• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 CISP Council members
 Preface
 Opening comments: Gene W. Hemp
 Opening comments: Madelyn...
 Abstract
 Keynote address: Bernard J....
 University, public, and private...
 Inter-institutional linkages
 Student exchanges and study abroad...
 International students and...
 Internationalizing the curricu...
 Foreign languages and area...
 Observations: Dr. Ralph H....
 Appendices
 Appendix I. Mission statement
 Appendix II. Task force member...






Title: Excellence in international education
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075604/00001
 Material Information
Title: Excellence in international education a campus-wide workshop : proceedings
Physical Description: viii, 181 p. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Conference: Excellence in International Education Workshop, (1989
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1989
 Subjects
Subject: International education -- Congresses -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Genre: conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: coordinated by Madelyn M. Lockhart, John J. Koran Jr., Terry McCoy ; sponsored by the Council for International Studies and Programs and the Graduate School.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075604
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26220261

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    CISP Council members
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Preface
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Opening comments: Gene W. Hemp
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Opening comments: Madelyn M. Lockhart
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Abstract
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Keynote address: Bernard J. Hamilton
        Page 13
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    University, public, and private sector collaboration
        Page 27
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    Inter-institutional linkages
        Page 47
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        Page 53
        Page 54
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    Student exchanges and study abroad program
        Page 59
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    International students and scholars
        Page 79
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        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
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        Page 93
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    Internationalizing the curriculum
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
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        Page 113
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    Foreign languages and area studies
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
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    Observations: Dr. Ralph H. Smuckler
        Page 151
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    Appendices
        Page 167
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    Appendix I. Mission statement
        Page 169
    Appendix II. Task force members
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Full Text






PROCEEDINGS


EXCELLENCE IN INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION:

A Campus-Wide Workshop


Sponsored by:

The Council for International Studies and Programs
and
The Graduate School

235/280 Grinter Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
August, 1989








PROCEEDINGS


EXCELLENCE IN INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION:

A Campus-Wide Workshop


Coordinated by:


Madelyn M. Lockhart
Dean, Graduate School
Dean, International Studies and Programs

John J. Koran Jr.
Associate Dean, Graduate School
Associate Dean, International Studies and Programs

Terry McCoy
Director, Latin American Studies Center


Sponsored by:

The Council for International Studies and Programs
and
The Graduate School

235/280 Grinter Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
August, 1989






Table of Contents


CISP Council Members
Preface .........................

Opening Comments:


..............................................,................................ A"
................................................... ..................... vii

Gene W. Hemp,............................. 1
Interim Provost
Madelyn M. Lockhart,.................. 5
Dean, Graduate School
Dean, International Studies
& Programs


A bstract............................................................................................... 7


Keynote Address:


Bernard J. Hamilton..................... 13
President, American Express
Travel Related Services
Company, Latin American &
Caribbean Division


Task Force Reports

University, Public and Private Sector Collaboration
Co-Chairs: Hugh Popenoe
Otto von Mering..................................... 27


Inter-Institutional Linkages
Chair: George Pozzetta.


Student Exchanges and Study Abroad Program
Chair: Allan F. Burns........................................ 59

International Students and Visiting Scholars
Chair: Richard Downie....................................... 79

Internationalizing the Curriculum
Chair: Richard Renner....................................... 95

Foreign Languages and Area Studies
Chair: Jean Casagrande...................................... 115






Observations:




Appendix I:

Appendix II:


Ralph H. Smuckler.................................. 151
Dean and Assistant to the President
International Studies and Programs
Michigan State University.

Mission Statement................................................ 169

Task Force Members...................................... 170





COUNCIL FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND
PROGRAMS

Chair:

Dr. John J. Koran Jr.
Associate Dean,
Graduate School and
International Studies and Programs


Members:


Dr. Jean Casagrande 315 Norman Hall
Professor, Romance Languages
and Linguistics
Director, Program in Linguistics
Director, English Language Institute


Dr. Roy L. Crum 321 Business Building
Professor, Finance
Chairman Finance Department
College of Business Administration


Dr. Haig Der-Houssikian 402 Grinter Hall
Chairman of African and Asian
Languages and Literatures
African and Asian Studies


Dr. Sheila Dickison 2014 Turlington Hall
Associate Dean
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences


Dr. Richard Downie 1504 W. University Avenue
Director
Center for International Student and
Scholar Services






Dr. Lal Garg
Professor, Pharmacology/
Therapeutics
Professor of Medicine
College of Medicine


Dr. Paul Gibbs
Professor
College of Veterinary Medicine


Dr. Mark Jaroszewicz
Professor
College of Architecture


Dr. Phillip C. Kosch, Jr.
Associate Dean for
Research and Graduate Studies
College of Veterinary Medicine


Dr. Terry McCoy
Professor, Political Science
Director
Center for Latin American Studies


Dr. Winston Nagan
Professor, Law
College of Law


Dr. Robert Pierce
Professor, Journalism
College of Journalism


Dr. Hugh Popenoe
Professor, Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences
Director
International Programs, IFAS


J-267 J. Hillis Miller
Health Science Center





J-137 J. Hillis Miller
Health Science Center



331 Architecture Building




J-125 J. Hillis Miller
Health Science Center




319 Grinter Hall





349 Holland Hall


3057 Weimer Hall




3028 McCarty Hall






Dr. Peter Schmidt
Associate Professor, Anthropology
Director
Center for African Studies


Dr. Robert Singer
Professor, Exercise and
Sports Science
Chairman, College of Health
and Human Performance


Dr. Ramakant Srivastava
Associate Professor
College of Engineering


470 Grinter Hall





302 Florida Gym






313 Weil Hall





EXCELLENCE IN INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION:
A CAMPUS-WIDE WORKSHOP

PREFACE

During the last three years the University of Florida's study
abroad programs and area studies centers and programs have been
reviewed by the State Department of Education and the Board of
Regents. Both review teams found these programs to be exemplary
within the State University System. The recommendations from
these review teams has primarily centered on how to broaden the
base of student participation, increase institutional support in the
areas of fellowships and scholarships to study abroad, provide
adequate resources and infrastructure for international studies and
programs on campus, and assure that faculty engaging in
international activities are properly recognized and rewarded. A
continued concern of review teams has been to seek methods to
maximize the integration of international knowledge into the
undergraduate and graduate curricula.

In order to address these issues as well as the many
associated issues involved in developing a university with an
international dimension, the Council for International Studies and
Programs proposed a campus-wide workshop on "Excellence in
International Education at the University of Florida." The workshop
took place April 17, 1989, at the Reitz Union, from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00
p.m.

The Council for International Studies and Programs
identified six critical topics to be studied by task forces prior to the
conference. They were (1) area studies and foreign languages; (2)
student exchanges and study abroad programs; (3) international
students and visiting scholars; (4) public and private sector
collaboration-funding, joint ventures, and service; (5) inter-
institutional linkages; and (6) internationalizing the curriculum.

Approximately 175 faculty and administrators participated,
with 75 of those working on task forces. Each task force consisted of
10-20 faculty and administrators, led by a chair (generally a Council
member). The task forces reviewed their topics and formulated
recommendations for desired directions and activities in the next
decade. The task force chairs produced a written report to be
disseminated prior to the workshop, presented a brief summary of
the report during the workshop, and led discussion of the important
issues emerging from task force deliberations.







The opening session of the workshop featured interim
Provost Gene W. Hemp and Madelyn M. Lockhart, Dean of the
Graduate School and Dean of International Studies and Programs.
Presentations and discussions were led by Dean John J. Koran, Jr.
and Dr. Terry McCoy. A luncheon speaker, Dr. Bernard Hamilton
of American Express, discussed private sector perspectives on
university international activities.

After the luncheon a panel of deans chaired by Dean
Madelyn M. Lockhart and including Deans Winfred M. Phillips,
Engineering; Willard Harrison, Liberal Arts and Sciences; Ralph
Lowenstein, Journalism and Communications; Anthony Catanese,
Architecture; and Patrick Bird, Health and Human Performance;
discussed the topic "Problems and Issues in Internationalizing a
College." Following the panel, Dr. Ralph Smuckler, Dean and
Assistant to the President for International Studies and Programs at
Michigan State University, reacted to the task force reports and
made recommendations targeted on the continued development of
international studies and programs at the University of Florida.

These proceedings include the presentations, task force
reports, and Dr. Smuckler's observations. It is hoped that they will
be of interest to our colleagues in the United States as well as our
international colleagues.





OPENING COMMENTS


Gene W. Hemp
Interim Provost, University of Florida

There is a need for international education and there is a
need for universities like the University of Florida to focus on this
type of activity. We are entering an age of global interdependence.
I don't know how many of you saw the movie "Around the World in
80 Days" on television last night; but, that was an interesting concept
for its time. The problem is now you can get on an airplane and
arrive wherever it is that you are going before you left wherever you
left. That illustrates how our distances are "shrinking" and one of
the causes for our growing interdependencies.

Recently I had dinner with a noted person who was on our
campus to attend an international cabinet meeting. He was
discussing language groups in Australia and how there were 29 of
them; 28 of them are in a small corner of Australia and the 29th
covers the remainder of Australia. When asked how the 28 language
groups could all co-exist and sustain themselves through a long
period of time, he explained there were many different valleys up in
the northeast corer of Australia and people do not leave their valley
to go to another. Therefore each language evolved in isolation over
a period of time. That an area like this still exists was amazing to me
because people elsewhere appear to move all over the world.

We are already interdependent in our lives. If you look at
the headlines in the newspapers, what do you see? You find that
there is a discussion of the foreign debt and its effect, not only on the
country, but also on our banks. You also see discussions of the
balance of trade between our country and another--like Japan. As
the world continues to "grow" smaller in certain ways, I suspect that
we will worry no more about the trade deficit between the United
States and Japan than we do about trade between Florida and say,
Michigan. We don't think about interstate commerce frequently
because we are in the same country. One of these days, I believe,
this will also come to be the case internationally.

In other instances, we read in the headlines and we see on
television the immigration process and problems immigrants have
coming to this country. We see what the weather is in other
countries--the droughts and what implications those weather
conditions in that country have on our economy and our people.





The effect of the drought becomes readily apparent in the sale of
farm products.

We see headlines about the environment and acid rain.
Sometimes we (the U.S.) are causing the problems and sometimes
someone else is causing the problem. The diminution of the ozone
layer is a problem in which many countries are contributing to the
worsening condition. One of the current major discussions about
the Soviet Union in terms of the environment is that they are major
polluters of the environment. However, they have absolutely no
intention at this point of changing what they are doing. First, they
cannot afford to change. Secondly, it is not bothering them. The
fact that it is bothering somebody else isn't their problem.

In other headlines we learn about insects such as the killer
bees in Mexico and Central America. We talk about the diseases in
other countries and how they might impact our people, our plants,
and animals. As a result, members of the faculties of IFAS and
Veterinary Medicine go to places like Africa and Australia to learn
about these diseases and how to contain them in order that we can
understand how to prevent or to cure these problems when, and if,
they reach the United States.

Tourism is an example of both income and loss of revenue
for the United States. This should be of concern to us because
Florida has the largest part of its economy based on tourism.
Although many tourists come to Florida from places like Canada
and Italy, a large number of visitors also come from within the
United States. Tour boats leave ports like Miami and go to areas of
the Caribbean, Central and South America where passengers also
leave large portions of their money. A recent issue of Business
Week contained an article about who owns the major real estate in
the United States. The figures showed foreign investment in real
estate alone was on the order of $40 billion in California and,
surprisingly enough, on the order of $9.5 billion here in Florida.

There have been many discussions comparing educational
systems. A point frequently made is how the Japanese do much
better in K-12 than we do. Fortunately, I guess for us, at least in
higher education in the United States, the Japanese and other parts
of the world still see the United States as the premier system for
higher education. They send their extremely bright people to our
country for advanced degrees and, in some cases, those students stay
in our country and enrich our culture while others take that
knowledge and return home.






In Florida, there have been a number of initiatives for more
cooperation between the State University System and faculties of
one university or another in other parts of the world. The University
of Florida had its primary contact with Brazil through the Florida
Brazil Institute that is headquartered in the Center for Latin
American Studies. This is a grand idea and we are still hoping that
the legislature is going to fund it one of these days. Nevertheless, it
was a SUS initiative--their idea, our money.

In 1985, the University founded the Office of International
Studies and Programs. Dr. Lockhart became Dean of International
Studies and Programs as well as Dean of the Graduate School.
Since that time, I believe that office has done a marvelous job in
terms of bringing together resources of the University; one example
is the Handbook of International Programs, Research and Faculty.
We needed to know (and now we do) where we have programs and
what we are doing. If you are to make progress in an area, you not
only need to know the direction in which you would like to go, but
also where you are starting from. This handbook was an excellent
"first step."

During the course of this meeting, most of you will become
more aware of the wide range of area studies and other activities on
this campus. There is a problem, of course, in the State University
System. While it recognizes the need for international education,
the legislature doesn't fund international education--it funds the
teaching of students. We do not have a great deal of latitude in our
budget to earmark funds for international education.

One of the activities of the General Education Task Force
during this last year and into next year is to evaluate how we are
going to restructure our general education requirements. In my
discussions with David Colburn, chairman of that group, we agreed
that one of the potential ways in which students may satisfy a general
education requirement could be through an international experience.


I've had a chance personally to participate in these
international activities through the Architectural Preservation
Program (Preservation Institute: the Caribbean). It has taken me to
Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Colombia and Guatemala.
This has given me insight in terms of meeting with people and seeing
how they view the United States and its culture. At least in this
group of countries, the people who are interested in architectural





preservation are also very influential in their country. I was amazed
that during one of these get-togethers in Puerto Rico, one of the
participating students was related to the former president of
Panama. When I visited the Dominican Republic, the brother-in-
law of the Secretary of State had been in our program a couple years
before. When I visited Santo Domingo, they invited me to the
Presidential Palace to meet the Secretary of State.

The university needs to work on enhancing ties to other
countries through international programs. It needs to do so not just
to have ties, but to develop ties where it is mutually beneficial to the
universities involved. We get many requests for exchange programs
of one sort or another from other countries and other universities. I
believe we are at a point in our development as a university where
we need to look very carefully at these requests. One criterion we
should use in evaluating these proposals is how these potential
associations benefit our students, our faculty, and finally, how they
benefit the people of the State of Florida.

I hope you have a very good conference. I am looking
forward to hearing reports of the task forces and the final
recommendations to emerge from the conference.





OPENING COMMENTS


Madelyn M. Lockhart
Dean, Graduate School
Dean, International Studies and Programs

I add my welcome to that of Dr. Hemp. We are pleased to
have you join us in this workshop which we all hope will help us to
expand the international dimension on this campus and throughout
the State of Florida.

We had several goals in mind in organizing this workshop.
First, I hope that it will serve to improve communication on what is
available at the University of Florida in the international area and
perhaps raise our consciousness on what there is yet to be done.
Second, we are all aware that the university has many faculty,
centers, departments and other units deeply involved in international
activities, but we are seeking better ways to coordinate our efforts.
Third, there is a need to give more visibility to the wealth of
resources we can offer and the desirability of cooperative efforts
with the many constituencies outside the university.

We need to improve, building on the strengths we have. To
do so we need to broaden our base of participation. Let me give you
a brief history of the recent changes that have taken place.

For many years, we have had strong and growing centers for
international activities, the Latin American Center, the African
Center, and the Center for Tropical Agriculture and more recently,
new units emphasizing study and research in other parts of the
world. All of these efforts have involved significant numbers of
faculty, students and programs not only on campus, but in the state
and region. We are a multi-cultural university. We also have had
for some time two offices to serve students and faculty, the Office of
International Student Services and the Center for International
Student and Faculty Exchanges.

For many years, the Council for International Studies and
Programs saw a need for coordinated administration and urged the
administration to set up a university-wide administrative unit to
coordinate international activities on the campus. In 1985, the
Provost appointed the Dean of the Graduate School as Dean of
International Studies and Programs. The purpose of this combined
responsibility was quite clear. The Graduate Dean is the
administrative officer of graduate studies for all departments and





colleges at the University of Florida, the academic officer most
closely related to programs and curricula in all areas of the campus -
not just undergraduate, but graduate study and research programs.
In 1986, an Associate Dean was appointed to coordinate the
international efforts campus-wide and to chair the Council for
International Studies and Programs. This organizational structure
has permitted:

1. The establishment of the Center for
International Student and Faculty
Exchanges which coordinates study abroad
programs and faculty and student
exchanges.

2. Coordination of staffing which has created
a financial structure which is now in the
"black" and is beginning to fund
scholarships for international study.

3. The dissemination of more information
through the Handbook on International
Teaching. Research, and Service and a
roster of faculty with interest and expertise
in different parts of the world.

4. A newsletter, "The International Scholar,"
which features programs and activities on
the campus and throughout the state and
nation.

5. A variety of leaflets and posters advertising
the international programs.

However, as the task force reports point out, there is still
much to be done. Inadequate state funding prevents some of our
more ambitious plans. But we must find ways to be more creative in
tapping sources that would help us use our wealth of talent and
resources effectively. That is what we are all about today.

I welcome you and look forward to a productive session!





ABSTRACT


On April 17, 1989, the Council for International Studies and
Programs sponsored a campus-wide workshop focusing on
Excellence in International Education. The workshop was
supported by the Graduate School and the Office of Academic
Affairs. The purpose of this workshop was to explore the present
scope of international activities at the University of Florida and to
plan for the continued commitment of the University to the
integration of international teaching, research, and service into its
fabric. To address the major issues involved in continuing to
develop the international role of the University of Florida, six task
forces addressed the following areas: University, Public and Private
Sector Collaboration; Inter-Institutional Linkages; Student
Exchanges and Study Abroad; International Students and Scholars;
Internationalizing the Curriculum; and Foreign Languages and Area
Studies Programs. Recommendations were made by each of these
task forces which subsequently will be prioritized and presented to
the Dean of International Studies and Programs, the Interim Provost
and the Interim President.


Recommendations


I. University, Public & Private Sector Collaboration.

1. Revise the University's Mission Statement.
2. Strengthen and broaden the University's international
mandate.
3. Create incentives and rewards for international
activities.
4. Mobilize underutilized resources in the University and
the State.
5. Create an International Development Foundation to
more effectively and efficiently fund international
efforts.
6. Appoint University, State and nationwide international
liaisons for each department and unit to facilitate
the active participation of these and other campus
units in support of the University's international
mandate.





7. Target global expansion areas.
8. Hold colloquia on international concerns.
9. Lobby for State support.
10. Lobby for Federal support.


II. Inter-Institution Linkages.

1. Develop a clearly articulated general policy regarding
international linkages.
2. Develop an expanded resource and staff base to
support agreements.
3. Develop a master plan to provide overall direction and
guidance for inter-institutional linkages.
4. Develop, create or join a consortium arrangement to
extend resources, international activities and inter-
institutional cooperation.


III. Student Exchanges and Study Abroad Programs

1. Strengthen the staffing and funding for the Center for
International Student and Faculty Exchange office
(CISFE).
2. Provide clear academic and financial support at all
levels for exchange and study abroad programs.
3. Increase student participation in exchange programs.
4. Consider alternative organizational structures and
staffing for the Center for International Student
and Faculty Exchange Office and an expanded
mission and function.


IV. International Students & Scholars

1. Increased staff should be provided for the Center for
International Students and Scholars Services
(CISSS) for the support of international student
and scholar programs.
2. The CISSS should be physically located in close
proximity to CISFE for the purpose of enhancing
communication and coordination of programs as
well as more efficient utilization of staff.





3. A revolving fund should be established to assist newly
arrived students and scholars.
4. A handbook should be developed for use by both
newly arrived students and scholars.
5. A faculty advisory committee should be established to
continue review of ongoing programs and assist
visiting foreign faculty.
6. The current enrollment priorities for international
students should be continued with an emphasis on
increased spoken and written English for all
international graduate students.
7. The minimum TOEFL score should be maintained at
550 and international students should continue to
be individually evaluated with regard to the
required GRE score.
8. Additional sources of financial support should be
pursued for international students especially
through local corporations or some version of the
"Oregon Plan".
9. Some form of formal recognition should be given to
our foreign Fulbright students and scholars from
the highest level of the University.
10. Organizational options should be explored with respect
to the development of a centralized and coordinated
support structure for international education.
11. Departments should establish a designated host for
each visiting scholar invited or assigned to their
department.
12. Continued encouragement of departments should take
place to invite and receive international scholars.
13. A mechanism should be established to routinely
maintain contact with and follow up on former
University of Florida visiting scholars.
14. A foreign visitor card should be established which will
permit the visitor access to university facilities and
amenities.


V. Internationalizing the Curriculum

1. A standing committee to study and oversee curriculum
change issues should be created.
2. The distribution requirement for general education
should be expanded to include a substantial list of
course options from area studies.





3. A computerized clearinghouse should be established to
provide complete and up-to-date information about
international offerings on campus as well as course
offerings abroad and their acceptability for transfer
to the student's major.
4. All students should demonstrate, as a general
education requirement, mastery of a foreign
language equivalent to ten university level credits.
Alternative requirements worthy of further
discussion would be a) a semester of employment
or study abroad or b) nine semester hours of
course work in international or foreign culture
subjects.
5. Mini-sabbaticals should be established to provide a
means of funding the introduction of international
content into the curriculum; the Office of
Instructional Resources faculty could be employed
to create instructional materials for such courses.
6. Short (or separate) courses should be offered as an
alternative to provide incentives to induce
administrative units and professors to
internationalize their courses.
7. International study programs should be assessed to
insure adequate monitoring of existing study
abroad offerings and the integration of these
offerings into the total program.
8. Means should be established to increase
interdepartmental collaboration in the
internationalizing of the curriculum.

VI. Foreign Languages & Area Studies Programs

1. A more balanced distribution of funds and
responsibilities should be sought between the
institution's commitment to research and the basic
language teaching mission.
2. All students receiving a bachelor's degree at the
University of Florida should be required to
demonstrate a foreign language proficiency
equivalent to one year of study, and the current
Liberal Arts and Sciences proficiency requirements
should be increased to the equivalent of two years.





3. A presidential task force should be created and
charged with developing a long term plan regarding
international and foreign language goals.
4. Action must be taken on the extensive listing of needs
highlighted by the task force in the various
programs, centers, and other related activities.


















EDUCATION:

RESPONDING TO THE CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL
COMPETITION





Remarks By

Bernard J. Hamilton

President

American Express Travel Related Services Company

Latin America and Caribbean Division

April 17, 1989






Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. I am delighted and
honored to speak to you today when you are considering further
internationalization of the University of Florida. This is an ambitious
objective, but certainly one whose time has come, because both the
university and the people of Florida are affected, and in turn affected
by what happens in other states and countries.

Let me give you an example. In Venezuela recently, pent-
up frustration over falling living standards and widespread fears
about the nation's economic future sent people into the streets to
demonstrate against their president's austerity program. The riots
which resulted left 300 people dead (according to official reports --
3,000 dead according to unofficial sources), more than 2,000
wounded and 3,000 small businesses virtually destroyed.

This is a grave tragedy for Venezuela. It will also have a
significant negative impact on Florida since we expect exports to
Venezuela to drop by 20 percent. Considering that Venezuela is
Florida's largest trading partner, this will have a major impact on
trade and employment in the state.

So we live and work in an interrelated world.

Your task today is to look at the university's future in a
broad context and to begin identifying and prioritizing some of the
issues and relationships which will help this institution become
increasingly responsive to the pressing need for skills and talents that
will enable university alumni to "survive" in today's highly
competitive global arena. To arrive at some of the issues -- and
perhaps even some of the solutions -- I will address the subject of my
speech -- "EDUCATION: RESPONDING TO THE
CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL COMPETITION" from three
distinct yet interrelated perspectives:

First, from a business perspective because it is the business
community which is a primary user of the "educated mind." I am you
customer.

Second, from a personal viewpoint, because "I fund you".
As taxpayers and citizens we Floridians all share a common destiny.
We have a vested interest in our state educational institution's ability
to produce the intellectual talent which helps attract new businesses
and employment opportunities to our state -- and which contributes
to Florida's leadership role in this hemisphere.





Finally, from a partner perspective because "I can help you".
As business leaders and as educators, we have an opportunity to
work together in many areas to develop a unified, proactive and
responsive approach to social and business issues -- both in the
United States and around the world -- so our collective experience
and resources can be more effectively applied toward mutual
objectives.

Before we go into each of these perspectives in greater
detail, let's look at our competitive arena. In recent years the United
States has been mainly preoccupied with answering economic
challenges from the Japanese and the other emerging powers of
Asia. Now, the prospect of a unified European market in 1992 has
many businesses, especially in the banking and financial services
sectors, scrambling for positioning to build power and market share
through increased investments, acquisitions and joint ventures.

At the same time, though, many social, political and
economic factors have caused us to shift our focus from East-West
to North-South -- to the important strategic relationship between the
United States and its hemispheric neighbors. Canada has a stable
and growing economy; but, throughout most of the southern
hemisphere, our business environment is characterized by:

economic stagnation
high inflation
high interest rates
rapid devaluations
a variety of government regulations and
restrictions
and, often times, infrastructures that do
not work well.

With the total Latin America and Caribbean external debt estimated
at $450 billion, it's easy to see why many businesses are extremely
leery about this volatile marketplace.

This poses a serious problem for the United States. Why?
Because if the United States doesn't take the lead in helping to solve
the LDC debt problem, we risk losing the Latin American countries
as trading partners, as allies, and as market-oriented democracies.





Think of the implications for the United States of an economically
stagnant and politically disintegrating Latin America:

.The loss of these important markets for exports --
which represent more than $30 billion a year
and hundreds of thousands of jobs.

.The threat of our national interests from hostile
governments.

.Mounting immigration pressures on our borders.

.Continuing, if not worsening, drug-trafficking.

.Escalating global environmental concerns.

The scope and penetration of these international influences in this
state is phenomenal. Latin America is our largest trading partner --
with Canada a distant second. In 1988 Florida's exports totaled $13.5
billion. South Florida, particularly Miami, accounted for nearly $10
billion of that total. Our major export markets were Venezuela,
Colombia, Brazil and the Bahamas in that order. Trade and tourism
statistics estimate that one of every four jobs in Florida is tied to
international commerce or tourism-related services. So you can see
that without economic growth in Latin America, we will sacrifice
much of our own growth. And unless we work together to answer
the social needs of our hemispheric neighbors, we will suffer the
consequences of violence and political instability at our front door.

We have already talked about Venezuela. Let me note that
Argentina and Brazil both show declining standards of living over
the past six years as do virtually all countries of South and Central
America. Both countries have presidential elections this year, and it
is increasingly likely that their next governments are going to be
substantially more leftist -- and less friendly to the United States.
This scenario is being repeated in other fragile democracies to the
south of us.

How did all this happen? While we can lay the blame on
many causes, clearly one of the underlying factors is a mind set in





the United States that looks at the economic problems in Latin
American and says:

"This isn't my problem -- this does not affect me --
the banks got themselves into this situation and it's
their responsibility to get themselves out."

This mentality allowed a problem to become a disaster -- and we can
only guess at the ultimate repercussions.

How does all of this relate to the objective of
internationalizing the University of Florida? With an enrollment of
30,000 students from Florida, and $300 million plus in funds, the
University certainly has a vested interest in spearheading initiatives
which ensure Florida's economic vitality in the future. But we have
some major hurdles to overcome.

A recent report from the Southern Governors' Association
stated that internationalizing education is the solution to reclaiming
this country's international competitiveness. The report said each
day we pay an increasing economic and political price for our
inability to communicate with and understand our global neighbors.
In essence it links our economic future with our ability to speak with
and understand our customers. We have those unique abilities in
Florida, but it seems as if we are hell-bent on driving them
underground. Last November the passage of Amendment 11, by a
resounding majority, established English as the State's official
language. This was a slap in the face to Florida's large Spanish-
speaking population and to our Latin American trading partners. It
also underscores a growing resistance to foreign language study in
the State.

Further evidence of this trend was also reported in a recent
Miami Herald column entitled "Festival of Nations." I quote:

"The lack of a large talent bank of bilingual and
multi-lingual people is viewed by those in the
national security and international political
relations sectors of our government as a threat to
our economic, political and national security
interests -- yet:

-Only 15 percent of American high school students
now study a foreign language -- down from 24
percent in 1965.






-Only 5 percent of Americans graduating from
college can function in a language other than
English.

-We are the only country in the world where a
student can graduate from college without having
had one year of a foreign language either before or
during college".

If you think that's shocking, the article went on to quantify our
children's ability to understand the issues that affect this
interdependent hemisphere of ours. I quote:

"American students are amazingly ignorant of even
the most obvious geographical facts, let alone the
essential elements of foreign cultures, languages,
and events. In a recent United Nations survey
among 30,000 students in nine countries, they
placed next to last in their comprehension of
foreign cultures.

-49 percent believe that foreign trade is either
irrelevant or harmful to the United States, when in
reality international trade accounts for:

-20 percent of United States industrial
output

-one in six United States jobs

-40 percent of United States farmland
production, and

-about one-third of United States
corporate profits."

Well, with all that said, let's return to the three perspectives
I mentioned earlier to see how we can better prepare ourselves for
today's interdependent world. We will look at the business
requirements first because, in a sense, we are the consumers of the
product universities develop.

I believe American Express is similar to other multi-
national corporations in terms of the quality individuals we seek to





fill management level positions here and overseas. At American
Express TRS, we employ over 51,000 people in 120 countries to
serve 30.7 million card members worldwide. Over 6,000 are
employed in Florida through American Express and its subsidiaries.
But, wherever we are -- from Cairo to Ft. Lauderdale to Sao Paulo --
we have an employment criteria for management level staff that
applies globally. We look for bilingual MBA's who are
internationally-oriented and have five years of work or intern
experience, preferably some overseas. My business may be unusual,
but 95 percent of my 300 employees in Florida speak two languages
or more. We also expect our new hires to have skills which enable
them to manage information and make decisions. We want
individuals with high potential who are willing to travel and relocate.

There are also a whole series of attitudes and character
features which determine whether a person -- from entry level to
senior management -- will be successful with American Express or
not. They include:

.Teamwork
.High energy
.Flexibility
.High tolerance for other cultures
A customer service orientation
.Patience
.Perseverance, and
.Long hours of hard work.

Now, I'm sure you are thinking: "These attributes can't be
taught, they have to be learned through experience." Not so! A
well-structured international curriculum must develop all these
attributes. Because when your graduates enter the international
work force they will compete for market share and profits in a fierce
socioeconomic arena. They will face a world where winning or
losing nations are quickly scored by fluctuating exchange rates and
balance of payments. Let me assure you, critical issues, especially in
Latin America and the Caribbean, surface at breakneck speed -- and
there is no time to luxuriate in a learning curve. Typically, we expect
our management team to solve problems which are not found in
textbooks. Often no protocol or guidelines exist. The skills they
really need are not necessarily part of most standard MBA
programs. Let me give you some examples:





INTERRELATIONSHIPS Many of the things we do
require our people to think holistically. That means they must go
across various functional areas to find the answers and to weigh the
impact of their decisions. However, in most business administration
programs, courses are usually much more structured within
functions. That should change. The business community cannot
afford to have financial managers who cannot understand
marketing's concerns or marketing personnel who can't address
operational issues.


COMMUNICATION SKILLS are also critical. We expect
our employees to be able to take information from a wide variety of
sources, then organize and consolidate it in a concise relevant way.
So I think you must ask yourselves: Of the number of written
assignments that a student produces while in school, how many
prepare him for the fundamental responsibilities he will face on the
job -- business letters, strategic plans, speeches, issue summaries?


PROBLEM AND SOLUTION PERCEPTIONS Our
employees require three essential skills to address international
problems -- the ability to:

-Identify that a problem exists,
-Assess the underlying causes, and
-Find solutions that work in an international
environment.

Unless students are exposed to case studies and situations which
help them to develop these skills, they will be unable to develop
practical solutions that are appropriate in a social or political
environment that may be very different from what they are
accustomed to.


UNSTRUCTURED PROBLEMS Many of the challenges
we face in Latin America and the Caribbean go beyond budgets and
business plans. They don't appear in any textbooks and there are no
similar situations to compare them to. Sometimes they may include
precedent-setting government decisions where the rules and
boundaries are unclearly defined. The only way to begin addressing
these types of problems is through conversations with a variety of
different sources -- some obvious -- some relatively obscure. To a
degree this is similar to the academic process for a Ph.D. Your final





thesis is based on research as well as on theories and perceptions
you have tested by talking to others.

Let me give you an example. In 1985 the Argentine
government decided to restructure its economy to curb rampant
inflation. A new currency, the Austral, was announced on a Friday
afternoon. We faced major adjustments in all areas of our business.
As I have jokingly said many times, we gave our crisis management
team in Coral Gables one-way tickets and 48 hours to solve the
problem. And they did. Over the weekend they converted systems
and restructured the business to accommodate the new restrictions
and regulations mandated by the Government. And it took an
enormous amount of dialogue with our in-country management team
to understand and implement these changes.

People who can perform in this manner have what it takes
to be global leaders for the year 2000. They have a global
perspective -- both an intellectual understanding of the diverse
markets and functions of our business, and hands-on, visceral
experience in multiple cultures and businesses. They are
comfortable with technology and know how to incorporate the
creative use of technology in both their strategic vision and their
tactical plans. They have acquired the statesmanship skills needed to
respond to external pressures and know how to move confidently
into relationships with business partners, government officials, and
the media, which is critical to successful leadership.

Although American Express tends to lean toward
universities which traditionally produce the "brightest" students, we
believe the real needs of our operating centers will be met by
"growing our own" talent within the state. So, if I were asked to do a
quick checklist of some of the basic criteria which might enhance the
University of Florida's preparation of intellectual talent for the
global marketplace -- I would include:

-A structured internship program as a requirement
-A weekend or evening MBA program
-Courses in decision and information sciences with
some international focus
-Computer literacy requirements
-Foreign language requirements on the
undergraduate and MBA level
-Emphasis on career planning
-A case study program using global current events as
course material





-Volunteer experience in different cultural and ethnic
communities
-Team exercises
-An "outreach" program with an international focus
aimed at selected secondary schools throughout the
State and Region.

Let's move on to the personal, or citizen's perspective --
What can we as Floridians expect if our educational institutions,
both public and private, marshall their forces to contribute to
Florida's future growth and development?

At the very least we should get the attention and support of
those organizations and policy makers who have included education
a priority on their personal agendas -- like President Bush, Senator
Graham, Governor Martinez, Commissioner Castor, the Florida
Chamber of Commerce, and the new Hemispheric Policies Studies
Center, just to name a few.

Although to some degree there is a competitive relationship
between the colleges and universities and the State, there is also a
common devotion to educational excellence. What would happen if
this powerful synergy were exploited? What would happen if a
unified Florida coalition on education expressed -- in one clear voice
-- the ways and means to resolve the domestic and international
educational imperatives of our State? Well, experience has taught
me that there is strength in numbers and that results are achieved
when powerful forces pull in the same direction.

Here's what the Hemispheric Policies Studies Center has to
say:

"Although "Ivy League" universities have a
longer standing tradition and alumni roster
among the intelligentsia of Latin America,
it is clear that Florida institutions are
becoming leading centers of thinking,
dialogue and research with their
counterparts in Latin and Caribbean
countries. In the areas of Political Science,
Economics, Educational Planning and
Evaluation, Agriculture, Medicine,
Architecture and Business, the expertise
within Florida's universities and
community colleges has become an





important "invisible" export for the training
research and technology needs of our
neighbors."

If we could all work together to get Latin America and the
Caribbean growing again, we could expect exports to increase by
about $15 billion a year -- and a large volume would flow through
Florida's ports. As a result, we could recover over 200,000 lost jobs -
many of them in Florida. We would also experience a significant
increase in business travel, tourism, and visitor spending in Florida
cities.

I am sure the University of Florida can be an important part
of this leadership equation. But I think you must also ask yourselves
what else you should do to build visibility for the university in the
international community?

One important responsibility is active participation in
groups and forums that address international issues. Some that
come to mind are:

.The Caribbean and Central American Action
Committee
.The Greater Miami Progress Foundation
Congressional Workshop
.The Hemispheric Policies Studies Center
Committees
.The Council of the Americas
.World Trade Center Meetings

Part of the competitive scenario should also include
evaluating University of Florida's strengths against other universities
across the State and around the Country. How is the university
promoted and positioned in major international markets? What are
its strong points and what are its short suits? What personal and
professional contacts does your faculty have? What percentage of
the $159 million the university raised for outside contracts and grants
last year applies to international contracts or issues?

The point I am making is the world is rapidly becoming a
part of your hometown. None of us can afford to isolate ourselves
from mainstream issues. By the same token, all the trading
opportunities and dialoguing in the world won't help Florida unless
we develop the resources we need to be competitive.





As a nation, we have preoccupied ourselves with complaints
about unfair trading practices and level playing fields calling for
quotas and protectionism. But our real complaint is with ourselves.
The greatest obstacle to United States competitiveness is the quality
of our work force. And it is undoubtedly one of the greatest
challenges facing our nation.

This brings me to the final perspective -- partnerships. I
believe business leaders can lend their experience and expertise to
local schools, and universities to improve understanding of
conditions and practices in the global marketplace. You should
encourage the business sector to get involved as concerned parents,
visiting lecturers, or special advisors.

We can also go much further. There are many examples
around the country of public-private sector partnerships to improve
education. Let me mention a few that American Express has been
involved in. American Express sponsors the Academy of Finance in
Broward County and the Academy of Tourism in Dade. We have
been joined in these efforts by 14 other Florida businesses. These
academies are part of a nationwide program we initiated in
partnership with the public school system at 33 high schools in 15
cities. The academies offer classes and on-the-job training for high
school juniors and seniors, including a paid summer internship.

At the state level there has been a real eagerness among
Florida's elected leaders to form partnerships with business. One
such initiative began in 1984 with the creation of the Florida Inter-
American Scholarship Foundation. That year the Kissinger
Commission Report on Central America underscored the dramatic
imbalance between educational investments made by the United
States and the Soviet Union. At the time 633 United States
scholarships were awarded to Latin American and Caribbean
students versus 9,700 from the Soviet Union. Under the leadership
of the Florida Legislature and the Governor, the State appropriated
funds to create and maintain this unique scholarship diplomacy
initiative. Students are selected for the program on the basis of
academic ability, leadership potential, and economic need. As a
result, talented students from the region have had an opportunity to
further their educations at Florida colleges and universities so that,
ultimately, they can re-invest their skills in their own countries.
Currently seven foundation scholarship recipients are attending the
University of Florida under the auspices of this program.





Other ongoing programs like the Florida-Brazil Institute,
the Florida International Volunteer Corps, or Partners of the
Americas relationships through Latin America and the Caribbean
should be supported. These programs are models of partnerships
which have demonstrated mutual benefits for Florida and its
hemispheric neighbors by strengthening educational, cultural, and
economic ties.

In conclusion, I hope that my remarks have been
constructive and have convinced you that an international
perspective is vital -- that Latin America is extremely important to
Florida -- and that there are many paths to follow on your quest to
internationalize the University of Florida. Before you begin this
afternoon's sessions, though, let me leave you with the inspirational
words of the late American poet, Archibald MacLeish:

"Our reliance in this country is on the inquiring,
individual human mind. Our strength is found
there -- our resilience -- our ability to face an ever-
changing future and to master it. We are not
frozen into a future which mirrors the past. We are
free to make the future for ourselves."

I think you can help the University and Florida to build a future that
is brighter and more profitable than any one of us ever imagined.
Good luck and thank you.





UNIVERSITY, PUBLIC, AND PRIVATE SECTOR
COLLABORATION

Co-Chairs: Hugh Popenoe, Otto von Mering


Summary Statement

The task force on University, Public, and Private Sector
Collaboration examined ways to enhance the corporate capacity of
the University to be involved more productively in international
programs and studies through collaboration with the public and
private sector. Resources and opportunities were identified, which
included the interdisciplinary capability of the University, a
competitive funding outlook, and future trends having particular
potential for collaborative efforts. The importance of matching
University strengths and interests with growing public and private
sector needs was considered along with the importance of
administrative leadership and commitment in establishing priorities
for future activity.

Ten recommendations emerged from this task force in two
categories-- administrative support needs and initiatives that should
be taken by the University community as a whole. Administrative
support recommendations included:

1. Revise the University Mission Statement;
2. Strengthen and broaden the international
mandate;
3. Create incentives and rewards; and
4. Mobilize underutilized resources.

Recommendations for initiatives included:

5. Create an international foundation;
6. Appoint international liaisons;
7. Target expansion areas;
8. Hold colloquia on international concerns;
9. Lobby for state support; and
10. Lobby for federal support.

These recommendations represent the consideration of the
task force that leadership and commitment are necessary to develop
effective and enduring linkages between the University of Florida
and the public and private sectors. With comparative strengths in
27





many areas, the University's programs of teaching, research and
service can continue to relate to the growing needs of clients and
constituencies, through deliberate actions sanctioned by the
administration and supported by the faculty. Further to this
commitment, the University must join public and private sector
institutions in their experience to assist the University in realizing its
full potential as the State becomes internationalized. The task force
recommendations are intended to provide guidance in that process
and contribute to an overall strategy for internationalizing the
University.


Introduction

Leadership and commitment are prerequisite to the
development of effective linkages between the University of Florida
and public and private sectors for international work. Both are
necessary to influence the policy and planning process for
collaboration, joint ventures, and service of the University as it
continues to address the needs of the people of Florida. These
needs are changing, influenced by dynamic growth and by evolving
linkages of international dimensions. The University of Florida has
an obligation to be responsive to these needs, a function that it has
performed through the evolution of its teaching, research, and
service. It also has an opportunity to strengthen and expand its
collaborative efforts to work with the public and private sectors as
these needs have evolved internationally.

During the last two decades, the University of Florida's
commitment to international programs and studies has expanded
notably through the creation of centers for Latin American Studies,
African Studies, Tropical Agriculture, and others. The Council for
International Studies and Programs was established to provide
coordination, policy guidance, and support to University units having
international components. The University has participated in
assistance and development programs in many diverse regions of the
world, efforts which have increased the number of faculty and
students involved in international research and service.

The University of Florida has a responsibility to its students
and the citizens of the State for leadership in creating an
understanding of the reality of global interdependence. To fulfill
this mission of awareness about our global economy, the University
needs to consider the applicability of its research, teaching and
service. It is necessary to link knowledge produced to the





organizations, professions, and communities (both domestic and
international) that can benefit from it. To participate in world
affairs, students must be aware of changes in political, economic,
scientific and cultural events beyond state and national boundaries.
The education needed to meet global challenges is needed for the
citizens and leaders of the twenty-first century.

The help of private and corporate donors, federal agencies,
and the state legislature is needed to fulfill this mission. In addition
to funding, new attitudes must be developed to understand that
Florida can also benefit from the cultural diversity that international
students and faculty bring to the university community.

A broader international mission for the University of
Florida brings obligations as well as opportunity. The world is
experiencing a deteriorating environment and population explosion,
confounded by poverty, illiteracy, and inadequate resource
management. The United States cannot afford to ignore these
problems. They require solutions beyond the application of
technology and information. If they are to be addressed,
cooperation for mutual gain is essential. Some of the factors that
place Florida in a unique situation to contribute case experiences to
the solutions of these world problems are: (1) the pivotal
geographic location of the state in this hemisphere; (2) a knowledge
base on the growing population of people age 65 and older, many of
whom are residents that migrate to other climates on a seasonal
basis; (3) the tourist industry and the myriad kinds of seasonal
workers and trades needed to maintain it; (4) the unique
combination of agricultural crops, horticulture, and livestock that are
imported and exported; (5) a financial network that extends to all
parts of the country and reaches worldwide; (6) the emerging
impact of agricultural growth and urbanization on natural resources,
primarily including water, environmental conditions and ecological
habitat; (7) vast migrations of skilled and unskilled people, with
attendant employment, education, and cultural implications; and (8)
illegal international exchange and crime.


Resources

The University of Florida's comprehensive organizational
structure, including 20 colleges and more than 100 interdisciplinary
research and education centers, bureaus, and institutes, is one of its
strongest resources to support international research and training
activities. This structure provides an enduring disciplinary






foundation on which interdisciplinary programs can be developed.
The capacity to draw together traditional academic disciplines is
especially important in programs linked to public and private sector
organizations whose international activities are usually problem-
oriented.

The University's interdisciplinary potential goes beyond
coexistence of diverse academic units on one campus. The
University has been a leader in combining diverse units and
disciplines into coherent, interactive research and training programs
focused on urgent issues facing the state and the world. Faculty and
students have acquired valuable experience in building
interdisciplinary on-campus programs focused on international
issues, successfully integrating diverse areas of substantive
experience, and experimenting with models of institutional
cooperation. This experience allows the University to be especially
effective at capitalizing on the comprehensive nature of on-campus
resources, and linking with institutions within Florida, the U.S., and
overseas.

Examples of existing interdisciplinary programs that have
included an international focus are: gerontology; women in
agriculture; farming systems; agroforestry; tropical conservation;
tropical agriculture; tropical architecture; tropical animal health;
integrated pest management; and Caribbean immigration. These
programs have merged in recent years in response to: (1) concern
about pressing state, national and international problems; (2)
demand by students (primarily at the graduate level) for training
oriented to these problems; (3) a commitment by faculty to develop
new areas of expertise in addition to their primary disciplinary
background; and (4) a willingness of some administrators to
experiment with new forms of cross-campus governance.

The University of Florida has achieved progress in many of
these endeavors, and could do more with greater administrative
support. A number of important lessons have been learned through
experience which can benefit both ongoing activities as well as future
initiatives. Some of these include:

1. Problem-oriented programs using combined disciplines help
to overcome the segmented character of specialized
university education by exposing students to different points
of view. Students and faculty who participate in such
programs acquire skills at integrating their particular
research focus into a broader set of questions. They are





more capable of directing their expertise to the analysis and
resolution of specific problems of interest to public and
private sectors.

2. Multi-disciplinary research and training activities are a
valuable complement to, rather than a substitute for,
disciplinary-based university training. Experience has
shown the value of drawing together faculty and students
with different academic backgrounds to address questions
and problems with combined strengths, rather than from
singular disciplinary perspectives.

3. Interdisciplinary research and training programs can build
upon the University's existing diverse curriculum, but in
many cases there is a need to develop specialized topical
courses, with input from different departments, designed for
a specific clientele.

4. Most programs emerge from the informal, voluntary activities
of faculty and students with particular interests. This is
especially true when these programs involve the
contributions of faculty and students from different
disciplines. Over time, a critical mass of collaborating
faculty develops, often with little official support or
resources.

5. Several successful interdisciplinary programs that began as
informal interest groups have been formalized as minor
degree programs, certification programs, or other defined
tracks within existing degree programs in specific units on
campus. This provides legitimacy and guidelines for
students, as well as the possibility for specific resources
outside existing departmental allocations.

6. Faculty have developed criteria and procedures to be used in
guiding students through individualized programs within
established general parameters. The process of defining
and applying these criteria is the operational mechanism for
consolidating faculty consensus on program goals.

7. Finding appropriate administrative mechanisms to support
interdisciplinary programs has been more difficult.
Decision-making and resource allocation for most
interdisciplinary programs is dictated by the administration
of the unit in which they are housed. Cross-campus





governance is especially difficult between colleges with
separate budgets and operating procedures.

8. There are a few university administrative units whose
structural position invites cross-college faculty participation
in governance. The Centers for Latin American Studies and
African Studies provide examples of cross-campus
governance of faculty in Center affairs and specific
interdisciplinary academic programs. The Center for
International Student and Faculty Exchanges might explore
ways to provide administrative support for selected
interdisciplinary programs that involve faculty and students
from a wide range of disciplines or colleges.

9. The University of Florida's track record in interdisciplinary
curriculum development, program initiatives, building
faculty consensus, and experimenting with international
cooperative arrangements is valuable in preparing the
University for effective linkages with public and private
sector institutions at home and abroad. Institution-building
capabilities are an essential complement to the University's
strength in addressing interdisciplinary problems of
international significance.


Opportunities

A. Funding Outlook

External funding for international programs is becoming
increasingly more competitive, and probably more complicated to
obtain than it once was. Public sector funding through the federal
and state governments has historically provided much of the support
to international program and curriculum development at U.S.
universities. The U.S. Department of Education, for example,
through the Competitive Business and International Education
Program authorized by Title VI of the Higher Education Act, has
provided support for building undergraduate and graduate centers
concerned with specific (world) areas or international problems. At
the University of Florida, both the Center for African Studies and
the Center for Latin American Studies have received significant
resources through Title VI in furthering their programs.
Competition for Title VI funding, however, remains stiff: of
approximately 150 applications received each year, only about 25
new grants are funded, and an additional 10-12 second-year grants





are authorized, all from a funding base of $2 million. Because the
allocation of Title VI funds is conditional on curricula development
combined with provision of services and training to the business
community, even community colleges have successfully competed
with colleges and universities for these grants.

Another principal source of public sector funding to
international programs has been through the U.S. Agency for
International Development. Title XII of the Foreign Assistance Act
passed by Congress in 1975 stipulated that this agency make greater
use of U.S. land-grant universities to carry out foreign assistance
programs. As a Land-Grant University, the University of Florida
has participated, through the Office of International Programs, in
many Title XII activities over the years. Subsequent legislation in
1979 established the Title XII Support Grant Program to provide
funds to eligible universities, based on the involvement of
international faculty in international technical assistance contracts,
as a means of improving the capability of universities to provide
needed agricultural expertise in support of U.S. foreign assistance.
A joint Memorandum of Agreement between the University of
Florida and USAID exists to solidify, further develop, and more
sharply focus this continuing partnership. In recent years, USAID
project funding through Title XII has fallen off dramatically; in 1982
there were 42 Title XII university contracts initiated; in 1985 there
were 16; but in 1988 there were only 8. A new administration in
Washington, the effects of Gramm-Rudman, and competition for
dollars from strong lobbies related to health, population, natural
resources, private voluntary organizations, and others help decrease
future funding through USAID. Dollars will be more scarce and
competition for those dollars more intense. At the same time, the
Foreign Assistance Act is being rewritten, and there is some
question as to whether or not it will retain previous entitlements
such as Title XII.

Additional funding sources or resources can be identified
which may provide opportunities for future international activity at
the University of Florida:

Foundations
Multilateral (World Bank, development banks, regional
banks)
Florida private sector (business, industry, and individuals)
National private sector
Florida public funds (State money)
Federal public funds (USDA, other government agencies)
33





PVOs (Private Voluntary Organizations)
Inter-institutional collaboration (e.g., Sea Grant College)
Multinational businesses
Department conversion (debt/equity swap)
PL 480 funds (new legislation is being drafted)
University of Florida Foundation
University of Florida international alumni
United Nations agencies (FAO, UNDP, etc.)
Organization of American States

Both the Division of Sponsored Research and the Florida
Foundation maintain a database service that can be used as a basic
resource to identify prospective donors, or as a follow-up to profile
funding prerequisites, previous funding activity, and other pertinent
information. Lists of sources and resources can be searched by key
words to identify potential prospects matched to identified needs.

These services are used by individual faculty and various
centers and administrative units on campus in different ways to
different degrees. Numerous university units are involved in
international activities, each individually responsible to their
respective director or dean. Faculty members within these units
often operate with autonomy through their own international
connections. At the same time, university centers and departments
collaborate on a wide range of international activities, set up
independently through mutual accord, or facilitated by the
administrative oversight of the Council of International Studies and
Programs.

The overall process of securing funding is a disparate one,
and intra-University activities are not necessarily widely known.
Future initiatives of international program activities could be well-
served by an organized intelligence network, by creating a focal point
for international funding, and through a more concerted attempt to
attain stronger support and funding for international work.


B. Trends and Potential Opportunities

Three themes can be identified that will be of increasing
importance throughout the next decade or more, and which are of
special importance to the state of Florida. Each provides
opportunities for the University to increase its international
dimension and for the international dimension of the University to
play a more important role in the state and the nation. These areas





are also of growing importance internationally and increased
attention to the international aspects of these themes can only
provide the University with increased leadership in the international
sphere.

First is the theme of environmental protection. Florida has
been in the forefront of environmental work for many years. Due to
its rapid population growth, competing demands for resources,
especially water and land, and the presence of many fragile
ecosystems within the state, Floridians have been forced to face
many difficult and complex issues. The University of Florida has
occupied a leadership position within the state in addressing many of
these issues. Continuing research on water quality provides a good
example.

Increasingly, these same issues are of concern in the
international sphere. Third world nations are concerned about the
conservation of resources in their own right. Further, "sustainable
agriculture" is the password to the 1990s. There is growing
consensus that agricultural development without regard to
preserving resources for future generations is a short-sighted and
destructive phenomenon. Many nationals are also realizing that
"ecotourism" is an important source of revenues, and one that cannot
be developed without adequate regard for environmental protection.

With its extensive experience in natural resource
management and its leadership role in developing programs to meet
competing demands within the state of Florida, the University can be
a significant resource for the international community in addressing
these concerns. The lessons that we have learned in Florida about
competing uses of water, for example, are directly applicable in
many other nations. At the same time, the lessons that can be
learned in the international sphere will also, in many cases, be
directly applicable for us in Florida. Just as we have utilized
international agricultural research in the past to better protect the
agricultural industry of the state, e.g., by gaining knowledge about
diseases and pests before they become a problem in Florida, we can
utilize experience gained abroad to better meet the resource
conservation and other needs of the citizens of Florida.

A second theme of major importance is the growing
realization that the world is really a very small place, and that the
revolution in communications and transportation brings the world's
peoples closer together. The validity of this perception is clearer in
no other state than Florida, which serves as a doorway to the world.





The concern in Florida over increased competition from
international agricultural production and the high incidence of AIDS
in Florida, partly a product of our interaction with the Caribbean,
provide two examples of the growing realization on the part of many
citizens of the state that we can no longer limit our horizons to the
state or the nation. Unfortunately, the tendency in the past has often
been to try to ignore the events outside our borders which impinge
upon us, or to attempt to "avoid the problems" associated with
international interaction.

Such an approach is clearly no longer possible. Rather, we
should turn our attention to identifying the benefits and advantages
of international interaction that can accrue to our state. The
University of Florida can play a leadership role in this process. In
agriculture, for example, Florida is in a unique position to develop
working relationships with producers throughout the Caribbean,
thereby increasing our competitiveness and efficiency. Similarly,
AIDS will not be the last disease to enter the United States. Florida
can play an important role in identifying and developing research
before these problems reach the United States. In many regards,
Florida provides a service to other states as well. Quarantine
procedures in Florida, for example, provide a barrier to the
transmission of diseases and pests to other states. Florida's
international research provides a knowledge base from which
farmers throughout the United States, not just in Florida, benefit.

These kinds of actions on the part of Florida and the
University also bring clear benefits to the international community.
They provide other nations with an opportunity to become a true
partner in development. They generate research of immediate
applicability.

A third important area of attention for the coming decade is
the communication revolution, which is clearly related to the
decreasing dimensions of the world. Again, Florida occupies a
unique position to take advantage of the increased flow of
communications on a worldwide basis. While many have viewed
Florida's bilingual population as a problem, this population can and
should be viewed as a major resource for the state. The fact that
Miami is a major banking and business center for Latin America, for
example, producing enormous tax revenues for the State, is clearly a
result not only of the city's geographic location, but also its ability to
serve a Spanish-speaking population. Tourism in the state is
increased by a multilingual capacity, and the international audience
is one which can be an expanding source of tourism dollars for the
36





State. Florida has taken advantage of these opportunities, but much
more could be done to aggressively pursue the state's location and
cultural advantage in this area.

The University has a major role to play in this process. It
serves as a major center of knowledge about other cultures. It can
provide services to the private sector which will permit private
enterprises to take fuller advantage of the unique capabilities found
in the state. Florida can become a major center of information flow
to other nations as well, particularly to the Caribbean and Central
America. Increasingly, international trade with Latin America can
be expected to be based on import/export knowledge and
technology, particularly communication technology. The University
of Florida is able to play a major role in developing the skills and
knowledge base needed for the private sector to take advantage of
this growing market.


Establish Priorities

A. Matching Strengths/Interests with Opportunities

Faculty expertise, supportive institutional organizations, and
student interest have been shown to be strong components of the
international program activity at the University. These elements
have been successful to varying degrees in internationalizing
curricula and in locating and securing resources to support projects
and programs. Indeed, there has been considerable collaborative
ingenuity, with a minimum of organizational disruption, to fit
international work into existing goals, processes and programs.
Benefits to the University have included the prestige accompanying
successful projects and programs which help make the University of
Florida a national leader in higher education and a world-class
university. Benefits to faculty have included their individual growth,
satisfaction, and grasp of international issues.

The status of international programs and studies is largely
the result of faculty initiatives, through their respective departments,
in creating opportunities to address area studies or problem-
oriented research of international dimensions. While this success
may be admirable, more oversight and greater focus on the overall
involvement of the University in international work is needed to
posture the University in the international arena and support its
quest for excellence. This means matching strengths and interests
with opportunities, but also helping would-be clients to identify and
37





develop new opportunities for collaboration. It means foresight,
leadership, management and faculty development are needed to
invest in the University's collective growth, and to warrant
investment by the private and public sectors in collaborative efforts.

B. Administrative Needs

Internationalizing a university requires more than the
initiatives of faculty. It requires support from the top administration.
This support needs to be enunciated from the Board of Regents, the
president and academic vice-presidents, down through the
administrative structure of the colleges and schools. This support
must be demonstrated to both the University community and to its
clientele. University administrators can directly influence
international development at the University through their support
and action. Their pronouncements and leadership are essential in
legitimizing the process through the University administration, and
for the faculty to internationalize their expertise and program
development. While the responsibilities of curriculum development
rest with the teaching faculty and the responsibilities of research rest
with the research scientists, administrative commitment and
collective action (leadership) is necessary to sanction their efforts.
Experience at other universities has shown that if the leading
administrative figures are indifferent to international issues or
unsupportive of international studies and programs, there is little
chance of substantive growth in these areas, except, perhaps, for
pockets of excellence.


Recommendations

Administrative Support

1. Revise University Mission Statement

Recognizing the importance of the University of Florida to
formally establish its commitment to international programs and
studies, the mission statement of the University should be revised
and strengthened to create an umbrella under which international
activities can both be sanctioned and can excel. There will be three
major benefits from this action. It will: (1) establish policy; (2)
allow administrators to operate without concern or question
regarding the legitimacy of their activities; and, (3) provide a
powerful framework for international programs and studies to derive
internal and external support.






As a commitment to the internationalization of its role as an
institution of higher learning, the University of Florida should
incorporate into its mission statement the following:

Human resource development
remains a primary function of the
University through its mandated functions
of teaching, research and service to
prepare its faculty, graduates, and the
citizens of Florida for the global challenges
and opportunities of the modern world.
Recognizing that the University's scientific,
technical, professional, social, and cultural
pursuits merge around educational issues
of international dimensions, the University
is committed to internationalize its
research and scholarship in support of the
needs of the public and private sectors.


2. Strengthen and Broaden International Mandate

According to the National Association of State Universities
and Land-Grand Colleges "Basic Principles for College and
University Involvement in International Development Activities," a
University's "effective participation in international development
activities requires a commitment by both administration and faculty."
Furthermore:

Commitment, in this sense, means
a deliberate and considered intent, plan,
and effort to include international
development activities as an integral and
recognized part of the institution's ongoing
programs. It means an intent to give
administrative and policy support to
development activities to the extent
necessary to accomplish the same quality
of performance as in domestic activities.
This commitment should be evidenced, as
appropriate, at each level in the university
-- the governing board, the central
administration, the college, the





department, and the individual faculty
member.

Commitment implies a belief in
the inherent value and importance of such
activities, that they are worthy of scholarly
endeavor, and that the U.S. universities
have unique capacities to contribute to
U.S. and worldwide goals in development.

Such intents and beliefs are
essential to the establishment of priorities,
the assignment of resources, and the
generation of sufficient determination to
achieve the maximum performance of
contracts, training programs, and other
development activities undertaken by the
university. (p.1)

At a large university such as the University of Florida, there
are too many political considerations and there is too much
competition for resources for individual faculty to move toward
international endeavors without the support of administrative
leadership. Multidisciplinary courses taught on international issues
require negotiation, support from administrators, cooperation
among faculty, and time to develop. There is much that the
university administration can do by showing interest and support to
strengthen and broaden the international mandate, such as: (1)
stimulate attention to international issues; (2) appoint key
individuals who encourage the growth of an international dimension
in higher education; (3) establish task forces; (4) educate trustees;
(5) allocate resources; (6) invite international speakers and visitors;
and (7) visit overseas sites where the university is active.


3. Create Incentives and Rewards

According to the National Association of State Universities
and Land-Grant Colleges "Basic Principles for College and
University Involvement in International Development Activities," a
university should provide adequate incentives to assure "that high
quality, professionally active faculty members become involved in
developmental activities." It states:





Incentives to faculty members
include professional recognition,
professional advancement, opportunities
for professional growth, pursuit of
research goals, salary increments directly
associated with overseas assignments, and
salary levels tied to the professional
qualifications of each faculty member.
Incentives in this context also include
encouragement to the department to
participate in the international activity and
to support the participation of particular
faculty members. Such incentives should
be codified in personnel policies and
practices and communicated to faculty and
to departmental administrators.

These incentives are justified in
that they are necessary to attract the
professional expertise required in
international activities. Well qualified,
senior faculty can be attracted to these
activities and away from other challenging
opportunities within the institution only
through meaningful incentives. Faculty
members with identified interest in
international activities should receive as
much incentive to work within the
university as outside. (p.2)

The university's reward system--based primarily upon the
production of published research in peer-evaluated scientific and
scholarly journals--may turn faculty away from international
endeavors. The University needs to make it as easy to work on
international research as it is to work on disciplinary subjects.
Departments need to be aware that the pace of academic
productivity for international activities may be slower because it may
take longer to obtain funding, and that data analysis, sharing data,
and co-authoring articles is more complicated. The reward system
should not discourage young faculty from taking the time necessary
to gain international experience.

The University should promote long-term linkages and
exchanges so that policy supports faculty in making investments in
their own careers. Faculty members that have overseas assignments





should be encouraged by department and college leaders to
incorporate the foreign experience into existing courses or to
develop new courses. Faculty members may be appointed jointly to
departments and area-studies programs or centers and be required
to satisfy the requirements of both for tenure and promotion
decisions. The University should also recruit new faculty who
possess international competence and a global view.


4. Mobilize Underutilized Resources

The University needs faculty and staff development
initiatives to mobilize underutilized resources of talent and practical
know-how applicable to international teaching, research, and service.
Several critical areas which could focus on global approaches, have
international transfer value, and should work towards shared
knowledge linkages are: business, communications, law, medicine,
and international trade. A university-wide intramural network of
agreements would bring about reduced costs and increased benefits.

A current and specific example of mobilizing University
resources in a collaborative effort with the public and private sector
is the proposed International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center.
There are numerous opportunities to stimulate participation,
collaboration, and investments in the pivotal role that international
trade can play from each of the principle collaborators. The
University is drawing upon its interdisciplinary strengths, involving
faculty from a long list of departments in many colleges. Public
sector linkages extend to state agencies including the Departments
of Commerce, Agriculture and Consumer Services, and Natural
Resources. Private sector affiliations include producer, grower, and
trade organizations such as the Citrus Commission and the Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association. The Center will provide assistance
with information, communications, and analysis of opportunities and
constraints associated with sustained economic activities as they
relate to international trade.


Initiatives

5. Create an International Development Foundation

All indications are that the trend in recent years for funding
and support to private consulting firms, private voluntary
organizations, and nongovernment organizations will not only
42





continue but will expand in the future. While there are many
reasons for this trend, of particular concern to U.S. universities,
including the University of Florida, is the fact that it is easier for
donors and funding organizations to do business with these groups
than it is with universities. University shortcomings include all
aspects of procurement, length of turnaround time, amount of
paperwork involved, and the release of qualified personnel for
overseas assignments. In order for the University to regain a
competitive stance for funding and support for international
programs and technical assistance, it must devise new mechanisms
for doing business. As a focal point for domestic and international
funding and private sector support, an International Development
Foundation created as an independent, nonprofit entity, would
function less encumbered by the bureaucracy of the State
Government.


6. Appoint International Liaisons

Mechanisms are needed to ensure that the University can
capitalize on its intellectual strengths in an appropriate multi-
disciplinary response to initiatives and requests for international
service. With the exception of active participation in the Council of
International Studies and Programs, this response capability is
lacking on a coherent basis. Many departments and units of the
University are underrepresented in their involvement, or are
unresponsive to the need for collaborative work, in internationalizing
the University. Business, law, medicine, and communications are
examples of areas which hold potential for active support of the
University's current and future international agenda. In order to
facilitate the active participation of these and other campus units in
support of the University's international mandate, it is recommended
that international liaisons be identified for each respective
department or unit. These individuals would serve as contact
coordinators and as representatives for their units to the University's
international community. Liaisons could function as members on
the Council of International Studies and Programs.


7. Target Expansion Areas

The relative strengths of the University and its comparative
advantages for international studies and programs are the result of
an evolution which has matched resources with opportunities. For
the University to continue to capitalize on its resources this process





should be formalized through an oversight committee charged with
the task of targeting expansion areas for international activity. The
cumulative recommendations of the task forces involved in studying
parameters of internationalizing this University should be integral to
this committee.


8. Hold Colloquia on International Concerns

Following the University's introspective assessment of its
international activity, a series of colloquia should be initiated to
specifically include participation of public and private sector interests.
The academic point of view is insufficient as the University of Florida
forges its partnerships and working relations with the public and
private sector. Government and business have their own agendas, and
what is needed is an open forum of information exchange. The
University needs to identify priorities and places and where
investments might be made to mutual benefit. The private sector
needs to be made aware of the value of the intellectual and scientific
research capacity of the University, and that a strong university base is
in its best interest. In setting its course for the coming decade, the
University can be responsive to the needs of its supporters and its
clientele, which include both public and private interests. The
relevance of public and private sector collaboration with the
University, and the opportunities for mutual growth, should be
explored through these colloquia.


9. Lobby for State Support

The National Governors' Association has completed a year-
long study entitled "America in Transition; the International
Frontier" as reported in "The Chronicle of Higher Education". It
describes the way states should respond to changes in the
international economy. Its primary finding is that the international
education programs should be expanded, improved, and made an
integral part of higher learning. The University of Florida should
assume leadership and become actively involved in the process
outlined for governors, together with other politicians, educators and
business leaders to develop comprehensive plans for their states,
including steps to improve international study at all levels of
education.






Other pertinent recommendations by the governors' report
should warrant serious consideration by the University, including,
but not limited to:

a. States should create and finance programs
that allow colleges to provide assistance on
international studies to public schools;

b. Colleges and universities should require
more study of foreign languages and
international issues for both admission and
graduation;

c. College departments should be required to
include an "international element" in all
majors;

d. College students should be encouraged to
study abroad;

e. Business schools should require their
students to learn more about other nations
and offer special courses on international
subjects for those already working in
business. (p.19)


10. Lobby for Federal Support

The National Association of State Universities and Land-
Grant Colleges (NASULGC) in "An Agenda for Action" (Nov.
1988) recognized the increasing roles and responsibilities of
American public colleges and universities in world affairs, and
strongly endorsed the extension of presence, leadership and service
of U.S. universities internationally through programs of teaching,
research and public service. As a member organization, the
University of Florida is urged to actively support the Association's
stated advocations for:

a. strong federal, state and local support for
the high-priority responsibility of
universities to participate in international
activities;





b. federal funding in support of programs
that enhance universities' roles in
international education, exchange,
research and development;

c. leadership among citizens and officials at
the state and local levels for federal
support of university-based international
programs;

d. collaborative efforts among universities
and private sector organizations--profit
and nonprofit--to support international
development cooperation, particularly in
developing nations; and

e. sound public policies for consideration by
the U.S. Congress, Executive Branch, state
and local governments, business, and
industry through various education
programs that also benefit the general
public. (p.2)






INTER-INSTITUTIONAL LINKAGES


Chair: George Pozzetta

Summary Statement

This task force examined the origins, procedures, and
overall value of the various campus agreements that have been
negotiated as an extremely effective mechanism for improving the
competitive posture of the University and State in the global arena
of markets and ideas. Accordingly, the task force urged that
linkages be more actively encouraged and facilitated as the
University increasingly becomes internationalized.

The major recommendations of the task force included the
acquisition of: (1) a clearly articulated general policy regarding
international linkages, (2) an expanded resource and staff base to
support agreements, (3) a master plan to provide overall direction
and guidance, and (4) a consortium arrangement to extend
resources. The first of these proposed a three-part categorization of
linkages and suggested a process of clearance and management for
each. The second outlined the needs for increased staffing and
funding. The third proposed a process and justification for a
campus-wide master plan to guide international linkages. The
fourth suggested the possible benefits flowing from participation in a
consortium. Supplemental recommendations concentrated on the
usages to which increased funding for international agreements
could be put. These included the creation of a pilot grant program
to assist in the creation of linkages; a new "international research"
grant competition for junior faculty, a fellowship program to attract
the best international graduate students; and an expanded fee waiver
pool to facilitate the recruitment of international students. The task
force also recommended that the Office of the Dean of International
Studies and Programs maintain an updated file on possible funding
sources to support linkages. It urged that more be done to
disseminate information on campus about existing linkages and that
a yearly workshop be implemented to share insights and strategies
on international agreements. Given the number of obsolete
agreements existing, the Task Force recommended that all be
reviewed and selectively sunsetted if deemed appropriate. In order
to encourage greater faculty participation in international
agreements, such activities should be identified as appropriate
activities for faculty sabbaticals. Steps should be taken to ensure
that proper recognition (especially in merit allocations) be given for
international service; and intra-University procedures should be
47





reviewed so as to eliminate situations that retard the ability of faculty
to respond to international programs. Finally, the task force urged
that more distinguished foreign faculty be invited to campus as a
means of facilitating the establishment of international agreements.
The increased use of Fulbright professorships was seen as an
effective method of implementing this recommendation.


Task Force Objectives

The task force on Inter-Institutional Linkages has taken as
its charge an examination of the origins, procedures, and overall
value of the various agreements that have been negotiated with
foreign institutions. More specifically, the task force has sought to
assess the need for standardization of international linkages; the
desirability of "sunset" provisions in agreements; the sources of
outside funding, the effectiveness of the current campus effort with
reference to the establishment, maintenance, and support of
linkages; and the global coverage of existing programs.


Current State of Inter-Institutional Activities
at the University of Florida

Historical Overview. The University of Florida has long recognized
that it is in its own best interests to seek mutually advantageous
relationships with foreign institutions. Over the years, this
understanding has led to numerous contracts and agreements with
overseas agencies to exchange students, faculty, technical assistance,
research efforts, library materials, and the like. Practically all of
these arrangements can trace their beginnings to the active interest
of a single faculty member or a small group of individuals. None has
resulted from an integrated program of development and strategic
planning. As a result, there exists a wide range of agreements that
vary in type, regional coverage, level of formality, resource
requirements, longevity, and pace of activity.


Recent Changes. Three years ago, the Council on International
Studies and Programs (CISP) implemented formal "Steps for
Initiating Student Exchanges, Faculty Exchanges, or International
Research" and a "Model for International Exchange or Research
Contracts" to be used as guides for preparing agreements. In the
case of the former, it is an actual process that must be used in
establishing new international agreements which involve contractual





commitments. The office of the Associate Dean for International
Studies and Programs was established in 1986 and offers assistance
in establishing and operating linkages. The Associate Dean chairs
the CISP, which oversees linkages.


Current Status. The existing linkages range from highly formalized
contractual agreements specifying activities and committing
personnel and funds at one end, to informal "memorandums of
understanding" between persons at the University of Florida and
their counterparts at foreign institutions at the other. A number of
these are in a moribund state as key personnel on one or both sides
of the agreement have left or changed program interests. Given
their highly idiosyncratic beginnings, the several score agreements
existing at the University of Florida do not represent the fruits of a
systematic plan of international development.


Future Directions

The ability of the University of Florida to compete
successfully in a global arena of markets and ideas depends largely
upon its success in gaining accurate, comprehensive, and timely
knowledge about the world scene. International linkages are an
extremely effective mechanism for improving the University's
information base and enhancing its (and the State of Florida's)
competitive posture on a broad variety of levels. As the
"internationalization" of the campus continues and as the State
becomes more involved with world affairs, it is critical that ways be
found to encourage and facilitate the implementation of appropriate
international linkages by faculty and departments. The task force
thus views the planning for and the establishment of a vigorous
network of international agreements--and the effective promotion
and support of them--as goals that are very much in the long-term
interests of the institution and the State.


Needs

1. Clarification of Approaches to be Used

There is a recognition on campus that we are not currently
in a position to take full advantage of the range of opportunities
available with reference to international linkages. Moreover, there
is a clear understanding that as the University of Florida continues






to involve itself in global affairs, the demand for international
linkages and agreements will substantially increase. The need for
appropriate procedures and resources to support them will
correspondingly grow. It is necessary, therefore, to articulate a
clearer and more uniform understanding of the approaches to be
used for developing, legitimizing, and monitoring international
agreements.

Recommendation: All international agreements should have
clearance at an appropriate level within the University.
Requirements on the foreign side of agreements will vary, but from
the University of Florida perspective, the level of clearance at the
University should ensure that (1) information is provided to those in
the University who need to know, (2) University policy and practice
are observed, and (3) commitments can be fulfilled when the time
comes to do so. The following policy process--part of which is
already in place--is recommended as a means of accomplishing these
goals.

There are three broad types of agreements, each of which
can be approved and managed differently within the University.
They are:

A. Individual or departmental understandings
which involve minor, low cost commitments.
Examples: agreement by a department to give
foreign graduate students special attention; or
to provide lab space for a short term visitor; or
for departmental faculty to be assisted at a
foreign institution during sabbatical leaves.
These are the most common variety of
agreements. They are informal in nature and
should be managed as simply as possible. If
there are no commitments beyond the
department's direct control, these agreements
need not involve prior approval above the unit
level. The dean of the college should be
informed. Since it is useful and appropriate to
share information with others on campus. The
Dean and Associate Dean of International
Studies and Programs should also be informed.

B. General agreements involving statements
of intent and/or long term plans to cooperate,





but without immediate commitment of funds
and resources. Generally such agreements call
for a joint search for funding and should lead to
specific project agreements or activities. These
agreements would have to be approved and
funded from sources outside of the University
or at a level above the University of Florida
department. These general agreements should
be approved by the dean of the colleges) and
by the Dean of International Studies and
Programs who will, in turn, provide information
about the agreement to the President and the
Provost. Since these agreements will not
normally bind the University contractually or
financially, they do not normally require the
approval of central administration nor
acceptance by the Board of Regents.

An example of this type would be one in
which the University of Florida or some unit of
it and a foreign institution agree to work
together in some mutually beneficial way. The
commitment to cooperate may later lead to a
contract, exchange of funds, etc., which would
place the University under some form of
contractual requirement. All such binding
activity agreements fall into a third category,
requiring additional approval.

C. Contractual agreements which obligate the
University, usually through departments or
colleges, to provide a service, receive or allocate
funds, deal with course credits and
requirements, or fulfill some form of defined
obligation. Examples would include specific
project or activity agreements under the general
agreements referred to above, and contracts
supported by AID and other organizations.

In each of these cases, full University
clearance is needed which involves college and
University procedures that have been
established over the years, and are articulated in
the "Steps" process outlined in the Handbook of
International Programs. Research and Faculty






(pp.7-8). In all such international obligations
the office of the Dean of International Studies
and Programs and CISP must approve or take
appropriate action. In addition, processing
through the University's legal office and the
Provost, to the President and Board of Regents
is required, using appropriate forms.

2. Resources

In order for the University to develop international linkages
to their fullest potential, more resources must be provided to assist
and enhance these initiatives. These resources should take the form
of increased financial and staffing support. Although staffing can be
allocated from within existing University resources, additional
funding will have to come principally from outside, "new" sources.

Recommendation: Establish at least one additional position in the
Graduate School, International Studies and Programs Office to
concentrate on acquiring funding for the furtherance of international
studies and research. This position should be assigned full time to
developing and submitting grant proposals by bringing together
teams of faculty to respond to RFPs--e.g. to create international
training workshops. Such programs can generate the overhead costs,
program profits, and fringe benefits that can form the base of an
expanded and more flexible internal fund to assist linkages. Ways
should also be explored to ensure that the Graduate School shares in
royalties, licensing fees, and the like that are generated through
activities emanating from international agreements.

Such a fund of new resources can be used to:

a. Allow the Graduate School to expand
substantially its ability to fund fee waivers for
foreign students as a way of assisting the
establishment of student exchanges.

b. Allow the Graduate School, International
Studies and Programs Office, to establish a
fellowship fund for use in attracting the very best
international graduate students to the University of
Florida by offering competitive stipends. These
students should be envisioned as future resources
to underpin linkages once they return to their home






countries and presumably come to occupy positions
of influence.

c. Allow the Graduate School, International
Studies and Programs Office, to establish a new
grant competition designated primarily for junior
faculty to conduct international research in the
mainstream of their discipline. This program
should not compete with or draw resources from
the existing DSR grant offerings, but rather should
complement them. By building a cadre of faculty
with international interests and research programs
and supporting them at a key time in their careers,
such a program will facilitate the long-term
establishment of international linkages.

d. Allow the Graduate School, International
Studies and Programs Office, to fund small pilot
grants to assist faculty and administrators in
establishing linkages and/or to expand existing
agreements in some significant way. These grants
could take the form of providing released time or
of assisting departments in other ways so that they
may permit more flexible scheduling of faculty
time. Such a program would be of particular help
to the academic departments which have the faculty
expertise and contacts necessary for establishing
linkages, but, in most cases, do not have the
resources to encourage and implement them.

3. Strategic Plan

The University should undertake the creation of a
comprehensive, strategic plan that will identify areas of the world
(and specific institutions within these areas) where the University
should move toward establishing effective, long-term linkages.

Recommendation: The Graduate School, International
Studies and Programs Office, should underwrite the production of
an integrated "Master Plan" to guide the pace and direction of future
international linkage efforts. Such a project should be developed
from the "grass roots" and seek to enlist the participation and
backing of deans, area studies directors, departments, and faculty. It
should reflect the legitimate interests and needs of faculty and
students, be the result of careful planning involving various units of
53






the University, and recommend a series of long-term objectives. Its
goal should be to study systematically the strategic international
needs of the University and target certain areas and institutions for
development. Ultimately such a program can be integrated into the
long-term development plans of the University itself. The
production of a master plan need not curtail the ability of the
University to react to "targets of opportunity" that present
themselves, but unplanned linkages should be accommodated and
understood within a larger framework.

4. Consortium

The potential exists for strengthening current international
linkages and expanding the range of future opportunities through the
creation of a consortium of universities with international interests.

Recommendation: Although the immediate past history of
involvement with consortia has not been positive, the University of
Florida should explore seriously the advantages inherent in joining a
consortium such as the Southeast Consortium for International
Development (SECID) (cost sharing, a greater pool of potential
students and faculty, administrative assistance, etc.) and, if
warranted, the University should take a leadership position in
establishing a new consortium, possibly a more effective unit based
upon Southeastern state universities or participating more actively in
an existing consortium. There are a number of current models, e.g.
the Mid-West Consortium for International Activities created by the
Big 10 or the CID on the West Coast which can be looked to for
guidance.


Supplemental Recommendations

The major priorities of the task force included the
acquisition of a clearly articulated general policy regarding
international linkages, an expanded resource and staff base to
support them, a master plan to provide guidance, and a consortium
arrangement to extend resources. Its investigation of international
agreements, however, produced a number of supplemental
recommendations that, if implemented, would enhance the overall





campus effort involving linkages. These are:


a. Programs

(1) The Graduate School, International
Studies and Programs Office, should keep an
updated and comprehensive file of possible funding
sources to be approached for assistance in
establishing and maintaining linkages. USIA-
University Affiliation Grants have been particularly
useful elsewhere and applications from the
University of Florida departments and area studies
centers should be encouraged.

(2) Great strides have been made in
advertising international student programs on and
off campus and these should be continued and
enhanced. Similar measures should be taken to
ensure that information on international linkages
that exist on campus is widely disseminated on a
regular basis. This will alert the broader University
community to the existence of these agreements
and facilitate the enhancement of linkages or
possibly underwrite the creation of new ones.

(3) A yearly workshop or symposium should
be supported by the Graduate School, International
Studies and Programs Office, which brings together
program directors, selected faculty with
international interests, and individuals from outside
the University to exchange ideas, strategies,
insights, etc., with reference to international
linkages. Ideally, these workshops should focus on
a topical issue or problem, e.g. Latin American
Debt in the Twentieth Century, The International
Implications of 1992, etc. with the goal of building
institutional linkages as a means of addressing
these situations. Such a meeting can also be an
effective device to increase faculty interest in and
development of international programs.

(4) The University encourages the state to
amend various regulations and rules that have
made the implementation and continuation of
agreements difficult, e.g. the requirement of
55





submitting originals of all receipts for
reimbursement, when the other participating
institution may have a similar regulation.

(5) The stipulations in the "Model" for
International Exchanges (Handbook, p. 12)
mandating a fixed time period for programs and
providing a clear termination procedure should be
retained. Since older programs often involve some
level of commitment on the part of the University
of Florida, some of which may no longer be
desirable, it would be useful to encourage a formal
review of all such programs with a view toward
sunsetting obsolete ones.

(6) The Graduate School, International
Studies and Programs Office, should develop a
simple, standardized procedure to be used to
transfer funds overseas so that the University's
multiple linkage programs can function more
effectively, i.e. a process that can address questions
of timeliness of payment, response of changing
exchange rates, etc..

(7) In comparison to other similar universities,
the University of Florida has an anomalous
situation in that the oversight of international
linkages does not fall under the coordination of the
Graduate School, International Studies and
Programs Office, in all cases (IFAS and law school
linkages, for example). This situation results from
both historical evolution and conscious University
design, and it appears to be functioning well, with
effective cooperation existing between the various
units. There may be advantages, however, that an
office at the vice-presidential level could provide by
coordinating University linkages more effectively.
The task force did not have the opportunity to
study this matter in depth. We merely note the
existing situation and suggest that it be reviewed
should problems arise.





b. Faculty


(1) Activities that lead to the establishment of,
or participation in, international linkages should be
identified as appropriate endeavors for faculty
sabbaticals.

(2) The appropriate units within the
University should be encouraged to support more
programs which bring distinguished foreign faculty
to campus as a way of initiating the kinds of
contacts that often lead to fruitful international
agreements. Foreign faculty who have clear
interdisciplinary interest should receive special
consideration. For example, colleges can be
encouraged each year to make available on a
competitive basis a fund to underwrite part of the
costs of Fulbright professorships.

(3) More should be done to ensure that
excellent international research, teaching, and
service is given the appropriate reward on campus
that they deserve. The recent inclusion of a specific
reference to international activities on tenure and
promotion forms is a step in the right direction. A
letter by the Provost to deans, chairs, and directors
which clearly states that a strong performance in
international activities constitutes meritous work
may usefully continue this momentum.

(4) The Graduate School, International
Studies and Programs Office, should be
encouraged to identify opportunities for facilitating
faculty and program linkages through improved
cross-unit administrative and management
procedures. Disincentives to departmental support
to multidisciplinary linkages necessary in contracts
and grants should be removed.






STUDENT AND FACULTY EXCHANGES


Chair: Allan F. Burns

Summary Statement

Programs for students who want to spend time overseas are
at the very core of international interests in the University system.
These programs are visible examples of the University's commitment
to meeting the educational and career needs of students in the global
context of the state of Florida.

Study abroad and exchange programs at the University have
traditionally been opportunities for liberal arts students to broaden
their experiences in the world. Today, however, study abroad and
exchange programs must play a much more central role in the
educational mission of the University. They must be structured so
that students in both liberal arts and professional fields can apply
international experience towards their career objectives. This report
examines this changing study abroad context and compares the
University of Florida with other universities in terms of organization,
financial support, and academic support. The task force made the
following recommendations to improve the vitality of study abroad
and exchange programs over the next several years.


1. Strengthen the Center for International Student and Faculty
Exchange

Specifically, the office should include a faculty level director,
more support staff, and a recognized mission within the
University. The tiny cubicle that the office now occupies gives
the impression to students and visiting scholars alike that
international exchange is an afterthought at the University of
Florida.

2. Provide clear academic support at all levels for exchange and
study abroad programs.

This support should be in terms of moving toward broadly
defined international exchanges instead of the more common
"study abroad" programs. It also involves support for faculty
and students who are involved in exchange programs. This
includes giving students priority for entering professional
schools and liberal arts departments where international
59





experience is valued (business and journalism, languages, and
so forth), as well as providing faculty with clear rewards for
international exchange participation. Finally, it involves
support for other international activity such as research,
conferences, and the like through the vehicle of these exchange
programs.

3. Increase student participation in exchange programs.

Participation can be improved by integrating exchange
programs into more university departments and programs. It
can also be increased by providing timely and useful
information to students, parents, and faculty at all stages of
their academic careers. Preview materials, course listings,
alumni publications, and letters from the president are all
vehicles for increasing awareness of international exchanges for
students.

While the task force was very impressed with the efforts of
staff and faculty involved in international exchange programs here at
Florida, it recognizes that the University is at a point where the
international arena is changing very rapidly. Traditional study
abroad programs should be revitalized through internships, one-shot
course abroad possibilities, and special re-entry experiences for
returning students such as designated "international" sections of
general education courses.


Task Force Objectives

Student exchanges and study abroad programs at the
University of Florida are characterized by an enthusiastic faculty, a
wide variety of overseas courses, avid interest, low levels of faculty
and student participation, and even lower levels of administrative
support. As Florida and the rest of the United States become
increasingly tied to global trends and events, it is imperative that the
University of Florida review and improve the academic opportunities
for students in international contexts. Business firms, especially
those in Florida, have become increasingly multi-national, and they
expect to hire personnel with a global vision. There are over 400
international firms with nearly 4,500 employees doing business in the
state of Floridal. The University of Florida certainly needs to set an
international agenda for its courses and programs abroad for its
students. Otherwise, students will be poorly trained and educated
without a strong international component in their college careers.





This component should involve classwork at foreign institutions, but
more importantly, it involves developing partnerships with people in
different counties.

The goal of this report is to point out the strengths and
weaknesses of the University of Florida study abroad and student
exchange programs, including an evaluation of the office, the quality
of the programs, and participation in them. It has a further goal of
suggesting priorities for the future. Exchange and study abroad
programs are in a time of change. They have gone from being at the
fringes of university education with a well-to-do clientele to being
necessary for professional as well as liberal arts education and
available to all students.

The University of Florida has an obligation to move from a
model of exchange and study abroad programs as marginal to
academic programs to a model of international programs as central
to the purposes of undergraduate and graduate education. To this
end, a task force of students, faculty, and administrators met this
spring with the goal of reviewing and suggesting improvements in
study abroad programs at Florida.

The objectives of our effort were to answer several
questions that have arisen through discussions with colleagues here
and at other universities:

1. Is there an adequate structure to conduct study
abroad programs at Florida?

2. Is the number and quality of the programs at a
level that reflects the size and mission of the
University of Florida?

3. How can study abroad programs be integrated into
the total academic program of students?

4. How can participation in exchange programs be
increased?


1. Directory of International Manufacturing and Commercial
Operations in Florida. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Department
of Commerce, 1988, p.iii.





In order to answer these questions a questionnaire was
prepared by the Center for International Student and Faculty
Exchanges and distributed to approximately 1,000 students.
Information on exchange programs was collected from 15 different
universities so as to be able to compare the University of Florida
with similar institutions. Committee members called their
colleagues at other universities and discussed these issues. Finally,
members of the task force met in working groups to make
recommendations about study abroad and exchange programs.

We realize that our work overlaps that of several other task
forces, especially those which reviewed curriculum, international
students and faculty, and language. Our recommendations should
be seen as complementary to those from other committees.


Current State of Activities at the University of Florida

The international centers, research projects, and exchange
programs of the University of Florida comprise a distinctive strength
of the institution. While study abroad and exchange programs were
relatively few up until the mid 1970's, the past ten years has seen
tremendous growth in the number and participation in programs. In
1978, for example, there were nineteen programs offered, while in
1989 there are thirty with several more in the process of being
established. Participation in exchange programs has increased from
289 in 1985 to 341 in 1988.


Exchanges vs. Study Abroad Programs

Exchange programs and study abroad programs are two
separate education endeavors. Exchange programs are partnerships
between our university and important universities in other countries.
They are the most powerful of the two types of programs because
they link the University of Florida to other countries in a vertical,
multi-stranded relationship. Student study abroad programs, on the
other hand, are more horizontal and one-dimensional in that they
link our students with classrooms in other countries. At best,
exchange programs link the University of Florida with other
institutions at many levels, including:

student exchanges during the academic or summer
session;





faculty teaching exchanges, some of which are
supported by Fulbright and other grants. Faculty
from more than one discipline may be involved;

interest by university administrators in each
institution, its mission, and relationship to the state
or country,

conferences that bring attention to the exchange
and academic issues shared between the
institutions;

exchange of visitors such as higher level
governmental officials who use the exchange as a
vehicle for Florida and/or international
development;

cooperative funding and resource development
between the institutions;

ongoing relationships between alumni of the
institutions in either Florida or the other country.

Very few of the Florida programs approach this ideal of
exchange programs. The College of Architecture programs in
Copenhagen and Italy are closest to it. The College of Architecture
has developed USIA linkage agreements with several international
universities in the Caribbean and Central America and serves as a
model for other colleges who would develop robust exchange
programs. Unfortunately, most other programs at the University of
Florida are only study abroad programs, including four administered
by the American Institute of Foreign Study (AIFS), one
administered by Florida State University, and one administered by
the University of New Orleans. This leaves 24 programs that are
unique to the University of Florida. Study abroad programs are
often the first step in establishing exchange programs, as occurred in
the creation of the Yucatan program, which now includes Fulbright
exchanges and research cooperation. For this reason study abroad
agreements should continue to be an important part of the Florida
international agenda. Participation in international programs can be
improved if study abroad programs take on some of the attributes of
exchange programs. Students and faculty learn much more about a
country or program, for example, if the university hosts a high level
governmental official who knows of the program and talks about the
University of Florida connection to his or her country with students






and faculty. Study abroad programs do offer students the
opportunity to take courses in other countries, but do not fulfill the
potential of integrating the University of Florida at the vertical levels
of full exchange programs.

Administrative Structure and Staffing

Student exchange and study abroad programs have been
established and are operated with a small investment by the
University. Costs are generally borne by the students enrolling in
the programs, and faculty have been ready to devote their time and
resources to both establish and continue programs.

An issue of primary importance in the way study abroad and
exchange programs are constituted here at the University of Florida
is the organization and function of the Center for International
Student and Faculty Exchanges (CISFE). Is the office organized and
funded at a level to meet the needs of the University of Florida?

The office of student and faculty exchanges is located on the
ground floor of Grinter Hall and is administered by the Graduate
School. The director of the office is a career service staff person,
who reports to the Associate Dean for International Studies and
Programs, who in turn reports to the Dean of the Graduate School.

The physical separation between the Graduate School
offices on the second floor of Grinter Hall and the small, two-room
offices of the Center for International Student and Faculty
Exchanges reflects a separation in activities. The Associate Dean for
International Studies and Programs develops agreements with the
faculty advisors to programs, hosts international visitors, and works
closely with the Graduate School Dean to ensure that international
students in the graduate program are able to teach and research
effectively in the University. The CISFE office, on the other hand, is
the point of contact between the student body and the programs.
The office creates and distributes brochures, holds orientations,
serves as an advocate for the programs, meets with faculty, and
represents the University in national and international meetings.

By all accounts, this office is too small in staff and in
physical size for the importance of its tasks in the University. It has
one full time and several part time people: an administrative
assistant I (the director of the office), a 3/4 time OPS clerical staff
person, two 3/4 time graduate assistants and a one-half time student
assistant. In comparison with almost every other university that the
64






task force investigated, this is a staff too limited for the duties of
developing, advocating, and assessing international exchanges. At
Michigan State University, for example, the Office of Overseas Study
has a full time faculty director, an assistant director, a staff of seven
full-time personnel, and a student assistant.

Interviews with directors of our study abroad programs and
the office staff pointed out that the costs of this organizational
structure and small staff include declining interest and energy for
implementing programs and an inability to carry out services such as
orientations, international days, re-entry counseling, advisor training,
or evaluation. Indeed, at Florida, much of the work that may be
considered the "heart and soul" of study abroad programs occurs
outside CISFE, and is carried out by faculty members who serve as
advisors to different programs. While their enthusiasm is counted
on by students and administrators alike, the time and effort they give
to international programs is tested by the priorities of their own
departmental needs, including on-campus teaching, research, and
service. At present the recognition for faculty involvement in
international programs of exchange or study abroad is slight, and
varies widely from department to department.

At present, there is no statement of mission in the CISFE
office. Because of the changing nature of the student body and the
need to develop strong and vigorous programs in the future, such a
statement needs to be developed. Currently the director of the
office is reacting to student interests, faculty pressures, and
administrative demands. The director does this with an amazing
amount of energy and enthusiasm, and is universally appreciated by
the faculty, students, and administrators who use the office. Still,
programs are proposed or allowed to disappear without reflection on
their importance to the University.

There are policies and a chain of command to follow for
developing and ending programs, including college committees and
the Council for International Studies and Programs at the university
level. These are policies of bureaucratic order, not of substance.
Again, the research conducted by this task force suggests that such a
policy or mission statement is critical. Such a statement should
reflect different university units so that international exchanges are
better integrated into the programs of different colleges and units.
Activities of the office and the responsibilities of its director and
those of the Associate Dean for International Studies and Programs





can become clearer through the document. The issues such a
mission statement might address include:

1. Strengthening the areas of responsibility of the
office in terms of offering educational experiences
abroad, encouraging international alumni activities,
and advocating support from the University for
international programs.

Such a broader general mission of the office
obviously entails more resources and different
kinds of activities than is presently the case.
However, international activities at the University
of Florida are growing rapidly, and considering
CISFE's present configuration of activities, the
office may not be able to adapt quickly to the
exchange and study abroad programs that reflect
the needs of University of Florida students.

2. Establishing criteria for establishing study abroad
and exchange agreements in terms of different
stages (i.e. individual faculty, study abroad, joint
conference, exchange, etc.), criteria in terms of the
articulation of programs with the educational
missions of different departments and colleges,
criteria in terms of the importance of the country
and institution to Florida, and criteria in terms of
the linkage of academic, governmental, and
economic resources.

Presently there are general draft agreements that
administrators or faculty members can refer to in
the establishment of agreements, but there is no
statement of the circumstances under which
agreements are required. The process of
establishing an agreement in terms of the
departments involved, college and university
curriculum and international committees, and
administrative approval must be discussed and
clarified.

3. Clarifying the activities of the CISFE office as a
leader in study abroad and student exchanges. The
relationship between the CISFE office and the
Office of International Student Services, the






English Language Institute, academic departments,
and programs on campus needs to be discussed and
defined. The structure of CISFE vis-a-vis the
Graduate School and the organization of the
Council on International Studies and Programs is
also an important area to be explored in a mission
statement.


Pressing needs of the office include:

a) Improving methods of student recruitment.

b) Using international students and previous exchange
students to increase participation, and offering
services such as Eurail-pass, international student
I.D.'s, returning student counseling, credit
allocation.

c) Representing the University of Florida at state,
national, and international meetings.

These activities cannot be added on to the already
tremendous work load of the office staff without the kind of
clarification that can come about through the development of a
mission statement. The current task force as well as other faculty
involved in exchange programs could serve as a committee to help
draft such a document.

The CISFE office is tiny. Its location in what some have
referred to as a "closet" in Grinter Hall mitigates against an
adequate presence of international exchange programs at the
University of Florida. Grinter Hall, although close to the Graduate
School, is not a high traffic area for students, and even if it were, the
small dimensions of the office make it impossible for more than a
few students to be in the office at once. The office could easily be
moved to a more visible locale. The new Student Service Complex
would be an excellent place for the office. Larger space for the
record keeping and equipment needs of CISFE is necessary to
convey the University's commitment to these programs.





The Quality of Programs at the University of Florida


The thirty programs now administered by the University of
Florida CISFE office represent large, summer programs such as that
in Innsbruck, Austria where forty or more students join with other
students, sometimes numbering in the hundreds, for six week
summer classes. Smaller, academic year programs such as in
Poznan, Poland, or Utrecht, the Netherlands, attract far fewer
students, as few as eight or ten a year, but involve the students in the
academic life of a major university in a foreign country.

Traditional study abroad programs have concentrated on
offering courses in the languages of the host countries as well as
general liberal arts classes. Departments of languages and
literatures have long recognized that there is simply no way to obtain
genuine competency in speaking, writing, and thinking in a different
language without spending sufficient time in a country where a
different language is spoken. At the University of Florida, study
abroad programs include languages such as Portuguese, Spanish,
German, Hebrew, Japanese, Chinese, and French. Some of these
programs, such as German and Japanese, were developed through
the language departments, while others were initiated by faculty in
other departments.

The most critical issue facing study abroad and exchange
programs in terms of language is the difficulty in assessing the use of
the language experiences within the University of Florida system.
Credit for language instruction taken on study abroad and exchange
programs is not automatically given within the University of Florida.
The credit for language taken in a foreign country where the
language is spoken does not, for example, in itself meet any part of
the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences language requirement of
proficiency as demonstrated at the intermediate level. Likewise,
language instruction and experience on study abroad and exchange
programs are generally not accepted as part of the major or minor
requirements in any departments of languages at the University of
Florida. This is a situation that needs serious attention. On one
hand, language instruction programs need to ensure that their
graduates have gained skills and competencies that are the same for
all students at the University of Florida. On the other hand, students
cannot be expected to enroll in study abroad programs if their
academic program, especially language learning, is not enhanced
through the experience.






Exchange and study abroad programs come out of a
tradition of liberal arts education. The experience of overseas travel,
living, and scholarship has customarily been something students do
because it "is good for them" in general terms. The University of
Florida, as a major professional and general university, faces a
student body today which has precious little time for high quality
programs that are "good for them" in an abstract sense. Instead,
students need, and in fact demand, overseas experiences that are
much more closely tied to their interests. Business students, for
example, have joined an international internship program on their
own because they saw the need for international experience.
Traditional study abroad programs do little for professional
engineering or business students unless they provide courses,
contacts, and experience in their fields of choice.

Internships, on the other hand, often fit better into a
student's schedule, and because the intern receives compensation,
can be done for little more than the cost of transportation. Some
universities, such as the University of South Carolina, offer degrees
in which foreign internships are required and are arranged through
the university. Florida does not do this yet. The quality of programs
.at Florida can be increased dramatically by reviewing study abroad
and exchange programs with professional or professionally oriented
students in mind. The experience of students in business
administration in creating their own mechanism for exchanges shows
how important this shift in the definition of study abroad programs is
for the future.

The present view of study abroad and student exchange
programs at Florida consists of University of Florida programs and
the University of Florida approved programs such as those
administered by AIFS. It is our recommendation that study abroad
and exchange programs be expanded to include University of Florida
sponsored exchanges, such as those which already exist, University of
Florida sponsored internship programs such as those in business or
those that could be developed through embassies or consulates,
direct enrollment in foreign institutions where the University of
Florida has agreements of exchange, and enrollment through other
approved programs. These include those in which Florida could join
as a member, such as the Inter-University Center for Japanese
Language Studies in Tokyo, or those administered by other
universities or AIFS. Such a change in the meaning of exchange
programs would be an effective way of providing international
experiences for students within and without the traditional liberal
arts clientele of study abroad programs.
69






While the number of programs at Florida is within the
range of top universities (Brown has 20 and Michigan State
University has 70), the kinds of programs need to be expanded in the
ways suggested above. This is already taking place through the
recent initiatives of the Center for African Studies development of
African exchanges and the College of Architecture plans for the
senior professional year in Italy.

This is not to say that the traditional clientele of study
abroad programs need be ignored. Students at the beginning of
their careers find the excitement and learning that accompany a
study abroad exchange important in their own intellectual growth.
While on programs abroad they often have the opportunity to think
through their career plans and return to Florida invigorated, with a
new sense of direction.

Obstacles to Exchange and Study Abroad Programs

Why do students stay away from exchange and study abroad
programs? Perhaps the best way to understand this is to take a
journey with a student at the University of Florida through the
experience of a study abroad program.

Students can first find out about study abroad and exchange
programs through the University of Florida catalog. There the
CISFE office is mentioned and several programs briefly noted, but a
prospective student soon sees that the programs are not listed with
any college, departmental, or center activity. Certainly, international
activities should be included during the summer "Preview"
experience. Once a student enrolls, the need to quickly move
through required "general education" and pre-professional classes
gives little time for exchange and study abroad programs. Study
abroad courses, if they do count in the general education curriculum,
are never mentioned in advising or in the printed class schedules.
We recommend that summer programs be included in the summer
catalog of courses.

Few students know where the CISFE office is, and fewer
still hear about orientations or other publicity of exchange and study
abroad programs. If, by chance, they see one of the well-designed
posters in their dormitory or on campus, they then have to locate the
small office in Grinter Hall, off the beaten path, to find out about
the programs. This early experience teaches students one thing:
study abroad and exchange programs are not an integral part of their






University of Florida education. Nevertheless, students persist.
They persist because they are interested in learning a language well
or know that their professional growth depends on international
awareness and experience.

The persistent student who does find out about the
programs faces another hurdle. Credits and grades for courses
taken on exchange and study abroad programs are not consistent.
Credit on all University of Florida programs is given and appears on
student transcripts, but whether that credit fulfills any of the major,
minor, general education, or pre-professional requirements is not
clear. Likewise, although many of the study abroad programs are
administered wholly by the University of Florida, grades are seldom
calculated within a student's grade point average. This inconsistency
is troubling to students. A clear policy regarding courses that are
accepted as transfer credit and those accepted as University of
Florida credit needs to be made. The committee recommends that
the academic evaluation of programs be upgraded and that
programs with a University of Florida faculty member as a close
overseer of the programs be considered "University of Florida"
courses and in this way the grades would be averaged into a student's
grade point average.

By this time only those students with tremendous self-
initiative and tenacity continue their interest in exchange and study
abroad programs. The next hurdle they face is financial. Programs
are notorious for their expense, especially when compared with the
relatively low cost of staying in Gainesville. Students often do not
realize that the true costs of programs are often not significantly
more than staying on campus. Also, they are wary of the possible
delays of financial aid if they do something out of the ordinary, such
as go on an exchange program. The CISFE office has been very
successful in assisting with financial aid for students and has also
secured several scholarships. Still, the cost of programs is perceived
as too high by students. Coupled with this perception is the fact that
when a student contacts her or his parents about study abroad, the
parents are often unwilling to help support the endeavor. Parents,
like their children, are not told of the importance of international
experiences in the educational mission of Florida. They hear their
children's request for a vacation away from the important activity of
planning and studying for a major career.

The student who perseveres and is able to attend an
exchange or study abroad program is well rewarded. The time spent
on the program is uniformly well regarded, and students
71





overwhelmingly rate the experiences as among the most important in
their college careers.

When the student returns to the University of Florida,
however, further obstacles remain. Language proficiency tests must
be taken to be sure that there is equivalence between the study
abroad language learning and that of Florida. Meetings with the
University of Florida departmental and pre-professional counselors
must be scheduled so that course credit can be discussed. More
critical, however, is the fact that the student's tremendous change in
outlook and interest engendered by a study abroad experience is not
recognized at the university. There are few post-experience
meetings, little chance to meet international students from the host
countries, no special sections of courses for students who have had
international experiences, and no recognition within major programs
or professional schools that the time spent on an exchange was more
than "time away" from the University of Florida. A stronger CISFE
office could offer "re-entry" counseling; special sections for students
with international experience could be set up in many general
education courses; professional schools could provide a higher
"priority score" for students who have been on an exchange program.

Finally, when a student graduates from the university, ways
of using the exchange and study abroad experience are seldom
mentioned. The importance of international experience is not
stressed by the Career Resources Office in the development of a
resume, the Office of Alumni Affairs and the University of Florida
Foundation do not capitalize on the friends and colleagues one
meets, and the student is not asked to help support exchange and
study abroad programs. The experience, while of great personal
importance, becomes an "invisible" part of a student's career at the
University of Florida. Alumni publications, for example, could
target students with international experience for group travel to
other countries and in other ways take advantage of the international
interest of these students.


Future Needs and Recommendations

There is a story that when Ghandi was being interviewed, he
saw a large crowd of people walking by. "Excuse me," he said to the
interviewer, "I must go lead my people." International student
exchanges and study abroad programs are in a similar position. In
many ways the University of Florida, through its students and
colleges, is walking ever more quickly in an international direction.





The university must act decisively and in a timely manner to provide
leadership for exchange and study abroad programs in the next
several years. To that end, we make the following
recommendations:

1. Material and Financial Support

If the University is to meet its stated objectives of making
more study abroad opportunities available, additional resources
will be necessary. The strengthening of the office for student
and faculty exchanges, staffed with professional people with
extensive experience in student exchange programs, is essential.
This office should have high visibility and should be located in
the new Student Services building attached to Peabody Hall.

Over a period of the next five years, the University should
phase in three new professional staff members and two support
personnel to develop this service. A faculty level director,
chosen from the University community, who works in the office
for a three-year term, will provide liaison with departments and
colleges and ensure the academic integrity of the programs
through close work with the program advisors and their
committees. The staff of the office would work closely with the
Center for International Students and Services, perhaps in
developing highly effective orientations and other counseling
services for students going on programs and students coming
from foreign universities. The staff would also work closely
with the colleges, student organizations, residence groups, and
other agencies and universities throughout the world which may
establish relationships with the University of Florida. The
office would serve to inform students, faculty, parents, and
alumni about international educational opportunities.

Financial support for the program should come primarily
from the E & G budget of the university. The resources for
this office represent a commitment on the part of the
institution to international educational opportunities for
undergraduates. Expenses for participating students are
already factored into student financial aid budget and the
financial aid office is very supportive of this endeavor. As a
part of the University's Capital Campaign and future private
financial support initiatives, an effort should be made to obtain
funds specifically for international exchange programs. Past
participants of the programs and alumni in the host countries
represent an obvious population to tap for these funds.





Providing scholarships for needy students to participate in study
abroad programs is essential so that a broad spectrum of
students may be able to become internationally sophisticated.
Contacts should be made with corporations who have
multinational operations, especially those in Florida through
the University Development and Placement office. Finally,
students and their parents should be informed early in their
college careers about programs and be informed of the
potential costs so that students can plan to attend and benefit
from exchange programs.

2. Scholarly Support

Strong, university-wide academic support for exchange
programs should be established at the level of the President
and Provost of the University. Second, direct linkages to
programs, majors, colleges, and professional schools must be
established and maintained through the CISFE office. Logical
and consistent criteria need to be established for granting credit
and, in some cases, grades for study abroad programs. We
recommend that study abroad and exchange programs be
divided into several groups, based on the degree to which the
University of Florida is involved. Programs which are
completely organized and administered through the University
of Florida should be given course numbers within the common
course numbering system and grades should be assigned and
transferred into a student's academic record. Other programs,
such as those which involve direct enrollment in a foreign
institution or programs offered through other universities,
should be considered transfer credit experiences. Internships
and other non-traditional exchanges should be given credit
through the appropriate department or program on a S-U
basis.

Study abroad and exchange program experiences should
become a recognized part of many programs at the University
of Florida. Departments with a strong international orientation
(languages, political science, anthropology, economics, history,
etc.) should be encouraged to work closely with the exchange
programs. Alternate credit to the on-campus major and minor
requirements in such programs should be given. The
University of Florida should make a significant statement by
requiring all honors students to spend time on a study abroad
program and using honors funds to support scholarships for
honors students who need them. This will increase the





reputation of the University tremendously and will provide the
honors program with a unique international and forward-
looking character.

Currently many of the majors, programs, and professional
schools do not require foreign language training at
undergraduate or graduate levels. Because of the close
association between study abroad programs and language
programs, we recommend that a university-wide language
requirement be enacted and that study abroad credit become
one way of fulfilling part of this requirement.

More programs need to be developed from within the
CISFE office and through other colleges and professional
schools. Specialized programs within particular colleges or
departments should be encouraged. More faculty and
university-wide participation can infuse programs with new
ideas and new forms. Some universities develop short, one-
time courses that reflect immediate interests. For example,
some universities have encouraged their journalism faculty to
develop courses such as "Mass Media in Brazil" or "The News
in the U.S.S.R." Such courses are given once or twice as faculty
and student interests permits in appropriate countries.

Faculty involvement in international study and exchange
programs should be developed so as to provide students with
the highest quality professional service possible. Specific
manuals tailored to the University of Florida for developing,
implementing, advising, and evaluating exchange programs
should be created. International study and exchange program
experience should be considered in the hiring of new faculty in
different departments and colleges. Exceptional faculty
participation in programs should be noted through assertive
championship of faculty for released time, merit, tenure, and
promotion.

A governing board for study abroad programs should be
created to provide direction and support for exchanges. This
governing board should be made up of representatives from the
deans' offices of each college. The president of the University
should visit at least one exchange program a semester.

A clear role of exchange programs in the MA. and
professional school education of students should be defined.
Each college should be encouraged to use existing exchange





and study abroad programs to develop other programs specific
to their needs. The College of Business, for example, might be
interested in a joint MBA-East Asian Studies Program which
makes use of existing programs in Japan and China.

Long range involvement with exchange students and
international students should be developed through the
creation of an international alumni affairs office.

3. Student Support

Participation in study abroad and exchange programs will
increase dramatically if the above financial and scholarly
support recommendations are put into operation. In addition,
there are many low cost, effective ways of increasing student
support and participation in programs.

The CISFE office needs to house information on other
programs in addition to those at the University of Florida so
that students in general are encouraged to seek out study
abroad opportunities. While it is obvious that the University of
Florida programs should always be seen as the best for Florida
students, other programs have a place in a university of this
size. More advanced students and graduate students especially
can benefit from programs administered by other universities.

Promotion of our programs on other campuses can be
increased if we are also sending a few of our students on other
programs. Active recruitment in Florida and the Southeast
should become a priority by using faculty and administrative
networks to publicize our programs.

Promotion on the University of Florida campus should
include cooperation with international student clubs so that
"cultural evenings" with international students, including music
and food, can stimulate international program involvement.
The large number of program experiences that exist on the
University of Florida campus can provide the substance for
monthly stories in the local newspapers, college, and alumni
publications.

The fears of high cost need to be met with clear descriptions
of costs and a comparison to costs at the University of Florida,
at other universities, and the benefits from a study abroad
investment. Costs on programs should be reviewed and
76





adjusted with the help of a fiscal planning consultant. Ways of
reducing the costs including charter flights, more scholarships,
subsidies from other units, and departmental scholarships
should be explored.

Participants from previous years are the best resource that
study abroad and exchange programs have. These participants
could be recognized by creating special sections of general
education or departmental courses for them. Faculty would be
very happy to have students with international experience in
courses such as international affairs, Spanish, international law,
or anthropology. This would allow students to meet others who
have also had international experience and through the creation
of such cohorts, also improve participation in international
programs.

Participants from previous years should also be used in
continuing orientations, as hosts for visiting international
students, faculty, or government officials, and study abroad
diplomats to classes, residence groups, and organizations.


Conclusions

Study abroad and student exchange programs at Florida are
presently an interesting and important adjunct to the educational
mission of the university. As the University of Florida and the state
become more involved with international colleagues, institutions,
and activities, study abroad, and exchange programs must take on a
new identity. They must be strengthened so that students are able to
get an excellent and competitive education at undergraduate and
graduate levels. Programs must also become more complex in a
"vertical" sense. Involvement of faculty, governments, industries, and
students in comprehensive exchanges will characterize successful
programs in the future.





INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS AND SCHOLARS

Chair: Richard Downie

Summary Statement

The objective of the Task Force was to explore the area of
international students and scholars as a major part of the
international character of the University of Florida. To accomplish
that objective the Task Force formed two sub-committees; one for
students and one for scholars. The report, then, is in two major
parts and where issues or recommendations overlap that is noted.

The University of Florida has traditionally served the state
of Florida as a focal point for students and scholars from Florida and
throughout the world in search of knowledge and common
understanding. The Task Force was unanimous in its conclusion
that the presence of international students and scholars at the
University of Florida is highly desirable and a significant dimension
of our international character.

International students and scholars are important in
broadening our involvement within the international community,
achieving our goal of becoming a world class institution and
enriching the lives of our students, faculty and community. It further
notes that the increased numbers of international scholars is an
indicator of the University of Florida's growing international stature.

In general, the task force concluded that increased staff
should be provided, especially at the Center for International
Student and Scholar Services (CISSS), for the support of
international student and scholar programs. It has recommended, in
addition, that a revolving fund be established to assist newly arrived
students and scholars, that a handbook be developed for use by both
newly arrived students and scholars and that a faculty advisory
committee be established to continue review of ongoing programs.

Recommendations addressing student issues include
developing efforts to increase undergraduate international student
enrollment, continued use of a flexible GRE in graduate admissions,
and increased emphasis on spoken and written English for all
international graduate students.

With respect to scholars, the Task Force recommends a
centralized and coordinated support structure, continued





encouragement of departments to invite and receive international
scholars, and the establishment of a mechanism to routinely follow
up on former University of Florida foreign scholars.

The task force was unable to address all issues before it,
such as establishing priorities for processing Fulbright students, non-
degree exchange students, short term visiting scholars and
encouragement of receiving more senior Fulbright grantees.

Introduction

The objective of this Task Force was to explore the area of
international students and scholars as a major part of the
international character of the University of Florida. To accomplish
that objective the Task Force was divided into two groups; one to
explore the student dimension and the other to explore the
dimension of visiting scholars. This report, then, is essentially two
discussions and they are presented separately. Where issues or
recommendations overlap that is noted.

The University of Florida has traditionally served in the
State of Florida as a focal point for students and scholars from
Florida and throughout the world in search of knowledge and
common understanding. To prepare people effectively to contribute
to the development of a more harmonious world society and for
living purposeful and productive lives, education must be directed
toward recognizing the plurality of world cultures, the existence of
common concerns, and the need for more effective ways to acquire
international and inter-cultural cooperation. To meet this challenge,
the educational systems of all societies will need to develop and
disseminate new knowledge for new purposes; to reorient attitudes,
values and concepts; and to develop new abilities to harmonize
human relations and apply professional skills toward meeting these
goals.

The presence of international students and visiting scholars
at the University of Florida is important in broadening its
involvement within the international community, achieving its goal of
becoming a world class institution, and enriching the lives of our
students, faculty and community.





The Center for International Student and Scholar Services

The University of Florida has a commitment to provide an
adequate milieu for the international student to learn and to interact
with other members of our community. The Center for
International Student and Scholar Services (CISSS) carries the
major university responsibility for providing support services for the
international student population and increasingly for international
visiting scholars. The Office of the Associate Dean for International
Studies and Programs also participates in certain aspects of visiting
faculty support especially as it pertains to formal exchange
agreements with foreign governments and universities abroad. The
CISSS is staffed by 2.5 FTE professional staff, three USPS staff and,
when available, one half time graduate student, intern, or practicum
student and college work study personnel.

The major responsibilities of the CISSS are:


Administration.




Admission Assistance.






Immigration.




Orientation.




Academic Counseling.


The CISSS organizes, administers, plans,
implements, and establishes policies to
carry out services to international students
and scholars.

The CISSS manages the final steps in the
admission process for international
students. If both the academic admission
and the Certificate of Financial Support
are approved, CISSS sends the appropriate
visa documents to the student.

The CISSS is the responsible university
office for all immigration matters pertaining
to international students and for some
categories of international scholars.

All new international students are required
to attend orientation. Other university
faculty, staff and students participate by
volunteering their time.

CISSS staff offers assistance to
international students experiencing
difficulty in the classroom. Appropriate
referrals are made and close cooperation
and contact is established with faculty.







Personal Counseling.


CISSS staff offers counseling for various
problems encountered by students.
Individuals requiring long term counseling
or who have severe problems are referred
to the appropriate office or agency.


Contacts with Faculty and Staff. CISSS staff supports and counsels
faculty and staff on a range of matters
pertaining to both international students
and scholars.


Emergency Assistance.


CISSS generally accepts responsibility in
emergency situations involving
international students and scholars.


Liaison With Non-University Agencies. CISSS maintains liaison with
U.S. government agencies, with the
embassies and consulates of foreign
governments and private agencies and
institutions which administer international
student programs such as LASPAU,
AAI/AFGRAD, IIE and AMIDEAST


Community Relations.


Student Activities.








Educational Programs.


A major support for CISSS programs
comes from the Gainesville community.

The student organization VISA
(Volunteers for International Student
Affairs) is supported in its activities by the
CISSS staff and is funded by Student
Government. In addition, CISSS
encourages social and cultural activities of
some 25 national clubs at the University of
Florida.

Intercultural communication workshops
are offered by the CISSS staff on
request. To date, CISSS has held
workshops for the University Police
Department, Housing,
Registrar/Admissions Office and Financial
Services.





International Students Center


Objectives. One area the Task Force addressed was those issues
related to international students. With respect to international
students the objectives were to review, analyze and make
recommendations, where appropriate, concerning:

1. The philosophy and rationale for the presence of
international students at the University of Florida
and the policy and mission statements supporting
that philosophy.

2. Admissions policy and practice and appropriateness
of educational programs for international students.

3. The structure and function of the support systems for
international students and their relation to other
university units.

4. Contributions to the University of Florida and
Gainesville communities by international students.

5. Special populations of international students (e.g.
Fulbright, non-degree students, etc.)

In the time available not all issues before the task force
could be adequately addressed. Issues concerning non-degree
exchange students, special admissions handling for Fulbright
students and other sponsored students, and community relations
were not fully explored or reported.


Profile of International Students at the University of Florida

Eligible international students are admitted to the
University of Florida on the same basis as other non-resident
applicants and graduate-level students. Admission evaluations
consider the possibilities of academic success in the program to
which admission is sought and require that applicants be screened
for academic excellence. In addition, international applicants must
meet minimum standards of English proficiency and financial
support in order to complete admission. At the undergraduate level,
admission decisions are made in the Admissions Office, and on the
graduate level, in cooperation between the departmental chairman's
office, the Dean of the Graduate School, and their representatives at
83





the Admissions Office. Decisions regarding sufficient financial
resources are made at the Center for International Student and
Scholar Services (CISSS).

The international student population at the University of
Florida, as of the Spring of 1989, stands at 1,681. In 1976 the
enrollment was approximately 630 or 2.2 percent of the student
body. By 1982 international student enrollment had risen to 1,600 or
4.4 percent of the student body. This represents a change of some
150 percent in six years. Since 1982 enrollment has fluctuated from
Spring enrollment lows of near 1,400 to the current figure of 1,681.
In 1976, 191 international students were undergraduates while 439
were graduate students. In 1982, however, there was an increase in
the number of graduate students to 720 with undergraduates at 680.
In 1987 the proportion of international students at the graduate level
rose once again and surpassed the 1976 level to reach 1,151
international students.

The pattern of international student enrollment over the past
dozen years reflects, in part, the national pattern for the same period.
In the case of Florida the dramatic increase from 1976-82 also
represents the growth pattern for Florida in general and the
University of Florida in particular.

The University of Florida now ranks second in the state in
the number of international students enrolled in four year
institutions (The University of Miami is first). Among the 52 AAU
institutions in the United States, University of Florida ranks in the
bottom one third.

While international enrollment has leveled off since 1982,
there is some indication that our enrollment will begin another
upward trend by Fall of 1989. This appears to be the result of
increased pressures from abroad for graduate enrollment and
growing ability on the part of Asians especially to afford U.S.
education.


Further Needs and Recommendations

The task force notes that the University of Florida
traditionally brings some of the best international students available
to our campus. It is our opinion that continued effort and attention
be given to maintaining the excellence, dedication, knowledge, and
skill of our international students.






It is also noted that graduate level enrollment of
international students continues to rise. Based on national trends,
the growing importance of the University of Florida as a graduate
research institution and the pressure from abroad (especially from
Pacific Rim countries) indicates that this trend will not abate in the
foreseeable future. To accommodate these anticipated changes,
University of Florida will need to review its infrastructure beyond
the scope of the current report of this Task Force. Nevertheless, the
Task Force submits the following recommendation with respect to
international students:

1. A revolving fund should be established to assist students when
needed with settling-in support immediately after arrival.

Comment: This fund is needed, for example, to
assist students while they await their first pay check
as a graduate assistant. Checks are often delayed
until a social security number is available. In the
meantime professors and friends must help out of
their own pockets.

2. All international students should take the written and spoken
English classes necessary for the completion of their degree
requirements.

Comment: Many students are not proficient at a
level of written English needed for some
specialized fields. Faculty have often had to
provide extensive tutoring to help students express
themselves at the minimum level. Additional
training in English skills is needed.

3. The University of Florida should continue its current
enrollment priorities for international students.

Comment: The University of Florida has a
mandate to take its place as the flagship university
of the State of Florida and among the major AAU
research universities. More than half of the AAU
institutions have higher international student
enrollments than University of Florida. It becomes
essential that we maximize our involvement in the
education of international students by maintaining
the current enrollment priorities. Caution needs to





be exercised, however, so that international student
enrollment does not exceed 50 percent in any given
department.

4. The admission policy at the undergraduate level should be
reviewed with the intention of finding ways to increase the
percentage of admissions at that level.

Comment: By 1988 the number of international
students at the undergraduate level had decreased
by 50 percent from 1982-83. It is of special concern
that there is a small number of students at the
freshman level, indicating an even further decrease
in total enrollment in future years.

5. The minimum TOEFL score should be maintained at 550,
and international students should continue to be evaluated on
their GRE performance on a case by case basis.

Comment: The TOEFL continues to be a useful
indicator of English proficiency. The GRE,
however, continues to present difficulties as a
predictor of academic performance and the
continued policy of flexibility in the use of the GRE
is urged.

6. Additional sources of financial support should be pursued for
international students especially through local corporations or
through some version of the "Oregon Plan," to provide tuition
assistance.

Comment: Many international students function at
a marginal or uncertain level of financial support.
They also represent a rich resource for the campus
and community that is not being tapped.

7. Some form of formal recognition should be given to our
foreign Fulbright students from the highest level of the
university.

Comment: Recognition of the special status of our
foreign junior Fulbright participants has not
occurred with any frequency at University of
Florida. Such recognition would enhance their stay
as well as bring attention of our own students to






this prestigious program. With a current
enrollment of 22 Fulbright graduate students we
are far down the list of participating institutions
among our AAU colleagues.

8. The staffing pattern of CISSS should be reviewed with the
purpose of increasing its numbers to more effectively meet
the needs of international students.

Comment: CISSS staffing has not kept pace with
international student enrollment and does not
compare favorably with staffs of other major
comparable AAU institutions. A full comparison
of CISSS with other institutions like University of
Florida was not possible; nevertheless, the
following data, while not complete is indicative of
University of Florida's relative position in student
and scholar support at a major institution:


Ohio Michigan Univ. of Univ. of
State State Minnesota Florida


Foreign Student
Enrollment 2,794 2,200 3,000 1,600

Visiting Scholars
(on J-1 visa) 437 315 540 475


TOTAL 3,231 2,515 3,540 2,075



Ohio Michigan Univ. of Univ. of
State State Minnesota Florida


Professional Staff
Staff


TOTAL


2.5 USPS
3


12 10





Given the above information the following are ratios of staff
to clients:

Ohio Michigan Univ. of Univ. of
State State Minnesota Florida

Staff 1 1 1 1
Client 269 252 197 377


The most important resource of the CISSS is its personnel.
The organization was unanimously perceived by the task force as
performing its responsibilities in a proficient and helpful manner,
especially given its current relative lack of professional staffing. The
task force strongly urges that the professional staff at the CISSS be
increased on the basis of the following observations: 1) the 225
percent increase in foreign student enrollment during the past 12
years without a concomitant increase in staffing; 2) a comparison
with other AAU universities, which reveals the University of Florida
to have a far lower ratio of staff to international students and
scholars than any comparable institution; 3) the universally held
view among task force members that the CISSS will be unable to
maintain its current effectiveness due to the recent surge in the
number of foreign scholars at the University of Florida, combined
with continually modest increases in foreign student enrollment
especially at the graduate level.


International Visiting Scholars

Objectives. The objectives of this task force were to review existing
policy and procedures for hosting foreign scholars at the University
of Florida, to identify weak points, and to recommend means for
improvement. The task force report does not address details of how
such recommendations might be implemented, as this is more
properly the purview of the Center for International Student and
Scholar Services (CISSS) and related organizations in cooperation
with the university administration.

With respect to international visiting scholars the objectives
were to review, analyze and make recommendations concerning:

1. Philosophy, rationale, policies and practices
regarding visiting faculty.
88






2. Criteria for extending invitations to foreign faculty.

3. The structure and function of the support systems
for visiting faculty and their relation to other
university units.

4. Range of activities, programs, assignments, and
duration of stay for international scholars.

5. Special populations of visiting faculty (e.g. Senior
Fulbright, short term visitors, etc.).

Not all objectives were met in the time available. Concerns
about hosting Senior Fulbright scholars and identifying responsibility
for handling short term (2 days to 2 weeks) visitors were not fully
discussed and so are not reported here.

The task force is unanimous in its view that the university
should continue to encourage participation by visiting foreign
scholars in its educational and research programs for the mutual
benefit of students, faculty, and visitors. This encouragement should
be manifested by both moral and financial support of the many
bilateral exchange programs already existing at the university, and
more generally by creating an environment for all foreign visitors
that maximizes their cultural and intellectual exchange.

The visitor should leave with a clear perception of having
been valued by the university as well as deriving value from it. This
perception is conveyed in part by the treatment of a visitor at various
stages. The task force discussed means to provide adequate
information prior to arrival, a smooth assimilation into the university
structure on arrival, peer attention by the host organization while at
the university, and some form of follow-up after completion of the
visit. Most of the specific recommendations below are directed
toward establishing minimum standards for treatment of visiting
foreign scholars.


Profile of International Visiting Scholars

International visiting scholars come to the University of
Florida in three major ways: a) by invitation of University of Florida
faculty b) by formal exchange agreements and c) by mutual
agreement with the Council on International Exchange of Scholars





(CIES) on the senior Fulbright program. The vast majority are
invited by University of Florida faculty. A few others may come on
their own initiative or for very short visits of one month or less. The
majority are here for at least one full term and for as long as four
years.

The Task Force only focused on the above group not on
those international faculty who are here on the H-1 Temporary
Worker visa or as legal permanent residents (i.e., those who hold the
"green card"). The international visiting scholars use the J-1
Exchange Visitor visa to enter the United States.

As of February 1989 visiting scholars totaled some 474
people from 49 countries and they were located in 90 departments,
centers or research stations of the university.


International Scholars (Visiting Faculty)
Spring 1989


BY CONTINENT BY COUNTRY BY DEPARTMENT
(Top Six) (Top Six)


Africa 20 China 49 Chemistry 57
Asia 210 Poland 45 Physics 26
Europe 178 India 40 CDDD 21
Latin Amer. 39 Japan 33 Med. Science 15
North Amer. 13 W. Germany 23 Mech. Engr. 14
Oceania 14 U.K. 22 Micro & Cell Biol. 13

Center for Drug Design and Delivery

The current level of visiting scholars has changed
dramatically over the past few years. Good data are not now
available, but the best estimate is that four years ago the number of
visiting scholars at University of Florida was less than 100. At the
current rate of requests our visiting scholar population should
exceed 500 by Fall 1989. There is no reason to expect this increase
to change. As the University of Florida's reputation becomes widely
known internationally, one can expect growth in our international
contacts.

At one time the purpose for receiving international scholars
was to assist them to expand their knowledge, return to their country




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