[ i I i
BOARD OF CONTROL
Yonge, Chairman, Pensacola, Fla.
T. B. King, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. Wartmann, Citra, Fla.
Finlayson, Old Town, Fla.
Jennings, Jacksonville, Fla.
J. G. Kellum, Secretary.
ALBERT A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
P. H. ROLFS, Director.
C. K. McQUARRIE, State Agent.
H. E. SAVELY, Field Agent,
U. S. Department of
. SPENCER, District
E. S. PACE, District Agent for North Florida.
BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary.
COUNTY DEMONSTRATION AGENTS.
S. J. 1
J. C. S
_-- V. Macelenny __
-- - --.Panama City
-- -.-. E Dukes --__-
.- -- Jacksonvillie
- - -- Gonzalez -
-.-.-.. Wauchula -
-- -_- Greensboro
_-____, Plant City
- - - ..Marianna _
'^M"----- ^^1 ^^ ^^rqH^
kS -.. ..a .
-_Mayo ___- _
- .Berlin ....
--Dade City -
..Live Oak __
__ -_ Gadsden
- - -
-. DeFuniak Springs
EACH MAN GIVEN CREDIT FOR HIS PART.
The following pages were prepared from stenographic
notes taken at the time of the Co-operative Demonstration
Meeting. Some of the papers were prepared beforehand
and filed with the Secretary at the time they were de-
So far as possible every man's name was taken in con-
nection with the discussion during the meeting. The views
there expressed are the views of the parties whose names
are mentioned, in connection with the discussion or the
Every effort has been made to present the discus-
sions and lectures as nearly in the form in which they
Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration
Work .----- - - -- - ------ ..P. I
Address of Welcome to the Agents -._ Dr.
Address to the Agents ...... ...H.
Address to the Agents --. ....-P. .
(Educating Boys and Girls for Farm Life: J.
Discussion ..-... -- -----....---
Suggestion to Agents for the Practi-
cal Handling of the Boys' Corn Club
Work -------------- ---- -C.
Discussion --- ----------------------
(Breeds and Management of Swine --..-C.
Discussion -.. --------- -
Practical Methods of Hog Raising ...
Discussion .. ...----- -------
Experience in Pork Production __-_--
Discussion a-.--.- ------.-
Cutting and Curing Meats --------
Hog Cholera in Florida_ -. -
Discussion ------ -----
(See also Discussion following
in Pork Production)
Tick Eradication in Florida ---..
Discussion a.- ---a- .
Crop Rotation ---.----.. --
Discussion --. .- a a a
Irish Potatoes -.. ...a..--------...a
Discussion ......-a --_ .
Fertilizers -- ---m
Sa --- ---------
-W. E. Brown
-S. J. McCully
-T. Z. Atkeson---
- ------ -- -
C. F. Dawson
S. J. McCully's Paper on Experience
S. J. McCully's Paper on Experience
C. F. Dawson
a---a ------------ - --
_H. E. Savely a-a...--.
Sa ---- -- ---- ----a nama
_A. P. Spencer -.. a- a -
-P. --. Rolfs -----,- a.-m
aP. H. Rolfs ..........a.a.
Co-operative Buying of Fertilizers
among Farmers a -. -aaaa. a a
Fertilizers and Marketing ... _
Sweet Potatoes ---.....---. -..-
The State Nursery
Beef Cattle in Flo,
Grazing Crops for
Forage Crops .-.-
Growing and Curin
a fl a a flmm m n a
---m ---- --
----a--N n--a---- a
* 5 a 5 a m5 a a a a a
ig Hay _
* a 5w~ m 5l 5 n 5 a
* S a a a a a mm a
-- a a a ass amm a m a a
U-- F -
__Dr. E. W. Berger
____E. S. Pace _--___
- a- a
a - -- -- --- -- ---
_C. L. Willoughby --
_T. Z. Atkeson ------ -- ----
-..T. Z. Atkeson --a-
---- --a- a--------
-___J. M. Scott --.aa
a.. W. E. Brown __
aMP aPW -a -- ----------^l^R ^^-*^^^^ lf*^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^f^
a___C. K. McQuarrie
aSa-E. S. Pace .-.a-
aM-f M--- -1-I---
Rolfs -- ---.. -
. A. Murphree .-.-
Savely .-. -_-_-_
Rolfs .- .. .
_S. J. McCully
. . . -- w w w -- _- -- -
The Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration work of the
United States Department of Agriculture in charge of Dr.
Bradford Knapp, Special Agent, has formed a co-operative
agreement with the University of Florida and with
the Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of
Florida, whereby the Demonstration and Extension
work of the State is centralized into one co-
ordinated management. The University of Florida pro-
vides suitable office rooms and facilities on the University
Campus for headquarters for handling the clerical work.
It also pays one-half the salaries of the State and District
Agents. When the State and District Agents are travelling
exclusively for Farmers' Institute work all of the expenses
are borne from the State funds.
The central management of the Farmers' Co-opera-
Girls' Canning Clu
K. McQuarrie, whi
work. The salaries,
employees are met
purpose by the U.
Work, the Boys'
ibs, is under the
o is State Agent
s of the County A
in part by funds
S. Department of
Corn ClIUDs, and the
direction of Prof. C.
for carrying on this
Agents and other local
appropriated for this
ing to about $22,000. These funds are further augmented
by the appropriation by the legislature of Florida of $5,000
annually. The Farmers' Institute work is provided for by
annual legislative appropriation of $10,000.
The District Agents work under the direction and ad-
vice of the State Agent. The State Agent and District
Agents visit the County Agents as frequently as possible,
and with the County Agents make visits to the various Farm
Demonstrators, the Boys' Corn Clubs, and the Girls' Can-
ning Clubs. The State Agent and each of the District
Agents are members of the faculty of the University.
The State is divided into two sections. All of the
Counties organized east and south of and including Duval,
Bradford,' Alachua and Levy, are considered as Central and
South Florida. This district is in charge of Prof. A. P.
Snencer. The Counntie. to the northward and westward
professors of the Agricultural College. The County Dem-
onstration Agents having their sessions at the University
are thus enabled to come in contact with the most recent
and fundamental progress that has been made in agricul-
The County Agents visit as many farms as possible.
Where the farmer agrees to set aside a portion of a field
to carry out the instructions of the County Agents fully,
he is called a demonstrator. Where the instructions are
carried out on the whole field or where the instructions are
carried out only in part, the farmers are known as co-op-
Every County that has entered the co-operative arrange-
ment has been aided at the rate of $675 annually. The
amount needed above this has been supplied either by the
Counties as a whole, or by private or community aid. The
salaries paid to County Agents vary from $800 for the
lowest to $2,400 for the highest. The Counties in which the
higher salaries are paid also make provision for traveling
ADDRESS OF WELCOME TO THE AGENTS.
DR. A. A. MURPHREE
Under the co-operative plan entered into by Dr. Brad-
ford Knapp (Special Agent in charge of the Farmers' Co-
operative Demonstration Work, Bureau of Plant Industry,
United States Department of Agriculture) and the Univer-
sity of Florida, you gentlemen, State Agent. District Agents
and County Agents, become a part of the State University,
and a very important part. It seems, therefore, that I am
extending a formal welcome to a part of the family here this
morning. Be that as it may, I want to assure you that
everyone here on the campus is glad to welcome you as co-
laborers and fellow servants in the common cause of Agri-
cultural Extension and rural uplift.
It has been stated that sixty-four different people are
required to manufacture a pair of shoes, and that it takes
the commerce and co-operation of the world to produce a
breakfast. For the solution of our country-life problems
and the improvement of the agricultural condition of the
country, we need the whole-hearted co-operation of the
farmers, bankers, transporters, merchants, churches,
schools, and State.
This is a land of opportunity; but in order to realize its
greatest value, co-operative effort in the application of intel-
ligence and scientific knowledge to the common farm prob-
lems is demanded.
You, gentlemen, you county Agents, are preaching di-
ment of live stock,
fertilizers; you are
marketing, and the
are expected to diss
of the utmost
here at interva
encouraging saving an
increase of per capital in
eminate valuable scientif
importance, therefore, tl
Is to touch elbows with th
Station, and familiarize
come; and you
hat you should
It is important that you meet these teachers,
in the College of Agriculture, who have en-
,.,! ii I IZ ml l
r~~r .7~'j .~h
F l'All _.-Cont Dd a
FiB. I.-County Demonstration Agents and Staff
arrangement for the integration
various agricultural extension act
versity, particularly those of its
Agricultural College, it is desired
operative effort all along the line.
The University expects to de
and co-operation of
ivities of the State 1
that there should be
you through this co-operative scheme. First of a
present at first hand the difficult problems whicl
in the field, so that the investigators and experts
their investigations to the more pressing and
needs of the various sections of the State.
11, you will
i you meet
Realizing, as you do, the great need of scientific agri-
culturists, you will, I am sure, endeavor to encourage every
boy in your county to look forward to a course in the Agri-
cultural College of his State University. Why not bring
the farmers with you when you come up to the two-weeks
course in the summer? I am sure they would reap much
benefit from conference with you men, and from the lec-
tures and instructions to be given at this conference.
Now, finally, I must urge you to command any or all
of us here on this campus during the next four days, or at
any time from the field when our men can be of service to
you; and may the new relations into which we have entered,
by virtue of the authority of the Federal Bureau and the
University of Florida, be happy and joyful, mutually help-
ful, and abiding.
H. E. SAFELY
You understand the arrangements here by which you
are members of the faculty of the University just as much
as you are Federal Demonstration Agents. We feel that it
is a step in the right direction, this gathering together here
to build up stronger work in the State, and to this end all of
the trained men of the College are placed at your service.
While th U
better use it
university was at
a part of it, and
than in the past
e that a larger
; your service before, you have
are in a position where you can
fund will be available for this
of all those things that make for better work, riding plows,
spraying machines, and a lot of other things that need not
be mentioned here; all of which will be supplied for your
work, as a part of your equipment.
JUST A BEGINNING
This is new work. The amount of money put into it
in the past is insignificant in comparison with the amount
that will be put into it in a few years. The time is coming
in the State of Florida when we will spend one hundred
thousand dollars in this work. We must go right ahead and
use every means possible towards being the most thoroughly
equipped men. In these four days, filled with discussions by
agents and members of the faculty, we will all become much
better informed. We are planning to hold a school of
instruction for two weeks next summer, when the best in-
structors along various lines will be brought to your service.
This will give you a chance to become thoroughly equipped.
It is not so much what you have learned, as whether or not
you are students and investigators who will not stop until
you get all the information that can be obtained. If you
have the investigator's turn of mind that will not stop
until you have solved your problem, there is no doubt but
that you will be well equipped. If, on the other hand, you
strike a problem but do not investigate it-are content to
pass it by without investigation-you will soon find farmers
in your County that know more about the subject than you
do. You must lead. That is why we have called this meet-
ing, and why, from time to time, we are going to call other
meetings. Keep note-books, and when a point is made, jot
it down, think it over; and when you get back home sit
down and write on a piece of paper all the points you have
gathered at these meetings. It will help to fix them in your
mind. We want you to be the best trained men in the
County. We realize that many of you have not had the best
opportunity for study. You are good farmers, and some of
you have done a good deal of studying; but we want you all
to become great students of agriculture that you may be of
the greatest help to your people.
- a - -ia -
a a -
A n n n nl rr nr~ r1A rI wm V rr. a' a r .
1 ., ".
-- II h m
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
Counties is so great that the best informed man in one of
our cotton-growing counties, for instance, would find his
knowledge of little or no value in a citrus-growing county;
and conversely, the best informed man in a citrus-growing
county would find his knowledge of small value to a cotton-
NEED OF SPECIALIZATION.
We need specialization, so that our men in the different
Counties shall be specialists in what each County needs.
Every County differs from every other County in a greater
or less degree. The lands, climate and crops are all points
to be borne in mind. Then there is another feature that
we also have to bear in mind; that is the social surroundings
in the County. You will find perhaps two Counties in Flor-
ida, almost or quite bordering one another, and in one the
agriculture is far in advance of the agriculture in the adjoin-
ing County, so we must specialize and adapt ourselves to the
particular County in which we are working. In one of the
well-developed Counties where agriculture has been accent-
uated, where agriculture has been taught for
years, as in Washington County for example,
corn production has been so ably taught by the
Agricultural Society for
best corn grown.
The demonstrator in
a step in advance of the
a number of
we find some of the
any particular district has to keep
best farmers in his County.
There are stages in the development of agriculture; and
what is the best now, in ten years more would be so hope-
lessly behind as to be absolutely worthless. So the isolated
farmer needs your best information. The work is pro-
gressing very rapidly; if you go to sleep for one year you
will fall behind, but if you go to sleep for the next ten years
you will be so far behind you would never catch up again.
You mtst be at the head of the procession, but only just so
far ahead as the conditions of your County will permit.
Nearly every community has some one, two, or three indi-
viduals who have led the progress,
who have done the whole
we are pioneers in this work, and the pioneers are the men
who have to blaze the way. For that reason the work is
made still harder when handicapped by small salary and
various hindrances of that kind. We must have the vision
of what the work is leading to if conducted along right lines,
to keep our spirits up. Personally we may not suffer seri-
ously by failing to correctly understand our true mission;
but it is a terrible mistake for the County. So we need to
keep in mind the vision of what we are doing, how we are
doing it, and what the end will be.
ONE LEADING CROP HELPS ALL CROPS
may use the same illustration that I have usei
times, that of better corn production in Florida.
member it has been said from time to time that
was no place to produce corn. Statistics form
id the low average of 8 or 9 bushels to the acre.
you come to look the country over for the lard
er of bushels produced per acre, you find it in
.In spite of that, most of the people of the Un
States have gotten the idea
corn-growing. The trouble
into the growing of corn as
we are going to
ers, and quite a
are content to pri
I expect to see com
one will see that t
in the production
The value of
that the South is not
is we have not put
we ought to have don
te. I know
ble in applying brain power to
a large number of negro farm-
?indifferent white farmers who
than 10 bushels per acre. But
Florida changed, so that every-
has an advantage over the West
something less than $4,000,00
year, being now second only
know but what the corn crop
Florida than the citrus crop;
of the State, and the money
into circulation locally, but n
corn crop, however,
nels; it goes on to
lrwnl oirolninsnn* "i+
0 in 1908, to $10,125
to the citrus crop.
is worth more to the
the citrus c
iuch of it i
does not enter
our tables, and
I do not
:rop is shipped out
, some of it going
s lost to us. The
money enters our
-m rnlra r h++ttar frm hnm pn hpttpr
efforts on better corn
a farmer can produce
has no trouble in pro
ing with Mr. Meharg
hammer on, the one i
production, and you know that
20 to 40
we agreed that was
Now it has worked out to
the one thing to
that our combined judgment was extremely well taken,
the important thing and
us the experience of Texas,
would follow rap-
well prepared that when the trouble struck the western part
of the State there was no panic among the growers. They
knew how to grow other crops.
will not dwell
to dwell specifically
to study in
In furtherance of
There was no panic among
on some of
we do not look upon you as visitors here,
you to see the buildings, get all the information that you can
and make use of it to the best advantage.
(Corrected copy of this paper
time of going to press, May 10.)
I just want to say that I don't know when I have
listened to anything more inspiring than Dean Vernon's talk. It
had never occurred to me that this matter might be treated as a part
of our school course of literary work which would appeal directly to
the chiMd and interest him in his own line of life; but I can see it
Another thing I have thought of a great deal, and that is when it
comes to be a question of studies in school, we are often under mis-
avrrehension. I do not know of anything more mis-anorehended than
it if a
want to take this opportunity to express my thanks to Prof.
n for what he has said here with regard to work in schools, I
dined to take it up, and introduce it into my own County.
. J. McCULLY. I heartily endorse all that Prof. Vernon has
oward the betterment of agricultural life. I feel that we will
doing our whole duty as demonstrators of agricultural work if
not go into the schools and get up and talk to the boys and
about the organizing of Boys' Corn Clubs and Girls' Tomato
We must bring out the views of the teacher who teaches these
all the time. * I believe we have not done our full
is Prof. Vernon says until we can go through the rural districts
nd some very inviting homes. They would certainly appreciate
1ll the Demonstration Agents would take a more active part in
ork, as they are supposed to do later. We can set an example,
each by example how they are to train the child to beautify the
and everything of that kind. It all has a tendency to aid agri-
L. MIZELL. I appreciate
non made. I have heard him n
before, but they are always bett
things, and I believe it is our du
here to the homes of the people
I try to follow up all the cow trail
their homes, and see their condition
we do that, we can place ourselves
ourselves in their situation, and
than if we casually met them at
way we can gather the children
gradually broach all these ideas,
and under it all is the idea of bett
We must not neglect the education
are doing all they can, and if we
the boys and girls will catch the si
I appreciate the ideals given here
us talk plainly to the teachers abo
do not know very much about it.
E. W. TURNER. I cannot sa
very much the remarks Prof. Ver-
nake similar remarks many times
;er and better. I believe in these
ty to carry the inspiration we get
we visit. In my traveling around
s and byways, and see the people in
,ns and their disadvantages. When
somewhat in their
approach them in
home or on the hi
with the father
a different way
highway. In that
and mother and
bring them to believe in our ideas,
er conditions for the boys and girls.
of the boys and girls. The parents
can point the way to higher ideals
)irit and their ideals will be greater.
!. Let us carry them home and let
ut them. I am persuaded that they
along this line; but it is my idea to
the mothers interested, instruct the
machinery and keep it oiled, and in
will be what they should be. We
agriculture. There are many little
and show them why they
e they c
take up all parts of the home, get
farmers how to take care of their
the future generation the farmers
want to get the schools to teach
things you must take up within
should do this, show them by the
:an be benefited by confining their
T. Z. ATKESON. This problem is one that when you get to
studying from the practical standpoint of the demonstration work, has
many things connected with it. To my mind perhaps the thing that
has done most is the Girls' Canning Clubs' work. As Dean Vernon so
roll hren andrl if i i ia non pav sI n o t in tnileh with the homes and
last year was
work in that
thing that co'
a great success. The lady in charge has done a great
County. I think her work has done more toward the
the rural conditions in Suwannee County than any other
quite a good deal of caution by 1
My own experiences have been r;
rather unique in others. To
lar. I remember last summer
is fairly well educated as farn
mon school education, owns his ;
It is a log house, to be sure, but ha
I was taken with it, for it was a
one day to dinner, and I certainly
time we were at the table she was
I sat at the table, and she had a b
she was doing the best she could t
ought to have the house screened
after dinner we figured over the
buy all the materials necessary to
He said: "You know I would like
after me about it for a long time
said, "Well, I'll tell you what I'll
back to Live Oak I will send you d
problem has to
the average D
give you onf
a farmer ir
aers go. He
)lace, and has
LS a big porch
ig limb of a
;o keep the I
. He said
be approached with
in some cases, and
e case in particu-
I the County, who
has a good corn-
a very nice house.
and is fitted up well.
lace. I stayed there
his wife; all of the
. Her husband and
each tree with which
s off. I told him he
tost too much. But
en the house e
it, and my wi
I haven't the
you say t
all this st
me back next fall when you get your moneyy" But
That man had a riding cultivator, but his wife had
cook stove. This is a rather difficult matter to
those are the things that will have to be evolved ra
majority of instances.
P. H. ROLFS. At first sight it seems as if the
Vernon was rather far-fetched, b
held at C
a great n
of the fin
w many of
r little han
ready for this
We talked to
the boys and gi
ds that went up,
later we asked 1
that went up in
not hold their hands up.
toward better farming.
advantage would be if on
ral problems and if the
We will find here and t
est homes in the country
of the best in town. It ih
sible to have
house with a
others. ;t is
against ,it, an
shown we will
know, is that
those fine homes. T
bathtub, it is only a
d want to
find that i
fe she has
e word when
f and you ca
to cook on a
meet, and I
lut we are closer to
remember our fir
children, and Mr.
wanted to be farm
d they were feeble
same question, and
e air. There were
Dean Vernon has
y the problems in ar
reading lessons wer
lere (only a few it
for which I would tr
not an easy matter,
e people do not wa
defend their old '
improvement goes r
more crops on the
have the money
it than we
only a few
of a small
ade in a
but it is
have one country
have a half dozen
. They may talk
when the way is
The first step, we
o we can pay for
with. The 1900
high. Formerly we were satisfied with nine bushels of corn. If we
keep our ideal on nine bushels of corn, we will never get above it.
We have already reached the fifteen bushel crop. If we keep our
ideal on the little log school-house we will never get above that. If
we have an ideal of a perfectly trained teacher, it makes no differ-
ence how great the obstacles, we will overcome them, and have a good
school. Dr. Murphree referred to the school with the teacher on
one end of the log and the child on the other. Some of the best
lessons are taught by the teachers in this way.
I tell you, you have a great opportunity, greater than any of the
rest of us, of bettering these interests in the country, and I think
Dean Vernon has given us a great ideal.
H. E. SAVELY. I don't know how many of you men can make a
public talk, but you are going to miss some wonderful opportunities
of doing good if you don't make it a practice to speak in the little
schoolhouse every time you go by and say something to the children.
The best Demonstration Agents everywhere are the men who appreci-
ate this fact, who make it a rule to stop at the schoolhouse and say a
few words to the children and pass on. You have no idea the amount
of good you can do if you will think out little lessons on corn or some-
thing else, and make it your rule never to pass the schoolhouse when
it is in session without stopping and saying something. And when
you get the sympathy of the children you will get the older folks too.
As an illustration of what may come out of a chance conversation
which is at the time seemingly unimportant, I want to tell you a little
story about the late Dr. Seeman A. Knapp and a farmer he met one
day. About fifteen years ago, Mr. Green, of Miss.,
came to Dr. Knapp to buy some hogs. Dr. Knapp had some stock to
sell. While they were talking over the trade on stock, Dr. Knapp got
to talking to Mr. Green and telling him how to prepare a better seed
bed and grow better corn and garden crops. Mr. Green had not seen
Dr. Knapp since, b
making two bales o
him how he came
Dr. Knapp who wa
a better seed bed,
been trying to do
the next time Dr.
he came 150 miles
sort of leader in hi
came out of a little
before. Don't lose
ut one day I saw Mr. Green, and he said he was
f cotton where he used to make only one. I asked
to do it, and he said that 15 years before he met
*s so enthusiastic, and talked to him about making
etc., and Mr. Green said "All these years I have
what he told me." So I said "I will write to you
Knapp comes to the State." I wrote to him and
to' meet Dr. Knapp again. Now that man was a
s community, and all that influence for betterment
conversation he had with Dr. Knapp fifteen years
an opportunity of going into the schools.
C. K. MCQUARRIE
it is possible for the farmer to dw
;; that they nominally lived in their
excessive amounts of fertilizer. T<
can be given-What about it if they
we find, that in almost every case t
not picked; tl
more than the
if the boys de
boy excels the
a maximum yi
his seed thick
is capable of p
vating it and
hat the amounts of fertilizer used
average farmer could profitably use
voted more time to their patches t
it paid them
field; he sets a
enough to ens
Producing it; a
working it to
o all of
:he soils were
to do so. Where the
er is in that he sets ou
figure to be attained;
; and that
an in the
t to make
ure that yield providing his soil
nd he stays with his crop, culti-
the utmost, so as to attain the
end in view. And it seems to me our agricultural education
has all along been remiss in this line of teaching agriculture,
in that they never set a maximum yield as being possible
under certain soil conditions and certain closeness in plant-
ing the crop. They have been content to stick to the oft-
repeated phrase of increasing the crop production. They
did not have
has been left
what can be
one who puts
the nerve to set a figure and live up to it. It
to a few little boys to give an object lesson of
izes the fir
a seed into
possible favorable soil c
at harvest time. Over a
onstrated to their fathers
increased yields have been
In the past history of
the most part of the work
Superintendent of School,
talks were made on the
number at one time. The
done among the boys by
has not proved very satis
well as was expected at it
been that the personal t(
tinued; and the boy was le
you start out to do it. The
st and most essential aim of e
the ground-to give this seed
condition, to make a maximum
ind above this, these boys have
and all others concerned, that the
made at reduced cost per bushel.
the Corn-Club Work in the State,
has been done through the County
s, and by visits to schools where
subject and the boys enrolled in
re was not much actual field work
any of the Agents. This method
factory, and has not resulted as
s inception. The weak point has
ouch, so requisite, was not con-
ft very much to his own initiative
and resources. He was not accorded the influence of peri-
Fig. 2.-Boys' corn club member.
ing right there and then. If his name is enrolled with sev-
eral others at a school or other meeting, the enthusiasm that
generally occurs at meetings where a number join at one
time, has waned by the time the Agent gets around, and he
has to sometimes use diplomacy to get the boy started right.
Sometimes the Agent will find names on the lists made at
such meetings that are not desirable, that have no land suit-
able for the work, or not enough of it; and the Agent may
have to do some weeding out. In this he must use some
diplomacy so as not to cause any hard feelings that would
hurt the work at some future time.
The land should be measured, to see that it is not too
small or too large a patch. Seventy yards square is an
acre, or 43500 square feet, and any multiple of this may be
used. In planting a crop, the measurement should be from
the outside water furrows. In the past some have meas-
ured the land from row to row, which is really more than an
acre and was not a proper record.
In all the work with boys and girls, the personal touch
is really what counts for success. The enthusiasm that the
Agent shows in his periodic visits
the boys' successes, or otherwise.
seed-bed should be strongly empha
drainage is ample to prevent water
during a rainy time. The proper 3
and applied in the proper way; t
is reflected manyfold in
The necessity of a good
sized, and also that the
standing on the surface
he quantity to
should be determined by the mechanical condition of the
and the depth of plowing when it was broken. A good !
to observe here would be 100 pounds per acre for every i
the land was broken. Where six hundred pounds per a
and upwards is used, it is recommended to broadcast it,
work it into the soil a few days before planting. In
these operations the Agent should be very explicit in
as to ensure
right at the
success. The personal
time. Good seed should
cured that is suitable for the kind of soil in use.
The Agent should familiarize himself as early as pos-
sible with the number of prizes that will be available in his
C1- -... m_--- lr il_ .... 211 t. -- -a.a. -
send a check with the recommendation that he open a bank
account with it, if he has not one already, which more boys
ome people have any idea of.
largest yields in the States
for a scholarship of a year'
course in the Agricultural
lege. Giving short courses for the w:
is also a good way to reward the boys,
winners in the Counties
and the Agent should
able to encourage the boys as much as possible.
While the Agent has no direct charge of the girls'
as he has of the boys, still he is to help in any way he can by
rk a success.
belong to t
for the si
their crops are all short period crops; so that they should be
come to th
SAVELY suggested that two boys from each
ie Short Courses at the University. He
in the different
so discouraging to all but the prize winner.
PROF. VERNON recommended a large number of small prizes,
making the first large enough to be attractive; $25 as a rule, is high
enough. Scholarships are excellent prizes, but the money value of
e scholarship should be made considerably higher than
ize. Then if the winner does not want the scholarship,
course have the smaller cash prize.
D. C. GEIGER. In our County
offered to duplicate any amount the Demonstration Agent can get up.
I have a guarantee of about $100, and they will add as much more.
Some boys are handicapped in advance, from the fact that their
I 9 a i ri 1 : A1 1
acre, but unfortunately the offer came rather late, as most
corn was planted. He recommended that every boy should
something, if it was only $1. His method was to go from ho
house and talk it over with the parents and the boy. The r
were more certain, as the enthusiasm that could be gotten up b3
ing to the boys at the schoolhouse does not amount to very much
makes it a rule never to let any one boy know what another is
The Demonstration Agent's boy must not be one of the contest
It is an absolute rule that no relative should have anything to d
the measuring or weighing of the corn.
O. L. MIZELL. I thought after trying it one year that I
advise anyone, but now I am not so sure. There is just one
that I want to mention, and that is about raising the corn. I
the proper thing to do
the corn, and not the w
If we stimulate every b
the winning of the priz
So let us keep the idea
not the winning of the
G. W. I
ir of giv
is to stress the fact that it is the raising of
inning of the prize that is the most important.
oy with the idea that there is nothing to it but
e, there will be a great deal of disappointment.
that the real thing is the raising of the corn,
prize. Incidentally, let the boys know there is
not make the prize the main idea.
SER had about 5
every boy some
the County Fair.
0 new nan
kind of a
He did r
boy to grow the corn simply for the
Possibly some boy works as hard
chances this yea
I. E. SOAR.
good humor. It
the list of boys v
proportion of tl
the work and ti
Boys' Corn Club
but in starting
and it seems tV
thing because he
not favor money
ild appreciate. T
r were for better
It is rather dif
would be better
I have m
did not make as r
prizes much, but
'he outlook was en
ficult at times to
to distribute prize
lete the work and 1
money should go
ade it a rule that
the records should
work do not seem
He was in
ows his corn
good idea to
but to work
Ie others but
as the other
get everybody in
s largely through
turn in results, but a large
to the boys who make a
every boy that completed
d get at
me that such boys ought to havy
The having a badge seems to be a
east one of the
e something to
am particularly in favor of going to the homes and talking with the
parents as well as the boys; boys whose parents have been interested
are the ones who make the best showing in producing corn.
A. P. SPENCER. Referring to the scholarships, it has come to
our attention that sometimes the scholarships come to rather small
boys. Would it not be well to award the scholarships for work
extending over one or two years? Of course the small boy is wel-
come, but\he older one gets more out of it.
PROI. VERNON. It would be better for the individual boy; but on
the other hand, I think we would reach a smaller number, unless we
could work out a plan to get a large number up here on the basis of
and pretty soon you have some boys coming on their own account.
Dr. Murphree has ruled that no boy under 16 shall remain at night
on the campus; but we have made arrangements through the differ-
ent ministers to have them taken care of in town, and I believe in
catching them just as young as you can. Of course, there is a limit.
If we could have a
soon have them; but
older boys; though I
boy of 17. I have
others in the class
answer. I think the
anyone else. I would
I think a longer
bunch of eight-year-old boys I would just as
the younger boys may not get as much as the
know cases where a boy of 13 got more than a
asked questions that a gray-haired man and
could not answer, but this little fellow could
boy I have in mind got more out of it than
not rule out a boy because he was young.
course for two or three years work is a good
H. E. SAVELY. Aside from the prizes, there are a lot of things
you can do to create interest. One thing is an entertainment by
some of the leading citizens of the County. This wakes the business
men up. I know of one such an affair in Texas that was very success-
ful. There the boys marched in procession with the Governor at the
head, and afterwards had a banquet and some entertainment. It
made the boys feel a sense of pride to belong to such an organization.
It is up to you Agents to see in how many ways you can bring the
boys in touch with the business people.
(Corrected address not received
at time of
D. R. MCQUARRIE.
detrimental effect, do they no
PROF. WILLOUGHBY. Yes
genous in that stage of the p
larger animals. Do not feed ai
E. W. TURNER. My exp
do so well when fed on peal
seventy-five pounds on
pounds or so. Say five
should be before being tl
for their development.
R. T. KELLEY. Wha
breed. Berkshires are I
C. H. BAKER. Is th
t is t
Peanuts for young pigs when fed alone have
s, they are probably too highly nitro-
tig's growth. It is best to feed them to
ny to young ones; bad effects may follow.
erience has been that young pigs do not
nuts. I turned some animals weighing
crop and they were reduced to forty
six months old is about the age they
on peanuts. Hogs need certain things
It shorts and skim milk are good.
he best breed of hogs?
re is more in the individual than in the
bly best. Duroc Jerseys second.
any breed better adapted to sections of
Tamworths for South Florida and the Ever-
BULLETIN, NO. 4.
W. E. BROWN
One thing about the selection of breeds is that
individual hog, and farmers will often buy blooded
without knowing anything as to the history of their
and their breeding qualities. It is important thai
should know something about the history of the hog
One of the best crops
stock hogs, is velvet beans.
I know of for hogs, esp
We look upon beans as
feed for cattle, beef cattle and such things, bul
rs realize the value for hogs, especially stock
never seen the hogs injured from running on the
or sick from it, except from cholera or somethi
ind. Supplement the beans in the winter with
as rye, oats, rape. By planting Yokohama, Ch
and the old-fashioned velvet beans, the farmers c
nine months of pasture. I know of no cheaper
raise than the bean crop. It is a soil builder an
grower. In the spring v
chufas, sweet potatoes,
cane, and, of course, cor
through the summer for
Of course these cro
rotation. That is one thi
about. These croDs will
have a succession in feedi
ie have cowpeas, peanuts,
n. All these crops can x
the fall and winter past:
ps should be grown to f
ng farmers should learn sc
then mature in such a w
ng, one following another.
d a hog
ay as to
THE HOG LOT
The hog lot is another important adjunct to hog rais-
This lot should be kept in a sanitary condition, with
a dipping vat. The wallow should not
should be of concrete with a good drain
roughly cleaned. Then
should be kept clean a
I might say four
water, and one pound
tion, with twenty gall
for vermin. The vat
it can be used as
ind free from ver
gallons of crude
of hard soap will
ons of water add(
should be filled w
a mud hole, but
it may be thor-
dipping vat, and
11, one gallon of
ake a stock solu-
id for dipping hogs
rith water, and this
do not need shelter;
ding and shelter from cold weather.
to young pigs.
but they want good bed-
This applies especially
E. W. TURNER.
to Japanese cane?
you say to
J. D. BROWN. They get best results from Japanese cane chopped
up, and it is a very good soiling crop.
C. H. BAKER. Which variety of bean would you begin with, as a
before the beans are ripe?
will mature first.
best to turn hogs into the velvet bean fields
. BROWN. If you feed velvet beans, peanuts and sweet
the hogs will not bother the beans much; but if you have a
or something to
on they will
beans in a young stage. They do not eat so many bea
ing else is given they will get fat and make a spleni
D. C. GEIGER. Is the velvet bean a finishing crop?
Ins, but if noth-
it is more a pasturing and growing
a U JhA
tla hough you can fatten hogs for pork for t
use; but there is nothing like peanuts for this.
H. E. SAVELY. How about the meat pro
I. E. SOAR.
He market or tor
It is best to use some corn with the peanuts as a
Use Japanese cane and such things and the quality is
D. G. MCQUAGGE. How
g the hogs root for them?
about turning under the peanuts and let-
W. E. BROWN. This is good, and they will go down after them
but many of the beans are lost in this way.
W. L. WATSON. What is your opinion of the Chinese as corn
pared with the velvet and Yokohama beans?
either of the others.
not lose so many as with cattle.
They rot easily and shell out
to eat them
be picked d:
I assumed as a
7 in September,
almost at the
basis in my talk
put on more crops the first picking. I have picked the Chinese Vel-
vet Beans three times, first in September, then in October when most
of them were mature, and again later. They are fine feed for horses,
mares, and colts. Nothing will keep the colt in better condition than
velvet beans. When a mare gets fat from velvet beans, she is shaped
like Santa Claus.
- -L - - -.
_ --_ __
ordinary upland pine soil you will probably need t
cr seven feet apart and the beans in the middle.
cient to cover the corn stalks and everything comp
You want to give more distance on very rich land
five foot rows and then down in the middle plant
ground is very rich so you cover too much of the c
plant the corn in five foot rows, and for every six
velvet beans. You can make twenty-five bushels
.o plant the corn six
That will b
letely, on goo
. Plant the
the beans. ]
:orn with the
: hills drop a
of corn that
covered up almost completely.
D. C. GEIGER. My Chinese beans do not shatter as do the Yoko-
W. E. BROWN. I did not get any Yokohamas, but the Chinese
certainly did shatter. Some of the pods were very long and shattered
a great deal. You could hear the pods all over the field cracking
like guns. They made a very heavy crop of vegetation.
J. C. SMITH. Which is better, the Yokohama or the Florida
W. E. BROWN. I cannot tell. There are several things to be
considered. One point is that the more roots in the ground, the more
nitrogen you would suppose the roots could store up. On the other
hand, the velvet bean covers the ground more completely and makes
a better growth. Personally, I know little about the Yokohama bean
except what I have said.
HOG CHOLERA SERUM
W. L. WATSON. What
inoculation with serum?
W. E. BROWN. About
a good many, and in some
percentage of your hogs did you save in
90 per cent. In some herds I would lose
cases it seemed they died more quickly
from being inoculated. That probably was due to their at
having the cholera, and being caught and worked with made the
rise and caused them to die more quickly. Another important
is to inoculate them when it should be done. The farmer wh
the good results is the farmer who does it at the proper time.
the next time there is cholera about
should again be inoculated before
Another thing is that they try pot;
last resort they try inoculation too
hogs to that. In talking to a man t
he stated that the hours around Willi
fifteen miles or so off,
the disease slips up
ish, Sloan's Liniment,
ate, and blame the los;
he other day from Flol
ston were dying off bec
er died before. He ha
d a short
memory. They did not believe in inoculation, and it was a hard mat-
ter to get them to do anything.
There is only one way to accomplish anything in this hog cholera
matter, an& that is to push it. I got a syringe, ordered the serum,
and told tle farmer to hold the animal firm and I did the work. They
got started and I could not keep up with the work, there was so much
of it. They wanted me to work on Sunday-could not wait until
*W J R. > * .4 4 *" -
immune after once
according to Dr. D
W. E. BROWN.
sick inoculate them
keep getting sick,
having cholera, but it is only for twelve months,
I would say, inoculate your hogs, and if they are
again, and keep inoculating them as long as they
for you cannot afford to have the hogs die after
Your reputation is at stake.
e production of pork and the cheapness of it depends
on what kind of hog you propose to make pork of
are going to
rooter, and let
your pork wil
take more fo
make pork o
him get his li
I be very expe
od stuff to r
r, knotty pig than out of a go
our hogs healthy, you must c
as a hog must have some care and
to get a large, thrifty variety,
Poland China, Berkshire or the
varieties will give good results in
make the results at the least expel
way to keep the hogs healthy and
healthy you must rid them of all di
and scale. This can be done by
dipping the hogs in either Cresol
once you get your h(
make them grow.
variety of pastures
t your hogs run
, and very cheap
summer have a
ogs do exceeding
rt of August put
This mixture v
nd firmer pork
u gives the farm
ut of the common piney-
iving in the woods as best
nsive, for, Mr. Chairman,
lake pork out of a poor,
iod healthy hog. Now, to
tare for them. Inasmuch
attention, I would advise
such as the Hampshire,
Duroc. Either of these
pork production; and to
ise, you must devise some
growing. To keep them
diseases, such as fleas, lice,
building a hog vat, and
or Bee Dee dip. When
gs in a healthy condition you can easily
the production of
i follows. In the
to have a
on rye and rape. This is fine feed
. In the latter part of the spring
plot of Spanish peanuts and sor-
,ly well on this kind of feed. The
them on peanuts, velvet beans and
ill cause them to thrive and make
than if you feed only one thing.
r a good opportunity to dispose of
his surplus at any time he wants to.
o'vY a c
rid of a
will find all our markets overstocked, and consequently, pork
about six or seven cents. But if you plant cassava and hold
spring, and keep the hogs to the middle of March or in April,
get ten cents. Mr. S. R. Pyle got ten cents f. o. b. for his
it spring from the Tampa market. They are not so particu-
it the size. There was a time when a farmer could market
certainn sized hog. This condition has passed, and you can get
ny sized hog at the proper season.
E. SAVELY. Do you advise keemnir cassava over until the
Yes. Before I kill the hogs I
hardens the meat and lard, and
After smoking the meat I always
cts or something, then get a new
, and put a layer of salt, and laye
t with salt. Then being weighed
about the same. This is not so
drips and dri
.rd is oily, and
f hogs are put
. R. McQUARR
three feet in
Q. Will the ro
S. J. MCCULLY.
dip it in h
box and sa
or the meat
after four <
ps and almost drips itself away i
run them on
it is firm and
water for fear
the meat thor-
it, and barely
five months, it
i some people even put it up in jugs. The same is
, on chufas. The lard is almost as thin as water.
:IE. How do you plant Cassava?
Cut the stalks to about eight or ten inches long.
the drill. I plant in February and March.
ots keep through the winter, and how best?
Let them stay in the ground, the hogs will dig
I up themselves.
I. E. SOAR. Will Cass
S. J .MCCULLY. We
nd, but the cassava is
ava keep if the ground is wet?
have had lots of rain and we have wet
keeping well. It is best, though, to plant
R. T. KELLEY. Will it keep better
S. J. MCCULLY. Yes, it dries and
sava is a cheap crop and a good crop.
J. C. SMITH. Do cattle eat it?
S. J. MCCULLY. Yes, and seem to
know what its feeding value is.
W. L. WATSON. What is the ave
S. J. MCCULLY. I do not know.
a half acre of cassava, and it lasted
have had other cassava fields that did
formula of 3-8-8 fertilizer on it. It wi
0. O. SIMMONS. Where it is Diant
in the ground than out?
rots out of the ground.
like it well, although I do not
rage yield per acre?
I have about 25 or 30 hc
for two or three mont
not last that long. I u
ll make good cassava.
,ed on level lands, do you
S. J. MCCULLY. Yes, it
only barely. Cassava is a pe
only there& or four feet high,
some lantl that produces good
W. L. WATSON. What do
S. ._ MCCrVn.TTv. Tti mna1
is good to make a bed and cover it
culiar thing. If it has grown a crop
it may have a great many roots, and
top crops does not produce good roots.
you think of Bermuda grass pasture
s irrnnd nnaer n]lthnnah cnmia rnmknnlp
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
T. Z. ATKESON
In growing hogs it is very necessary to have the proper
hog to cure.
It must be a good individual and the right
shape; for the reason that a properly built hog cuts to bet-
ter advantage for the higher priced and better cuts of meat
than the ordinary razor-back hog.
It is also necessary that
the hog be in the proper condition to butcher.
We all know
the exclusively fed peanut hog will not make a good quality
of pork; but so far as flavor is concerned, it is good.
a flavor that I rather prefer; but the fact that it cannot be
kept without considerable loss in weight and without losing
its high qualities rapidly, is a detriment that cannot be over-
always to corn-feed hogs for three weeks, and for the last
few days I have used some corn along with peanuts in the
Our Dan Gray, (we still call him ours although he
is now in North Carolina)
has said that when hogs are fed
at the rate of one pound of corn per day for each one hun-
dred pounds of live weight, they will bring in about $3.75
for every 100 pounds of corn fed. You see there is no loss of
money on this proposition.
butcher an animal.
you begin to kill.
Have the knives sharp and ready before
I do not know your experience or method
I have tried everything in this line from knock-
ing the hog on the head to turning it on its back and sticking
it with a knife till it bleeds to death (the n
mended by the Department of Agriculture).
are all situated as I have been, on farms, 4
method is recom-
I suppose you
and have to use
negro labor for the most part, or incompetent white help.
After seeing the negro turn a hog loose and let it run around
over the pen until it finally drops dead, one never wants to
kill another in that way.
So I take a 22 caliber rifle and
shoot the hog, then stick him with a knife, and he never gets
Hogs should be killed in Florida in the afternoon.
1 - i l...l .. . .- .- 4-..,. -L J1 .1 .
smoke-house and allowed to stay
morning it will be ready to cut up.
over night, and by
THE MAIN PARTS
There is some difficulty in cutting it up just right.
of meat as
as closely a
you want t
>ut I repeat it
o do a nice pi
iust be in th
he head was
have the knives sharp, as I have
for emphasis. All of them must
ece of wor
e best con
cut off th
Now, where do you
the ears as possible.
worth more than the head
possible. The shoulder :
the side; so when you cu
s possible so as to leave as
you get to the ham this is
o cut as much ham as po
is it not?
k with a smooth finish,
edition. Of course, we
e night before and the
cut the head off? As
Why? Because the
1 and we want as much
is not as choice a piece
t the shoulder out, cut
; much side as possible.
; more valuable still, so
ssible. That is Scotch
CUTTING THE SHOULDER
Now, take up the different cuts.
the best. The farmers' cut is much lower.
The packers' cut is
This piece of bone
is practically worthless and the best place to cut is above
this. It is the place where maggots have thi
get in and ruin the meat, so I advise you to
throw the other part away. The only use y
this is to cook it with collards, and it always
collards. Going back to the sharp knife. Th
other bone that was not shown in the draw
knife and cut around it smoothly, then turn y
ing a smooth cut. Make the meat perfectly s
from the fact that it looks better, but it rem
e best chance to
cut it high and
ou can make of
ruins the pot of
eat has an-
th, not only
of flies and insects
ular piece of meat.
There is another
I stated,fthe should
head, it is the poo
getting a chance to work on that partic-
!r unique idea in cutting the shoulder. As
er is one of the poorest cuts (next to the
; to cure that I know of. It is of such sha
ngly hard to cure. The packing-house
of the hardest
pe that it is ex-
man is able to
30 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
through the whole, and cut the bone nice and smooth all the
way through. This is all flabby meat, and you want to take
a knife, and cut to where there is no flabbiness. Then cure
this along with the hams and it is as good a ham and as
good meat, if cut from a good large hog, and only in shape
is there any difference. I put the lean loin part in with the
sausage meat, and put the fat in the lard tub where it be-
In Live Oak the other day my wife bought breakfast
bacon all fixed up in a box and very attractive, and she
paid 40 cents a pound for it. That brings me to the point
that every farmer can have his own breakfast bacon as good
if care is used. The side is divided into three distinct
strips by the farmer, but the packing house man makes
about six cuts. With us it is more economical to make only
three, the fat back, the bacon strip, and the belly. This fat
back is pure lard. Then the loin is stripped out, and a cut
made through to the lard, which is used for lard. The belly
part is least desirable of all, and I have always dry-salted
it and sold it to the negroes on the farm.
THE SUGAR-CURING PROCESS
Now, the sugar-curing process. It is strange how easy
it is to put up something better than we have been doing,
and do it cheaper. Farmers in Suwannee County, when I
first began to talk of it, argued that it would be good for
Alabama and Georgia, but not for Florida. There are many
who have done as I have been describing it, with perfect
success; and in order to test it out, I persuaded one particu-
lar farmer, who had gumption enough to do just as I told
him, and he did it without any cold storage. One day he did
get a scare, and asked me if he should use ice and how to do
it. I did not think so, and told him if he wanted to do it to go
ahead. We put a dry goods box on a table and bored holes,
and put in a layer of meat and a layer of ice, and then in
forty-eight hours we took it out, and the meat and ice were
frozen together and only half the ice melted, which shows
that there was no animal heat at all in the meat. The farm-
n vn i A -n4-nn iirr' 4n- -.Pn r-wwn'm je4--t I-n -- 1-'v..4 in'.nit ,a 1 ant4- ni no"
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
where it was used commonly in putting up the old Virginia
hams. It has also been recommended in the Department
(Farmers' Bulletin 83 gives it)
and it has cer-
tainly been used long enough to prove there is absolutely
no doubt about its efficiency.
Get barrels or build vats (I prefer barrels, for they can
be changed if necessary), pack the meat down after it has
Pack it down as closely as possible, but don't jam it down,
and put pieces in different positions.
they can be
By rolling up the ba-
wedged in so that the barrel will
hold as much as possible. There is always room for plenty
of the brine to cure the meat. Another thing is that the
more meat there is, the less brine it takes to cover it. Use
3 pints of syrup.
2 ounces of saltpeter.
8 pounds of salt.
4 gallons of water.
The saltpeter can be left out if you want to.
the red in the lean portion of the meat, and improves its ap-
pearance, but not the quality.
Nitrate of soda will work just
as well. It is said this will cover about 100 pounds of meat
but that depends to a large extent on the packing of meat
in the barrel. The important thing is to put enough there
to thoroughly cover the meat.
After the barrel is packed, you want to lay a weight
on top to keep it from rising out of the brine. Leave it from
five to eight weeks, according to difference in size of the
It is better to separate if you have different sizes
and lots of them to cure, and put the small pieces in one
and large in another.
pounds leave it for ten weeks.
For the smaller ones, leave the meat
At the end of this time, take
the meat up and wash it well in slightly warm water, luke
warm; and then hang it up and drain it, and then it is
ready to, smoke.
This is not pickling meat. It is simply a
process of curing it. The long time necessary is due tc
fact that the solution will not be as strong as pure salt.
the smoke before it ei
e, let the pipe come in
ng the smoke is that
ping caused by heat.
enters the house.
near the bottom.
there is not so
In entering the
The reason for
much loss from
Q. Do you use
T. Z. ATKESON.
s I found the cc
I. E. SOAR. Do
T. Z. ATKESON.
d it necessary
ever, taste it several
brine is coated with
that particles of the
have spoiled. You
Before curing, I oft
meat on top, and s
hot water ii
No. I us4
)ld water se
to change i
1 times, an
mold it does
meat and fs
n making your brine?
ed to do so; but after trying it both
irved just as good as the hot water,
s it happens to sour. I
t in my experience. You
d you can tell if it is rig
not mean that it is sour,
tt have come loose and to t
this mold off whenever
the floor with pine tops, a
water out. Be sure that all the animal heat i
lutely necessary; and then forty-eight hours o:
pack it down.
H. E. SAVELY. Do you need to use ice in
T. Z. ATKESON. Yes, it would probably
H. E. SAVELY. What steps would you ta
.T. Z. ATKESON. I say, if possible put it
means. If this cannot be done, I would say
late in the afternoon and then put it into the
two hours, and after thoroughly chilling it put
S. J. MCCULLY. In putting this up in this
the same process, and have the same flavor t
T. Z. ATKESON. If it does not have a m
it to me
in the sa
is out, for this is abso-
r so after it has cooled
ike in killing a
in cold storage by all
to kill it and dress it
box of ice after about
it immediately into this
way does it go through
:hat ice would give it?
Luch better flavor, send
I will eat it. One thing that is especially attractive
that the process will make it better than anything else
If you will just remember that you are putting it down
nd not in brine it will not worry you any longer. The
is to put it in salt, but the brine is much better.
r killing the hog, how would it do to put it in cold water?
KESON. Ice would be better, but it might be safe to use
W. L. WATSON. After cooling it some, put it in boiling water
and cook it for an hour or so, and then put it in that solution and it is
1C T warn
you ever try using
and it is fine. My
(mn rhhh nl a o T
reason is the climate.
rnmnlA nnt w l* fnr i
hardwood smoke, so I do not
from its use. Of course, it i
will make a little extra skin
S. J. McCULLY. How do
T. Z. ATK.
hang them up i
52 head of hogs
insecticide in a
ence in putting
or covering it v
phere is almost
smoke house, if
and rub all the
and hang the
n the smoke
at one time
way, and pr
vith canvas, 1
sure to get
there is any
mold off and
meat up agz
for this treatm
;. ATKESON. It
be 15 to 25 pe
Would it keep
see how there could be any bad effects
s a preservative, and a good one, but it
on the meat.
you treat the hams after they have been
and let them stay their
n Florida. The liquid s
the meat from bugs.
is in putting it down i
en that the moisture in
d cause the meat to sp,
iat is the
nt. in all
er if pui
ke is an
the meat, I take a coarse sack
some liquid smoke, just a little,
n the next time there is any
loss in weight?
that under ordinary conditions
,from beginning to end.
t in a barrel and lard poured
Z. ATKESON. Yes, but it takes too much lard. Another way
Alabama is to cover it with cotton-seed oil, which is cheap.
BACKBONE AND SPARE RIBS
That brings me to another problem, that is, the backbone and
spare ribs. The first meal or so, you are just delighted with them;
but when thirty or forty hogs are killed and a fellow tries to eat all
not be salt
make a br
put them i
long, you 1
find the fls
i be reli
s: and ii
ribs, he has a big ji
eved. The backbones
so little meat that t.
u should have a tub,
nds of salt and four
1 ten month
b and a ti
or keg, or
s, if you wish to leave
are of their
re them this
take a piece and soak it in boiling water and you will
is very little impaired, if at all. This will relieve the
period, and at the same time you do not have to spend all
trying to eat the backbones and spare ribs, but can eat the
o chufas or peanuts make the hardest meats?
January or February.
they should be planted
use chufas. The chufl
fall apd winter there .
cheaper an& more rapid<
it occupies' the land too
have not had experience with
would be used except after Dec
When it is taken into cons
early and grow all the year, I
as mature earlier than that, b
ire so many other things that
dly, that I do not care to grow
chufas. I do
prefer not to
ut during the
can be grown
this crop, for
loses anywhere from $300,000 to $500,000 a year
This is only a fraction of the loss in other States,
for our hogs are not worth so much as those in other States
and our feeds are cheaper.
lose about 20 per cent.
of the hogs,
Fig. 3.-Demonstrating the use of hog cholera serum.
about $4.00 a head,
nAfn lfvnl r rnl- ronrl n'n
our loss is between $300,000 and $500,-
*FII n II r. nn nn It fr it nnn .1-1% 4 n Cl J-n ta A n J
SEARCH FOR THE CHOLERA GERM.
The most important wi
whole world is being done by
The work was done by Dr.
Smith, who reported in 189
cause, and described the ge
this was thought true not o
but there was always some (
cultures, and were able to ki
they able to have other well
ones which they treated. T
their minds that Smith had d
They tried to produce the g(
the so-called vaccine to an an
get a mild attack and in th
but they were
were never ab
noticed that th
they were nev
section. They coi
the entrails of a d
hog into a well on
had hog cholera 1
immune. We kno
lid also produce it by feeding the hogs
if they get well they
real cause of choler
know much about it
the microscope, no
pass through the f
proves that it is a fil
capable of producing
duce a vaccine by
subjecting the blood
ures in every case.
r by inje
ork done in hog cholera in the
the Department of Agriculture.
Simons and his assistant, Dr.
1 that they had discovered the
rms which caused cholera, and
inly in America but in Europe,
ioubt about it. They could grow
11 hogs from it; but never were
hogs catch the disease from the
hus, it was never quite sure in
discovered the hog cholera germ.
erm. That is, they tried giving
imal and causing that animal to
lat way bring about immunity,
are immune to the disease. In 1903
a was discovered, and while we do
, it is a germ too small to be seen
matter how strong, and one that
inest clay filters we can make.
terable virus. Yet the filtered part
g the disease. They then tried to 1
of using blood of hogs immune from cholera.
It was found that after a hog had recovered from an
attack, its blood would Drotect others from the disease. That
never able to produce this immunity, for
le to make a hog really immune. They
.ey could always produce the disease, alth
er able to produce a typical case by thi
I to the action of
That brought them
36 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
take a hog which has had hog cholera and recovered (but
it must be one that has had the disease naturally) and in-
ject into that hog large quantities of b]
is dying from hog cholera (and such
stand quite a large injection). Then thi
the hog in quite a peculiar way; the
deeply seated that it is found the best w
of the tail. This tail is chopped off
the blood into a basin and then the blooc
is no pulp left, and the blood does n
blood from which the fibrin.
taken. This bleeding is done
hog has any tail left to cut.
then mixed together as one ble
In working with this dis'
blood as you can find in orde
Government has ruled that all
be certified; so the hog chol
from places that have been i:
tain degree of cleanliness and
to produce the serum. They
centimeters, others 15 cc., an
to two more hogs in order to
The dosage of the hog (
cubic centimeters. Some cla:
others; but the Government 1
hog, and 5 cc. for every fifty I
REPORTS ON TH]
We have reports that th(
this is when being used und
is put in the hands of men w
they are doing, and under th
as good results as are gotten
ports have been very gratifyi
persons to get reports. It is
any good, for it is very expen
reports were favorable to tl
prised, for I expected that pi
that it was no good. The ca
blood from a hog that
an immune hog can
is blood is taken from
blood vessels are so
ay' is to cut off pieces
and allowed to drip
i is beaten until there
ot clot, that is, it is
-forming elements have been
three times, or as long as the
I'hese three parts of blood are
Sending and tested out on a hog.
ease you must use as virulent
r to produce the effect. The
manufacturers of serum must
era serum must be produced
nspected and that have a cer-
paraphernalia so as to be able
give some hogs, say 10 cubic
d others 20 cc. This is given
cholera serum is generally 30
im their serum is better than
requires 20 cc. to a 100 pound
pounds additional weight.
E USE OF SERUM.
a serum has done no good, but
ler adverse circumstances. It
ho have no conception of what
conditions they do not
a laboratory. Still our
We sent out blanks to
essary that we find if
,. About 95 per cent. of
se of serum. I was
bly 50 per cent. would
of the failure may be
-~~~ -. i
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
it for serum, for it looks like serum. But now the Gov-
ernment rules that the blood shall be tested and the place
all right before it can be used.
DISEASES SOMETIMES MISTAKEN FOR HOG CHOLERA.
The disease may not be hog
diseases. One of them is a very
day a man frora Indianapolis told
$60,000 in treating hogs and then
that they had intestinal worms.
disease, but it bores a hole through
me that i
We have other
flammation and redness of the bowels on the
other disease which occurs in young animals, i
disease. It is often lung worm in a hog and
If you will cut open the hog, you will find these
cholera may have run too long. The serum, to
to the hog, must be used early; so if a hog has I
sick for three or four days or a week, with
up, giving evidence of the disease, the chances
serum will not do any good. Tuberculosis is ano
and one that hogs take readily, more quickly
They are especially liable to take it when th
cattle. It does not spread in cattle and does not
much. Swill containing soap, from hotels, will
be of benefit
are that the
ey run with
, when given
to hogs, cause death that is often supposed to be cholera.
The life of a hog is short, so it does not catch diseases
which it might if its life were longer.
SYMPTOMS OF CHOLERA.
There is a loss of appetite, which is a symptom. The
hog will begin to get into corners, matter will form in the
eyes, and there will be diarrhoea and
pation will cause death quicker than
no doubt have noticed these symptom.
the hog. die quickly, only living a day
will think they must have been pois
course; had fever
diarrhoea. You will
s. In the acute form,
or two; and often you
;oned. They have, of
In the chronic form
ger. In post-mortem
nd kidneys are found.
for a week or two.
are drawn out lon
ers on the bowels a
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
plague. They have lung pressure, and on opening the valves,
you will find a lacerated condition. In chronic cases the
serum does not do any good. It does best when used early;
when the animals in a herd first begin to die. The preven-
tion of the disease, outside of the use of serum, is sanitation.
CARRIERS OF CHOLERA.
It is not right to allow the dead body to lie around. Buz-
zards carry the disease from place to place. We made an ex-
periment feeding a buzzard on a hog that had died. We
collected the feces and mixed that with condensed milk and
fed to young pigs. That same food was sent to H. K. Mul-
ford, a Philadelphia Company, and it killed every pig they
used it on, and it proved we were working on virulent stock.
That, of course,
the hog cholera (
the great ways th
is on one farm, sk
It is now be
carries it on his i
virus on the feet.
ulation. I believe
hogs can carry i
)n the feet.
te disease is c
lieved that t
feet, and the
with the carrying of
the buzzard is one of
That explains why it
ears on a third.
treating hog cholera
true of dogs carrying
Lice, no doubt, carry the disease
e lice probably inoculate a hog.
t; and while inoculation will not
them from carrying it, it will prevent the disease
veloping while they are being exhibited.
The injection with serum and a certain amount of virus
is known as the simultaneous method. The serum is the only
one we are sending out. This consists in putting the serum
into the blood. We always recommend that the serum be
injected under the skin. This is the safest way. If you have
an abscess produced in the meat, you will have a bad rotten
spot in the ham. The serum simultaneous method is the
right one, I think; for the serum treatment is simply a kind
of makeshift from a scientific standpoint, because it has
so many drawbacks. You cannot cure a hog with it. You
cannot entirely prevent the disease, and you simply have
to wait for the disease to appear among the hogs to use the
Sflrrn nru +hr0cP Xrookr jg ag in'no. ni +lto fr, -T-man+ nf xIl hnlI d
BULLETIN, NO. 4.
for these treated animals
and the hog that has not b
to develop the cholera. I
come less prevalent since
serum, and I think the sp
double vaccination. This
tific way of
it will spread
to get smaller and harden.
it is u
Now this syringe
sed with as much as
rather weak, or wh
. The needle should
if course, the animal
section; for the abs
i by the serum, but b
Sedle. I have sometin
een double treated
do not think the
cess that is often
y germs carried in
aes, when working
read has been due la
is, however, the only
ease has be-
rgely to the
does not use it,
would use this
all. If every hog
3eing born, hog
as to the duration of immunity. It is
munity lasts for about the life of a hog,
caused is not
on the point of
dipped the point of the needle into carbolic acid when apply-
ing the serum.
The serum is distributed by the State Board of Health
under certain rulings. It is one of the most expensive things
the Boakd has undertaken-it is the most expensive in the
way of distributing a remedy or medicine. We always put
literature in with the package. One is a report blank to be
used at the end of a month. This we made
A!,_. -,, t,,,, -,, -1, - --- - C -a a nl: a -.
^ IF 1.--11
treating. As long as everyone
i hog cholera; but if everyone
would have no hog cholera at
vaccinated a few days after 1
i soon cease to exist.
but I would say use it about once a year on the brooders. One
of the important things connected with the work is the in-
jection of the serum.
We have had a hard time to get the druggists in Jack-
sonville (and I suppose it is the same elsewhere) to carry
the right kind of syringe in stock. This syringe must have
rubber fittings so it can be put away in good order. The
syringe we are now sending out is such a one, and the rea-
son we want an expanding and contracting plunger, is that
when you put the syringe away you do not want the plunger
cost of this instrument is
be disinfected each time
cent. carbolic acid, alcohol
Weak alcohol is probably
t as sharp as possible.
be disinfected at the place
_ * m
and telephones us or even sends a telegram, stating what we
need to know,
we can then send it to him without delay
sometimes have trouble in knowing how to send it, if a man
lives in a little town and does not tell
us his express office.
We have agents in the different Counties who are authorized
to do thi
Let me emphasize the point that hogs given the double
treatment must be kept away from hogs that have not been
given the double treatment, or you will spread the trouble.
By that time the germ
will no longer be passing from
Q. How ion
longer in do
.g is a territory
in an outbreak of ho
Yes, it lasts possibly a year.
rus in him. Personally, I
g cholera, gets the disease.
not get such good results from the use of the serum.
virus dies out after a
only a sh<
You know that you
ink that every hog
otherwise we would
Of course the
could go on, it would be
until the disease would be eliminated.
)oes the double vaccination
thing will d
in the animal?
weeks business-one of our agents treated a man's
and advised him to put a sick hog with them. Of
hogs near Starke
course, the Agent
cted; but, instead,
the man waited for three weeks and he lost many of his hogs.
A. W. TURNER. When the hogs have chills, what does it indicate?
WSON. It is probably cholera. To prevent lung worms
pasture and burn the bodies of hogs that have died with
A single infection does little harm, but continued reinfection does
One worm in the throat of a chicken does little harm, but
bores a hole in
it dies of
the bowels and brings about a fatal disease,
Lung worms cause
Are there any statistics that hogs given the
double treatment for cholera have contracted cholera at a later time
and have died?
animal and lives only about a year.
statistics along this line. Re-vaccir
I do not know of any available
nation of brooders is advised each
The more serum you can
use, the greater the degree of
immunizing you do. We give five additional cubic centimeters for
each additional fifty pounds live weight in order to produce immunity.
Another way would be to inject the blood into the abdominal cavity.
This is rather
dangerous, as it may produce peritonitis.
to produce enough blood to immunize 10
It takes a
It costs us anywhere from $15 to $20 a quart, according to
ufacturer. When we see one firm building a hospital at a cost
tance of the work that is being done. They keep three men doil
nothing else but continually bleeding tails. These hospitals are bui
so far as cleanliness and equipment are concerned, as human hospital
always object to the title usu
"Tick Eradication," because, as
not yet eradicating the
simply working toward
educate him to
you all know
What we are doing
man being the kind
the idea of how important it is to get rid of
The tick probably
United States, because
the first of the
,s first settled at St.
e here on the first cattle shipped in by the Spaniards,
since then we have always had more or less trouble with
northern limit is placed by cold entirely
ground where it is cold enough
eggs the infestation is checked.
C it drops
The disease caused by ticks
fever does not mean anything, except that it conveys to our
minds the diseased condition which
the better term
because it means
bloody murrain, old town pasture
was first noticed in cat-
something. It is also called
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
CAUSE AND SYMPTOMS.
The fever is not caused by the tick itself, but by a germ
which the tick harbors. This germ gets into the blood, and
destroy the red corpuscles about as malaria does in man,
and produces anaemia. The amount of infestation by this
parasite determines the severity of the fever. There are two
forms, the acute and the chronic. The acute is that form
which attacks cattle brought to the country for the first time
and from that originated the idea of acclimat ion fever. But
there is nothing in that theory. When you ship an animal
from above the quarantine line, it becomes sick in its acute
form after its arrival here, and may even
fever and all its accompanying symptoms.
cipal symptoms is bloody urine, from which
sometimes used. The chronic form
. Every cow in Florida has chronic tii
It is not a question of getting rid of
an animal in Florida that is not suff
After several infections they acquire
so that they look in a fair state of health;
ie, with a high
)ne of the prin-
ye get the name
is what we see
ck fever all the
the tick. There
ering from the
tolerance of it,
but when they
get into a poor condition from short pasture, then you see
the scrawny cattle.
The man who discovered the tick germ is Theobald
Smith, the same man who discovered hog cholera, but his
work on Texas Fever has not been doubted. Every one who
has studied it has come to the same conclusion. If you ex-
amine a tick under a microscope, the germ appears of pin
point size. Smith made hi announcement of this discovery
THE TICK CRUSADE.
(Attention was here calle
tick infested States and the arn
the tick, North Carolina being
which started in 1906.) The
Curtice, who started with $70
by rubbing an animal with oil.
but he finally demonstrated th
ticks, and if one farm, why nc
.1 -i __I- --------
d to the chart showing the
ea which has been freed from
Sthe pioneer in the crusade
work was begun by Cooper
0 from the State and began
He was considered a crank,
lat one farm could be rid of
4t the whole county, and if a
fiTL P an a-P 41-. nT NT0 44 n n 1
the black line representing the States
TO RID CATTLE OF TICKS
do not have to build dipping vats, but that of course, i
much to be advised in Florida and in certain parts of
one or two
2ow, you (
Where you have only one 4
, and you will find that it is
from the animal and also
dropped; and every time
not only that one, but st
only a short time until
as they will
from the ground where they have
a large female tick is killed, it is
hundreds of thousands of
THE DIPPING VAT.
The best method for
in the Sta
Florida is the dipping vat.
Ate. They ai
be made of
to keep the wooden ones from leaking.
There is also a steel tank on the market.
is an awful
It costs about
want is to
but the man
to be handled
each, and they
r how you
I have not
are easy to
In many places it is almost impossible to build a concrete vat
because the water table is so high.
DIPPING VATS IN FLORIDA
College of Agriculture,
soms, Bonifay, Nov.
Van Epoel, Tampa, Aug.
McCallum, Winn, Oct.
Hinson, Cottondale, June.
. Matthews, Leesburg, Oct.
Edwards (Mgr. Wenalden Co.
Co. Live Stock Club.
McCaskill, Tallahassee, April.
* Gaitskill, McIntosh, Apr.
Williams, Citra, May.
Camp, Ocala, July.
, Lesley, Kissimmee, May.
. Bass, Southport, Oct.
Whitehead, Hollister, Sept.
j Williams, Dade City, Nov.
Croft, Trilby, July.
Cameron, Geneva, Nov.
F. E. Bugbee,
I sent a
the vat owners of the State, as we wanted
suit of a year's use and their ideas as to th
It is only a year on the 22nd of February
of the first vat. All have been built by T
We may pay for the vat at the Universit
only one, as this is against the principles c
(Dr. Dawson read extracts from nun
to publish the re-
e value of the vat.
since the opening
y, but that is the
)f the State Board
lerous letters that
he had received.)
Of course the question of vat construction in Florida-
is not the same as in other States, as conditions are different
here, and probably the vats will cost more here than they do
in some States. Some States do not have to haul the stones;
and here, too, we have water to contend with. Mr. Barber's
vat cost about $75, and that was about the cheapest one in
the State. The one at Hastings did not cost much more, and
I think none of the others cost more than $300; but it is
mainly a question of the supply of material. $100 is very
There are about 31,000 less cattle at the end of 1913
BULLETIN, NO. 4.
head; and while some people think we have sold too many,
I do not think we have. If we had a million, we could spare
one in every hundred.
if people will come do
they ever paid before,
about the question of
sell off your best breech
the best he can for his
, I do n<
the buyer and the seller.
sible for us to ship out c
great reason for the der
city of feeding cattle, ai
the Middle West get re-
our piney woods. cows ii
piney woods cows well f
s what we raise them for, and
and pay us twice as much as
ot think we have much to say
Of course you do not want to
ck, and the buyer wants to get
but this is a question between
The dipping vat has made it pos-
at any season of the year
ed on the w
:attle is the scar-
stock farmers in
not going to buy
re now. But the
pasture and bred
to a good thoroughbred bull, would give a remarkable cross
At present you can ship out of Florida under certain
conditions, without dipping; but not
region without being dipped twice.
man who is going to ship a carload to
and then they will be dipped again
on arrival, under Government inspec
have no big board bill to pay, for the
out of the quarantined
So it is advisable for a
dip his cattle once here,
at Atlanta, practically
tion. So the owner will
board bill for a carload
of cattle for a few days is quite an expense. It has been
recommended that all shipments of cattle be stopped unless
they have been dipped. This will stimulate the building of
vats. My plan is to get every vat built that we possibly can
without reference to tick eradication; and then when people
are educated to the point where they see the value of the
dipping, there will not be any difficulty in getting the few
remaining people to take up the work. When a man sees he
is h binr benefited he becomes most enthusiastic about tick
(Here Dr. Dawson
dipping vat, explaining
called attention to a diagram of a
its construction fully.)
Five or six dollars worth of material will make 1,500
gallons of the dipping solution, and it will last a long time,
^^^*3^ttL Aj JLt A WII *M kt ' ,r!J 4-^*^/^ ^4- -i^ nnr3/^^ 'T'nr n ^ vi nii
land where it may find its way into a stream, but the poison
can be neutralized by the addition of lime and arsenite of
lime will fall to the bottom as a ma
shovelled out. Do not pour the poison
find its way into some stream.
The State Board of Health has
determining how strong the solution
way would be to try it on one anima
gma, and can then be
on the land, as it may
a chemical method for
should be. The ideal
1 and then wait a few
days and see if the ticks are dead. The tick does not die
just at first; but the arsenic will give the little pests a death
blow, and even if the eggs hatch out, they are weak and
do not reproduce themselves.
The dipping vat pays its cost even if you do not improve
the cattle, because it
flesh. Of course it do
from the blood; but it
begins to recover. All
of the introduction of
causes the animal
'es not remove the
removes the cause
this depends upon
the parasite. As i]
to take on more
, and the animal
n the case of the
hook worm, if you get one on you it does not harm you ma-
terially; but if you keep on introducing the parasites, it gets
the person or the animal into a diseased condition.
ADVANTAGE OF DIPPING.
This parasite can live in the blood of an animal for
fourteen years. We had an animal at Washington for thir-
teen years, which died finally of tuberculosis, whose blood,
when injected into any other animal would give it tick fever.
So by dipping the cattle they begin to improve immediately.
They take on one or two hundred pounds of flesh, according
to the condition of the animal. I have a photograph of an
animal in Mississippi that took on 450 pounds weight in four
months, or over four pounds a day. This shows the vast im-
provement that took place in this Mississippi steer, fed
under the same conditions and living in the same place.
The small cost of dipping will pay for itself
crease of meat alone, and the increased cost of h
would pay for all the money spent in the United
tick eradication. I heard a man say he never
as much for southern hides as he did for
hides because they were eaten up by ti
-J la -a- _-' 1 --- --- .11-- n -.- ti--a a .1 4.. a n
in the in-
v'. n-w4L ~ ftlw
I think it pays to
and you cannot g
a good purebred
I know a ma
a herd as any in
of ticks is by pasture
case, of course, if he
have to be to control
Four and a half
nually lost on account
here, by the abortion
cattle. But the loss
is the acquirement of a thoroughbred
sell off a half dozen cows to get a good
'et better cattle without tick eradication
n within nine miles of here who has as
the State. Another method of eradica
rotation. This man does that. In his
had a very ticky place, his idea would
the ticks, not eradicate them.
* million dollars worth of milk is an-
of ticks, in the loss of animals brought
of animals, and the death of infested
of milk alone is what the figures re-
Another thing is the increased desire on the part of
boys and girls to remain on the farm. At present there is
very little in the farm home to attract young people, but I
think tick eradication would be one of the things to increase
the desire of the young people to remain on the farm. They
will take pride in raising good cattle as they do now in
raising corn and hogs. I hope Prof. Willoughby will start
a calf club before long. The first public movement was
started here at the University when we formed the Live
Stock Association in December, 1912. So the whole subject is
only about one year old here in Florida; but I think now
there are very few people in the State who do not know
something about tick eradication. We have gone at it
through the newspapers and lecturers. The Farmers' In-
stitutes have had something to say about it as they have
gone about the State.
We have a law on the Statute Book, "The Tick Eradi-
cation Law," which allows the State Board of Health to
spend such money as they deem advisable from the half mill
tax on every dollar in the State. There have also been do-
otnMn Vna hr ;tr;Auaxrrlinm 4r\ +n n wr AIv an 4-Ukh nsTa'tl * * *
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4. 47
would come in the young cattle that had never been attacked
by the ticks.
Another thing will be the desire on the part of the
farmer to improve his herd. The first thing he will think
The Government had a man who knew how to construct the
vats, and he has gone about giving instructions free. We
have not only to teach the cow man what he ought to do,
l.S 4- r.rvt n nw i nl n n v \nl *
IJUI O alinC Uhlaldl pcupch.
I can hardly see how
tick eradication after he seC
out of that work. I am most int
it, and others deal with the fi
purpose of the whole question
.g the people the important fact
in the disease
side; but the
ev must eradi-
Dawson has pointed
paign against the tick. You will
hundreds of men in your Counties 4
if you understand it, you can do a
the people up to this thing; and by
cther States, they will appropriate
fellows to take the proper steps.
beforehand, you will find it hard.
a lot of fellows who made it their
hinder the work all they could, un
sent there to clean them out. It
out that this is a cam-
luring the next
and by, if they
the money and
But if you have
business to dyn
til a Governmen
is a whole lot
twelve months, and
work in educating
do in Florida as in
compel those other
not done the work
last year they had
amite the vats and
it officer had to be
better for you to
educate your peop
that they will do
find the men who
able to build a vat
come here next tin
the County. If ye
. I thin
go home, set about finding
I knew of an agent
benefit of the dipping v
to have much faith in it.
make them see the value of this work so
igly. You can do another thing, you can
e money and the interest to be willing and
k it will look bad for the county for you to
ut being able to report at least one vat in
ret more, so much better. Now when you
some one man who is willing to build a vat.
in Mississippi who was convinced of the
t, but could not get any of his neighbors
So he set to work to construct one himself
on his own place. He built it off in the bushes and so no one knew
he had one there till it was ready for use. Then he had a big bar-
becue and invited every one to come, telling them he had a surprise
there to show them. And the surprise was the demonstration of the
dipping vat. Some of the old farmers were very much opposed to
the idea, and declared loudly that they would never allow any such
thing to be done to their cattle. But he persisted and dipped what he
could; and as a result there are now 21 vats in that County, and some
of the very men who were loudest in their statements that they
would not allow their cattle to be dipped, are now driving their
cattle 8 miles to have them dipped in his vat.
PRn WTT.nTnwRVY. Did he charge anything for it?
what he would give, a
State Board of Health.
C. H. BAKER. We
The vat belonged to Mr.
Edwards of Zellwood, but the
Ld a Farmers'
there, and Mr. Spencer was present. Mr. Edwards, who is a very
enterprising man, persuaded the people he represents to build the vat
at their own expense for the purpose of demonstrating to the people
in the County who had large numbers of
solution, and we
cattle. They sent and got
aing demonstration. One of
the oldest men there said he knew the ticks came out from the inside
of the cattle.
This shows how necessary it is to go at it diplomatic-
DR. DAWSON. The 1st of April we shall have somebody to send
around who knows just how to build the vats. Now if anyone wants
vat about the
superintend it free of charge.
April we shall
have a man
THE VALUE OF
The value and necessity
in order to
largest yield of
crops per acre,
following .a systematic crop
has long been known in
European countries usually specify what the
is to be. In some sections of the United States
appreciate and have adopted
, farmers fully
Only a very small percentage of the farmers in
have adopted any system
Interest, however, is growing rapidly among the
emphasized the necessity of this.
SOME ADVANTAGES OF
for the growing
ig crops), which furnish an economic supply
anr it reduces to the minimum the necessity <
chasing commercial forms of
crop on the
which checks leaching and the erosion of the soil.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
5. It supplies the soil with humus (decayed vegetable
matter) which increases the water-holding power of the soil
and helps to ensure against the damage of the crop by
6. It enables the farmer to systematize his plans and
economize in labor.
IMPORTANT POINTS TO CONSIDER
WHEN PLANTING A
1. The first thing of importance in the rotation
to provide for growing and turning under enough legu
crops to keep the soil well equipped with nitrogen.
2. Plan to grow, as nearly as possible, all supply
necessary for the farm.
3. Keep a crop growing on the land all of the time
prevent the leaching and washing away of the soil.
4. Put a hog-proof fence around the entire farm, so ti
it can be utilized for a pasture for your own stock, and
that your neighbors' stock can be kept off.
5. Keep enough stock on the farm to consume all f
age and grain produced. Carefully save the manure a
return it to the land.
HOW SOILS CAN BE MADE RICH BY A CROP ROTATION.
We will use for illustration the most common
station practiced by cotton farmers, which is as folio
ton one year, corn the next, and oats the next. It
ble to grow four soil-improving crops in this rotatio
at the la
off the c
for the c
clover can be sown in the cotton middles
plowed under the following April as a fert
Second; cowpeas can be sown broadcast in
st cultivation. Third; cowpeas can be sown for a
after the oats are harvested. Fourth; after taking
owpea hay crop, the land can be seeded to crimson
be turned under the first of April as a fertilizer
ie oat crop is to be used for hay, hairy vetch can be
ith the oats, which would give five soil-improving
B ULLE TIN,
FIELD NO. 1 FIELD NO. 2 FIELD NO. 3
1914. Cotton, crimson 1914. Corn and peas. 1914. Oats and peas.
clover as winter Crimson clover as
Corn and peas.
Oats and peas.j 1916.
Crimson clover as
Oats and peas. 1915.
Crimson clover as
winter cover crop.
Cotton. Crimson 1916.
winter cover crop.
cover crop. cover crop. Cor
PLANT FOOD REMOVED FROM THE SOIL BY STAPLE CROPS
ON RICH LAND
nt bt A
500 1.50 0.65 2.12
1000 31.50 I 12.17 11.62
Grain, cob and shuck
4000 I 22.00 I 70.00
______179.20 85.421 196.74
Tons and Roots
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
When cowpeas, crimson clover, vetch, and other annual
legumes are cut for hay, about one-third of the total nitro-
gen is left in the roots and stubble, and the remainder, or
two-thirds of the total nitrogen, is removed with the hay.
On medium fertile soils, legume plants draw about two-
thirds of their nitrogen from the air and one-third from the
When cowpeas are grown on soils that will produce one
bale of cotton per acre and the hay removed, the soil will
be neither richer or poorer in nitrogen, as the nitrogen
left in the roots and stubble is about equal to the amount
of nitrogen the plant has drawn from the soil.
Two-thirds of 301.6 pounds, the total amount of nitro-
gen contained in the legume crops that are turned under in
three years, equal 201.06 pounds, the amount of nitrogen
added to the soil by crops turned under.
fed to livw
to the lani
of the fer
the grain and
3 stock, and the
L of the plant fo(
i in the manure
of the manure
hay produced on the farm was
I manure carefully saved, at least
od in these crops could be returned
from eighty to ninety per cent.
s in feeds is returned in the ma-
few farmers will save more than
produced by stock. From table
1, it will be seen that 177.7 pounds of nit
of phosphoric acid and 194.62 pounds
rogen, 84.77 pounds
of potash were re-
moved from each acre of soil in three years in grain and hay
products. To this, one hundred pounds of nitrogen con-
tained in four thousand pounds of cowpea hay should be
added. The total plant food in feed produced is as follows:
277.7 pounds nitrogen, 84.77 pounds phosphoric acid,
and 194.62 pounds potash. Estimating one-fourth of this
saved in manure, we have the following amount of fertilizer
in the manure produced: 69.42 pounds nitrogen, 21.19 phos-
phoric acid, and 48.65 potash. Add to this the 201.06 pounds
of nitrogen returned to the soil in legumes, and we have:
270.48 pounds nitrogen, 21.19 pounds phosphoric acid, and
48.65 pounds of potash; which is the total amount of plant
food returned to the soil in legumes and barnyard manure.
Balance this against the amount of plant food removed in
crons. and we have a iain to the soil of 91.28 pounds of
I consume a
phosphorus and potassium
land year after year for all
the land is to be maintained.
be bought and
to come if the
put on the
of 200 pounds of
phosphate and 100 pounds of muriate of potash per acre each
, are brought to the farms of the South at the cheapest
The leguminous crops,
such as cowpeas,
vet beans, beggarweed and the clovers,
the air and store it in the soil. If live
gather nitrogen from
stock are kept to con-
sume the hay and grain produced on the farm and the barn-
yard manure is applied to the soil, the fertility and produc-
tiveness of the soil can be maintained at very
for commercial fertilizers.
The only 'elements of fertility that
potash each year, and these can be returned at small expense
in commercial forms.
suited to his
of his farm.
of all cr
well-planned system of
as an illustration.
and one that will maintain
100 per cent
rotation, any farm
fertilizer bills can
can be stopped.
Why not begin a crop rotation ?
H. E. SAVELY.
ing an export duty
I think it ought to be allowed, the purchaser pay-
(which is now prohibited) just as much as Ger-
v** -. a-
_1 -_ P _ .T.._ L _. _ .J ta a aL -- nfl ,n .tia .* nnL r r
S ^ -, A._
f* Iff f-tr erf f^ r .* T
It would bh
of the fert
not want t<
I should like to have all the formulas Mr. Savely
ROLFS. I should
sprung up under
e a great step in a
o take the time to
the original work,
Then sprang up the
ments, fish scraps,
element used alone
a third. It has been a
t where we are at present
system, but barbarously
fertilizer formulae; they
short of what they ough
accustom ourselves to
to the complete fertil
would say to our Co
discouraged if you do
been in the work for (
has been marvelous, i
grow. The work we
ship is of
an anything we
of land or par
and I should li
n a general w:
such a crop as
like to say one word about the formulae.
necessity, and under difficult conditions.
advancee to get a more thorough knowledge
that go into making the formula. I do
go into the history of fertilizer formulas;
e, was done with the separate elements.
!rtilizer houses, handling the different ele-
eed meal, etc. Then we found that one
b sufficient, so a second was introduced,
struggle in our education to get to
t. We know our school system is a
short of what it ought to be. So
are immensely better than nothing,
.t to be. It will take some time to
the fertilizer elements rather than
a slow process of education; so I
nstration Agents, "Do not become
see any revolution in five years."
twenty years, and in that time th
e from year to year I could hard
doing in our laboratories shows
have had heretofore just what the
form of fertilizer constituent to the
farm and garden truck. I think
to get out suggestive formulae, ,
E. SOAR. Now sometimes a ma
a ton after putting a filler in,
ly see it
Some very interesting things
discuss them, but I will merely
rate of ammonia is a splendid
t a pretty poor thing for some
it would not be a very difficult
such as Mr. Savely spoke of.
,n can make these things weigh
but the point is, why do you
need to make a ton?
H. E. SAVELY. I picked up a bulletin of another State that had
a lot of formulas that were very confusing to me. It would have
been much easier if it had said, "Use so many pounds of ammonia,
so many pounds of acid phosphate, and so many of potash." I like
the simpler form.
A. That is much better, but we have gotten so used to reading it
in percentages that we get the chemical carrying that amount.
P. H. ROLFS. It is a matter that will require time, but not so
long as you might imagine. Fifteen years ago, the farmers were
very ignorant on the reading of the formula on the tag; but now it
will average at least one man in every community who understands
them; but they are a block and a hindrance, and we shall probably
have to unlearn them.
C. K. McQuARRIE. One great step in advance that Florida has
taken is that any farmer or anybody can buy any quantity of these
elements that are commonly used. There are some States where it is
nlmnicd imnnrmchlo +a A4n hkia
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
learn, as I took the precaution to say this morning, and what I said
referred to a particular type of soil. Now if we were working on flat-
woods soil we would have a different condition from the rolling pine.
A. P. SPENCER
The Irish potato in Florida may be classed either as
a truck or farm crop, in view of the fact that quite a large
area is grown each year in certain sections of the State. Its
adaptability is more general than was once thought, and it
is now found growing in every County
of the State with
more or less success. The largest acreage is found in the flat-
woods sections where artesian irrigation is possible.
of these soils were considered quite worthless for almost any
crop until they were brought into a high state of cultivation
by systematic crop rotation, co-operative methods in market-
ing, and the proper cultural methods well
much larger area of Florida can be used for Irish potatoes,
and these lands are found in almost every County in Florida.
The flatwoods soils,
humus, must have more humus a'
ways need an addition of humus.
contain small amounts of
added. High pine lands al-
Scrub oak lands are not
suitable for the growing of Irish potatoes, although
possible to bring these to a state of high productivity, pro-
which in most cases would not be a profitable undertaking.
It is important to understand that a large amount of vege-
table matter in the soil will go a long way toward assuring a
good crop in almost any section or with any type of soil in
Inasmuch as the flatwoods sections of the State have
drainage has presented itself in such a way that the farmers
have necessarily made provision for drainage; but even with
the drainage provided, there are seasons when the rainfall
is above the average,
some difficulty in tal
ing care of
the water in flatwoods
56 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
crop will not make a satisfactory growth if the ground is
The Irish potato requires a complete fertilizer on most
Florida soils. If the land has been in cultivation and has a
liberal amount of humus, as much as one ton of fertilizer
might be applied. A formula analyzing approximately 4 per
cent. ammonia, 7 per cent. phosphoric acid and 8 per cent.
potash would be recommended. The material necessary for
a ton may be made as follows: 1055 pounds cotton-seed meal, <
655 pounds of acid phosphate, and 290 pounds of sulphate of
potash. The following formula is also used extensively: 800
pounds blood and bone, 900 pounds of 16 per cent. acid phos-
phate, and 300 pounds of sulphate of potash.
In the event that the land is new, it would not be advisa-
ble to apply more than 1500 pounds per acre, and in the
proportions of the above stated mixtures. Where the soil
is deficient of humus, an additional 100 pounds of cotton-
seed meal or blood and bone may be added to advantage, as
the ammonia encourages an early growth of the plants.
Stable manure is not generally used as the fertilizer for
Irish potatoes, as it seems to have a tendency to increase
the amount of scab. Commercial fertilizers may be applied
either under the seed or above the seed in the beds. Both
methods are practiced with good results.
DATES FOR PLANTING.
Florida has -two seasons for planting Irish potatoes.
From a commercial standpoint, the winter-grown potato
gives the best results. These should be planted as early as
possible, but late enough to avoid a freeze that may occur
even up to March 1. In South Florida, January, or even De-
cember plantings are to be recommended; but in Central
and North Florida, because of the danger of freezes, it
would be .better to defer planting until from January 25 to
February 20. Irish potatoes can withstand a light frost.
If the leaves are just through the ground, the injury will
be very slight if they are frozen off, but if the top has
made considerable growth the crop would be considerably
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
Northern markets and compete
toes when the northern crop is
grown Irish potato crop is not
Attention has been directed
with northern-grown pota-
moving; so that the fall-
so important from a com-
I to local markets
quite frequently neglected. A few farmers
County, who had made provision for marketing
potatoes, sold quite a large quantity at from
per barrel in Gainesville and neighboring
cember and January. The distribution
was more or less uneven, consequently a
might have used larger quantities did not
secure a market: for fall-grown potatoes,
look well in advance, when quite a large
community might be placed on the market at a good price
during the early winter.
As to methods of planting, cultivation, fertilization, etc.,
of the fall crop, it does not differ much from the winter
potatoes, it is advisable for farmers to grow their own seed
wherever possible. It has never been found a good practice
to plant the fall-grown seed for the winter crop. The pota-
toes do not have sufficient time for maturing, which results
in an uneven stand; so it is best to import seed for winter
planting, unless they may be carried over from the previous
spring. In that case it is recommended that potatoes to be
carried over should be spread out on the floor where they
will mature and begin to sprout before being planted. The
spring-grown crop may be kept over with but little trouble
for fall planting.
The varieties that have given the best
Spaulding's Rose 4, Bliss Triumph, Look
tain, aId Irish Cobbler. The two first-
eties are favorites on flatwoods land, as
rapidly, are good shippers, and are
I. *ii' 7 jy .^ A C^* I. I t It S**1^
^r # rtlf*
is a common
In some cases corn is
potatoes are dug.
It matures about July 20,
Or the land may be allowed to grow up in crab-grass,
be cut for
Such a rotation gives a variety of crops, and keeps the land
other crops, leaving
potatoes for the cash
The cost of
S. J. McCULLY. Do you
the fall to eastern markets?
shipments had gone out.
potatoes at the
I do not.
Y. I should think there ought to be good prices.
s. From what I gathered from Mr. Robert Taylor,
Solicitor, it would not pay to do it, though a few
Last fall they were getting northern-grown
use, Gainesville, at $1.00 per bushel. It is
A. W. TURNER. What would be the proper time
toes in our section for a fall crop in Liberty County?
earlier as you think advisable.
M. C. GARDNER. I want t
*, -, a _
to plant pota-
to the 15th of Sep-
latest, and as much
o know about the fall crop of potatoes
* ll jf.EaI 1u3I *iiIrkI L*Ju
the wind could blow across them until they were
for germination. It has not paid to grow potatoes
The northern-grown seed makes a more uniform
S. J. MCCULLY. Have you ever tried holding
potatoes for the following spring?
P. H. ROLFS. It has been tried with very goc
germination is concerned.
S. J. MCCULLY. I have tried it this spring,
ing off nicely.
M. C. GARDNER. Are spring-grown potatoes i
A. P. SPENCER. Yes, that is all right. Plant
for seed in Florida.
the spring crop of
,d success so far as
they are grow-
ill right to plant in
only the tubers that
P. H. ROLFS
* sulphate of
ammonia, leaches o
the organic ammor
from cottonseed meal, dried blo
These statements, however, ar
grounds than on direct tests. T
rn about the availability of the
he possibility of the different el
soil, and the inter-relations tha
have one with another, that we
too positive in our assertions in
f we could just eliminate from o
,e believe to be so but are not so,
ess in the next ten years than
of this fertilizer question. I mi
n cut to say that this would be 1
iltural work. I do not mean to
ment those fictitious stories
of "boosting" some particu
will prote of advantage to
ut of the soil
lias which ar
d, or similar
lere is still so
may well pause and
regard to the matter.
that are told r
I am referring to the statements that pa
biased literature. With this introduction
0 is 0* r I I
minds those facts
would make more
have in the past
;broaden this as-
case in all of our
lude in this state-
urely for the sake
the sale of which
racial concern, but
tss current in un-
)n to our discus-
1 I L ^. ?-.. .
Giving the number of
pounds of materials needed to furnish the equivalent amount of
plant food contained
From 14 %
From 16 %
To make a fertilizer containing 4% Ammonia, 6% available Phosphoric Acid, 10% Potash from Nitrate
Phosphate, and Muriate of Potash. By looking in the percentage column for 4%o, and in the Nitrate of Soda c
lbs., in the 16~ Acid Phosphate column opposite 6 we find 750 lbs., and in the Muriate of Potash column op
420 lbs., the sum of the 440 lbs., 750 lbs., and 420 lbs., is 1610 lbs., which is equivalent to and contains the sai
Food as 2000 lbs. of the 4-6-10 manufactured fertilizer.
In case it is desired to make a formula 4%o Ammonia, 6% available Phosphoric Acid, 10 o Potash and d
from Nitrate of Soda, 1 % of Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal, 1 % of Ammonia from Blood, use 220 lbs. Nitra
Cotton Seed Meal, 125 lbs. Blood, 750 of 16 Acid Phosphate, and 420 lbs. Muriate of Potash. Any combine
in the same way.
(b) If your fertilizer house handles only mixed goods write to the larger fertilizer houses in Jacksonville or
. *~* * r ----~i.li .... U~ '.:*i ::i*'4":hs':...s a...A..... ...:.:,*lh/ .: ii::::......*.1".*.M .II*E
Sugar Cane ----------
Peanuts _ -
Oats ...... ---
Georgia Salad -..-----.
The foregoing formulae have been compiled.
FERTILIZER LOST IN DRAINAGE
Gallons of Water
1910 to June
June 1911 to May 1912
Tank 1 Tank 2
Acid Phosphate --
Sulphate of Potash
Nitrate of Soda
WHAT THE CHARTS
I have presented
are developed from
62 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
The amount referred to under the heading nitrate of
soda represents the amount of ammonia that is lost from
leaching and by calculating this amount of ammonia into
the form of nitrate of soda we have the amount given on
This is done for convenience sake so that every
man may know just how much material is lost. If it were
stated in terms of ammonia it would not carry such defi-
nite information with it, but when the ammonia is stated
in terms of nitrate of soda anyone can readily picture 100
pounds of it or any other quantity in his mind.
the case of potash it should not
the potash leached out of the soil is in the form of high-
grade sulphate of potash,
was when it was leached
but no matter in
what form it
the amount was calculated
to sulphate of potash as a standard.
In the case of acid phosphate the explanation is sim-
out was obtained and
then we calculated back to the amount of 16 per cent. acid
phosphate that it would make.
little was lost in the way of sulphate of lime or land plaster
as well as in the
of pure ground limestone it would have taken to have re-
placed the lime
In observing the different tanks you
will notice that
there was a very considerable variation as to the amount
of ammonia lost; however, do not let this confuse you, as
would require a two hours lecture by itself.
to observe here
What we want
is the main fact of the large amount of
ammonia lost under all the varying conditions.
nations noted in the different tanks form an extremely in-
teresting problem, and one
user of fertilizers in Florida.
I hope some day to have an
opportunity of discussing this rather fully and technically
The figures placed before you in the tables show you
that the ammonia is the one element in our fertilizers that
vnn mllat. keppn your PVsP An
Yon will nntiea that.f. it krPPnm
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4. 63
does so large an amount leach out as to cause us any partic-
The phosphoric acid, you will notice from the tables,
sticks well in the soil;
ipate danger from pla
line of figures shows
quite a great surprise
ing leached out; but
quently have followed
therefore, we will not
nt hunger in that direct
the loss of lime in the
I to us to find so much
it explains why good
an application of lime.
need to antic-
tion. The last
soil. It was
lime was be-
crops so fre-
From the fo
sion you will see
one we need to r
ida. It is the 4
rapidly, and one
)regoing charts and the foregoing discus-
that the ammonia content of the soil is the
)ay the greatest attention to here in Flor-
one element that keeps fluctuating most
that is causing us more trouble than all
the others combined.
While we pay for ammonia at the highest rate of any
of the fertilizer elements, it is the one element that we can
get nearly for nothing. All of our legume crops supply
a large amount to the soil without charging us anything
for it. In my lecture last night I showed you the tubercles
that form on the different leguminous crops. By the aid
of these, the legumes are enabled to transform a large
amount of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, so it can
be used by the plants. Professor Scott, or for that mat-
ter everyone who talked on forage and hay, has emphasized
the importance of growing legumes. These plants are the
ones that return to the soil more fertilizer than they have
taken from it. In addition to returning fertilizer, they
return another element which is called humus. This humus
enables the soil to hold in its make up more of the soluble
ammonia than it would be able to hold without the humus.
The conditions of the soil vary greatly, from being too
dry for plant growth, to being too wet for plant growth.
So far as the ammonia condition of the soil is concerned,
it is as bad for the plant to have the soil too dry as it is to
have it too wet. Fortunately a great many years the con-
Saxon Reader are studied and
The texts in
.,^: . :1 *; ^ *!MM
. .. "*
Judith is read.
ENGLISH VIII.-Chaucer and the Middle English Grammar.-
During the first
read in and
During the second semester
attempt to give special training to the Engineering student in the
preparation of the various
of writing that he will be called
upon to do in the pursuit of his profession.
It will consist largely
of the writing of papers
by the depart-
AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
University for the first time
not had satisfactory courses in European or American history are
recommended to those who expect to elect more than one course
being the most general course in the social sciences.
in Europe in its various aspects
to the present.
from the earliest historical times
HISTORY II.--American History.
-The growth of nationalism,
and industrialism in the United States
, with particular
thP nro rnc ngr-
n rrhl pm c
(Prerequisite, English VII; 3 hours.)
banking, industrial organization,
ods on the farm
Current political problems.
POLITICAL SCIENcE IIa.-Principles of Political Science.-Not
, with particular reference to the family
crime, the church, education,
and social reform.
ment of6 crime and criminals,
with particular reference to South-
the church, and
66 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
In conclusion I will say that I cannot emphasize too
strongly that if anyone adopts a hard and fast rule in re-
gard to fertilizing crops,
appointed in the results,
more fertilizer than his c
From the discussion
he will either frequent
or he will be using a
rops actually need.
today, and from the c
sented to you, I have emphasized very strongly the point
that the ammonia is the fickle element in our fertilizer form-
ulas. It is the element we have to keep our eye on. It
is the costly element if we have to buy it. We can produce
it on the farm without its costing us anything and we
then have it on the farm distributed through the soil in
such a way that the plants can use it to the best advantage.
As long as it is necessary for us to buy this costly element
let us keep our eye clearly upon it. If a dry year occurs,
we need to reinforce our formula with chemical nitrogen;
when a wet year occurs, during which much water leaches
from the soil, we need to apply a considerable quantity of
The potash leaches out of the soil to an inconsiderable
extent, as you have seen. It needs only minor attention, and
one or two good applications a year to ordinary farm crops
Phosphoric acid, as you have seen, sticks in the soil
very tenaciously, and it is quite probable that one applica-
tion of a large amount of phosphoric acid will supply a suf-
ficient amount of this element to last the plants for sev-
Finally, no formula of fertilizers will prove to be the
best under all varying weather conditions, nor will any
particular fertilizer formula prove to be the best for all
varying soil conditions. We must vary our formulas for
different weather conditions and different soil conditions.
D. R. McQUARRIE. In place of nitrate of soda, if you had used
cotton-seed meal and tankage, what would have been the result?
P. H. ROLFS. It was not nitrate of soda. As a matter of fact
these tanks have had three forms of ammonia.
Q. Is there any particular relation between the amount of
nitrate that washed out and the amount supplied?
P. H. ROLFS. Yes, there is a relationship. The amount washed
out varies under different conditions, and is not always proportional
to the amount of ammonia applied. A part of the ammonia leached
out was elaborated in the soil by organisms.
I. E. SOAn. Which washed out more, sulphate of potash or
P. H. ROLFS. We don't know.
W. L. WATSON. Was it necessary to reinforce the ammonia in a
P. H. ROLFS. Yes, it would be necessary. It became very appar-
ent last year. We had an extremely dry season. The amnlnia was
placed in the soil, but did not become available to the plant. The
amount of ammonia applied to the soil would have given good results
in a normal season. We must look out for both dry and wet season,
but the dry season is the one we have overlooked in the past. In dry
seasons the bacteria and other organisms are unable to vegetate in a
normal way, consequently, very little nitrogen is being fixed in the
soil. Therefore the land is poor in assimilable nitrogen, not because
it has been leached out, but because the bacteria cannot convert nitro-
gen into an available form for the use of the plants.. Then we should
add a form that can be quickly taken up by the plants.
R. T. KELLEY. In a case of that kind the crop would not use
all of it?
P. H. ROLFS. No. The moment you have rood cropping weather
you will have
with a small
one the plants
ding of bloom
1 prevent tl
an over-supply of nitrogen, and a rank growth results
crop of fruit or grain. If a dry period follows a wet
are likely to suffer from ammonia hunger, because the
lonia was washed out by the rains, and in the dry period
cannot elaborate enough to satisfy the plants,-shed-
of flowers. An application of nitrate at the right time
sion I want to add. if we could only by some maiec get
of the things that
ke rpore progress in
Josh Billings puts
iw so many things tl
y that to get a high p
ash. Yet right in 1
nts made in the We
are not so that we believe to be so, we would
the next 10 years than we have in the last 50.
it, "I would rather not know so much than to
hat are not so." Yo
ier cent. of sugar in
the face of that are
ist Indies and here
which do not show that you can change the
the juice one iota by adding potash.
vill find it stated
cane juice you m
e long continued
percentage of si
S. J. MCCULLY.
TT i *F ,"I 1 r *I J r- i r
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
which gives directions for home mixing of fertili-
Gentlemen, I contend just as the Department does in
this circular, that we can save from 25 to 50 per cent. on
our fertilizer bills. First, the fertilizer agents have a
price practically for every land. Now that is a broad asser-
tion. I will take one particular fertilizer, Lettuce Special.
I am not going to call any names unless it is necessary. In
our County last fall there were quite a lot of demonstrators
there and I had occasion to follow right behind a man who
was around selling Lettuce Special. I do not remember its
analysis, but that does not make any difference. I have in
mind the names of three men to whom he sold it-one at
$36, one at $38 and one at $42. It is a fact that it was the
same fertilizer, and they all bought on 120 days time. This
is why I contend that the farmers should co-operate and buy
the chemicals and do their own mixing.
Now we find the greatest trouble in getting the farmers
to co-operate and buy the chemicals. One reason is because
the fertilizer man comes along and says, "It's no use for
you to listen to the Demonstration Agent, he will give you a
formula that is worthless. What does he know about it?"
He says that if you buy the chemicals you do not save any-
thing. But he will mix them for you, sell you on time and
take your note.
I had the circular I have read you published and dis-
tributed, 75 or 100 over the County. Shortly afterward I met
a gentleman going along the road; he said, "By the way, I
read your circular in the Banner the other day. I showed
it to a fertilizer man and he looked at it and said, 'You can't
do anything like that. You don't know anything about the
chemicals." Honestly, he made that man believe the chem-
icals came in liquid form, and he wanted to knc
how in the world he would apply it.
In November I was in Dunnellon and I spoke
who as I knew was going to buy 50 or 75 tons of
I suggested that he buy his chemicals and do
mixing. He said he had a price from a house in Jac
and showed it to me. As I remember, they had cut
to a man
some; but when we figured it out he said he would keep
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
of over-production. Where does this advance come in? I
know where it goes-it goes into their pockets. (Informa-
tion by Mrs. Prange that there had been an advance in price
of tankage and of organic ammonia in the packing houses).
(Suggestion by MR. SOAR: People working in the phos-
phate mines say it cost $1.25 a ton to load phosphate on
Now we want to see some figures gotten out by the
nitrate people; and I believe they are right, and I want
to compare their figures with the prices the fertilizer peo-
ple have sent out. Take this one, Ammonia 4, phosphoric
acid 5, potash 6. Listed price to-day is $32 per ton. Con-
lbs. nitrate of sc
Spate, 300 lbs.
has listed prices
lbs. dried blood, 87
3 of potash. That
ly sent to every ag
; but the quantities at those prices would
you $20.85. Take another, 4-7-6. This is
thing for cantaloupes; nitrate of soda, dried
acid phosphate and sulphate of potash. Now we can buy
these materials and have them laid down at any station in
Florida for $27. Now until we can get the f
open their eyes to these things, we are up again
proposition. I find another thing in my work
to get men to co-operate and buy chemicals, th<
understand anything about the formulas, they
another man's word for it. Now my plan is, just
the different chemicals, take a little plot of gr
plant a few rows of one kind of plant and use
chemicals on it. I do this for the benefit of my D1
tors and Co-operators.
st a hard
ey do not
to try out
N. M. G. RANGE
I wish to express the great pleasure I have had in at-
tending your meeting. It would take too much time and be
entirely unnecessary to endorse the
subjects covered. I will, however,
important point, which, it seems to
the emphasis it needs. As perhaps
about six years I l
able work on the many
call attention to a most
me, has not been given
I most of you know, for
iected with the largest
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
your positions because you
ireciate the full importance
and cultivation, and the
the humus content of the sc
It is easier
on a three-inch
of plowing six
general rule th
il, but the
farmers, so you
sity of keeping
pounds of fertilizer to go
convince him of the value
suppose you all accept the
the amount of fertilizer
is 100 pounds per acre to each inch depth
of plowing, this up to ten-inch depth.
to plow even deeper than ten inches, it
profitable to use over 1,000 pounds per
field crops. But you will find this, s
little understood by a large number o:
Generally they do not appreciate the va
and when they do, they are likely to I
which, as you know, is not advisable,
While it is better
has not been found
acre on the common
plowing at the wrong season; for inst
planting the corn, thus drying out the
detriment instead of an advantage. The:
tivation should be equally emphasized.
been ruined, or at least seriously injured,
simple to you, is
men in your care.
e of deep plowing;
w new land deep,
* to do their deep
;ance, just before
and being a
a crop has
)o deep culti-
ovation, and the people must be taught to do this plowing
and cultivating when the soil is in the right condition.
The matter of humus in the soil has been most care-
fully covered, but it cannot be too greatly emphasized.
No plant can live on chemicals alone, and in order to get
the greatest benefit from chemicals, there must be plenty
of humus in the soil. It is here that the citrus growers
have so much trouble. The trees must have humus, and
the grower has trouble to get this humus in the right form,
and great trouble if he gets it in the wrong form.
MARKETING TRUCK AND FRUIT
I would also speak of marketing.
To be sure, most of
your work is with the field crops, but some
in the trucking districts and others will find
growing small areas of truck crops at certain
a little extra mnnev. Now. the f. n. b. hbver w
of you are
ith cash in
too much on
to sell him 6
at on field cr
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO.
panies, he can generally find a few more for the com-
I believe I hold the record for money-making by grow-
ing ordinary truck crops on
crops, to be sure, and packed
greatest factor in my success
so perhaps a few words as t
The first precaution is,
man. In this you are aided b
mission Merchants; but this
handles the kind and grade
small acreage. I raised fine
! them well, but I consider the
was my method of marketing,
;o this may be of value.
of course, to select an honest
,y the National League of Corn-
not enough. Get a man who
of products you have to mar-
ket. A commission man may have an exc<
fruit, but give little attention to garden pr
if he is able to get fancy prices for fancy g
find that he can do very little for your i
The best of fields will have some seconds
to market; but the grower's name never
on such packages if he wishes to build a
After selecting men in different cities,
never divide your shipments to a city, as
making the shipments compete against eac
house informed as to the crops being
on and as to their general conditions.
have no particular influence on the
condition is an
that section of
ciates such info
indication of what may be
Allent trade in
stick to them;
you are thus
h other. Keep
The commission man
Co-operate with him and
r your interests. For instance;
carefully advised as to market
market he will hold your goods
a falling market he will put
them as soon as he can, in eac
the maximum amount possible
twenty-five cents to seventy-five
be gained in this way helps
son's profits; but there are
when good prices cannot be obta
shipments. These times
city, during which high
son from this is never to s
, he will n
as long as
them to th
s per crate
because of h,
almost invariably follow a scar-
prices have prevailed. The les-
ship to the city sending out fancy
turned to other channels. By keeping his
from Chicago to the East, and taking a
natural rise and fall, the attentive grower
some place in which there is good demand
eye on markets
advantage of the
can always find
for his products.
T. K. GODBEY.
I plant something like 100 acres a year now. Most
important in farming in the South is clean land, free of
I was a
I am a
I tell yol
but I ca
new and modern
boy, more than
i straight truth 1
here was ua
the South is
the West when
and to tell you
forty years be-
farming advantages. They are behind; behind in
of something that will take off the hard work in
. Farming is the easiest position to fill, and I
ne everything that a
ngs with my own hands.
to do his
as we d(
and the Wester
work. They do
it, but they get
) in the South,
n does no
men there who can turn out the work. When
a man should cultivate 100 acres it sounds fishy,
raise 100 acres of corn by myself and I can raise
sweet potatoes myself.
PREPARATION OF THE LAND AND PLANTING
The way I prepare is this: I believe in deep plowing
usually, but you should not plow for sweet potatoes. I
usually follow oats or velvet beans with sweet potatoes. I
have had velvet beans in the field the year before, and it
makes a good place for sweet potatoes; or else I plant
them on oat stubble, and plant them the first of July. If you
want potatoes that will keep over winter you do not want to
plant them early. I take a "middle-buster" and run off my
_ 1 __ - i l t A i r .. ___I i?___
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
and put in the fertilizer at the same
make six acres per day and put in
one to stake and one to drop, ough
a day or one acre a man. After
the potatoes begin to grow, I take
set it to throw the dirt to the bed
cultivator. When the vines begi
way, I put the vine lifter on the
out of spring fingers that run
next two ar
up and pull
time. One man can
fertilizer. Two hands,
plant about two acres
n to run a
e closer together, and they
ss the rox
have to work
lazy man will
more. The third a
le vines up so they j
not throw any dirt
*J 1 I i1 1 *1
tmem wi;n inls until
vs. If you handle tha
6, 7 or 8 acres a day,
I work my potatoes
many acres you can
them oftener than ev
be able to work six or
t with the d
ind get in
This is m
the vines a
e vines beg
ery two weel
a smarter man can get over 100 acres in two wee
is all there is to working potatoes.
t all, and
rin to lap
1 do not
ks, and a
a day and
HOW TO PRODUCE SHORT TUBERS
3 to plowing, and
potato belongs to
Share not really tul
a lot of starch, an(
why you should not plow deep.
the morning-glory family, and
bers but simply roots that have
I when conditions are favorable
they make nice smooth potatoes, and when conditions are
not favorable they make
potatoes will try to run as
make long ones. There
There are some varieties
and there are others that
the ground and run alone
deep as y'
is also a
seem to s
r near the
usually make stringy potatoes. Th
that gro* straight down make good
where they hit hard
though the roots may
mnniiirQn th ara i0 Q c
ground it ca
go farther t
!xxrlln in fh
If you plow deep the
ou plow, and that would
difference in variety.
a tendency to go down,
matter potatoes all over
surface. Such potatoes
ie reason that potatoes
plump potatoes is that
uses a plumpness, and
lown and draw up the
a .cnff crrnlnnd Th.rp
74 UNIVERSITY OF FLC
with the commercial fertilizer. Then
knows that cow-penning is good for
cattle tramp the land and make it
worked up and still the bottom is lef
fore, some potatoes will run along
down. The Triumph, which I origi
that way, and it is inclined to make a
onstration of different varieties.)
, almost every farmer
sweet potatoes. The
hard, but the top is
t hard. As I said be-
the land and not go
nated, is prone to go
stringy potato. (Dem-
ORIGINATING NEW VARIETIES
As I said, the sweet potato plants and the morning
glory belong to the same family and the potatoes are simply
roots. The Porto Rico yams grow downward and make
a nice smooth potato with hardly any strings. Florida is
the only State in the Union that I know of (and I have
made diligent search along this line) where the sweet po-
blooms and matures seed on the vine;
n done even in Florida. I have watched
each year and gathered them all. Ab'
I secured seed and planted them, and
the Triumph, which I decided was w,
early and had good keeping qualities.
years before I could find seed. Last year
off forty acres, and it took me two or thr
these. After planting these I have only
have 15 new seedling potatoes. I hope ir
find something better than we have had
feel pretty sure I will succeed. Some of
and that is not
for sweet potato
out twelve years
out of the lot I
orth keeping. It
It has been ten
I got 100
ee days to
15, and I
the lot I
HOW TO KEEP SWEET POTATOES
One of the main
you grow it. I have
after I learned how.
doing this. One fall
took our potatoes and
warm wet weather con
to rot. Some of
banks and trying
un arWain: but tha
things is to keep the potato after
found this extremely easy, that is,
lost farmers have their own way of
t was very wet and warm, and we
covered them with pine bark. The
itinued and the potatoes had begun
neighbors were tearing down their
Irv them out and then bank them
t did not do well_ for
it rained all
r they are
bushels, and I know there were not twelve bushel
have never put more than 200 bushel
them in long banks.
be glad to answer any
in one bank.
think I have told you all I
Q. How wide apart do you plant them?
T. K. GODBEY. If for market or for table use I make them four
feet apart and 18 inches apart in the row.
nearly every Experiment Station in the
o be about the right distance.
What kind of fertilizer do you use?
tried out at
although you know the fertilizer house will put up two sacks of fer-
tilizer and name one Sweet Potato Special and the other * * *
Special, but it all amounts to the same thing. The fertili
zer I used last
4-8-8 goods. I used about 700 lbs. to the acre.
What is the average yield?
. GODBEY. My yield was about 100 bushels to the acre, and I
a fair yield. I have raised 300 bushels to the acre, but an
all round average I would say to be 100.
;t. and do
ping season usually
middle of June. A
Do you use draws or vines?
not have time to grow early potatoes.
closes out (that is the rush end of it)
these grow until a foot long, then pull them up.
S. J. MCCULLY.
T. Je. GODBEY.
does not make any
the first or
Do you drop the potato vines across the row or
In planting sweet potatoes I hire almost anybody
dropper ahead, and a man behind to stick, and
T. K. GODBEY.
s as soon as y<
them up, pile
their 3 or 4 day
, sometimes 10
can lay longer
G. W. BELSER.
T. K. GODBEY.
No. Probably you think you should plant the
)u get them from the ground. This is a mistake.
them in stacks, and let them lay with the roots
s, and then plant them and they will live twice as
times as well. The same is true of the vines, only
and the leaves shed off and this is best for them.
Should you plant them in wet ground?
I planted in July, and it usually is wet then *
L. Do you mean you have a different potato from
M. C. GARDNER
T. K. GODBEY. Ev
always come different
R. T. KELLEY. Is
several joints in a bed
T. K. GODBEY. N(
I. E. SOAR. Is thi
T. K. GODBEY. I
if planted at the same
grow off good and ens
do not get a good hold
J. D. BROWN. Is
from a plant that produces
T. K. GODBEY. No, it i
they start out with a stem
and the sweet pota
will be at the back.
old vines, if they li
I vines are as good
one kind ii
roots lap c
- AS ^- 4.,..
they had a
seed you plant will make a new kind.
never true to the parent plant.
ire any difference in planting, if yc
except possibly a little larger yield.
e any difference in the yield from the draws
difference at digging time
strong plant or vine will
they stand a month and
could never tell any d
time. I find a good
;ure a good yield. If
the yield will be poor.
this true: Potato gl
large potatoes will produce likewise?
s not so. Irish potatoes are true tubers,
and have no roots at this end (holding
to is different the other way and most of
It is simply a root, and if you get plants
ve over, as they often do, the plants from
as if you put out the tubers.
Have you ever tried selecting large potatoes?
"es, there is no difference. I have had men write
new potato, something wonderfully fine, and it
ng two vines in the same row and in some way
,tato. It is not so. This is not true. The man
news either takes you for suckers or does not
he is talking aboi
HIATT. Last year
w do you account
1 the fie
.,ir n^ ,r a. f
I planted Dooley's and long red negro
for part being red and part yellow?
I have had potatoes myself when there was only
d come this way, some would be red, some yellow
They were found only in that one row.
I have had the same experience. Potatoes make
potatoes will put down roots, and if the vines and
tines will make potatoes in the other row.
I had two kinds on one vine.
The old bunch yam was the worst, I think, and
it way. The bunch yams I got had forked leaves
4-H1,w nflr Fin ,il ;i lclr n /v? -nPfitan 1700 txYOP ?M nnfi,
The Nancy Hall is being driven out ol
;s being subject to blight.
S. J. McCULLY. Do the Nancy Halls ha
T. K. GODBEY. Not very much. Sometin
is due to the condition of the soil and
woods land and plant in July. If plant
r they do not do so.
the market on
.ve a tendency to crack?
ies they do. This crack-
fertilizer. I have low,
ed early they crack, but
Q. Which variety yields best.
T. K. GODBEY. The Triumph.
R. T. KELLEY. In planting Nancy Halls, do they
T. K. GODBEY. Yes, this is a small variety. T
a small potato, so this has been a favorite.
Q. Do you get better yields by planting early?
T. K. GODBEY. Not too early, say the middle of
the best yield. I plant especially for seed, and I
potatoes to grow large. I plant them in hills and c
seed, but 18 inches apart for the market.
S. J. MCCULLY. How often do you plant potal
make very small
June would give
do not want my
lose together for
, for I g
r do not
r. I always
et better resu
you plant ii
a good yield
. Yes, I get
give my corn
following sweet potatoes?
thirty to forty bushels of corn per acre.
land any other preparation except to
turn the hogs in, and they root out the potatoes, and their
J. D. BROWN. How many acres do you plant from
T. K. GODBEY. My experience has been that there
thousand plants to the bushel; sometimes 1,500, sometimes
Triumph will make twice as many to the bushel as the ]
Q. Do you bed your potatoes?
T. K. GODBEY. Yes, on land that is tile drained and
B. F. WILLIAMSON. How many acres do you get
draws of potatoes?
T. K. GODBEY. These ought to furnish you 4,000 or
It depends on the potato and the variety. The Triumph p'
a little longer vine than the Nancy Hall, and you get
Q. What do you think of cutting vines off? Does
T. K. GODBEY. Yes, undoubtedly.
C. H BAKER. How long do you cut the vines?
T. K. GODBEY. About a foot long.
D. C. GEIGER. Would it be better to bed the land or
T. K. GODBEY. That depends on conditions of soi
Kansas they plant corn in a trench because it is dry their
- a L aJ n rJr- -:- La rLL a -W-qu ai
n I disk the
are about a
a few more
il. Now in
e. In most
-r* 1 t.Il
drained. I suppose
you that most people
commence in the mid
is the best way, and
will have a deep fun
slope down towards
originally level, and
ditch around the outl
ings did not do that
have a furrow on the
me there is not a d
-I I -
you Agents all know how to plow. I could tell
in the South do not know how to plow. Always
idle of the field and plow out to the fence. This
you can turn the dirt away from the fence. You
next to the fence and the rows will begin to
nce from the middle, even if the land was
it rains, the water will run out into the
nd run away. Now, if the people at Hast-
they could not raise Irish potatoes. They
de. The land is practically level. They tell
nce of four inches to the mile. They ac-
complish the good things because thE
Q. Do you run a plow through
T. K. GODBEY. No. There is th<
the fertilizer is put down ahead,
and stir it together.
I. E. SOAR. Why do some hi.
3y know how to farm.
to mix the fertilizer.
e distributor on the cultivator and
and then the disks come along
T. K. GODBEY.
ion in those hills
Q. Do you use
T. K. GODBEY.
Lseed to bed on.
11 make the germ
at warms the gro
fly plants use sta
all you can stand,
to put down a layer
making a draw bec
straw or wire gras
This straw keeps 3
the plants. Broom
too dry, but it will
the potatoes down.
You will find there is a little more favorable con-
than others; that is why those hills do the best.
stable fertilizer in draw beds?
Yes, also commercial fertilizer. I like raw cot-
The sprouting of the seed in the raw cottonseed
inating seed produce heat, and that little bit of
'und and makes the plants come on earlier. For
tble manure. It should be wet. An inch or two
, and it will not hurt your potatoes. I would say
of earth first before you put in the potatoes. In
d it is best to scatter some kind of straw, pine
s, or other stuff of that sort with a body to it.
ou from pulling up the potatoes when you pull
sedge straw is not good, for it keeps the land
do. I have used it myself and it is rood to hold
I. E. SOAR. Would oak leaves do?
T. K. GODBEY. They are not very good for this.
Q. Do you think that the thoroughness with which you mix
your fertilizer and the control of moisture have more to do with the
cracking than the early planting?
T. K. GODBEY. No, I do not think so. I have a" firm belief that
it is due a great deal to the variety of potato. There are some that
I have never seen crack under any conditions.
Q. Do you think the amount of potash used has anything to do
with the cracking of the potatoes?
T. K. GODBEY. No. Too much nitrogen may do it, but this does
not always work. However, I have seen land extremely rich in nitro-
gen make an enormous crop of potatoes. The yield of potatoes is
due more or less to the mechanical condition of the soil. There is no
crop that I know of so particular about the mechanical condition as
the sweet potato. Itdoes not matter how much or how little fertilizer,
B ULLE TIN,
cut the v
is the lat
makes a 1
lines and s
draws are no
have done so
eness of the
better crop. I
the early ma
early the ne
SOAR. Do yo
there is no difference.
en why is it considered
people plant draws early and later on they
m out and they usually make a better crop
keep better, and a great many are positive
ood if planted late. They have never tried
om the beginning to end, and I find that it
tato that makes a good keeping potato and
ave never made good keeping potatoes early.
rliness is the market, and if I wanted pota-
rket I would simply keep c
nu advise earlier planting on
T. K. GODBEY.
the same time.
Q. What is
T. K. GODBEY.
but it i;
No, I have both kinds of land and plant them at
is not a custom among farmers in
s a pretty fair way to get early vi
s, and the pieces you plant will gl
i can see the pieces sticking on to
r and always inferior and cannot
plentiful. Last September I so:
in South Florida, and I have so]
I plow new land, after taking oi
rumps; then I take a turning plo'
rn the land as shallow as I can
, and I always plant sweet potato
for anything else. In plowing
holes, and of course this land is
,tatoes planted over stump holes
.d after harvesting a
farther I will find a
as the land is soft.
W. L. WATSON.
T. K. GODBEY.
die-buster and that
Q. What about
ines. They make a few early
row and make a good potato;
the new part. The potatoes
be sold late after better ones
Id over 100,000 sweet potato
Id them in December around
ut all the stumps, for I never
w with a rolling cutter on it
because the vegetation rots
'es on that land, because it is
land we often come across
worked deep. I have found
send the roots down ever so
often find that if I go down
What would you say about breaking?
I do not know. Run over the land with
; putting a crop of sweet potatoes on oat
been plowed eight or ten
T. K. GODBEY. The land used has become compact during the
winter and if not freshly plowed you will find that the bottom soil
is harder and the potatoes form in the loose part.
C. K. McQUARRIE. It seems, then, that hardpan land would make
good sweet potatoes.
T. K. GODBEY. No, it is too sour. The sweet potato does well on
new land that is not too sour, but hardpan contains too much acidity.
I have seen land, very loose hammock land, planted in sweet pota-
toes that have become very stringy. Bedding would not have helped
in this case, for they would have been worse.
should not let the moon shine on them.
1i I I
nat 11 you aig potatoes you
What do you say about this?
K. GODBEY. There is absolutely no truth in
,thing to do with it, unless possibly you wan
when the moon would be of aid then.
T. Z. ATKESON.
this. The moon
to dig them
Gentlemen, this has been a most interesting and
instructive discussion to us all.
much interest and appreciation.
We have all heard Mr.
like one fellow who
Mr. Barnum's Winter Garden in New York, paid his price of admis-
sion, and on getting in, he asked some one to show him Mr. Barnum.
I feel that same way. Mr. Godbey has been exceedingly kind in
coming up here today in the disagreeable weather we have had, and I
feel that we owe him a rising vote of thanks for coming and speaking
to us today.
I will not detain you long except to tell you that there is
a State Nursery
Inspection Law, and that something is be-
ing done along that line.
ing up with the farmers,
trees. I 1
have a few
It will interest you
for, in meet-
some of them will be planting fruit
circulars here that I
will have passed
that I will read you:
What does it profit a man if the world be made to bloom
grew before, if, when the insects come and the diseases begin
to ravage, he stands idly by unable to stem the tide of de-
It is not enough to be able to grow a crop, but the
grower must be prepared to protect the crop during an emer-
gency, whether the same be frost or fire, or insects and
man is in getting something to grow, the more rascally bugs
there seem to be to take it from him.
They are getting desperate.
There are the cucum-
They grow the
the diseases come along and get them.
best way to protect your crop
is to avoid intro-
- A. 4 A n 4-k 4- T n 4. n 4wn nn nil 4r-C nf b nf n A 4 < nn e., art nwP A^
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
State, and to prohibit the introduction of any new pests,
and something is being accomplished along this line.
In bringing thi
inspection does not
tically altogether ta
enough so it could
Inspector, and a few
fice with, outside c
and it has
that we co
for us to
ice, as it is
perhaps one part o
part of the State ag
in your hands, and
them. In the case
weevil, a great deal
formed as to the b
many difficulties in
in the State, that a
Take, for instance,
would be 'a difficult
when potatoes are p
are a great many di
bring the subject be:
In your work, if y
,s message before you, I regret that our
; apply to vegetable plants; but, prac-
o trees. The law, I presume, is broad
apply to vegetables; but with only one
' deputies, and only $1,000 to run the of-
)f my salary, we cannot appoint many
been our policy to put only those things
uld undertake to handle, and as it is im-
undertake the inspection of vegetable
etc., we have limited our work to the in-
you should, therefore, really be of more
Evident that the matter of protecting,
f the County against another, or one
ainst another part, will be more or less
you can warn the
of the Irish potato
t matter to
fore you, an(
ou come to t
eve the p
.ng food (
ne part t
itato. Being a
devise a satis
be shipped as
As I stated, I
d will not detai
things that you
public is in-
be brought to our attention, send them in to us, and we
try to help you.
E. S. PACE
The legumes form a lot of plants that are peculiar
in that they have formed a partnership with a group of
the bacteria gain entrance to the roots of the plants, live
on the sap found there and cause swelling or nodules to
form on the roots. In return for the san taken from the
82 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Nitrogen makes up about four-fifths of the air we
breathe. This nitrogen is the same element for which we
pay twenty cents a pound in commercial fertilizer. Over
each acre of ground, it has been calculated,
million pounds of nitrogen. This,
amounts to fourteen million dollars.
acre of ground all of this is his and
to grow the legumes and get it as
s grown on
there are about
at twenty cents
When a farmer
it only remains
it is needed by
nodules on the
roots of the legumes it is possible for each farmer to locate
on his farm million? of fertilizer factories to run as long as
the host plant lives, and which have no operating expenses.
A good crop of velvet beans, cowpeas, crimson clover, or
beggarweed, plowed under, adds as much nitrogen per acre
as would be obtained from one-half to one ton of cotton-seed
meal. When these crops are plowed under, the soil is not
only benefited by the nitrogen thus obtained, but also by the
vegetable matter so badly needed.
While there are numbers of legumes which can and
should be grown in this State, I will confine myself to three
with which I think we should become better acquainted.
These three are lespedeza, burr clover, and crimson clover.
Lespedeza has been in the United States for something
over sixty years, and
of the country. Whil
as a good pasture and
since its use in regular
to be a very valuable
been the crop most g
are several reasons w
lespedeza has, is that
work is not very pre
when cowpeas mu
acre of the lespedez
is now found throughout a large part
e it has been recognized from the start
[ hay crop, it has been only a few years
r farm practice began. It has proven
crop to follow oats. The cowpea has
generally used to follow oats, but there
Thy lespedeza is better. One advantage
it is sown at a time when other farm
.ssing, as it usually is in the summer
st be gotten in. The cost per
;a seed is less than of cowpeas, and
cost of seeding is very much less. The lespedeza is free from
disease. When used for hay, the quality is much better than
that made of cowpeas and it is very much easier to cure.
The time for sowing lespedeza is in February or early
oats are cut off at the regular time,
as is seen fit. Very frequently an
gotten, and the lespedeza allowed to
second year's crop.
and the lespedeza used
early cutting of hay is
reseed the ground for a
Burr clover is a winter and spring growing annual. It
belongs to the same family as alfalfa. Being a legume and
at the time of year it does, burr clover i
crop. It gives a large amount of good
es a good combination with Bermuda gra
is more plentiful it will hardly be used
in regular crop rotations. The seeds are
during August or September, and where
i get a stand the first year four bushels to
e used. Where it is only intended to get a
a bushel to the acre or less can be grow
acre. The se
each farmer to select
ck, and fence off for
150 to 200 bushels of
*ed should be bought
clover seed on the m
t to get
s a very
it is in-
, start in
n. It is
a piece of rich land,
a seed patch. Very
seed are produced to
only in the burrs, as
market is a
variety not so
conditions. Care should be used in sowing
them covered too deeply. If they are to
that has been freshly plowed, a roller or
pack the surface should be used before
When they are sown early good results
may be obtained by sowing on Bermuda sod,
and giving no
Crimson clover is one of the best winter cover crops
and soil builders that we have. It should prove a success on
all soil types when the drainage is good. However, unless
the proper nitrogen-gathering bacteria are present, the
cover will be a failure. The bacteria that live on the roots of
crimson Elover are the same that are found on white, red,
or Carolina clover. So when Crimson clover is sown for
the first time, a ton of soil from where one of these clovers
has grown should be broadcasted on each acre. If this soil is
* 4. .fl S* <* 4 -6 K 4 *
with some form of harrow.
rate of twenty
prepare to g
fall, so that f
a larger area
pounds to the acre. E
in at least an acre of
n this small plot he can
ie following season.
be sown at the
son clover this
oil to inoculate
J. C. SMITH. I ordered a bushel of burr clover seed last winter,
and sowed it on Bermuda. I did not get a good stand; possibly my
stand was a third or fourth stand, but now it is bunching out. Mr.
P. W. Smith has a plot of clover that is doing well. I have seen it.
S. J. MCCULLY. I have tried Crimson Clover and inoculated the
seed. It was planted too near the house and the chickens have been
on it, but it
some of it, s
is still growing nicely. I have a fourth acre, and sowed
of seed. The Department advised me to test it, inoculating
and leaving some. There seems to be no difference in the
I tried last fall to get the burr clover, and ten men had
test it, but I cannot get seed at any price. This fall, I
ou that we will have a number of demonstrations with it.
think, says to run a furrow every four feet. The Gov-
ernment, I think, says to run a cutaway harrow and sow the
broadcast and leave it alone. A plot was tried at Dunnellon it
sowed with rye. The man cannot tell the value of it, as his
has been on it all winter, so of course, he does not know its value
G. W. BELSER. I had an acre of clover last year that did
M. C. GARDNER. I have two crimson clover demonstrations,
of an acre, the other half an acre, and some seems to be doing
I did not inoculate it. I got some inoculating material from a
pany in New Jersey, and in spots this is looking fine now. I hav
acre of vetch that, two or three weeks ago, which was the last
I saw it, was doing fine and spreading out nicely.
A. W. TURNER. I have four demonstrations of hairy vetch,
was inoculated with material from the Department. It does
I. E. SOAR. I have two demonstrations of crimson clover. A
weeks ago I went over one and noticed that in some places it was
doing well, but in others it was not so good. Wherever the inoculation
was, it was doing well, but where there was poor inoculation or none
at all, it was no good. The inoculation did best where peanuts were
grown on the land and pigs put on it, and where other feed had been
thrown in to them. In such places the land was rich in humus, and it
was four or, five times as good as anywhere else. Rabbits had been
eating quite a bit of it.
M. C. GARDNER. I had an alfalfa demonstration on land limed
with about 1,500 pounds to the acre of ground lime rock, and one
acre had 400 pounds additional of the burnt lime. I noticed in that
field that there were little low stubbles about a half foot hieh with
INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO.
(Here Mr. Savely explained that much care must be taken with
the cultures for inoculation or they may not be strong and would
not do much good.)
G. W. BELSER. I have two demonstrations with alfalfa, and would
like to speak of them. I do not know whether all our agents are press-
ing this or not, but we are simply carried away with it over in Jack-
son County. One man had six acres which he cut four times, getting
a ton to the acre each time. Last fall he planted four more, making
a total of ten acres this year. The soil contained lime and is rich soil.
I had another demonstrator to put in two acres last winter. We have
a fine stand and it was limed, fertilized, and the seed inoculated, and
it is doing well. There are many people in the County who will plant
it this year.
P. H. ROLFS. I was glad to hear that, for by the time the report
reached Alachua County it was multiple a great deal and the yield
was ten tons per acre. Several years ago it was found that these
legumes, such as we have been discussing, were in many cases quite
successful and promising, that is, on those lands that were well
drained, in a good agricultural condition, and had plenty of lime, and
in pursuing the studies farther we found a number of these legumes
did much better on a limy soil, the soil that raised the best crop of
peanuts. Some of them gave negative results on flat woods lands,
while others gave negative results on the higher and dryer land. For
instance, take the lespedeza; it liked a flat woods condition, and there
are few places on the rolling pine lands where it makes a success.
Alfalfa, on the other hand, needs a rolling pine land to approach
a success. The burr clover was found near the sea where there was
lots of ballast rock and lime, and it was growing nicely; but when
tried farther away from the bay on high land there was nothing
came of it and the plants died.
Now I think one of the best lines for investigation is these
legumes. We want more crops that will give grazing in the winter
time. These legumes come in and give feed and nitrogen to the soil
that other crops we already have do not, so we want to study their
production. We know that formerly red clover would not grow in
Dakota, but now large fields of clover grow there and we get large
quantities of seed from there, which shows that where formerly it
would not grow, it now grows abundantly, and we know this is so
with other crops. Soil well supplied with lime is the best because
the nodule-forming bacteria prefer such a soil.
M. C. GARDNER. Can we pasture alfalfa in winter?
A. Yes, it does all the better for being pastured.
F. P. HENDERSON. I have just gotten a book that says a great
deal about the yellow clover, or what is called "hop clover." They say
it makes two tons per acre in Florida.
P. H. ROLFS. Melilotus or sweet clover grows around St. Aug-
ustine spontaneously; also in many other places in Florida. It is
not generally relished by cattle. It makes a good hay. What we
n~ed m6st is a legume for the winter that will act as a soil builder and
a cover crop at the same time.
Fig. 4.-Dr. Bysran's herd of grade Herefords.
of the South are diversification of crops,
advise the people rightly,
of the entire country and
live stock and soil
the greater will be the prosperity
the success of the demonstration
while the prices of fruit and vegetables are rather variable.
But we f
that demand and
rapidly, and the supply is diminish
therefore, seems evident that there
is more cer-
tain prospect of good profit in live stock work than in many
to fall, but on the contrary will probably increase somewhat
for the next 20 years.
OF LIVE STOCK
In studying the opportunities for live stock in Florida,
ind that the State has many natural advantages over
other sections of
the country for
the cattle tick.
On the question of lands,
State that are
there are many thousands of
, which will probably not be needed for more intensive
lands will produce
and forage crops,
a number (
s and I
These lands can
$5 to $50 per
are capable of
be secured for prices ranging from
or leased for a
very small sum.
Statistics of the last census show that there are nearly
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
days of the
large quantities have evidently passed away.
FLORIDA CATTLE SOLD TO FEEDERS
on the average sized farm is
revived everywhere east of the Mississippi River.
States are coming to
Florida during the past
year to secure cattle for feeding purposes, something like
forty to fifty thousand head being shipped out to the feed-
past twelve months. This trade is likely to increase in num-
bers every year if we take proper care of it and furnish good
stock, but the buyers will not be suited long with the pres-
"Florida Knot Heads.
They will want better cattle, and
.will get them wherever they can, and will come to Florida
for such material only as a last resort.
The question is pertinent if the feeders of Oklahoma
can buy our "Knot Heads" and pay freight on them to their
feeding yards, fatten them there and then sell them at a
profit to the packing houses, how much profit could the
Florida farmer make if he would keep these cattle in the
State, fatten them on his own farm and sell them when fin-
ished to Florida packing houses ?
There is no question but
what we could make more upon them than the Oklahoma
feeder if we would adopt the same measures.
But at the
present time we are selling these cattle on foot at low prices
and we are buying them back from the
houses after they are killed and dressed. We pay the
freight both ways on them and give the Oklahoma feeder a
The greatest trouble with live stock in Florida, next to
the cattle tick, is the poor quality of the animals we now
The native Florida range cattle or piney woods stock
are largely of Spanish descent, being small and poor to be-
gin with, and have had very little improvement during the
proved cattle have not been brought in from other sections
is the loss from cattle tick and Texas fever, but we now
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4. 89
and will bring from 20 to 40 per cent. better prices on a
When people are ready to buy improved stock, the ques-
tion- of the best breed is always the first thing that occurs
to them. This, as a matter of fact, is not so important a
question as most people think, as any of the good breeds of
beef cattle will do well when properly handled. It is more
a question of individual preference of the owner and the
conditions of soil, feeds, and markets that he will have.
The Shorthorn cattle, or Durhams, as they are some-
times known, are more numerous than any other leading
beef brand. They are large-framed animals with wide
hips and good development of loin. The color is red and
white or a mixture of these colors, called roan. They were
called Shorthorns in England to distinguish them from a
breed having much longer horns. They have been the
pioneers in the beef breeding work of the world, and have
formed the foundation for further improvement. They
require rather large quantities of feed for their best growth
and are not considered quite so good for grazing on scanty
ranges as the Herefords. They are easier to secure than
perhaps any other breed, and are held at moderate prices.
They are more specially a beef animal, but some families
of the breed have become famous as producers of milk and
butter. In England they are still a popular breed for
the farmer who wants both beef and milk.
One strain of the Shorthorns has been developed in
America without any horns and these are called Polled
Durhams. They have all the qualities of the Shorthorns
and are easier to handle on account of absence of horns.
The Hereford cattle are probably the next most im-
portant breed. They are distinctly a beef breed and pro-
duce comparatively little milk, usually not more than enough
to uroDerly raise a calf. Their color is dark red or mahow-
90 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
put on fat in lumps. Their greatest quality for the South
is their splendid grazing ability, as they can hustle over
ranges and make a living on poor pastures where many
other breeds would suffer severely. In breeding opera-
tions the Hereford bulls are very prepotent in transmitting
the red body and white face to their offspring, even from
scrub cows of all colors. Herefords are quite popular in the
West at present, and a large proportion of the beef cattle
marketed from the great feeding grounds show some of this
blood. They are a little more difficult to buy, and prices
are probably higher than for
The Aberdeen Angus bre
beef in America. They are a
smaller than Herefords and
with soft fine hair, short legs
no horns, and are sometimes
ed stands first in quality of
Shorthorns, black in
and round body. They
called "Polled Angus."
head is very neat and refined. This breed is used
for the production of high class baby beef than any
1 ~ *11
might be termed the highest stage of beef breeding.
eat from Angus cattle regularly brings the highest
on the great stock markets of any breed in America.
1 the other hand it requires more skill and experi-
success with Aberdeen
They are not very goo
1 1 J 11 * 1 *_
aaaptea to pen ana stall eeaing man to grazing on
pastures. They are also rather scarce and hard to
but some progress is being made in this line by the b
association holding occasional sales of these cattle in
South. It would probably be best to advise most of
to try to work with Shorthorns or Herefords
a while first, and take up the Angus if they desire, after
acquiring some experience.
Red Polled cattle are very good. They are large cattle
with color and shape of body a good deal like the Short-
horns, and many of the cows are good milkers. They are
rather scarce and difficult to secure.
The Devon is a good breed, with red color, somewhat
smaller than any of the others. They are good grazers, and
original stock of the Old Country. All the var
are represented in America by their own breed
tions, and the secretaries of these organizations
willing to furnish information as to cattle,
and addresses of breeders.
Last, but not least, let us c
cattle, whatever we may call th
Knot Heads, etc. Sometimes we 1
These were doubtless brought h
are very little better than the av
lear the (
here by ti
It is evident that the native, or scrub cow, is a fine ex-
ample of "The survival of the fittest" under conditions
prevalent on the ranges of Florida. They have been inbred
so long, that, looking at it from one standpoint, we might
call them a pure breed that has shown its fitness for its
environment. Until we change the conditions for such
cattle, it would be poor policy to say that we ought to do
away with these native cattle and replace them at once with
the pure breeds. If we can persuade our people to discrim-
inate among the scrubs, and select those having the best
beef form to be retained as breeding animals, we could get
considerable improvement among them. If they would se-
lect cows with the square beef body, short legs and smooth
heads, considerable uniformity and improvement could be
Pure bred cattle need pure bred attent
a man is ready with feeds and fences and the
experience necessary to handle fine anima
would not pay him to go into the work by bi
cattle of both sexes. The best advice for ti
producer is going to be to urge him to bu.
(3-4, 7-8 or 15-16) or a pure-bred beef bull,
the best selected native cows for grading up
the offspring. Such a bull can be used for I
or two generations of his own heifer calves
iniurv from inbreeding. In fact. such a nras
ion, and unless
ils properly, it
lying pure bred
ie average beef
y a high grade
and use him on
breedingg on one
ctice is the best
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
the cattle on his own farm, provide better pastures and
build dipping vats and fences. You have already heard
from other speakers how the trouble of cattle ticks and
Texas fever can be controlled by the dipping vat. This
naturally demands having the cattle within reach, and shows
the need of fences.
THE FENCE QUESTION
This question of fences for live stock is bound to come
up sooner or later, and it is a very complicated problem;
but if we
can bring people to see that they can make more
producing more of their own feeds, using
the oldest a
e, and controlling the ticks, then the matter of
solve itself, for they will readily see that it will
o fence their lands, whether they own or lease
It many cattlemen tell us that the only way to
y is to let the cattle roam wild and loose on any-
, and get what feed they can from wire grass
. Twice a year they try to collect what animals
d brand the new ones, and send to the butcher
nd fattest. They seem to think that the money
this way cost them very little for expenses, and
is like so much cash picked u
to figure just how much they
pared with taking better cai
larger numbers, but a very c(
that one-third of the total nu
from diseases, theft and oth
years Texas fever has been g4
range cattlemen are not ma:
loose methods. In my opini(
crease in virulence so that it
to completely revise these at
course, wiJl be a blessing in d:
some of them.
Fencing should probably
of land and every community,
p in the road. It is impossible
lose by these methods as cornm-
re of the stock and securing
estimate would be
each year are lost
In the last three
3. so that even the
on this disease will
will actually compel
isguise, but it will be hard for
be done first with large areas
or at least every county should
*3 I I*
The Florida Live Stock
the industry by promoting th
establishing live stock clubs
County. We do not want th
any other county association,
to merge the
we can induce
it will be a fi
when we will
quit shipping (
Association is trying to
e building of dipping vats
or local associations in
is association to conflict
and would be entirely wi
b that the County
breeding stock for
ne thing for the S
have our own pack
>ur stock away and
clubs to act
the use of tU
tate. The ti
ing plants in
buying it ba
.me will come
ck from other
STUDIES ON LIVE STOCK
For anyone who cares to
acteristics of the different bree
to recommend a few recent b
called "Beginnings in Animal
Plumb, published by the Webb
is entitled "Animal Husbandry
study the history and char-
ds of beef cattle, I would like
ooks along this line. One is
Husbandry" by Prof. C. S.
Co. of Minneapolis; another
for Schools" by Prof. M. W.
excellent books for anyone
pupils in the high schools in
study of the important farm
ciples of breeding, feeding
best works that the County
brary as a reference for all
would be the "Encvclopedia o
by the Orange Judd
beginning this study, or for
our State. They give a brief
animals, and many of the prin-
and management. One of the
Agents could have in their li-
topics in animal husbandry
f Live Stock" by Wilcox Smith,
Z. C. Chambliss, Ocala
J. R. Shuler, Bristol
A. L. Jackson, Gainesvil
S. H. Gaitskill, McIntosh
Marion Farms, Ocala
le Carson Bros., Kissimmee
N. A. Callison, Gainesville
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee
R. Shuler, Bristol
. A. Sessoms, Bonifay
A. L. Daughtrey, Gainesville
J. S. Goode, Gainesville
C. L. Wiloughby, Gainesville
Wm. Edwards, Zellwood
Oscar Williams, Muscogee
Richard C. Shaw, Quincy
W. A. Sessoms, Bonifay
Henry, Live Oak
C. H. Simpson,
L. B. Thompson,
(R. No. 1)
Walker Bowers, Freeport
Dan King, Luanna
W. A. McCollum, Laurel Hill
Eugene Miller, Freeport
Alex. Steele, Point Washington
Hutch Cawthon, DeFuniak Spring
John McCollum, DeFuniak Springs
D. Archie, Tampa
L. Bills, Crescent City
Crouch, Punta Gorda
. Douglass, Shady
. Elliott, Lakeland
. Gale, Belleview
Graves, Pensacola, R.
W. R. Hanis, Tampa
C. W. Hinsdale, Lakeland
F. J. Hoffman, Lakeland
W. T. Johnson, Tampa
Mrs. N. M. Jones, Bartow
Lakemont Poultry Farm,
John McSween, DeFuniak Springs
Dyer & Daniels, Wetappo
W. M. Gist, McIntosh
Ridge & Gale, Belleview
B. B. Keep, Boardman
s Geo. E. Meade, Cantonment
.. B. Lowe, Zona
C. J. Mishler, Anthony
R. T. Monroe. Ocala
John Parks, Palatka
C. G. Pearce. Arcadia
Rosamont Poultry Farm, St. Pe-
W. M. Shockley, Lowell
A. H. Snyder, St. Petersburg
Geo. B. Stearns, Ocala
W. D. Wheeler, Griffin
P. W. Whiteside, Ocala
W. P. Woodworth, St. Petersburg
C. C. Woodworth, Tampa
Mrs. Lester Windsor, Winter
Thos J. Rhodes, Hosford
Lackawanna Poultry Farm,
Chas. H. Simpson, Milton
PROF. WILLOUGHBY. It is going to be a matter of patient educa-
tion and trying to impress upon these people that it would be better
for them and their pocket books to keep their own cattle controlled
with fences. It will also be a matter of yielding to the rule of the
majority when it comes to voting on the subject. Very frequently
the people who do not want fences are the men who do not own land.
Have they any right to let their cattle trespass on other people's land.
without the consent of the owner? Statistics show that nearly 70
per cent. of the people of Florida come here from other States, and
most of them are accustomed to fences for cattle, and if they will
vote right they can control this subject without any trouble. Many
of the native Florida people who are kicking against fences are
inviting people from other States to come here and buy land. It
would be very inconsistent, to say the least, to invite these people to
Florida, sell them land, and then be allowed to continue grazing
scrub cattle over these areas. There is no fairness in a scheme of
this sort, and it will hurt the reputation of Florida to continue such
methods much longer.
S. W. HIATT. I presume Mr. McQuarrie is not surprised to see
me speak. He
that I had the
becoming the li
that we have a
North. I believe
reason I want
find in our C
grading up ol
knows I am mue
opportunity to b
ive stock section
far greater chan
e we need to put
to say something
county over 50 per
attention to this, 1
n more to the raisil
h enthused over this, for the reason
e brought up and raised in what is
of the United States, and I know
ce here for development than in the
our attention into this, and for that
g along the line of breeding up. I
cent. of the farmers have not been
but now they are expecting to turn
ng and feeding of live stock and the
Agents, need to exercise care in going
giving to my people the necessity of
work on the people in a way that wil
of grading up, and to get around the
and succeeding in getting the legislat
inferior males from running at large.
get the fences. I am from near the
allowed there but registered stock.
but he cannot allow them to run at
A. W. TURNER. I believe the fi
my land fenced.
PROF. WILLOUGHBY. The legisli
letting the counties have fence law:
question of allowing only pure bred
some one wanted to pass not to le
R. TIKELLEY. It seems to me
tested by such a law.
PROF. WILLOUGHBY. I think a!
little hope at present for many large
* 4 i: 4
among these p
1 make them s'
ure to pass a
I think with
ople; but I am
am trying to
e the necessity
this, we would
One can keep others on his place,
elds should be fenced, and I have
nature, I think, should pass a law
s' if the people want them. The
males to run is like a law that
t calves be killed. It would not
that pure bred cattle wil
s conditions now stand, there is
!breeding establishments for reg-
9 a J
they shall have the fence law or not. Well, when one beat got it, the
thing naturally grew until now it covers practically the entire State.
I believe if the legislature would allow every County or part of a
County to tax itself to build a fence around itself, and have a law
of this kind in that particular part, it would be one of the greatest
things, and it will be bound to spread. This would be a good step in
the right direction for the agents to take up. It is good to combine
it with the tick eradication law also. This is one of the things that
it would be well for you to do, and present it to the legislature. If
certain communities want it, why should they be prevented from hav-
ing it. When one beat got this law it proved a disadvantage to the
other beats and in a pretty short time the others will come in. It
should not be forced on the entire State at once.
G. W. BELSER. I think that suggestion is right. This thing, if
started, is bound to grow. We will never have any good stock until
we have laws governing it. The number of cattle in the county I
was raised in is four times as large now as when begun. The "beats"
usually measure ten miles square. I believe local option should be
PROF. WILLOUGHBY. That is a matter of education. To eliminate
the scrubs, both man and beast, we must keep everlastingly at it.
Many people are now fencing large areas with miles of fences, simply
to prevent loss in the woods, from Texas fever and other causes.
Probably by education, we can get up to it gradually.
E. W. TURNER. Take Mr. for instance, he does not
own five acres of land, but he has several hundred head of cattle.
In my own County I find the people there are afraid to express them-
selves, but there are a large majority of the stock owners who do not
want the fence law.
M. C. GARDNER. The people are all afraid to say what they think
and we agents are all handicapped. We cannot go out and express
ourselves. If we do we are likely to make enemies.
H. E. SAVELY. You could do this. If they pass a law allowing
certain parts of it, you could say: "I am not saying one way or the
other, and if the majority of the people want it they should have it.
If they do not want it, I do not think they should be made to have it,
but I am with the majority in either view." Personally, however, I
T. Z. ATKESON
We have had so much talk about the different legumes
and crops that I do not feel it is necessary for me to go
deeply into that subject. I would like to say, however, that
the subject of grazing crops, taken in connection with live
industry, is one of
the things t
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
for him to raise quite a number of legumes. Possibly he
might prefer to raise alfalfa, many do, but after he begins
to study the subject he becomes more and more firmly con-
vinced that this is a magnificent live stock country, and we
know it is, but the only objection is the cattle tick; that he
never reads anything about.
Now I think it is a mistake on the part of the land com-
panies, or anyone else, not to take this up with the people.
The land companies, of course, put the bright side of the
thing to the people and they do not realize the effect of the
cattle tick in the South. So far as grazing crops are con-
cerned, in themselves, it is so wide a field that we cannot
possibly take all of them up on a short talk of this kind.
In regard to burr clover, I will say last season, or in
1912, I was in Southern Alabama on the Florida line in the
Demonstration work, and I will give you some reasons why
the supply of seed was so short. I, for one, managed to
get about twenty acres planted in my County, and we were
instructed by the State Agent to see to it that the plots
and these 22
and simply d
planted in th
that there w
on good land
or 23 acr
id fine. T
under the best possible condition,
es that we had there, all grew off
[his was burr clover. Last season,
he fall there were over 1,000 acres
alone, and this was duplicated in
e State, at least the statistics show
acres of it in the State. My ex-
perience was like that of nearly all the other Counties, I
think. Now, then, the thing that appeals most to the man
in the live stock business, is the green crop to pasture on,
and he can have it if he will only take a little extra time
ROTATION AND SUCCESSION OF CROPS
I plant for hogs, b
little change it will be all
maturing4 say about the
soy beanp and peanuts (
is, the small one.) The
by the U. S. Department
1 11 1 I
ut you will find that with some
I right for cattle. Now these crops,
first of September, you will plant
the old time Spanish variety, that
Valencia, the new one introduced
of Agriculture, is an early matur-
a t -a j*t' " S....
98 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Begin the first of October and we have a regular fat-
tening crop for hogs that we consider here as most im-
portant, that is the North Carolina peanut. To supplement
this we have corn. This will last from the first of October
until the 1st or 15th of January. We have corn, rape, vetch,
rye, oats and barley. I have skipped some of those that
you might think good.
In January when the peanuts are about exhausted, we
have one crop that I would
do not bother with chufas.
time in the ground, but they
one that will suggest itself in
vetch and the two clovers, bu
barley. This period of time,
January, will last until about
Now there is always jus
ever rotation we have that is
from the 1st
a little too lat<
for the spring
say is chufas. Personally, I
I think they take too long a
are a pretty good crop, and
rotation. We can have rape,
rr and crimson, oats, rye and
beginning about the 15th of
the 1st of May.
t a little bare place in what-
hard to fill, and this extends
E May until about the
for the winter crops
rops to be ready for g
like Bermuda grass
15th of June. It is
and a little too early
razing. I have never
for pasturing in this
bare spot. I do not know how many of you have these
Bermuda pastures, but you cannot get away from Bermuda
in this country. The very fact that Bermuda is as tena-
cious as it is and because it is hard to get rid of when
once established, in itself presupposes that that grass is
bound to be a good pasture grass. Comparative tests have
been carried on in several different States regarding the
value of Bermuda pastures and blue grass pasture as feeds.
It has been found that an acre of Bermuda will carry more
animals and keep them in better shape than an acre of blue
grass. We have often heard of those wonderful blue grass
pastures that have given to those States of Kentucky, Vir-
ginia, etc., such wealth; but if we study our possibilities,
we will see that we have just as good a chance of wealth
from our Bermuda pastures.
Now here is a crop that I want to mention as valuable,
I expect a laugh when I do. I
, and we have never paid this
Snf fIA rnnrfhrnr n dr nllf hprn
t is citrons. They grow
I much attention, but in
a~t .c in Tenneissee and
FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.
any feeding value in these citrons it stands to reason that
it should be a pretty
kins, not so good a
valuable. In other 7
good as two tons oi
ure on building a
necessary to prepa
think there might
average farm that
I just wanted
does look like a jok
good crop to
is corn silag
-ords, a ton
F citrons, but whe
silo, and buying
re the silage and
be a possibility
would be very
to bring this to
e, but it is not as
e is about as
er has to fig-
inery that is
to the silo, I
itron on the
your attention, for it
much of a joke as you
might think. One of my demonstrators has had them. I
went to his field last spring with him and we were looking
along over the corn field and the citrons were about the
best I ever saw; they were growing everywhere. He wanted
to plow these up and throw them away. I asked him to
leave those in the rows and try a little feeding experiment
with them. He decided to try them. He asked me if they
were really of value, and I told him I did not know but it
would be good to try them anyway. So he gathered his
corn when the time came, but did not take time to gather
the citrons, for
Then he opened
there. He told
time he decided
says that when
load of them on
carried on the e
Now I hav
he knew they would stay there all right.
his gate and turned the cattle and hogs in
me, two weeks later when he had a little
to go in and haul the citrons out, and he
he got in there, he could not find a wagon
the twenty acres. The cattle and hogs had
experiment by themselves.
3 simply indicated these crops that can be
grown at different seasons of the year to carry on a crop
One other thing. I would say during that period from
July 15th to October, I mentioned corn in connection with
peanuts. I believe it best to plant them together, corn with
peanuts dawn the row. I plant from two to four acres,
and plant' them in a succession, planting every ten days or
two weeks, as many times as I think necessary. I do not
rather these, but turn the hours in on them. You will find
old Spanish p<
time as the c<
for they mature
me objection to
peanuts; that is, they sprout aim
maturing, so you cannot plant more
for they would sprout and you would
ter to make your patches small, del
of hogs you have; and run y
patches as they mature, and
by feeding it when it is ready.
Id lose t]
s way s
t the same
at a time,
It is bet-
A. P. SPENCER. I would like to ask why no one has emphasized
sorghum. It seems to me this is one of the important crops and one
of the best things we have. Prof. Gray seems to have fed mature
T. Z. ATKESON. That is a proposition. All of Dan Gray's ex-
periments have been with mature sorghum. The mature sorghum is
not what it ought to be. It would be fine for the hog if he could get
all of it. But the hog gets a stalk of the sorghum in his mouth and
commences to chew it, and the juice runs out both ends and is lost.
So far as sorghum is concerned, it is one crop that I have never had
any experience with; and so far as I know Prof. Gray has not ex-
perimented with it except in the mature stage. I should judge that
where a man did not have Bermuda pasture it would be a good thing to
try sorghum, and possibly it might pay him.
H. E. SAVELY. If you plant cowpeas very thick you can kill
Bermuda anywhere; and if you plant velvet beans very thick there,
you will get a good crop. Shade, if thick enough, will always kill
Bermuda. It is bound to do so, and in one year's time.
A. P. SPENCER. Plant cowpeas with sorghum. Mr. Atkeson says
mature sorghum is not good for feeding, but
we get over 32 bushels of seed from the sor
suggest planting sorghum thick, and I have
here at the Station farm
'ghum per acre. I would
seen some that made the
finest kind of hog feed if planted thick and pastured off two feet high.
These green feeds are mainly for the succulence that a green crop will
The big trouble in this State is between the middle of March and
along into May. We want something for this period. In South Florida
last year I saw acres and acres of sweet potatoes in the ground until
along in April; and I think this is a good thing for the spring feeding.
If the ground is very wet or the potatoes valuable, it is a different
T. Z. ATKESON. I would like to say that there is a good deal more
imagination connected with this Bermuda proposition than anything
else. I have been farming on land that has a good deal of Bermuda
on it and my experience has been that in plowing with a one-horse
plow it is lifted around these patches but with a two horse plow you