 11 -38
Radio ........... 30 55 58 62 +32
Magazine ........ 60 69 59 61 + 1
*For the year 1956, the respondents were given a simple yes/
no alternative whereas in other years they were given such alterna-
tives as "not very much" and "from time to time." This probably
resulted into forcing more respondents into the "No" category in
1956 than for the other years.
Unfortunately, the questions were not the same for each
year and it is necessary to present the figures negatively,
that is, those who answered "no," as further explained in
Table 2. The patterns are roughly the same (newspapers
stable, television drawing from radio) with one added di-
mension: the magazine, as the newspaper, tended to re-
main stable, providing another bit of evidence that the
changing pattern is in fact within the broadcast media and
not cross-media.
Probing the relative validity of the question itself is
somewhat more difficult. What does a question really mean
to the respondent? The Survey Center questions on media
preference forced the respondent to select only one medium.
Yet Lazarsfeld's early election campaign studies found that
media use was supplementary. Elmo Roper's recent surveys
for the Television Information Office did allow respondents
to make more than one choice. While this change in the
question will result in changes in the absolute percentage
selecting television or newspapers, the crucial comparison
is the change in preference over time for a particular med-
ium.


TABLE 3
Question: "First, I would like to ask you where you
get most of your news about what's going on in the world
today-from the newspapers or radio or television or maga-
zines or talking to people or where ?"







Net
1959 1961 1963 1964 Change
Source of most news % % % % 1959.1964
Television ......... 51 52 55 58 +7
Newspapers ....... 57 57 53 56 -1
Radio ............ 34 34 29 26 -8
Magazines ........ 8 9 6 8 0
*Source: Television Information Office, 666 Fifth Avenue, New
York: "The Public's View of Television and Other Media, 1959-
1964," (A Report of Five Studies by Elmo Roper and Associates,
March 15, 1965).
The patterns in Table 3 show television gaining at the
expense of radio with the newspaper remaining constant, as
in the Survey Research Center studies. But the key to the
response may well be in the question itself, specifically the
phrase "in the world."
George Gallup, reporting on 1,644 respondents inter-
viewed in 1960, first asked: "Where do you get most of
your information about what's going on in the world?"
(Multiple responses were allowed.) The results:
Newspapers .................. 61%
Television .................... 53%
Radio ........................ 21%
Magazines .................... 19%
The newspaper and television figures correspond gen-
erally with those of Roper (Table 3) but the magazine and
radio figures differ to a degree beyond that of chance. Why?
Could it be that the Roper question specifically mentioned
radio and magazines whereas the Gallup question did not?
But back to the key phrase "in the world." Gallup asked
another question: "Where do you get most of your informa-
tion about what's going on here locally?" (Again, multiple
responses were allowed.)
Newspapers ................... 72%
Television .................... 22%
Radio ........................ 21%
Thus, a pronounced difference was evoked by the
phrase "in the world" as opposed to "here locally."
The data, cast as they are here, probably point out two
object lessons: 1) the complex patterns of media roles are
not easily measured by simple survey research questions,
and 2) cross-media comparisons are especially susceptible to
errors of interpretation.







Type of Residence Affects
College Students' Communication Behavior
Dr. Maxwell E. McCombs early in 1967 conducted a
study of the communication behavior of students at the
University of California at Los Angeles, using a random
sample of 816 students. He reported his findings by the stu-
dents' type of residence.
Most of the students read a newspaper every day or al-
most every day, and there were no great differences as to
type of residence. But the amount of time spent reading
the newspaper on a given day varied considerably by type of
residence, as shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1. TIME SPENT READING THE NEWSPAPER
More Than
30 Mins.
D orm itory .......................................... 44.9%
Frat./sorority ....................................... 30.9
Parents' hom e ....................................... 57.9
Ow n hom e/apt. .................................... 61.5
Even greater differences were found as to tv viewing. The
first column in Table 2 reports the combined percentages of
those who looked at tv every day or almost every day, and
the second column shows the percentage who saw a news
program or documentary "in the past week."


TABLE 2. TV VIEWING BEHAVIOR
Frequency Saw
of Use Tv News
Dorm itory ............ ........................ 9.4% 28.5%
Frat./sorority ................................. 11.6 29.5
Parents' home ................................. 66.9 75.5
Own hom e/apt. .................................... 43.1 52.8
Most of the students who had their own home or apart-
ment were probably graduate students, who represented
36.1% of the whole sample.
About two-thirds of the students said they listened
to radio every day, but their listening was nearly always
incidental to driving, studying or doing housework.
About one-fourth of the students subscribed to a news
magazine and almost an equal proportion read somebody
else's copy. This is about the same proportion who said they
had viewed a tv news or documentary "in the last week"
(51.1%).
The parts of the newspaper which all students reported
they usually read are shown in Table 3.







TABLE 3. READING OF PARTS OF THE NEWSPAPER
Front page ................................................ 19.2%
Entertainm ent .................................. 18.0
S p orts ....................................................... 17.0
G general new s ..................................... 15.5
Nat'l, int'l news ............................ 7.3
C ity n ew s .............................................. 1.8
E editorial ................................................. 14.8
F financial .............................................. 2.0
F am ily ............................................ ...... .... 4.0
For a previous report on the newspaper reading be-
havior of college students, see "News Research for Better
Newspapers," Vol. 1, p. 65.
(Maxwell E. McCombs, Mass Communication on the Cam-
pus," UCLA Communications Board, 1967)



Change in Media Use in Sacramento
In a profile-of-the-audience study of readers of the Sac-
ramento (Calif.) Union done in July-August 1966 by Anthony
J. Scantlen of Copley International Corp. (sample=752),
readers were asked about the amount of time devoted to news-
papers, radio and television "as compared with a year ago at
this time."
The findings were as follows:
Newsp. Radio Tv
Spending less time now ....................... 7.3% 20.9% 38.9%
Spending about the same
amount of time now ................ 69.3 52.8 45.9
Spending more time now ............... 23.3 21.9 13.7
D on 't know ............. ....................................... 0.1 4.4 1.5
100.0 100.0 100.0
A summary of a similar study done in Aurora, Ill. in
1965 was reported in "News Research for Better News-
papers," Vol. 2, p. 62.
(The Sacramento Market: A Profile of the Sacramento Union
Audience)




Most Educational Television Viewers
Are Print-oriented
Dr. Wilbur Schramm of Stanford University studied
the educational television audience in 1966 on behalf of Na-
tional Educational Television, an association of ETV sta-
tions.







In one phase of the study, all members of the family in
four geographical areas were interviewed in the home.
These families were a sub-sample of a larger number which
had been identified in telephone coincidental surveys as ETV
viewers.
One of the questions was: "If there were no television,
radio, magazines or newspapers, which one of these four
things do you think you would miss most?"
The findings for families in San Francisco and Georgia
(viewers of WGTU at Athens) were as follows:


Newspapers ....
Magazines .....
Television ......
Radio ........


San
Francisco
Male Female
60% 41%
19 16
13 23
8 21


Georgia
Male Female
22% 29%
9 4
50 48
19 19


The San Francisco sample had a larger than usual
proportion of persons educated beyond the bachelor's de-
gree and the Georgia sample had a somewhat larger pro-
portion of grade school-educated persons. The table above
seems to show that preference for the newspaper is closely
related to educational achievement.
The interviewers also asked all persons in the sub-
sample "What would you miss most about television (radio,
magazines, newspapers) ?" The results are in Table 1.
TABLE 1
MALE


N ew s .................... .. ........
Entertainment ....................
S p ecials ...................... ........
S p orts ........................... .....
M ov ies ........................................
Educ. Television ..............
Music ......................
Financial ..................
Editorials, columns .....
C om ics .......... .......................
Science, prof. info. ........
General information ..
Features ...................
O their ............ ........................
N nothing ...................................

N ew s ............................................
Entertainment .....................
S p ecials ....................................
M ov ies ..........................................
Educ. Television ...............
Dramas, serials ..................


TV
29%
19
16
16
9
5


Radio Mags.
29% 45%*




42 -


- 11
- 11
- 8
7 10
6 17


30%*


FEMALE
38% 34%
9 -
9 -
6 -
29 -
9 -
(continued on next page)


Newsps.
47%




8
6
5

6
10
5

69%







FEMALE
TV Radio


Mags. Newsps.


M usic ............................................. 49 -
Com ics .......................................... 6
General information ... 6 -
Features .................................... 16 8
Homemaking ........................ - 20 -
O their ............................................ 8 10
N nothing ....................................... 9 24 6
*Includes current events
The answers tell us something about which aspects of
each medium are most highly valued by well educated per-
sons.
Dr. Schramm had conducted a similar study in 1961. In
1966, he found, in telephone coincidental surveys of several
thousand households, that the audience for ETV had doubled
since 1961.
He also found that most viewers were reasonably well
educated and are in professional and white collar occupa-
tions.
In Pittsburgh, for example, he found that almost half
of those with education beyond the bachelor's degree
watched ETV once a week as compared with only 13 per
cent of those with a grade school education. Patterns in
other cities were similar.
Dr. Schramm also found that the mother in the family
was the most likely viewer of ETV, followed by the father,
with the children viewing least.
(Wilbur Schramm, The Audience for Educational Tele-
vision: A Report to National Educational Television, Feb-
ruary, 1967)



Denver Teenagers' Communication Behavior
One thousand teenagers answered a questionnaire last
October in connection with the Denver (Colo.) Post's an-
nual consumer analysis. They reported their newspaper
reading and viewing and listening behavior as follows:
Men Boys Women Girls
Read Post yesterday .. 83% 77% 82% 71%
Viewed television .... 80 84 84 82
Listened to radio .... 85 89

All respondents (7,260 adults and 1,000 teenagers)
were asked how long they had looked at television "yester-
day" and the teenagers were asked how long they had lis-
tened to radio "yesterday." The median time for each group
was as follows:







TV Radio
Men .............. 1 hr., 55 mins. -
Boys ............. 1 hr., 46 mins. I hr., 31 mins.
Women ........... 2 hrs., 6 mins. -
Girls ............. 1 hr., 46 mins. 2 hrs., 16 mins.

The teenagers were also asked, "About how much
money do you spend each month for entertainment such
as movies, etc. ?" The per cent who spent more than $5 a
month is reported by age groups as follows:
Boys Girls
13 years ................. 16% 14%
14 years ................. 33 27
15 years ................. 42 24
16 years ................. 66 44
17 years ................. 84 43
All ...................... 49 31

When teenagers were asked, "Do you personally own
any of the following?" the results were as follows:
Boys Girls
Record player ................ 45% 58%
Records ..................... 78 91
Musical instruments ........... 52 42
Radio (not transistor) ......... 64 63
Television set ................. 22 18
Car ......................... 10 5

This question was also asked of teenagers: "If you
were given an award in school, where would you most like
to have it reported ?" The answers were:
Boys Girls
Newspaper ............... 61% 72%
Television ............... 30 20
Radio ................... 10 8
(The Denver (Colo.) Post Teenage Study. October,
1966.)


Media Behavior of St. Louis Teenagers
The Bureau of Advertising, ANPA, in cooperation with
the St. Louis (Mo.), Post-Dispatch and Washington Uni-
versity, in March, 1966, studied the media behavior of a
sample of 764 St. Louis junior and senior high school stu-
dents. The questionnaire was self-administered in selected
schools.







Media behavior varies some with age, as shown in Table
1. As the child became older he read the newspaper more and
did less television viewing.


TABLE 1. MEDIA BEHAVIOR: BY AGE
17 and
Boys 12-14 15-16 older
Read newspaper yesterday* ............... 70% 70% 76%
Viewed TV yesterday ...................... 92 85 69
Listened to radio yesterday .................. 75 88 93
Read magazines regularly ..................... 74 79 76
Girls
Read newspaper yesterday* ............... 68% 67% 77%
Viewed TV yesterday .............................. 91 89 78
Listened to radio yesterday .................. 83 80 84
Read magazines regularly ..................... 77 85 82
*89% of the boys and 90% of the girls said they had read last
Sunday's paper.


Table 2 shows the variation of media behavior by socio-
economic neighborhood status of the schools. Newspaper
reading increased with the increase in socio-economic status
while television viewing declined. Of those who viewed tele-
vision yesterday (85% of all students), one-fourth did not
view television news (not shown in Table 2).



TABLE 2. MEDIA BEHAVIOR: BY NEIGHBORHOOD STATUS
Lower Upper
Middle/ Upper/
Lower Middle Middle
Read newspaper yesterday ........... 65% 74% 75%
Viewed TV yesterday ...................... 85 89 79
Viewed TV news yesterday .................. 64 62 63
Listened to radio yesterday .................. 81 83 89
Read magazine yesterday ........................ 73 77 87


The students were also asked: "If you were given an
award in school, where would you most like to have it re-
ported ?" The answers were as follows:
Boys Girls Total
N ew spaper ............. ............................. 49% 64% 57%
Television ............ 48 29 38
R a d io ............................................................... 6 9 8
N o answ er .................................... ....... 2 2 2
Table 3 shows the parts of the newspaper that the stu-
dents said they usually read.







TABLE 3. PARTS OF NEWSPAPER USUALLY READ
Boys Girls
C om ics ....................................................................... 90 % 93 %
F ron t p age ............................................................... 81 78
Movies, entertainment .............................. 75 82
S p orts ........................................................................... 77 40
Personal advice column ......................... 33 73
Local new s ................................................ 48 49
Radio, TV listings ............................. 46 50
Store ads ................................. .. 29 48
W weather .............................................. .. .. 39 40
National news .................................. .. .. 38 35
International news ........................... 32 28
Classified ads .................................................... 31 18
Games, Crossword puzzle ........................ 21 27
L letters to editor ................................................ 18 26
W om en's page ...................................................... 2 38
Food and recipes ................................ ..... 2 22
Business, finance, stocks ........................ 12 22
O b itu ary .................................................................. 6 9
B rid g e ............................................................... ..... 2 2
N o an sw er .............................................................. 6 1
The students answered six batteries of questions to mea-
sure certain attitudes and orientations. Only one set of ques-
tions, however, differentiated the students by media be-
havior. Those questions were designed to determine the ma-
turity of the students' goals. The only medium which dif-
ferentiated was the newspaper. Of those who had read a
newspaper in three of the last five days, 75% had mature
goals and 65% had less mature goals. No differences were
found among users of other media.
(Bureau of Advertising, Communications Media and High
School Youth: A Study of Exposure Habits, March, 1967)



How Is the Church Page Used?
"Do you use the information in the church page to
help determine if you will go to church on Sunday and what
church you will attend ?"
This question was asked of 174 residents of Riverside,
Calif. in 1962 by Charles A. Oliphant in a mail question-
naire. The results were as follows:
Church Non-
Members members Total
Use it often .......... 7.0% 3.1% 6.3%
Use it now and then .... 11.3 15.6 12.1
Never use it .......... 81.7 81.3 81.6
Oliphant interviewed 17 ministers in Riverside most
of whom thought the functions of the church page were to
"encourage people to attend church" and to "attract people
to the church."







Oliphant was very critical of the quality of editorial
copy supplied by the ministers.
He did not ask about the readership of the church page.
Other studies, however, suggest that a good many more
people read the pages than "use" them for the reasons
specified by the Riverside residents (See "News Research
for Better Newspapers," Vol. 2, p. 34.
(C. E. Oliphant, "Functions of a Newspaper Church Sec-
tion as Seen by Editor, Clergy and Public." Master's thesis,
University of California, Los Angeles, 1962)







Chapter 3


For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 21-35 and Vol. 2,
pp. 7-28.




The Demand for Business News
The director of the Business Communications Program
at the University of Missouri, a former business editor, re-
ports the results of a survey of 162 business-financial edi-
tors about reader demand, staffing, salaries and complaints.
Hubbard, in 1966, queried 162 business-financial editors
of daily newspapers. Eighty-one per cent stated that their
readers' demands for business news had increased "substan-
tially" since 1960. Twenty-seven per cent estimated that this
demand had "more than doubled."
The heaviest increase in demand was by readers of news-
papers in the 15,000-100,000 circulation class: 33% of the
business-financial editors of such newspapers believed that
reader interest had more than doubled since 1960.
Some confirmation of this increase in interest is found
in the increase in the number of shareholders in cities of
corresponding size as reported in the New York Stock Ex-
change's "Census of Shareowners" for 1956 and 1965, as
shown below.
Percentage of
Individual Shareowners
City size: 1956 1965
O v er 500,000 ......................................................................... 19.9 19.8
100,000-500,000 ................................................................... 16.0 16.9
25,000-100,000 ................................. 14.0 22.7
2,500-25,000 .....13.4 29.8
R u ral areas .................................................... ..................... 17.9 10.8

Hubbard also inquired as to the size of business-financial
staffs. His findings are reported below (the figure in paren-
theses is the number of newspapers in each class which re-
sponded to his questionnaire.)

Avg. No. Avg. No. % of Total
of News on Business on Business
Circulation size: Employees Desk Desk
Under 15,000(24) ........... ....... 11.0 1.16 10.55%
15-50,000(44) ................... ................................ 23.8 1.10 4.62
50-100,000(33) ............................................................ 47.8 1.50 3.14
100-200,000 (28) ................. ............................ 90.0 2.54 2.82
200-350,000 (20) ... ......................................... 130.0 5.42 4.17
Over 350,000(15) ........... ............................... 341.0 6.30 1.85







Hubbard inquired about salaries and estimated the sal-
ary cost for the business-financial page by multiplying the
average reported salary of a man with five years of experi-
ence by the reported number of business-financial page em-
ployees. The figures below are what he calls a "very rough
estimate."
U n d er 15,000 ................................................................................. $ 7,790
15,000-50,000 ........................................................................... ..... 7,820
50,000-100,000 .............................................................................. 11,400
100,000-200,000 ........................................................................... 20,800
200,000-350,000 ........................................................................... 47,200
O v er 350,000 ................................................................................. 53,250
Seventy-six per cent of the business-financial editors
believe their efforts to improve the quality and quantity
of business coverage is severely handicapped by circum-
stances outside their control. These are:
1. Lack of cooperation from business.
2. Lack of space.
3. Lack of time.
4. Lack of a qualified staff. This seems to mean that
some business-financial editors feel they could do a better
job if they were freed from numerous routine tasks that an
intelligent trainee could handle.
5. Lack of funds.
6. Management obstruction. This means mainly that
news editors and city editors improperly evaluate certain
business stories.
7. Pressure by corporations and advertisers to distort
news. This includes "musts" from the advertising depart-
ment.
For an earlier discussion of the audience for business-
financial news, see Vol. I of ANPA "News Research for Bet-
ter Newspapers," pp. 21-25. For a report on readership of
stock quotations, see Vol. II of "News Research for Better
Newspapers," p. 31.
(T. W. Hubbard, "The Explosive New Demand for Business
News," Journalism Quarterly, 43: 703-708, Winter, 1966)



What Kind of People Have
Knowledge of Foreign Events?
Several studies have shown that education and media
use are predictors of people's knowledge of foreign events.
Chu and Lingwood, of Stanford University, this year tested
several psychological and sociological variables as predictors
on a probability sample of 283 male adults in three northern
California communities.







They administered a questionnaire to test knowledge
and related the results to a series of questions which mea-
sured aspects of the personality structure and social inter-
action of the respondents.
By correlation analysis, they found the following were
predictors. These are ranked in the order in which they
explain the variance they accounted for in the analysis:
1. Education-a demographic variable.
2. Time spent reading magazines.
3. "Conservatism," which is negatively related to
knowledge of foreign events. It is defined as a measure of
"conventionality, orientation toward the past, and religiosi-
ty". Chu and Lingwood state that "conservatives" are highly
motivated not to learn about foreign events lest their own
isolationist views be threatened by the acquired knowledge.
4. "Authoritarianism," which is also negatively related
to knowledge of foreign events. It is a kind of mental rigid-
ity. It was found that "authoritarians" and "conservatives"
knew less about foreign events than did other persons of the
same education and who used media to the same degree.
5. Those who have foreigners as friends-a sociological
variable.
6. Time spent reading newspapers.
Amount of time spent watching television was not
related to knowledge of foreign events because the cor-
relation Chu and Lingwood found was entirely attributable
to the fact that people of higher education spent less time
viewing television.
Other variables tested were found not to be predictors
of knowledge of foreign events. Some of these were age,
foreign travel, and membership in social clubs and associa-
tions.
The variables which correlated positively with time
spent reading a newspaper were education, occupational
status, income, age, frequency of foreign travel, and mem-
bership in social clubs and associations. The psychological
variables-"authoritarianism" and "conservatism"-were
inversely related to time spent reading newspapers.
(Godwin C. Chu and David Lingwood, "Some Psychological
and Sociological Predictors of Foreign Events Knowledge."
Paper presented at annual meeting of the Association for
Education in Journalism, August 28, 1967)







How Much Do Readers Know? (XI)
A study conducted for the Associated Press and the
Associated Press Managing Editors Association by Carl J.
Nelson Research, Inc. in October 1966 asked a sample of read-
ers in 50 cities to define 10 terms and place names connected
with World War II.
Respondents were persons 21 to 30 years old (born be-
tween 1936 and 1945) who had attended college.
The percentage who defined correctly the most unfa-
miliar terms were:
Men Women
Stuka ............................................................. 68% 55%
M u n ich ............................................................ 60 50
S n afu ............................. ..................................... 78 67
The other terms, which were understood by 81% to 97%
of the respondents, were: Dunkirk, blitz, gestapo, blackout,
GI, gobbledy-gook and concentration camp.



How Much Do Readers Know? (XII)
The Gallup Poll, in June, 1950, asked its national sample
of respondents to define several terms and phrases currently
in the news. The percentage of "reasonably correct" defini-
tions were as follows:
"F ly in g sa u cers" .................................................................. ........... ................ 94 %
Universal military training ... ... ................. 75
B o o k ie ................. ................. ........... .. .. ................ ................. ...................... ... 6 8
W ir e ta p p in g .................. ................... .................................................................. 6 7
T a r iff .................................................... ... ........................... .................... ...... .. 6 7
M o n o p o ly ......... .. .... .. ...... ........... .......................................... ........... 6 4
C o ld W a r ... .. ..... ... . ........................................... ............. ................ 5 8
F ilib u ste r ...... ....... .......... ..................... .............................. ............. ........ 5 4
W e lfa r e s ta te ............................... ............................. ............................... 3 6
E electoral college e ....... ............................................... .............. .. 34
H over C om m mission reports ...................... ......................................... 31
Reciprocal trade agreements .................................. .................. 29
Bipartisan foreign policy .... ...... ................................................. 26
President Truman's Point Four program .......................... 5







Chapter 4


For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 36-47 and Vol. 2,
pp. 29-41.

The News Summary and Index
Two studies examine the readership and use of the news
summary and index.
One study shows that it is the thorough reader who
reads it.
The second study reports how, when and why some
readers use the "News Summary and Index" of the New
York (N.Y.) Times.
Many newspapers publish some kind of index. Some
publish a news summary and some a combined summary and
index.
The summaries vary from a brief piece of editorial pro-
motion on Page one plugging a new feature to the full-page
summary of the Los Angeles (Calif.) Times.
The Wall Street Journal for many years has published
two news summaries. One summarizes general news, which
does not appear in the paper; the second summarizes bus-
iness and financial news which is published in the issue.
Neither summary, however, cites page references; they
are not indexes. The Wall Street Journal's objective is ob-
vious. It is a "busy man's" newspaper; press capacity of all
editions is purposely limited to 32 pages.
The Los Angeles Times' full page "News of the Day"
on Page 2 summarizes about 65 news stories under seven
or eight headings and uses two to four pictures. Some of
the stories in the summary do not appear elsewhere in the
paper. The summary is not an index-except that readers
are referred to three sections (business-financial, sports and
"The Southland").
Summary Is Read by Thorough Reader
The St. Louis (Mo.) Globe-Democrat publishes on Page
one "Top of the Morning-Inside Today's Globe." In the May
19, 1966 issue seven news stories and two columns were
summarized briefly and page references were cited. Carl
Nelson Research, Inc. did a readership study of the issue.
The readership scores for the summary and index were:
Men 29%, women 27%.
ANPA requested the Nelson firm to supply readership
scores of the cited items broken down by those who had
read the summary and index and those who had not read it.
The accompanying table reports these scores and also
the scores for all readers.







ITEM SCORE


Page
Ref.
3A
9B
2A
6C
3C
4A
14A
1B
3D


Read
Summary
(29%)


(MEN)
Did Not
Read
Summary
(71%)
16
2
16
5
5
11
11
25
29


All
Readers
23
6
21
7
13
14
14
26
36


ITEM SCORE (WOMEN)


Page
Ref.
3A
9B
2A
6C
3C
4A
14A
1B
3D


Read
Summary
(27%)
27
27
37
9
18
30
22
76
16


Did Not
Read
Summary
(73%)
8
2
13
3
3
5
6
63
4


All
Readers
13
9
19
5
9
12
11
63
7


3A-Marines, Viet Cong Battle in Valley
9B-Blast Rocks Canada Commons
2A-Gemini 9 Space Flight Rescheduled
6C-Will Require Race Data: Wirtz Changes Job Policy
3C-Workhouse Cellblock Receives a Reprieve
4A-Culver-Stockton College Rejects $178,188 Grant
14A-Red Respectability Drive (Riesel)
1B-Alcoholic Housewives: Why Do They Drink?
3D-The Bench Warmer (sports column)


As the table shows, four of the scores on the individual
items of men who read the index were higher than their
score on the summary and index. Five were lower. Three
of the women's scores on the individual items were higher
than their score on the summary and index, four were lower
and two were the same.
The table also shows that, for every item, the reader-
ship was considerably higher for those who had read the
summary and index than for those who had not read it.
We cannot, however, infer any cause-and-effect rela-







tionship between reading the summary and index and read-
ing the individual items-although there may have been
some effect. All we can infer is that it is the thorough
reader who reads the summary and index.
This seems to be confirmed by the "Any ad on Page"
readership on the cited pages, which is one-third higher
for those who read the summary and index.
Apparently, few readers will seek further details in a
cited news story when the subject-matter doesn't interest
them. This seems to be shown by the low readership scores
by readers of both sexes of the summary and index of the
item on Page 6-C. When, on the other hand, readers want to
read more details in a particular news story, their score
exceeds their summary and index score, as shown for the
items on Pages 2A, 1B and 3D (men only).
Display also may be a factor in the readership of the
story on Page 1B; this story, "Alcoholic Housewives: Why
Do They Drink ?," with seven columns of art, occupies more
than 60 % of the space on the first page of the second sec-
tion.
That a well-displayed and interesting story will be read
by a good many readers, whether or not they have read the
index and summary, is shown in the table below, which re-
ports a readership study of the Salem (Ore.) Capital
Journal (July 22) by Dr. Galen Rarick.

ITEM SCORE (MEN)
Did Not
Read Read
Page Summary Summary All
Ref. (32%) (68%) Readers
3* 48 21 30
15** 82 50 61
28*** 61 34 44

ITEM SCORE (WOMEN)
Did Not
Page Read Read
Ref. Summary Summary All
(45%) (55%) Readers
3 26 13 18
15 83 54 67
28 50 23 34
* Had 7-column head top of page
** Top half of section page with art
*** Top half of last page with art
Fewer women read the story on Page 3 than read the in-
dex. The story is an interview with an engineer mainly







about the new radial tire-a story that is not calculated to
interest women.
Display and Youth Index
Few inferences, based merely on the readership scores
we now have, can be made about the relationship of display
to readership of the index. The Wichita (Kan.) Eagle, for
example, publishes "Today's Youth Index" at the top of
Page two. It is a summary and index. The logotype has a
drawing of a girl's head. In an Aug. 25, 1966 issue, mea-
sured by Carl Nelson Research, Inc., the readership was
boys 7%, girls 27%. Scores on the individual stories seem
to be determined by the subject matter more than by the
display.
Nor is there any apparent relationship between reader-
ship of the summary and index and readership of the indi-
vidual stories. Although only 7% of the boys read the sum-
mary and index, 35% read the cited sports story. A news
story with an 8-column head, "Military 'Salvage' Plan to
Delay Drafting of Some 1-A's" was read by only 8% boys
and 8% girls.
How and When Used
Some indication as to how, when and why a news sum-
mary is used is supplied by a study done for the New York
(N.Y.) Times in October, 1965 by Bennett-Chaikin, Inc.
The Times publishes a "News Summary and Index" on
the first page of the second section (in addition to a brief
index on Page one). About one dozen important news stories
are summarized in two sentences of seven or eight lines
each and about 75 stories and articles are summarized in
one sentence headline-type capsules. The page number is
supplied for both kinds of summaries. Thus, it is more of
an index than a summary.
The Times, of course, is a bulky and complete news-
paper published for a serious and well-educated audience.
The "News Summary and Index," therefore, has high usage,
as the table below shows:
Every day ............................ 20%
Practically every day .................. 23
Occasionally ........................... 32
Hardly ever, practically never ........... 17
Never, not familiar with it .............. 8
100
When asked "How do you usually go about reading the
Times?", however, only seven per-cent said they started
with the "News Summary and Index."
The amount of the "News Summary and Index" which







is read is shown in the table below:
Read it thoroughly ..................... 12%
Read most of it ........................ 15
Look for things that interest me ........ 28
Skim through it ........................ 20
Never refer to it ....................... 25
100
The frequency with which the "News Summary and
Index" is read is related to the amount of it that is read.
This is shown in the following table, which refers only to
respondents who said they used the "News Summary and
Index." It shows that those who read it most often are those
who read it most thoroughly.

HOW INDEX IS READ: READ SUMMARY AND INDEX
Practically
Every Every Occa-
Day Day sionally
Go through it thoroughly ........................ 39% 10% 3%
R ead m ost of it .......................................... 25 36 6
Look for things that interest me 29 39 50
Skim through it ...................................................... 7 13 39
100 100 100

Why Used
The Times survey asked this question of all readers in
the sample: "How do you usually use the "News Summary
and Index," That is, for what purpose or reasons do you re-
fer to it?"
The answers were in two different frames of reference.
One kind of answer specified reasons for using the "News
Summary and Index"; a second kind of answer referred to
when it was used. In the table below, the responses total
more than 100% because some readers gave both kinds of
answers and/or specified more than one reason.

Why:
Use it when. in a hurry, to save time ............................... 16%
To see if I have missed anything of importance ............... 21
Use it as an index to find location of articles ............. 4
To familiarize myself with things of importance ............ 11
To familiarize myself with news events ............. ............... 13
Order of use:
After I have finished the paper .......................................... .... 10
R ead in d ex fi rst ................................................................................................. 7
R ead it w hen I com e to it ................................................ ..... 6
R ead it after the first page ...................................................... 2
Read it after the finance section .......................................... 2
D on 't read it .................................. ........ ........................................... 8







The survey also asked this question of all readers in the
sample: "Are there any particular items, features or sec-
tions that you look for with the help of the News Summary
and Index?" The answers, which total more than 100%,
were as follows:
Men Women
Women's page, home, fashions, foods ............. 1% 22%
F in an cial ............................................................... .. 16 4
S p o r ts ........................................................................... 14 3
T heater, review s .......................................................... 6 10
Entertainm ent, am usem ent ............................................ 6 14
Int'l and nat'l news ................................... 10 4
Metropolitan news (general) .......... ............... 1 12
O th e r s ........................................................................ ........................ 1 8 2 7
None that I can think of .................. 52 46
Don't read it, not familiar with it .......................... 9 8

Summary
Apparently, there are at least three kinds of readers of
the "News Summary and Index" (about 28% of St. Louis
Globe-Democrat readers and perhaps one-half of New York
Times readers):
1. Those who commit little of their time to newspaper
reading-at least when they start to read the paper. Some
Wall Street Journal readers probably are this kind and
16% of New York Times readers. These are readers who
substitute the summary for their reading of news items.
Among them are those who read the summary, go to work
and later resume their reading of the newspaper.
2. Those who make a strong commitment: they use the
index to make sure they have missed nothing they regard
as important or interesting.
3. Both those with a low and a high commitment who
make systematic use of the index to locate something that
interests them. To such people the index is a convenience.
If we are to evaluate the news summary and/or index
adequately for newspapers of moderate size, we shall have
to find out more about the way they are used, when and by
whom. A split-run study could test whether the same stories
that are summarized and indexed and are not summarized
and indexed have the same or different scores.



Readership of the News Summary
In connection with a market survey, the Indianapolis
(Ind.) Star last summer asked those who read the Star
"regularly" about their readership of the "News Summary."
This item, which fills about two columns on page 2, sum-
marizes and indexes about 25 news stories and a few editor-
ials and editorial features.







"Regular" readers were those who read the paper three
or four times a week. The results were as follows for the
head of household:
Male Female
E very day .................................................. 36% 24%
4 to 6 tim es a w eek .......... .............................. 13 12
2 to 3 tim es a w eek .......... .............................. 15 16
O n ce a w eek ................................................................ 5 8
2 to 3 tim es a m onth ... ..... ...................... 3 4
O nce a m onth ...................... .............................. 3 3
A lm ost never ........................ ........................ 25 33


Diaries Show 6-Day Readership
Of Children and Adults
After the Phoenix (Ariz.) .Republic and Gazette this
summer placed diaries in 1,000 randomly selected subscriber
households, 500 families reported readership for each mem-
ber for two consecutive weeks.
The main finding was that readership by both sexes
did not vary much throughout the week.
The data confirm the findings of a six-day study of the
Troy (N.Y.) Times-Record in 1945 by the personal inter-
view method.
Since the reading of each member of the family was re-
ported, we have some comparative data for children of
different ages and for adults. This is shown in Table 1 for a
Monday issue of the Republic (morning). In some instances,
the breakdowns are too small to show reliable age dif-
ferences, but are also large enough to serve as indicators of
readership of different parts of the paper.

TABLE 1
Under All
12 12-13 14-17 18-20 Adults
MALE
In first section:
Front page ................. 4% 32% 46% 65% 95%
Pp. 2-5 .............. 0 7 16 46 78
Edit. pp., 6-7 ................. 0 5 6 34 66
Remainder of sect ..... 1 5 8 43 77
Other sections:
Second front page 2 7 24 51 84
Business page ................ 0 0 2 20 48
Women's forum ............. 0 0 7 9 10
Tv pages ........... 12 45 49 59 56
Movie pages ................. 5 32 37 43 29
Sports .......... ..................... 4 36 54 51 71
C lass. ads ................................. 0 0 13 16 30
Com ics ........ .......................... 22 62 60 63 62







FEMALE
In first section:
Front page ......................... 7 22 48 69 95
Pp. 2-5 ... .............. .......... 1 8 25 40 77
Edit. pp., 6-7 .. ........ ......... 0 2 14 26 58
Remainder of sect. ...... 0 7 20 40 74
Other sections:
Second front page 2 17 30 57 86
Business page ................. 0 0 0 7 20
Women's forum ............... 0 14 36 49 82
Tv pages ................................. 10 66 56 56 72
M ovie pages ........................ 6 34 48 43 37
S p orts ....................................... 1 5 2 1 19 18
C lass. ads ................................ 0 2 13 20 26
Com ics .......... ................... 25 73 68 48 60

Readership by children of the Gazette (afternoon) var-
ied considerably from that of the Republic, and could be ac-
counted for by the size and composition of the sample.
Table 1 shows that the late teenagers (18 years and
older) have begun to read a considerable part of the con-
tent.
We also have some data of a more general nature for
the readership of the young adult from the 17 studies
reported at p. 61 which were done by personal interview by
Carl J. Nelson Research, Inc. Table 2 shows the readership
of youth (13 to 17 years), young adults (18 to 29 years)
and all adults.

TABLE 2
AVERAGE SCORES FOR ANY READERSHIP
OF CATEGORIES OF CONTENT

MALE
18-29 All
Boys Years Adults
E ditorials ............................................................. 7% 28% 38%
Financial new s ...................................... ..... 16 38 47
Sports new s ....................................................... 67 75 76
Radio/tv programs or news .......... 36 35 36
C om ics ........................................... .... .......... 84 71 61
P a n e ls ........................................................................... 8 0 6 9 6 3

FEMALE
18-29 All
Girls Years Adults
Editorials .............................. ............ 9% 23% 29%
Financial new s ............................................ 9 23 29
Sports news ........................... ... 24 29 30
Society new s ........ ................................... 19 34 39
(Continued on next page)







FEMALE
18-29 All
Girls Years Adults
Radio/tv programs or news ............ 42 45 49
Comics ............................. 86 72 63
Panels ....... ............ .................. 82 72 69

The Phoenix diary study was directed by Robert B.
Bulla, marketing and research manager of the Phoenix
newspapers.



Readership of Special Pages
Dr. Galen Rarick, of the University of Oregon School
of Journalism, last July measured the readership of certain
pages of the Salem (Ore.) Capital Journal. The study was
sponsored jointly by ANPA and the newspaper.
He found that 47% of men readers and 62% of women
readers "usually" read the garden page.
He also found that 13% of men and 10% of women
"usually" read Boy Scout news.







Chapter 5


For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 48-58 and Vol. 2,
pp. 42-55.

Ed. Note: This comprehensive report on teenage
reading was made possible by the cooperation of the
17 newspapers and Carl J. Nelson Research Inc. in
permitting the ANPA News Research Center to analyze
the findings. We join the News Research Steering
Committee in expressing appreciation.


Profile of the Teenage Reader
Of the major content of 17 newspapers, adults read about
one-fifth of the items and teenagers about one-eighth.
Teenagers saw about four-fifths as many news and fea-
ture pictures as adults did.
Teenagers' reading of the front page content was about
one-half that of adults, although about four out of five
teenagers read something on the page.
Three-fourths of the teenagers, on the average, completed
each item (news and features) they selected to read.
Since October, 1965, Carl J. Nelson Research, Inc.
has conducted "Survey-of-the-Month" readership stud-
ies for several metropolitan newspapers. In addition to
adult respondents, teenagers are also interviewed. This per-
mits a comparison of adult and teenage reading behavior.
ANPA made an analysis of the first 17 newspapers
measured. The first was of the issue of Oct. 23, 1965 and the
last was the issue of March 2, 1967. The days of the week
were: Tuesday, 3; Wednesday, 2; Thursday, 9; Friday, 1;
and Saturday, 2.
The newspapers were: Philadelphia (Pa.) Bulletin;
St. Louis (Mo.) Globe-Democrat; Cincinnati (Ohio) En-
quirer; Louisville (Ky.) Courier-Journal; Louisville (Ky.)
Times; Chicago (Ill.) Daily News; Dayton (Ohio) Journal-
Herald; Boston (Mass.) Globe; Buffalo (N.Y.) News; St.
Paul (Minn.) Dispatch; Wichita (Kan.) Eagle; Salt Lake
(Utah) Tribune; Detroit (Mich.) Free Press; Cleveland
(Ohio) Plain Dealer; Washington (D.C.) Post; New Haven
(Conn.) Register; Oklahoma City (Okla.) Times.
The Major Content
The first comparison is of the major content of the
newspaper. Table 1 shows five kinds of content and the
average number of items of each kind of content that was
read.







The average number of these items which appeared is
reported for men, boys, women and girls. They also have
been converted to index numbers to supply a comparison
of adults and teenagers of each sex. The base for men is
100 and for women is 100. Thus, for comics, the index num-
ber shows that boys read 60% more comics than men, and
for sports news boys read only 67% as many stories as men.
For the total major content, the table shows that boys
read 55% as many items as did men and girls read 67% as
many as did women-when sports are excluded for women
and girls.
Men read about one-fifth of the total content; women
less than that; and boys and girls almost one-eighth.
When boys and girls are compared, the table shows
that boys and girls read an equal number of comics, panels,
features, and general news stories. For general news, how-
ever, the index number for girls is higher than for boys.

TABLE 1.
THE MAJOR CONTENT OF THE PAPER:
AVERAGE NUMBER OF ITEMS READ
Number Read
Avg. No. Index
of Items Men Boys Number
Comics ............. 16 5 8 160
Panels .............. 11 3 4 133
Features* ........... 77 13 7 54
General news ........ 100 20 5 25
Sports news ......... 33 6 4 67
Total ............. 237 47 28 55
%Read ........... 20.0 11.8
Number Read
Avg. No. Index
of Items Women Girls Number
Comics ............. 16 5 8 160
Panels .............. 11 3 4 133
Features* ........... 77 13 7 54
General news ........ 100 15 5 33
Total ............. 204 36 24 67
%Read ........... 17.6 11.8
*Other than comics and panels

Pictures
The attraction that graphic content has for teenagers
(as shown by comic and panel readership in Table 1) is not
as great for news and feature photographs. However, as
Table 2 shows, the median number of pictures seen by teen-
agers is about four-fifths the median number seen by adults.







TABLE 2.
MEDIAN NUMBER OF PICTURES SEEN


M en* ...............
Boys* ...............
Women** ............
Girls** ..............
*Exclusive of society pictures
* *Exclusive of sports pictures


Median
Number
Seen
28
23
28
22


Index
Number
100
82
100
79


Major Content: "Any" Readers
Table 3 shows the readership of 15 kinds of content.
These are average scores, not number of items as was re-
ported in Tables 1 and 2. The index number compares adults
with teenagers. In two instances, teenagers' scores are
higher than adults'; in four instances they are almost as
high; and in the others are considerably lower.
TABLE 3.
MAJOR CONTENT: "ANY" READERS


MALE
Avg. Score
Men Boys
Any comic .................... 60 84
Any panel .................... 63 80
Any puzzles and games ......... 24 22
Any sports news or picture ...... 81 74
Any sports news ............... 77 68
Any radio/tv program or news ... 40 36
Index on Page 1 ............... 24 20
Any amusement news ........... 28 17
Any society news or picture ..... 23 14
Any society news .............. 12 5
Any weather news .............. 48 29
Any financial news ............. 49 16
Any vital statistics ............. 13 3
Any editorial .................. 39 8
Any obituary .................. 25 3
FEMALE
Avg. Score
Women Girls
Any comic .................... 63 86
Any panel .................... 69 81
Any puzzles and games ......... 29 27
Any radio/tv program or news .. 49 44
Any sports news or picture ...... 38 34
Any sports news ............... 31 25
(Continued on next page)


Index
Number
140
126
92
91
88
90
83
61
61
41
60
33
23
21
12

Index
Number
137
117
93
90
90
81







Avg. Score Index
Women Girls Number
Index on Page 1 ............... 21 18 86
Any amusement news ........... 40 32 80
Any society news or picture ..... 61 42 70
Any society news .............. 36 18 50
Any weather news ............. 48 26 54
Any editorial .................. 30 10 33
Any financial news ............. 29 9 31
Any vital statistics ............. 25 6 24
Any obituary .................. 37 7 19
A comparison of the two index number columns shows
the differences between boys and girls. There are very few
significant differences.
Thoroughness of Reading
The readership of many news stories and features
was measured by "parts" (a "part" was approximately
one-fourth of an item). A few of these items were repre-
sentative of content, and, therefore, provide some compar-
ison between adults and teenagers as to the thoroughness
with which they read the newspaper.
Table 4 (which does not include stories that were
jumped) reports the average initial score for each kind of
item and the percentage of the item that was read. That is,
the average initial men's score for the 10 sports columns,
which were measured by "parts", was 45 and for the last
"part" was 41, which means that 91% of the men who
started to read the average column read all of it.
TABLE 4.
THOROUGHNESS OF READING OF ITEMS
MEN BOYS
Avg. Avg.
Initial % Initial %
Score Completed Score Completed
News stories (38) ...... 41 78 14 68
News feature stories (12) 25 75 5 60
Roundup news column (12) 29 78 9 61
Sports column (10) ..... 45 91 21 88
Sports news stories (6) .. 50 83 42 82
Financial news (1) ..... 10 80 1 100
Local column (3) ....... 32 86 11 71
Washington column (5) .. 23 83 3 30
Political column (4) .... 28 87 4 64
Financial column (2) .... 17 82 1 0
Women's column (4) .... 8 81 3 80
Fashion column (1) ..... 8 100 0 0
Tv column (2) ......... 13 84 4 87
(Continued on newt page)







MEN BOYS
Avg. Avg.
Initial % Initial %
Score Completed Score Completed
Tv log for week (2) ..... 37 56 40 72
Amusement column (1) .. 30 97 15 73
Editorial (3) ........... 34 89 3 90
Letters to editor (1) .... 25 88 3 90
Business briefs (1) ..... 9 78 1 0
Action Line (2) ........ 72 84 65 75
News analysis (2) ...... 30 63 6 81
People in the News (1) .. 49 59 21 62

WOMEN GIRLS
Avg. Avg.
Initial % Initial %
Score Completed Score Completed
News stories (38) ...... 32 76 14 70
News feature stories (12) 32 78 13 64
Roundup news column(12) 23 83 7 60
Sports column (10) ..... 8 62 4 45
Sports news story (6) ... 9 80 8 57
Financial news (1) ...... 3 67 0 0
Local column (3) ....... 45 86 15 78
Washington column (5) .. 15 78 3 77
Political column (4) .... 21 79 3 38
Financial column (2) . 4 62 3 67
Women's column (4) .... 37 88 14 83
Fashion column (1) ..... 26 77 10 70
Tv column (2) .......... 22 90 14 63
Tv log for week (2) ..... 40 52 45 73
Amusement column (1) 43 89 28 79
Editorial (3) ........... 22 76 14 63
Letters to editor (1) .... 22 77 3 100
Business briefs (1) ..... 7 78 3 67
Action Line (2) ........ 75 90 51 61
News analysis (2) ...... 21 66 10 42
People in the News (1) .. 62 61 42 43

For most kinds of content, the number of items is too
small to be representative. For each kind of item the num-
ber that were measured by "parts" is in parentheses.
Except for the tv log, the initial scores of teenagers
are lower than those of adults. For a few kinds of content
teenagers read more thoroughly than adults did.
Teenagers spend from 50% to 75% less time reading
the newspaper. This is because, in general, they select fewer
items and, for some items, read less thoroughly than adults
do.
An interesting finding, however (not shown in the







table) is that some of the best read news stories by teen-
agers are short and near the bottom of inside pages.
The Front Page
Table 5 shows that at least four out of five teenagers
read something on the front page. However, this is not quite
as high as their readership of the comics page, which sug-
gests that a few teenagers (probably the younger ones)
turn first to the comics page and never get back to the first
page.
TABLE 5.
THE FRONT PAGE
Index Index
Men Boys Number Women Girls Number
Read something:
First section... 97% 93% 96 98% 88% 99
First page ..... 97% 78% 80 96% 81% 84
Any comic ....... 84% 84%
*Amount read, p. 1:
Text .......... 38% 17% 45 31% 16% 51
Art ........... 55% 32% 58 45% 29% 64
*The average of scores for all items on page 1

The total amount of text and art on the front page that
is read by teenagers is considerably less than the amount
read by adults. Such figures in the table are an average of
all scores for the items on the front page.
Specialized Interests
Table 6 shows the readership of several kinds of news
and features that represent specialized interests. The num-
ber of such items measured is shown in parentheses fol-
lowing the name of the feature; for most items the number
is too small to be representative.

TABLE 8.
SPECIALIZED INTERESTS: AVERAGE READERSHIP SCORES
Index
Men Boys Number
Humor shorts (10) ............. 31% 28% 90
People in the News (7) .......... 40 13 33
Personal care(4) .............. 2 1 50
Health column (13) ............. 17 7 41
Any garden news (1) ........... 24 4 17
Any book news(4) ............. 17 8 47
Any art news(1) .............. 24 17 71
Any music news (1) ............ 16 7 44
Any church news (1) ........... 11 5 45
Calendar of events, P. 1 (1) ...... 36 22 61







Index
Women Girls Number
Humor shorts (10) ............. 34% 27% 80
People in the News(7) .......... 48 20 42
Personal care (4) .............. 25 23 92
Health column (13) ............. 33 12 36
Child care(2) ................. 27 12 44
Dress pattern (5) .............. 15 12 80
Fashion, text (7) .............. 50 41 82
Sewing, knitting (8) ............ 20 8 40
Any engagement news (5) ....... 25 19 76
Any garden news(1) ........... 46 8 17
Any book news (4) ............. 20 6 30
Any art news(1) .............. 37 27 73
Any music news (1) ............ 20 14 70
Any church news (1) ........... 19 1 5
Calendar of events, P. 1 (1) ...... 30 18 60
Any wedding news (1) ......... 26 18 69
The studies showed a fairly high readership of hu-
morous shorts by both adults and teenagers. One of the
newspapers studied publishes daily on a comics-youth page
a child's "bright saying" and a recollection of an embar-
rassing moment (Red Faces), paying $2 for each accepted
contribution.

Not in the table is a report of the readership of recipes.
It showed that few girls read recipes. See p. 73.


Sports
Table 7 shows the readership by men and boys of sev-
eral kinds of sports news and information. Boys' reader-
ship almost equals that of men for most items. Boys were
less interested than men in racing, bowling and high school
tennis. For several categories, however, the number re-
ported (in parentheses) is too small to be representative.
TABLE 7.
SPORTS: AVERAGE READERSHIP SCORES
(MALE READERS ONLY)
Index
Men Boys Number
Any sports news or pictures (17) 81 74 91
Any sports news (17) .......... 77 68 88
5 best read sports
stories, avg. (105)........... 39 31 80
Major leagues standings (6) .... 51 47 92
Any racing news reader (11) .... 28 14 50
Racing results, entries (9) ..... 14 5 36
(Continued on next page)
67








Nat'l Hockey League
standings (5) .........
Nat'l Basketball League
standings (3) .........
People in Sports (3) ......
Baseball's Top Ten (2) ...
Bowling notes (3) .......
High school football
schedule (2) ..........
High school tennis (1) ....
The very high interest
at p. 74.


Index
Men Boys Number
16 14 88


of boys in baseball is reported


The interest of subteenagers in different kinds of sports
events was reported at Page 40 of Volume 2 of "News Re-
search for Better Newspapers."
Financial
Table 8 shows the readership of various kinds of fi-
nancial news and information.


TABLE 8.
FINANCIAL: AVERAGE READERSHIP SCORES


Any financial news ............
N.Y. Stock Exch. quotations....
Over-the-counter quotations ....
Mutual fund assets ............
Dow-Jones index ..............


Any financial news ............
N.Y. Stock Exch. quotations ....
Over-the-counter quotations ....
Dow-Jones index ..............
Mutual fund assets ............


Men
49
30
8
8
10

Women
29
9
3
4
3


Boys
16
14
2
2
3

Girls
9
1
0.5
0.3
0.5


Index
Number
33
47
25
25
33
Index
Number
31
14
17
8
17


Boys' readership of Big Board quotations is almost one-
half that of men. Youths' interest is much higher than it
used to be. Persons under 21 years were 6.5% of all share-
holders of public corporations in 1965, which was almost
triple the percentage in 1962.
There appear to be two reasons: (1) legislation enacted
in all states in recent years makes it easier for parents and
others to make gifts of stock certificates to minors, and (2)
some parents who receive split shares give some of them to







their children on occasions such as birthdays, graduation
and Christmas.
Weather
Table 9 shows the relative interest in the weather,
broken down by readership of the ear (or the equivalent on
page 1), the (local and/or national) weather map, and
the weather "in other cities." The last category often in-
cludes local and national meteorological information in addi-
tion to temperatures and precipitation in other cities. The
table shows that many teenagers read about the weather.
TABLE 9.
THE WEATHER: AVERAGE READERSHIP SCORES
Index
Men Boys Number
Page 1 ...................... 37 22 59
Map ......................... 16 10 63
In other cities ................ 18 7 39
Index
Women Girls Number
Page 1 ....................... 35 19 54
M ap ........................ 14 7 50
In other cities ................ 16 5 41
"Best Read" News Stories
An average of about six general news stories in each
newspaper had a readership score of 15 or higher by boys
and/or girls. When these are compared with adults' reading
of the same stories, the results are as follows:
Avg. Avg.
Score Index Score Index
Men Boys Number Women Girls Number
45 22 49 43 24 56
This means that, for those news stories which had a
relatively high interest for teenagers, adults' scores were
about double. These were not the "best read" stories by
adults, but by teenagers.
In only five of the stories were teenagers' scores higher
than adults'. Three of these were on a high school page. The
fourth, on page 52 with a Moscow dateline, carried this
headline: "Batman? He Represents U.S. Billionaires, Reds
Say" (Women 16, girls 19). The fifth story had this head-
line: "Everything Set for Gemini 6 Flight" (Men 13, Boys
30).
The "best read" stories were categorized as to subject-
matter. Table 10 shows the percentage of each type of 101
"best read" stories. It indicates some differences of interest
between boys and girls-to the extent that the stories in
these issues were representative of such types.







TABLE 10.
TYPES OF "BEST READ" STORI
PERCENTAGE OF EACH TYPE
Subject matter:
Crim e ....................
W ar .....................
Human interest ............
Well-known persons ........
Aerospace ................
Accidents .................
Disasters .................
Politics ...................
Schools ...................
W weather ..................
Birth Control ..............
War diplomacy ............
Civil rights ..............
Government acts ...........
Hum or ...................
The military draft .........
China ....................
Fires .....................
Animals ..................
Miscellaneous .............


IES BY TEENAGERS:
OF 101 STORIES
Boys
25%
13
11
7
5
4
6


1
2
1
5
1
4
2
1
1
4
100%


The percentages, of course, reflect the content of the
newspapers-what happened to be in these issues. Empha-
sis in the table, therefore, is on the differences between the
teenage sexes. Thus, it will be seen that girls are less in-
terested in the Vietnam war and in aerospace than are boys,
but are more interested in human interest stories and in
news about well-known persons.
Identification
To test the extent to which teenagers seem to identify
with persons of their own age in the news, 20 stories were
found in which the headline had the words, "boy," "girl,"
"teener," "youth," and "student." The readership scores
were as follows:


Avg.
Score
Boys
17


Index
Number
57


Avg.
Score
Women
37


Index
Girls Number
23 62


Of the 20 stories tabulated, eight did not qualify as
"best read" stories by girls; that is, the scores were less
than 15. However, some of the stories had a readership high
enough to yield the average shown above: the explanation


Girls
23%
5
16
17
0
6
6
1
6
3
1
0
1
4
0
1
3
3
3
1
100%







probably is that all of the' stories had a second element of
interest that affected readership.
It will be noted in the table above that adults' scores
were considerably higher than teenagers' for stories that
are assumed to interest teenagers.
International News Roundup
Ten of the newspapers had a roundup of international
news on an inside page. The amount of display varied. Only
two included art. Most of the columns ran at the top of the
page, but two were below the fold.
The table below compares the average readership of
these columns with the average readership of other inter-
national news on inside pages of the same issue-a total of
61 items in the ten newspapers.
Index
Men Boys Number
Int'l news roundup ......... 26 6 23
Other int'l news ........... 18 5 28
Index
Women Girls Number
Int'l news roundup ......... 21 6 29
Other int'l news ........... 11 4 36
The comparisons suggest that the roundup presenta-
tion generates more readership for both adults and teen-
agers although we cannot be sure because of the small num-
ber of cases. But a comparison of the index numbers sug-
gests the roundup presentation does not generate as much
readership for teenagers as it does for adults.
Science
The newspapers contained few stories about nonmed-
ical science. But two examples suggest that youth has a rel-
atively high interest in aerospace and oceanography. One
three-paragraph story below the fold about oceanography
had these scores:
Men Boys Women Girls
14 8 9 7
One newspaper had a full page with five pictures and a
story headed "Everything Set for Gemini 6 Flight." The
scores were:
Men Boys Women Girls
Any for page ................. 65 45 64 37
Text ........................ 37 30 31 12
Art (average) ............... 39 32 33 21
A Youth Section
An eight-page tabloid youth section in one newspaper







was measured. The table below shows some of the compari-
sons between adults and teenagers and between the sexes.
Men Boys Women Girls
Anything in section .......... 41 75 67 93
Cover page (art) ............ 37 66 61 85
*Any for page (avg.) .......... 16 58 47 89
Text (avg. of 23 items) ....... 3 15 9 29
Art (avg. of 11 pictures
exclusive of cover) ......... 5 24 17 48
*Included advertisements
The main finding seems to be that girls read twice as
many individual items and saw twice as many pictures as
boys did. (There were more than twice as many pictures of
girls than of boys.) About one-half of the women exposed
themselves to the inside pages, but read only one-third as
much of the text as girls read.
A second newspaper had an 18-page tabloid section in
which at least three of the pages were addressed primarily
to youth. The table below shows some of the comparisons.
Men Boys Women Girls
Any for page (avg. of 3 pp.) ... 16 19 22 32
Text (avg. of 3 items) ......... 6 3 8 17
Art (avg. of 3 pictures) ....... 9 12 15 21
Any for "Motor Sports" page ... 22 19 15 21
Text (avg. of 3 items) ....... 7 4 2 3
Art (1 picture) ............ 16 16 8 16
Any for "Outdoors" page ...... 16 19 18 19
Text (avg. of 3 items) ....... 5 0 3 2
Art (1 picture) ............. 11 15 12 11
TV Tab for Week
A pullout "TV Week" tab in the same newspaper was
measured. The scores were as follows:
Men Boys Women Girls
Any for section ............... 61 67 71 75
Any program reader .......... 47 48 54 54
Program for:
Friday .................... 44 44 50 49
Saturday .................. 26 41 33 39
Sunday .................... 27 32 28 37
Monday .................... 23 32 25 37
Tuesday ................... 26 35 25 40
Wednesday ................. 22 30 23 31
Thursday .................. 23 29 27 37
The "any for page" scores were slightly higher than
the program scores because the pages carried advertise-
ments.
As the table above shows, teenagers' reading was about
20 % higher than adults'.







Few Girls Read in the Role of Housewife
Few teenage girls read the editorial matter on food
pages. But when women's page matter is substituted for
food copy, girls' readership scores are 3.7% of adult
women's scores.
Do teenage girls read in the role of mother?
Some news and feature content of newspapers is read
only by readers in a certain role. Almost everybody is moti-
vated to read a murder story, but only certain kinds of
readers read certain content; for example, readers who
vote, invest, pay taxes, have children, or belong to a certain
group.
To what extent do teenagers read in any of several
adult roles ? For example, the role of housewife ?
Two recent readership studies by Carl J. Nelson Re-
search, Inc., of Chicago, supply some evidence about teenage
readership of food copy and women's page copy. The sample
included teenagers as well as adults.
In one newspaper the usual food copy was published.
But in the second newspaper the copy on the pages carrying
food ads, with one exception, was the usual women's page
copy-mainly about women's activities and advice columns
(some in Q and A form) about knitting, home decoration,
fashion, health, personal care and child care.
The table below shows the average scores for the two
kinds of editorial matter.
(1) (2) Column 2
Newspaper publishing: Women Girls Column 1
Food articles, recipes .. 19% 3% 16%
Women's features ..... 30 11 37
As the table shows, girls' scores for food copy were
only 16% of women's scores, but were 37% of women's
scores for women's features (Column 2 divided by Column
1).
The single exception as to editorial matter in the second
newspaper was the first page of the women's section. An
article under a 3-column headline below the fold was about
preparing a Christmas pudding; it included two recipes.
The readership scores for this individual item were women
39%, girls 12%; for the recipes: women 38%, girls 5%.
This same page had three fashion pictures and a brief
story which suggests that some teenage girls read in the
role of mother.
The top half of the page was art which showed small
girls modeling dresses. The large 3-column cutline read
"Most Little Girls . Are Big on Fashion." Women's scores
for the three pictures were 52%, 46%, and 41%; for girls
39%, 36%, and 32%. The text above and below the pictures







had these scores: women 34%, girls 25%.
A study for the Denver (Colo.) Post some years ago
confirms the finding that many teenage girls (eighth grad-
ers) read in the role of mother. This is not surprising since
very young girls behave in this role when they dress their
dolls.
The discussion about comparative scores presented here
is not prescriptive. It is not the purpose of the discussion
to suggest that women's page copy should be substituted
for food copy. The purpose is to show how teen-age girls
read or do not read in a specific role.
The data have been made available through the
courtesy of the two newspapers and Carl J. Nelson Re-
search, Inc.




Teenagers' Interest in Baseball
Carl J. Nelson Research, Inc. conducted six "Survey-of-
the-Month" readership studies during the 1966 baseball
season. The first issue measured was on April 30 and the
last on Sept. 30. In addition to adults, each sample included
100 boys and 100 girls.
The newspapers studied were: Dayton (Ohio) Journal-
Herald; St. Louis (Mo.) Globe-Democrat; Detroit Free
Press; Buffalo (N.Y.) Evening News; Wichita (Kan.) Eagle,
and the Cleveland (Ohio) Plain Dealer.
Major League Standings
One measure of interest was readership of major league
standings. These are presented in the table below in which
three of the newspapers were published in cities with major
league teams and three were in other cities. As will be noted,
the difference between men and boys is slight.
Papers in: Men Boys Women Girls
3 Major League cities (Av.) 57 53 10 2
3 other cities (Av.) 45 41 8 4
Box Scores and Line Scores
Although the box score, when it accompanied a news
story, was not measured separately, the major league story
was measured by parts, the last part including the box score.
Averages for two of the newspapers thus measured, for men
and boys only, were as follows:
Men Boys
First Last First Last
Part Part Part Part
49 45 38 38







A third newspaper jumped the major league story from
the first sports page to a later page, the box score being on
the continuation page. The results:
Men Boys
First First
Part Jump Part Jump
58 31 49 15
The jump caused a loss of readership of 47% for men
and 69% for boys, if all of the loss can be attributed to
jumping.
One afternoon newspaper published a combined round-
up story for both major leagues and published box scores
separately for each league. The percentages are shown in the
table below:
Men Boys Women Girls
Roundup story 22 9 4 3
Nat. League box score 25 22 2 1
Amer. League box score 28 20 2 0
None of the six newspapers published line scores. How-
ever, an ANPA-sponsored study of the July 22 issue of the
Salem (Ore.) Capital Journal yielded these percentages for
the roundup stories and the line scores for adult men only:
National League roundup 27
Line scores 8
American League roundup 28
Line scores 11
How Many Watched Television?
In the Salem (Ore.) Capital Journal study, adult read-
ers were asked how many Major League games they had
seen on television during the baseball season. This period
included 85 playing dates, or 60% of the 1966 schedule since
the opening of the season. Probably about 14 games had
been televised. The percentages were as follows:
Men Women
One 15% 14%
Two or more 52 36
None, not answered 33 51
100 100
The median number of times was 2.67 for men and 2.0
for women.
Best Read Baseball Stories
The "best read" baseball stories in the six metropolitan
newspapers totaled 18. The average readership for men was
40%, for boys 34%.
This data has been made available through the courtesy
of the six newspapers and Carl J. Nelson Research, Inc.







Preferred Content in Youth Section
The Allentown (Pa.) Morning Call publishes a weekly
eight-page tabloid "Teen Times." In November 1966 the
paper queried 658 students in three high schools as to pre-
ferred content. The findings for both sexes combined were:
Feature articles ................... 25%
The news column .................. 19
Top Ten Records .................. 13
Pictures ........................... 9
Teen Calendar .................... 6
Career Conferences ................. 4
The "Lovelier You" column .......... 4
The least liked content was The "Lovelier You" column
(57%) and Junior Bowling (11%).






Effect of Age on Teenagers' Reading
of Newspaper Content
One thousand teenagers (13 to 17 years) answered a
questionnaire last October in connection with the Denver
(Colo.) Post's annual consumer analysis. One question was:
"Here is a list of things that are in the newspaper. Please
check each item that you usually read when you read a
newspaper."
The responses are presented below by three of the five
age levels:
BOYS


Front page ................
Foreign news ...............
National news ..............
Local news .................
Editorial page ..............
Letters-to-the-editor .........
Business-financial news ......
Personal advice columns .....
Movies and entertainment ...
Radio and TV listings .......
Sports pages ...............
Crossword puzzles, games ....
Com ics ....................
Classified ads ...............
Store advertising ...........


13 15
84% 89%
20 27
29 38
49 53
9 16
6 8
7 8
16 23
71 69
69 68
67 77
11 12
96 96
21 25
29 32


17
90%
37
42
55
21
9
13
21
87
69
76
11
89
41
37







GIRLS
13 15 17
Front page ................. 85% 90% 91%
Foreign news .............. 11 19 33
National news .............. 20 28 46
Local news ................. 43 51 61
Editorial page .............. 9 10 24
Letters-to-the-editor ......... 15 8 23
Business-financial news ...... 3 3
Personal advice column ...... 51 75 61
Movies and entertainment .... 93 81 87
Women's page .............. 50 56 69
Food and recipes ............ 28 10 13
Radio and TV listings ....... 80 73 62
Sports pages ............... 18 21 43
Crossword puzzles, games .... 33 23 14
Comics .................... 95 93 86
Classified ads .............. 13 22 31
Store advertising ........... 55 55 64
(The Denver (Colo.) Post Teenage Study. October,
1966.)






Chapter 6


For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 110-121 and Vol. 2,
p. 111.



More Papers Now Have an "Education Beat"
Duncan, in 1966, queried 55 "major" newspapers as to
whether or not they had an education editor-either full-
time or part-time.
He found that 29 of the 52 newspapers which replied
had a full-time and 20 a part-time education editor. The
replies from three newspapers were ambiguous.
He also acquired data from 1945 to the present as
to whether or not those newspapers had education editors
at certain times. The replies were as follows:
1945 ............ 10 1960 ............ 40
1955 ............ 23 1966 ............ 49
The median length of service of such editors in 1966
was four years.
(C. T. Duncan, "The 'Education Beat' on 52 Major News-
papers," Journalism Quarterly, 43: 336-338, Summer, 1966)





Testing for Journalistic Aptitude: Curiosity
A few editors and teachers of journalism over the years
have tried to develop tests of journalistic aptitude. Some
of the skills and attributes have been spelling, composition
and habit of close observation.
Since there is no agreement as to which attributes are
needed by the newspaperman no comprehensive test has
ever been developed to measure aptitude. Perhaps, however,
a combination of several tests each of which would measure
a single attribute or skill could be developed.
If so, one of the attributes would be "curiosity"-if we
are to accept what a good many editors have asserted at
various times. For example, the late Carr V. Van Anda,
managing editor of the New York (N.Y.) Times once said:
"The first test of a good reporter is the collection of facts
and impressions. He must be eager and curious about every-
thing under the sun and beyond it."







Galanis, in 1958, developed a test to measure "induced
curiosity." He defined "curiosity" as a drive-state in which
the drive is reduced by the acquisition of "relevant" and
"familiar" knowledge "without manifest reward."
Galanis selected 40 abbreviations from Webster's New
Collegiate Dictionary, such as "f.o.b.," "U.S.S.R." and "i.e."
He administered them to 28 students individually, ask-
ing them to write definitions The test form included a state-
ment that the source of the abbreviations and their defini-
tions was an appendix of the dictionary.
A few days later he retested the same students in a
group by asking them to supply definitions only of the ab-
breviations they had not defined correctly on the first test.
All but two improved their score.
The students were asked at the time of the retest how
they happened to learn the correct definitions for those ab-
breviations they had not known when first tested. The re-
plies showed that:
25% had not looked up any
75% had looked up some
39% had looked up all
He asked those students who had looked up some or all
of the definitions why they had done so. Twelve said "cur-
iosity" and six said, "I felt stupid; should have known the
answers."
Galanis concluded that curiosity can be induced and can
be measured.
Whether it would be practicable for newspapers to ad-
minister such a test to individual job applicants would have
to be determined. It certainly could be administered in the
schools of journalism.
(Louis Galanis, "Attempted Design of a Test to Measure In-
duced Curiosity," Master's thesis, Stanford University,
1958)



Causes of Story, Headline Errors
Griggs and Carter, for the Research Division of the
University of Florida School of Journalism and Communi-
cations in 1964, studied inaccuracies in one week's issue of
the Gainesville (Fla.) Sun. The newspaper cooperated in
the study.
The study differs from those previously reported in
that reporters and copy editors were asked to explain the
errors.
The table below lists kinds of errors in news stories
and headlines and the reasons given by reporters and copy
editors for the errors.







Errors in News Stories
Incorrect facts (wrong time, place, age, title, identity) ............... 48%
Names (mostly misspelling) .................................................... 17
Semantics (difference of opinion between reporter
a n d so u rc e ) ........................................................................................................................... 1 1
Omissions (in list of participating events) ........... 9
W ron g a d d r esse s ................................................................................. ........................................ 6
O th e r ......................................................................................................................................................... 9
Reasons Given for Errors
Carelessness, haste by reporter ................ .. ............ 16
Error in written material used .............................................................. 16
M misunderstood source .............................. ................................................ 14
Source-reporter disagreement on semantics .................................. 14
Oversimplification (trying to keep item short) ......................... 8
S ou rce w ron g ... . ...................................................... .......................................................... 8
Reporter assumed source wrong .................................................................... 8
Reporter not given all the facts ......................................................................... 5
T y p o ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
Facts accurate at time of interview but changed
b before p u b location ......................................................................................................... 3
Copydesk changed story, making it wrong ................................................ 3
Errors in Headlines
In c o r r e c t fa c ts ............................................................................................................................... 4 2
D istortion ex ag geration ...................................................................................................... 34
O m is s io n s .......................................................................................................... ................................. 8
T y p o ......................................................................................................................................................... 8
O th e r ............................................................................................................................................................ 8
Reasons Given for Errors
Headline does not say what story says .................................................... 42
Caused by error in story .... .................................................................. .. 34
Source-editor disagreement on semantics ...................................... 8
C arelessn ess, h aste .............................................................................................................. 8
Typo .............................................................................. .............. 8
The main conclusions were:
1. Many errors result from imperfect communication
among individuals during the gathering and handling of
news.
2. Many errors result from carelessness and lack of
"a healthy skepticism" on the part of both reporters and
copy editors.
(Harry H. Griggs and Nick Carter. "Why Reporting
Errors?" The Florida Press, June, 1964)




What Happened to Talented Journalism Seniors
Ten Years After Graduation
Sigma Delta Chi each year publishes a list of the
outstanding senior journalism major students designated
by their respective departments or schools. In 1955, the
total in all schools having a Sigma Delta Chi chapter was
42. Not all of the seniors were members of Sigma Delta
Chi.







Galbraith, of the University of North Carolina, in 1965,
traced the career of 35. Seven could not be located.
The table below shows the kind of job they started in
and the kind of job they held in 1965. A few of them com-
pleted their military service or attended graduate school
before taking a job. Only one started with a wire service.
Initial Job in
Job 1965
Newspaper, wire service .... 19* 8
Public relations ............ 10* 16
Broadcasting .............. 2 2
Magazines ................ 1 4
Not in journalism .......... 3 5
35 35
*One man held a special (temporary) promotion job for
one year and then went into newspaper work. We have
classified him as a beginner in newspaper work since he
took a $1,000 cut in salary when he switched.
Of those who switched from a newspaper or wire ser-
vice job into another field, all but one did so before 1960.
The median year for the switch was 1958-three years
after graduation for most of them. Their median salary
at that time was about $5,000.
The next table reports the median salary for the groups
at the time they began their career and 10 years later.
After
Beginning 10 Years
Newspaper, wire service .. $3,744 $ 8,164**
Public relations .......... 4,803 13,200
Magazines .............. -* 9,200
Broadcasting ............ -* 12,000
Average for all .......... 4,200 12,600
*Not reported.
**This compares with $11,300 (family income $13,900)
reported by Grey and Gerald in their 1964 survey of 86
newsmen of 10 years or more experience who were work-
ing on four midwestern newspapers. ("News Research for
Better Newspapers," p. 113). Galbraith says only that most
of the respondents had jobs in the West and Middle West.
The average man, in the 10-year period, switched jobs
2.6 times. Those in public relations changed jobs 3.2 times,
those in magazine work 2.4 times, those in broadcasting 3.0
times and those in newspaper and wire service work only
2.4 times.
Galbraith summarizes his findings as follows:
"There is no evidence that newspapers should try to
outbid PR firms and publicity minded businesses at the be-
ginning salary level. There is plenty of evidence that about
half the top journalism school talent will go to newspapers
first, if for no other reason than to gain media experience.






"The problem is how to keep the talented man on at the
paper when he has acquired enough experience to make
him valuable to the PR outfits.
"Probably the best, if not the only way, is for news-
papers to revamp upwards their salary scales at the three
or four year experience level."
(W. J. Galbraith, Jr., "Sigma Delta Chi Outstanding Grad-
uates of 1955-Where Are They Now?" Presented at Re-
gion 2 Sigma Delta Chi Conference, March 17, 1966)



What Happens to Scholarship Winners?
Dean John L. Hulteng, of the University of Oregon
School of Journalism, reported in April on the whereabouts
of 1962-1964 journalism scholarship winners at four major
schools of journalism.
The survey was made at the request of the Joint Com-
mittee on Journalism Education of the ANPA and the As-
sociation for Education in Journalism. The schools were at
the Universities of Wisconsin, Illinois, Texas and Oregon.
Fifty-one scholarship holders were listed-28 men and 23
women.
The occupational distribution was as follows:
Men Women All
Newspaper work ............... 39% 22% 32%
Graduate school .................. 18 4 12
Military service, Peace Corps .... 14 0 8
Public relations ................ 11 9 5
Magazines, book publishing ...... 3 17 10
Advertising ................... 3 13 8
Teaching ...................... 3 9 6
Radio, television ............... 3 0 2
Not known .................... 3 4 4
Married, not working ........... 0 22 10
The employing newspapers were: Chicago (Ill.) Daily
News; Rockford (Ill.) Star; Port Washington (Wis.)
Ozaukee Press; Eugene (Ore.) Register-Guard (2) ; Port-
land (Ore.) Journal; The Wall Street Journal (San Fran-
cisco) ; London (England) Guardian (suburban weekly);
Minneapolis (Minn.) Star; Philadelphia (Pa.) Bulletin;
Dallas (Tex.) Morning News (Washington bureau); New
York (N.Y.) Times; Elizabeth (N.J.) Evening Journal;
Paddock Publications, Arlington Heights, Ill.; Madison
(Wis.) State Journal; Mexico City News; Nacogdoches
(Tex.) Sentinel.







The survey also listed the grade point average of each
scholarship holder.





Career Interests of 289 College Journalists
The Newspaper Fund, last winter and spring, queried
289 college journalism students as to their interest in seven
kinds of journalistic careers. The students were in 78 four-
year and two-year colleges in California, New Jersey, Ohio
and the Rocky Mountain states. More than two-thirds were
males.
The percentage who said they were interested in each
kind of career was as follows:
Daily newspaper 67%
Weekly newspaper 17
Magazines (including news magazines) 50
Broadcast news 35
News services 16
Public relations 42
Advertising 19
246
The total was more than 100% because many students
expressed interest in more than one kind of career. Stu-
dents in the two-year colleges expressed interest in more
media careers than did four-year college students. Students
from schools which teach little or no journalism for credit
tended to be less interested in newspaper and magazine
careers.
To find out what the students wanted to know about
careers in journalism, the survey asked them to rank in
1-2-3 order seven topics for discussion at a career confer-
ence. The rankings were as follows:
1. Job hunting: where should I start?
2. What are the facts about salaries and working con-
ditions ?
3. Graduate school: why go? what will I learn?
4. Can I be a specialist? how soon?
5. Military service: get it over with or put it off?
6. Summer jobs: where are.they and what can I ex-
pect?
7. Can a girl get ahead in the news world ?
The Newspaper Fund was assisted in the survey by the
California Newspaper Publishers Association, the Ohio
Newspaper Association, the New Jersey College Editors and
the Rocky Mountain College Editors.







5 Out of 8 Schools Were Visited
This Year by Newspaper Recruiters
A total of 109 schools of journalism in 42 states and
the District of Columbia responded to a campus recruiting
survey conducted early in April by Paul S. Swensson, exec-
utive director of The Newspaper Fund, Inc., on behalf
of the Associated Press Managing Editors Association.
Sixty-eight of the schools (62%) reported that daily
newspaper recruiters had visited their campus since Janu-
ary 1, 1967. A few of the schools reported that the recruit-
ing season had just begun or was half over.
The schools said they had received, since January 1,
585 letters, 467 telephone calls and 2888 visits from news-
papers-an average of more than 12 inquiries per school.
These resulted in 164 hirings with 219 negotiations
pending.
The survey showed that newspapers were making con-
siderably greater recruiting efforts this year than were
broadcasters and magazines, but about the same efforts
as public relations recruiters.







Chapter 7


For summaries of previous research about the subject-
matter of this chapter, see Vol. 1, pp. 99-109 and Vol. 2,
pp. 84-94.
Some Guidelines for Reporting
Opinion and Election Polls
Some tests for evaluating the reliability of polls:
1. Was the poll conducted by a professional?
2. Did the pollster use a representative sample?
3. Do the poll-takers have a promotional interest in the
poll?
4. Would the sponsors of a private poll issue the results
if they showed opposite conclusions?
The following resolution was adopted in October 1966
by the Executive Council of the American Association for
Public Opinion Research:
The Executive Council of the American Association for
Public Opinion Research strongly deplores the serious and
prominent attention given by the mass media to "polls"
which are not conducted in accordance with professional
standards of research, as exemplified by the AAPOR Code
of Ethics.
Many so-called "polls" are conducted in ways that cast
considerable doubt as to how well their results can reflect
public opinion. Sheer numbers provide no evidence of the
representativeness of a sample. This is true of mass mailings
with a low rate of return and street-corner interviews. It is
well known among professional public opinion research
people that such "polls" are subject to large biases. The
prominent reporting of such polls as though they were true
measurements of public opinion may be seriously mislead-
ing and so be a dis-service to the public. (AAPOR's italics).
In response to this resolution, ANPA's News Research
Center has been asked to supply some guidelines to assist
editors of newspapers and wire services in making decisions
about reporting and publishing the poll results available to
them.
Dr. Leo Bogart, current president of AAPOR, has col-
lected some "horrible examples" of opinion polls. Here is
one:
A leading newspaper last August published on Page 1
the following under the headline, "54% in Ohio Poll Assert
U.S. Role in War Is Mistake":
A large sampling of opinion in a swing Congressional
district in Ohio has shown strong sentiment that "it was a
mistake for the United States to get so deeply involved in
the Vietnam war."
The "large sample" was a 4% return from a question-
naire mailed by Rep. Charles A. Mosher (Ohio) to every
voter in his district.
Three weeks after it had published Rep. Mosher's poll
on Page 1, the same newspaper published a Gallup poll on
85







Page 5. About nine weeks later it carried a three-inch report
of a Kraft poll on Page 43. The Gallup and Kraft polls
showed exactly the opposite proportions of national opinion
about the Vietnam war.
Sending a questionnaire to voters in an election year is
a new twist on the old form of campaign literature. For ex-
ample, Rep. Joe R. Pool (Tex.) last year mailed about 180,-
000 questionnaires which contained these loaded questions:
In 1958, I publicly proposed an extra tax credit for parents
of college students. Are you in favor of such a tax credit
exemption as presently gaining bipartisan support in Con-
gress?
Do you feel demonstrators who block U.S. troop trains,
burn draft cards, send gifts and blood plasma to North Viet-
nam should be fined and imprisoned when such acts would
be considered treasonous if we were in a declared state of
war?
The Congressman said the return was about 7% and
added, "This is considered normal in the direct mail indus-
try."
What is normal for direct mail advertising returns has
little application to opinion polling. The returns from mailed
opinion questionnaires are determined mainly by these two
factors:
1. The interest the respondent has in the subject-
matter. More people who are intensely interested reply than
do those who are not very concerned.
2. The degree to which recipients are desk-oriented
(that is, pencil- or pen-oriented). Women and manual
workers are usually under-represented in proportion to their
presence in the population.
The "universe" to which the questionnaires are mailed
is also a factor in the reliability of mail polls. Beginning in
the early nineteen-twenties, the Literary Digest every presi-
dential election year used the promotional scheme of sending
a ballot (accompanied by a subscription form) to all pas-
senger automobile owners and all persons listed in telephone
directories.
Of the several million ballots mailed in 1936, about two
million were returned, and these underestimated Roose-
velt's vote by about 19% ; they also predicted Landon's elec-
tion. The considerable number of adults who had no auto-
mobile or telephone in 1936 were not in the "universe"
sampled.
The congressmen's mail polls mentioned above should
not be confused with the scientific private polls that pro-
fessional pollsters do for candidates. As far back as 1962,
two-thirds of the candidates for U.S. senator and three-
fourths of the candidates for governor employed private
pollsters. One pollster, who formerly conducted such private






polls, Louis Harris, conducted 514 polls for candidates be-
tween 1955 and 1962.
Leaked Poll Findings
Candidates' polls are sometimes leaked to newspapers
when they favor the candidate for whom the poll was made.
Since not all of these are done by competent pollsters, what
should the editor decide-for, to a considerable degree, he
vouches for the polls ?
Perhaps the best guideline is to ask himself these
questions: Is the pollster a professional? When he is, what
is his reputation-locally and nationally-as a market or
opinion research expert?
The best known professional pollsters are research
agencies on whom the largest corporations in the United
States rely for making important decisions affecting their
businesses. Their election polls are sometimes wrong, but
they feel expert enough to risk their reputations.
Promotional Polls
Some polls are conducted in an election year for pro-
motional purposes. Eugene S. Pulliam, of the Indianapolis
News and Star, in 1960, assembled this list: St. Louis Ice
Cream Poll (vanilla for Nixon), Los Angeles Ice Cream
Bars (Kennedy 52.7%), Bloomington Bubble Gum Cigars,
Nashville Popcorn Poll, Las Vegas bookies, Rangoon, Burma
(gamblers), Amherst students and bumper strips.
Can the results of such polls be reported in an appropri-
ate context that tells the readers they are not genuine fore-
casts ? In some instances, perhaps, the name of the poll sup-
plies such a context; in other instances, maybe the story
can be given a twist that makes the reader grin. If not,
there is the risk of downgrading the genuineness of the
serious polls.
Sampling
The major factors that determine the reliability and
validity of a poll are: (1) the sampling method and (2) the
way the questions are asked.
Sampling was discussed in a previous bulletin ("Under-
standing Research: (I) Sampling for Surveys" in News Re-
search for Better Newspapers, Vol. 1, pp. 131-134).
The major professional pollsters use a modified prob-
ability sample which, theoretically, assures that each eli-
gible voter in the population has an equal chance of being
interviewed.
As the bulletin mentioned above explained, the profes-
sional pollsters draw blocks in a city in proportion to the
size of blocks, randomize the households within the selected
blocks, and often select by a systematic method the person
in the household who is to be interviewed.
This cannot be done in street corner "straw" polls.







Questions
Questions asked by professional pollsters are usually
pretested. If they are found to be in the wrong sequence,
ambiguous, recondite or double-barrelled, they are modified.
When, however, pollsters are asking about intended
voting behavior the questions are simple and not ambiguous.
Thus: "If the presidential election were being held today,
how would you vote-for Truman, for Dewey, for Wallace,
or for Thurmond?" (Gallup). The way such a question is
asked does not contribute to error.
"Undecideds" and Turnout
A kind of response that can contribute to error, how-
ever, is the so-called "undecided" response. The pollsters
must make some decision about the eligible respondent who
only says he is "leaning toward" a certain candidate or who
merely says he hasn't decided yet.
Most pollsters add the leanerss" to those who have
stated a definite preference and allocate the truly "un-
decideds" according to the proportion for each candidate.
Thus, when Candidate A receives 54 per cent of the pref-
erence, Candidate B 36 per cent and the "undecideds" are
10 per cent, the prediction becomes A, 60 per cent; B, 40 per
cent.
The greatest difficulty the expert pollster faces in some
elections is the "turnout"-the proportion of respondents
in the sample who will actually vote. The weather, for ex-
ample, he cannot control. But he finds it almost impossible
to determine how much interest the individual voter has in
the particular election and the likelihood of his voting.
This despite the fact that social scientists have de-
veloped a great amount of information about the motiva-
tions and social stimuli that cause one to vote or not to vote.
(It is an interesting fact that since woman's suffrage began
in 1920, the fluctuation in turnout has been much greater
than it was in the preceding sixty years.)
Much is now known about the socio-economic and psy-
chological characteristics of nonvoters, and pollsters could
use some of these data advantageously instead of merely
asking questions to measure the respondents' interest in the
election. But getting and tabulating responses to most of the
relevant questions would make the poll a much larger proj-
ect than could be justified by considerations of cost and
immediacy.
Editors should beware of predictions in primaries and
local bond elections because it is difficult for the pollster to
know the turnout. (Three- and- four-cornered races are also
more difficult to predict because the shift can be not just
from one candidate to the other but from one candidate to
any of the others.)






When the Pollsters Were Wrong
In thirty years of predicting the results of presidential
elections the major pollsters have failed only once to predict
the winning candidate.
That was in 1948 when the candidates were Truman,
Dewey, Wallace and Thurmond. The pollsters predicted that
Dewey would win. Truman's vote was underestimated about
five per cent by two pollsters and 11.4 per cent by a third
pollster, who quit polling in September-because Dewey
"was certain to win."
We shall never know exactly why the pollsters failed in
1948. That is, we cannot trace the amount of error for each
decision the pollsters made that cumulatively equates with
their total error.
After the election, the Social Science Research Council
appointed a committee of statisticians and social psychol-
ogists to analyze the records and methods of the pollsters
and the reports of post-election studies made by the national
and state pollsters.
The investigators examined the data on the "unde-
cided" respondents and the methods used for allocating
them to specific candidates. They found, however, that any
method of allocating the "undecideds" could not change the
pollsters' predictions by more than 1.5 per cent.
Perhaps we can account for the failures of the pollsters
in 1948 if we avoid statistical analysis and instead examine
the nature of the campaign-the issues and images of the
major party candidates.
This was the first time that the pollsters had. operated
in an election when Roosevelt was not a candidate. Roosevelt
had defined himself so clearly that the voters knew what he
stood for and what he was against.
In 1940, for example, a study in Erie County, Ohio
showed that five-sixths of the voters had made their de-
cision immediately after the parties' nominating conven-
tions, and almost none of them shifted during the campaign.
In 1948, however, the pollsters seemed to have overlooked
the fact that Roosevelt was no longer a candidate. They be-
came overconfident.
The 1948 election was in a transitional period in politics.
The Republicans had gained control of Congress in 1946 and
the Korean war was two years hence. Dewey had developed
a reputation as an extraordinarily able administrator and
Truman's image suffered by comparison with Roosevelt's.
The image of both candidates, however, was somewhat
ambiguous.
The strategy of the Republician candidates for pres-
ident and vice-president was to talk only in generalities.
Republicans believed they had the election won provided
they did nothing to excite the voters on specific issues. A







great many Democratic politicians thought Truman had no
chance.
But Truman set out to change this situation. He first
dramatically called back into session the "do-nothing Con-
gress" to vote on price controls. He campaigned for eight
weeks, traveling much farther than Dewey and making
many more speeches. He denounced the Taft-Hartley Act
(which had been passed over his veto) as "shameful" and
"vicious." His rhetoric was more strident than voters had
ever heard from a President. Truman thus projected a more
salient image than did Dewey.
Many voters had not known how either of the candi-
dates stood on price control, Taft-Hartley, and public hous-
ing. Truman succeeded in making them aware of how he
stood.
The result was that a good many formerly apathetic
voters decided to participate in the election and to vote for
Truman. (Many farmers in the Middle West also voted
for Truman, but we have little information about their
motivations.)
In Elmira, N.Y. (a Republican city), in which some
social scientists conducted a panel study during the cam-
paign, interviewing the same voters four times, the per-
centage of major party voters who favored Dewey declined
gradually from 72 per cent in June to 65 per cent in No-
vember.
The National pollsters, however, did not or could not
measure what was happening in the minds of voters. Per-
haps they could not have succeeded in estimating the turn-
out and detecting the shift even with the more refined
methods they now use.
Indeed, the pollsters can be wrong in some situations
-not because they have used inefficient sampling pro-
cedures, but because they can't get at what is in the voters'
minds at the time they poll or shortly afterward, as in
1948.
Or as in the 1964 Oregon presidential primary. There
the switching from Lodge to Rockefeller (there was no
switching from the other candidates) was caused by the in-
tensive and expensive Rockefeller campaign on the very
eve of the primary.
Rockefeller's campaign did not peak until the very last
days of the campaign whereas the campaign of his op-
ponents had peaked earlier. An analysis of the absentee
ballots cast one week or more before the election indicates
that Lodge would have led the ballot if the election had been
held one week earlier.
In most general elections, however, the chances are
very high that the professional pollsters will be reasonably
accurate.







More Stories Are Favorable to Youth
The San Rafael (Calif.) Independent-Journal had four
persons who were active in the field of education evaluate
all news stories about youth which had been published last
June. The findings were as follows:
Favorable stories ............... 258
Unfavorable stories ............. 77




Teenagers' Image Is Favorable
To determine the validity of a complaint that his news-
paper presented an unfavorable stereotype of the teenager,
Clarence W. Harding, public relations director of the South
Bend (Ind.) Tribune, analyzed all teenage stories which
had been published between Feb. 19 and Feb. 26, 1967.
He found that 653 inches had been devoted to favorable
news about the teens and 69 inches to unfavorable news.
The study also showed that 33 stories were favorable and
11 were unfavorable. Of the 28 pictures used, all were
favorable.
Favorable stories about teens were accorded as good
position as were the unfavorable stories. Stories about teen-
age crimes rarely appeared on the front page.







Chapter 8


An Inventory of Editorial Content
The Bureau of Advertising, ANPA and the ANPA
News Research Steering Committee sent a questionnaire
to every English language daily newspaper in the United
States last November and December inquiring about the
frequency of publication of 39 kinds of editorial content.
A total of 1,714 newspapers, after exclusion of trade
and other specialized newspapers, received the question-
naire.
Sixty-nine per cent, or 1,182, replied. Because many
papers of less than 10,000 circulation did not reply the
data was weighted by a random selection procedure. The
frequencies reported below, therefore, are for 1,714 news-
papers.
Table 1 shows the percentage of newspapers which
publish the particular kinds of content at least once a
month-regularly. The data is presented only for news-
papers in Sales Management's first hundred markets, non-
metropolitan newspapers, and all newspapers.


TABLE 1
Editorial Content Published at Least Once


S p orts .......................................................... .............
W eath er ....................................... ......................
S society ...................................................... .................
T V log ................................................. ..................
Food and recipes .....................................
Business-finance ..........................................
Schools (grade and high) ..................
Hunting, fishing ................................
Personal advice ...........................................
Television column .......................................
Health and medical .................................
Fashions (women) .................................
T een age ..................................................................
Security, commodity
quotations ...............................................
Sewing patterns ... ..............................
Motion pictures .............................................
Gardening ..................................... ...........
Beauty ............ .................... ..... .
Theatre ....... ..................................
B ook s .......................................... .......... ........
Farm and Ranch .........................................
B rid ge .................................... ..............................
Home building, repair ................


Total
96%
94
92
91
89
82
80
79
78
76
76
75
69
68
68
68
66
65
64
62
62
60
59


a Month-Regularly
1st 100 Non-
Markets Metrop.
98% 97%
96 91
95 90
97 86
93 84
90 74
67 80
88 73
90 70
90 65
88 67
86 66
82 59


(Continued on next page)







1st 100 Non-
Total Markets Metrop.
Home furnishings ....................................... 59% 74% 46%
C h ild care ............................................................... 53 66 43
Do-It-Yourself .................. 52 62 42
S cien ce ........................................................................ 52 66 42
Teenage apparel ............................................. 47 60 37
E tiqu ette .................................................................. 45 60 32
C college ........................................................................ 45 60 32
Fashions (m en) ............................................. 42 53 35
R esort and travel .......................................... 43 65 31
R ad io log .................................................................. 42 62 26
B oatin g ..................................................................... 4 1 58 3 1
Phonograph records .................................... 38 61 24
R adio colum n ...................................................... 35 60 20
A utom ob ile ............................................................ 33 44 28
P e ts ............................................................................... 2 7 4 6 17
Photography ......................................................... 24 37 16

In all except two instances, the proportion of large
circulation newspapers which publish a specific kind of
content exceeds the proportion of non-metropolitan news-
papers. The exceptions are "schools (grade and high)" and
"Farm and Ranch."

Five Times a Week Use
Table 2 shows the percentage of newspapers which
publish 25 kinds of content five times a week. Since the
percentage of newspapers publishing the other 14 kinds of
content ranges from only 1% to 7%, that data has been
omitted from Table 2.
TABLE 2
Editorial Content Published Five Times a Week
1st 100 Non-
Total Markets Metrop.
W weather .................................................................... 99% 99% 99%
S p orts .......................................................................... 95 96 95
S society ....................................................................... 94 91 93
Security, commodity ......................
qu stations ........................................................ 91 98 85
Personal advice ............................................... 89 90 90
B rid g e .......................................................................... 87 91 82
R adio log .................................................................. 87 91 83
T v log ...................................................................... 82 94 72
T V colum n ............................................................ 72 87 61
Business-finance ............................................. 68 98 50
Health and medical .................................... 66 68 61
R adio colum n ...................................................... 60 73 48
Sewing patterns ................................................ 56 59 50
T h eatre ..................................................................... 46 60 40
Motion pictures ................. 39 63 26
E tiqu ette .................................................................. 32 29 20
C hild care ............................................................... 25 32 18
B eau ty ........................................................................ 2 1 27 8
(Continued on neat page)







1st 100 Non-
Total Markets Metrop.
Fashions (women) .................................. 20% 30% 12%
Schools (grade and high) ..................... 19 20 19
Food and recipes ............................................. 17 24 13
C college ................................................................... 14 14 14
T eenage ................................................................ 13 13 12
H hunting, fishing ............................................. 11 16 9
S cien ce ................................................................... 11 15 8
The greatest differences between newspapers of large
circulation and non-metropolitan newspapers are in the
publication of business-financial and beauty columns. There
are no significant differences as to school, college, and teen-
age matter.
The newspapers were also asked to estimate the num-
ber of letters-to-the-editor received per year. The averages
(median) were as follows:
All newspapers ............. 377
First 100 markets .......... 1,910
Non-metropolitan ........... 229
The newspapers were also asked on which days of the
week they carried the heaviest volume of (a) food ad-
vertising retail, (b) food advertising national and (c)
general merchandizing-department store. They were also
asked about the next heaviest days for each of the three
kinds of advertising. The results are in Table 3.

TABLE 3
Heaviest Next Heaviest
Food Food Dept. Food Food Dept.
Retail General Store Retail General Store
Monday ............................ 0% 1% 1% 28% 12% 7%
Tuesday ... ................... 1 2 3 6 6 5
W wednesday ........................ 57 45 34 10 17 23
Thursday .. ................... 35 37 40 27 31 25
Friday ... ...................... 1 2 3 5 6 13
Saturday .............................. 0 0 0 2 1 0
Sunday ........ ................. 1 1 13 10 5 15
No answer ................... 5 12 6 12 22 12
Since there were no significant differences between
newspapers in large markets and newspapers in small
markets no breakdowns are presented.
(Bureau of Advertising, ANPA and ANPA News Research
Steering Committee, Inventory of Editorial Content of
1,714 Daily Newspapers in the United States. 1967.)




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