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Title: University record
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075594/00517
 Material Information
Title: University record
Uniform Title: University record (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the State of Florida
University of Florida
Publisher: University of the State of Florida,
University of the State of Florida
Place of Publication: Lake city Fla
Publication Date: February 1914
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: College publications -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Agricultural education -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
University extension -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Teachers colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Law schools -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1906)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issue for Vol. 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1907) is misnumbered as Vol. 1, no. 1.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Imprint varies: <vol. 1, no. 2-v.4, no. 2> Gainesville, Fla. : University of the State of Florida, ; <vol. 4, no. 4-> Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida.
General Note: Issues also have individual titles.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075594
Volume ID: VID00517
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEM7602
oclc - 01390268
alephbibnum - 000917307
lccn - 2003229026
lccn - 2003229026

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Main
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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    Index
        Page 128
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        Page 130
Full Text


Va


University (
Gainesville,


Co-operative


)f F
Florid


Demonstration


lor


Work


Agents'


Meeting


February 24-27,


1914


[ i I i


I K)


R


jj







t
p\


BOARD OF CONTROL


FOR


THE


INSTITUTIONS


HIGHER EDUCATION


P. K.


Yonge, Chairman, Pensacola, Fla.


T. B. King, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. Wartmann, Citra, Fla.


F. E.


Finlayson, Old Town, Fla.
Jennings, Jacksonville, Fla.


J. G. Kellum, Secretary.


FARMERS'


CO-OPERATIVE


DEMONSTRATION


WORK.
STAFF
ALBERT A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
P. H. ROLFS, Director.
C. K. McQUARRIE, State Agent.


H. E. SAVELY, Field Agent,
culture.


U. S. Department of


Agri-


. SPENCER, District
Florida.


Agent


Central


and


South


E. S. PACE, District Agent for North Florida.


AGNES


ELLEN


Clubs.


HARRIS, In


Charge


Girls'


Canning


BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary.





p7
enhir^-
' "it^


5',^
Eje cw'


COUNTY DEMONSTRATION AGENTS.


Joseph Crews


M. C.
R. T.
C.A
G.W.
D. C.
W.E.
Frank
A. W.
D. R.
S. J. 1
C. H.
. E.
A. .A.
0. 0.
T.Z.
J. C. S
D. G.


Postoffice
-_-Gainesville


_-- V. Macelenny __
-- - --.Panama City


a
- -
* --


Gardner
Kelly
Fulford -
Belser --
Geiger -
Brown -
Robinson
Turner
McQuarri


YMcCully
Baker
Soar -
Lewis
Simmor
Atkeson
'mith -


-- -.-. E Dukes --__-
-.-._.--Lake City
.- -- Jacksonvillie
- - -- Gonzalez -
-.-.-.. Wauchula -
-- -_- Greensboro
_-____, Plant City
_-_-__-., Bonifay
- - - ..Marianna _


'^M"----- ^^1 ^^ ^^rqH^
(col.)

e ..


---------
_--_----_
kS -.. ..a .


McQuagge


-_Mayo ___- _
-.Williston -
- Tallahassee
-.Bristol ....
-.Madison --
- .Berlin ....
-.Orlando _--
--Dade City -
Kathleen -
_-_Botts .-.-
..Live Oak __


*


County
.Alachua


____ .Bay

---- .Bradford
- ---_Columbia
_---__Duval
..Escambia
-....De Soto
__ -_ Gadsden


IrlII I


rIIIiI
- i-
-



- - -


-. DeFuniak Springs


_-Chipley


_.Hillsboro
..Holmes
.Jackson
_.Lafayette
.Levy
.Leon
. Liberty
.Madison
.Marion
_Orange
_Pasco
.Polk
_Santa Rosa
. Suwannee
. Walton


_---_-_-_Washington


EACH MAN GIVEN CREDIT FOR HIS PART.
The following pages were prepared from stenographic
notes taken at the time of the Co-operative Demonstration
Meeting. Some of the papers were prepared beforehand
and filed with the Secretary at the time they were de-
livered.
So far as possible every man's name was taken in con-
nection with the discussion during the meeting. The views
there expressed are the views of the parties whose names
are mentioned, in connection with the discussion or the
paper.
Every effort has been made to present the discus-
sions and lectures as nearly in the form in which they


Stafford


Burgis


Turner
Mathis
Mizell
Brown
Watson
Hiatt











CONTENTS


Page


Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration
Work .----- - - -- - ------ ..P. I
Address of Welcome to the Agents -._ Dr.
Address to the Agents ...... ...H.
Address to the Agents --. ....-P. .
(Educating Boys and Girls for Farm Life: J.
Discussion ..-... -- -----....---
Suggestion to Agents for the Practi-
cal Handling of the Boys' Corn Club
Work -------------- ---- -C.
Discussion --- ----------------------
(Breeds and Management of Swine --..-C.


Discussion -.. --------- -
Practical Methods of Hog Raising ...
Discussion .. ...----- -------
Experience in Pork Production __-_--

Discussion a-.--.- ------.-
Cutting and Curing Meats --------


Hog Cholera in Florida_ -. -
Discussion ------ -----
(See also Discussion following
in Pork Production)
Tick Eradication in Florida ---..


Discussion a.- ---a- .
Crop Rotation ---.----.. --
Discussion --. .- a a a
Irish Potatoes -.. ...a..--------...a
Discussion ......-a --_ .
Fertilizers -- ---m
Discussion


MeQuarrie


L. illoughby)
L. Willoughby)


Sa --- ---------
-W. E. Brown
------an------
-S. J. McCully
-T. Z. Atkeson---


------


----------
------- ma-


- ------ -- -


C. F. Dawson


S. J. McCully's Paper on Experience
S. J. McCully's Paper on Experience


-Dr.


C. F. Dawson


a---a ------------ - --
_H. E. Savely a-a...--.
Sa ---- -- ---- ----a nama
_A. P. Spencer -.. a- a -
-P. --. Rolfs -----,- a.-m
aP. H. Rolfs ..........a.a.


Co-operative Buying of Fertilizers
among Farmers a -. -aaaa. a a
Fertilizers and Marketing ... _
Sweet Potatoes ---.....---. -..-


Discussion
The State Nursery
Legumes -.....
Discussion
Beef Cattle in Flo,
Discussion ...
Grazing Crops for
Discussion ...
Forage Crops .-.-
Discussion --
Growing and Curin
Discussion ---
Sugar-Cane .----
Discussion


Cotton-Boll


Inspection Law
a fl a a flmm m n a


rida -..-

Florida


---m--m- mm-
---m ---- --


----a--N n--a---- a
* 5 a 5 a m5 a a a a a


ig Hay _


---- ---


* a 5w~ m 5l 5 n 5 a
* S a a a a a mm a
-- a a a ass amm a m a a


Weevil


a.a.N. M.
___T. K.


G. Prange
fdnrdhbe


U-- F -


- ---


__Dr. E. W. Berger
____E. S. Pace _--___


------
- a- a


a - -- -- --- -- ---
_C. L. Willoughby --
_T. Z. Atkeson ------ -- ----
-..T. Z. Atkeson --a-


---- --a- a--------
-___J. M. Scott --.aa

a.. W. E. Brown __
aMP aPW -a -- ----------^l^R ^^-*^^^^ lf*^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^f^
a___C. K. McQuarrie

aSa-E. S. Pace .-.a-


aM-f M--- -1-I---
-MJ------k--- ---
----- a
a-----


Rolfs -- ---.. -
. A. Murphree .-.-
Savely .-. -_-_-_
Rolfs .- .. .
Vernon)


_S. J. McCully


m----


_~____~~~


. . . -- w w w -- _- -- -








FARMERS'


FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


CO-OPERATIVE


BULLETIN,


DEMONSTRATION


WORK.
The Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration work of the
United States Department of Agriculture in charge of Dr.
Bradford Knapp, Special Agent, has formed a co-operative
agreement with the University of Florida and with
the Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of
Florida, whereby the Demonstration and Extension
work of the State is centralized into one co-
ordinated management. The University of Florida pro-
vides suitable office rooms and facilities on the University
Campus for headquarters for handling the clerical work.
It also pays one-half the salaries of the State and District
Agents. When the State and District Agents are travelling
exclusively for Farmers' Institute work all of the expenses
are borne from the State funds.
The central management of the Farmers' Co-opera-


tive Demonstration
Girls' Canning Clu
K. McQuarrie, whi
work. The salaries,
employees are met
purpose by the U.


Work, the Boys'
ibs, is under the
o is State Agent
s of the County A
in part by funds
S. Department of


Corn ClIUDs, and the
direction of Prof. C.
for carrying on this
Agents and other local
appropriated for this
Agriculture, amount-


ing to about $22,000. These funds are further augmented
by the appropriation by the legislature of Florida of $5,000
annually. The Farmers' Institute work is provided for by
annual legislative appropriation of $10,000.
The District Agents work under the direction and ad-
vice of the State Agent. The State Agent and District
Agents visit the County Agents as frequently as possible,
and with the County Agents make visits to the various Farm
Demonstrators, the Boys' Corn Clubs, and the Girls' Can-
ning Clubs. The State Agent and each of the District
Agents are members of the faculty of the University.
The State is divided into two sections. All of the
Counties organized east and south of and including Duval,
Bradford,' Alachua and Levy, are considered as Central and
South Florida. This district is in charge of Prof. A. P.
Snencer. The Counntie. to the northward and westward







UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


professors of the Agricultural College. The County Dem-
onstration Agents having their sessions at the University
are thus enabled to come in contact with the most recent
and fundamental progress that has been made in agricul-
tural education.
The County Agents visit as many farms as possible.
Where the farmer agrees to set aside a portion of a field
to carry out the instructions of the County Agents fully,
he is called a demonstrator. Where the instructions are
carried out on the whole field or where the instructions are
carried out only in part, the farmers are known as co-op-
erators.
Every County that has entered the co-operative arrange-
ment has been aided at the rate of $675 annually. The
amount needed above this has been supplied either by the
Counties as a whole, or by private or community aid. The
salaries paid to County Agents vary from $800 for the
lowest to $2,400 for the highest. The Counties in which the
higher salaries are paid also make provision for traveling
expenses.








II


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


NO.


ADDRESS OF WELCOME TO THE AGENTS.
DR. A. A. MURPHREE


Under the co-operative plan entered into by Dr. Brad-
ford Knapp (Special Agent in charge of the Farmers' Co-
operative Demonstration Work, Bureau of Plant Industry,
United States Department of Agriculture) and the Univer-
sity of Florida, you gentlemen, State Agent. District Agents
and County Agents, become a part of the State University,
and a very important part. It seems, therefore, that I am
extending a formal welcome to a part of the family here this
morning. Be that as it may, I want to assure you that
everyone here on the campus is glad to welcome you as co-
laborers and fellow servants in the common cause of Agri-
cultural Extension and rural uplift.
It has been stated that sixty-four different people are
required to manufacture a pair of shoes, and that it takes
the commerce and co-operation of the world to produce a
breakfast. For the solution of our country-life problems
and the improvement of the agricultural condition of the
country, we need the whole-hearted co-operation of the
farmers, bankers, transporters, merchants, churches,
schools, and State.
This is a land of opportunity; but in order to realize its
greatest value, co-operative effort in the application of intel-
ligence and scientific knowledge to the common farm prob-
lems is demanded.
You, gentlemen, you county Agents, are preaching di-


agriculture,


ment of live stock,
fertilizers; you are
marketing, and the
are expected to diss


It is
come
of th
their
these


of the utmost
here at interva
e *Experiment


projects.
experts


crop


and


rotation,


in


the intelligent


cre
us<


aSE
es


encouraging saving an
increase of per capital in
eminate valuable scientif
importance, therefore, tl
Is to touch elbows with th
Station, and familiarize


Sand improve-
f concentrated
Ld co-operative
come; and you
ic information.
hat you should
ie investigators


yourself


with


It is important that you meet these teachers,
in the College of Agriculture, who have en-


FARMERS'


versified


4













Z22"',BDI
,.,! ii I IZ ml l













r~~r .7~'j .~h

.Z2..
F l'All _.-Cont Dd a
"I
M











FiB. I.-County Demonstration Agents and Staff








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


arrangement for the integration
various agricultural extension act
versity, particularly those of its
Agricultural College, it is desired
operative effort all along the line.
The University expects to de


and co-operation of
ivities of the State 1
Experiment Station
that there should be


rive


great


benefit


you through this co-operative scheme. First of a
present at first hand the difficult problems whicl
in the field, so that the investigators and experts
their investigations to the more pressing and
needs of the various sections of the State.


the
Uni-
and
co-
rom


11, you will
i you meet
can adapt
immediate


Realizing, as you do, the great need of scientific agri-
culturists, you will, I am sure, endeavor to encourage every
boy in your county to look forward to a course in the Agri-
cultural College of his State University. Why not bring
the farmers with you when you come up to the two-weeks
course in the summer? I am sure they would reap much
benefit from conference with you men, and from the lec-
tures and instructions to be given at this conference.
Now, finally, I must urge you to command any or all
of us here on this campus during the next four days, or at
any time from the field when our men can be of service to
you; and may the new relations into which we have entered,
by virtue of the authority of the Federal Bureau and the
University of Florida, be happy and joyful, mutually help-
ful, and abiding.


ADDRESS


TO


COUNTY


AGENTS


H. E. SAFELY
You understand the arrangements here by which you
are members of the faculty of the University just as much
as you are Federal Demonstration Agents. We feel that it
is a step in the right direction, this gathering together here
to build up stronger work in the State, and to this end all of
the trained men of the College are placed at your service.


While th U
now become
better use it
We hop


university was at
a part of it, and
than in the past
e that a larger


; your service before, you have
are in a position where you can
fund will be available for this


f








UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


of all those things that make for better work, riding plows,
spraying machines, and a lot of other things that need not
be mentioned here; all of which will be supplied for your
work, as a part of your equipment.


JUST A BEGINNING


This is new work. The amount of money put into it
in the past is insignificant in comparison with the amount
that will be put into it in a few years. The time is coming
in the State of Florida when we will spend one hundred
thousand dollars in this work. We must go right ahead and
use every means possible towards being the most thoroughly
equipped men. In these four days, filled with discussions by
agents and members of the faculty, we will all become much
better informed. We are planning to hold a school of
instruction for two weeks next summer, when the best in-


structors along various lines will be brought to your service.
This will give you a chance to become thoroughly equipped.
It is not so much what you have learned, as whether or not
you are students and investigators who will not stop until
you get all the information that can be obtained. If you
have the investigator's turn of mind that will not stop
until you have solved your problem, there is no doubt but
that you will be well equipped. If, on the other hand, you
strike a problem but do not investigate it-are content to
pass it by without investigation-you will soon find farmers
in your County that know more about the subject than you
do. You must lead. That is why we have called this meet-
ing, and why, from time to time, we are going to call other
meetings. Keep note-books, and when a point is made, jot
it down, think it over; and when you get back home sit
down and write on a piece of paper all the points you have


gathered at these meetings. It will help to fix them in your
mind. We want you to be the best trained men in the
County. We realize that many of you have not had the best
opportunity for study. You are good farmers, and some of
you have done a good deal of studying; but we want you all
to become great students of agriculture that you may be of
the greatest help to your people.


- -


- a - -ia -


a a -


A n n n nl rr nr~ r1A rI wm V rr. a' a r .


~ ~__


1 ., ".


-- II h m








FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


Counties is so great that the best informed man in one of
our cotton-growing counties, for instance, would find his
knowledge of little or no value in a citrus-growing county;
and conversely, the best informed man in a citrus-growing
county would find his knowledge of small value to a cotton-
growing community.
NEED OF SPECIALIZATION.
We need specialization, so that our men in the different
Counties shall be specialists in what each County needs.
Every County differs from every other County in a greater
or less degree. The lands, climate and crops are all points
to be borne in mind. Then there is another feature that
we also have to bear in mind; that is the social surroundings
in the County. You will find perhaps two Counties in Flor-
ida, almost or quite bordering one another, and in one the
agriculture is far in advance of the agriculture in the adjoin-
ing County, so we must specialize and adapt ourselves to the
particular County in which we are working. In one of the
well-developed Counties where agriculture has been accent-


uated, where agriculture has been taught for
years, as in Washington County for example,
corn production has been so ably taught by the


Agricultural Society for
best corn grown.
The demonstrator in
a step in advance of the


twenty years,


a number of
where better
West Florida


we find some of the


any particular district has to keep
best farmers in his County.


LEADERS NEEDED
There are stages in the development of agriculture; and
what is the best now, in ten years more would be so hope-
lessly behind as to be absolutely worthless. So the isolated
farmer needs your best information. The work is pro-
gressing very rapidly; if you go to sleep for one year you
will fall behind, but if you go to sleep for the next ten years
you will be so far behind you would never catch up again.
You mtst be at the head of the procession, but only just so
far ahead as the conditions of your County will permit.
Nearly every community has some one, two, or three indi-


viduals who have led the progress,


who have done the whole








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


we are pioneers in this work, and the pioneers are the men
who have to blaze the way. For that reason the work is
made still harder when handicapped by small salary and
various hindrances of that kind. We must have the vision
of what the work is leading to if conducted along right lines,
to keep our spirits up. Personally we may not suffer seri-
ously by failing to correctly understand our true mission;
but it is a terrible mistake for the County. So we need to
keep in mind the vision of what we are doing, how we are
doing it, and what the end will be.

ONE LEADING CROP HELPS ALL CROPS


I
many
will r
South
show
when
numb
South


may use the same illustration that I have usei
times, that of better corn production in Florida.
member it has been said from time to time that
was no place to produce corn. Statistics form
id the low average of 8 or 9 bushels to the acre.
you come to look the country over for the lard
er of bushels produced per acre, you find it in
.In spite of that, most of the people of the Un


States have gotten the idea
corn-growing. The trouble
into the growing of corn as


we are going to
corn production.
ers, and quite a
are content to pri
I expect to see com
one will see that t
in the production
The value of


have trou
We have
number of
oduce less
editions in
the South
of corn.
the corn


that the South is not
is we have not put
we ought to have don


I so
You
the
early
Yet
gest
the
ited


adapted to
our brains
te. I know


ble in applying brain power to
a large number of negro farm-
?indifferent white farmers who
than 10 bushels per acre. But
Florida changed, so that every-
has an advantage over the West


crop ir


something less than $4,000,00
year, being now second only
know but what the corn crop
Florida than the citrus crop;
of the State, and the money
into circulation locally, but n


corn crop, however,
nels; it goes on to
lrwnl oirolninsnn* "i+


Florida


has


ri


0 in 1908, to $10,125
to the citrus crop.
is worth more to the


the citrus c
comes back
iuch of it i


does not enter
our tables, and


into
the


sen from
,000 this
I do not
State of


:rop is shipped out
, some of it going
s lost to us. The
commercial chan-
money enters our


-m rnlra r h++ttar frm hnm pn hpttpr








FARMERS'


efforts on better corn
a farmer can produce
has no trouble in pro
ing with Mr. Meharg
hammer on, the one i


crop.


INSTITUTE


BULLE TIN,


production, and you know that


20 to 40
during a


bushels of


crop


we agreed that was


3oint to


keep our


Now it has worked out to


corn


when


per acre,


cotton.


talk-


the one thing to


eyes on-a


point


where


big corn
it shows


that our combined judgment was extremely well taken,


corn


idly
the


before
their


was


relative


the important thing and


wake.
Value


We
of t


were


corn


cotton


altogether


and


us the experience of Texas,


cotton


knew


crop


that


through


we must


prepare


cotton
where


ravages


this


that


would follow rap-


determi


were
boll


crops.


they
the
and


ned by
Ve had
losing
weevil.


we were


well prepared that when the trouble struck the western part
of the State there was no panic among the growers. They


knew how to grow other crops.


bankers


crops.


But


because


will not dwell


to dwell specifically


to study in


detail.


In furtherance of


have said,


There was no panic among


banker


had


further


on some of


what


confidence


on this.
problems


Murphree and


I want


that


Mr


we do not look upon you as visitors here,


other
later


we need

. Savely
we want


you to see the buildings, get all the information that you can
and make use of it to the best advantage.


EDUCATING


BOYS


AND


GIRLS


FOR


FARM


LIFE
J. VERNON


(Corrected copy of this paper
time of going to press, May 10.)


not been


received


to the


DISCUSSION


C. H.


BAKER.


I just want to say that I don't know when I have


listened to anything more inspiring than Dean Vernon's talk. It
had never occurred to me that this matter might be treated as a part
of our school course of literary work which would appeal directly to
the chiMd and interest him in his own line of life; but I can see it
now. *
Another thing I have thought of a great deal, and that is when it
comes to be a question of studies in school, we are often under mis-
avrrehension. I do not know of anything more mis-anorehended than


,9








UNIVERSITY


I
Verno
am inm
S
said t
not be
we do
girls
Clubs.
things
duty a
and fil
it if a
the w<
and te
home
culture
0


FLORIDA


want to take this opportunity to express my thanks to Prof.
n for what he has said here with regard to work in schools, I
dined to take it up, and introduce it into my own County.
. J. McCULLY. I heartily endorse all that Prof. Vernon has
oward the betterment of agricultural life. I feel that we will
doing our whole duty as demonstrators of agricultural work if
not go into the schools and get up and talk to the boys and
about the organizing of Boys' Corn Clubs and Girls' Tomato
We must bring out the views of the teacher who teaches these
all the time. * I believe we have not done our full
is Prof. Vernon says until we can go through the rural districts
nd some very inviting homes. They would certainly appreciate
1ll the Demonstration Agents would take a more active part in
ork, as they are supposed to do later. We can set an example,
each by example how they are to train the child to beautify the
and everything of that kind. It all has a tendency to aid agri-


al work.
L. MIZELL. I appreciate


non made. I have heard him n
before, but they are always bett
things, and I believe it is our du
here to the homes of the people
I try to follow up all the cow trail
their homes, and see their condition
we do that, we can place ourselves
ourselves in their situation, and
than if we casually met them at
way we can gather the children
gradually broach all these ideas,
and under it all is the idea of bett
We must not neglect the education
are doing all they can, and if we
the boys and girls will catch the si
I appreciate the ideals given here
us talk plainly to the teachers abo
do not know very much about it.
E. W. TURNER. I cannot sa


very much the remarks Prof. Ver-
nake similar remarks many times
;er and better. I believe in these
ty to carry the inspiration we get
we visit. In my traveling around
s and byways, and see the people in
,ns and their disadvantages. When


somewhat in their
approach them in
home or on the hi
with the father


position, imagine
a different way
highway. In that
and mother and


bring them to believe in our ideas,
er conditions for the boys and girls.
of the boys and girls. The parents
can point the way to higher ideals
)irit and their ideals will be greater.
!. Let us carry them home and let
ut them. I am persuaded that they


ly


along this line; but it is my idea to
the mothers interested, instruct the
machinery and keep it oiled, and in
will be what they should be. We
agriculture. There are many little


the home
different
hogs and


and show them why they


surroundings where
cattle.


e they c


much


more


than


been


said


take up all parts of the home, get
farmers how to take care of their
the future generation the farmers
want to get the schools to teach
things you must take up within
should do this, show them by the
:an be benefited by confining their


T. Z. ATKESON. This problem is one that when you get to
studying from the practical standpoint of the demonstration work, has
many things connected with it. To my mind perhaps the thing that
has done most is the Girls' Canning Clubs' work. As Dean Vernon so
roll hren andrl if i i ia non pav sI n o t in tnileh with the homes and


9


1


]
1









FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


last year was
work in that
upbuilding of
thing that co'


a great success. The lady in charge has done a great
County. I think her work has done more toward the
the rural conditions in Suwannee County than any other


uld


be done.


This p


quite a good deal of caution by 1
My own experiences have been r;
rather unique in others. To
lar. I remember last summer
is fairly well educated as farn
mon school education, owns his ;
It is a log house, to be sure, but ha
I was taken with it, for it was a
one day to dinner, and I certainly
time we were at the table she was
I sat at the table, and she had a b
she was doing the best she could t
ought to have the house screened
after dinner we figured over the
buy all the materials necessary to
He said: "You know I would like
after me about it for a long time
said, "Well, I'll tell you what I'll
back to Live Oak I will send you d


problem has to
the average D
father amusing
give you onf
a farmer ir
aers go. He
)lace, and has
LS a big porch


n attractive
was sorry
so embaras
ig limb of a
;o keep the I
. He said


cost
scre
to do
t, but
do, if
Lown


for
sed
pe
flie
it


be approached with
demonstration Agent.
in some cases, and
e case in particu-
I the County, who
has a good corn-
a very nice house.
and is fitted up well.
lace. I stayed there


his wife; all of the
. Her husband and
each tree with which
s off. I told him he
tost too much. But


carefully and
en the house e
it, and my wi
I haven't the


you say t
all this st


;hu
uf


me back next fall when you get your moneyy" But
That man had a riding cultivator, but his wife had
cook stove. This is a rather difficult matter to
those are the things that will have to be evolved ra
majority of instances.
P. H. ROLFS. At first sight it seems as if the


Prof.


Vernon was rather far-fetched, b


realize.
held at C
asked hoi
were foul
at that.
a great n
who did
stimulus
great the
agricultu
subjects.
of the fin
ute some


People are
;reensboro.
w many of
r little han
Two years
iany hands


ready for this
We talked to
the boys and gi
ds that went up,
later we asked 1
that went up in


not hold their hands up.
toward better farming.
advantage would be if on
ral problems and if the
We will find here and t
est homes in the country
of the best in town. It ih


sible to have
house with a
others. ;t is
against ,it, an
shown we will
know, is that
these homes.


I
f
s


those fine homes. T
bathtub, it is only a


not because
d want to
find that i
of getting
We must


. I
the
rls
, an
the
i th


found he
entirely fo
fe she has
money."


e word when
f and you ca
he wouldn't
to cook on a
meet, and I
Lther slowly


position


lut we are closer to
remember our fir
children, and Mr.
wanted to be farm
d they were feeble
same question, and
e air. There were


That


was


result


Dean Vernon has
y the problems in ar
reading lessons wer
lere (only a few it
for which I would tr
not an easy matter,


he moment
year until


e people do not wa
defend their old '
improvement goes r
more crops on the
have the money


ant them
vay; but
rapidly .
farm, s
to begin


could
r $12.
s been
So I
I get
n pay
do it.
$7.50
think
in the


taken by


it than we
st Institute
McQuarrie
ers. There
expressions
there were
only a few
of a small


told us
'ithmetic
'e agricu
is true)
ade in a
but it is


how
were
tural
some
min-
pos-


have one country
have a half dozen


. They may talk
when the way is
The first step, we
o we can pay for
with. The 1900


p


*
I
F
I
f







UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


high. Formerly we were satisfied with nine bushels of corn. If we
keep our ideal on nine bushels of corn, we will never get above it.
We have already reached the fifteen bushel crop. If we keep our
ideal on the little log school-house we will never get above that. If
we have an ideal of a perfectly trained teacher, it makes no differ-
ence how great the obstacles, we will overcome them, and have a good
school. Dr. Murphree referred to the school with the teacher on
one end of the log and the child on the other. Some of the best
lessons are taught by the teachers in this way.
I tell you, you have a great opportunity, greater than any of the
rest of us, of bettering these interests in the country, and I think
Dean Vernon has given us a great ideal.
H. E. SAVELY. I don't know how many of you men can make a
public talk, but you are going to miss some wonderful opportunities
of doing good if you don't make it a practice to speak in the little
schoolhouse every time you go by and say something to the children.
The best Demonstration Agents everywhere are the men who appreci-
ate this fact, who make it a rule to stop at the schoolhouse and say a
few words to the children and pass on. You have no idea the amount
of good you can do if you will think out little lessons on corn or some-
thing else, and make it your rule never to pass the schoolhouse when
it is in session without stopping and saying something. And when
you get the sympathy of the children you will get the older folks too.
As an illustration of what may come out of a chance conversation
which is at the time seemingly unimportant, I want to tell you a little
story about the late Dr. Seeman A. Knapp and a farmer he met one
day. About fifteen years ago, Mr. Green, of Miss.,
came to Dr. Knapp to buy some hogs. Dr. Knapp had some stock to
sell. While they were talking over the trade on stock, Dr. Knapp got
to talking to Mr. Green and telling him how to prepare a better seed
bed and grow better corn and garden crops. Mr. Green had not seen


Dr. Knapp since, b
making two bales o
him how he came
Dr. Knapp who wa
a better seed bed,
been trying to do
the next time Dr.
he came 150 miles
sort of leader in hi
came out of a little
before. Don't lose


ut one day I saw Mr. Green, and he said he was
f cotton where he used to make only one. I asked
to do it, and he said that 15 years before he met
*s so enthusiastic, and talked to him about making
etc., and Mr. Green said "All these years I have
what he told me." So I said "I will write to you
Knapp comes to the State." I wrote to him and
to' meet Dr. Knapp again. Now that man was a
s community, and all that influence for betterment
conversation he had with Dr. Knapp fifteen years
an opportunity of going into the schools.


SUGGESTIONS


TO


AGENTS


FOR


THE


PRAC-


TICAL


HANDLING


OF THE


BOYS'


CORN


CLUB


WORK


C. K. MCQUARRIE


I .


bI


[
P








FARMERS' INSTITUTE


BULLETIN, NO.


crop than
conditions
they used
the reply
analysis 7


it is possible for the farmer to dw
;; that they nominally lived in their
excessive amounts of fertilizer. T<
can be given-What about it if they
we find, that in almost every case t


not picked; tl
more than the
if the boys de
orthodox way,
boy excels the
a maximum yi
his seed thick
is capable of p
vating it and


hat the amounts of fertilizer used
average farmer could profitably use
voted more time to their patches t


it paid them
ordinary fath
field; he sets a
enough to ens
Producing it; a
working it to


o under
patches
o all of
did? I


usual
; that
which
lut on


:he soils were


h


to do so. Where the
er is in that he sets ou
figure to be attained;


were not
; and that
an in the
corn-club
t to make
he plants


ure that yield providing his soil
nd he stays with his crop, culti-
the utmost, so as to attain the


end in view. And it seems to me our agricultural education
has all along been remiss in this line of teaching agriculture,
in that they never set a maximum yield as being possible
under certain soil conditions and certain closeness in plant-
ing the crop. They have been content to stick to the oft-
repeated phrase of increasing the crop production. They


did not have
has been left
what can be
work emphas
one who puts


the nerve to set a figure and live up to it. It
to a few little boys to give an object lesson of


done when
izes the fir
a seed into


possible favorable soil c
at harvest time. Over a


onstrated to their fathers
increased yields have been
In the past history of
the most part of the work
Superintendent of School,
talks were made on the
number at one time. The
done among the boys by
has not proved very satis
well as was expected at it
been that the personal t(
tinued; and the boy was le


you start out to do it. The
st and most essential aim of e
the ground-to give this seed
condition, to make a maximum
ind above this, these boys have


boys'
wvery-
every
yield
dem-


and all others concerned, that the
made at reduced cost per bushel.
the Corn-Club Work in the State,
has been done through the County
s, and by visits to schools where
subject and the boys enrolled in
re was not much actual field work
any of the Agents. This method
factory, and has not resulted as
s inception. The weak point has
ouch, so requisite, was not con-
ft very much to his own initiative


and resources. He was not accorded the influence of peri-








I;


Fig. 2.-Boys' corn club member.







FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN, NO.


ing right there and then. If his name is enrolled with sev-
eral others at a school or other meeting, the enthusiasm that
generally occurs at meetings where a number join at one
time, has waned by the time the Agent gets around, and he
has to sometimes use diplomacy to get the boy started right.
Sometimes the Agent will find names on the lists made at
such meetings that are not desirable, that have no land suit-
able for the work, or not enough of it; and the Agent may
have to do some weeding out. In this he must use some
diplomacy so as not to cause any hard feelings that would
hurt the work at some future time.
The land should be measured, to see that it is not too
small or too large a patch. Seventy yards square is an
acre, or 43500 square feet, and any multiple of this may be
used. In planting a crop, the measurement should be from
the outside water furrows. In the past some have meas-
ured the land from row to row, which is really more than an
acre and was not a proper record.
In all the work with boys and girls, the personal touch
is really what counts for success. The enthusiasm that the


Agent shows in his periodic visits
the boys' successes, or otherwise.
seed-bed should be strongly empha
drainage is ample to prevent water
during a rainy time. The proper 3
and applied in the proper way; t


is reflected manyfold in
The necessity of a good
sized, and also that the
standing on the surface


fertilizer should
he quantity to


I
U


should be determined by the mechanical condition of the
and the depth of plowing when it was broken. A good !
to observe here would be 100 pounds per acre for every i
the land was broken. Where six hundred pounds per a
and upwards is used, it is recommended to broadcast it,
work it into the soil a few days before planting. In
these operations the Agent should be very explicit in


directions so
what counts,


as to ensure
right at the


success. The personal
time. Good seed should


cured that is suitable for the kind of soil in use.


wsed
ised
soil
rule
nch
tcre
and
all
his


touch is
be pro-


PRIZES


The Agent should familiarize himself as early as pos-
sible with the number of prizes that will be available in his
C1- -... m_--- lr il_ .... 211 t. -- -a.a. -


I""""








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


send a check with the recommendation that he open a bank
account with it, if he has not one already, which more boys


have than
The I


yearly


ome people have any idea of.


Department at


trip


Washington


largest yields in the States
for a scholarship of a year'


Washington


given


is not
i boys


but recommend


favor


that


that it


have


of the


be used


course in the Agricultural


lege. Giving short courses for the w:
is also a good way to reward the boys,


an early


date


everything in


Col-


winners in the Counties
and the Agent should


line,


so that


able to encourage the boys as much as possible.


will


THE


GIRLS


CANNING CLUB


While the Agent has no direct charge of the girls'


work


as he has of the boys, still he is to help in any way he can by


personal


treatment


opera


the other
cheerful
girls' wo]
acre, but


practice


attention


as far


spraying
Stations that


encouragement,


rk a success.


on


that they


a system


as possible


;he plants,
belong to t
io wonders


The girls


have


should grow


crop


rotation


pruning,
he work.
towards


matter


staking,
He can
making


just one-tenth


a variety
for the si


crops,


eason,


and
, by
the
f an
and


because


their crops are all short period crops; so that they should be


encouraged


peppers.


grow


tomatoes


beans


okra


, egg-plant,


and


DISCUSSION


H. E.
come to th
that there


SAVELY suggested that two boys from each
ie Short Courses at the University. He


should


prize money.


uniformit
Big cash


in the different


prizes are


so discouraging to all but the prize winner.


County should


Counties


not desirable,


suggested
in regard


as they


*4


PROF. VERNON recommended a large number of small prizes,
making the first large enough to be attractive; $25 as a rule, is high
enough. Scholarships are excellent prizes, but the money value of


pr


e scholarship should be made considerably higher than
ize. Then if the winner does not want the scholarship,


course have the smaller cash prize.
D. C. GEIGER. In our County


County


School


cash


he can


Board


have


offered to duplicate any amount the Demonstration Agent can get up.
I have a guarantee of about $100, and they will add as much more.


Some boys are handicapped in advance, from the fact that their


I 9 a i ri 1 : A1 1








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


acre, but unfortunately the offer came rather late, as most
corn was planted. He recommended that every boy should
something, if it was only $1. His method was to go from ho
house and talk it over with the parents and the boy. The r
were more certain, as the enthusiasm that could be gotten up b3
ing to the boys at the schoolhouse does not amount to very much
makes it a rule never to let any one boy know what another is
The Demonstration Agent's boy must not be one of the contest
It is an absolute rule that no relative should have anything to d
the measuring or weighing of the corn.
O. L. MIZELL. I thought after trying it one year that I
advise anyone, but now I am not so sure. There is just one
that I want to mention, and that is about raising the corn. I


the proper thing to do
the corn, and not the w
If we stimulate every b
the winning of the priz
So let us keep the idea
not the winning of the


a pr
favor
and
enco
for
does
fellow
that


*ize comr
G. W. I
ir of giv
reports
,urage th
good cor
not get
,w. He
the boy


but do


of the
d .get
use to
resultss
r talk-
1. He
doing.
stants.
o with

could
point
think


is to stress the fact that it is the raising of
inning of the prize that is the most important.
oy with the idea that there is nothing to it but
e, there will be a great deal of disappointment.
that the real thing is the raising of the corn,
prize. Incidentally, let the boys know there is
not make the prize the main idea.


SER had about 5
every boy some
the County Fair.


0 new nan
kind of a
He did r


nes
pri:
lot


this
ze if
think


boy to grow the corn simply for the
Possibly some boy works as hard


any
did
cou


chances this yea
I. E. SOAR.
good humor. It
the list of boys v
proportion of tl
good showing.
the work and ti
Boys' Corn Club
but in starting
and it seems tV
encourage them.


thing because he
not favor money
ild appreciate. T
r were for better
It is rather dif
would be better


vho comp
he prize
I have m
turned in
Badges.
into the


1

l


did not make as r
prizes much, but
'he outlook was en
results.
ficult at times to
to distribute prize


lete the work and 1
money should go
ade it a rule that
the records should
Sometimes boys
work do not seem


year.
ne gr
it a
prize,
as th
nuch


He was in
ows his corn
good idea to
but to work
Ie others but
as the other


rather something
icouraging. The

get everybody in
s largely through


turn in results, but a large
to the boys who make a
every boy that completed


d get at
are very
to have


1
r


me that such boys ought to havy
The having a badge seems to be a


east one of the
nuch interested,
suitable ground;
e something to
stimulation. I


am particularly in favor of going to the homes and talking with the
parents as well as the boys; boys whose parents have been interested
are the ones who make the best showing in producing corn.
A. P. SPENCER. Referring to the scholarships, it has come to
our attention that sometimes the scholarships come to rather small
boys. Would it not be well to award the scholarships for work
extending over one or two years? Of course the small boy is wel-
come, but\he older one gets more out of it.
PROI. VERNON. It would be better for the individual boy; but on
the other hand, I think we would reach a smaller number, unless we
could work out a plan to get a large number up here on the basis of


L
g


ng
3E.
in1
to
ie
*n.


0








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


and pretty soon you have some boys coming on their own account.
Dr. Murphree has ruled that no boy under 16 shall remain at night
on the campus; but we have made arrangements through the differ-
ent ministers to have them taken care of in town, and I believe in
catching them just as young as you can. Of course, there is a limit.


If we could have a
soon have them; but
older boys; though I
boy of 17. I have
others in the class
answer. I think the
anyone else. I would
I think a longer


bunch of eight-year-old boys I would just as
the younger boys may not get as much as the
know cases where a boy of 13 got more than a
asked questions that a gray-haired man and
could not answer, but this little fellow could
boy I have in mind got more out of it than
not rule out a boy because he was young.
course for two or three years work is a good


idea.
H. E. SAVELY. Aside from the prizes, there are a lot of things
you can do to create interest. One thing is an entertainment by
some of the leading citizens of the County. This wakes the business
men up. I know of one such an affair in Texas that was very success-
ful. There the boys marched in procession with the Governor at the
head, and afterwards had a banquet and some entertainment. It
made the boys feel a sense of pride to belong to such an organization.
It is up to you Agents to see in how many ways you can bring the
boys in touch with the business people.


BREEDS


AND


MANAGEMENT


OF


SWINE


C. L.


WILLOUGHBY


(Corrected address not received
10, 1914.)


at time of


going to


press, May


DISCUSSION


D. R. MCQUARRIE.


detrimental effect, do they no
PROF. WILLOUGHBY. Yes
genous in that stage of the p
larger animals. Do not feed ai
E. W. TURNER. My exp
do so well when fed on peal


seventy-five pounds on
pounds or so. Say five
should be before being tl
for their development.
R. T. KELLEY. Wha
PROF. WILLOUGHBY.
breed. Berkshires are I
C. H. BAKER. Is th
Florida?
PROF. WILLOUGHBY.


this
i or
turned
Whea
t is t
The
proba
lere I


Peanuts for young pigs when fed alone have


t?


s, they are probably too highly nitro-
tig's growth. It is best to feed them to
ny to young ones; bad effects may follow.
erience has been that young pigs do not
nuts. I turned some animals weighing
crop and they were reduced to forty
six months old is about the age they
on peanuts. Hogs need certain things
It shorts and skim milk are good.
he best breed of hogs?
re is more in the individual than in the
bly best. Duroc Jerseys second.
any breed better adapted to sections of


Tamworths for South Florida and the Ever-







FA RMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN, NO. 4.


PRACTICAL


METHODS


OF


HOG


RAISING


W. E. BROWN


One thing about the selection of breeds is that
individual hog, and farmers will often buy blooded
without knowing anything as to the history of their
and their breeding qualities. It is important thai
should know something about the history of the hog
buy.


One of the best crops
stock hogs, is velvet beans.


great
farme
I have
fields,
that k
crops


I know of for hogs, esp
We look upon beans as


of the
stock
stock
t they
s they


e


feed for cattle, beef cattle and such things, bul
rs realize the value for hogs, especially stock
never seen the hogs injured from running on the
or sick from it, except from cholera or somethi
ind. Supplement the beans in the winter with
as rye, oats, rape. By planting Yokohama, Ch


and the old-fashioned velvet beans, the farmers c
nine months of pasture. I know of no cheaper
raise than the bean crop. It is a soil builder an


grower. In the spring v
chufas, sweet potatoes,
cane, and, of course, cor
through the summer for
Of course these cro
rotation. That is one thi
about. These croDs will


have a succession in feedi


ie have cowpeas, peanuts,
beggarweed, sorghum,
n. All these crops can x
the fall and winter past:
ps should be grown to f
ng farmers should learn sc
then mature in such a w
ng, one following another.


J

r

o
V.


cially
being
t few
hogs.
bean
ng of
such
inese,


an have
thing to
d a hog
cassava,
Fapanese
e grown
e.
irnish a
mething
ay as to


THE HOG LOT


ing.


The hog lot is another important adjunct to hog rais-
This lot should be kept in a sanitary condition, with


a dipping vat. The wallow should not
should be of concrete with a good drain


roughly cleaned. Then
should be kept clean a
I might say four
water, and one pound
tion, with twenty gall
for vermin. The vat


it can be used as
ind free from ver
gallons of crude
of hard soap will
ons of water add(
should be filled w


be
, SC
a
mil
Soi
mu


a mud hole, but
it may be thor-
dipping vat, and
n.
11, one gallon of
ake a stock solu-


id for dipping hogs
rith water, and this








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


is warm


, they


do not need shelter;


ding and shelter from cold weather.
to young pigs.


but they want good bed-
This applies especially


DISCUSSION


E. W. TURNER.
to Japanese cane?


what stage


would


you say to


turn


them


J. D. BROWN. They get best results from Japanese cane chopped
up, and it is a very good soiling crop.
C. H. BAKER. Which variety of bean would you begin with, as a
rotation?


E. BROWN.
T. KELLEY.


Is it


before the beans are ripe?


W. I
potatoes,
bean field


Yokohama


will mature first.


best to turn hogs into the velvet bean fields


. BROWN. If you feed velvet beans, peanuts and sweet
the hogs will not bother the beans much; but if you have a


[


with


a pasture


or something to


run


on they will


beans in a young stage. They do not eat so many bea
ing else is given they will get fat and make a spleni
D. C. GEIGER. Is the velvet bean a finishing crop?


eat the


Ins, but if noth-
did growth.


.41 ,


BROWN. No,
a U


it is more a pasturing and growing
a U JhA


tla hough you can fatten hogs for pork for t
use; but there is nothing like peanuts for this.
H. E. SAVELY. How about the meat pro


E. BROWN.


finishing crop.
I. E. SOAR.
fine.


L-


He market or tor


'duced


with


crop,
home


peanuts ?


It is best to use some corn with the peanuts as a


Use Japanese cane and such things and the quality is


D. G. MCQUAGGE. How
g the hogs root for them?


about turning under the peanuts and let-


W. E. BROWN. This is good, and they will go down after them
but many of the beans are lost in this way.
W. L. WATSON. What is your opinion of the Chinese as corn


K


pared with the velvet and Yokohama beans?


.E.


more grain
badly. Bu


BROWN.


than
if \


observations


either of the others.


have


hogs


not lose so many as with cattle.


are that


Chinese


makes


They rot easily and shell out


to eat them


as they


shatter,


Florida


L. WATSON.
velvet beans?


How much


earlier


they


mature


than


that
May.


]. BROWN.
Yokohamas


other


Three weeks.
be picked d:


beans


matured


I assumed as a


7 in September,
almost at the


basis in my talk


being
same


planted
time,


put on more crops the first picking. I have picked the Chinese Vel-
vet Beans three times, first in September, then in October when most
of them were mature, and again later. They are fine feed for horses,
mares, and colts. Nothing will keep the colt in better condition than
velvet beans. When a mare gets fat from velvet beans, she is shaped
like Santa Claus.


- -L - - -.


___ _


_ --_ __


tf


-








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


ordinary upland pine soil you will probably need t
cr seven feet apart and the beans in the middle.
cient to cover the corn stalks and everything comp
You want to give more distance on very rich land
five foot rows and then down in the middle plant
ground is very rich so you cover too much of the c
plant the corn in five foot rows, and for every six
velvet beans. You can make twenty-five bushels


.o plant the corn six


That will b
letely, on goo
. Plant the
the beans. ]
:orn with the
: hills drop a
of corn that


suffi-
land.
rn in
your
leans,
ill of
ill be


covered up almost completely.
D. C. GEIGER. My Chinese beans do not shatter as do the Yoko-
hamas.
W. E. BROWN. I did not get any Yokohamas, but the Chinese
certainly did shatter. Some of the pods were very long and shattered
a great deal. You could hear the pods all over the field cracking
like guns. They made a very heavy crop of vegetation.
J. C. SMITH. Which is better, the Yokohama or the Florida
Velvet Bean?
W. E. BROWN. I cannot tell. There are several things to be
considered. One point is that the more roots in the ground, the more
nitrogen you would suppose the roots could store up. On the other
hand, the velvet bean covers the ground more completely and makes
a better growth. Personally, I know little about the Yokohama bean
except what I have said.


HOG CHOLERA SERUM


W. L. WATSON. What
inoculation with serum?
W. E. BROWN. About
a good many, and in some


percentage of your hogs did you save in

90 per cent. In some herds I would lose
cases it seemed they died more quickly


from being inoculated. That probably was due to their at
having the cholera, and being caught and worked with made the
rise and caused them to die more quickly. Another important
is to inoculate them when it should be done. The farmer wh
the good results is the farmer who does it at the proper time.


the next time there is cholera about
should again be inoculated before
Another thing is that they try pot;
last resort they try inoculation too
hogs to that. In talking to a man t
he stated that the hours around Willi


had been


inoculated.


That


-l
I


they nev


fifteen miles or so off,
the disease slips up
ish, Sloan's Liniment,
ate, and blame the los;
he other day from Flol
ston were dying off bec
er died before. He ha


I


the
on
and
s of


ready
fever
thing
o has
Then
hogs
them.
as a
their


ral Home,
ause they
d a short


memory. They did not believe in inoculation, and it was a hard mat-
ter to get them to do anything.
There is only one way to accomplish anything in this hog cholera
matter, an& that is to push it. I got a syringe, ordered the serum,
and told tle farmer to hold the animal firm and I did the work. They
got started and I could not keep up with the work, there was so much
of it. They wanted me to work on Sunday-could not wait until
*W J R. > * .4 4 *" -







UNIVERSITY


immune after once
according to Dr. D
W. E. BROWN.
sick inoculate them
keep getting sick,
inoculating them.


FLORIDA


having cholera, but it is only for twelve months,
awson.
I would say, inoculate your hogs, and if they are
again, and keep inoculating them as long as they
for you cannot afford to have the hogs die after
Your reputation is at stake.


EXPERIENCE


S. J.


PORK
McCULLY


PRODUCTION


T]
largely
If you
woods
he can
it will
measly
have y


1


e production of pork and the cheapness of it depends
on what kind of hog you propose to make pork of


are going to
rooter, and let
your pork wil
take more fo


make pork o
him get his li
I be very expe
od stuff to r


r, knotty pig than out of a go
our hogs healthy, you must c


as a hog must have some care and
to get a large, thrifty variety,
Poland China, Berkshire or the
varieties will give good results in
make the results at the least expel
way to keep the hogs healthy and
healthy you must rid them of all di
and scale. This can be done by
dipping the hogs in either Cresol


once you get your h(
make them grow.
My experience
variety of pastures


spring le
for hogs,
or early
ghum; h
latter pa
cassava.


better a:
Again, i1


t your hogs run
, and very cheap
summer have a
ogs do exceeding
rt of August put
This mixture v
nd firmer pork
u gives the farm


ut of the common piney-
iving in the woods as best
nsive, for, Mr. Chairman,
lake pork out of a poor,
iod healthy hog. Now, to
tare for them. Inasmuch
attention, I would advise
such as the Hampshire,
Duroc. Either of these
pork production; and to
ise, you must devise some
growing. To keep them
diseases, such as fleas, lice,
building a hog vat, and
or Bee Dee dip. When


gs in a healthy condition you can easily


the production of
i follows. In the


pork is
winter


to have a
and early


on rye and rape. This is fine feed
. In the latter part of the spring
plot of Spanish peanuts and sor-
,ly well on this kind of feed. The
them on peanuts, velvet beans and
ill cause them to thrive and make
than if you feed only one thing.
r a good opportunity to dispose of


his surplus at any time he wants to.


DISCuTSSION


a




1":
Ip
Ills:*

I C
"3


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


ber, you
runs at
it until
you can
pork las
lar aboi
o'vY a c
rid of a
H.
spring?
S.
cassava


hard.
of ins4
oughl3
cover
will bi
meat
The la
true ii
D
S.
Plant


them


grou
it on


e
i
e


will find all our markets overstocked, and consequently, pork
about six or seven cents. But if you plant cassava and hold
spring, and keep the hogs to the middle of March or in April,
get ten cents. Mr. S. R. Pyle got ten cents f. o. b. for his
it spring from the Tampa market. They are not so particu-
it the size. There was a time when a farmer could market
certainn sized hog. This condition has passed, and you can get
ny sized hog at the proper season.
E. SAVELY. Do you advise keemnir cassava over until the


J. MCCULLY.
alone. This


V


J I-


Yes. Before I kill the hogs I
hardens the meat and lard, and


After smoking the meat I always
cts or something, then get a new
, and put a layer of salt, and laye
t with salt. Then being weighed
about the same. This is not so


drips and dri
.rd is oily, and
f hogs are put
. R. McQUARR
J. MCCULLY.
three feet in


Q. Will the ro
S. J. MCCULLY.


dip it in h
box and sa
or the meat
after four <
after feedir


ps and almost drips itself away i


run them on
it is firm and
water for fear
the meat thor-
it, and barely
five months, it
peanuts. The


A


it


i some people even put it up in jugs. The same is
, on chufas. The lard is almost as thin as water.
:IE. How do you plant Cassava?
Cut the stalks to about eight or ten inches long.
the drill. I plant in February and March.
ots keep through the winter, and how best?
Let them stay in the ground, the hogs will dig


I up themselves.
I. E. SOAR. Will Cass
S. J .MCCULLY. We
nd, but the cassava is
ia bed.


ava keep if the ground is wet?
have had lots of rain and we have wet
keeping well. It is best, though, to plant


R. T. KELLEY. Will it keep better
S. J. MCCULLY. Yes, it dries and
sava is a cheap crop and a good crop.
J. C. SMITH. Do cattle eat it?
S. J. MCCULLY. Yes, and seem to
know what its feeding value is.
W. L. WATSON. What is the ave
S. J. MCCULLY. I do not know.
a half acre of cassava, and it lasted
have had other cassava fields that did
formula of 3-8-8 fertilizer on it. It wi
0. O. SIMMONS. Where it is Diant


in the ground than out?
rots out of the ground.


Cas-


like it well, although I do not


rage yield per acre?
I have about 25 or 30 hc
for two or three mont
not last that long. I u
ll make good cassava.
,ed on level lands, do you


,gs on
hs. I
ised a

want


beds?


S. J. MCCULLY. Yes, it
only barely. Cassava is a pe
only there& or four feet high,
some lantl that produces good
W. L. WATSON. What do
for hogs?
S. ._ MCCrVn.TTv. Tti mna1


is good to make a bed and cover it
culiar thing. If it has grown a crop
it may have a great many roots, and
top crops does not produce good roots.
you think of Bermuda grass pasture
s irrnnd nnaer n]lthnnah cnmia rnmknnlp


FARMERS'


if


_____*


w w
T







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


CUTTING


AND


CURING


MEATS


T. Z. ATKESON


In growing hogs it is very necessary to have the proper


hog to cure.


It must be a good individual and the right


shape; for the reason that a properly built hog cuts to bet-
ter advantage for the higher priced and better cuts of meat


than the ordinary razor-back hog.


It is also necessary that


the hog be in the proper condition to butcher.


We all know


the exclusively fed peanut hog will not make a good quality


of pork; but so far as flavor is concerned, it is good.


It has


a flavor that I rather prefer; but the fact that it cannot be
kept without considerable loss in weight and without losing
its high qualities rapidly, is a detriment that cannot be over-


come.


My method


over in


Southern Alabama


has


been


always to corn-feed hogs for three weeks, and for the last
few days I have used some corn along with peanuts in the


pasture.


Our Dan Gray, (we still call him ours although he


is now in North Carolina)


has said that when hogs are fed


at the rate of one pound of corn per day for each one hun-
dred pounds of live weight, they will bring in about $3.75
for every 100 pounds of corn fed. You see there is no loss of
money on this proposition.
BUTCHERING


You


will have


butcher an animal.
you begin to kill.


of killing.


have


everything


sharp


when


you


Have the knives sharp and ready before
I do not know your experience or method


I have tried everything in this line from knock-


ing the hog on the head to turning it on its back and sticking


it with a knife till it bleeds to death (the n
mended by the Department of Agriculture).
are all situated as I have been, on farms, 4


method is recom-
I suppose you
and have to use


negro labor for the most part, or incompetent white help.
After seeing the negro turn a hog loose and let it run around
over the pen until it finally drops dead, one never wants to


kill another in that way.


So I take a 22 caliber rifle and


shoot the hog, then stick him with a knife, and he never gets


Hogs should be killed in Florida in the afternoon.


The


1 - i l...l .. . .- .- 4-..,. -L J1 .1 .








FARMERS' INSTITUTE


BULLETIN, NO.


smoke-house and allowed to stay
morning it will be ready to cut up.


over night, and by


next


THE MAIN PARTS


There is some difficulty in cutting it up just right.


is absolutely
said before
be sharp.
everything
presuppose
carcass spl
close behind
shoulder is
shoulder as
of meat as
as closely a
Then when
you want t
philosophy,


ly
, b
T
'I:
tl
it.
id


necessary to
>ut I repeat it
o do a nice pi
iust be in th
he head was


have the knives sharp, as I have
for emphasis. All of them must


ece of wor
e best con
cut off th


Now, where do you
the ears as possible.


worth more than the head
possible. The shoulder :
the side; so when you cu
s possible so as to leave as
you get to the ham this is
o cut as much ham as po
is it not?


k with a smooth finish,
edition. Of course, we
e night before and the
cut the head off? As
Why? Because the
1 and we want as much
is not as choice a piece
t the shoulder out, cut
; much side as possible.
; more valuable still, so
ssible. That is Scotch


CUTTING THE SHOULDER


Now, take up the different cuts.
the best. The farmers' cut is much lower.


The packers' cut is
This piece of bone


is practically worthless and the best place to cut is above


this. It is the place where maggots have thi
get in and ruin the meat, so I advise you to
throw the other part away. The only use y
this is to cook it with collards, and it always
collards. Going back to the sharp knife. Th
other bone that was not shown in the draw
knife and cut around it smoothly, then turn y
ing a smooth cut. Make the meat perfectly s
from the fact that it looks better, but it rem


e best chance to
cut it high and
ou can make of
ruins the pot of


is m
ng.
'our
,moo
oves


eat has an-
Take your
knife, mak-
th, not only
the danger


of flies and insects
ular piece of meat.
There is another
I stated,fthe should
head, it is the poo


pieces
ceedir


getting a chance to work on that partic-

!r unique idea in cutting the shoulder. As
er is one of the poorest cuts (next to the


rest), and


is really


; to cure that I know of. It is of such sha
ngly hard to cure. The packing-house


of the hardest
pe that it is ex-
man is able to







30 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

through the whole, and cut the bone nice and smooth all the
way through. This is all flabby meat, and you want to take
a knife, and cut to where there is no flabbiness. Then cure
this along with the hams and it is as good a ham and as
good meat, if cut from a good large hog, and only in shape
is there any difference. I put the lean loin part in with the
sausage meat, and put the fat in the lard tub where it be-
longs.
THE BACON
In Live Oak the other day my wife bought breakfast
bacon all fixed up in a box and very attractive, and she
paid 40 cents a pound for it. That brings me to the point
that every farmer can have his own breakfast bacon as good
if care is used. The side is divided into three distinct
strips by the farmer, but the packing house man makes
about six cuts. With us it is more economical to make only
three, the fat back, the bacon strip, and the belly. This fat
back is pure lard. Then the loin is stripped out, and a cut
made through to the lard, which is used for lard. The belly
part is least desirable of all, and I have always dry-salted
it and sold it to the negroes on the farm.
THE SUGAR-CURING PROCESS
Now, the sugar-curing process. It is strange how easy
it is to put up something better than we have been doing,
and do it cheaper. Farmers in Suwannee County, when I
first began to talk of it, argued that it would be good for
Alabama and Georgia, but not for Florida. There are many
who have done as I have been describing it, with perfect
success; and in order to test it out, I persuaded one particu-
lar farmer, who had gumption enough to do just as I told
him, and he did it without any cold storage. One day he did
get a scare, and asked me if he should use ice and how to do
it. I did not think so, and told him if he wanted to do it to go
ahead. We put a dry goods box on a table and bored holes,
and put in a layer of meat and a layer of ice, and then in
forty-eight hours we took it out, and the meat and ice were
frozen together and only half the ice melted, which shows
that there was no animal heat at all in the meat. The farm-
n vn i A -n4-nn iirr' 4n- -.Pn r-wwn'm je4--t I-n -- 1-'v..4 in'.nit ,a 1 ant4- ni no"







FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


States.


great


grandfather


brought


from


Virginia


where it was used commonly in putting up the old Virginia
hams. It has also been recommended in the Department


Bulletins


(Farmers' Bulletin 83 gives it)


and it has cer-


tainly been used long enough to prove there is absolutely
no doubt about its efficiency.
Get barrels or build vats (I prefer barrels, for they can
be changed if necessary), pack the meat down after it has


been spread


out and


allow to


become


thoroughly


chilled.


Pack it down as closely as possible, but don't jam it down,


and put pieces in different positions.


con strips,


they can be


By rolling up the ba-


wedged in so that the barrel will


hold as much as possible. There is always room for plenty
of the brine to cure the meat. Another thing is that the
more meat there is, the less brine it takes to cover it. Use
the following:
3 pints of syrup.
2 ounces of saltpeter.
8 pounds of salt.
4 gallons of water.


The saltpeter can be left out if you want to.


It keeps


the red in the lean portion of the meat, and improves its ap-


pearance, but not the quality.


Nitrate of soda will work just


as well. It is said this will cover about 100 pounds of meat
but that depends to a large extent on the packing of meat
in the barrel. The important thing is to put enough there
to thoroughly cover the meat.
After the barrel is packed, you want to lay a weight
on top to keep it from rising out of the brine. Leave it from
five to eight weeks, according to difference in size of the


pieces.


It is better to separate if you have different sizes


and lots of them to cure, and put the small pieces in one


and large in another.


about


five


weeks


pounds leave it for ten weeks.


For the smaller ones, leave the meat


hog


weighing


about


250


At the end of this time, take


the meat up and wash it well in slightly warm water, luke
warm; and then hang it up and drain it, and then it is


ready to, smoke.


This is not pickling meat. It is simply a


process of curing it. The long time necessary is due tc
fact that the solution will not be as strong as pure salt.


ithe


;;:








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


cool
house
cooli
dripl


the smoke before it ei
e, let the pipe come in
ng the smoke is that
ping caused by heat.


enters the house.
near the bottom.
there is not so


In entering the
The reason for
much loss from


DISCUSSION


Q. Do you use
T. Z. ATKESON.
s I found the cc
stopped heating
I. E. SOAR. Do
T. Z. ATKESON.
d it necessary


ever, taste it several
brine is coated with
that particles of the
have spoiled. You
Before curing, I oft
meat on top, and s


hot water ii
No. I us4
)ld water se
it.
you change
Not unles
to change i
1 times, an
mold it does
meat and fs
should skim
mn sprinkle


sprinkle


n making your brine?
ed to do so; but after trying it both
irved just as good as the hot water,


the brine?
s it happens to sour. I
t in my experience. You
d you can tell if it is rig
not mean that it is sour,
tt have come loose and to t
this mold off whenever
the floor with pine tops, a


with salt.


This


water out. Be sure that all the animal heat i
lutely necessary; and then forty-eight hours o:
pack it down.
H. E. SAVELY. Do you need to use ice in
T. Z. ATKESON. Yes, it would probably
H. E. SAVELY. What steps would you ta
August.
.T. Z. ATKESON. I say, if possible put it
means. If this cannot be done, I would say
late in the afternoon and then put it into the
two hours, and after thoroughly chilling it put
brine solution.
S. J. MCCULLY. In putting this up in this
the same process, and have the same flavor t
T. Z. ATKESON. If it does not have a m


it to me
about thf
you coul(
in the sa
ordinary
Q.
T. Z


and
is is
i do.
lit ar
way
Afte:
. ATI


draws


hai
ca
ht.
bu
;he
it
ind


a portion


ve never
in, how-
If the
t simply
top and
appears.
lay the


is out, for this is abso-
r so after it has cooled


August?
be necessary.
ike in killing a


hog in


in cold storage by all
to kill it and dress it
box of ice after about
it immediately into this

way does it go through
:hat ice would give it?
Luch better flavor, send


I will eat it. One thing that is especially attractive
that the process will make it better than anything else
If you will just remember that you are putting it down
nd not in brine it will not worry you any longer. The
is to put it in salt, but the brine is much better.
r killing the hog, how would it do to put it in cold water?
KESON. Ice would be better, but it might be safe to use


water.
W. L. WATSON. After cooling it some, put it in boiling water
and cook it for an hour or so, and then put it in that solution and it is
fine.


M. C.
T. Z.
1C T warn


GARDNER. Did
ATKESON. Yes,


you ever try using
and it is fine. My
(mn rhhh nl a o T


liquid smoke?
reason is the climate.
rnmnlA nnt w l* fnr i


wayi
so I

foun


[








r
r


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


hardwood smoke, so I do not
from its use. Of course, it i
will make a little extra skin
S. J. McCULLY. How do
smoked?


T. Z. ATK.
hang them up i
52 head of hogs
insecticide in a
ence in putting
or covering it v
phere is almost
smoke house, if
and rub all the
and hang the


necessity
B.
T.
it would
Q.
over it?
T.
used in


y
F
Z
d


5SON.


This


r


n the smoke
at one time
way, and pr
meat away,
vith canvas, 1
sure to get
there is any
mold off and
meat up agz


for this treatm
. WILLIAMSON.
;. ATKESON. It
be 15 to 25 pe
Would it keep


Lent,
Wh
is e
r ce
bett


see how there could be any bad effects
s a preservative, and a good one, but it
on the meat.
you treat the hams after they have been


nay s'
house
here i
otects
that
las be
in an


found


curious


you,


and let them stay their
n Florida. The liquid s
the meat from bugs.
is in putting it down i
en that the moisture in
d cause the meat to sp,


mold on
then use
tin. The
I repeat
iat is the
estimated
nt. in all
er if pui


"e.
;mol
My
n a
the
oil.


simply
I killed
ke is an
experi-
nything
atmos-
In the


the meat, I take a coarse sack
some liquid smoke, just a little,
n the next time there is any
it.
loss in weight?
that under ordinary conditions
,from beginning to end.
t in a barrel and lard poured


a


Z. ATKESON. Yes, but it takes too much lard. Another way
Alabama is to cover it with cotton-seed oil, which is cheap.


BACKBONE AND SPARE RIBS
That brings me to another problem, that is, the backbone and
spare ribs. The first meal or so, you are just delighted with them;
but when thirty or forty hogs are killed and a fellow tries to eat all


the backbc
This condi
not be salt
being over
make a br
put them i
long, you 1
find the fls
congested
your time
livers and
Q. D
T. Z.
not know


nes
tion
;ed,
-sal
*ine
nto
can
ivor


an
cat
for
ted.
of
this


d spare
i be reli
there is
So yo
ten pou
s: and ii


ribs, he has a big ji
eved. The backbones
so little meat that t.
u should have a tub,
nds of salt and four


1 ten month


b and a ti
and spare
le chances
or keg, or
gallons of


s, if you wish to leave


resome one.
ribs should
are of their
barrel, and
water, and
re them this


take a piece and soak it in boiling water and you will
is very little impaired, if at all. This will relieve the


period, and at the same time you do not have to spend all
trying to eat the backbones and spare ribs, but can eat the
such parts.
o chufas or peanuts make the hardest meats?


ATKESON.
when they


January or February.
they should be planted
use chufas. The chufl
fall apd winter there .
cheaper an& more rapid<
it occupies' the land too


HOG


have not had experience with
would be used except after Dec
When it is taken into cons
early and grow all the year, I
as mature earlier than that, b
ire so many other things that
dly, that I do not care to grow
long.


CHOLERA


chufas. I do
ember, during
ideration that
prefer not to
ut during the
can be grown
this crop, for


FLORIDA


FARMERS'


i







FLORIDA


loses anywhere from $300,000 to $500,000 a year


cholera.


from hog


This is only a fraction of the loss in other States,


for our hogs are not worth so much as those in other States
and our feeds are cheaper.


000.


One
We


year


Kansas,


alone,


lose about 20 per cent.


estimated her


loss


of the hogs,


at $2,000,-


and


worth


Fig. 3.-Demonstrating the use of hog cholera serum.


about $4.00 a head,
nAfn lfvnl r rnl- ronrl n'n


our loss is between $300,000 and $500,-


*FII n II r. nn nn It fr it nnn .1-1% 4 n Cl J-n ta A n J


UNIVERSITY








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


SEARCH FOR THE CHOLERA GERM.


The most important wi
whole world is being done by
The work was done by Dr.
Smith, who reported in 189
cause, and described the ge
this was thought true not o
but there was always some (
cultures, and were able to ki
they able to have other well
ones which they treated. T
their minds that Smith had d
They tried to produce the g(
the so-called vaccine to an an
get a mild attack and in th


but they were
were never ab
noticed that th
they were nev


section. They coi
the entrails of a d
hog into a well on
had hog cholera 1
immune. We kno


lid also produce it by feeding the hogs


lead
ie.
by
w a


if they get well they
real cause of choler
know much about it
the microscope, no
pass through the f
proves that it is a fil
capable of producing
duce a vaccine by
subjecting the blood
ures in every case.


hog, o:
It was
natural
11 hogs


r by inje
also not:
means
that hav


acting the
iced that
and had
e cholera


blood
a hog
recov
do no


of a
thai
Sred
;die


ork done in hog cholera in the
the Department of Agriculture.
Simons and his assistant, Dr.
1 that they had discovered the
rms which caused cholera, and
inly in America but in Europe,
ioubt about it. They could grow
11 hogs from it; but never were
hogs catch the disease from the
hus, it was never quite sure in
discovered the hog cholera germ.
erm. That is, they tried giving
imal and causing that animal to
lat way bring about immunity,


is
I


t


are immune to the disease. In 1903
a was discovered, and while we do
, it is a germ too small to be seen
matter how strong, and one that
inest clay filters we can make.
terable virus. Yet the filtered part
g the disease. They then tried to 1


-p


Uv


either by
chemicals


of using blood of hogs immune from cholera.


heat
with


a


rI


they
also
ugh
Iin-
with
sick
had
was
and
the
not
vith
will
rhis
was
pro-
by
Fail-


position


THE SERUM.


It was found that after a hog had recovered from an
attack, its blood would Drotect others from the disease. That


Irr"


never able to produce this immunity, for
le to make a hog really immune. They
.ey could always produce the disease, alth
er able to produce a typical case by thi


attenuating blood
I to the action of


That brought them







36 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

take a hog which has had hog cholera and recovered (but
it must be one that has had the disease naturally) and in-


ject into that hog large quantities of b]
is dying from hog cholera (and such
stand quite a large injection). Then thi
the hog in quite a peculiar way; the
deeply seated that it is found the best w
of the tail. This tail is chopped off
the blood into a basin and then the blooc
is no pulp left, and the blood does n


blood from which the fibrin.
taken. This bleeding is done
hog has any tail left to cut.
then mixed together as one ble
In working with this dis'
blood as you can find in orde
Government has ruled that all
be certified; so the hog chol
from places that have been i:
tain degree of cleanliness and
to produce the serum. They
centimeters, others 15 cc., an
to two more hogs in order to
The dosage of the hog (
cubic centimeters. Some cla:
others; but the Government 1
hog, and 5 cc. for every fifty I

REPORTS ON TH]
We have reports that th(
this is when being used und
is put in the hands of men w
they are doing, and under th
as good results as are gotten
ports have been very gratifyi
persons to get reports. It is
any good, for it is very expen
reports were favorable to tl
prised, for I expected that pi
that it was no good. The ca


blood from a hog that
an immune hog can
is blood is taken from
blood vessels are so
ay' is to cut off pieces
and allowed to drip
i is beaten until there
ot clot, that is, it is


-forming elements have been
three times, or as long as the
I'hese three parts of blood are
Sending and tested out on a hog.
ease you must use as virulent
r to produce the effect. The
manufacturers of serum must
era serum must be produced
nspected and that have a cer-
paraphernalia so as to be able
give some hogs, say 10 cubic
d others 20 cc. This is given


test it.
cholera serum is generally 30
im their serum is better than
requires 20 cc. to a 100 pound
pounds additional weight.


E USE OF SERUM.
a serum has done no good, but
ler adverse circumstances. It
ho have no conception of what


ose
I in
ng.
ne(
isiv
he i
rob,
use


e

a


conditions they do not
a laboratory. Still our
We sent out blanks to
essary that we find if
,. About 95 per cent. of
se of serum. I was
bly 50 per cent. would
of the failure may be
-~~~ -. i


get
re-
.500
it is
our
sur-
say
that
mfI-




xx **


FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


it for serum, for it looks like serum. But now the Gov-
ernment rules that the blood shall be tested and the place
all right before it can be used.


DISEASES SOMETIMES MISTAKEN FOR HOG CHOLERA.


The disease may not be hog
diseases. One of them is a very
day a man frora Indianapolis told
$60,000 in treating hogs and then
that they had intestinal worms.
disease, but it bores a hole through


and causes


peritonitis and


death.


cholera.
serious oi
me that i
found on
This does
the bowel
Such a


We have other


ne.
they
ope
not
sof
hog


flammation and redness of the bowels on the
other disease which occurs in young animals, i
disease. It is often lung worm in a hog and
If you will cut open the hog, you will find these
cholera may have run too long. The serum, to
to the hog, must be used early; so if a hog has I
sick for three or four days or a week, with
up, giving evidence of the disease, the chances
serum will not do any good. Tuberculosis is ano
and one that hogs take readily, more quickly
They are especially liable to take it when th
cattle. It does not spread in cattle and does not
much. Swill containing soap, from hotels, will


The other
had spent
fning them
cause the
the animal
shows in-


outside. An-
s lung-worm
not cholera.
worms. Then
be of benefit
been running
back arched
are that the
otherr disease,
than people.
ey run with
trouble them
, when given


to hogs, cause death that is often supposed to be cholera.
The life of a hog is short, so it does not catch diseases
which it might if its life were longer.


SYMPTOMS OF CHOLERA.
There is a loss of appetite, which is a symptom. The
hog will begin to get into corners, matter will form in the


eyes, and there will be diarrhoea and
pation will cause death quicker than
no doubt have noticed these symptom.
the hog. die quickly, only living a day
will think they must have been pois


course; had fever
these symptoms
examinations, ulc


.n.l S


nfl


constipation. Consti-
diarrhoea. You will
s. In the acute form,
or two; and often you
;oned. They have, of
In the chronic form


ger. In post-mortem
nd kidneys are found.
& f-w


for a week or two.
are drawn out lon
ers on the bowels a







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


plague. They have lung pressure, and on opening the valves,
you will find a lacerated condition. In chronic cases the
serum does not do any good. It does best when used early;
when the animals in a herd first begin to die. The preven-
tion of the disease, outside of the use of serum, is sanitation.

CARRIERS OF CHOLERA.


It is not right to allow the dead body to lie around. Buz-
zards carry the disease from place to place. We made an ex-
periment feeding a buzzard on a hog that had died. We
collected the feces and mixed that with condensed milk and
fed to young pigs. That same food was sent to H. K. Mul-
ford, a Philadelphia Company, and it killed every pig they
used it on, and it proved we were working on virulent stock.


That, of course,
the hog cholera (
the great ways th
is on one farm, sk
It is now be
carries it on his i
virus on the feet.
ulation. I believe
hogs can carry i


has nothing
)n the feet.
te disease is c
dps another,
lieved that t
feet, and the


to do
I think
arrived .
and app
;he man
same is


with the carrying of
the buzzard is one of
That explains why it
ears on a third.
treating hog cholera
true of dogs carrying


Lice, no doubt, carry the disease
e lice probably inoculate a hog.
t; and while inoculation will not


them from carrying it, it will prevent the disease
veloping while they are being exhibited.


by inoc-
AII show
prevent
from de-


IMMUNIZING HOGS
The injection with serum and a certain amount of virus
is known as the simultaneous method. The serum is the only
one we are sending out. This consists in putting the serum
into the blood. We always recommend that the serum be
injected under the skin. This is the safest way. If you have
an abscess produced in the meat, you will have a bad rotten
spot in the ham. The serum simultaneous method is the
right one, I think; for the serum treatment is simply a kind
of makeshift from a scientific standpoint, because it has
so many drawbacks. You cannot cure a hog with it. You
cannot entirely prevent the disease, and you simply have
to wait for the disease to appear among the hogs to use the
Sflrrn nru +hr0cP Xrookr jg ag in'no. ni +lto fr, -T-man+ nf xIl hnlI d










FARMERS' INSTITUTE


BULLETIN, NO. 4.


for these treated animals
and the hog that has not b
to develop the cholera. I
come less prevalent since
serum, and I think the sp
double vaccination. This


tific way of
it will spread
treatment we
were double
cholera would
Now, sor
supposed that


nothing
;this im


to get smaller and harden.


$4.50.
it is u
made
better
O
of inj
cause
the ne


Now this syringe
sed with as much as
rather weak, or wh
. The needle should
if course, the animal
section; for the abs
i by the serum, but b
Sedle. I have sometin


become carriers
een double treated
do not think the


we have


been


in


The


should
50 per
iskey.
be kep
should


cess that is often
y germs carried in
aes, when working


of
is
dis(
ocu


read has been due la
is, however, the only


the disease,
almost sure
ease has be-
dlating with
rgely to the
true scien-


does not use it,
would use this
all. If every hog
3eing born, hog


as to the duration of immunity. It is
munity lasts for about the life of a hog,


caused is not
on the point of
single-handed,


dipped the point of the needle into carbolic acid when apply-
ing the serum.
The serum is distributed by the State Board of Health
under certain rulings. It is one of the most expensive things
the Boakd has undertaken-it is the most expensive in the
way of distributing a remedy or medicine. We always put
literature in with the package. One is a report blank to be


used at the end of a month. This we made
A!,_. -,, t,,,, -,, -1, - --- - C -a a nl: a -.


out wron
^ IF 1.--11


g at
nfW h


treating. As long as everyone
i hog cholera; but if everyone
would have no hog cholera at
vaccinated a few days after 1
i soon cease to exist.


but I would say use it about once a year on the brooders. One
of the important things connected with the work is the in-
jection of the serum.
We have had a hard time to get the druggists in Jack-
sonville (and I suppose it is the same elsewhere) to carry
the right kind of syringe in stock. This syringe must have
rubber fittings so it can be put away in good order. The
syringe we are now sending out is such a one, and the rea-
son we want an expanding and contracting plunger, is that
when you put the syringe away you do not want the plunger


cost of this instrument is
be disinfected each time
cent. carbolic acid, alcohol
Weak alcohol is probably
t as sharp as possible.
be disinfected at the place


-


_ * m








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


and telephones us or even sends a telegram, stating what we


need to know,


we can then send it to him without delay


sometimes have trouble in knowing how to send it, if a man


lives in a little town and does not tell


us his express office.


We have agents in the different Counties who are authorized


to do thi


work


injecting.


Let me emphasize the point that hogs given the double
treatment must be kept away from hogs that have not been
given the double treatment, or you will spread the trouble.


For instance


them


days.
the a


run


you


with


double vaccinate


your neighbors'


By that time the germ
mimals.


your animals,


hogs


least


thirty


will no longer be passing from


DISCUSSION.


any
have


Q. How ion
longer in do
DR. DAWSON.


gotten


.g is a territory
ible treatment?


V1i


in an outbreak of ho


dangerous


Yes, it lasts possibly a year.
rus in him. Personally, I


g cholera, gets the disease.


Does


thi
C


not get such good results from the use of the serum.


virus dies out after a


only a sh<
Q. D
tically, as


ural


ort time


time.


If vaccination


immunity


You know that you
ink that every hog
otherwise we would


Of course the


could go on, it would be


until the disease would be eliminated.


)oes the double vaccination


natural


)R. DAWSON.
thing will d


Yes
the


disease
. Bul
best


produce


in the animal?


work.


course,


Now,


the same


suppose(


an instance


weeks business-one of our agents treated a man's
and advised him to put a sick hog with them. Of


meant


to do


it at


once


when


serum


was


inje4


results,


d that
of this


, prac-
a nat-
three


hogs near Starke
course, the Agent
cted; but, instead,


the man waited for three weeks and he lost many of his hogs.
A. W. TURNER. When the hogs have chills, what does it indicate?


DR.
change


DA
the


WSON. It is probably cholera. To prevent lung worms
pasture and burn the bodies of hogs that have died with


A single infection does little harm, but continued reinfection does


the work.


there


One worm in the throat of a chicken does little harm, but


are many,


busy breathing,
bores a hole in


he chicken
it dies of


does


not have


starvation.


time


to eat,


thorn-headed


the bowels and brings about a fatal disease,


Lung worms cause


fits and


convulsions.


worm


periton-


B. F.


WILLIAMSON.


Are there any statistics that hogs given the


double treatment for cholera have contracted cholera at a later time


and have died?
DR. DAWSON.


not know


animal and lives only about a year.
statistics along this line. Re-vaccir


exactly.


a peculiar


I do not know of any available


nation of brooders is advised each


I
/


- J







nm
ii::


susceptible.


INSTITUTE


The more serum you can


BULLETIN


use, the greater the degree of


immunizing you do. We give five additional cubic centimeters for
each additional fifty pounds live weight in order to produce immunity.
Another way would be to inject the blood into the abdominal cavity.


This is rather


100 pou
blood.
the man


nd


hog


dangerous, as it may produce peritonitis.
to produce enough blood to immunize 10


It takes a
pounds of


It costs us anywhere from $15 to $20 a quart, according to
ufacturer. When we see one firm building a hospital at a cost


$50,000,


uis hospital


to be


used


hogs,


we realize


impor-


tance of the work that is being done. They keep three men doil
nothing else but continually bleeding tails. These hospitals are bui
so far as cleanliness and equipment are concerned, as human hospital


ng
It,
Is.


TICK


ERADICATION


FLORIDA


DAWSON


always object to the title usu
"Tick Eradication," because, as


not yet eradicating the


here


tick


simply working toward


animal


educate him to


the tick.


we have


ally


Florida.


carry


given


you all know


and


we are


What we are doing
man being the kind


on educational


work


the idea of how important it is to get rid of


The tick probably


United States, because


gust
cam(
and


them.


ine


1565,


and


came to


Florida wa
is entirely


Florida


the first of the


,s first settled at St.


probable


that


Au-
ticks


e here on the first cattle shipped in by the Spaniards,
since then we have always had more or less trouble with


DISTRIBUTION AND


NAME.


The
cold; its


cattle


infested


area


is limited


only


northern limit is placed by cold entirely


they


carry


ground where it is cold enough
eggs the infestation is checked.


known


as Texas


Fever


or tick


tick


and


amount


C it drops
before it


Wherever


to
lays


The disease caused by ticks


fever.


The


name


Texas


fever does not mean anything, except that it conveys to our


minds the diseased condition which


driven


north


called Mexican
the better term


from


fever,


Texas


or Florida


because it means


bloody murrain, old town pasture


was first noticed in cat-


might
fever.


as
Tice


well


fever


have


been


is much


something. It is also called
fever, etc.


I
ject-


14ARMERS'


I







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


CAUSE AND SYMPTOMS.


The fever is not caused by the tick itself, but by a germ
which the tick harbors. This germ gets into the blood, and
destroy the red corpuscles about as malaria does in man,
and produces anaemia. The amount of infestation by this
parasite determines the severity of the fever. There are two
forms, the acute and the chronic. The acute is that form
which attacks cattle brought to the country for the first time
and from that originated the idea of acclimat ion fever. But
there is nothing in that theory. When you ship an animal
from above the quarantine line, it becomes sick in its acute


form after its arrival here, and may even
fever and all its accompanying symptoms.
cipal symptoms is bloody urine, from which


that is
mostly
time.
is not
fever.


d
C
v


sometimes used. The chronic form
. Every cow in Florida has chronic tii
It is not a question of getting rid of
an animal in Florida that is not suff
After several infections they acquire


so that they look in a fair state of health;


ie, with a high
)ne of the prin-
ye get the name
is what we see
ck fever all the
the tick. There
ering from the
tolerance of it,
but when they


get into a poor condition from short pasture, then you see
the scrawny cattle.
The man who discovered the tick germ is Theobald
Smith, the same man who discovered hog cholera, but his
work on Texas Fever has not been doubted. Every one who
has studied it has come to the same conclusion. If you ex-
amine a tick under a microscope, the germ appears of pin
point size. Smith made hi announcement of this discovery
in 1892.
THE TICK CRUSADE.


(Attention was here calle
tick infested States and the arn
the tick, North Carolina being
which started in 1906.) The
Curtice, who started with $70
by rubbing an animal with oil.
but he finally demonstrated th
ticks, and if one farm, why nc
.1 -i __I- --------


d to the chart showing the
ea which has been freed from
Sthe pioneer in the crusade
work was begun by Cooper
0 from the State and began
He was considered a crank,
lat one farm could be rid of
4t the whole county, and if a
fiTL P an a-P 41-. nT NT0 44 n n 1








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN


NO.


below


the black line representing the States


cleaned up.)


that


have


been


HOW


TO RID CATTLE OF TICKS


Now


we have


several


methods


ridding


cattle.


do not have to build dipping vats, but that of course, i
much to be advised in Florida and in certain parts of


gla
he


Where


can


ernment.
the ticks


that
times


cow


a farmer
a spray;


has


only


we have


one or two


C
C


authorized
2ow, you (


one


Where you have only one 4
, and you will find that it is


is entirely


help


a great


free


in that


from the animal and also
dropped; and every time
not only that one, but st
others.


from


line,


ticks.


head


of
th<


You


s very
Geor-
cattle,
Gov-


:an hand-pick


only a short time until


Chickens


as they will


some-


pick ticks


from the ground where they have
a large female tick is killed, it is


hands for


hundreds of thousands of


THE DIPPING VAT.


The best method for


though


in the Sta
they may


Florida is the dipping vat.


Ate. They ai
be made of


generally


but it


wood


made


to keep the wooden ones from leaking.
There is also a steel tank on the market.


There
cement.


is an awful


It costs about


$100,
people
do it,


seen
be h


They


but
to


the
use


what you


these


tere


vats


soon.


weigh


firm
their


that


dipping


want is to


but the man


They


800 pounds


is putting


solution,


get the


who


them
. No


ticks
told i


to be handled
each, and they


requires


matte.


killed.


r how you
I have not


they would
Painter Co.


are easy to


set up.


In many places it is almost impossible to build a concrete vat
because the water table is so high.


DIPPING VATS IN FLORIDA


(1913)


A lachua


Bock
A. L.


John


cDonald


Jackson,
Ramsey,


. Zetroue
Zetrouer,


, Daysville,


Feb.


Gainesville, Mch.


Wacahoota,
1r, Rochelle,


Rochelle,


Phifer, Rochelle,


Harrison,


Clyatt's


College of Agriculture,


Apr.
May


May.


June.


Station


Gainesvill


, July.
le. Dec.


wI








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


Holmes
Hillsboro
Hamilton
Jackson
Lake
Leon
Marion


A. Ses


Aug.
H. S.
J. W.
W. R
Wm.
Leon
A. P.
S. H.
J. R.
Jack
E. L.
H. T.
C. L.
Kirb3
C. A.
J. C.


Osceola


Putnamc
Pasco


Seminole
Suwannee
St. Johns


soms, Bonifay, Nov.


Van Epoel, Tampa, Aug.
McCallum, Winn, Oct.
Hinson, Cottondale, June.
. Matthews, Leesburg, Oct.
Edwards (Mgr. Wenalden Co.
Co. Live Stock Club.
McCaskill, Tallahassee, April.
* Gaitskill, McIntosh, Apr.
Williams, Citra, May.
Camp, Ocala, July.
, Lesley, Kissimmee, May.
. Bass, Southport, Oct.
Whitehead, Hollister, Sept.
j Williams, Dade City, Nov.
Croft, Trilby, July.
Cameron, Geneva, Nov.


Frank Drew,
F. E. Bugbee,
Total 33.


Wilmarth, June.
Hastings, Aug.


)


Now


some


time ago


I sent a


lot of


the vat owners of the State, as we wanted
suit of a year's use and their ideas as to th
It is only a year on the 22nd of February
of the first vat. All have been built by T
We may pay for the vat at the Universit
only one, as this is against the principles c
of Health.
(Dr. Dawson read extracts from nun


circular


letters


to publish the re-
e value of the vat.
since the opening
privatee enterprise.
y, but that is the
)f the State Board


lerous letters that


he had received.)
Of course the question of vat construction in Florida-
is not the same as in other States, as conditions are different
here, and probably the vats will cost more here than they do
in some States. Some States do not have to haul the stones;
and here, too, we have water to contend with. Mr. Barber's
vat cost about $75, and that was about the cheapest one in
the State. The one at Hastings did not cost much more, and
I think none of the others cost more than $300; but it is
mainly a question of the supply of material. $100 is very
reasonable.


DIPPING


MAKES


IT POSSIBLE


SHIP


CATTLE.


There are about 31,000 less cattle at the end of 1913
a* 1-


Zellwood.











I


I


BULLETIN, NO. 4.


head; and while some people think we have sold too many,
I do not think we have. If we had a million, we could spare


one in every hundred.
if people will come do
they ever paid before,
about the question of
sell off your best breech
the best he can for his


That i
wn here
, I do n<
selling.
ding sto
money;


the buyer and the seller.
sible for us to ship out c
great reason for the der
city of feeding cattle, ai
the Middle West get re-
our piney woods. cows ii
piney woods cows well f


s what we raise them for, and
and pay us twice as much as
ot think we have much to say
Of course you do not want to
ck, and the buyer wants to get
but this is a question between


The dipping vat has made it pos-


attle
nand
nd as
*stock
i the


at any season of the year


for F
soon
ed, th
shape


ed on the w


lorida c
as the
ey are
they a
western


One


:attle is the scar-
stock farmers in
not going to buy
re now. But the
pasture and bred


to a good thoroughbred bull, would give a remarkable cross
at once.
At present you can ship out of Florida under certain


conditions, without dipping; but not
region without being dipped twice.
man who is going to ship a carload to
and then they will be dipped again
on arrival, under Government inspec
have no big board bill to pay, for the


out of the quarantined
So it is advisable for a
dip his cattle once here,
at Atlanta, practically
tion. So the owner will
board bill for a carload


of cattle for a few days is quite an expense. It has been
recommended that all shipments of cattle be stopped unless
they have been dipped. This will stimulate the building of
vats. My plan is to get every vat built that we possibly can
without reference to tick eradication; and then when people
are educated to the point where they see the value of the
dipping, there will not be any difficulty in getting the few
remaining people to take up the work. When a man sees he
is h binr benefited he becomes most enthusiastic about tick


eradication.
(Here Dr. Dawson
dipping vat, explaining


called attention to a diagram of a
its construction fully.)


DIPPING SOLUTION.


Five or six dollars worth of material will make 1,500
gallons of the dipping solution, and it will last a long time,
^^^*3^ttL Aj JLt A WII *M kt ' ,r!J 4-^*^/^ ^4- -i^ nnr3/^^ 'T'nr n ^ vi nii


FARMERS' INSTITUTE


___ _







UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


land where it may find its way into a stream, but the poison
can be neutralized by the addition of lime and arsenite of


lime will fall to the bottom as a ma
shovelled out. Do not pour the poison
find its way into some stream.
The State Board of Health has
determining how strong the solution
way would be to try it on one anima


gma, and can then be
on the land, as it may


a chemical method for
should be. The ideal
1 and then wait a few


days and see if the ticks are dead. The tick does not die
just at first; but the arsenic will give the little pests a death
blow, and even if the eggs hatch out, they are weak and
do not reproduce themselves.
The dipping vat pays its cost even if you do not improve


the cattle, because it
flesh. Of course it do
from the blood; but it
begins to recover. All
of the introduction of


causes the animal
'es not remove the
removes the cause
this depends upon
the parasite. As i]


to take on more
disease parasites
, and the animal
the continuation
n the case of the


hook worm, if you get one on you it does not harm you ma-
terially; but if you keep on introducing the parasites, it gets
the person or the animal into a diseased condition.


ADVANTAGE OF DIPPING.


This parasite can live in the blood of an animal for
fourteen years. We had an animal at Washington for thir-
teen years, which died finally of tuberculosis, whose blood,
when injected into any other animal would give it tick fever.
So by dipping the cattle they begin to improve immediately.
They take on one or two hundred pounds of flesh, according
to the condition of the animal. I have a photograph of an
animal in Mississippi that took on 450 pounds weight in four
months, or over four pounds a day. This shows the vast im-
provement that took place in this Mississippi steer, fed
under the same conditions and living in the same place.


The small cost of dipping will pay for itself
crease of meat alone, and the increased cost of h
would pay for all the money spent in the United
tick eradication. I heard a man say he never
as much for southern hides as he did for
hides because they were eaten up by ti
-J la -a- _-' 1 --- --- .11-- n -.- ti--a a .1 4.. a n


in the in-
ides alone
States for
paid half
northern
cks. An-
v'. n-w4L ~ ftlw












::K


about, naturally,
I think it pays to
and you cannot g
a good purebred
I know a ma
a herd as any in


of ticks is by pasture
case, of course, if he
have to be to control
Four and a half
nually lost on account
here, by the abortion
cattle. But the loss
fer to.


is the acquirement of a thoroughbred
sell off a half dozen cows to get a good
'et better cattle without tick eradication
bull.
n within nine miles of here who has as
the State. Another method of eradica


bull.
bull,
and


good
ition


rotation. This man does that. In his
had a very ticky place, his idea would
the ticks, not eradicate them.
* million dollars worth of milk is an-
of ticks, in the loss of animals brought
of animals, and the death of infested
of milk alone is what the figures re-


Another thing is the increased desire on the part of
boys and girls to remain on the farm. At present there is
very little in the farm home to attract young people, but I
think tick eradication would be one of the things to increase
the desire of the young people to remain on the farm. They
will take pride in raising good cattle as they do now in
raising corn and hogs. I hope Prof. Willoughby will start
a calf club before long. The first public movement was
started here at the University when we formed the Live
Stock Association in December, 1912. So the whole subject is
only about one year old here in Florida; but I think now
there are very few people in the State who do not know
something about tick eradication. We have gone at it
through the newspapers and lecturers. The Farmers' In-
stitutes have had something to say about it as they have
gone about the State.


STATE LAW.
We have a law on the Statute Book, "The Tick Eradi-
cation Law," which allows the State Board of Health to
spend such money as they deem advisable from the half mill
tax on every dollar in the State. There have also been do-
otnMn Vna hr ;tr;Auaxrrlinm 4r\ +n n wr AIv an 4-Ukh nsTa'tl * * *


FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4. 47

would come in the young cattle that had never been attacked
by the ticks.
Another thing will be the desire on the part of the
farmer to improve his herd. The first thing he will think







UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


past


we have


furnished


speakers


meetings.


The Government had a man who knew how to construct the
vats, and he has gone about giving instructions free. We
have not only to teach the cow man what he ought to do,
l.S 4- r.rvt n nw i nl n n v \nl *


IJUI O alinC Uhlaldl pcupch.
I can hardly see how


against
gotten
side of
main p
teaching
cate thi


any


man


tick eradication after he seC
out of that work. I am most int
it, and others deal with the fi
purpose of the whole question
.g the people the important fact
e tick.


eS


could
the


;erested
financial
of tick
that th


say


anything


benefits


in the disease
side; but the
eradication is
ev must eradi-


DISCUSSION.


Dawson has pointed


paign against the tick. You will
hundreds of men in your Counties 4
if you understand it, you can do a
the people up to this thing; and by
cther States, they will appropriate
fellows to take the proper steps.
beforehand, you will find it hard.
a lot of fellows who made it their
hinder the work all they could, un
sent there to clean them out. It


have


out that this is a cam-


an opportunity


luring the next
great campaign
and by, if they
the money and
But if you have
In Mississippi
business to dyn
til a Governmen
is a whole lot


talk with


twelve months, and
work in educating
do in Florida as in
compel those other
not done the work
last year they had
amite the vats and
it officer had to be
better for you to


educate your peop
that they will do
find the men who
able to build a vat
come here next tin
the County. If ye


ile and
it willir
have the
. I thin


ne
OU


with
can g


go home, set about finding
I knew of an agent


benefit of the dipping v
to have much faith in it.


at


make them see the value of this work so
igly. You can do another thing, you can
e money and the interest to be willing and
k it will look bad for the county for you to
ut being able to report at least one vat in
ret more, so much better. Now when you
some one man who is willing to build a vat.
in Mississippi who was convinced of the
t, but could not get any of his neighbors
So he set to work to construct one himself


on his own place. He built it off in the bushes and so no one knew
he had one there till it was ready for use. Then he had a big bar-
becue and invited every one to come, telling them he had a surprise
there to show them. And the surprise was the demonstration of the
dipping vat. Some of the old farmers were very much opposed to
the idea, and declared loudly that they would never allow any such
thing to be done to their cattle. But he persisted and dipped what he
could; and as a result there are now 21 vats in that County, and some
of the very men who were loudest in their statements that they
would not allow their cattle to be dipped, are now driving their
cattle 8 miles to have them dipped in his vat.
PRn WTT.nTnwRVY. Did he charge anything for it?


SAVELY.







FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN


NO.


what he would give, a
State Board of Health.
C. H. BAKER. We


County.


cattle


information


a ve


The vat belonged to Mr.


came


from


Orange


ry su
Wm.


County.


can


ccessful


gotten


from


demonstration


our


Edwards of Zellwood, but the


Ld a Farmers'


Institute


there, and Mr. Spencer was present. Mr. Edwards, who is a very
enterprising man, persuaded the people he represents to build the vat
at their own expense for the purpose of demonstrating to the people


in the County who had large numbers of


solution, and we


had a


very interest


cattle. They sent and got
aing demonstration. One of


the oldest men there said he knew the ticks came out from the inside


of the cattle.
ally.


This shows how necessary it is to go at it diplomatic-


DR. DAWSON. The 1st of April we shall have somebody to send
around who knows just how to build the vats. Now if anyone wants


build a


vat about the


1st of


superintend it free of charge.


April we shall


have a man


who can


CROP
H.


ROTATION


SAVELY


THE VALUE OF


A SYSTEMATIC


CROP ROTATION


TO THE


COTTON


The value and necessity


rotation


in order to


largest yield of
older agricultu


maintain


crops per acre,


ral


regions


FARMER


following .a systematic crop


soil


fertility


and


ensure


has long been known in


world.


European countries usually specify what the
is to be. In some sections of the United States


appreciate and have adopted


systematic


cror


Land


crop


leases


rotation


, farmers fully
) rotations.


Only a very small percentage of the farmers in


ton States
this time.


cotton
rapid


have adopted any system


crop


rotation


the cot-


Interest, however, is growing rapidly among the


farmers
depletion


favor <
the soil


E adopting
under the


emphasized the necessity of this.


croi
one


rotation.


crop


system


The
has


SOME ADVANTAGES OF


A CROP


ROTATION.


t provides


gather
trogen,


for the growing


legumes


(nit


ig crops), which furnish an economic supply
anr it reduces to the minimum the necessity <


chasing commercial forms of


keeps


a growing


nitrogen.
crop on the


land


most


;rogen-
of ni-
)f pur-


Sthe


time,


which checks leaching and the erosion of the soil.


Y







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


5. It supplies the soil with humus (decayed vegetable
matter) which increases the water-holding power of the soil
and helps to ensure against the damage of the crop by
drouth.
6. It enables the farmer to systematize his plans and
economize in labor.


IMPORTANT POINTS TO CONSIDER


WHEN PLANTING A


CROP ROTATION


1. The first thing of importance in the rotation
to provide for growing and turning under enough legu
crops to keep the soil well equipped with nitrogen.
2. Plan to grow, as nearly as possible, all supply
necessary for the farm.
3. Keep a crop growing on the land all of the time
prevent the leaching and washing away of the soil.
4. Put a hog-proof fence around the entire farm, so ti
it can be utilized for a pasture for your own stock, and
that your neighbors' stock can be kept off.
5. Keep enough stock on the farm to consume all f
age and grain produced. Carefully save the manure a
return it to the land.


is
me

ies


hat
so


or-
md


HOW SOILS CAN BE MADE RICH BY A CROP ROTATION.


We will use for illustration the most common
station practiced by cotton farmers, which is as folio
ton one year, corn the next, and oats the next. It
ble to grow four soil-improving crops in this rotatio


crimson
ber, and
the corn.
at the la
hay crop
off the c
clover to
for the c
If ti
seeded w
crops in


clover can be sown in the cotton middles
plowed under the following April as a fert
Second; cowpeas can be sown broadcast in


crop ro-
ws: Cot-
is possi-
n. First;
in Octo-
ilizer for
the corn


st cultivation. Third; cowpeas can be sown for a
after the oats are harvested. Fourth; after taking
owpea hay crop, the land can be seeded to crimson
be turned under the first of April as a fertilizer
otton crop.
ie oat crop is to be used for hay, hairy vetch can be
ith the oats, which would give five soil-improving
three years.


*









FARMERS'

DIAGRAM


INSTITUTE


THREE


B ULLE TIN,


YEAR


ROTATION


FIELD NO. 1 FIELD NO. 2 FIELD NO. 3
1914. Cotton, crimson 1914. Corn and peas. 1914. Oats and peas.
clover as winter Crimson clover as


1915.


1916.


cover crop.
Corn and peas.


1915.


Oats and peas.j 1916.
Crimson clover as


crop.


winter


cover


Oats and peas. 1915.
Crimson clover as
winter cover crop.
Cotton. Crimson 1916.


clover


winter


winter cover crop.
Cotton. Crimson


clover


winter


cover crop.
Cotton. Crimson


clover


winter
./n


cover crop. cover crop. Cor
and peas.


1


TABLE I
PLANT FOOD REMOVED FROM THE SOIL BY STAPLE CROPS
ON RICH LAND


Pounds


Acre


Plant


Food


Removed


by Crops.


Crops.


Cotton-1 bale
Lint
Seed


4-a

0) C)

C) A
nt bt A
^S I





500 1.50 0.65 2.12
1000 31.50 I 12.17 11.62


Corn-50 Bushels.
Grain, cob and shuck
Stover
Oats--50 Bushels.
Grain
Straw
Cowpea Hay
TOTAL


3650
4000

1600
3000


54.60 [
41.60 1


35.00
15.00


21.00
11.60


12.00
6.00


12.00
56.00


10.00
35.00


4000 I 22.00 I 70.00
______179.20 85.421 196.74


TABLE


M1ITROGEN


ADDED


LEGUME


CROPS.


Crops.


Air-dry matter.
Tons and Roots


Nitrogen


__







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


When cowpeas, crimson clover, vetch, and other annual
legumes are cut for hay, about one-third of the total nitro-
gen is left in the roots and stubble, and the remainder, or
two-thirds of the total nitrogen, is removed with the hay.
On medium fertile soils, legume plants draw about two-
thirds of their nitrogen from the air and one-third from the
soil.
When cowpeas are grown on soils that will produce one
bale of cotton per acre and the hay removed, the soil will
be neither richer or poorer in nitrogen, as the nitrogen
left in the roots and stubble is about equal to the amount
of nitrogen the plant has drawn from the soil.
Two-thirds of 301.6 pounds, the total amount of nitro-
gen contained in the legume crops that are turned under in
three years, equal 201.06 pounds, the amount of nitrogen
added to the soil by crops turned under.


If all
fed to livw
one fourth
to the lani
It is
of the fer
nure. In
one-third


the grain and
3 stock, and the
L of the plant fo(
i in the manure
estimated that
tilizing element
actual practice
of the manure


hay produced on the farm was
I manure carefully saved, at least
od in these crops could be returned
produced.
from eighty to ninety per cent.
s in feeds is returned in the ma-
few farmers will save more than
produced by stock. From table


1, it will be seen that 177.7 pounds of nit
of phosphoric acid and 194.62 pounds


rogen, 84.77 pounds
of potash were re-


moved from each acre of soil in three years in grain and hay
products. To this, one hundred pounds of nitrogen con-
tained in four thousand pounds of cowpea hay should be
added. The total plant food in feed produced is as follows:
277.7 pounds nitrogen, 84.77 pounds phosphoric acid,
and 194.62 pounds potash. Estimating one-fourth of this
saved in manure, we have the following amount of fertilizer
in the manure produced: 69.42 pounds nitrogen, 21.19 phos-
phoric acid, and 48.65 potash. Add to this the 201.06 pounds
of nitrogen returned to the soil in legumes, and we have:
270.48 pounds nitrogen, 21.19 pounds phosphoric acid, and
48.65 pounds of potash; which is the total amount of plant
food returned to the soil in legumes and barnyard manure.
Balance this against the amount of plant food removed in
crons. and we have a iain to the soil of 91.28 pounds of







FARMERS'


that
live
the


by g
stock
soils


*rowing
enough


can


k


an
to
:epl


INSTITUTE

d turning
I consume a


t


rich


phosphorus and potassium
land year after year for all


the land is to be maintained.


inder


legumes


grain


nitrogen.


must
time


and


ant


hay


It also


be bought and
to come if the


d keeping
produced,


shows that
put on the
fertility of


An application


of 200 pounds of


sixteen


per cent.


acid


phosphate and 100 pounds of muriate of potash per acre each


year


would


more


than


supply


mineral


moved.


should


indispensable


plant


unite
food


our


efforts


elements


plant


that


, phosphoru


food


these


and


two


potas-


sium


, are brought to the farms of the South at the cheapest


possible price.
The leguminous crops,


such as cowpeas,


vet beans, beggarweed and the clovers,
the air and store it in the soil. If live


soy beans,


vel-


gather nitrogen from
stock are kept to con-


sume the hay and grain produced on the farm and the barn-
yard manure is applied to the soil, the fertility and produc-


tiveness of the soil can be maintained at very


for commercial fertilizers.


will


reduced


will


little expense


The only 'elements of fertility that


a small


amount of


phosphorus


and


potash each year, and these can be returned at small expense
in commercial forms.


Each


The


above


farmer


suited to his


fertility


rotation


can


with


was


used


a little


own conditions


of his farm.


With a


can, at
of all cr
reduced


well-planned system of


the end


ops from


one


large extent,


half


f five
50 to


and


years,


only


study,


as an illustration.


a system


best
the


plan


and one that will maintain


crop


made


100 per cent
the washing


rotation, any farm


increase


its yield


fertilizer bills can


away


soil,


can be stopped.


Why not begin a crop rotation ?


CUSSION.


J. F
phate?


DUGGAR.


H. E. SAVELY.
ing an export duty


What


think


exportation


phos-


I think it ought to be allowed, the purchaser pay-
(which is now prohibited) just as much as Ger-
v** -. a-


_1 -_ P _ .T.._ L _. _ .J ta a aL -- nfl ,n .tia .* nnL r r


BULLETIN


0


-a


S ^ -, A._


f* Iff f-tr erf f^ r .* T








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


things, the
spoke of.
P. H.
They have
It would bh
of the fert
not want t<


better.


I should like to have all the formulas Mr. Savely


ROLFS. I should
sprung up under
e a great step in a
ilizer constituents
o take the time to


the original work,
Then sprang up the
ments, fish scraps,
element used alone


and then
the poin1


splendid
with the
but far


of course
small fe
cotton-se
was not


a third. It has been a
t where we are at present
system, but barbarously
fertilizer formulae; they
short of what they ough


accustom ourselves to
to the complete fertil
would say to our Co
discouraged if you do
been in the work for (
has been marvelous, i
grow. The work we


clearly th
ship is of
lar piece


come
mentii
thing
other
thing
I.
un to


up,
on i
for


the
izer,
unt.
not
xver
whil
are


an anything we
the particular
of land or par
and I should li
n a general w:
such a crop as


.7


use of
It is
Demo


like to say one word about the formulae.
necessity, and under difficult conditions.
advancee to get a more thorough knowledge
that go into making the formula. I do
go into the history of fertilizer formulas;
e, was done with the separate elements.
!rtilizer houses, handling the different ele-
eed meal, etc. Then we found that one
b sufficient, so a second was introduced,


struggle in our education to get to
t. We know our school system is a
short of what it ought to be. So
are immensely better than nothing,
.t to be. It will take some time to
the fertilizer elements rather than
a slow process of education; so I
nstration Agents, "Do not become


see any revolution in five years."
twenty years, and in that time th
e from year to year I could hard
doing in our laboratories shows


have had heretofore just what the
form of fertilizer constituent to the


ticular
ike time
ay that
radishes


farm and garden truck. I think
to get out suggestive formulae, ,
E. SOAR. Now sometimes a ma
a ton after putting a filler in,


I have
e change
ly see it
us more
relation-
particu-


Some very interesting things
discuss them, but I will merely
rate of ammonia is a splendid
t a pretty poor thing for some
it would not be a very difficult
such as Mr. Savely spoke of.
,n can make these things weigh
but the point is, why do you


need to make a ton?
H. E. SAVELY. I picked up a bulletin of another State that had
a lot of formulas that were very confusing to me. It would have
been much easier if it had said, "Use so many pounds of ammonia,
so many pounds of acid phosphate, and so many of potash." I like
the simpler form.
A. That is much better, but we have gotten so used to reading it
in percentages that we get the chemical carrying that amount.
P. H. ROLFS. It is a matter that will require time, but not so
long as you might imagine. Fifteen years ago, the farmers were
very ignorant on the reading of the formula on the tag; but now it
will average at least one man in every community who understands
them; but they are a block and a hindrance, and we shall probably
have to unlearn them.
C. K. McQuARRIE. One great step in advance that Florida has
taken is that any farmer or anybody can buy any quantity of these
elements that are commonly used. There are some States where it is
nlmnicd imnnrmchlo +a A4n hkia








FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


learn, as I took the precaution to say this morning, and what I said
referred to a particular type of soil. Now if we were working on flat-
woods soil we would have a different condition from the rolling pine.

IRISH POTATOES
A. P. SPENCER
The Irish potato in Florida may be classed either as
a truck or farm crop, in view of the fact that quite a large
area is grown each year in certain sections of the State. Its
adaptability is more general than was once thought, and it


is now found growing in every County


of the State with


more or less success. The largest acreage is found in the flat-


woods sections where artesian irrigation is possible.


Many


of these soils were considered quite worthless for almost any
crop until they were brought into a high state of cultivation
by systematic crop rotation, co-operative methods in market-


ing, and the proper cultural methods well


understood.


much larger area of Florida can be used for Irish potatoes,
and these lands are found in almost every County in Florida.


The flatwoods soils,


when


they


humus, must have more humus a'
ways need an addition of humus.


contain small amounts of
added. High pine lands al-
Scrub oak lands are not


suitable for the growing of Irish potatoes, although


it is


possible to bring these to a state of high productivity, pro-


vided


there


could


sufficient


vegetation


turned


under,


which in most cases would not be a profitable undertaking.
It is important to understand that a large amount of vege-
table matter in the soil will go a long way toward assuring a
good crop in almost any section or with any type of soil in
Florida.
DRAINAGE.
Inasmuch as the flatwoods sections of the State have


been


selected


growing


Irish


potatoes,


matter


drainage has presented itself in such a way that the farmers
have necessarily made provision for drainage; but even with
the drainage provided, there are seasons when the rainfall


is above the average,
some difficulty in tal


and


Irish


ing care of


potato


growers


find


the water in flatwoods







56 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

crop will not make a satisfactory growth if the ground is
water soaked.
FERTILIZATION.
The Irish potato requires a complete fertilizer on most
Florida soils. If the land has been in cultivation and has a
liberal amount of humus, as much as one ton of fertilizer
might be applied. A formula analyzing approximately 4 per
cent. ammonia, 7 per cent. phosphoric acid and 8 per cent.
potash would be recommended. The material necessary for
a ton may be made as follows: 1055 pounds cotton-seed meal, <
655 pounds of acid phosphate, and 290 pounds of sulphate of
potash. The following formula is also used extensively: 800
pounds blood and bone, 900 pounds of 16 per cent. acid phos-
phate, and 300 pounds of sulphate of potash.
In the event that the land is new, it would not be advisa-
ble to apply more than 1500 pounds per acre, and in the
proportions of the above stated mixtures. Where the soil
is deficient of humus, an additional 100 pounds of cotton-
seed meal or blood and bone may be added to advantage, as
the ammonia encourages an early growth of the plants.
Stable manure is not generally used as the fertilizer for
Irish potatoes, as it seems to have a tendency to increase
the amount of scab. Commercial fertilizers may be applied
either under the seed or above the seed in the beds. Both
methods are practiced with good results.
DATES FOR PLANTING.
Florida has -two seasons for planting Irish potatoes.
From a commercial standpoint, the winter-grown potato
gives the best results. These should be planted as early as
possible, but late enough to avoid a freeze that may occur
even up to March 1. In South Florida, January, or even De-
cember plantings are to be recommended; but in Central
and North Florida, because of the danger of freezes, it
would be .better to defer planting until from January 25 to
February 20. Irish potatoes can withstand a light frost.
If the leaves are just through the ground, the injury will
be very slight if they are frozen off, but if the top has
made considerable growth the crop would be considerably








FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


Northern markets and compete
toes when the northern crop is
grown Irish potato crop is not
mercial standpoint.
Attention has been directed


with northern-grown pota-
moving; so that the fall-
so important from a com-


I to local markets


quite frequently neglected. A few farmers
County, who had made provision for marketing


potatoes, sold quite a large quantity at from


per barrel in Gainesville and neighboring
cember and January. The distribution
was more or less uneven, consequently a
might have used larger quantities did not
secure a market: for fall-grown potatoes,
look well in advance, when quite a large


g


$1.


towns
of the
good
do so.
it is


in
th
60
du
se
m
In


that are
Alachua
Leir Irish
to $2.00
ring De-
potatoes
any who
order to


advisable to


Acreage in


each


community might be placed on the market at a good price
during the early winter.
As to methods of planting, cultivation, fertilization, etc.,
of the fall crop, it does not differ much from the winter
planting.


SEED POTATOES


Because


high


price


paid


northern-grown


potatoes, it is advisable for farmers to grow their own seed
wherever possible. It has never been found a good practice
to plant the fall-grown seed for the winter crop. The pota-
toes do not have sufficient time for maturing, which results
in an uneven stand; so it is best to import seed for winter
planting, unless they may be carried over from the previous
spring. In that case it is recommended that potatoes to be
carried over should be spread out on the floor where they
will mature and begin to sprout before being planted. The
spring-grown crop may be kept over with but little trouble
for fall planting.
VARIETIES


The varieties that have given the best
Spaulding's Rose 4, Bliss Triumph, Look
tain, aId Irish Cobbler. The two first-
eties are favorites on flatwoods land, as
rapidly, are good shippers, and are
I. *ii' 7 jy .^ A C^* I. I t It S**1^


success are
-out Moun-
named vari-
they grow
quite well
^r # rtlf*








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


tions,
when
ately


digging
gets.


is a common


the j
after


potatoes


last


will


practice
be ready


cultivation,


potatoes


is the


In some cases corn is


potatoes are dug.


are
land.


which


Planted


between


plant


d


corn
first


planted


I


Lig
is


during
n April.
planted;


* cultivation
immediately


It matures about July 20,


rows


, giving


a third


January,
Immedi-


and
the


the
corn


after the


when cowpeas


crop


Or the land may be allowed to grow up in crab-grass,


can


be cut for


hay


or turned


under to


form humus.


Such a rotation gives a variety of crops, and keeps the land


in good
tained
crop.


physical


wuith
3uch


productive


condition.


Similar


other crops, leaving


rotations


Irish


improve


following


year.


rotations


may


potatoes for the cash


soil


and


make


more


COST


TRANSPORTATION


The cost of


ings, I
was as


lorida


follows:
Baltimore,
Chicago, $
Cincinnati,
Columbus,
Cleveland,


Express


transportation
the following


1.01


per
per


73.2c
Ohio,
Ohio,


shipments.


in carload


points,


lots


from
year


Hast-
1913.


barrel.
barrel.


per
90.7c
88.9c


barrel.


per
per


course,


barrel.
barrel.
would


much


higher.


DISCUSSION.


S. J. McCULLY. Do you
the fall to eastern markets?


A. P


A.P


SPENCER
MCCULL]
SPENCER
Freight


shipments had gone out.


potatoes at the


a matter


White


p.


I do not.


know


any shipments


being made


Y. I should think there ought to be good prices.
s. From what I gathered from Mr. Robert Taylor,
Solicitor, it would not pay to do it, though a few


Hoi


competition


Last fall they were getting northern-grown
use, Gainesville, at $1.00 per bushel. It is
ind transportation.


A. W. TURNER. What would be the proper time
toes in our section for a fall crop in Liberty County?


member.


SPENCER.
would sE


From the
the 15th


earlier as you think advisable.
M. C. GARDNER. I want t


*, -, a _


20th


August


September at


to plant pota-


to the 15th of Sep-
latest, and as much


o know about the fall crop of potatoes


* ll jf.EaI 1u3I *iiIrkI L*Ju


g


_


A --








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


the wind could blow across them until they were
for germination. It has not paid to grow potatoes
The northern-grown seed makes a more uniform
S. J. MCCULLY. Have you ever tried holding
potatoes for the following spring?
P. H. ROLFS. It has been tried with very goc
germination is concerned.
S. J. MCCULLY. I have tried it this spring,
ing off nicely.
M. C. GARDNER. Are spring-grown potatoes i
the fall?
A. P. SPENCER. Yes, that is all right. Plant
show sprouts.


sufficiently mature
for seed in Florida.
stand.
the spring crop of


,d success so far as


and


they are grow-


ill right to plant in


only the tubers that


FERTILIZERS
P. H. ROLFS


Generally


monia
soda o
more
rived
rials.
prior
to lea.
and ti
of the
ments
not be
II
that v
progri
fifty 4
sertio:
agricI


speaking,


derived from
* sulphate of
quickly than


has


been


assumed


chemical sources,
ammonia, leaches o
the organic ammor


from cottonseed meal, dried blo
These statements, however, ar
grounds than on direct tests. T
rn about the availability of the
he possibility of the different el
soil, and the inter-relations tha
have one with another, that we
too positive in our assertions in
f we could just eliminate from o
,e believe to be so but are not so,
ess in the next ten years than
of this fertilizer question. I mi
n cut to say that this would be 1
iltural work. I do not mean to


ment those fictitious stories
of "boosting" some particu
will prote of advantage to


O(
e
h

Le
t


such


that


am-


nitrate


ut of the soil
lias which ar
d, or similar
based rather
lere is still so
different eler
ments leachin
these differed


much
.e de-
mate-
on a
much
nents,
[g out
it ele-


may well pause and
regard to the matter.


ur
we
we
ght
Lhe
inc]


that are told r
lar material,
some come:


I am referring to the statements that pa
biased literature. With this introduction
0 is 0* r I I


minds those facts
would make more
have in the past
;broaden this as-
case in all of our
lude in this state-
urely for the sake
the sale of which
racial concern, but
tss current in un-
)n to our discus-
1 I L ^. ?-.. .


)r
q








FERTILIZER


TABLE


Giving the number of
mixed formula.


pounds of materials needed to furnish the equivalent amount of


plant food contained


110
220
330
440
550
660
770
880
990
1100
1210
1320


125
250
375
500
625
750
875
1000
1125
1250
1375
1500


Available
Phosphoric Acid


From 14 %
Acid


Phosphate
285 143
570 286
860 430
1140 570
1430 715
1715 860
2000 1000
1143
1286
1430
1570
1715


From 16 %
Acid
Phosphate


HOW TO


USE


THE


TABLE


To make a fertilizer containing 4% Ammonia, 6% available Phosphoric Acid, 10% Potash from Nitrate
Phosphate, and Muriate of Potash. By looking in the percentage column for 4%o, and in the Nitrate of Soda c
lbs., in the 16~ Acid Phosphate column opposite 6 we find 750 lbs., and in the Muriate of Potash column op
420 lbs., the sum of the 440 lbs., 750 lbs., and 420 lbs., is 1610 lbs., which is equivalent to and contains the sai
Food as 2000 lbs. of the 4-6-10 manufactured fertilizer.
In case it is desired to make a formula 4%o Ammonia, 6% available Phosphoric Acid, 10 o Potash and d
from Nitrate of Soda, 1 % of Ammonia from Cotton Seed Meal, 1 % of Ammonia from Blood, use 220 lbs. Nitra
Cotton Seed Meal, 125 lbs. Blood, 750 of 16 Acid Phosphate, and 420 lbs. Muriate of Potash. Any combine
in the same way.
(b) If your fertilizer house handles only mixed goods write to the larger fertilizer houses in Jacksonville or



. *~* * r ----~i.li .... U~ '.:*i ::i*'4":hs':...s a...A..... ...:.:,*lh/ .: ii::::......*.1".*.M .II*E


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.


80
160
240
320
400
480
560
640
720
800
880
960








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLE TIN


NO.


FERTILIZER FORMULAS.


Ammonia


Phosphoric


Acid


Potash


Corn ...
Cotton, Clay---------
Cotton, Sand---------
Sugar Cane ----------
Sweet Potatoes


Irish


Potatoes


Peanuts _ -
Oats ...... ---
Georgia Salad -..-----.


The foregoing formulae have been compiled.


practically
mind, how
toward th<


may
year.


a complete


ever


sam


right


that different
e fertilizers.


one


these.


soils


year


will


that


and


mus


We have
borne in


behave differently


a fertilizer


quite


useless


formula
another


FERTILIZER LOST IN DRAINAGE


July


Gallons of Water


1910 to June


Tank 1


1911.


Tank 2


Tank


Tank 4


Nitrate of


Acid


Pounds


Soda


Phosphate


Sulphate
Limestone


Gallons


Acre


Potash


Water


June 1911 to May 1912
Tank 1 Tank 2


Lost


2.7
22
239


Tank


1112


Tank 4


Nitrate of


Soda


Acid Phosphate --
Sulphate of Potash
Limestone


Gallons


Water


Pounds


May


1912 to


Tank 1
----- --181


Acre


1130


Lost


April 1913
Tank 2


2205


Tank


1351


Tank 4


Pounds


Acre


Nitrate of Soda


Acid


Phosphate


Sulphate
Limestone


Potash


1062


1039


WHAT THE CHARTS


TEACH.


These charts


I have presented


are developed from


Lost


and







62 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

The amount referred to under the heading nitrate of
soda represents the amount of ammonia that is lost from
leaching and by calculating this amount of ammonia into
the form of nitrate of soda we have the amount given on


the chart.


This is done for convenience sake so that every


man may know just how much material is lost. If it were
stated in terms of ammonia it would not carry such defi-
nite information with it, but when the ammonia is stated
in terms of nitrate of soda anyone can readily picture 100
pounds of it or any other quantity in his mind.


the case of potash it should not


be assumed


that


the potash leached out of the soil is in the form of high-


grade sulphate of potash,
was when it was leached


but no matter in


out,


what form it


the amount was calculated


to sulphate of potash as a standard.
In the case of acid phosphate the explanation is sim-


ilar.


The


phosphoric acid


leached


out was obtained and


then we calculated back to the amount of 16 per cent. acid
phosphate that it would make.


case


of limestone


is quite


probable


that a


little was lost in the way of sulphate of lime or land plaster


as well as in the


whole


was


form


taken and


carbonate
calculated


lime.


back to


However,


the amount


of pure ground limestone it would have taken to have re-


placed the lime


(calcium)


lost.


In observing the different tanks you


will notice that


there was a very considerable variation as to the amount
of ammonia lost; however, do not let this confuse you, as


that


question


entirely


different


one


would require a two hours lecture by itself.


to observe here


and


one


that


What we want


is the main fact of the large amount of


ammonia lost under all the varying conditions.


The vari-


nations noted in the different tanks form an extremely in-


teresting problem, and one
user of fertilizers in Florida.


great


importance


I hope some day to have an


opportunity of discussing this rather fully and technically
with you.
The figures placed before you in the tables show you


that the ammonia is the one element in our fertilizers that


vnn mllat. keppn your PVsP An


Yon will nntiea that.f. it krPPnm


--- I







FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4. 63

does so large an amount leach out as to cause us any partic-
ular uneasiness.
The phosphoric acid, you will notice from the tables,


sticks well in the soil;
ipate danger from pla
line of figures shows
quite a great surprise
ing leached out; but
quently have followed


therefore, we will not
nt hunger in that direct
the loss of lime in the
I to us to find so much
it explains why good
an application of lime.


need to antic-
tion. The last
soil. It was
lime was be-
crops so fre-


AMMONIA


From the fo
sion you will see
one we need to r
ida. It is the 4
rapidly, and one


)regoing charts and the foregoing discus-
that the ammonia content of the soil is the
)ay the greatest attention to here in Flor-
one element that keeps fluctuating most
that is causing us more trouble than all


the others combined.
While we pay for ammonia at the highest rate of any
of the fertilizer elements, it is the one element that we can
get nearly for nothing. All of our legume crops supply
a large amount to the soil without charging us anything
for it. In my lecture last night I showed you the tubercles
that form on the different leguminous crops. By the aid
of these, the legumes are enabled to transform a large
amount of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, so it can
be used by the plants. Professor Scott, or for that mat-
ter everyone who talked on forage and hay, has emphasized
the importance of growing legumes. These plants are the
ones that return to the soil more fertilizer than they have
taken from it. In addition to returning fertilizer, they
return another element which is called humus. This humus
enables the soil to hold in its make up more of the soluble
ammonia than it would be able to hold without the humus.


DRY SOIL
The conditions of the soil vary greatly, from being too
dry for plant growth, to being too wet for plant growth.
So far as the ammonia condition of the soil is concerned,
it is as bad for the plant to have the soil too dry as it is to
have it too wet. Fortunately a great many years the con-







UNIVERSITY


development into


Modern English.


Saxon Reader are studied and


FLORIDA


The texts in


Cook'


edition


.,^: . :1 *; ^ *!MM
. .. "*



Bright's Anglo-
Judith is read.


hours.)


ENGLISH VIII.-Chaucer and the Middle English Grammar.-


During the first


The


condition


,text


emester the


works of


pronunciation,


, analogue


Chaucer are


grammatical


sources


forms,
closely


read in and


scansion,
examined.


During the second semester


Morris


and Skeats'


Specimens,


Part


is studied


in connection


with


informal


lectures


on Middle


English
English.


viewed


as developing


from


Anglo-Saxon


into


Modern


ENGLISH


IX.-Engineering


Exposition.-This


course


will


attempt to give special training to the Engineering student in the


preparation of the various


kind


of writing that he will be called


upon to do in the pursuit of his profession.


It will consist largely


of the writing of papers


(upon


subjects assigned


by the depart-


ments


in the


and revised.


College


(Engineering


Engineering)


Seniors


which
hour.)


criticised


HISTORY


AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES


Professor Bernard


Students'


entering the


University for the first time


who have


not had satisfactory courses in European or American history are


advised
general


include


cultural


these subjects


foundation


in their


their


other


courses


study


work.


as a
also


recommended to those who expect to elect more than one course


social


sciences


that


they


begin


with


first


course


sociology, thi


being the most general course in the social sciences.


HISTORY


I.-European


History--The


growth


civilization


in Europe in its various aspects


to the present.


from the earliest historical times


(3 hours)


HISTORY II.--American History.


-The growth of nationalism,


democracy


and industrialism in the United States


, with particular


trie'Fre n"e


thP nro rnc ngr-


n rrhl pm c


trn-t nxtz


1ln41.'C \


(Prerequisite, English VII; 3 hours.)


:j


[2


I r


I I


| |lip







COLLEGE


ARTS


AND


SCIENCES


ECONOMICS


ECONOMICS


regarding business,


I.--Principles


money,


Economics.-The


leading


banking, industrial organization,


facts
labor,


taxation


tariffs


ECONOMICS


, governmental
II.-Selected


regulation.


Problems.-Not


hours.)
offered


1914-


1915.


(3 hours.)


ECONOMICS


ods on the farm


IIIb.-1


markets,


Agricultural


rural credits


Economics.-Business


and cooperation.


meth-


(Second


semester


3 hours.)


POLITICAL SCIENCE


POLITICAL


SCIrNCE


I.-American


Government.--Federal


State,
actual


local


practice


governments,
>f legislation,


with


particular


reference


administration,


courts.


Current political problems.


(3 hours.)


POLITICAL SCIENcE IIa.-Principles of Political Science.-Not


offered


1914-1915.


Offered


1915


-1916.


(First


semester;


3 hours.)


POLITICAL


SCIENCE


IIb.--European


Governments.-


fered in
3 hours.)


1914-1915.


Offered in


1915


--1916.


(Second semester;


SOCIOLOGY


SocIOLOGY


I.-Principles


Sociology.-The


evolution


social institution


social


problems,


, with particular reference to the family


such


as population,


race,


immigration,


selected
poverty,


crime, the church, education,


and social reform.


(3 hours.)


SOCIOLOGY


tions


IIa.-Modern


poverty


administration.


(First


pauperism,


semester;


preventive
3 hours.)


and


measures,


condi-
relief,


SOCIOLOGY


I Ib.-Criminology.-Causes,


prevention and


treat-


ment of6 crime and criminals,


with particular reference to South-


ern conditions.


(Second


semester;


3 hours.)


SOCIOLoGY
sanitation, the


IIIa.-Rural


School,


Sociology.-Rural


the church, and


life in


various other


relation


cooperative


enterprises.


SOCIOLOGY


(First semester;


3 hours.)


IIIb.-Southern Race


Problems.--A study


Philanthropy.-Causes


__ ____







66 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

CONCLUSION
In conclusion I will say that I cannot emphasize too
strongly that if anyone adopts a hard and fast rule in re-


gard to fertilizing crops,
appointed in the results,
more fertilizer than his c
From the discussion


he will either frequent
or he will be using a
rops actually need.
today, and from the c


tly be
great


dis-
deal


;harts pre-


sented to you, I have emphasized very strongly the point
that the ammonia is the fickle element in our fertilizer form-
ulas. It is the element we have to keep our eye on. It
is the costly element if we have to buy it. We can produce
it on the farm without its costing us anything and we
then have it on the farm distributed through the soil in
such a way that the plants can use it to the best advantage.
As long as it is necessary for us to buy this costly element
let us keep our eye clearly upon it. If a dry year occurs,
we need to reinforce our formula with chemical nitrogen;
when a wet year occurs, during which much water leaches
from the soil, we need to apply a considerable quantity of
nitrogen.
The potash leaches out of the soil to an inconsiderable
extent, as you have seen. It needs only minor attention, and
one or two good applications a year to ordinary farm crops
is sufficient.
Phosphoric acid, as you have seen, sticks in the soil
very tenaciously, and it is quite probable that one applica-
tion of a large amount of phosphoric acid will supply a suf-
ficient amount of this element to last the plants for sev-
eral years.
Finally, no formula of fertilizers will prove to be the
best under all varying weather conditions, nor will any
particular fertilizer formula prove to be the best for all
varying soil conditions. We must vary our formulas for
different weather conditions and different soil conditions.


DISCUSSION.


D. R. McQUARRIE. In place of nitrate of soda, if you had used
cotton-seed meal and tankage, what would have been the result?
P. H. ROLFS. It was not nitrate of soda. As a matter of fact
these tanks have had three forms of ammonia.







FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


Q. Is there any particular relation between the amount of
nitrate that washed out and the amount supplied?
P. H. ROLFS. Yes, there is a relationship. The amount washed
out varies under different conditions, and is not always proportional
to the amount of ammonia applied. A part of the ammonia leached
out was elaborated in the soil by organisms.
I. E. SOAn. Which washed out more, sulphate of potash or
muriate?
P. H. ROLFS. We don't know.
W. L. WATSON. Was it necessary to reinforce the ammonia in a
dry season?
P. H. ROLFS. Yes, it would be necessary. It became very appar-
ent last year. We had an extremely dry season. The amnlnia was
placed in the soil, but did not become available to the plant. The
amount of ammonia applied to the soil would have given good results
in a normal season. We must look out for both dry and wet season,
but the dry season is the one we have overlooked in the past. In dry
seasons the bacteria and other organisms are unable to vegetate in a
normal way, consequently, very little nitrogen is being fixed in the
soil. Therefore the land is poor in assimilable nitrogen, not because
it has been leached out, but because the bacteria cannot convert nitro-
gen into an available form for the use of the plants.. Then we should
add a form that can be quickly taken up by the plants.
R. T. KELLEY. In a case of that kind the crop would not use
all of it?
P. H. ROLFS. No. The moment you have rood cropping weather


you will have
with a small
one the plants
available amm
the organisms
ding of bloom


1 prevent tl
In conclus


an over-supply of nitrogen, and a rank growth results
crop of fruit or grain. If a dry period follows a wet
are likely to suffer from ammonia hunger, because the
lonia was washed out by the rains, and in the dry period
cannot elaborate enough to satisfy the plants,-shed-
of flowers. An application of nitrate at the right time
his trouble.
sion I want to add. if we could only by some maiec get


of the things that
ke rpore progress in
Josh Billings puts
iw so many things tl
y that to get a high p
ash. Yet right in 1
nts made in the We


are not so that we believe to be so, we would
the next 10 years than we have in the last 50.
it, "I would rather not know so much than to


hat are not so." Yo
ier cent. of sugar in
the face of that are
ist Indies and here


which do not show that you can change the
the juice one iota by adding potash.


vill find it stated
cane juice you m
e long continued
the Experiment
percentage of si


repeat-
ust add
experi-
Station
igar in


CO-OPERATIVE


BUYING


OF


FERTILIZERS


AMONG FARMERS


S. J. MCCULLY.


wil


rid
ma
As
kno
edl;
pot
me:


TT i *F ,"I 1 r *I J r- i r







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


which gives directions for home mixing of fertili-
zers.)
Gentlemen, I contend just as the Department does in
this circular, that we can save from 25 to 50 per cent. on
our fertilizer bills. First, the fertilizer agents have a
price practically for every land. Now that is a broad asser-
tion. I will take one particular fertilizer, Lettuce Special.
I am not going to call any names unless it is necessary. In
our County last fall there were quite a lot of demonstrators
there and I had occasion to follow right behind a man who
was around selling Lettuce Special. I do not remember its
analysis, but that does not make any difference. I have in
mind the names of three men to whom he sold it-one at
$36, one at $38 and one at $42. It is a fact that it was the
same fertilizer, and they all bought on 120 days time. This
is why I contend that the farmers should co-operate and buy
the chemicals and do their own mixing.
Now we find the greatest trouble in getting the farmers
to co-operate and buy the chemicals. One reason is because
the fertilizer man comes along and says, "It's no use for
you to listen to the Demonstration Agent, he will give you a
formula that is worthless. What does he know about it?"
He says that if you buy the chemicals you do not save any-
thing. But he will mix them for you, sell you on time and
take your note.
I had the circular I have read you published and dis-
tributed, 75 or 100 over the County. Shortly afterward I met
a gentleman going along the road; he said, "By the way, I
read your circular in the Banner the other day. I showed
it to a fertilizer man and he looked at it and said, 'You can't
do anything like that. You don't know anything about the
chemicals." Honestly, he made that man believe the chem-


icals came in liquid form, and he wanted to knc
how in the world he would apply it.
In November I was in Dunnellon and I spoke
who as I knew was going to buy 50 or 75 tons of
I suggested that he buy his chemicals and do
mixing. He said he had a price from a house in Jac
and showed it to me. As I remember, they had cut


)W


of me


to a man
fertilizer.
his own
ksonville,
the price


some; but when we figured it out he said he would keep







FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


of over-production. Where does this advance come in? I
know where it goes-it goes into their pockets. (Informa-
tion by Mrs. Prange that there had been an advance in price
of tankage and of organic ammonia in the packing houses).
(Suggestion by MR. SOAR: People working in the phos-
phate mines say it cost $1.25 a ton to load phosphate on
the cars.)
Now we want to see some figures gotten out by the
nitrate people; and I believe they are right, and I want
to compare their figures with the prices the fertilizer peo-
ple have sent out. Take this one, Ammonia 4, phosphoric
acid 5, potash 6. Listed price to-day is $32 per ton. Con-


tent, 450
acid phos
company
the State
ally cost
the usual


lbs. nitrate of sc
Spate, 300 lbs.
has listed prices


)da, 125
sulphate
probab


lbs. dried blood, 87
3 of potash. That
ly sent to every ag


; but the quantities at those prices would
you $20.85. Take another, 4-7-6. This is
thing for cantaloupes; nitrate of soda, dried


1


5 lbs.
same
ent in
actu-
about
blood,


acid phosphate and sulphate of potash. Now we can buy
these materials and have them laid down at any station in


Florida for $27. Now until we can get the f
open their eyes to these things, we are up again
proposition. I find another thing in my work
to get men to co-operate and buy chemicals, th<
understand anything about the formulas, they
another man's word for it. Now my plan is, just
the different chemicals, take a little plot of gr
plant a few rows of one kind of plant and use
chemicals on it. I do this for the benefit of my D1
tors and Co-operators.


irmers to
st a hard
in trying
ey do not
just take
to try out
ound and
different
emonstra-


FERTILIZERS


AND


MARKETING


N. M. G. RANGE
I wish to express the great pleasure I have had in at-
tending your meeting. It would take too much time and be


entirely unnecessary to endorse the
subjects covered. I will, however,
important point, which, it seems to
the emphasis it needs. As perhaps
-i ^*-'Mh


about six years I l


have been


conr


able work on the many
call attention to a most
me, has not been given
I most of you know, for
iected with the largest








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


your positions because you
ireciate the full importance
and cultivation, and the
the humus content of the sc


grower depends
It is easier
on a three-inch
of plowing six
general rule th
profitably used


are good
of proper
great neces
il, but the


the
00
to
I s
ops


farmers, so you
drainage, plow-
sity of keeping
general Florida


fertilizer sack.
pounds of fertilizer to go
convince him of the value
suppose you all accept the
the amount of fertilizer


is 100 pounds per acre to each inch depth


of plowing, this up to ten-inch depth.
to plow even deeper than ten inches, it
profitable to use over 1,000 pounds per
field crops. But you will find this, s
little understood by a large number o:
Generally they do not appreciate the va
and when they do, they are likely to I
which, as you know, is not advisable,


While it is better
has not been found
acre on the common


50
f
lu<
)lo
01


plowing at the wrong season; for inst
planting the corn, thus drying out the
detriment instead of an advantage. The:
tivation should be equally emphasized.
been ruined, or at least seriously injured,


simple to you, is
men in your care.
e of deep plowing;
w new land deep,
* to do their deep
;ance, just before


soil,
n too,
Many
by t


and being a
shallow cul-
a crop has
)o deep culti-


ovation, and the people must be taught to do this plowing
and cultivating when the soil is in the right condition.
The matter of humus in the soil has been most care-
fully covered, but it cannot be too greatly emphasized.
No plant can live on chemicals alone, and in order to get
the greatest benefit from chemicals, there must be plenty
of humus in the soil. It is here that the citrus growers
have so much trouble. The trees must have humus, and
the grower has trouble to get this humus in the right form,
and great trouble if he gets it in the wrong form.


MARKETING TRUCK AND FRUIT


I would also speak of marketing.


To be sure, most of


your work is with the field crops, but some
in the trucking districts and others will find
growing small areas of truck crops at certain
a little extra mnnev. Now. the f. n. b. hbver w


of you are
your men
seasons for
ith cash in


for
app
ing
up


too much on
to sell him 6
plowing, than
inches deep.
at on field cr


.1







FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO.


panies, he can generally find a few more for the com-
mission man.)
I believe I hold the record for money-making by grow-


ing ordinary truck crops on
crops, to be sure, and packed
greatest factor in my success
so perhaps a few words as t
The first precaution is,
man. In this you are aided b
mission Merchants; but this
handles the kind and grade


small acreage. I raised fine
! them well, but I consider the
was my method of marketing,
;o this may be of value.
of course, to select an honest
,y the National League of Corn-
not enough. Get a man who
of products you have to mar-


ket. A commission man may have an exc<
fruit, but give little attention to garden pr
if he is able to get fancy prices for fancy g
find that he can do very little for your i
The best of fields will have some seconds
to market; but the grower's name never
on such packages if he wishes to build a
quality.
After selecting men in different cities,
never divide your shipments to a city, as
making the shipments compete against eac


your
secti
may


house informed as to the crops being
on and as to their general conditions.
have no particular influence on the


condition is an
that section of
ciates such info


work fo]
keep you
a rising
while in
and sell
for you


indication of what may be


the State.
rmation.


Allent trade in


:oducts
,oods,
nferioj
worth
should


again,
ou will
goods.
sending
appear


reputation for

stick to them;
you are thus
h other. Keep


raised
Just yo
market,
expected


The commission man
Co-operate with him and


r your interests. For instance;
carefully advised as to market
market he will hold your goods
a falling market he will put
them as soon as he can, in eac
the maximum amount possible


twenty-five cents to seventy-five
be gained in this way helps
son's profits; but there are
when good prices cannot be obta


shipments. These times
city, during which high
son from this is never to s


cent
to
times
ined


, he will n
conditions;
as long as
them to th
h instance
to obtain.


in your
ur crop
but its
id from
appre-
he will
.ot only
but on
he can,
.e front
getting
Every


s per crate
swell the
in every
because of h,


to
sea-
city
?avy


almost invariably follow a scar-
prices have prevailed. The les-
ship to the city sending out fancy


*


__








UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


turned to other channels. By keeping his
from Chicago to the East, and taking a
natural rise and fall, the attentive grower
some place in which there is good demand


SWEET


eye on markets
advantage of the
can always find
for his products.


POTATOES


T. K. GODBEY.
I plant something like 100 acres a year now. Most
important in farming in the South is clean land, free of


stumps,
you call
I was a
the plain
hind in
the use
farming.


have do:
done thi
I am a
one else
than the
laborers
crop for
they ha'
I tell yol
but I ca


100
acre,


and labor-saving
new and modern
boy, more than
i straight truth 1


machinery.
here was ua
forty years
the South is


*The
ed in
ago;
fully


machinery that
the West when
and to tell you
forty years be-


farming advantages. They are behind; behind in
of something that will take off the hard work in
. Farming is the easiest position to fill, and I


ne everything that a


ngs with my own hands.


Westerner
to do his
South for


as we d(
less thar


acres


farmer


and the Wester
work. They do
it, but they get
) in the South,
Sthe Southern


I do
n ma
hire
twice
and


could


not farm
n does no
labor and
as much
still they


man does.


and
byp
t ask
pay
from
sell
is be


have
roxy.
any-
more
their
their
cause


men there who can turn out the work. When
a man should cultivate 100 acres it sounds fishy,
raise 100 acres of corn by myself and I can raise


sweet potatoes myself.


can


cultivate


100


PREPARATION OF THE LAND AND PLANTING
The way I prepare is this: I believe in deep plowing
usually, but you should not plow for sweet potatoes. I
usually follow oats or velvet beans with sweet potatoes. I
have had velvet beans in the field the year before, and it
makes a good place for sweet potatoes; or else I plant
them on oat stubble, and plant them the first of July. If you
want potatoes that will keep over winter you do not want to
plant them early. I take a "middle-buster" and run off my
_ 1 __ - i l t A i r .. ___I i?___


I


k


ve
u
n


I


f
* I







FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


and put in the fertilizer at the same


make six acres per day and put in
one to stake and one to drop, ough
a day or one acre a man. After
the potatoes begin to grow, I take
set it to throw the dirt to the bed
cultivator. When the vines begi
way, I put the vine lifter on the
out of spring fingers that run


wide apart.
next two ar
up and pull


and
and
you
acro
you
of y
ure


These strike


the
t to
the
tha
and


time. One man can
fertilizer. Two hands,
plant about two acres


beds
t sam
work


n to run a
cultivator.
along, and


vines and


e closer together, and they


the


they draw
the disks
can work
ss the rox
can work
our team.
out how


have to work
lazy man will


m


th
do


more. The third a
le vines up so they j
not throw any dirt
*J 1 I i1 1 *1


1]

(


tmem wi;n inls until
vs. If you handle tha
6, 7 or 8 acres a day,
I work my potatoes
many acres you can
them oftener than ev
be able to work six or


re
;o
,n
th
It


re planted
cultivator
t with the d
ind get in
This is m
the first


them.


strike there
still closer
between th
the vines a
e vines beg
machinery


according to
myself. You
work. Yol
ery two weel
seven acres


a smarter man can get over 100 acres in two wee
is all there is to working potatoes.


r


and
and
Iisk
the
ade
are
The


n farther
together,
e fingers,
t all, and
rin to lap
properly
the speed
can fig-
1 do not
ks, and a
a day and
*ks. This


HOW TO PRODUCE SHORT TUBERS


Now, as
The sweet
the tubers
stored up


3 to plowing, and
potato belongs to
Share not really tul
a lot of starch, an(


why you should not plow deep.
the morning-glory family, and
bers but simply roots that have
I when conditions are favorable


they make nice smooth potatoes, and when conditions are


not favorable they make
potatoes will try to run as
make long ones. There
There are some varieties
and there are others that
the ground and run alone


strings.
deep as y'
is also a
that have
seem to s
r near the


usually make stringy potatoes. Th
that gro* straight down make good


where they hit hard
though the roots may
mnniiirQn th ara i0 Q c


ground it ca
go farther t
!xxrlln in fh


If you plow deep the
ou plow, and that would
difference in variety.
a tendency to go down,
matter potatoes all over
surface. Such potatoes
ie reason that potatoes
plump potatoes is that
uses a plumpness, and
lown and draw up the
a .cnff crrnlnnd Th.rp








74 UNIVERSITY OF FLC

with the commercial fertilizer. Then
knows that cow-penning is good for
cattle tramp the land and make it
worked up and still the bottom is lef
fore, some potatoes will run along
down. The Triumph, which I origi
that way, and it is inclined to make a
onstration of different varieties.)


)RIDA


I
I



I
I
>
>
+4
|h
I



A
I,
I
h
p
A


, almost every farmer
sweet potatoes. The
hard, but the top is
t hard. As I said be-
the land and not go
nated, is prone to go
stringy potato. (Dem-


ORIGINATING NEW VARIETIES


As I said, the sweet potato plants and the morning
glory belong to the same family and the potatoes are simply
roots. The Porto Rico yams grow downward and make
a nice smooth potato with hardly any strings. Florida is
the only State in the Union that I know of (and I have
made diligent search along this line) where the sweet po-


tato
oftei
seed
ago
got
was


blooms and matures seed on the vine;
n done even in Florida. I have watched
each year and gathered them all. Ab'
I secured seed and planted them, and
the Triumph, which I decided was w,
early and had good keeping qualities.


years before I could find seed. Last year
off forty acres, and it took me two or thr
these. After planting these I have only
have 15 new seedling potatoes. I hope ir
find something better than we have had
feel pretty sure I will succeed. Some of
promising.


and that is not
for sweet potato
out twelve years
out of the lot I
orth keeping. It
It has been ten


I got 100
ee days to
15, and I
the lot I
before, a
them are


seed
find
now
will
nd I
very


HOW TO KEEP SWEET POTATOES


One of the main
you grow it. I have
after I learned how.
doing this. One fall
took our potatoes and


t:


warm wet weather con


to rot. Some of
banks and trying
un arWain: but tha


the
to c


things is to keep the potato after
found this extremely easy, that is,
lost farmers have their own way of
t was very wet and warm, and we
covered them with pine bark. The
itinued and the potatoes had begun
neighbors were tearing down their
Irv them out and then bank them


t did not do well_ for


it rained all


the


I








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN


stopped,
that the


and


secret


have never
the banks.


have become
not separate


rotting


never


they


lost p
Some


kept th
keeping


potatoes
of the,


frost-bitten


them


increased.


S1


rest


potatoes
nce that


m have


and


hauled
Last


the y
was
aftei


been


partially


them
year


'I


ear.


then


ventilation
r they are


water-soaked


rotted


: but


together,


banked


bushels, and I know there were not twelve bushel


potatoes


until
sold


July,
on the


keeping


all.
and


I kept
shipped


Atlanta market


sweet


potatoes


a carload


them


in Au


and


have never put more than 200 bushel


them in long banks.


but I
have


will


Now


be glad to answer any


skipped


over.


Triumphs


and
have
them


Atlanta
gust. I


keep


in one bank.


over


knew


and


some


and


s of
last
they


12,000


rotten
year
were


no fear
easily.


I bank


think I have told you all I


questions on


can


points that


DISCUSSION


Q. How wide apart do you plant them?
T. K. GODBEY. If for market or for table use I make them four


feet apart and 18 inches apart in the row.
nearly every Experiment Station in the


proven
Q.


o be about the right distance.
What kind of fertilizer do you use?


GODBEY.


have


used


Sweet


It has
South, a


Potato


been


tried out at


18 inches


Special,


so-called,


although you know the fertilizer house will put up two sacks of fer-
tilizer and name one Sweet Potato Special and the other * * *


Special, but it all amounts to the same thing. The fertili


year was
Q.
T. KE
call this


zer I used last


4-8-8 goods. I used about 700 lbs. to the acre.
What is the average yield?
. GODBEY. My yield was about 100 bushels to the acre, and I
a fair yield. I have raised 300 bushels to the acre, but an


all round average I would say to be 100.


S. J


for market


MCCULLY.
GODBEY.
;t. and do


ping season usually
middle of June. A


Do you use draws or vines?


Draws,


altogether.


grow


sweet


pota


not have time to grow early potatoes.
closes out (that is the rush end of it)


after that


have


a surplus


these grow until a foot long, then pull them up.


S. J. MCCULLY.
lengthwise?
T. Je. GODBEY.


some


put a


negroes


does not make any


plants,


to plants


My ship-
the first or


Do you drop the potato vines across the row or


In planting sweet potatoes I hire almost anybody
dropper ahead, and a man behind to stick, and


them


difference.


one


way


some


the other


t


w


can


Ir


_ .._









UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


vine
Pull
toge
well,
they


T. K. GODBEY.
s as soon as y<
them up, pile
their 3 or 4 day
, sometimes 10
can lay longer
G. W. BELSER.
T. K. GODBEY.


No. Probably you think you should plant the
)u get them from the ground. This is a mistake.
them in stacks, and let them lay with the roots
s, and then plant them and they will live twice as
times as well. The same is true of the vines, only
and the leaves shed off and this is best for them.
Should you plant them in wet ground?
I planted in July, and it usually is wet then *
L. Do you mean you have a different potato from


M. C. GARDNER


each seed?
T. K. GODBEY. Ev
always come different
R. T. KELLEY. Is
several joints in a bed
T. K. GODBEY. N(
I. E. SOAR. Is thi
or vines?
T. K. GODBEY. I
if planted at the same
grow off good and ens
do not get a good hold
J. D. BROWN. Is


from a plant that produces
T. K. GODBEY. No, it i
they start out with a stem


one up),
the eyes
from the
those old
S. J
T. K
me that


was
it g3
who
knou

yam


and the sweet pota
will be at the back.
old vines, if they li
I vines are as good


I


gotten
rew a
sends
v what
S. W.
s. Ho


T. K.
one kind ii
and some
S. W.
T. K.
long vines,
roots lap c
S. W.
T. K.
the Dooley
- AS ^- 4.,..


MCCULLY.
. GODBEY.
they had a


Y


by plantii
different po
out such


seed you plant will make a new kind.
never true to the parent plant.
ire any difference in planting, if yc


They


rery
and
3 the
?


except possibly a little larger yield.
e any difference in the yield from the draws


difference at digging time
strong plant or vine will
they stand a month and


rowers


contend


that


seed


could never tell any d
time. I find a good
;ure a good yield. If
the yield will be poor.
this true: Potato gl


large potatoes will produce likewise?
s not so. Irish potatoes are true tubers,
and have no roots at this end (holding
to is different the other way and most of
It is simply a root, and if you get plants
ve over, as they often do, the plants from
as if you put out the tubers.


Have you ever tried selecting large potatoes?
"es, there is no difference. I have had men write
new potato, something wonderfully fine, and it
ng two vines in the same row and in some way
,tato. It is not so. This is not true. The man
news either takes you for suckers or does not


he is talking aboi
HIATT. Last year
w do you account


GODBEY.
1 the fie
white.
HIATT.
GODBEY.
and the
>ver the
HIATT.
GODBEY.
was thf
.,ir n^ ,r a. f


I



.9


It.
I planted Dooley's and long red negro
for part being red and part yellow?


I have had potatoes myself when there was only
d come this way, some would be red, some yellow

They were found only in that one row.
I have had the same experience. Potatoes make
potatoes will put down roots, and if the vines and
tines will make potatoes in the other row.


I had two kinds on one vine.
The old bunch yam was the worst, I think, and
it way. The bunch yams I got had forked leaves
4-H1,w nflr Fin ,il ;i lclr n /v? -nPfitan 1700 txYOP ?M nnfi,


t


,n
er


_ b








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


one.
of it


ing
flat
later


The Nancy Hall is being driven out ol
;s being subject to blight.
S. J. McCULLY. Do the Nancy Halls ha
T. K. GODBEY. Not very much. Sometin
is due to the condition of the soil and
woods land and plant in July. If plant
r they do not do so.


f


the market on


account


.ve a tendency to crack?
ies they do. This crack-
fertilizer. I have low,
ed early they crack, but


Q. Which variety yields best.
T. K. GODBEY. The Triumph.
R. T. KELLEY. In planting Nancy Halls, do they
potatoes ?
T. K. GODBEY. Yes, this is a small variety. T
a small potato, so this has been a favorite.
Q. Do you get better yields by planting early?
T. K. GODBEY. Not too early, say the middle of
the best yield. I plant especially for seed, and I
potatoes to grow large. I plant them in hills and c
seed, but 18 inches apart for the market.
S. J. MCCULLY. How often do you plant potal


make very small


he market


wants


June would give
do not want my
lose together for


toes


on the


same


land?


sk


T. I
:ip two
Q.
T. K
Q.
T. IE
usually


L. GODBE'
, for I g
What do
:. GODBEY
Is there
. GODBEY
r do not


r. I always
et better resu
you plant ii
. Corn.
a good yield
. Yes, I get
give my corn


skip
ilts.
n the


one


year


at least,


meantime?


following sweet potatoes?
thirty to forty bushels of corn per acre.
land any other preparation except to


turn the hogs in, and they root out the potatoes, and their
land smooth.
J. D. BROWN. How many acres do you plant from
potatoes?
T. K. GODBEY. My experience has been that there
thousand plants to the bushel; sometimes 1,500, sometimes
Triumph will make twice as many to the bushel as the ]
Q. Do you bed your potatoes?
T. K. GODBEY. Yes, on land that is tile drained and
B. F. WILLIAMSON. How many acres do you get
draws of potatoes?
T. K. GODBEY. These ought to furnish you 4,000 or
It depends on the potato and the variety. The Triumph p'
a little longer vine than the Nancy Hall, and you get
cuttings.
Q. What do you think of cutting vines off? Does
crop?
T. K. GODBEY. Yes, undoubtedly.
C. H BAKER. How long do you cut the vines?
T. K. GODBEY. About a foot long.
D. C. GEIGER. Would it be better to bed the land or
T. K. GODBEY. That depends on conditions of soi
Kansas they plant corn in a trench because it is dry their
- a L aJ n rJr- -:- La rLL a -W-qu ai

n I disk the


a bushel


are about a
2,000. The
Many Hall.

irrigated.
from 1,000

5,000 vines.
otato makes
a few more


ruin


plant level?
il. Now in
e. In most
-r* 1 t.Il








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA I


drained. I suppose
you that most people
commence in the mid
is the best way, and
will have a deep fun
slope down towards
originally level, and
ditch around the outl
ings did not do that
have a furrow on the
me there is not a d


-I I -


you Agents all know how to plow. I could tell
in the South do not know how to plow. Always
idle of the field and plow out to the fence. This
you can turn the dirt away from the fence. You


row
the
wh
side
wa


next to the fence and the rows will begin to


fe
en

y


nce from the middle, even if the land was
it rains, the water will run out into the
nd run away. Now, if the people at Hast-
they could not raise Irish potatoes. They
de. The land is practically level. They tell
nce of four inches to the mile. They ac-


complish the good things because thE
Q. Do you run a plow through
T. K. GODBEY. No. There is th<
the fertilizer is put down ahead,
and stir it together.
I. E. SOAR. Why do some hi.
others?


3y know how to farm.
to mix the fertilizer.
e distributor on the cultivator and
and then the disks come along


lls


produce


so much


more


than


T. K. GODBEY.
ion in those hills
Q. Do you use
T. K. GODBEY.
Lseed to bed on.
11 make the germ
at warms the gro
fly plants use sta
all you can stand,


to put down a layer
making a draw bec
straw or wire gras
This straw keeps 3
the plants. Broom
too dry, but it will
the potatoes down.


*
Ii
7


You will find there is a little more favorable con-
than others; that is why those hills do the best.
stable fertilizer in draw beds?
Yes, also commercial fertilizer. I like raw cot-
The sprouting of the seed in the raw cottonseed
inating seed produce heat, and that little bit of
'und and makes the plants come on earlier. For
tble manure. It should be wet. An inch or two
, and it will not hurt your potatoes. I would say
of earth first before you put in the potatoes. In
d it is best to scatter some kind of straw, pine
s, or other stuff of that sort with a body to it.
ou from pulling up the potatoes when you pull
sedge straw is not good, for it keeps the land
do. I have used it myself and it is rood to hold


V L


I. E. SOAR. Would oak leaves do?
T. K. GODBEY. They are not very good for this.
Q. Do you think that the thoroughness with which you mix
your fertilizer and the control of moisture have more to do with the
cracking than the early planting?
T. K. GODBEY. No, I do not think so. I have a" firm belief that
it is due a great deal to the variety of potato. There are some that
I have never seen crack under any conditions.
Q. Do you think the amount of potash used has anything to do
with the cracking of the potatoes?
T. K. GODBEY. No. Too much nitrogen may do it, but this does
not always work. However, I have seen land extremely rich in nitro-
gen make an enormous crop of potatoes. The yield of potatoes is
due more or less to the mechanical condition of the soil. There is no
crop that I know of so particular about the mechanical condition as
the sweet potato. Itdoes not matter how much or how little fertilizer,


outsi
ifferel


dit


ton
wil
hee
ear
is :


!








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


B ULLE TIN,


NO. 4.


T. K
W. A
difference
T.K
cut the v
from the
that the
them. I
is the lat
makes a 1
The only
toes for
sell them
I. E.


. GODBEY.
L. WATSOI
?
. GODBEY.
lines and s
vines and


Yes,
Th


Well,
et the
they


draws are no
have done so
eness of the
better crop. I
advantage of
the early ma
early the ne
SOAR. Do yo


g(
fr
po1
[ h
ea


there is no difference.
en why is it considered


that


there


people plant draws early and later on they
m out and they usually make a better crop
keep better, and a great many are positive
ood if planted late. They have never tried
om the beginning to end, and I find that it
tato that makes a good keeping potato and
ave never made good keeping potatoes early.
rliness is the market, and if I wanted pota-


rket I would simply keep c
xt year.
nu advise earlier planting on


)ver

dry


my crop

land than


wet?
T. K. GODBEY.
the same time.
Q. What is
Irish potatoes?
T. K. GODBEY.


but it i;
potato
but you
are poo
become
plants
Miami.
plow st
and tu:
quicker
not fit
stump
that pc
far, an


No, I have both kinds of land and plant them at


your
Thi


experience


S


in planting


them


as you


is not a custom among farmers in


s a pretty fair way to get early vi
s, and the pieces you plant will gl
i can see the pieces sticking on to
r and always inferior and cannot
plentiful. Last September I so:
in South Florida, and I have so]
I plow new land, after taking oi
rumps; then I take a turning plo'
rn the land as shallow as I can
, and I always plant sweet potato
for anything else. In plowing
holes, and of course this land is
,tatoes planted over stump holes


.d after harvesting a


farther I will find a
as the land is soft.
W. L. WATSON.
T. K. GODBEY.
die-buster and that
Q. What about


i nice


top crop


lot of


potatoes.


would


Florida,


ines. They make a few early
row and make a good potato;
the new part. The potatoes
be sold late after better ones
Id over 100,000 sweet potato
Id them in December around
ut all the stumps, for I never
w with a rolling cutter on it
because the vegetation rots
'es on that land, because it is
land we often come across
worked deep. I have found
send the roots down ever so
often find that if I go down


They


always


What would you say about breaking?
I do not know. Run over the land with
is all.
; putting a crop of sweet potatoes on oat


as deep


a mid-


stubble


that ha


been plowed eight or ten


inches?


T. K. GODBEY. The land used has become compact during the
winter and if not freshly plowed you will find that the bottom soil
is harder and the potatoes form in the loose part.
C. K. McQUARRIE. It seems, then, that hardpan land would make
good sweet potatoes.
T. K. GODBEY. No, it is too sour. The sweet potato does well on
new land that is not too sour, but hardpan contains too much acidity.
I have seen land, very loose hammock land, planted in sweet pota-
toes that have become very stringy. Bedding would not have helped
in this case, for they would have been worse.


"
r
*


rN.








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


BELSER.


There


an idea


should not let the moon shine on them.


T.
has no
night,


t


I I


. a


1i I I


nat 11 you aig potatoes you
What do you say about this?


K. GODBEY. There is absolutely no truth in
,thing to do with it, unless possibly you wan
when the moon would be of aid then.


T. Z. ATKESON.


tt


this. The moon


to dig them


Gentlemen, this has been a most interesting and


instructive discussion to us all.
much interest and appreciation.


We have all heard Mr.


I feel


Godbey with


like one fellow who


went to


Mr. Barnum's Winter Garden in New York, paid his price of admis-
sion, and on getting in, he asked some one to show him Mr. Barnum.


"There he
turned and


stands
walked


over t
away.


here."
He


e man
gotten


looked


at him


money's


worth.


then
And


I feel that same way. Mr. Godbey has been exceedingly kind in
coming up here today in the disagreeable weather we have had, and I


feel that we owe him a rising vote of thanks for coming and speaking


to us today.
(This


was


unanimously


given.)


THE


STATE


NURSERY


INSPECTION


LAW


DR. E.


BERGER


I will not detain you long except to tell you that there is


a State Nursery


Inspection Law, and that something is be-


ing done along that line.
ing up with the farmers,


trees, and
trees. I 1


around


this


inspection


have a few


you.


It will interest you


for, in meet-


some of them will be planting fruit


work applies


circulars here that I


wrote


a little


paragraph


principally to


fruit


will have passed


sometime


ago


that I will read you:


What does it profit a man if the world be made to bloom


blades


grass


made


grow


where


only


one


grew before, if, when the insects come and the diseases begin
to ravage, he stands idly by unable to stem the tide of de-


struction ?


It is not enough to be able to grow a crop, but the


grower must be prepared to protect the crop during an emer-
gency, whether the same be frost or fire, or insects and
diseases.


Each


man


troubles


and


more successful


man is in getting something to grow, the more rascally bugs


there seem to be to take it from him.


ber growers.
cucumbers and


course
during


the
nevw


They are getting desperate.


There are the cucum-


They grow the


the diseases come along and get them.


best way to protect your crop


T


insects


and


pests.


That


is to avoid intro-


is the


form


pre-


- A. 4 A n 4-k 4- T n 4. n 4wn nn nil 4r-C nf b nf n A 4 < nn e., art nwP A^


__


_-







FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


State, and to prohibit the introduction of any new pests,
and something is being accomplished along this line.


In bringing thi
inspection does not
tically altogether ta
enough so it could
Inspector, and a few
fice with, outside c


deputies,
on paper
possible
plants, bl
section
My:
importar


and it has
that we co
for us to
ulbs, roots,
of trees.
message to
ice, as it is


perhaps one part o
part of the State ag
in your hands, and
them. In the case
weevil, a great deal
formed as to the b
many difficulties in
in the State, that a
Take, for instance,
would be 'a difficult
when potatoes are p
are a great many di
bring the subject be:
In your work, if y


,s message before you, I regret that our
; apply to vegetable plants; but, prac-
o trees. The law, I presume, is broad
apply to vegetables; but with only one
' deputies, and only $1,000 to run the of-
)f my salary, we cannot appoint many
been our policy to put only those things
uld undertake to handle, and as it is im-
undertake the inspection of vegetable
etc., we have limited our work to the in-

you should, therefore, really be of more
Evident that the matter of protecting,


f the County against another, or one
ainst another part, will be more or less


you can warn the
of the Irish potato


can
oil
the
ire
the


be done1
weevil.


way
shipp
Irish


t matter to
permitted to
difficulties.
fore you, an(
ou come to t


I beli


Of cou
inspect
from o:


farmers
and the
eve the p
rse there
.ng food (
ne part t


itato. Being a
devise a satis
be shipped as
As I stated, I
d will not detai
things that you


nd advise
cotton boll
public is in-
would be
Srops, here
o another.


food
factor
food.
just v
n you
think


crop it
'y rule,
There
vant to
longer.
should


be brought to our attention, send them in to us, and we
try to help you.


will


LEGUMES
E. S. PACE
The legumes form a lot of plants that are peculiar
in that they have formed a partnership with a group of
bacteria. the bacteria gain entrance to the roots of the plants, live
on the sap found there and cause swelling or nodules to
form on the roots. In return for the san taken from the


.*







82 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Nitrogen makes up about four-fifths of the air we
breathe. This nitrogen is the same element for which we
pay twenty cents a pound in commercial fertilizer. Over


each acre of ground, it has been calculated,


seventy
a pound,
buys an
for him
the crop


million pounds of nitrogen. This,
amounts to fourteen million dollars.
acre of ground all of this is his and
to grow the legumes and get it as


t


s grown on


the land.


Through the


there are about
at twenty cents
When a farmer
it only remains
it is needed by
nodules on the


roots of the legumes it is possible for each farmer to locate
on his farm million? of fertilizer factories to run as long as
the host plant lives, and which have no operating expenses.
A good crop of velvet beans, cowpeas, crimson clover, or
beggarweed, plowed under, adds as much nitrogen per acre
as would be obtained from one-half to one ton of cotton-seed
meal. When these crops are plowed under, the soil is not
only benefited by the nitrogen thus obtained, but also by the
vegetable matter so badly needed.
While there are numbers of legumes which can and
should be grown in this State, I will confine myself to three
with which I think we should become better acquainted.
These three are lespedeza, burr clover, and crimson clover.

LESPEDEZA
Lespedeza has been in the United States for something


over sixty years, and
of the country. Whil
as a good pasture and
since its use in regular
to be a very valuable
been the crop most g
are several reasons w
lespedeza has, is that
work is not very pre
when cowpeas mu
acre of the lespedez


is now found throughout a large part
e it has been recognized from the start
[ hay crop, it has been only a few years
r farm practice began. It has proven
crop to follow oats. The cowpea has
generally used to follow oats, but there
Thy lespedeza is better. One advantage
it is sown at a time when other farm
.ssing, as it usually is in the summer
st be gotten in. The cost per
;a seed is less than of cowpeas, and


cost of seeding is very much less. The lespedeza is free from
disease. When used for hay, the quality is much better than
that made of cowpeas and it is very much easier to cure.
The time for sowing lespedeza is in February or early


i"








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


oats are cut off at the regular time,
as is seen fit. Very frequently an
gotten, and the lespedeza allowed to
second year's crop.


and the lespedeza used
early cutting of hay is
reseed the ground for a


BURR CLOVER
Burr clover is a winter and spring growing annual. It
belongs to the same family as alfalfa. Being a legume and


growing
valuable
and mak
the seed
tensively
the burr
tended tc
should b
pastures,
advisable
the burrn


at the time of year it does, burr clover i
crop. It gives a large amount of good
es a good combination with Bermuda gra
is more plentiful it will hardly be used
in regular crop rotations. The seeds are
during August or September, and where
i get a stand the first year four bushels to
e used. Where it is only intended to get a
a bushel to the acre or less can be grow


quently from
acre. The se
cleaned burr


well suit
the seed
be sown
some iml
the seed


each farmer to select
ck, and fence off for
150 to 200 bushels of
*ed should be bought
clover seed on the m


Sour c


t to get
ground
ment to
sown.


s a very
grazing,
ss. Until
very ex-
sown in
it is in-
the acre
, start in
n. It is


a piece of rich land,
a seed patch. Very
seed are produced to
only in the burrs, as


market is a


sow
fre-
the
the


variety not so


conditions. Care should be used in sowing
them covered too deeply. If they are to
that has been freshly plowed, a roller or
pack the surface should be used before
When they are sown early good results


may be obtained by sowing on Bermuda sod,
other treatment.


CRIMSON


and giving no


CLOVER


Crimson clover is one of the best winter cover crops
and soil builders that we have. It should prove a success on
all soil types when the drainage is good. However, unless
the proper nitrogen-gathering bacteria are present, the
cover will be a failure. The bacteria that live on the roots of
crimson Elover are the same that are found on white, red,
or Carolina clover. So when Crimson clover is sown for
the first time, a ton of soil from where one of these clovers
has grown should be broadcasted on each acre. If this soil is
* 4. .fl S* <* 4 -6 K 4 *


3


IV









UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


with some form of harrow.


rate of twenty


prepare to g
fall, so that f
a larger area


et
ro
tLh


The seed


sl


pounds to the acre. E
in at least an acre of
n this small plot he can
ie following season.


lould
every
crime,
get s


be sown at the
farmer should
son clover this
oil to inoculate


DISCUSSION


J. C. SMITH. I ordered a bushel of burr clover seed last winter,
and sowed it on Bermuda. I did not get a good stand; possibly my
stand was a third or fourth stand, but now it is bunching out. Mr.
P. W. Smith has a plot of clover that is doing well. I have seen it.
S. J. MCCULLY. I have tried Crimson Clover and inoculated the
seed. It was planted too near the house and the chickens have been


on it, but it
five pounds
some of it, s
two Dlots.


promised i
guarantee
Mr. Pace.


is still growing nicely. I have a fourth acre, and sowed
of seed. The Department advised me to test it, inoculating
and leaving some. There seems to be no difference in the
I tried last fall to get the burr clover, and ten men had
test it, but I cannot get seed at any price. This fall, I
ou that we will have a number of demonstrations with it.
think, says to run a furrow every four feet. The Gov-


ernment, I think, says to run a cutaway harrow and sow the
broadcast and leave it alone. A plot was tried at Dunnellon it
sowed with rye. The man cannot tell the value of it, as his
has been on it all winter, so of course, he does not know its value
G. W. BELSER. I had an acre of clover last year that did
M. C. GARDNER. I have two crimson clover demonstrations,
of an acre, the other half an acre, and some seems to be doing
I did not inoculate it. I got some inoculating material from a
pany in New Jersey, and in spots this is looking fine now. I hav
acre of vetch that, two or three weeks ago, which was the last
I saw it, was doing fine and spreading out nicely.
A. W. TURNER. I have four demonstrations of hairy vetch,
was inoculated with material from the Department. It does
look good.
I. E. SOAR. I have two demonstrations of crimson clover. A


seed
was
calf
e.
fine.
one
fine.
corn-
re an
time
that
not
few


weeks ago I went over one and noticed that in some places it was
doing well, but in others it was not so good. Wherever the inoculation
was, it was doing well, but where there was poor inoculation or none
at all, it was no good. The inoculation did best where peanuts were
grown on the land and pigs put on it, and where other feed had been
thrown in to them. In such places the land was rich in humus, and it
was four or, five times as good as anywhere else. Rabbits had been
eating quite a bit of it.
M. C. GARDNER. I had an alfalfa demonstration on land limed
with about 1,500 pounds to the acre of ground lime rock, and one
acre had 400 pounds additional of the burnt lime. I noticed in that
field that there were little low stubbles about a half foot hieh with


!
J








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO.


(Here Mr. Savely explained that much care must be taken with
the cultures for inoculation or they may not be strong and would
not do much good.)
G. W. BELSER. I have two demonstrations with alfalfa, and would
like to speak of them. I do not know whether all our agents are press-
ing this or not, but we are simply carried away with it over in Jack-
son County. One man had six acres which he cut four times, getting
a ton to the acre each time. Last fall he planted four more, making
a total of ten acres this year. The soil contained lime and is rich soil.
I had another demonstrator to put in two acres last winter. We have
a fine stand and it was limed, fertilized, and the seed inoculated, and
it is doing well. There are many people in the County who will plant
it this year.
P. H. ROLFS. I was glad to hear that, for by the time the report
reached Alachua County it was multiple a great deal and the yield
was ten tons per acre. Several years ago it was found that these
legumes, such as we have been discussing, were in many cases quite
successful and promising, that is, on those lands that were well
drained, in a good agricultural condition, and had plenty of lime, and
in pursuing the studies farther we found a number of these legumes
did much better on a limy soil, the soil that raised the best crop of
peanuts. Some of them gave negative results on flat woods lands,
while others gave negative results on the higher and dryer land. For
instance, take the lespedeza; it liked a flat woods condition, and there
are few places on the rolling pine lands where it makes a success.
Alfalfa, on the other hand, needs a rolling pine land to approach
a success. The burr clover was found near the sea where there was
lots of ballast rock and lime, and it was growing nicely; but when
tried farther away from the bay on high land there was nothing
came of it and the plants died.
Now I think one of the best lines for investigation is these
legumes. We want more crops that will give grazing in the winter
time. These legumes come in and give feed and nitrogen to the soil
that other crops we already have do not, so we want to study their
production. We know that formerly red clover would not grow in
Dakota, but now large fields of clover grow there and we get large
quantities of seed from there, which shows that where formerly it
would not grow, it now grows abundantly, and we know this is so
with other crops. Soil well supplied with lime is the best because
the nodule-forming bacteria prefer such a soil.
M. C. GARDNER. Can we pasture alfalfa in winter?
A. Yes, it does all the better for being pastured.
F. P. HENDERSON. I have just gotten a book that says a great
deal about the yellow clover, or what is called "hop clover." They say
it makes two tons per acre in Florida.
P. H. ROLFS. Melilotus or sweet clover grows around St. Aug-
ustine spontaneously; also in many other places in Florida. It is
not generally relished by cattle. It makes a good hay. What we
n~ed m6st is a legume for the winter that will act as a soil builder and
a cover crop at the same time.








































Fig. 4.-Dr. Bysran's herd of grade Herefords.







FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN


NO.


that will


grow


upon


every


year.


The


great


needs


of the South are diversification of crops,


fertility,


and


more


advise the people rightly,
of the entire country and
work.


we can


learn


live stock and soil


on these


topics


and


the greater will be the prosperity
the success of the demonstration


There


produced
ests, the


and


live


phosphate


only


wealth


phosphate


stock.


The


mining


a few


basic


Florida.
industry,


lumber
limited 1


lines


These ,
citrus


industry


work


fruits


that


lumber
truck


almost


deposits


have


inter-
crops,


extinct,
a State,


while the prices of fruit and vegetables are rather variable.


But we f
creasing
fast. It,


ind


that demand and


prices for


live stock


rapidly, and the supply is diminish
therefore, seems evident that there


ng


almost


is more cer-


tain prospect of good profit in live stock work than in many


other


lines of


agriculture.


The


price


of beef


likely


to fall, but on the contrary will probably increase somewhat
for the next 20 years.


ADVANTAGES


OF LIVE STOCK


In studying the opportunities for live stock in Florida,
ind that the State has many natural advantages over


other sections of
real disadvantage,
ported trouble.


acres
tures


the country for
the cattle tick.


On the question of lands,


State that are


such


work,


which is


and


after all


-S


only


one


an irm-


there are many thousands of


well


united


range and


pas-


, which will probably not be needed for more intensive


farming operations
lands will produce


and forage crops,


ment
mals.


with


legume


lor scores
a number (


and all
s and I


These lands can


$5 to $50 per


acre


of them
the mant


years.
e best


Most
pasture


are capable of


ire


produced


these


grasses


improve-
the ani-


be secured for prices ranging from


or leased for a


very small sum.


Statistics of the last census show that there are nearly


1,000,000 cattle


lation
a ratio
citizen


the State
slightly m
the State.


lore


State
only
than


which


. Li


Florida


750,000


one


hea(


a


large:


while


people.


Sof
than


cattle
the


This


popu-
gives
every


nronortion


f


V'S


D


L




I


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


farms,


and


days of the


production


large quantities have evidently passed away.


cheap


beef


FLORIDA CATTLE SOLD TO FEEDERS


Beef


production


on the average sized farm is


revived everywhere east of the Mississippi River.


that other


States are coming to


being


We find


Florida during the past


year to secure cattle for feeding purposes, something like
forty to fifty thousand head being shipped out to the feed-


ing pens


Oklahoma,


Missouri


and


Kansas


during the


past twelve months. This trade is likely to increase in num-
bers every year if we take proper care of it and furnish good
stock, but the buyers will not be suited long with the pres-


class


feeders


"Florida Knot Heads.


which


they


have


popularly


termed


They will want better cattle, and


.will get them wherever they can, and will come to Florida
for such material only as a last resort.
The question is pertinent if the feeders of Oklahoma
can buy our "Knot Heads" and pay freight on them to their
feeding yards, fatten them there and then sell them at a
profit to the packing houses, how much profit could the
Florida farmer make if he would keep these cattle in the
State, fatten them on his own farm and sell them when fin-


ished to Florida packing houses ?


There is no question but


what we could make more upon them than the Oklahoma


feeder if we would adopt the same measures.


But at the


present time we are selling these cattle on foot at low prices


and we are buying them back from the


Western packing


houses after they are killed and dressed. We pay the
freight both ways on them and give the Oklahoma feeder a
profit.
The greatest trouble with live stock in Florida, next to
the cattle tick, is the poor quality of the animals we now


have.


The native Florida range cattle or piney woods stock


are largely of Spanish descent, being small and poor to be-
gin with, and have had very little improvement during the


past


century.


One


great


reasons


why


more


proved cattle have not been brought in from other sections
is the loss from cattle tick and Texas fever, but we now







FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4. 89

and will bring from 20 to 40 per cent. better prices on a
discriminating market.
WHAT BREEDS
When people are ready to buy improved stock, the ques-
tion- of the best breed is always the first thing that occurs
to them. This, as a matter of fact, is not so important a
question as most people think, as any of the good breeds of
beef cattle will do well when properly handled. It is more
a question of individual preference of the owner and the
conditions of soil, feeds, and markets that he will have.

SHORTHORNS
The Shorthorn cattle, or Durhams, as they are some-
times known, are more numerous than any other leading
beef brand. They are large-framed animals with wide
hips and good development of loin. The color is red and
white or a mixture of these colors, called roan. They were
called Shorthorns in England to distinguish them from a
breed having much longer horns. They have been the
pioneers in the beef breeding work of the world, and have
formed the foundation for further improvement. They
require rather large quantities of feed for their best growth
and are not considered quite so good for grazing on scanty
ranges as the Herefords. They are easier to secure than
perhaps any other breed, and are held at moderate prices.
They are more specially a beef animal, but some families
of the breed have become famous as producers of milk and
butter. In England they are still a popular breed for
the farmer who wants both beef and milk.
One strain of the Shorthorns has been developed in
America without any horns and these are called Polled
Durhams. They have all the qualities of the Shorthorns
and are easier to handle on account of absence of horns.
HEREFORDS
The Hereford cattle are probably the next most im-
portant breed. They are distinctly a beef breed and pro-
duce comparatively little milk, usually not more than enough
to uroDerly raise a calf. Their color is dark red or mahow-








90 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

put on fat in lumps. Their greatest quality for the South
is their splendid grazing ability, as they can hustle over
ranges and make a living on poor pastures where many
other breeds would suffer severely. In breeding opera-
tions the Hereford bulls are very prepotent in transmitting
the red body and white face to their offspring, even from
scrub cows of all colors. Herefords are quite popular in the
West at present, and a large proportion of the beef cattle
marketed from the great feeding grounds show some of this
blood. They are a little more difficult to buy, and prices


are probably higher than for
The Aberdeen Angus bre
beef in America. They are a
smaller than Herefords and
with soft fine hair, short legs
no horns, and are sometimes


Shorthorns.
ed stands first in quality of


medium-sized animal,
Shorthorns, black in
and round body. They
called "Polled Angus."


head is very neat and refined. This breed is used
for the production of high class baby beef than any


and
The
pric
But


ence for
breeds.
1 ~ *11


(


being
color,
have
The
more
their ,


might be termed the highest stage of beef breeding.
eat from Angus cattle regularly brings the highest
on the great stock markets of any breed in America.
1 the other hand it requires more skill and experi-


success with Aberdeen
They are not very goo
1 1 J 11 * 1 *_


Angus


than


d grazers,
II I


with


being


b<


aaaptea to pen ana stall eeaing man to grazing on
pastures. They are also rather scarce and hard to
but some progress is being made in this line by the b
association holding occasional sales of these cattle in
South. It would probably be best to advise most of


people


to try to work with Shorthorns or Herefords


itner
stter
thin
buy,
reed
the
our
for


a while first, and take up the Angus if they desire, after
acquiring some experience.


OTHER BREEDS


Red Polled cattle are very good. They are large cattle
with color and shape of body a good deal like the Short-
horns, and many of the cows are good milkers. They are
rather scarce and difficult to secure.
The Devon is a good breed, with red color, somewhat
smaller than any of the others. They are good grazers, and







FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN, NO.


original stock of the Old Country. All the var
are represented in America by their own breed
tions, and the secretaries of these organizations
willing to furnish information as to cattle,
and addresses of breeders.


ious
ers
are
and


breeds
associa-
always
names


NATIVE CATTLE


Last, but not least, let us c
cattle, whatever we may call th
Knot Heads, etc. Sometimes we 1
These were doubtless brought h
are very little better than the av


consider o
Lem, Pine
lear the (
here by ti
erage scr


>ur
y
ie


native Florida
Woods, Scrubs,
inea mentioned.
Spaniards, and
).


It is evident that the native, or scrub cow, is a fine ex-
ample of "The survival of the fittest" under conditions
prevalent on the ranges of Florida. They have been inbred
so long, that, looking at it from one standpoint, we might
call them a pure breed that has shown its fitness for its
environment. Until we change the conditions for such
cattle, it would be poor policy to say that we ought to do
away with these native cattle and replace them at once with
the pure breeds. If we can persuade our people to discrim-
inate among the scrubs, and select those having the best
beef form to be retained as breeding animals, we could get
considerable improvement among them. If they would se-
lect cows with the square beef body, short legs and smooth
heads, considerable uniformity and improvement could be
secured.
GRADING-UP


Pure bred cattle need pure bred attent
a man is ready with feeds and fences and the
experience necessary to handle fine anima
would not pay him to go into the work by bi
cattle of both sexes. The best advice for ti
producer is going to be to urge him to bu.
(3-4, 7-8 or 15-16) or a pure-bred beef bull,
the best selected native cows for grading up
the offspring. Such a bull can be used for I
or two generations of his own heifer calves
iniurv from inbreeding. In fact. such a nras


ion, and unless
knowledge and
ils properly, it
lying pure bred
ie average beef
y a high grade
and use him on
and improving
breedingg on one
without serious
ctice is the best








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


the cattle on his own farm, provide better pastures and
build dipping vats and fences. You have already heard
from other speakers how the trouble of cattle ticks and
Texas fever can be controlled by the dipping vat. This
naturally demands having the cattle within reach, and shows
the need of fences.


THE FENCE QUESTION
This question of fences for live stock is bound to come
up sooner or later, and it is a very complicated problem;


but if we
money by
better cat
fences wil
pay them
from othe


mak
bod3
and
are


can bring people to see that they can make more
producing more of their own feeds, using


tl

t
r


A gres
e money
's land
swamp
left an


the oldest a
secured in


e, and controlling the ticks, then the matter of
solve itself, for they will readily see that it will
o fence their lands, whether they own or lease
people.
It many cattlemen tell us that the only way to
y is to let the cattle roam wild and loose on any-
, and get what feed they can from wire grass
. Twice a year they try to collect what animals
d brand the new ones, and send to the butcher
nd fattest. They seem to think that the money
this way cost them very little for expenses, and


is like so much cash picked u
to figure just how much they
pared with taking better cai
larger numbers, but a very c(
that one-third of the total nu
from diseases, theft and oth
years Texas fever has been g4
range cattlemen are not ma:
loose methods. In my opini(
crease in virulence so that it
to completely revise these at
course, wiJl be a blessing in d:
some of them.
Fencing should probably
of land and every community,


p in the road. It is impossible
lose by these methods as cornm-
re of the stock and securing


)nservative
mber born
er causes.
getting wors
king much


estimate would be
each year are lost
In the last three
3. so that even the


money


on this disease will
will actually compel


antiquated


methods.


with such
likely in-
cattlemen
This, of


isguise, but it will be hard for

be done first with large areas
or at least every county should
*3 I I*








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


FLORIDA


LIVE


STOCK


ASSOCIATION


The Florida Live Stock
the industry by promoting th
establishing live stock clubs
County. We do not want th
any other county association,


to merge the
provement clu
we can induce
purchase good
it will be a fi
when we will
quit shipping (
States.


live


stock


work


Association is trying to
e building of dipping vats
or local associations in
is association to conflict
and would be entirely wi


into


b that the County
these co-operative
breeding stock for
ne thing for the S
have our own pack
>ur stock away and


any


general


Agents may
clubs to act
the use of tU
tate. The ti
ing plants in
buying it ba


farm


organize
together


help
and
each
with
lling
im-
. If
and


heir members,
.me will come
Florida, and
ck from other


STUDIES ON LIVE STOCK


For anyone who cares to
acteristics of the different bree
to recommend a few recent b
called "Beginnings in Animal
Plumb, published by the Webb
is entitled "Animal Husbandry


study the history and char-
ds of beef cattle, I would like
ooks along this line. One is
Husbandry" by Prof. C. S.
Co. of Minneapolis; another
for Schools" by Prof. M. W.


published


excellent books for anyone
pupils in the high schools in
study of the important farm
ciples of breeding, feeding
best works that the County
brary as a reference for all
would be the "Encvclopedia o


published


by the Orange Judd


MacMillan


These


both


beginning this study, or for
our State. They give a brief
animals, and many of the prin-
and management. One of the
Agents could have in their li-
topics in animal husbandry
f Live Stock" by Wilcox Smith,


Co.,


price $3.50.


CATTLE


Z. C. Chambliss, Ocala
J. R. Shuler, Bristol
A. L. Jackson, Gainesvil


BREEDERS.


SHORTHORN CATTLE.
S. H. Gaitskill, McIntosh
Marion Farms, Ocala
le Carson Bros., Kissimmee


HEREFORD


N. A. Callison, Gainesville
Magnolia Farms, Muscogee


CATTLE.
R. Shuler, Bristol
. A. Sessoms, Bonifay


Harper,


W J









UNIVERSITY


GUERNSEY
A. L. Daughtrey, Gainesville
J. S. Goode, Gainesville
C. L. Wiloughby, Gainesville


FLORIDA


CATTLE.


SWINE BREEDERS.


Wm. Edwards, Zellwood
Oscar Williams, Muscogee


BERKSHIRES.
Richard C. Shaw, Quincy
W. A. Sessoms, Bonifay


SWillett, Maitland
Whitworth, Ocala
Henry, Live Oak


DUROC JERSEY.
C. H. Simpson,
L. B. Thompson,
(R. No. 1)


Milton
Pensacola


SHEEP
Walker Bowers, Freeport
Dan King, Luanna
W. A. McCollum, Laurel Hill
Eugene Miller, Freeport
Alex. Steele, Point Washington
Hutch Cawthon, DeFuniak Spring
John McCollum, DeFuniak Springs


POULTRY


D. Archie, Tampa
L. Bills, Crescent City


P. Bitting,
G. Brown.


W. E
Mike
Wm.
J. M
D. D
O.M
- G
Geo.


I


Clarence
Carney,
L. Clemo
. Clifford
Coward,


Ocala
Lakeland
Camp, Ocala
Ocala
ns, Ocala
, Lakeland
Ona


Crouch, Punta Gorda
. Douglass, Shady
. Elliott, Lakeland
. Gale, Belleview
ary, Ocala
Graves, Pensacola, R.


W. R. Hanis, Tampa
C. W. Hinsdale, Lakeland
F. J. Hoffman, Lakeland
W. T. Johnson, Tampa
Mrs. N. M. Jones, Bartow
Lakemont Poultry Farm,
Park


No. 1


BREEDERS.
John McSween, DeFuniak Springs
Dyer & Daniels, Wetappo
W. M. Gist, McIntosh
Ridge & Gale, Belleview
B. B. Keep, Boardman
s Geo. E. Meade, Cantonment


BREEDERS.


.. B. Lowe, Zona
C. J. Mishler, Anthony
R. T. Monroe. Ocala
John Parks, Palatka
C. G. Pearce. Arcadia
Rosamont Poultry Farm, St. Pe-
tersburg
W. M. Shockley, Lowell
A. H. Snyder, St. Petersburg
Geo. B. Stearns, Ocala
W. D. Wheeler, Griffin
P. W. Whiteside, Ocala
W. P. Woodworth, St. Petersburg
C. C. Woodworth, Tampa
Mrs. Lester Windsor, Winter


Haven
Thos J. Rhodes, Hosford
Lackawanna Poultry Farm,
sonville
Chas. H. Simpson, Milton
Winter


Jack-


DISCUSSION


i~11








FARMERS'


INSTITUTE


BULLETIN,


PROF. WILLOUGHBY. It is going to be a matter of patient educa-
tion and trying to impress upon these people that it would be better
for them and their pocket books to keep their own cattle controlled
with fences. It will also be a matter of yielding to the rule of the
majority when it comes to voting on the subject. Very frequently
the people who do not want fences are the men who do not own land.
Have they any right to let their cattle trespass on other people's land.
without the consent of the owner? Statistics show that nearly 70
per cent. of the people of Florida come here from other States, and
most of them are accustomed to fences for cattle, and if they will
vote right they can control this subject without any trouble. Many
of the native Florida people who are kicking against fences are
inviting people from other States to come here and buy land. It
would be very inconsistent, to say the least, to invite these people to
Florida, sell them land, and then be allowed to continue grazing
scrub cattle over these areas. There is no fairness in a scheme of
this sort, and it will hurt the reputation of Florida to continue such
methods much longer.
S. W. HIATT. I presume Mr. McQuarrie is not surprised to see


me speak. He
that I had the
becoming the li
that we have a
North. I believe
reason I want


find in our C
paying much
their attention
grading up ol
Now, as


knows I am mue
opportunity to b
ive stock section
far greater chan
e we need to put
to say something


county over 50 per
attention to this, 1
n more to the raisil
their cattle.


to fences.


h enthused over this, for the reason
e brought up and raised in what is
of the United States, and I know
ce here for development than in the
our attention into this, and for that
g along the line of breeding up. I
cent. of the farmers have not been
but now they are expecting to turn
ng and feeding of live stock and the


know


Agents, need to exercise care in going
giving to my people the necessity of
work on the people in a way that wil
of grading up, and to get around the
and succeeding in getting the legislat
inferior males from running at large.
get the fences. I am from near the


allowed there but registered stock.
but he cannot allow them to run at
A. W. TURNER. I believe the fi
my land fenced.
PROF. WILLOUGHBY. The legisli
letting the counties have fence law:
question of allowing only pure bred
some one wanted to pass not to le
work.
R. TIKELLEY. It seems to me
tested by such a law.
PROF. WILLOUGHBY. I think a!
little hope at present for many large
* 4 i: 4


that


among these p
grading up.
1 make them s'
fence problem
ure to pass a
I think with


Canada


line,


e
I
e<
t
1


Demonstration
ople; but I am
am trying to
e the necessity
qy co-operation
aw prohibiting
this, we would


there


is nothing


One can keep others on his place,
large.
elds should be fenced, and I have


nature, I think, should pass a law
s' if the people want them. The
males to run is like a law that
t calves be killed. It would not


that pure bred cattle wil


be pro-


s conditions now stand, there is
!breeding establishments for reg-
9 a J


*








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


they shall have the fence law or not. Well, when one beat got it, the
thing naturally grew until now it covers practically the entire State.
I believe if the legislature would allow every County or part of a
County to tax itself to build a fence around itself, and have a law
of this kind in that particular part, it would be one of the greatest
things, and it will be bound to spread. This would be a good step in
the right direction for the agents to take up. It is good to combine
it with the tick eradication law also. This is one of the things that
it would be well for you to do, and present it to the legislature. If
certain communities want it, why should they be prevented from hav-
ing it. When one beat got this law it proved a disadvantage to the
other beats and in a pretty short time the others will come in. It
should not be forced on the entire State at once.
G. W. BELSER. I think that suggestion is right. This thing, if
started, is bound to grow. We will never have any good stock until
we have laws governing it. The number of cattle in the county I
was raised in is four times as large now as when begun. The "beats"
usually measure ten miles square. I believe local option should be
the thing.
PROF. WILLOUGHBY. That is a matter of education. To eliminate
the scrubs, both man and beast, we must keep everlastingly at it.
Many people are now fencing large areas with miles of fences, simply
to prevent loss in the woods, from Texas fever and other causes.
Probably by education, we can get up to it gradually.
E. W. TURNER. Take Mr. for instance, he does not
own five acres of land, but he has several hundred head of cattle.
In my own County I find the people there are afraid to express them-
selves, but there are a large majority of the stock owners who do not
want the fence law.
M. C. GARDNER. The people are all afraid to say what they think
and we agents are all handicapped. We cannot go out and express
ourselves. If we do we are likely to make enemies.
H. E. SAVELY. You could do this. If they pass a law allowing
certain parts of it, you could say: "I am not saying one way or the
other, and if the majority of the people want it they should have it.
If they do not want it, I do not think they should be made to have it,
but I am with the majority in either view." Personally, however, I


would


that


am for


GRAZING


CROPS


FOR


FLORIDA


T. Z. ATKESON


We have had so much talk about the different legumes
and crops that I do not feel it is necessary for me to go
deeply into that subject. I would like to say, however, that
the subject of grazing crops, taken in connection with live


stock


industry, is one of


the things t


;hat


most


pleases the







FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


for him to raise quite a number of legumes. Possibly he
might prefer to raise alfalfa, many do, but after he begins
to study the subject he becomes more and more firmly con-
vinced that this is a magnificent live stock country, and we
know it is, but the only objection is the cattle tick; that he
never reads anything about.
Now I think it is a mistake on the part of the land com-
panies, or anyone else, not to take this up with the people.
The land companies, of course, put the bright side of the
thing to the people and they do not realize the effect of the
cattle tick in the South. So far as grazing crops are con-
cerned, in themselves, it is so wide a field that we cannot
possibly take all of them up on a short talk of this kind.
BURR CLOVER
In regard to burr clover, I will say last season, or in
1912, I was in Southern Alabama on the Florida line in the
Demonstration work, and I will give you some reasons why
the supply of seed was so short. I, for one, managed to
get about twenty acres planted in my County, and we were
instructed by the State Agent to see to it that the plots


were all


and these 22
and simply d
I understand
planted in th
nearly every
that there w


on good land


or 23 acr
id fine. T


that
Lat CI
part
ere 7


in tl
county
of th
5,000


under the best possible condition,
es that we had there, all grew off
[his was burr clover. Last season,
he fall there were over 1,000 acres
alone, and this was duplicated in
e State, at least the statistics show
acres of it in the State. My ex-


perience was like that of nearly all the other Counties, I
think. Now, then, the thing that appeals most to the man
in the live stock business, is the green crop to pasture on,
and he can have it if he will only take a little extra time
and trouble.
ROTATION AND SUCCESSION OF CROPS


I plant for hogs, b
little change it will be all
maturing4 say about the
soy beanp and peanuts (
is, the small one.) The
by the U. S. Department
1 11 1 I


ut you will find that with some
I right for cattle. Now these crops,
first of September, you will plant
the old time Spanish variety, that
Valencia, the new one introduced
of Agriculture, is an early matur-
a t -a j*t' " S....








98 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Begin the first of October and we have a regular fat-
tening crop for hogs that we consider here as most im-
portant, that is the North Carolina peanut. To supplement
this we have corn. This will last from the first of October
until the 1st or 15th of January. We have corn, rape, vetch,
rye, oats and barley. I have skipped some of those that
you might think good.
In January when the peanuts are about exhausted, we


i :

!
I

I


have one crop that I would
do not bother with chufas.
time in the ground, but they
one that will suggest itself in
vetch and the two clovers, bu
barley. This period of time,
January, will last until about
Now there is always jus
ever rotation we have that is


from the 1st
a little too lat<
for the spring
found anything


say is chufas. Personally, I
I think they take too long a
are a pretty good crop, and
rotation. We can have rape,
rr and crimson, oats, rye and
beginning about the 15th of
the 1st of May.
t a little bare place in what-
hard to fill, and this extends


E May until about the
for the winter crops
rops to be ready for g
like Bermuda grass


15th of June. It is
and a little too early
razing. I have never
for pasturing in this


bare spot. I do not know how many of you have these
Bermuda pastures, but you cannot get away from Bermuda
in this country. The very fact that Bermuda is as tena-
cious as it is and because it is hard to get rid of when
once established, in itself presupposes that that grass is
bound to be a good pasture grass. Comparative tests have
been carried on in several different States regarding the
value of Bermuda pastures and blue grass pasture as feeds.
It has been found that an acre of Bermuda will carry more
animals and keep them in better shape than an acre of blue
grass. We have often heard of those wonderful blue grass
pastures that have given to those States of Kentucky, Vir-
ginia, etc., such wealth; but if we study our possibilities,
we will see that we have just as good a chance of wealth
from our Bermuda pastures.
Now here is a crop that I want to mention as valuable,


and
wild
Qnln'


I expect a laugh when I do. I
, and we have never paid this
Snf fIA rnnrfhrnr n dr nllf hprn


t is citrons. They grow
I much attention, but in
a~t .c in Tenneissee and







FARMERS' INSTITUTE BULLETIN, NO. 4.


any feeding value in these citrons it stands to reason that


it should be a pretty
Tennessee Stations
kins, not so good a
valuable. In other 7


good as two tons oi
ure on building a
necessary to prepa
think there might
average farm that
I just wanted
does look like a jok


good crop to
have classed
is corn silag
-ords, a ton


grow.
them
e, but
of corn


F citrons, but whe
silo, and buying
re the silage and
be a possibility
would be very
to bring this to
e, but it is not as


re a
the
get
for


The
about
about
silag
farm
mach
it in
the c


Missouri and
with pump-
one-half as
e is about as
er has to fig-
inery that is
to the silo, I
itron on the


promising.
your attention, for it
much of a joke as you


might think. One of my demonstrators has had them. I
went to his field last spring with him and we were looking
along over the corn field and the citrons were about the
best I ever saw; they were growing everywhere. He wanted
to plow these up and throw them away. I asked him to
leave those in the rows and try a little feeding experiment
with them. He decided to try them. He asked me if they
were really of value, and I told him I did not know but it
would be good to try them anyway. So he gathered his
corn when the time came, but did not take time to gather


the citrons, for
Then he opened
there. He told
time he decided
says that when
load of them on
carried on the e
Now I hav


he knew they would stay there all right.
his gate and turned the cattle and hogs in
me, two weeks later when he had a little
to go in and haul the citrons out, and he
he got in there, he could not find a wagon
the twenty acres. The cattle and hogs had
experiment by themselves.
3 simply indicated these crops that can be


grown at different seasons of the year to carry on a crop
rotation.


CORN


AND PEANUTS


One other thing. I would say during that period from
July 15th to October, I mentioned corn in connection with
peanuts. I believe it best to plant them together, corn with
peanuts dawn the row. I plant from two to four acres,
and plant' them in a succession, planting every ten days or
two weeks, as many times as I think necessary. I do not
rather these, but turn the hours in on them. You will find








UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


old Spanish p<
time as the c<


sanuts


orn.


for this,
There is


(


for they mature
me objection to


peanuts; that is, they sprout aim
maturing, so you cannot plant more
for they would sprout and you would
ter to make your patches small, del


of hogs you have; and run y
patches as they mature, and
by feeding it when it is ready.


'0
ir


ur ]
i thi


tost immec


than a
Id lose t]
pending
hogs on
s way s


a
tl
dil


little
hem.
on t
the
ave


t the same
he Spanish
ately after
at a time,
It is bet-
he number
different
each patch


DISCUSSION


A. P. SPENCER. I would like to ask why no one has emphasized
sorghum. It seems to me this is one of the important crops and one
of the best things we have. Prof. Gray seems to have fed mature
sorghum.
T. Z. ATKESON. That is a proposition. All of Dan Gray's ex-
periments have been with mature sorghum. The mature sorghum is
not what it ought to be. It would be fine for the hog if he could get
all of it. But the hog gets a stalk of the sorghum in his mouth and
commences to chew it, and the juice runs out both ends and is lost.
So far as sorghum is concerned, it is one crop that I have never had
any experience with; and so far as I know Prof. Gray has not ex-
perimented with it except in the mature stage. I should judge that
where a man did not have Bermuda pasture it would be a good thing to
try sorghum, and possibly it might pay him.
H. E. SAVELY. If you plant cowpeas very thick you can kill
Bermuda anywhere; and if you plant velvet beans very thick there,
you will get a good crop. Shade, if thick enough, will always kill
Bermuda. It is bound to do so, and in one year's time.
A. P. SPENCER. Plant cowpeas with sorghum. Mr. Atkeson says


mature sorghum is not good for feeding, but
we get over 32 bushels of seed from the sor
suggest planting sorghum thick, and I have


here at the Station farm
'ghum per acre. I would
seen some that made the


finest kind of hog feed if planted thick and pastured off two feet high.
These green feeds are mainly for the succulence that a green crop will
supply.
The big trouble in this State is between the middle of March and
along into May. We want something for this period. In South Florida
last year I saw acres and acres of sweet potatoes in the ground until
along in April; and I think this is a good thing for the spring feeding.
If the ground is very wet or the potatoes valuable, it is a different
proposition entirely.
T. Z. ATKESON. I would like to say that there is a good deal more
imagination connected with this Bermuda proposition than anything
else. I have been farming on land that has a good deal of Bermuda
on it and my experience has been that in plowing with a one-horse
plow it is lifted around these patches but with a two horse plow you


'"ip




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