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Title: University record
Uniform Title: University record (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the State of Florida
University of Florida
Publisher: University of the State of Florida,
University of the State of Florida
Place of Publication: Lake city Fla
Publication Date: June 1913
Frequency: quarterly
regular
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Subject: College publications -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Agricultural education -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
University extension -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Teachers colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Law schools -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
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 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1906)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issue for Vol. 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1907) is misnumbered as Vol. 1, no. 1.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Imprint varies: <vol. 1, no. 2-v.4, no. 2> Gainesville, Fla. : University of the State of Florida, ; <vol. 4, no. 4-> Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida.
General Note: Issues also have individual titles.
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Volume ID: VID00521
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oclc - 01390268
alephbibnum - 000917307
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Full Text
rriN" I 2


CIRCULAR


JUNE


1913


UNIVERSITY


OF


FLORIDA


Office


Inspector


Nursery


Stock


GAINESVILLE


The


exican


Cotton


Boll


Weevil


BERGER


* -
I
b
\yh


Fig. 1-Weevils Feeding on Boll.


Slightly magnified.


(From Bul. No. 51, Bur. Ent., U.


S. Dept.


Agric.)






















BOARD OF CONTROL


YONGE, Chai
KING, Arcad


Lrman, Pensacola.
ia.


WARTMANN, Citra.
FLEMING JR., Jacksonville.
. FINLAYSON, Old Town.


INSPECTOR


OF NURSERY STOCK


E. W. BERGER,
Expt. Station.


Ph.D.


Previously


Entomologist Fla. Agr.








CONTENTS


Summary --- ... --. .
The Case Stated__.--- --m--
Sources of Information ......--
What to Do.------- ---- --
Summary of the Cultural Meth
The Cultural Method in Detail.


Page
- - - a - a - - a - - - 4
- - - -- - -. - a - .............................


od_


Fall Destruction of Cotton Plants
Method of Fall Destruction .....


Maturing the Crop Early_
Early Planting_ ..---
Early Maturing Varieties_
Spacing of Cotton Plants.
Cultivation of Crop .-----
Commercial Fertilizers - -
Crop Rotation_
The Chain Cultivator -------


Destroying Weevils in Hibernation


-. - -. ----... -.. --- 10


. .-- -- ----.-- -- 10


-. --.--------. --_ _- .. _- 1


- 11


11
-- ...- .. .. 15
-. - a ,-- .-- -- .- 15- -


Poisoning-Arsenate of L
Hand Picking_. --- -
Useless Methods ..-.-- -
Diseases and Parasites -
How Each Grower Can I
What the Bankers and Me
How the Weevil Spreads
Food of the Weevil-----
Varieties of Cotton Infest<
How to Know When the
Hibernation of Weevils -
The Weevil Described -
Life Histdry of the Weev
The Egg_. ___.. ..
The Immature Stage


Hist


Number of Generatio
orv in United States


.rw is
fwf t *- J


,ead ... ..
dea -- - --w-


-_ -- .- .-. 15
17
.....-..------ 17
.- - --. - 17


18
Protect Himself .-.-- -.. 18
Srchants Can Do_ -------------18

20
- - -.---........................ 19

e d 20
Weevil is Present._ ----------21

__ 22
. -.... -- -- -- -- -- -- 22
- .-.. -.- ----- ---- ---------- 22
s. _. .----..-.---.------- -- 22
S- a- -- -- - -- --- --------------------------,------ ------- -- ------ -~ 22
ns and Length of Life-cycle -.----.-- 22
-... --. .- ---. - - 23
a-'l




I


SUMMARY


1. Improvement in cultural method is the foundation of all
cotton boll weevil control.
2. The so-called Cultural Method consists essentially in the
forcing of a main crop of cotton to maturity.
3. In boll weevil-infested regions it is not possible to pro-
duce a "top crop."


The


greatest


losses


sustained during the first year


while the growers are being forced to adopt improved methods


or quit growing cotton.


5. The Cultural Method begins in the fall by (1) destroying
(plowing under or burning) the cotton plants; (2) preparing the


soil early; and (3) planting a cover crop.


It continues into the


next year by (4) planting early maturing varieties and planting
them early; then (5) forcing a main crop and harvesting it early.
6. Destruction of nearby hibernating places, such as weeds,
Spanish moss, and rubbish is a necessary accompaniment of the
fall destruction of the cotton plants.


Methods of


destroying


weevils, such


as poisoning and


hand-picking are useful only to supplement the cultural method.


The weevils feed


only


on cotton.


This fact makes


possible to temporarily eradicate the weevil in isolated fields and
localities, by omitting the planting of cotton for a year.









THE


MEXICAN


COTTON


BOLL


WEEVIL


(Anthonomus grandis)

BY
E. W. BERGER, PH.D.
State Inspector of Nursery Stock


The


Mexican


Cotton


Boll


Weevil


arrived


at the


western


border of Florida in October, 1910.


By the end of the season for


1912 it has advanced until the weevil line now passes thru Pros-


perity and Ponce de Leon in Holmes County (see map).


There


is no doubt but that it will continue to advance about 40-60 miles
annually, altho it may, at certain times, receive a temporary set-
back, as indicated in the map for the northern and western areas
of the cotton belt; or it may advance more rapidly.

THE CASE STATED.


From whom shall we take our advice?


The weevil is about


infest


our fields of cotton and some


method of


control, or


avoiding its injuries, must be adopted..


Shall we go to the man


who has never seen a weevil, or to the growers of cotton who


have succeeded in spite of the weevil?
available, cotton growing is still an in


From


iportant


the information
industry in the


localities that the weevil has infested.


It therefore behooves us


to adopt, as far as possible, the practices in cotton growing fol-
lowed in those localities.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION.
The information given in this paper is a compilation from
the writings of the many investigators and successful growers of


cotton since its advent into


Texas in 1894.


Literature on the cot-


__ 1




-74


Nursery Inspection


keep in


close touch with the State Agricultural Experiment


Station at Gainesville,


Fla.,


and specimens of all suspicious in-


sects and diseases of plants should be sent there at once upon


finding


them.


The


weevil


being of


only


recent


advent


into


Florida, practically no work has been done upon it here, hence
the importance of keeping posted thru the publications of the De-
partment of Agriculture, whose field workers have studied this
pest since 1894 when it first loomed into importance in southeast
Texas.


WHAT TO


Do.


Observations and investigations of entomologists and other
investigators with the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the
several Experiment Stations of the cotton-growing states, are to
the effect that the injury of the cotton boll weevil can largely be
avoided by the adoption of some changes in methods in the time
of planting, fertilizing, cultivation, in the selection of early ma-


turning varieties, and in the destruction of old plants.
is spoken of as the Cultural Method.


SUMMARY


The method


OF THE CULTURAL METHOD.


The following quotation from Bulletin 51,


161-163, Bu-


.reau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, is a brief
but good summary of this subject:
.... "In the cultural method of avoiding damage by the boll
weevil, it is considered that a fairly effective remedy has been


discovered.


leading.


In some respects the term cultural method is mis-


It is frequently used simply in the sense of careful and


persistent cultivation of the crop.
*j *. a .. C


However, the term includes


the various modifications ot the cropping system w'inch have
been suggested by the study of the life history of the pest as use-


ful in avoiding damage.


Consequently the cultural system is not


altogether a system of the proper cultivation of cotton, but a sys-
tem of the proper cultivation of cotton to mitigate the damage by
the pest. Necessarily, it implies a thorough preparation of the
soil and a strict attention to all the details of cultivation.
"The cultural method begins with reducing the numbers of


C C


*


I






Circular


pass through the winter successfully and increase the damage to
the planted cotton the following season. Whenever the cotton
is all to stand in the fields in the hope that a top crop may be
produced, opportunities are furnished for the development of a
very large number of weevils. As explained before in this bulle-
tin, the possibility of a top crop has always been exceedingly re-
mote. Wherever the weevil exists it is not a possibility at all.
The method of fall destruction only involves applying labor that
is necessary in any case in preparing the land for planting a few
months earlier than is the normal practice among cotton planters.
It has been the custom to leave the land uncleared until shortly
before planting time in the spring. Now, however, this clearing
is necessary as the last step in the production of the preceding
crop. This method, as a matter of fact, is the only practicable
strictly remedial method that has been devised.
^ "The remaining portion of the cultural method consists in
furthering the advantage gained by fall destruction by bending
every effort toward obtaining a crop that will mature before the
weevils have had an opportunity to do considerable damage.
The most important factors in obtaining an early crop are early
planting, selection of a rapidly growing variety, fertilization, and
thorough cultivation. The success of the planter will be in direct
proportion to the extent to which he is able to combine these es-
sentials. Early planting of early varieties will be found to
be of comparatively little avail unless followed by thorough culti-
vatiot, and in case of unavoidably delayed planting the best hope
of the planter will be in persistent cultivation.
"As the details of the cultural method have been dealt with
fully in the Farmers' Bulletins of this Department, and as the
basis for them in the habits of the weevil was fully explained in
the preceding pages, it is unnecessary in this connection to more
than summarize them:
(1) Fall destruction [of plants and weevils].
(2) Early planting of rapidly maturing varieties.
(3) Wide spacing, which, besides favoring rapid maturity of
the plant, also acts as a remedial measure by allowing the sun to
reach the ground, causing the drying up of the squares in which
the larvae occur.
(4) Thorough cultivation.
(5) Fertilization with commercial preparations containing
high percentage of phosphoric acid.
rTFTTr /fTTT r T'TTfl A T 1 KA T'TTC/Th TNT T"'T' A TT




.1


Nursery Inspection


To destroy large numbers of the adult weevils.
By destroying the late-maturing weevils, the number that


successfully


hibernate,


or pass the


winter,


is greatly reduced,


since large numbers of the early-maturing weevils die during the


winter.


Thus, in a carefully observed instance, out of 240 weevils


placed in hibernation in mid-December, 15.8 per cent. passed the
winter successfully; while out of 116 -that became adult in mid-
November, less than 1 per cent. survived.
4. It reduces the shelter places of the weevil during winter,
resulting in the death of many.


The effect of 1


to 4 is to greatly reduce the number of


adult weevils that attack cotton in spring.


6. "Clearing of the field in fall makes it possible to practice
fall plowing, which is not only the proper procedure in any sys-
tem of cotton raising, but also greatly facilitates the early planting
of the crop the following spring." (Circular 56, Bureau of Ento-
mology, U. S. Department of Agriculture.)
The plants should be destroyed as soon as the main crop is


harvested.


"top


crop" should be allowed to grow, for the


weevils will get it.


This point is specially emphasized by those


who have investigated the weevil; do not expect a "top crop'" but


proceed to destroy the plants as soon


as the main


crop is


har-


Vested, or as soon as it is evident that the weevils are puncturing
all or nearly all of the squares, or flower buds, and some of the


bolls.


The farmer should


then


wait until


bolls


have


opened, collect the lint, and proceed to destroy the plants, wheth-
er it is in October, November, or earlier.


METHOD OF FALL DESTRUCTION. -The


plants


must be re-


moved, root and stalk, as otherwise sprouts may grow from the
roots and provide food for the adult weevils remaining in the field.
The plants should be plowed out or otherwise uprooted, cut with


a stalk


chopper, and immediately plowed beneath the surface.


The deeper they are plowed under the better.


Unless the plants


can be plowed under deeply they had better be burned, as weevils
,rr rn.*lrt t ,, ,: -, rm .+ .. n ( :i ntM a. n 1 antv'n nn nn nr t Ii.






Circular


Burning


plants


has


been


strongly


recommended


bulletins of the


Department


Agriculture,


and


plowing


them under only where this can be effectively done.


In view of


the fact that Florida soils are generally loose and sandy, and


that


they soon dry at the surface, experience may prove


that


burning


the plants after uprooting them is the only


Florida.


The


uprooted


plants


should


method to
collected


employ in
in piles or


windows, either


hand


or by


means


a horse-rake.


They


should be raked up at once


aid in


time


Burning.
drying. 1


Two
rain


before
weeks,


prolongs


leaves


fair


this


drop


off,


weather,


period,


as these


sufficient


sprinkling


with


crude petroleum may be necessary to facilitate


the burning.


ter the plants have been burned, the ground should be plowed


order that the bolls and squares


remaniing


on the


ground, many


of which still contain immature weevils, become deeply
with soil.


covered


But it is objected that the tenants will not


destroy


the cotton


plants in
stituents.


and


that


burning


destroys


valuable


fertilizer


con-


For the first, it may be made part of the agreement be-


tween


owner


and


tenant


that


tenant


must


destroy


plants in the fall.


The fertilizer value of


cotton


plant


is not


great


and,


under


circumstances,


humus can


supplied


some fall or winter cover crop, such as oats or rye.


The


investi-


gators of the weevil tell us that it would be impossible to produce
cotton under weevil conditions unless the plants are destroyed in
fall.


MATURING


THE


CROP


EARLY.-While the object of destroy-


ing the


cotton


plants


reduce, as


as possible,


number of weevils that


can


live over


until


spring, the


maturing the crop early is to keep the crop ahead of the


object of
weevils.


other


words,


one


should


undertake


grow the crop


faster


than the weevils can increase.


The weevil will, of course, event-


ually increase to the extent that all new


squares, or


flower


buds,


and bolls will be punctured as rapidly as they are formed;


the weevil develops slower in


early part


of the season


than


later.


when


becomes


warmer,


this


fact


gives


ie grower ms


r -





Nursery Inspection


etc., ready for planting at the earliest possible date.


Better plant


ten to twenty days earlier, and take the risk of replanting.


Vol-


unteer cotton should not be allowed to fruit before the regular


crop, as it would result


the propagation


young weevils,


which require squares and bolls in which to develop.


EARLY


MATURING


VARIETIES.--Early


maturing


varieties


must be planted to get the best results.


view


of what has been already stated.


This is self evident in
Such varieties may be


obtained from seed dealers or growers that have selected their


seed for early maturity.


Farmers' Bulletin No. 314,


"A Method


Breeding Early Cotton to


Escape Boll Weevil Damage," by


R. L. Bennet, should be in the hands of every grower


(A copy


of this bulletin may be obtained by any planter from the Secre-


tary of Agriculture,


Washington, D. C.)


SPACING


COTTON


PLANTS.-That


weevil


larvae


killed when the infested squares fall to the ground, exposed to
the sun's direct rays, suggests the desirability of so spacing the
plants that a maximum of sunlight will be admitted to the ground.


This may mean 4 to 5 feet apart on the richest soils.


Check-row-


ing is considered to be good practice, because it admits the great-
est amount of sunlight to the ground and facilitates cultivation.
To further take advantage of this fact, that the miniature stages
of weevils are killed by the baking of the fallen squares on the
ground, the chain cultivator was devised (see p. 11).


In Circular


C., 0.


No. 115, Bureau of Plant Industry,


Cook


Washington,


discusses a New System of Cotton Culture.


(This circular should be read by all cotton growers.


Copies can


be obtained at 5 cents each from the Superintendent of Public


Documents,


Government


Printing


Office,


Washington,


The "conclusions" are herewith quoted:--


"The new system of cotton culture is based on the applica-
tion of a principle not hitherto recognized in cultural experiments
-the control of the vegetative branches by improved methods of
thinning. The formation of vegetative branches can be con-


--


0-


trolled by leaving the plants closer together during the early
ta rro- int;1 lh ctolet hoaliro orrnxrrn h-irrmnrl tha ctacr' ixrhorT vTrPoa._




I *


Circular 6


to the production of an earlier crop. In regions where the period
of crop production is limited, either by short seasons or by the
presence of the boll weevil, increased earliness is a means of se-
curing larger yields."
CULTIVATION OF CROP.-Besides early planting, planting of
early maturing varieties, and spacing the plants consistent with
best results under weevil conditions, the crop must be cultivated


often in order to stimulate it and keep it growing.
and once in a row" should be made to apply. TI


"Once a week
his does not de-


stroy many weevils, but keeps the plants growing continuously.


However,


cultivation should not be deep, nor too close to the


plants to cut the roots, as this may
(flower buds) and the benefits lost.


cause shedding


squares


COMMERCIAL


FERTILIZERS.-It


should


without


saying


that fertilizer (plant food) is as necessary for cotton as food is for


the mule.


Plenty of plant food forces the crop and experiments


have shown that a high percentage of phosphoric acid in the fer-
tilizer hastens the maturity of cotton.


CROP


ROTATION.-The


weevil feeds


only


cotton


and


this fact gives the grower another opportunity to reduce its num-
bers, especially in isolated fields, by omitting cotton every alter-


nate year and


planting


corn


another


crop


instead.


When


cotton is again planted, it will become infested only by weevils
migrating from other localities, the weevils originally in the field


having died from starvation.


Crop rotation is especially useful


in fields near woodlands, in which trees, moss, leaves, etc., furnish
excellent hiding, or hibernating places, during winter.


Messrs. Evans and Doyle, of the


cently found


U. S. Dept. Agr., have re-


where cotton is grown successfully under weevil


conditions, in southern Mexico.


The method consists in planting


cotton every alternate year, and allowing the weevils to starve
during each intervening year by planting corn or beans instead.
It appears that the Indians practiced this method before the com-


ing of the Spaniards.


The case is interesting as illustrating how


primitive people may come to follow correct practices without
knowing the reason why.





Nursery


Inspection


vention, by Dr. W. E.
for drawing the fallen


where


been


there


found,


is the
on the


Hinds,
squares


least


other


shade


hand,


the Chain


middle


and


that


Cultivator,
Between


ground


this


a device


rows,


hottest.


cultivator


very important cultural effect aside from its


squares


the middles.


The chains (so-called "log


produces


drawing
chains")


Fig. 2. Chain Cultivator. (For description


see p. 11.)


(From


Farmers'


Bul. No. 344, U.


S. Dept. Agric.)


heavy enough


establish


a perfect


dust


mulch


and


destroy


small weeds.
The following description and accompanying figure (Figure 2)


have
ment


been


copied


from


Agriculture,


Farmers' Bulletin


Washington, D. C.


No. 344,


(This


Depart-


bulletin


may


obtained by addressing the Secretary of Agriculture.)


"Chain


Cultivator


-When the foregoing facts came


light


efforts were


made to


perfect


a device


that would


bring


tested squares out of the shade of the plants to the middles of


rows.


After much experimental work one of the writer's former


associates, Dr.


plishes


the desired


E. Hinds,
work in


devised


an implement


a satisfactory manner.


that
This


accom-
imple-


meant is known as the chain cnltivator or chain draot


E^1


Vtaf




PLATE I

& ~^MS


Fig. a. Space between cotton rows before passage of cul-
tivator. Note fallen squares and crack in soil.


:n. .-...'. .. 1." .,* ;;

...;.. ..............
7* 4



'. ."







Fig b Effect after passage of cultivator. Squares brought
T.,ir ;~~~~L
.7 ~,~.~~~"
~' s A









to middle, crack filled, dust mulch established.


USE OF CHAIN CULTIVATOR
(From Bulletin No. 114. Bur. Ent.,, U. S. Dept. Agric.)











































PLATE II













II;






i '
..











II"
=-' 11.I t





.J .


Typical weedy fence-row, affording excellent shelter for weevils.

(From Bul. No. 77, Bur. Ent., Dept. Agric.)












PLATE Ill


--S


1%


~9

p:44


T wtratto'Trntn i"rr r -"VrfTrarTft fl.T


~F" ~
----


\TWatTr










PLATE IV


Ir - I


I


I












PLATE


I






PLATE










PLATE VII


L~~







,. ~,r -. ,



T
I~r rlr L:- 41C~





-6 s
















MAP E,-OWING
SPREAD OF COTTON BOLL WEEVIL '!
.TO 9.2,
7ERr iTORY I ESTIO IT L t- OF .


The Spread of the Cotton Boll Weevil in the United States from 1892 to 1912.
(After map prepared by Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agric., Washington, D. C.)





Circular '6


of this size and form to allow old cotton roots, etc., to pass through
freely without clogging at the rear.


"The distance between the rear ends of the chains g g,


in each pair fixed at about 10 inches.


f f is


The distance between a


chain of one pair and that of the other at their front ends should


be about 9 inches.


The chains used are of the size


"log chains," having short, close links of -inch iron.


of chain can be cut to the


ength needed in each case.


known as
This style
The chain


is easily attached by simply making the hooks at d, e, f, and g so
that the end of the hook is as wide as will pass through the length
of the link and narrow enough at the middle of the bend to allow
the link to turn and bag the other way. So long as the chains
are kept tight they cannot become unhooked. The hooks should
also be turned, or faced, in such a way that they will not be likely
to catch the passing plants or rubbish.


"The clevis o p


is simply hinged, so that there will be no


tendency to pull the front of the machine off of the ground, and
it is also broad enough in front to allow of the point of draft be-
ing moved from one side to the other, so that the front of the
machine may be thrown closer to one row if desired.
"The front guard on each side a b c d is made of one piece


of spring steel, i by 3-16 inch.


This size seems sufficiently strong


and best adapted to carry the tension of the chains


dg


while


still yielding to the pressure against the bases of the plants as
they may strike the outer, sloping ends near d. The inner ends


these guards


ab are


horizontal,


about


inches


each


length, and serve to carry the front guard above the draft bar


n m


and,


passing


through


the keeper q,


guide


in the


adjust-


ment for width.


The machine cannot be extended beyond the


bent ends at a or closed beyond the angles at b.


The vertical


section between b and c is about 12 inches long, so that the re-


mainder of the front guard from c to


near


d will


be about


inches above the ground.


squares toward
where they lie.


This prevents the pushing of dirt and


the plants and allows the chain to catch them
The hooks at d and e are therefore bent down-


ward


and


somewhat backward


through


about 5


or 6 inches.


Vt_





Nursery Inspection


chains is shown at i h g.


the chains


The piece k I is nearly parallel with


and may be used for their proper adjustment as to


tension


several holes near the end


where it is bolted at k.


The chains are between 30 and 36 inches long.


The stand


upon which the handles are pivoted by a r-inch bolt is made of a
piece of boiler plate bent and cut'so as to have a horizontal top
surface about 4 inches square and standing about 2k inches above


the draft bar, to which it is securely


bolted.


The handles are


bolted, as at r, to the heavy pieces of iron (about 2 by


k inch tire


steel) which are


bent


to receive them


just


behind the


pivotal


point at x, at such an angle as to bring the handles to the proper


height


and


position.


front of


x these


pieces


bearing


handles need not be so heavy and may therefore be tapered and


welded to smaller steel running forward to b,


to the front guard.


where it is bolted


The operation of this arrangement is similar


to that of a huge pair of shears-when the handles are pushed
apart the front of the machine is spread wider, and vice versa.


The braces
front guard.


e serve


to support,


strengthen, and carry the


They are riveted to the adjusting irons at j,


one


above and one below the "shear" pieces, to prevent their interfer-


ence with the closing of the machine.


At c this iron is bent to


conform to the front guard, to which it is riveted between c and


at which


point it is bent


downward


and forms the


hook e.


Ordinary tire steel about 1


by i inch may be used for all parts


like the clevis o p, rear arches f h m and


i hg,


and braces


and j c e.
specified.


The front guard a b c d should be of spring steel, as
The rivet heads on the front guard should be round


and fit smoothly.


In nearly all other places the irons are fastened


together by i-inch square-headed bolts, with washers as needed.


operation the implement is drawn


a single animal.


The chains at d and e pass under the branches of plants and close


to the stems.


The forward motion of the machine causes these


squares to be drawn inward by the chains, which must keep taut,
and leaves them in a narrow pathway where the chains approach
within a short distance of each other at the opposite end of the


machine.


The two chains are provided so that so uares that may






Circular


bringing the squares to the middles, it was found in field practice


to have a most important cultural effect.


The chains (so-called


"log chains") are heavy enough to establish a perfect dust mulch
(see Plate I) and to destroy small weeds that may be starting. In
fact, it is believed that this cultural effect would more than justify


the use of the machine, regardless of the weevil.


With the effect


against the insect and the important cultural effect it is believed
that this implement or one similar to it should be used by every
farmer in the weevil territory.
"*In order that the use of this machine could be obtained by
all farmers at the smallest possible cost, a patent has been taken
out in then ame of the Department of Agriculture and for the ben-


efit of the people of the United States.


Under this patent it is im-


possible for anyone to manufacture the machine exclusively and
to charge unnecessarily high prices."


DESTROYING


WEEVILS IN


HIBERNATION.


Plate II.
Weevils live over winter, or hibernate, in many places, but


principally in grass, leaves, Spanish


corn fields.


moss, and old sorghum or


Any rubbish, however, and buildings, especially cot-


ton gins, will harbor them.


It therefore becomes very important


that all rubbish in and near cotton fields should be burned in or-


der to destroy as many of the weevils as possible.
harrowing of the fields will strengthen the blow.


Plowing and
We may better


appreciate the importance of destroying every weevil that can be


found,
weevils


when we contemplate that the progeny


may reach the enormous number


one


pair of


12,755,100 during


one season.


This number is, however, never actually realized in


the field because of the many accidents to which all stages of the
weevil are subject.

POISONING.
Poisoning with paris green has been found to be ineffective.


This poison injures the plants and poisons few weevils.
thkc nnknn frl irrninar r'nttnn Cnol-r ;tn cn rn er nm oTc


Placing
17111 mnfvrt






Nursery


Inspection


Applying


means


a powdered
a Champion


insecticide


Duster.


secret of success in dusting cotton with
powdered arsenate of lead, lies in forc-
ing the powder into the terminal buds
with a strong current of air.


- 1^-L----- ~L






Circular 6


Commission of Louisiana, July


1908) indicate a remarkable de-


gree of


success.


However, early fall destruction of the cotton


plants is a necessary antecedent to successful poisoning.


Neither


must any step in the "cultural method" advocated be omitted, be-
cause poisoning is only another help for reducing the number of


weevils, but not a panacea.


The experiments further show that


profitable


results


were obtained only by


using


powdered


arsenate of lead against the weevils early in the season, namely,


against the weevils on the first buds.


It would be useless to em-


ploy it in an effort to save a "top crop" or during summer.
This poison should be applied about five times at intervals of
five to seven days apart; the first application is made when the


first square is found in the field.


The powdered arsenate of lead


must be applied with a powerful current of air by means of a
blow gun and driven into the terminal buds (between the small


leaves that make up the buds) on the main


shoots and


on the


ends of the fruit limbs.


Do not dust on by means of a sack, as


that has been found


useless.


The


"Champion Insecticide Dus-


ter" (Figs. 3 and 4), made by Leggett & Brother, New York City,
is the type of machine found most satisfactory by Mr. Newell.


HAND


PICKING.


Collecting the live weevils and infested squares by hand may
be practiced in small fields and when cheap labor is abundant.
The live weevils should be placed in a dish with a small amount


of kerosene, which is certain death to them.


and


The infested squares


bolls should be placed in wire cages or in boxes covered


with


wire netting.


The net must


16 mesh


strands) per


inch so that the weevils, as they emerge, cannot escape; but any
useful insect parasites which happen to be infesting weevil larvae
will be able to escape and find their way back to other cotton


plants and parasitize other weevil larvae. This is the
be gained by placing the squares under the wire screens.
are not available, the squares must be burnt.

USELESS METHODS.


object to
If such


j





Nursery Inspection


dry soil.


This also implies that probably very few weevils are


ever killed when buried by ordinary plowing or cultivation.


DISEASES AND


PARASITES.


The weevils appear to be exceptionally free from diseases.


A promising number of insect parasites, 1
according to Farmers' Bulletin No. 344, p.


are 23 species.


however, are known;


U. S. D. A. there


These appear to be on the increase and will un-


doubtedly become a more useful factor in the future, although
they may never be able to control the weevil without the aid of


cultural


methods described.


These parasites


deposit their


eggs upon the grubs of the weevils in the squares or bolls.


The


parasite larvae that hatch from these eggs destroy the grubs of
the weevil and later, instead of a weevil, a parasite of the weevil
emerges from the squares or bolls.


ui a species
cited), 12 are ants.


predaceous


insects


(Bul. 344, previously


These are the minute brown and yellowish


ants that frequently occur in cotton fields.


Their work is directed


against the grubs and pupae of the weevils in the squares, and
not against the adult weevils.
The effectiveness of the predaceous insects, as well as that of
the parasites of the weevil, increases more or less accordingly as
the numbers of the weevil are reduced in other ways.


How


EACH GROWER CAN PROTECT


HIMSELF.


He can help himself to some extent even if


indifferent and


weevil in their fields.


his neighbors


to nothing to reduce the numbers of the
The fact that weevils do not fly much from


field to field during the period when the cotton is setting its main
crop, and the fact that the first weevils in the field at the begin-
ning of each season are mainly those that succeeded in hibernat-


ing successfully in and near the field, make this possible.


With


these facts in mind, and a close application of the cultural meth-
od, any grower can protect himself unmindful ,of his neighbors,
unless their fields immediately adjoin his, when it may be neces-





1 ^


tions."


"The second cause noted is the lack of confidence, first


on the part of the farmer.


If a man doesn't believe that he can


accomplish a thing it is about half way toward not doing it at all.


He loses force and energy.


The second result of the loss of con-


fidence is that the bankers and merchants withhold credits, and
since much of the cotton crop is made upon the credit system, the
planter is crippled and prevented from planting as many acres as
usual."
In view of the fact that the bankers and merchants represent
one of the strongest factors in the intellectual and business life of
a community, it appears that they might take the lead in encour-
aging the adoption of the newer methods necessary for success-


ful cotton culture under boll-weevil conditions.


Cotton Pro-


tective League, or society of the bankers, merchants and leading
growers could be organized for the purpose of studying weevil


control,


especially


in its application to local conditions.


Then


credits might be conditioned upon the application of the proper


cultural


methods.


The


citrus growers have Citrus Protective


Leagues for


the purpose of


controlling the whitefly and other


pests.


HOW THE


WEEVIL SPREADS.


The adult weevil is not a good


flier,


but successive


short


flights may carry it over long distances.


Thus it has been known


to cover more than 40 miles in a brief period of time.
winds aid in its dispersion. The main dispersion pei
time in August or September. At this time the wee


Favorable
riod is some
vil's instinct


migrate


becomes active and it flies in all directions.


Only


those, of course, that fly in the direction of non-infested territory


succeed in extending its range.


The weevil may advance some-


thing like 30 to 60 miles per season.


Besides the general migratory period first noted, weevils move
short distances in all directions from the fields in fall, searching


for. hibernating


quarters.


spring there


is a


corresponding


movement back to the fields, but after that the weevil keeps busy


ln th flQlA iinfU a nrn to rnani'il 1rnlxr rffr


1? nlxirnrro nnA xrntar-


Circular 6





20 Nursery Inspection

their supplies of seed from non-infested


localities.


Tennessee,


north-eastern Alabama, north Florida (east of Holmes Co.), and
the states east of those just named, are localities still free from
the weevil.


FOOD OF THE


WEEVIL.


The weevil has no other known food plant but cotton.


Early in


the season


the adult weevils feed


tender


foliage of the young cotton, but later principally on the squares


and to some extent on the bolls.


female


weevils


not


produce


Experiments


eggs


until


prove


they


can


that
feed


squares or bolls.
The immature stages of the weevil, or grubs, feed only with-
in the squares and immature bolls, and no other known insect
feeds in this manner on cotton.

VARIETIES OF COTTON INFESTED.


varieties of cotton may become infested.


The foreign


varieties, however, are preferred when grown side by side with


American varieties.


Thus Sea Island cotton is 2 to 4 times as at-


tractive; Egyptian over 4 times as attractive as American cotton.
While these observations show clearly that the Egyptian and
Sea Island cottons would be at a great disadvantage when grown
in the same weevil infested locality with American cotton, they
do not show that the weevil would be more prolific upon them


when grown alone.


The longer period required for the matur-


ing of Sea Island cotton will, however, in all probability, place it
at a decided disadvantage, and may even eliminate it as ,a profit-
able crop when the weevil reaches the parts of Florida where it
is grown.
Growers of Sea Island cotton in the eastern parts of Florida
had, therefore, better cast about for a substitute of this crop, early,


in order that


they


may be fortified when


weevil


reaches


them.


It is not impossible on the other hand, but that early ma-


tirinr- vanriPtieP of lonnr tanle pnttnn mav hK fnln.l QfidtanhlP tr


|






Circular


How TO


KNOW


WHEN THE


WEEVIL IS PRESENT.


The adult weevil (Fig. 1, Plate III) is one of the snout-bee-


ties.


Its snout, shiny


black, slender


and slightly


curved, corn-


prises


about


one-third


of the


total length


of the


beetle.


The


insect is about one-fourth inch long, and dark brown, ashy-gray,
or yellowish brown in color.


The fully


grown


grubs


(Fig. 6, Plate III) are about three-


eighths inch long, curved, and can be found only in squares and


bolls.


The


pupa


(Figs.


7 and


Plate


III) or transformation


stage, is not quite as long as the fully grown grub and is also


found in the squares or bolls.


All the


immature stages


(eggs,


grubs, pupae) occur only in squares and bolls (Plates III, IV,


Squares


and


bolls


from


which fully


grown


weevils


have


come have holes about 1-20 to 1-16 inch in diameter (Plates IV, V).
These cavities lead to larger excavations in the interior and are
the openings through which a weevil emerged.
Some observers state that the squares with holes somewhat


resemble


those


injured by the boll-worm.


Generally only one


weevil


develops


in a square.


Small


elevated growths, called


"warts,"


on the surface of squares and bolls, mark the punctures


where an egg was deposited.


Orange-colored excrement on the


buds and abundant flaring and shedding of squares without ap-
parent cause are other signs of the boll weevil.


HIBERNATION OF


WEEVILS.


Soon after the first frost the adult weevils hide away in con-


cealed places and remain dormant until spring.


hibernation.


This is called


Large numbers of them perish during this period so


that sometimes only one in six, or about 16


cent.


St


The longer the hibernation period the fewer will survive.


irvive.
The


hibernation


period


can


destruction of the plants.


be practically lengthened by the early
In other words, it is the late maturing


weevils that survive in the largest number while the earlier ma-


turning ones mostly die before spring.


Destroying the food supply


onrlv thPerfnre_ hns the effect of preatlv reducing the numbers of





Nursery


greatly reduced.


I


Inspection


They will hibernate in and about almost any-


thing


that furnishes


place


concealment.


Grass, Spanish


moss and fallen leaves are preferred
and ditches, the edges of forests,
places of refuge in winter.


THE


d. Rubbish along fence rows
about gins, oil mills, etc., are


WEEVIL DESCRIBED.


The cotton boll weevil is a beetle (Fig. 1 and Plate III).


belongs to the family of weevils,


lionidae.


technically known as Curcu-


It is about one-fourth inch long and of a dark brown,


ashy-gray, or yellowish brown color.


Its snout, which is shiny


black, slender and slightly curved, comprises about one-third of
its total length.


LIFE HISTORY OF THE


WEEVIL.


Plates III, IV, V,


THE EGG.-The egg is about 1-30 inch long, white and deli-


cate.


square or boll is always selected as the place


for its


deposition.


cavity


The


generally


female eats a small cavity for it. TI
grows over, forming what is called a


From the egg there hatches, in


a few


lis small
"wart."


days, a minute grub or


"worm."
THE IMMATURE STAGES.-The grub or worm hatched from


the egg increases in size from about 1-25 of an inch to


of an


inch,


when it is fully


grown.


During its period


growth


feeds on the inside of the square or boll.


When fully grown it


passes into the resting, or transformation stage, called the pupa.
The pupa is the marvel of the insect world and is a stage in the


development of nearly all insects.


The transformation from the


grub to the fully grown, or adult, weevil takes place in the pupa,
and the entire life of a weevil, from egg thru pupa, is passed in


the square or boll.


The adult, after it emerges from the pupa,


also remains within the square or boll for a few days, and then
eats its way out, leaving the visible hole previously described.


NUMBER OF GENERATIONS AND


LENGTH OF LIFE CYCLE.-






Circular


eggs within a week after they begin to feed, and continue to do


so for about 56 days or until within a few days of death.


The


average length of life during warm weather appears to be about


70 days.
longer.


Those that hibernate may live for six months or even


HISTORY.


The cotton boll weevil, more properly called the


Mexican


Cotton


Boll


Weevil,


sometimes erroneously the


Texas Cotton


Boll Weevil, appears to be native in Southern Mexico.


It was


described and named by Boheman in


1843


from specimens re-


ceived from


Vera Cruz.


1871


it was


recorded


from


Cuba.


Serious injury to cotton near Monclova, Mexico, was reported to


the Commissioner of Agriculture, in September, 1880, by


ward Palmer (Bul. 51, Bu. Ent., U. S. D. A.)


Dr. Ed-


The pest appears to


have existed near Brownsville,


Texas, in 1892, and in


1894 had


spread to half


a dozen counties.


How it came across the


Rio


Grande is not known.
The deplorable fact remains that but for the indifference or


incompetence


of Texas at that time this pest could have been


stopped in its advance in 1894.


Considering the average damage


per year due to the weevil as $10,000,000, we have for


19 years


the enormous sum of $190,000,000 lost, not counting the money


spent in the attempt to control it.


This sum could, very proba-


bly, have bought the entire half dozen counties first found infest-
ed in Texas in 1894 several times, and over.
The establishment by law of a belt 50 miles wide along the


Rio Grande in which cotton growing should be prohibited,


advised by the


was


U. S. Department of Agriculture, but this advice


was not heeded by the State of Texas, and subsequently disas-
trous results followed.


One


wonders, sometimes,


whether one state should not be


held
duty


financially liable to other states for such gross neglect of
A United States law to that effect would probably result


in a wholesome clearing of the atmosphere in that respect.





Nursery


Inspection


advance of the weevil closely that the whole cotton-producing


area may be infested by the end of another


15 years (counting


from


1910).


At the end of 1912,


278,800 square


miles were in-


fested.
The area infested comprises the larger part of Texas, all of


Louisiana, a large part of Oklahoma, about half


of Arkansas, the


larger part of


Mississippi,


southwest Alabama, and


four or


five western counties of Florida.
THE PROSPECTS.
The weevil will not put the cotton grower out of business-
Neither would the loss in the beginning be great if all the grow-
ers in a locality would co-operate in applying the methods found


by experience to give results.


The greatest loss generally occurs


during the first two or three years when growers neglect to adopt


the new method.


Co-operation should be the keynote in cotton-


growing communities.
BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS.
For a list of bulletins and circulars referred to and recom-


mended, the text may be consulted.


*The principal large


bulletin


See pages 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18.


on the Mexican Cotton


Boll


Weevil


at present is Bulletin


No.


114, Bureau


of Entomology,


S. Department of Agriculture.


copies of this bulletin can-


not be obtained free


thru


senators


and


representatives


Florida in Washington, the same can be obtained from the Super-


intendent


Public


Documents,


Government


Printing


Office,


Washington, D. C., at 25 cents per copy.


This bulletin has also


been published as Senate
Session, 1912.


Document No. 305,


62d


Congress, 2d


Other recent numbers of the Farmers


Bulletin are herewith


listed. These can be obtained by addressing the Secretary of Ag-
riculture, Washington, D. C.:-


F. B. No. 500.


The Control, of the Boll Weevil.


By W. D.


Hunter.


This is a brief extract and summary of Bul. 114, pre-


viously noted.


F. R. No. 501.


Cnttnn TmnrAvampnt ITndcr


Weavil Condi-




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