• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Organization
 Teaching force
 Course of study
 Tables XVI-XX














University
Teachers


of Florida
College


Issued by the
Department of Secondary Education






,^'%








A Study of Florida High Schools
By


JOSEPH ROEMER, PH.D.,
Professor of Secondary Education and
High School Visitor











ORGANIZATION
There is not a more pleasing chapter of the history of
Florida education than the development of the public high
school. Starting as it did in the closing years of the last
century, it grew to such proportions as to justify state super-
vision and inspection as early as 1907, and now has reached
such a magnitude as to demand more than one inspector. The
story of its growth in number of teachers employed, amount
and value of library and laboratory equipment installed, new
buildings added, etc., reads like a fairy tale to one who traces
it back through the Biennial Reports of the State Department
of Education. When the future is considered in the light of
past development it brings a flush of heart to those who have
absolute faith in the great democratic movement of the mod-
ern high school.
In order to get a little better idea of its present condition
and possible future lines of development, the writer thought
it would be of interest to take a cross section, as it were, of
its present status. This is not, in any way, intended to be an
exhaustive study, but merely an attempt to call attention to
a few of the outstanding phases of high school development
in Florida.
The bulletin is divided into three chapters. The first chap-
ter deals with the general organization of the high school
including such topics as number of high schools, kind of high
schools, enrollment, etc.; the second chapter has to do with
the training, tenure, supply, etc., of teachers; and the third
chapter deals with the course of study.
In presenting the data contained herein, it was deemed
advisable to group the high schools for discussion under the
following headings: FOUR YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS; THREE
YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS; TWO YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS;
ONE YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS.
In order to make the study as helpful as possible and to
have the conclusions drawn from as full data as possible, a
very thorough search and great effort was made to secure
data for every high school in the state regardless of size.
Through the kindness of Professor W. S. Cawthon, State High
School Inspector, the name and location of all high schools








UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


in the state was secured, then data obtained concerning them
by means of a blank which was filled by each principal.

At this point the writer wishes to express his deepest ap-
preciation to the high school principals for their extreme cour-
tesy in filling so promptly and carefully the blank sent them.
Their willingness to cooperate made the study possible. Special
mention is also due to Messrs. S. W. Cason, G. C. Hamilton,
H. C. Johnson, and H. L. Tolbert, senior students in Teachers
College of the University of Florida, for their assistance in
preparing the material for publication.

Tables I to IV give the enrollment for each particular high
school of the state for February 1921. Table V is a summary
of tables I to IV. The tables follow without further comment.


TABLE I

Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(4 Year High Schools)


GRADES

Location 9th 10th 11th 12th Grand Total
of School -----

__ O ^i M O T _M ti Q


Al I--. I.i I II


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A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


TABLE I-Continued

Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(4 Year High Schools)


GRADES


Location
f LS l


9th


Ut OLIUUI-
0o c o


Gonzalez .............. 6 15
Graceville ............ 1 6 17
Gr. Cove Spgs... 3 16 19
High Springs 1 7 16
Homestead 1 ...... 10 18
Inverness ........ 9 5 1
Jacksonville 6 .... 242 255 497
Jasper a .............. 10 10 20
Key West .......... 19 33 52
Kissimmee 1 I .. 14 32 46
LaBelle ............ 7 9 16
Lake Butler 1 5 12 17
Lake City .......... 31 30 61
Lakeland 1 ...... 49 72 121
Largo 1 ............ 5 27 .'-1
Leesburg .......... 12 14 .,
Lemon City ...... 15 13
Live Oak ...... 17 18 .
Lynn Haven ..... 0 4
Madison ............ 15 6 21
Marianna 1 .......... 4 18 22
M ayo ........... ...... 7 6 13
Melbourne 1 ........ 12 21 33
Miami ................ 115 172 287
M ilton .................. 18 20 38
Monticello .......... 5 11 16
Montverd (Ind.) 29 26 55
Mulberry I .......... 9 18 27
Muscogee ............ 3 5 8
New Smyrna 1 22 21 43
Oakland-WVin- |
ter Garden .. 5 111 16
Ocala 1 e ............ 35 34 69
Okeechobee ... 9 71 16
Orlando ........... 66 77 143
Oviedo .............. 2 4 6
Palatka 1 ........ 20 25 45
Palmetto 1 ...... 12 31 43
Panama City a 12 16 28
Pensacola 1 6 .... 72 106 178
Perry ................ 9 16 25
Plant City 1 .... 41 42 83
Punta Gorda 1 .. 10 14 24
Quincy 1 6 ......... 12 23 35
Redlands ............ 8 10 18
St. Augustine .... 24 35 59
St. Cloud ....... 7 13 20
St. Pet'burg 6 87 130 217
Sanford I ............ 39 35 74
Sarasota 1 ......13 16 29
Seabreeze 1 a 9 13 22
Sebring ................ 8 10 18
Starke ................. 9 10 19
Stuart .................. 5 8 13
Tallahassee 1 6 28 37 65
Tampa 1 7. 180 231 411
Tarpon Spgs. 6 9 17 26
Titusville ........ 5 17 22
Trenton .............. 5 12 17
Umatilla .............. 8 11
V ero ...................... 8 18 26


10th


8 4
9 11
3 1
3 6
8 9
3 11
118 167
1 5
21 21
7 19
1 7
1 5
12 21
43 42
4 9
12 13
6 7
14 19
2 3
8 7
6 12
5 6
6 16
84 107
11 16
3 13
6 18
11 16
6 1
4 17

1 4
11 32
5 9
45 54
2 2
11 21
14 24
7 S
40 58
9 14
31 31
13 7
9 15
2 4
24 25
3 10
73 134
21 42
15 13
4 12
1 7
8 5
5 8
23 38
133 207
14 13

0 11
6 11
3 7


o
C


11th


C 3
m E-0
CT 0


12th


0 0
ma~E


Grand Total




21 18 39
26 22 48
7 20 27
15 21 36
23 30 53
19 26 45
476 591 1067
15 24 39
52 77 129
34 75 109
14 20 34
10 23 33
64 60 124
133 185 318
20 53 73
47 41 88
27 29 56
37 53 90
4 11 15
39 44 83
17 54 71
16 20 36
30 46 76
321 408 729
45 58 103
13 33 46
46 59 165
28 45 73
12 9 21
43 47 90

10 26 36
70 104 174
17 20 37
152 195 347
4 9 13
42 71 113
36 85 121
28 34 62
162 263 425
28 46 74
85 118 203
31 31 62
43 64 107
14 19 33
74 91 165
18 40 58
241 400 641
76 112 188
38 38 76
17 40 57
17 27 44
22 24 46
13 24 37
78 117 195
467 639 1106
35 44 79
19 35 54
9 28 37
13 22 35
17 34 51


9th


I '' "' "" '







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE I-Continued
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(4 Year High Schools)

GRADES

Location 9th 10th 11th 12th Grand Total
of School .. .

E' s 'S c S 'j m mE n 3

Waldo 1 ....--.. 2 3 5 2 3 0 0 1 2 4 6 10
Wauchula 1 .. 28 29 57 15 15 30 6 2 28 13 16 29 62 144
Webster 15 16 31 4 5 9 4 5 2 1 3 2 2 48
W. Palm B'ch 43 5 99 31 52 83 24 34 58 10 3 43 10 175 283
Williston3 .... 11 7 14 1 7 8 0 6 13 26 39
Winter Haven 20 2 45 20 2444 22 1941 927 3 71 95 166
Zephyrhillss .... 6 1 16 7 5 12 5 4 9 3 5 8 21 24 45
1207812713147911|1365120331339811 884|13482232|1 657|10171167411498417111112095
On Senior List of State Department 1920-21.
SOn Junior List of State Department 1920-21.
On Intermediate List of State Department 1920-21.
SStatistics for 1916-17.
Statistics for 1917-18.
Member of Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 1920-21.
These figures include 180 boys and 231 girls enrolled in the two Junior High
Schools in 'the ninth grade.

TABLE II
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(3 Year High Schools)


GRADES

location 9th 10th 11th Gr'd Total
of School 9th___ II ___Ij ______

0 0

Clermont 1 ........................ 6 3 9 2 2 4 1 0 1 9 5 14
Floral City ........................ 2 5 7 0 4 4 0 2 2 2 11 13
Ft. W hite .......................... 16 3 19 5 5 10 1 7 22 1 36
Geneva ................................ 2 3 5 1 1 2 0 1 1 3 5 8
Greenwood ........................ 3 7 10 0 3 3 1 2 3 4 12 16
Groveland ........................ 4 610 2 1 3 2 1 3 8 8 16
Havana ............................ 6 13 19 6 13 19 3 2 5 15 2843
Jupiter ................................ 5 2 7 0 0 0 2 0 2 7 2 9
Lake Wales .................... 7 4 11 8 1 9 0 10 10 15 30
Macclenny .....................--------------- 2 6 8 3 2 5 0 2 2 5 10 15
M elrose .............................. 5 5 10 1 5 6 0 3 3 6 13 19
Micanopy .......................... 4 18 22 2 2 4 4 4 8 10 22 32
Newberry ......................... 8 10 16 1 5 6 0 1 1 9 16 25
Pinetta ................................ 1 4 5 1 5 6 0 3 3 2 12 14
White Springs .................. 4 17 21 1 3 4 3 3 6 8 23 31
Winter Park .................... 4 10 14 4 6 10 4 4 8 12 20 32
Grand Total ..................| 791114119311 371 581 951) 21| 441 651113712161353
1 On Junior List of State Department 1920-21.
2 On Intermediate List of State Department 1920-21.







A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


TABLE III
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(2 Year High Schools)

GRADES
Location 9th 10th Grand Total
of School



Alva ...................................------------------------ 4 8 12 3 2 5 10 17
Antho ----------------------6-13-4-3 0 6 1 5 5-1-
Anthony ........................ 2 4 3 3 6 5 5 10
Archer ...................... 2 1 3 3 1 41 5 2 7
Baker ......... ........... ........... 7 3 10 3 3 6 10 6 16
Bell ........................................ 2 1 3 0 4 4 2 5 7
Branford ............................... 4 4 8 0 1 1 4 5 9
Brooker .................................. 2 2 4 0 6 6 2 8 10
Bunnell .............................. 1 10 11 1 4 5 2 14 16
Campbellville ...2............ 2 1 3 0 1 1 2 2 4
Carrabelle ........................... 1 3 4 3 0 3 4 3 7
Center Hill ............................ 2 2 2 5 7 2 78 9
Century ..................... 3 3 6 0 5 5 31 8 11
Chattahoochee ................... 4 1 5 1 3 4 5 4 9
Citra ................... ................. 3 2 5 0 5 5 3 7 10
Cocoanut Grove ................. 6 6 12 1 6 7 7 12 19
Coleman ............................... 4 3 7 2 1 3 6 4 10
Concord ............................... 2 7 9 0 3 3 2 10 12
Dania 1 ................................ 2 7 9 5 1 6 7 8 15
Elfers ............................... 5 2 7 1 2 3 6 4 10
Enterprise .......... ....... 3 4 7 3 3 6 6 7 13
Frostproof 1 ..................... 7 3 10 4 4 8 11 7 18
Greensboro 1 .... ...... 2 4 6 5 1 1 16 7 15 22
Greenville .......................... 2 1 3 1 3 4 3 4 7
Gretna 1 ............................... 5 3 8 1 2 3 6 5 11
Haines City .... ............. 2 4 6 1 3 4 3 7 10
Hastings ........ ..-......... 4 11 15 2 2 4 6 13 19
Hawthorne ........................ 1 2 3 4 5 9 5 7 12
Hilliard ........................ 2 1 3 2 0 2 4 1 5
Jennings 1 .......-......----...--- 4 7 11 1 4 5 5 11 16
Kathleen .................--. 3 5 8 2 4 6 5 9 14
Lake Worth ....................... 13 22 35 2 9 11 15 31 46
Larkins ...................... 2 2 4 5 4 9 7 6 13
Laurel Hill ....................... 5 2 7 0 5 5 5 7 12
Lawtey ....................... 3 6 9 0 2 2 3 8 11
Lecanto ...........-...........---- 0 2 2 0 3 3 0 5 5
McIntosh 1 ....-...........-..---- 5 3 8 0 2 2 5 5 10
Millville 1 ..................... 13 9 22 6 4 10 19 13 32
Mt. Dora 1 ......-................ 3 9 12 1 2 3 4 11 15
Oxford ....... .....6 10 16 2 0 2 8 10 18
Safety Harbor ................. 4 8 12 2 3 5 6 11 17
Sebastian ..............--.....----- 1 3 4 3 1 4 4 4 8
Summerfield ................. 3 3 6 1 3 4 4 6 10
Wildwood 1 ................. ..---- 4 6 10 1 3 4 5 9 14
Zellwood .........-......... ..---- 2 3 5 0 3 3 2 6 8
Grand Total ...................... 1611 2141 37511 791 1461 22411 2381 3611 599
1 On Junior List of State Department 1919-20.
2 Statistics for year 1919-20.






8 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

TABLE IV
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(1 Year High Schools)

GRADES


Location
of School


A ucilla ..................... .......... ..................
Belleview ....................................................
Brew ster ................................... ................
Bristol ................. .......... .......................
Cedar Keys....................... ...................
Crystal River .................. .....................
Gardner ....... ................... ...................
H ernando .......................... ......... ............
Montbrook .............................. ..... ........
M orriston ................................... .............
O coee .. ... ......................... ...................
R eddick ..................................... ..................
St. Andrews ................................. ...
Sopchoppy .......................................................
Wellborn .............................................


Grand Total


9th Grade


Boys
3
1
5
3
5
1
5
1



5
1
4


.........- 39


Girls
3
2
4
2
2
0
2
2
0
3
4
2
3
1
5


Total
6
3
9
5
7
1
7
3
1
4
6
3
8
2
9
74


TABLE V
Total High School Enrollment Classified According to Kind of High
Schools


Kind of GRADES
School o



.^ 5 a l
0 0 -4
1-Year .................... 15 74........................... 39 35 74 .5
2-Year ...................... 45 375 224 .........---- ..... 238 361 599 4.5
3-Year ...................... 16 193 95 65....--. 137 216 353 2.7
4-Year ...................... 98 4791 3398 2232 1674 4984 711112095 92.3
Total .................... 1741 54331 37171 22971 16741 53981 77231131211
Percent ................ ...........I 41.41 28.31 17.4| 12.91 41.11 58.91 ..........100



To say there are only 98 four-year high schools in all the
state may seem disparaging, but the bright side of the picture
is revealed when we realize that 92.3 per cent of all the pupils








A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


are enrolled in these, while only 5 per cent are enrolled in the
60 one and two-year high schools.
It is unfortunate to realize that in Florida, as in every
other state, nearly one-half (41.4 per cent) of all the high
school pupils are in the 9th grade, and over two-thirds (69.7
per cent) are in the first two years of high school, whereas
only 12.9 per cent are in the 12th grade.
Let us next see how many months in the year pupils attend
high school. That is, how many months the high schools run
in which the pupils are enrolled. Table VI gives the enroll-
ment according to the length of term the schools run, while
table VII classifies the high schools on the basis of the number
of months run. Tables VI and VII follow.

TABLE VI
High School Enrollment Classified According to the Length of Term
-o

hin oof 0 ; I NUMBER OF MONTHS
School w



t0 en r- CO 0C E PO
1-Year ..................... 1--------------- 5 5 -- 5 20 40 9 74 .5
2-Year ...................... 45 13 11 61 23 399 105 599 4.5
3-Year ..................... 16 22 .......... .......... 30 323 .......... 353 2.7
4-Year ...................... 98 123 ........ .......... .......... 2607 9488 12095 92.3
Total .................... 1741 75| 11| 661 73| 3369J 94881131211
Percent ....................|......... ....... .11 .51 .61 25.71 73.1 .......... 100

TABLE VII
High Schools Classified According to Length of Term


Kind of 2 Number of Months Run g
School'- 0 S
Z W

hfl CO EZ CO 0
1-Year .............................. 15 ........... 4 1 .6
2-Year ................... 45 1 4 3 32 5 25.9
3-Y ear .............................. 16 ............ ........ 2 14 ............ 9.1
3-Year ---------------------1-------- ------ ------- 2 14----------94 3 5.1
4-Year ............................. 98 ............45 53 56.4
Total ............................ 1741 1 51 91 1001 59
Percent ............................I............ .61 3. | 5.21 57.41 33.81 100






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


From table VII we see that only 33.8 per cent of all the
high schools run nine months, yet table VI shows they enroll
73.1 per cent of all the pupils; and that while 57.4 per cent of
all the schools run only eight months, yet they enroll only 25.7
per cent of all the pupils. These conditions reveal the fact
that 92.3 per cent of all the pupils are enrolled in four-year
high schools, which makes the situation exceedingly prom-
ising.
Table VIII is inserted at this point for the purpose of
giving the reader a clearer conception of the development of
the high school since inspection began. These data were taken
from the Biennial Reports of the State High School Inspector.
The exact classification of high schools is reproduced here
which accounts for the seemingly confusing terminology in
the classification.
TEACHING FORCE
Another way to get a good idea of the status of the high
school is to consider the teaching force thereof. The old say-
ing, "As is the teacher so is the school," applies as truly to
the high school as to any part of the school system. Hence
the purpose of the chapter is to ascertain the following facts
concerning the teaching force of the Florida high schools:
How many high school teachers are there in the state giving
full time to the high school; where were these high school
teachers trained; what per cent of these high school teachers
is men, and what per cent is women; what per cent of the
men and women teachers were new in their jobs last year;
how long do the teachers work in one place? etc. The answers
to these questions should give us a little keener insight into
the status of our high schools.
Table IX which follows gives the total number of high
school teachers classified according to sex and type of school;
table X shows the number of teachers classified according to
the size of the school they work in; and table XI shows the
number of teachers classified according to the size of the high
school as measured by the number of teachers in the high
school faculty. The tables follow.









A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS 11



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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE IX
Showing the Number and Percentage of Teachers in the Various Kinds
of High Schools
No. of
Kind of School Shools NO. TEACHERS

a o


SNo. %
1-Year .......................................... 15 8 7 15 2.3
2-Year ......................... ................ 45 38 14 52 8.1
3-Year ............ ..... ........ ......... 16 18 10 28 4.4
4-Year ....... .................... ................. 98 166 380 546 85.2
Total .............. ................ .. .......... 174 230 411 641
Percent of Total ... ........ ........ ............ 35.9 1 64.11 100
TABLE X
High Schools Classified According to Number of Teachers Employed

Kind of
eoo NUMBER TEACHERS
School


"I C 0 C) 02 0 02
la ear OfE-i E-4 E-i E- Y i E- Eo E-4i
1-Year .................1. 5 15 .. ...... .. .... ........ ...... .......
2-Year .......... ...- 45 38 7 ............. ........ ........ ...
3-Year ............ 16 7 7 1 1 ........ .. ... ...... ...... ...
4-Year .................... 98 3 13 14 23 15 8 8 5 2 7
Total ................ 1741 631 271 15| 241 151 81 81 51 21 7
Percent ............................ 36.2| 15.51 8.61 13.81 8.61 4.61 4.61 2.91 1.2] 4
TABLE XI
Showing the Distribution of Teachers Classified According to the Size
of the High School as Measured by the Number of Teachers
in the High School Faculty


Kind of


NUMBER OF TEACHERS


~,02 ~ 02


School 0 0 0 0 2 0 02



1 Y e a r -------------------- 1 5 1 5 .. -------- -------.. . .. ..-- -------- -- - - - --- -- ------ --- - -- -
2-Y ear -----------------_.0 4 5 38 14 02. 02-- .------. -.- -------- ------- ------- --------
____ ____ _-_cE-. cE12 WE-4 E-Z OE-
1-Year .................... 15 ....... ..... .... .. -- .... ......... ------ ------ -------
2-Year ................. 45 38 14 ..... 2:.. 222.-. ...... .....................
3-Year .................... 16 7 14 3 4 ....... . .. ......
4-Year .................. 98 3 26 42 92 75 48 56 40 18 146
Total ....................I 1741 631 541 451 961 751 481 561 401 181 146
Percent .......................... 9.81 8.41 7.11 14.91 11.71 7.51 8.81 6.21 2.81 22.8





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


There are several interesting facts contained in tables IX
to XI. For the sake of brevity, a few of the chief ones can be
stated as follows:
85.2 per cent of all high school teachers work in
four-year high schools, while only 14.8 per cent are
employed in one, two, and three-year high schools.
35.9 per cent of all high school teachers are men
and 64.1 per cent are women.
36.2 per cent of all high schools are one-teacher
high schools.
15.5 per cent of all high schools are two-teacher
high schools.
Over one-half (51.7 per cent) of all high schools of
the state are one and two-teacher high schools.
Practically three-fourths (74.1 per cent) of all the
high schools of the state are four-teacher high schools
or less.
While 36.2 per cent of all the high schools are one-
teacher high schools, they employ only 9.8 per cent
of all the teachers.
While 51.7 per cent of all the high schools are one
and two-teacher high schools, they only employ 18.2
per cent of all the teachers.
While 74.1 per cent of all the high schools are four-
teacher high schools or less, they only employ 40.2 per
cent of all the teachers.
Practically one-fourth (22.8 per cent) of all the
teachers work in high schools with over nine teachers
in the faculty.
Another important question in this connection is: Where
were these high school teachers trained? It was practically
impossible to obtain these data for every teacher in the state,
consequently the writer took the 36 high schools which are
members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secon-
dary Schools as a basis. He had the data for these schools
already in hand, as it is called for in the Southern Commission
blank which each high school principal fills. Although the
following table covers only the 36 best and largest high schools
in the state, yet the writer feels that it fairly well represents
the state-wide situation. Table XII which gives these data is
followed by table XIII which is merely a summary of table
XII. With this explanation the tables follow.





14 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE XII
Table Showing the Higher Institutions in Which the Principals and
Teachers Were Trained Who Work in the Thirty-six Florida High
Schools Which Are Members of the Southern Association of Colleges
and Secondary Schools.'


Name of School


State
Country


Agnes-Scott College------................ Ga..............
Alabama Polytechnic .............. Ala. ............
Alabama, University of.......... Ala.......
Alma College ........................ Mich .
Andrew College .................... Ga.......
Arkansas, University of........ Ark ..
Athens College .----...................... Ga ............
Austin College ........................ Texas .......
Baker College .......................... Kan.......
Beloit College ....... ------.................. W is. .........
Berea College .......................... Ky .......-
Bowling Green Bus. Univ....... Ky. ........
Brenau College ........................ Ga........--
Burritt College .----..................... Tenn ........
Carson-Newman College........ Va..............
Chicago, University of............ ll .....
Citadel College ...................... S. C ....
Colorado St. Teach's Coll....... Colo...
Columbia College .................... Fla.... .....
Columbia, University of.......... N. Y ..........
Converse College .................... S. C. ...
Cornell University.................... N.' Y ........
Culver Stockton College........ Mo ....
Cumberland University .........- Tenn. .........
DePauw University .............. Ind........
Dartmouth College .......----......... N. H....
Davis-Elkin College .............. W. Va ......
Earlham College .................... Ind .
Elizabeth College ..................-- Va. ...
Emory University .................. Ga...........
Ecuador, University of .......... Ecuador ...
Florida St. Coll. for Women..... Fla .....
Florida State Normal.............. Fla..
Florida, University of............. Fla. ..............
France (some institution)...... France .
Franklin College ................... Ind. .............
Furman University .-...............S. C. ..
George Washington Univ....... D. C.............
Georgia N. and Ind. Coll......... Ga .......
Georgia, University of .......... Ga .....
Goshen College-----...................... Ind.. .....
Goucher College .................. Md. --
Grinnell College .--- --................. Ia.


Teachers
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree
or More


S


0| 4| 4


Teachers
Not
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree















0 1
-- - -- -- -- -
a- -- -- - - -
-Z - -- - -






01.. --1







A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS 15


TABLE XII-Continued


Name of School





Gym. City Bus. Coll.................----
Hamilton College ....................
Harvard University ................
Hampden-Sidney College ......
Hillsdale College ......-----..............
Howard College ........................
Illinois, University of ............
Indiana State Normal............
Indiana, University of ............
Iowa State Normal ................
Kalamazoo College ................
Kansas A. & M. College........
Kansas State Normal ............
Kansas, University of ..........
Kentucky, University of ........
Knox College ...........................
Leland Stanford University....
Liberty College ......................
Lima College ...........................
Louisiana, University of........
Mars Hill College................
Martha Washington Coll.......
Marquette College ..................
M arvin College .......................
Meridian College ....................
Michigan State Normal ..........
Michigan, University of ........
Minnesota, University of........
Mississippi A. & M. Coll.......
Miss., University of ................
Miss. State Normal .........
Missouri St. Teach's Coll.......
Missouri, University of ..........
North Carolina, Univ. of........
North Dak. A. & M. Coll.......
New Hampshire College ........
Oberlin College ......................-
Ohio, University of ................
Oklahoma A. & M. College..-.
Oxford College ........................
Palmer College ..............
Peabody Coll. for Teachers....
Pennsylvania A. & M. Coll.....
Pennsylvania, Univ. of ..........
Piedmont College .................
Phillips University ................
Princeton University ..............
Randolph-Macon Coll. (men)...[


State
Country


Ill. ............
Ky .- -----
Mass. .......-
Va........
Mich. ........
Ala. -......--.
Ill .----.--
Ind ..----
Ind ..------
Ia. ......
Mich. ............
Kan. ........
Kan. ---
Kan. ...........
Kan.---------
Ky........
Ill. ............
Cal........
Ky.
Ohio .............
Ohio ----
La ................
N C. ............
M iss. ............
Wash. ..........
Ky.........
Miss. .......
Mich -
Mich. -
Minn .......
Miss. ...........
Miss. .---


Mo.........
N. C. ............
N. Dak. ......
N. H .........
Ohio ----.
Ohio ............
Okla. ...........
Ohio -.
Fla .......
Tenn. ......
Penn.....
Penn .........
Ga. ---
Okla ..........
kN. J...........
N. J.
Va .........


Teachers
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree
or More



a
J!L L_


Teachers
Not
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree


a


----1------ ---..
11 0 1


II


1


11


0 1 1





0 1 1
0 1 1
S0 0






o i 1
1 0 1
0 1 1
0 1 1
------ ----
1 0 1
------ ------ -----
------.------ ------
- - ---- ------














011
0 1 1
------ ------ -










1 0 1







0 1 1
... .. ...... .. ..












.... ..... .....


I j






16 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE XII-Continued

Teachers Teachers
Holding a Not
Bachelor's Holding a
Degree Bachelor's
Name of School State or More Degree
or Country

2 2 n S
o a o -- C'S-i-S
____________________ g i ^ 0


Randolph-Mac. Coll. (wom.)....
Reynolds College ....................
Richmond College ...........
Rollins College ................
Royal Naval College ..............
San Antonio College .............
Scarrett College ......................
Smith College .........................
Shorter College .................
Southern College ....................
South'n Methodist Univ ........
Southern Normal School ......
South Dakota, Univ. of ........
South Carolina, Univ. of........
Stetson University .................
Stout Institute ....................
Swarthmore College ..............
Syracuse University ..............
Tennessee, University of ......
Valparaiso University ..........
Virginia, University of ........
Virginia Military Institute ....
Wake Forrest College ............
Wentworth Academy ............
Wentworth Institute ..............
Wesleyan College ..................
West Va., University of..........
Western College ....................
Westminster College ..............
William Jewell College ..........
Williams College ....................
Winthrop N. and Ind. Coll.....
Wisconsin, University of ......
Wittenburg College ................
Wooster College ....................
None or not given..................


Va. ...........
Texas .....
Va .............
Fla. ............
England ......
Texas.
M o .............
Mass ..........
Ga .............
Fla. .............
Texas ........
Ky ..............
S. Dak ........
S. C ............
Fla .............
Wis......
Pa. ..........
N. Y ............
Tenn. .......
Ind........
Va.........
Va. .........-
N C. ...........
Mass .........
Mass ..........
Ga. .......
W. Va ........
Ohio ...........
Pa ................
Mo ..............
Mass.
S. C. ............
Wis. .........
Ohio ............
Ohio -.


0 6


1 2
1 0

0 1
0 1
1 0
1 1
0 1
2 0
0 1
1 0
3 11

1 2
0 1

2 0
0 1
1 0
1 0
1 0

0 5
2 1
0 1
0 1
1 0

0 2
2 2
1 0
1 0


TOTAL .................................. .................... 1| 911171126211 141 511 6511 327
Percent of Total........................ ........................| 281 521 8011 4.315.71 2011 100
1 Not all the institutions listed above are recognized as standard by the
Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.







A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS 17


TABLE XIII
Table Showing Summary by States Where the Principals and Teachers
Were Trained Who Work in the Thirty-six Florida High Schools
Which Are Members of the Southern Association of Colleges and
Secondary Schools.1

Teachers Teachers
States in Which Holding a Not
Higher Institutions Bachelor's Holding a Grand
Are Located Degree Bachelor's Total
or More Degree
Florida ............................ 85 17 102
Georgia ........................... 19 5 24
Virginia ........................... 19 0 19
Illinois ......... ................ 14 2 16
Indiana .......................... 13 1 14
Kentucky ......................... 10 2 12
Ohio ................................ 9 1 10
Tennessee ...................... 7 3 10
South Carolina ......... 8 1 9
W isconsin ........................ 6 2 8
Mississippi --.................... 6 1 7
M issouri ...... ..................... ... 6 0 6
Pennsylvania .................. 6 0 6
Kansas .............................. 4 1 5
North Carolina ............... 3 2 5
New York ..................... 5 0 5
M ichigan ......................... 3 2 5
Texas .................. ...... ... 2 3 5
Massachusetts ................ 4 1 5
West Virginia ............... 4 0 4
W ashington .................... 3 0 3
Iowa ......... ............. ..- 2 1 3
California ................. .... 2 1 3
Alabama ......................... 2 1 3
Louisiana .......................... 2 0 2
Minnesota ...................... 2 0 2
Maryland ..................... 2 0 2
Oklahoma ............ ......... 2 0 2
Arkansas ......................... 2 0 2
New Hampshire .............. 1 1 2
Colorado .......................... 1 0 1
New Jersey ................... 1 0 1
North Dakota .................. 1 0 1
South Dakota .................. 1 0 1
District of Columbia ...... 0 1 1
Ecuador ............................ 1 1
England ...............1 0 1
France ............. ......4 3 7
Not given ......................0 12 12
Total............................| 262 65 |l 327
Percent of Total.............. | 80 20 | 100
SPalmer College and Florida Military Academy are considered here since
they are both members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools.





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


The outstanding facts of tables XII and XIII are:
There are teachers from 126 higher institutions of
learning out of the state. These institutions repre-
sent 34 states, the District of Columbia and 3 foreign
nations.
Only 31.1 per cent of all the high school teachers in
these schools were trained in any kind of higher insti-
tution of learning in the State of Florida.
80 per cent of all the teachers are college graduates.
The 68.9 per cent of teachers in these 36 high
schools trained outside of Florida, do not represent any
one state or higher institution of learning, but come
from a large number of institutions scattered over a
wide range of territory.

Still another interesting question in this connection is:
How long have the teachers in these high schools worked in
their present positions? Two tables dealing with the question
are presented here. Table XIV which includes all the high
school teachers of the state, shows only the number and per
cent of teachers that are serving their first year in their po-
sitions. Table XV which included all the teachers for the 36
Southern Association high schools, shows the number of years
each teacher has been in his or her present position. Tables
XIV and XV follow.

TABLE XIV
Showing Number and Percent of High School Teachers New in System

NEW TEACHERS IN SYSTEM

Kind of Men Women Total
School I,
Soh o No. % No. % No. %
Zrn ZE.
1-Year ........................ 15 15 3 37.5 .................... 3 20
2-Year .......................... 45 52 24 63.1 14 100 38 73.1
3-Year ....................... 16 28 6 33.3 5 50 11 40
4-Year .......................... 98 546 82 49.4 193 50.8 275 50.4
Total ........................) 1741 64111 115) 50 I| 2121 51.611 3271 51






A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


TABLE XV
Showing the Tenure of the Principals and Teachers in the Thirty-six
High Schools Which Are Members of the Southern Association of
Colleges and Secondary Schools.1


Years in
Present
High School


Teachers
Trained in
Higher Insti-
tutions in
Florida


0 _-


First .......... ....................... 11 10 35
Second .............................. 7 3 13
Third .................................. 6 4 12
Fourth ............................... 5 ........ 3
F ifth ....................................... ........ 6
Sixth .......................................... 4
Seventh ............................ 1 ......... 1
Eighth ................................ 2 ........ 1
Ninth ................................ 1 ........ .......
Tenth ................ ........ ... ..... 1
Eleventh ........................... ........ 1
Twelfth ............................ ................
Thirteenth .......................... 1 ................
Fifteenth ....................... ...................
Sixteenth ..................... .. ...............
Twenty-second .............. ...... ..... 1
Total ............................... I 3611 171 781


Percent ...........


........ -1....... 31.1 2


TEACH


Teac
N(
Train
Higher
tutio
Flo


9511 52| 1


1 A


1 Palmer College and Florida Military Academy are considered here since
they are both members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools.
2 This percentage is arrived at by adding to the 95 teachers 7 principals
who were trained in higher institutions of learning in Florida.

From a study of these tables we see that:

50 per cent of the men teachers and 51.6 per cent
of the women teachers, or a total of 51 per cent of all
the teachers, are new in their positions.
46"per cent of all the teachers and principals in
these'36 high schools are new in their positions.
Practically two-thirds (65 per cent) of all the
teachers in these 36 high schools are new or are serving
their second year.
Practically four-fifths (79.4 per cent) of all the
teachers and principals in these 36 high schools have
served only two years or less in their positions.


I


ERS
hers
OT
:ed in
r Insti-
ns in
rida



0 0 a)

72 94 150 46
24 39 62 19
17 25 47 14.4
5 7 15 4.6
6 7 13 4.1
5 5 9 2.7
2 2 4 1.2
2 3 6 1.8
2 3 4 1.2
3 3 5 1.4
3 5 6 1.8
.- ... 1 .3
1 1 2 .6
1 1 1 .3
1 1 1 .3
... .... 1 .3
44i 196j1 327|1
8.9 II........100





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Numerous problems connected with a state school sys-.tem
arise from a situation like this. Space will permit of the li- k-
cussion of only a few of them. In the first place, it is anim-K
impossible to organize a system under such conditions. Sczirce-
ly is the machinery of organization set up before the term is
over and it is all to be done over again. In fact it is extremely
difficult to get anywhere when more than two-thirds of all
the high school teachers are trained outside the state. aind
when over half of the entire teaching force are new each ye.ar
in their positions. Close organization, team-work, continue ity
of purpose and effort, and the like, can scarcely flourish in
such an atmosphere.
Two elements enter into this situation. One is the "tourist
teacher" who "winters" in Florida. On the salary which the
high school teacher receives, she can pay her railroad fare
each way, afford comfortable living quarters, and have enough
left to "see Florida" at odd times and during the holidays.
For such people it is merely a lark and a winter's outing on the
great playgrounds of the South. Of course this is not true of
all the teachers coming into the state. Many of them settle
down to continuous years of faithful service, but it is true
of too large a per cent.
A second element which aggravates this situation is the
great moving, restless spirit prevailing among the permanent
high school teachers of the state. That there is too much of
this among our permanent teachers is self evident and needs
no comment here.
The fact that over two-thirds (68.9 per cent) of all the
high school teachers must be secured from outside the state,
intensifies the seriousness of our certification problem. The
law providing for the transfer of standard certificates from
other states should go a long ways, however, towards allevi-
ating this problem. Personally, the writer feels we should
proceed on two fundamental bases of operation. The first is
we should strive to get certification of teachers pitched on
the basis of training received in standard, recognized normal
schools, colleges and universities. The quicker we shift to that
basis from the present "flying squadron" and "court-house ex-
amination" basis, the sooner will we get better teaching
service. This is no reflection on the personnel of the "flying
squadron" but it is an attack upon the present method of cer-





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


tification of teachers. The emphasis is upon the examinations
rather than the training received in normal schools, colleges
~inld universities.
In the second place, the writer feels that we cannot be
too careful about the health certification of incoming teachers.
Too great precaution can scarcely be taken to shield the chil-
idren of the state from the persons who come to Florida on
account of their health. Rigid physical examinations, ac-
companied by health certificates from home physicians, should
be required of all applicants seeking teaching positions.
However, when all is said, the future is promising when
we recall that 80 per cent of all the teachers in the best high
schools are college graduates; that 35.9 per cent are men; that
92.3 per cent of the pupils and 85.2 per cent of the teachers are
in four-year high schools; and that 73.1 per cent of all the
high school pupils in the state are in high schools running
nine months.
COURSE OF STUDY

In order to show definitely what units each high school is
offering, tables XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX have been pre-
pared. There is a table for each of the four kinds of high
schools. Table XX follows these, and is a summary of some
of the chief points of the preceding four.
Thinking it would aid some in getting the situation clear,
the number of teachers in each school, the number of pupils
in each school, and the total number of units offered by each
school are included. All the units offered are grouped arbi-
trarily under the eight headings found in these five tables.
The purpose of these, too, is merely to aid the reader in getting
at conditions. Tables XVI to XX are included.
If we try to summarize conditions in general which cover
all the fourskinds of high schools, we can say that:
English and Algebra are the only subjects which
are offered by every high school. The only exception
being the one-year school, which devotes a year to
Plane Geometry instead of Algebra.
If we rank the fifteen leading subjects of the cur-
riculum in the order of their importance as measured
by their finding a place in the course of study, we have:





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


English------..........-.......offer
Algebra ......................
Ancient History ..........
Latin ................... ..
Med. & Mod. Hist..... -
Plane Geometry .--.....
Am. Hist. & Civics -...
General Science ..........
Botany ................. .
Zoology .......................
Trigonometry .......... "
Phys. Geography ....--.
Physics ------........
Solid Geometry ..........
English History ..--...


ed by 100 %
99.4%
89.1%
85.6%
75.6%
66.6%
65.5%,
51.2%
50 %
48.7%
42.1%
42 %
42 %
36.8%
33.3%


of the schools
44 tt 44
44 '4 44
44 44 44
44 44 44
44 44 44
44 44 44
'4 44 44
44 44 44
44 44 44
"c "c "
"c "c "

"c "c
"c "c "


With a few exceptions, modern languages, voca-
tional studies and avocational studies, find no place in
the course of study for the one, two and three-year
high schools;
The more modern phases of the social sciences,
Sociology and Economics, are just beginning to find
a place in a few of our stronger high schools;
Health or Hygiene receives practically no attention
as a formal study in the high school curriculum.
Agricultural work, other than that done by the
Smith-Hughes schools, is practically nil.
The above summary has to do with the spirit of our high
schools, as registered by the units offered. Another way to
size up the situation is to strike at it from a different angle
by seeing how many high school pupils there are in the state
taking each course. It is one thing to say that the high
schools are offering such and such subjects, but it is quite
another to know exactly how many pupils are taking each of
these subjects.
The writer felt that it would be rather difficult to get
these data, since it would entail a good deal of work on the
part of the principals. He secured, however, these data for
63 of these 98 four-year high schools for the scholastic year
1919-20, through the kindness of Professor W. S. Cawthon,
State High School Inspector, who had gathered it for his
Biennial Report. Economy in printing, however, necessitated
its omission. Space here will only permit the giving of the
totals. Table XXI below contains thase data on registrants
in various subjects.







A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


TABLE XXI
Showing the Number of Pupils Registered in Each Subject of the High
School for the Scholastic Year 1919-20
(63 four-year high schools included)


EN GLISH .................................. 5426
1st year .........-... .---....2248
2nd year ..........-------1414
3rd year ........................ 926
4th year ....................--..---838
MATHEMATICS .------- .. 5342
Adv. Arithmetic .......... 132
Algebra ..........................3433
Plane Geometry ..........1115
Solid Geometry ............ 318
Trigonometry .....---...... 344
FOREIGN LANGUAGES .... 3509
Beginner's Latin -..........1312
Caesar ........................... 799
Cicero ...................---------......... 197
Virgil ....--.......................-------------.. 96
French ............................ 811
Spanish ...........---- .......- .. 294


SOCIAL SCIENCES .............. 4902
Ancient History ..........1831
Med. and Mod. Hist.....1313
English History .......... 462
Am. Hist. and Civics....1296
NATURAL SCIENCES ........ 3182
Physical Geography .... 531
General Science .......... 750
Botany .......................... 510
Zoology .......................... 522
Physics ......................... 467
Chemistry ...................... 402
VOCATIONAL STUDIES .... 1569
Agriculture .........----------......... 99
Manual Training .......... 241
Home Economics ........ 737
Commercial work ........ 492
MISCELLANEOUS .............- 513


If we rank these subjects according to the registrants by
groups, we have:
English-...........................taken by 5426 pupils
Mathematics .--........--.--- 5342 "
Social Sciences .........- " 4902
Foreign Languages ..... 3509
Natural Sciences ...... 3182 "
Vocational Studies ....... 1569 "
Or, if we take them singly by subjects, we h e a high
correlation with the ranks on page 22 which deal with the
number of high schools offering each subject o the cur-
riculum.
Perhaps it is worth while in this connection to make a
little running discussion of the course of stud To begin
with, it seems a bit strange that only two-thirds s many high
schools offer Spanish as French. This is all th more notice-
able when we consider our proximity to Me co, Cuba and
other Spanish speaking countries to the south of us, together
with the fact that in some localities within t state we have
a considerable Spanish speaking population.
Practically two-thirds of all the four-y ar high schools
offer Solid Geometry, and practically there fourths of them
offer Trigonometry.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


There are several interesting things about the social sci-
ences. To begin with, English History seems to be on the
decline. It is probable that as a separate subject it will dis-
appear from the high school curriculum. Many of our leading
educators feel that we should teach English History as a part
or phase of European History, so as to give it its proper setting
or perspective. Sociology and Economics are making their
appearance in some of the larger, stronger four-year high
schools. This is a hopeful sign and a strong indication of the
lines along which the social studies will develop in the next
few years. In fact, there is no phase of our high school cur-
riculum in this state which needs recasting more than our
present social science course. It is hoped that we will soon
come to the scheme recommended by the committee of the
National Educational Association on the Reorganization of
Secondary Education.* This committee recommends that we
teach American History and Civics, based on an elementary
view of old world background, in the earlier grades of the
high school, following this by a study of European History,
stressing the modern period, and closing the course with an
intensive study of American history since the 17th century,
especially stressing present problems of American democracy.
Such a scheme would break down the present monopoly which
classical education has upon the freshman in high school, and
thus free him from the strangle-hold of English Composition,
Algebra, Latin and Ancient History.
Throughout the nation, Physical Geography has practically
disappeared from the high school curriculum. The kernel of
this subject has been absorbed by General Science, Physics
and the other high school sciences, or it has worked its way
up to where it belongs-in the college. One of the best evi-
dences of this statement is the fact that none of the great
publishing h-uses are bringing out any new high school books
in the field.
It is indeed a gratifying thing to see that practically two-
thirds of all oir four-year high schools offer General Science.
In practically every state it has supplanted Physical Geog-
raphy in the freshman year.
It is the hcpe of the writer that at our next text-book
adoption, Biology will take the place of Botany and Zoology.
*Bulletin 1916, No. S U. S. Bureau of Education.






A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


As separate studies, these, too, have worked their way grad-
ually up into the college, and have been replaced by Biology.
In discussing this question, a recent bulletin* from the State
Department of Education of Texas, has this to say, which is
a very clear statement of the condition:
Botany and Zoology as separate high-school courses
are apparently disappearing from the high-school cur-
riculum. Only 1.4% of the Texas high school enrollment
in the year 1915-1916 studied the subject of botany, while
less than half this number were enrolled in zoology
courses (.58%). The reports of the United States Com-
missioner of Education show that from the years 1910
to 1915 the percentage enrollment in high-school botany
fell off 45% and in high-school zoology 59%. The ques-
tion naturally arises whether we should attempt to revive
the subjects, and aid them in their struggle for existence
or let them take the course that geology and astronomy
have taken. It should be stated here, however, that the
value of botanical and zoological truths are not any the
less appreciated; but the decreased interest in botany and
zoology as special whole-year courses is due rather to the
belief of many educators that the wanted biological truths
are approached and more sanely comprehended through
the general biology course. It is held by these educators
that the function of botany is not to give knowledge about
plants and plant activities, nor is that of zoology to give
knowledge about animals and animal activities, but on
the other hand, the educational function of both is to
develop an appreciation of the principles of life-to give
a knowledge of life and life activities. These life pro-
cesses are neither botanical nor zoological-being pecu-
liar neither to plants nor animals. They are biological
and are, therefore, best presented in a course in general
biology. This is the viewpoint of the majority of present
writers and leaders in educational matters. Of course
there are science men who disagree, claiming that the
scheme is unscientific and that it is impossible to com-
pound two distinct sciences-that the combination is an
unsavory mixture, and that it is but a futile attempt of
the uninitiated to make science easy and popular. Be
this as it may, the fact remains that botany and zoology
are disappearing as separate one-year high-school sub-
jects. They are being crowded out by biology and agri-
culture just as physical geography and human physiology
are being crowded out by the newer subject of general
science.
*Bulletin 85, February 15, 1919, entitled The Teaching of Science.





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


A whole bulletin would be required if we discussed fully
the subject of vocational education. Space will permit of
only a few statements. It is evident that any kind of voca-
tional work is practically unknown anywhere in these high
schools except in the four-year schools, and that it is of minor
importance there. For example, table XXI shows that there
were in 1919-20 in 63 of these four-year high schools 1569
pupils altogether taking any kind of vocational work, while
there were 3433 pupils taking Algebra, 1831 taking Ancient
History and 2404 taking Latin. This ratio would be very
much more against vocational work if we had the figures for
the present year. This financial crisis we are facing in our
schools has hit hardest the vocational subjects.* As best the
writer can ascertain, a very large per cent of the high schools
this year have had to drop temporarily some or all of their
work in Manual Training and Home Economics. They plan,
of course, to reinstate them as soon as finances will permit.
The financial pressure mentioned above has had like effect
upon Music and Drawing in our schools. It is little short of
an educational tragedy that we have had to strip our schools
of the vocational and avocational studies, and thus leave only
the traditional academic course. The struggle for the past
quarter of a century has been to get this work going, with the
hope that it would add the leaven to the whole lump. No
critical student of our high school can fail to realize that we
are woefully lacking when it comes to training our pupils in
the things which function in the development of the artistic
and emotional side of their lives.
So far teacher-training is a failure in the high schools of
the state. The movement has long since passed out of the
experimental stage in America. It is recognized in many
states as a satisfactory way of supplying teachers temporarily
for the elementary grades. If it is properly organized it
works to an advantage. If we would recast the present law
in this state so as to properly organize and finance these
teacher-training departments and place them only in the good,
strong high schools, so as to certificate for one or two years
the graduates of these departments, we would go a long ways
toward eliminating this court-house examination system now
in vogue which is so very unsatisfactory. In this way, in a
*This does not apply to the Smith-Hughes work.






A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


few years, we would be feeding into our elementary grades
teachers who would be high school graduates with a little
professional training, instead of the teacher who has crammed
for an examination, which is neither a test of scholarship nor
of professional insight.
On the whole, the Florida high school course of study is
overwhelmingly classical and traditional. The whole affair
looks to college entrance rather than to occupational pursuits.
No one questions the fact that one of the functions of the
modern high school is preparation for college entrance, but
it is only one of its numerous functions. If all our boys and
girls who go to high school eventually went to college, perhaps
no criticism could be made of our present practices, but they
do not. To throw some light on this situation, table XXII has
been prepared. In these percentages some allowance has to
be made, since we are figuring the number of graduates of
June 1920 on the basis of February 1921 enrollment. The
same thing is true of the per cent going to college. This, how-
ever, is not enough to make any material difference. The
table follows.
TABLE XXII
Showing the Percentage of High School Enrollment Eventually Gradu-
ating and Going to College

Number Graduates Number Previous
the June Pre- June Graduates
Away in College
Kind of vious Following Year
School


SZ aE Z M 0 __
4-Year ......................... 98 12095 485 847 1332 11 266 351 61 5.1
36 Southern
Assn. Schools ...... 36 7234 314594 90812.6 186 252 43 6.1

From table XXII we see that of the 12095 pupils in the
98 four-year' high schools only about 11 or 12 per cent will
eventually graduate and only about 5 or 6 per cent will even-
tually find their way to college. That forces us to face squarely
this question: Which shall we train, the 5 or the 95? In order
to be sure of preparing the 5 shall we force all pupils through
the narrow curriculum looking only to college entrance? The
task and objective of the modern high school is to prepare






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


both groups without sacrificing either. It is most certainly
the duty of the modern high school to prepare the 5 to enter
the higher institutions of learning, but it is likewise its duty
to feed the. 95 into their life-occupations with some helpful
training. It is for this reason that the writer feels justified
in saying that on the whole the high school course of study is
too classical and traditional to serve the best interests of all
its pupils. The 76 one, two and three-year high schools are
just the skeletons of real modern high schools. All the pupils
get in these schools is formal English, formal mathematics,
foreign language, the traditional history course and a modi-
cum of science usually taught without any laboratory or equip-
ment.
The teacher is not to be blamed and the pupil is to be
pitied. They are both the victims of the system. It is utterly
impossible and worse than foolish for one teacher to try to
teach two full years of high school work or for two teachers
to try to carry a full four-year high school course. Failure
is the inevitable outcome. Then what is the solution? For
Florida, as for the rest of the country, the only solution is
the junior-senior high school. Not the two and four-year high
schools as we use these terms in the state, but the modern
junior high school or the six-three-three plan. Instead of one
teacher trying to carry a two or three-year high school course,
or two teachers a three or four-year course, we should at-
tempt less and do more. Instead of these one, two and three-
year high schools offering a narrow curriculum of the tra-
ditional type, they should organize a real Junior High School
consisting of grades 7, 8 and 9, and then transport their grad-
uates to some centrally located point for their Senior High
School work in grades 10, 11 and 12. Instead of having a
large number of aspiring high schools with one teacher seek-
ing to do two or three years' work, we should have a series
of well organized Junior High Schools of grades 7, 8 and 9,
attempting less number of grades, but offering a greater va-
riety of work in each grade. Thus, by attempting a less num-
ber of years of work, they would be enabled to offer a wider,
richer, fuller curriculum which would meet the needs of the
95 as well as the 5.
The Junior High School Movement has already found its
way into Florida, in a number of the schools. Tampa, so far,






A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


has made further strides along this line than any other place
in the state. It has two Junior High Schools that are an honor
to the city. In these schools we see many of the essential fea-
tures of the Modern Junior High School in practice. Of
course, they do not have, as yet, all that we would like to see
tTiem have, but they are moving out in the right direction.
It is not best, in a new movement, to jump full fledged into
an organization. There are always some "first steps." Evo-
lution, rather than revolution, is usually desirable. Perhaps
they have done about all that is possible under the present
state organization. Development along certain lines is well
nigh impossible until we get a change in the state organization
and control of the high school in such matters as course of
study, textbooks and graduation requirements. It is for this
reason that so much depends on the textbook adoption, which
occurs soon. If regulations can be made so as to have text-
books adopted on two bases; namely, the 8-4 plan and the
6-3-3 plan, we will open up the way for greater progress.
That kind of a scheme would allow the more progressive
schools to organize their work on the Junior-Senior basis
without violating the regulations of the higher authorities,
or losing their places on the accredited list. The following
will show some of the innovations that Tampa has adopted.
By putting the Foreign Languages, Algebra, Commercial
Work, Manual Training and Home Economics, down into
the 7th and 8th grades; by finding a place in their curricu-
lum for the physical and artistic development of the pupils;
by instituting departmental teaching, promotion by subjects,
mid-year promotions, etc., they are cautiously and sanely inau-
gurating the real Junior High School movement, which means
a new day in secondary education. Their results speak for
themselves and are the final test. While Tampa's population
increased from 37,000 to 51,000 her high school enrollment
increased 41/2 times, and the number of her graduates 58/4
times. This indicates somewhat the power to draw, as well
as the power to hold the students in the high school during
the adolescent period, and this is one of the chief reasons for
which the Junior High School movement was instituted.





TABLE XVI
4-Year High School Curriculum

No. No. Foreign Social Natural Avoca Teacher
Teachers Pupils Language Mathematics Sciences Sciences ocational tonal Trainng

V Commercial Man. Dom.
Tr. Sci.
LOCATION m c 'M

SCHOOL
O. 0 l l I I S .
s -,, n II 1 1 ^ 51 ^ I IIi S i I SI I I j i i l
ii 1 Ai i i
SCHOL o0 0
P0 Poo E-, o W AE .4i I r 0 I q1N I 101 4 P


Alachua .............. ....
Apopka....... ............
Apalachicola .....- ................
Arcadia....................... .....
Avon Park. ...............
Barberville.....................
Bartow................................
Bonifay........ ...........
Bowling Green.......................
Bradentown ......--- .........
Brooksvlle.... .........
Bushnell......................
Chipley ... ....... ........
Clearwater .......-. .............
Cocoa ..- .................-------------
Crescent City...-... .....----
Dade City .................--..
Daytona .....................-..........
DeFuniak Springs................
DeLand .............................
Delray .................. ...........
Dunnellon.................... ...
Eau Gallie.............................

Fellsmere......--.........-.............
Fernandina ........................
Ft. Lauderdale.-- ---.. _----........
Ft. Meade..........................
y .....-a............................
i. Pierce ...... .....................
Cainesville ..........................
Gonaalez........... ....................
Gracevi ..........................
Green Cove Springs..
High Springs..................
Homestead.......... .....
Inverness...... ... .........
Jacksonville.... ....................
Jasper............. ..........
Key West ..............
Kissimmee................................
LaBelle ..................
Lake Butler...........................
Lake City........................
Lakeland ............................
Largo.........................-........
Leesburg.................................
Lemon City-......................
Live Oak ................
Lynn Haven ................--
Madison........................------..
Marianna........................
Mayo ...............................
Melbourne ..........................
M iam i ................................
Milton ...............................
Monticello ......... ................
Montverde (Indus.) ...............
Mulberry..........................
Muscogee..............................
New Smyrna .....................
Oakland-Winter Garden.....
Ocala....................... ...........
Okeechobee.............................
Orlando .....................................
Oviedo ...................... .........
Palatka.................................
Palmetto ..............................
Panama City..........................
Pensacola.................................
Perry ...............................
Plant City................................
Punta Gorda .....................
Quincy....................................
Redlands.................................
Sanford .....................................
Sarasota...................................
Seabreeze ..........................
Sebring ............................
St. Augustine...................
St. Cloud .......... .................
St. Petersburg ..................
Starke .................... ... ...........
Stuart......................................
Tallahassee.....................
Tampa...................................
Tarpon Springs .................
Titusville.................................
Trenton ...... .............
Umatilla............. ..........
Vero.................. ------.............
Waldo .... ...............
Wauchulao..................................
Webster .. ......
West Palm Beach..
Williston....................
Winter Haven .................
Zephyrhills...........................
Total ....................


II


21
2
2




1



..... n




2


2
1I
2.

S 2
.
2
2
2

2
2


2.

2
2.

2
2
..... 2
..... 2
..... 2



2.

2

2
2

2
.... 1




2
2
..... 2

2





1
2
2
2

1
S2
S2
2





2
2










2
1 2






S2
2


S2
2
2
2



















...... 2
l2
2

2
21






2
2:.:1


11
1.
1 1
11
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 .....
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1


1.
1 ..
1 ......
1 ......
1.
1
1......
11





1 ......
1 ......
1.
1.

1.
1
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.


1.
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1.....
1.---
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1.....
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S1.
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1 ......
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1 .
1.
1 .
1 .
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1.
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1 ...
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1 ....
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1


1.
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,
17 .'''..

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1""



1. '2

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. ... ..... --
S...... n ..

1..... %
1 ...... I%
I. n... ...... .-..
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S...... % %
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:1:: : : : "
...... ......



1 ...... I%
1 .. .






...... ...... %-
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2....... %
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1 ...... % %





1 1
. ..... ...... ......

.1 .. .... .

S % %



... ...... %
S ......n ....... .. .-

...... ....... n.... ....




... ...... n 2 %
. .. ...... I .


1Y2......

n .. ... .. ...... .n
...... ...... n
...... ...... n 2 %
1 ..... %
S1 1

1 ...... .



...... %
1. 7 %


.1 ....
.. ... 1 .....


1 1 I
S-- ...... n



1 ........
1 ... ...... n
........ 1...---..




1........... ,
::::;: 1 ;.. "1


. ..... 1 ......
1 1.... ... i

..... 1........ %
1 i ...... ... ... .
1.----- %
1 1...... I




...... 1 ..... I 1
...... .. .. .... r .
...... ..........

| h % -----


1 1 .
1 1-- 7


I.






%
'h






72



*"
"


1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1





1







1
:I
.1i

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.l

l1
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l1
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......--- ..--..




. ...... .








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1
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..... ...... '... .


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.I..





....... 1

1




. ....
....

... ....


::.:.-72 -- 72



.... .. 1 2.
...... %

...... 2 1





2 4 4

...... ..... .......













11
......| 2





















1 1
. ........ .


|...... . |
...I1-- -














I 2 2.2
1 1








......
... ...... 2


1







..... 1




1.. 1









1


...........
...... i......
1 1



..... 1










...... .....




..... 1.
...... 1












1 2
..... 1


...... 1
...... ...


16613801546114984171111209511| ll... ll... l..l...-- I--...... . --II. .....--- 1-....-..--....--.. ....-.--- -. I--.---.-....-- ...---- ------------------ -- ------


NAME
OF
SCHOOL


Clermont.......-........................
Floral City........................
Fort White............................
Groveland........................
Geneva....... ....................
Greenwood...... .............
Havana City .......................
Jupiter-.......................
Lake Wales........................
Macclenny.... ....................
Melrose..........................
Micanopy.. ...............
Newberry................................
Pinnetta........................ ........
White Springs.......................
Winter Park...........................


Total................... .............


No.
Teachers









a I s
2aJi


TABLE XVII !
3-Year High School Curriclum
I.Sola itatural.


No.
Pupils

I7


12 3.........2


12
9
10
11
13
12
11
10
12%
12
11
11
14
13
14
16


Foreign
Language


3 ...... 2

3 ... ..... .
3 ...... 2
3 ......... 2.
2 ......... 1
2 ............. 2
2 ......... 2
2 ......... 2
3 ... ...... 2
2 ..... .... 2
2 ........ 2

31 I 2
I2i 11. 11 2


Mathematics


1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.'..'... ......

1...... .'.....



1 .
1.
1.

1.
1.
ii 1.
ii...........
1...... ......
1 .'....'. ......

.. .. .


18| 10| 281| 137) 216 353||. ........ | ......0...... ...... ..
il.. -- - --- -- --- -


Social
sciences



5 ^.

4 I


Natural
Sciences


Vocational







0WV
% 20
0 aC A t


Avoca.


Avoca.
tional






bi.


Teacher
Training
I I


S 1 ...... ........... ....... 1 ............... .. ...... ...... ...... ............
S1.... .... .................... .. .... ...... ........... .... ............ ......
1 ... ... ................. 1 .... ........... ........... ....... ......
S ......... ...... ................ ...........

1 1 .. ................. ...... ....... ..... .. ........
1 1 1 1................................ ............ ..... ...... ....
S 1 1 1 ......I. ..... ...1........... .... .....


_..I...I. .I.I.I.I. .........................i.


TABLE XVIII
2-Year High School Curriculum

No. No. Foreign Mathematics Social Natural Vocational Avoca- Teacher
Teachers Pupils Language Sciences Sciences tonal Training
Home
V Econ.
NAME.
OF a

W.. 2 E V Vby
SCHOOL o S g S E d L d C *


a I S I I a 5 I I I | I I 2 | I
-101 71017 6 2............ 1:...........4 0:o

A th .. ....... .......... ........ 19 25 2 2.......... ...... ...........1 ............ 1.................... .... ...... ............... ...........
A n na..................................5 .......... 1 7 2 ...... ...... ... 2 .... ..... ...... ...... 1 ...... .... ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ........... ............ .... ...... ...... ......
Ar her..... .. ............0 1 10 6 16 8 2 2................ ............. .. 1..... 1...... ... ... ............ ........................
B er...... ................ 1 0 1 2 7 8 2 2 ...... ...... ..... 2 ...... ....... ...... .................. ..... ..... ...... ...... ... ..... .......... .....
er .......................................... o 1 10 6 16 8 2 2 ...... .... 2 ...... ...... ...... 1 1 - ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
B a r ................................1 .......... 8 2 ...... ...... .... 2.... ....... ....... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... .. ............. ...................... ......
Branford .................... 1 0 1 4 5 9 8 2 ...... 2 ..... ...... ...... 1............ ...... 1 ... .... ...... 1 .... .................. ... ..... ...... ......
B nne ............................... 1 1 21 1 8 2................. 2................ 1 ...... ....................... ......
C ha t o o ......................... 1 2 4 8 2 ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 1 1 ...... ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
BCaraellt 1 71 2 2 7 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... ............. .... ..................... ...... ................ ......
C er ll .... .. 0 1 4 3 7 8 2 ...... ......... .......... 1 1 ..... .......................... ..................................
Carrabelie 1. 1 2 7 9 11 2 2 ... .. ...... 1... 1 1......... .... ...... ... ... ..................1.......................
Century 1 ..... ......................... 1 3 8 11 8 2 2 ... ......... ... ... ..1 ...... .. 1 ............ ................ ...... .

Citra ocee.... ................... ...... 1 1 3 710 7 2 111.... ......2 ...... : ...... .... ......... ........... ............ ...........
eCooanutr 1 .... ........... 101 7 19 810 2 2 ......... ...... 1 ...... ...... ... .............
Colemans broi e -... .............. ......1 6 4 1 08 2 .... . 1..... 1.... ....... 11 .. . .. .. ......... ...... ........ ...... ..... ......
Concord' ..............1 1.... 0 2 10 8 2 2 ...... 2..... .... .... ......... .......... ... ..... ......
G eDa nia sb8... .................... 1 0 1 7 1 8 2 1.... ...... ...2 .... ...... .......... ........... ...............1 ......... ............. ... ... ...... .. ...............
Laren ill ... ............. ...... ..... ...... 1............ .. .......................
SElfers........- ...-...........0 1 1 6 7 8 .. 1 8 2 ............................................. .............................

G ote pre o ............................... 1 1 11 1 2 ........... ...... ...........1...... ...... I...... ..... ...... ...... ......... 1 .. ......

G r fetna b o.. . . ...... .. ..... 0 1 6 4 1 8 2 2 1... 1 .- .. ...--..... ... ... . . ... . . . . .
Haines Cit y ............ 6 7 1.......3 1 10 2 ............ .... 1 ...... ......... ............ .. ............% % 1 1 ...... ............
Greng sboro.........................


Hasterngs .... . . .................. 27 1 1 9 2........... ......1 ...... 2 .... .. 1...... ........... ........ ..... ......... ...... .... ...... ..........
Hawthorne..................... 1 0 1 12 11 2 1 1 8n 2.2. .. .. . .. .. .................. .............. .. .. ......... ..........
Haines Citya ....................1.. 1 6 Q 3 1 9 9 1 2 1 1 1......... ..1................. I ......I...... .....

ni .................................-.. 1 0 51 1 ..... ...... ........ ...... 1 1.... ......... ...... . ... .. .. ..... ....... ...
atenings .................... ............. 1 0 1 5 7 12 8 2 ........ ...... 1 ..... ..... .. .......... ...... ...... .... ........ .............. ........ ...... ...... ....... .....
awth orene.................. 10. 1 4 1 45 71 .2............. 2...1 .. ....................... ................ ...................

La rt ........ .................... 1 1 11 2 .. ...... ... .. ......... .... 1 1 ....... ..... 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ............... .................. .. .... ......
J 1nning5..1....1 01
Lar e in ................................... 1 2 75 13 1 8 2 1 ............ ... 11......1............ ............................. ...... .....
.............. ........ 1 .............. ..................... .... ...... .. ...... ...
Lawtke .......................1................ 1 ...... ..... ..2 ...-- ........ 1 1........... 1 ................. ...... ...... ......
Lecaknto..................................... 10 1 1 5 712 8 2 2..... ........ 2 .............. ..1.........................n 1...... .........I......... .... .......... ........ ...... .....
M c lntosh....... .... ......... 1 0 1 5 5 10 2 2...... ......... .... .... ............ ...... ...... ....... ............. ..... ... .... ...... ...... ...... ......

M l v ille ....... .... .... .... .... .... ..... 1 1 1 9 3 3 2 9 2 ... .. .. ... .... ... .. .......... ...... -...... ........ n ...... n ...... ...
t ey..................................... 0 1 2 .................. .... ..... ................................... ............ .....................
aentyaora................ 101510 12 2............ 2. 2......... ......1..................................................... ...........................
xorl .................1 ign Social Natu 1 Avoc ... ... ...... ........ac.... ......
Mount2ora 1 1 8101 310 2 2......1...... ..........1 1............
..... 1 1 6 ................................ ..... ....................... .....................
Safety Harbor.........1..... 1 1 0 1 ...... .... 1......... 1 1 .............. .....................
lSmeameon ..... .......... 10 1 4 1 6. 6 1... .. ...... ... . ...... ....1 2 I 1 ...... ....... ........... ............... ...












M orri :::o :::::::: OM 12 1 34 4 1J 1 Pr.. U ..I.... 14.1P. 11 1114
Wu ldor ie.d. .................... 0 1 5 91 4 9 ...... ............ .1 ......... 1 ................................................. ......................













0id1o d 9 4%. ........ ..... ..
eZwood............................... .1 23 361 599 ...............21..1......... .1 ............... ....... ............ ...... ... ......I............
1 Data for 1919-20. 7 ------1...

TABLE XIX
1-Year High School Curriculum ___ ___

SNO i No Foreign Social Natural Avoca Teacher
Teachers Pupils Language Mathematics Sciences Sciences Vocational tAona, Training


NAME -


SCHOOL o 0 0






A l R iver........................... 0 0 1 31 60 4 1 1 ...... ....... IIt................. ...... ............ .... .. ...... .............. .... .... .... .... .... .... ..................



1 ........ 1 .............. 1...... .... ...................................... ..... .... ........
tBelvew .................... . 0 1 ......
B dorrest...................011." 5 4 9 4 1 1 .... ............ 1 .......... ...... ............ ........ ....................*.. *** -- --

Srophoe ......................... 1 0 1 2 4 1 ........... 1 ....... 1 ....... 1......... ........ ...... .. ... ..............
Montbroo s............ .. 1 0 1 .... ........ ... ........ ..... 1 ..... ..... ...... ..... ........... ..................
Reddic i1........... ...................... 0 1 13 4
o e .................................. 1 0 1 1 2 4 1. ............... 1 ..... .. I .. ....... 1 ..... ...... .......... .. .... ....... ......... ..... ...............
e al........................ .... 0 1 2 3 1............. ..... ... ............. 1 ......... .... ...... ...... I........... ....... I. .....
Sopchoppy................... ........ 0 1 1 1 1 1. ......... ...................... ..................... ...
St. Andreon .................. 1 1 3 4 1 ......... ........... ........................................................
T ota .....d ............................... 7|.15||.3910 15|.74||..3...8 4 ||...1..||......|......|......ll.1....l-.....l......l....-ll-I....1.I....l.I-.-.l......l .-...l.-..I.l......l......l...I..ll..I-.-l..-.l..l. Ill..l. Ill ..lI.l..
Total................81 71 1511 391 351 7411.I..... 1.I.I.I.ii.I.I......I..I. I.I.II. I.I.I .II.I.I


English


Foreign
Languages


11 11I 1 1 1 1 -,


II -: -.T. 4w-- --- - --* --- __


TABLE XX

Showing Number and Percent of High Schools of Each Type Offering EIach Unit in Course of Study _
... . II f lTeacher


Mathematics



a, P

S .. V V
0
wS OW E-1 0


Social
Sciences



a a
.-o u..Q 5


;~ .2
A 0

09t 79 1 I

0 P 0
0.8
.0W .0 V
P P.I Ow


Natural
Sciences


o .0
N P


N IN.IcoIoN.o| No/ o .1c No.] l0/ No.1 0/ INo. %o INo.1 % No.1 % No.10 I
11.M. I II /I 5 IhS.S.I IN0. I ~ l l % . ...... -


............ 15 15100
............I 4511 451100 I
............ 1611 16100
981 1 s 9 i80n


40 ...................................... 14 93 1 6.6....... ........
32 71.1 ........ ...... ........ ........ 2 4.4 45100 10 22.2....... .... .... ...
14 87.51 1 6.8.. .. .... .... ..I... 16 100 14 87.5 1 6.3 1 6.3
97 99 41 41.81 28 28.5 81 8.1 98100 91 92.8 63 64.3 72 73.5


7i 4Z.


1173.3 2 13.3 2 13.3 2 13.3 ........ ...... ... 4 26.6 1 6.6 853.3 1 6.6 1 6 ........ ...............
39 86 6 33 73.3 2 4.4 7 15.5....... ...... 19 42 2 4.4 14 1 3 15 33.3 14 31.1........ .........
13 81.3 12 75 7 43.8 11 68.8.............. ........ ...... 3 18.8 1 6.3 6 37.5 3 18.8 318.8 850........
92 93.9 85 86.8 47 48 94 95.9 11 11.2 4 47 48 7 7.1 61 62.2 68 69.4 67 68.41 65 65.4 48


89.11 1321 7.9 8 33.3


65.5| 6.3 2.31 1 731 42 1 ll 6.31 891 51.21 871 60 85148.71


471


Vocational



0 M -
2 035 20 '

0 .w aao
U E -
No.1 % No.| % |No. % INo. l %


........ ...... .. 2 4.. 1 t
2 4.4 5 11.1 3 66.6
1 6.3 1 6.3 1 6.31 1 6.3
I 24 1 2 21 21.4 42 42.9 12 12.3


Avocational Training



eo


a a u
|No.1 % |No.| % IJNo. %



13 13.31 21 2 32 32.6


l 25 14.41 24 14 48 27.6 17 7 161 .21 31 1.7 l 1.4


1 Compiled from Tables number XVI to XIX.


Kind of
School


1-Year
2-Year
3-Year
4-YVar


Total ............II 17411 1741100


1 1491 85.61 42 24.1 28 16.11 101 5.71 173 99.41 1161 66.6 41 85.


-


-Fl t


I


-- _II


, .,, __, ., _,,


alm w j 04io_ m


-- i ...... ... .1 1


s x, s o, ..s ... ..,, -


. . . .............................. . .. . .. .


I I . . .-- .


I


II ~r~i


I


Naua


11


11


II No.1%I l .1Ol IN o. o. I I 1%Ja lwojoo I o. / N loI O1Oo JI O1co110. olLO1Yo II- / J 1V AU170 1 0 1 l / -, -


' ~~1 '1II---I IY1--l IVI-~-l IYII-~l IVI---l 11I----I '- ~ ~:
.. ---~----:


___


,t- i ea ....... I rail vaYYIu i


...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... I ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......I ..... ......


I


i




University record
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075594/00494
 Material Information
Title: University record
Uniform Title: University record (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the State of Florida
University of Florida
Publisher: University of the State of Florida,
University of the State of Florida
Place of Publication: Lake city Fla
Publication Date: November 1921
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: College publications -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Agricultural education -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
University extension -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Teachers colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Law schools -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1906)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issue for Vol. 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1907) is misnumbered as Vol. 1, no. 1.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Imprint varies: <vol. 1, no. 2-v.4, no. 2> Gainesville, Fla. : University of the State of Florida, ; <vol. 4, no. 4-> Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida.
General Note: Issues also have individual titles.
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Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Organization
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Teaching force
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Course of study
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Tables XVI-XX
        Page 31
Full Text














University of Florida
Teachers College



Issued by the
Department of Secondary Education
















A Study of Florida High Schools
By


JOSEPH ROEMER, PH.D.,
Professor of Secondary Education and
High School Visitor









ORGANIZATION
There is not a more pleasing chapter of the history of
Florida education than the development of the public high
school. Starting as it did in the closing years of the last
century, it grew to such proportions as to justify state super-
vision and inspection as early as 1907, and now has reached
such a magnitude as to demand more than one inspector. The
story of its growth in number of teachers employed, amount
and value of library and laboratory equipment installed, new
buildings added, etc., reads like a fairy tale to one who traces
it back through the Biennial Reports of the State Department
of Education. When the future is considered in the light of
past development it brings a flush of heart to those who have
absolute faith in the great democratic movement of the mod-
ern high school.
In order to get a little better idea of its present condition
and possible future lines of development, the writer thought
it would be of interest to take a cross section, as it were, of
its present status. This is not, in any way, intended to be an
exhaustive study, but merely an attempt to call attention to
a few of the outstanding phases of high school development
in Florida.
The bulletin is divided into three chapters. The first chap-
ter deals with the general organization of the high school
including such topics as number of high schools, kind of high
schools, enrollment, etc.; the second chapter has to do with
the training, tenure, supply, etc., of teachers; and the third
chapter deals with the course of study.
In presenting the data contained herein, it was deemed
advisable to group the high schools for discussion under the
following headings: FOUR YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS; THREE
YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS; TWO YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS;
ONE YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS.
In order to make the study as helpful as possible and to
have the conclusions drawn from as full data as possible, a
very thorough search and great effort was made to secure
data for every high school in the state regardless of size.
Through the kindness of Professor W. S. Cawthon, State High
School Inspector, the name and location of all high schools





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


in the state was secured, then data obtained concerning them
by means of a blank which was filled by each principal.

At this point the writer wishes to express his deepest ap-
preciation to the high school principals for their extreme cour-
tesy in filling so promptly and carefully the blank sent them.
Their willingness to cooperate made the study possible. Special
mention is also due to Messrs. S. W. Cason, G. C. Hamilton,
H. C. Johnson, and H. L. Tolbert, senior students in Teachers
College of the University of Florida, for their assistance in
preparing the material for publication.

Tables I to IV give the enrollment for each particular high
school of the state for February 1921. Table V is a summary
of tables I to IV. The tables follow without further comment.


TABLE I

Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(4 Year High Schools)


GRADES

Location 9th 10th 11th 12th Grand Total
of School
___ _ m _ 3 E. ^3 m S E


Alachua ........ 16 28 441 16 23 39 4 3 7 3 6 9 39 60 99
Apalachicola 13 15 28 1 7 8 0 7 7 0 3 3 14 32 46
Apopka ............ 7 7 14 3 4 7 3 3 6 0 2 2 13 16 29
Arcadia 1 O 23 31 54 15 28 43 10 29 39 7 11 18 55 99 154
Avon Park ...... 7 16 23 5 5 10 2 3 5 1 5 6 15 29 44
Barberville 7 7 14 6 6 12 1 5 6 2 3 5 16 21 37
Bartow 1 o. 25 24 49 22 34 56 20 28 48 6 20 26 73 106 179
Bonifay .- - 12 15 27 3 13 16 2 4 6 2 3 5 19 35 54
Bowling Green 7 12 19 2 8 10 1 4 5 3 4 7 13 28 41
Bradentown 1 6 35 57 92 24 34 58 18 19 37 11 11 22 88 121 209
Brooksville 14 9 23 16 7 23 6 6 12 8 7 15 44 29 73
Bushnell ............. 2 5 7 5 9 14 2 2 4 0 1 1 9 17 26
Chipley 20 29 49 18 20 38 5 5 0 4 3 7 47 57 104
Clearwater 1 24 39 63 18 21 39 16 20 36 13 22 35 71 102 173
Cocoa ....... 9 10 19 6 13 19 5 11 16 2 3 5 22 37 59
Crescent City . 6 8 14 1 5 6 3 3 6 3 0 3 13 16 29
Dade City 16 32 48 7 14 21 4 4 8 3 11 14 30 61 91
Daytona 1 28 38 66 13 36 49 14 15 29 6 9 15 61 98 159
DeFuniak Spgs. 25 29 54 16 21 37 11 14 25 8 11 19 60 75 135
DeLand ....... 22 28 50 23 24 47 5 29 34 5 14 19 55 95 150
Delray..... 5 10 15 4 5 9 6 6 12 0 4 4 15 25 40
Dunnellon 1.... 8 13 21 3 5 8 6 5 11 0 2 2 17 25 42
Eau Gallie .......... 7 0 7 1 2 3 1 5 6 2 0 2 11 7 18
Eustis .............. 15 7 22 7 13 20 8 8 16 3 2 5 33 30 63
Fellsmere .......... 2 5 7 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 5 8 13
Fernandina ...... 2 12 14 2 6 8 1 2 3 0 3 3 5 23 28
Ft. Lauderdale 6 25 28 53 12 18 30 12 10 22 11 14 25 60 70 130
Ft. Meade 19 24 43 13 20 33 7 15 22 6 13 19 45 72 117
Ft. Myers 1 30 31 61 18 23 41 8 11 19 8 8 16 64 73 137
Ft. Pierce 12 31 43 15 14 29 6 11 17 2 12 14 35 68 103
Gainesville 50 39 89 21 43 64 24 34 58 8 17 25 103 133 236



















Location
of School



Gonzalez ..............
Graceville ............
Gr. Cove Spgs...
High Springs 1
Homestead 1 ..
Inverness ........
Jacksonville .
Jasper 3 ..............
Key West ..........
Kissimmee 1 o
LaBelle 1 ............
Lake Butler 1 ....
Lake City ..........
Lakeland 1 6 ......
L argo 1 - .......-..
Leesburg 6 ..........
Lemon City ......
Live Oak 1 ......
Lynn Haven ......
Madison 1 ......
Marianna 1......
M ayo .....................
Melbourne .......
Miami � ................
Milton .......
Monticello ..........
Montverd (Ind.)
Mulberry ..........
Muscogee ............
New Smyrna 1
Oakland-Win-
ter Garden 1 ..
Ocala 1 6 ..............
Okeechobee 3 ....|
Orlando 6 ..........
Oviedo ................
Palatka 1 ........
Palmetto 1 ......
Panama City a
Pensacola 1 6 ....
Perry 3 ................
Plant City 1 ....
Punta Gorda 1..
Quincy 1 ..........
Redlands ...........
St. Augustine ....
St. Cloud ...
St. Pet'burg 6
Sanford 1............
Sarasota 1
Seabreeze 1 6
Sebring ................
Starke ..................
Stuart ..................
Tallahassee 1 6
Tampa 1 7 ........
Tarpon Spgs. o
Titusville .......
Trenton ............
Umatilla .............
V ero .....................


A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS 5


TABLE I-Continued

Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(4 Year High Schools)


GRADES

9th 10th 11th 12th Grand Total


C 0 0 0 o *Po o
et m o E- Cm E O Eo


6 15
6 17
16 19
7 16
10 18
5 14
25 497
10 20
33 52
32 46
9 16
12 17
30 61
72 121
27 32
14 26
13 28
18 35
4 4
6 21
18 22
6 13
21 33
172 287
20 38
11 16
26 55
18 27
5 8
21 43

11 16
34 69
7 16
77| 143
4 6
25 45
31 43
16 28
106 178
16 25
42 83
14 24
23 35
10 18
35 59
13 20
130 217
35 74
16 29
13 22
10 18
10 19
8 13
37 65
231 411
17 26
17 22
12 17
8 11
18 26


4 12
11 20
1 4
6 9
9 17
11 14
167 285
5 6
21 42
19 26
7 8
5 6
21 33
42 85
9 13
13 25
7 13
19 33
3 5
7 15
12 18
6 11
16 22
107 191
16 27
13 16
18 24
16 27
1 7
17 21

4 5
32 43


21 32
24 38
8 15
58 98
14 23
31 62
7 20
15 24
4 6
25 49
10 13
134 207
42 63
13 28
12 16
7 8
5 13
8 13
38 61
207 340
13 27
6 10
11 11
11 17
7 10


39
48
27
36
53
45
1067
39
129
109
34
33
124
318
73
88
56
90
15
83
71
36
76
729
103
46
105
73
21
90

36
174
37
347
13
113
121
62
425
74
203
62
107
33
165
58
641
188
76
57
44
46
37
195
1106
79
54
37
35
51


~"


I





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE I-Continued
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(4 Year High Schools)


GRADES

Location 9th 10th 11th 12th Grand Total
of School -

Fl 1 -s ^ S
E' P 0 FEl P q o i. 1 f 0 m 0
Waldo 1 ..... ..... 3 5 3 0 0 1 1 2 6 10
Wauchula 1 .... 2 29 57 1 30 22 28 1 1 29 6 82 144
Webster ......... 1 16 31 4 5 9 1 5 1 2 23 48
W. Palm B'ch 1 43 56 99 31 52 83 2 34 58 10 33 43 108 175 283
Williston .. 611 7 14 1 7 8 0 6 6 1 26 39
Winter Haven 1 20 2 45 20 2 44 22 19 41 9 27 36 71 95 166
Zephyrhills 3 .. 610 16 7 512 5 4 9 3 5 8 2124 45
1207812713147911 1365120331339811 884113481223211 65711017116741 49841711112095
1 On Senior List of State Department 1920-21.
2 On Junior List of State Department 1920-21.
3 On Intermediate List of State Department 1920-21.
SStatistics for 1916-17.
5 Statistics for 1917-18.
lMember of Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 1920-21.
SThese figures include 180 boys and 231 girls enrolled in the two Junior High
Schools in the ninth grade.

TABLE II
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(3 Year High Schools)


GRADES


Location
of School



Clermont 1 ....................
Floral City ......................
Ft. White ......................
Geneva ...........................
Greenwood ....................
Groveland 1 ........................
Havana 1 ..........................
Jupiter ..........................
Lake Wales 2 ....................
Macclenny ......................
Melrose ...............---
Micanopy ..... ............
Newberry ...................
Pinetta ............................
White Springs .................
Winter Park ......-............


9th

0-

6 3
2 5
16 3
2 3
3 7
4 6
6 13
5 2
7 4
2 6
5 5
4 18
8 10
1 4
4 17
4 10


S10th 11th




911 21 2 41 1 o1 1 2
7 0 4 4 0 2 2


SGr'd Total

aa0

9 5 14
2 11 13
22 14 36
3 5 8
4 12 16
8 8 16
15 28 43
7 2 9
) 15 15 30
5 10 15
6 13 19
S10 22 32
9 16 25
2 12 14
8 23 31
S12 20 32


Grand Total ..................| 791114119311 371 58| 9511 21| 44 651113712161353
1 On Junior List of State Department 1920-21.
On Intermediate List of State Department 1920-21.





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS 7

TABLE III
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(2 Year High Schools)

GRADES
Location 9th 10th Grand Total
of School
0 - 0 0 - 0 0 - 0
- 0 q 0 E-- m 0 E-0
Altha 1 ..-....-......--...-..-........ 6 13 19 0 6 6 6 19 25
Alva ......-.............-.................. 4 8 12 3 2 5 7 10 17
Anthony ...............-................- 2 2 4 3 3 6 5 5 10
Archer ................................--- 2 1 3 3 1 4 5 2 7
Baker ................ ......-............ 7 3 10 3 3 6 10 6 16
Bell ................-- ..-- ..- ..... ........- 2 1 3 0 4 4 2 5 7
Branford ................................ 4 4 8 0 1 1 4 5 9
Brooker ..-.............. --......-.....- 2 2 4 0 6 6 2 8 10
Bunnell - ................................ 1 10 11 1 4 5 2 14 16
Campbellville ........................ 2 1 3 0 1 1 2 2 4
Carrabelle .............................. 1 3 4 3 0 3 4 3 7
Center Hill .......................... 0 2 2 2 5 7 2 7 9
Century ...........-- ....-..........-...- 3 3 6 0 5 5 3 8 11
Chattahoochee --....--.............. 4 1 5 1 3 4 5 4 9
Citra ..........-- .......-- .....-.... ....--.. 3 2 5 0 5 5 3 7 10
Cocoanut Grove 1 .............-.. 6 6 12 1 6 7 7 12 19
Coleman .....................--.......- 4 3 7 2 1 3 6 4 10
Concord 2 ............................... 2 7 9 0 3 3 2 10 12
Dania 1 ................................. 2 7 9 5 1 6 7 8 15
Elfers ......--.....- . ~....-..--...... 5 2 7 1 2 3 6 4 10
Enterprise - ..............--......... 3 4 7 3 3 6 6 7 13
Frostproof 1 ......-.................- 7 3 10 4 4 8 11 7 18
Greensboro 1 ......................... 2 4 6 5 11 16 7 15 22
Greenville ---............-....--- .. 2 1 3 1 3 4 3 4 7
Gretna 1 ....................-........... 5 3 8 1 2 3 6 5 11
Haines City .....................-.... 2 4 6 1 3 4 3 7 10
Hastings .- --------------.... 4 11 15 2 2 4 6 13 19
Hawthorne ...--.--- .. -------- 1 2 3 4 5 9 5 7 12
Hilliard .................-- ............ 2 1 3 2 0 2 4 1 5
Jennings .......-----................... 4 7 11 1 4 5 5 11 16
Kathleen ........................---.... 3 5 8 2 4 6 5 9 14
Lake Worth ....-..........-..-.... --13 22 35 2 9 11 .15 31 46
Larkins ............................... 2 2 4 5 4 9 7 6 13
Laurel Hill ..-....................... -5 2 7 0 5 5 5 7 12
Lawtey ................................... 3 6 9 0 2 2 3 8 11
Lecanto ...............................-- 0 2 2 0 3 3 0 5 5
McIntosh ........................... 5 3 8 0 2 2 5 5 10
Millville .............................. 13 9 22 6 4 10 19 13 32
Mt. Dora ............................. 3 9 12 1 2 3 4 11 15
Oxford .......-............-.....-------- 6 10 16 2 0 2 8 10 18
Safety Harbor ............-....... 4 8 12 2 3 5 6 11 17
Sebastian ............................... -1 3 4 3 1 4 4 4 8
Summerfield ........................ 3 3 6 1 3 4 4 6 10
W ildwood 1 ..............-............. 4 6 10 1 3 4 5 9 14
Zellwood .......................--...... 2 3 5 0 3 3 2 6 8
Grand Total ......................I 1611 2141 37511 791 1461 22411 2381 3611 599
SOn Junior List of State Department 1919-20.
2 Statistics for year 1919-20.





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

TABLE IV
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(1 Year High Schools)


Location
of School


GRADES


Boys


9th Grade
Girls ITotal


Aucilla ...-......... . ~~... ..........-- .. . .. 3 3 6
Belleview ........................ ...------- --------- 1 2 3
Brewster -----............... ------.................-- ..... 5 4 9
B ristol ............... ............... ..................... 3 2 5
Cedar Keys---..............----.........--.--...... 5 2 7
Crystal River ---...........--..--- ...... --- 1 0 1
Gardner .... -----.......- --...------- ..---- .. 5 2 7
Hernando ............................---...... .--- -..-- 1 2 3
Montbrook ........--- .............. .........------------ 1 0 1
Morriston .................----------------... ........... 1 3 4
Ocoee ................... ..--------....---------- 2 4 6
Reddick .................---------...... .......--. 1 2 3
St. Andrews ..---...............-............ ............ 5 3 8
Sopchoppy .............---..............--- --... .......... 1 1 2
Wellborn ........................-- ------- ---- .. 4 5 9
Grand Total ........ -................ 39 35 74




TABLE V
Total High School Enrollment Classified According to Kind of High
Schools


Kind of 0 GRADES
School o -



-4- 0 r* I0 I V

1-Year ...- - - ---............ . 15 74............................. 39 35 74 .5
2-Year ...........--........-- . 45 375 224 ....--------- 238 361 599 4.5
3-Year ..........-.......... 16 193 95 65 ---.... 137 216 353 2.7
4-Year --................. 98 4791 3398 2232 1674 4984 7111 12095 92.3
Total ......-----......--- 174| 54331 37171 22971 16741 53981 7723113121|
Percent ....-.............-... ........ 41.41 28.31 17.41 12.91 41.11 58.91 ........- 100


To say there are only 98 four-year high schools in all the
state may seem disparaging, but the bright side of the picture
is revealed when we realize that 92.3 per cent of all the pupils





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


are enrolled in these, while only 5 per cent are enrolled in the
60 one and two-year high schools.
It is unfortunate to realize that in Florida, as in every
other state, nearly one-half (41.4 per cent) of all the high
school pupils are in the 9th grade, and over two-thirds (69.7
per cent) are in the first two years of high school, whereas
only 12.9 per cent are in the 12th grade.
Let us next see how many months in the year pupils attend
high school. That is, how many months the high schools run
in which the pupils are enrolled. Table VI gives the enroll-
ment according to the length of term the schools run, while
table VII classifies the high schools on the basis of the number
of months run. Tables VI and VII follow.

TABLE VI
High School Enrollment Classified According to the Length of Term


Kind of o g^ NUMBER OF MONTHS
School 6 0 �k





1-Year ------------- 15 5 5 20 40 9 74 .5
2-Year ..................... ------------ 45 13 11 61 23 399 105 599 4.5
3-Year ....----.............. 16 22 .......... . 30 323 ..... . 353 2.7
4-Year ...................- . 98 123 ....-....--......... - .. . 2607 9488 12095 92.3
Total ...........-..-.... 1741 751 111 661 731 33691 9488113121|
Percent .....--........-....--...........-- ...I .11 .51 .61 25.71 73.1 ..--..... 100

TABLE VII
High Schools Classified According to Length of Term


Kind of U
Kind of Number of Months Run '
School


3- ea2- e r .................. 4 1 1 / 13 5 2 .
0 0 . 0 0

1-Year ........................... 15....--........ 1 4 9 1 8.6
2-Year .----------..---- 45 1 4 3 32 5 25.9
3-Year ... --................-........... 16-......... 2 14. . 9.1
4-Year --...........---.. --..........98 ................................... 45 53 56.4
Total ............................I 1741 11 51 91 1001 591
Percent ............................-........... .61 3. I 5.21 57.41 33.81 100






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


From table VII we see that only 33.8 per cent of all the
high schools run nine months, yet table VI shows they enroll
73.1 per cent of all the pupils; and that while 57.4 per cent of
all the schools run only eight months, yet they enroll only 25.7
per cent of all the pupils. These conditions reveal the fact
that 92.3 per cent of all the pupils are enrolled in four-year
high schools, which makes the situation exceedingly prom-
ising.
Table VIII is inserted at this point for the purpose of
giving the reader a clearer conception of the development of
the high school since inspection began. These data were taken
from the Biennial Reports of the State High School Inspector.
The exact classification of high schools is reproduced here
which accounts for the seemingly confusing terminology in
the classification.
TEACHING FORCE
Another way to get a good idea of the status of the high
school is to consider the teaching force thereof. The old say-
ing, "As is the teacher so is the school," applies as truly to
the high school as to any part of the school system. Hence
the purpose of the chapter is to ascertain the following facts
concerning the teaching force of the Florida high schools:
How many high school teachers are there in the state giving
full time to the high school; where were these high school
teachers trained; what per cent of these high school teachers
is men, and what per cent is women; what per cent of the
men and women teachers were new in their jobs last year;
how long do the teachers work in one place? etc. The answers
to these questions should give us a little keener insight into
the status of our high schools.
Table IX which follows gives the total number of high
school teachers classified according to sex and type of school;
table X shows the number of teachers classified according to
the size of the school they work in; and table XI shows the
number of teachers classified according to the size of the high
school as measured by the number of teachers in the high
school faculty. The tables follow.









TABLE VIII
Total Enrollment in All Florida High Schools from 1907 to 1921

Classes and Number of High Schools _Grades

a 9th 10th llth 12th Boys Girls Total
Year .S a n si n ti s "_' I --. __ -

SNo. % No. % No. % No. % No. No. % No.
Oa ,i 4 cq O - C' C' co 1 1- 1 E-,
1907-08 .............. ................ ---- --- 783|42.6 454 24.2 350119.61 251 13.6 718139.1 1120160.9 1838
1908-09 ........... .......- -- ---- -------....- 917142 559 25.6l 389117.81 319114.6 880 40.3 1308 59.7 2184
1909-10 39 10 29 ......... - -.... ..............8 86 1420 46.8 824 27.2 446 14.7 341 11.3 1252 41.3 1779 58.7 3031
1910-11 ......... ..- ... .... 615 9 29 .... .... 14 73 1218 45.4 789 29.4 406 15.1 270 10.1 1057 39.4 1626 60.6 2683
1911-12 .... ........ .. ...-.... ...12 13 10 30 ........ 18 83 1650 47 971 27.7 544 15.5 343 9.8 1378 39.3 2130 60.7 3508
1912-13 .... .......... -.......... 25 8 32 ........ 17 82 1883 43.2 1254 28.7 769 17.6 458 16.5 1815 41.6 2549 58.4 4364
1913-14 ............................ 23 1139....... 14 87 211043 136328 84618 55211187639 299561 4871
1914-15 ............ 22 12 12 51 .......... ...... ..... 97 1987 44 1152 26 737 16 613 14 1829 41 2660 59 4489
1915-16 ......... 23 16 11 55 ............... .... .... 105 2650 42.6 1663 26.8 1128 18.1 77812.5 274344.1 347655.9 6219
1916-17 .. -.... - - ... . ... . - -- .. 40 21 25 26 112 2670 43.3 1678 27 1042 16.8 823 13.2 2676 43.1 537 56. 6213
1917-18 .. .... ........ ...- . ....48 21 16 18 103 2858 40.2 1989 28 1312 18.5 949 133 2847 40.1 4261 59.9 7108
1918-19 ............. .. .... ... .. 48 23 10 - 81 3126 40.2 200625.8 1439 18.5 1166 15.5 3030 40 4737 60 7767
1919-20 ........ . ......... .... 38 13 15 .... 66 2678 40 181126.9 1212 18 1042 15.1 2723 40.5 4020 59.5 6743
1920-21 16... 9815 .... 45 ....-. 27 .... 176 5433 41.4 13717128.3 2297 17.5 1674 12.8 5398 41.1 7723 58.9 13121


Principal teaches 8th, 9th and 10th grades.
SWith at least one teacher's whole time.
3 Regardless of the number of teachers.
SWith less than three teachers.
6 With three or more teachers.


* See discussion in Bulletin for explanation of groups in this
year.
7 This refers to the modern use of the term in case of these
two schools.





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Showing the Number and


TABLE IX
Percentage of Teachers in the Various Kinds
of High Schools


Kind of School SNo. o NO. TEACHERS
Schools

ai


No. | %
1-Year .....................----..............--- 15 8 7 15 2.3
2-Year ------...... .---......- --- ..........--. 45 38 14 52 8.1
3-Year .........................-.............. 16 18 10 28 4.4
4-Year .....-.................. ................. 98 166 380 546 85.2
Total .........-.......... ................ ..-.. 174 230 411 641
Percent of Total .......................................... 35.9 64.1 || 100
TABLE X
High Schools Classified According to Number of Teachers Employed


Kind of '0
School 6 0
Z4m


NUMBER TEACHERS


a) a | a a) a , )
____E-0 WE-I WE-i HE-< &q F4
1-Year ......---..-........ 15 15 ................ .....................
2-Year ..... --.-- . 45 38 7 .... .... .... ........... -.... ......
3-Y ear .................... 16 7 7 1 1 ..... -.... .....- ......
4-Year .................. 98 3 13 14 23 15 8 8 5 2 7
Total ................... 1741 63| 271 15 241 151 81 81 51 2j 7
Percent ............................ 36.2| 15.51 8.6 13.81 8.61 4.61 4.61 2.91 1.21 4
TABLE XI
Showing the Distribution of Teachers Classified According to the Size
of the High School as Measured by the Number of Teachers
in the High School Faculty


Kind of
School



1-Year .......-....-...-
2-Year ................-
3-Year ...................
4-Year ...................
Total ...........----...--
Percent .........------


C)


NUMBER OF TEACHERS


15 15 .... .. ......- ....-.- ........ ....... ...-- .... ---- - - -
45 38 14 ....... ........ - ... ...1 .... -. .. - .
16 7 14 4 ............. .. ...... ....
16 7 14 3 4---*------------------ -----------------
98 3 26 42 92 75 48 56 40 18 146
1741 631 541 451 961 751 481 561 401 181 146
.....| 9.81 8.41 7.1| 14.9 11.71 7.5[ 8.81 6.21 2.8 22.8





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


There are several interesting facts contained in tables IX
to XI. For the sake of brevity, a few of the chief ones can be
stated as follows:
85.2 per cent of all high school teachers work in
four-year high schools, while only 14.8 per cent are
employed in one, two, and three-year high schools.
35.9 per cent of all high school teachers are men
and 64.1 per cent are women.
36.2 per cent of all high schools are one-teacher
high schools.
15.5 per cent of all high schools are two-teacher
high schools.
Over one-half (51.7 per cent) of all high schools of
the state are one and two-teacher high schools.
Practically three-fourths (74.1 per cent) of all the
high schools of the state are four-teacher high schools
or less.
While 36.2 per cent of all the high schools are one-
teacher high schools, they employ only 9.8 per cent
of all the teachers.
While 51.7 per cent of all the high schools are one
and two-teacher high schools, they only employ 18.2
per cent of all the teachers.
While 74.1 per cent of all the high schools are four-
teacher high schools or less, they only employ 40.2 per
cent of all the teachers.
Practically one-fourth (22.8 per cent) of all the
teachers work in high schools with over nine teachers
in the faculty.
Another important question in this connection is: Where
were these high school teachers trained? It was practically
impossible to obtain these data for every teacher in the state,
consequently the writer took the 36 high schools which are
members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secon-
dary Schools as a basis. He had the data for these schools
already in hand, as it is called for in the Southern Commission
blank which each high school principal fills. Although the
following table covers only the 36 best and largest high schools
in the state, yet the writer feels that it fairly well represents
the state-wide situation. Table XII which gives these data is
followed by table XIII which is merely a summary of table
XII. With this explanation the tables follow.





14 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

TABLE XII
Table Showing the Higher Institutions in Which the Principals and
Teachers Were Trained Who Work in the Thirty-six Florida High
Schools Which Are Members of the Southern Association of Colleges
and Secondary Schools.1


Name of School State
or Country



Agnes-Scott College--............. Ga. .. .....
Alabama Polytechnic .............. Ala............
Alabama, University of.........- Ala ..........
Alma College ............------.......... Mich -........
Andrew College .. ---.................-- Ga. ........--
Arkansas, University of........ Ark.......
Athens College --..--..---.. . Ga. .......
Austin College ............ --.. . Texas
Baker College .........--------. Kan.
Beloit College .......................... W is . --
Berea College .------....................... Ky ....
Bowling Green Bus. Univ....... Ky. ......
Brenau College .....-------.................. Ga ..........
Burritt College ...... . ....... Tenn ............
Carson-Newman College-....... Va... .......
Chicago, University of............ Ill.
Citadel College ........ ........... S. C.
Colorado St. Teach's Coll....... Colo.
Columbia College ....-----............. Fla. --
Columbia, University of.......... N. Y ..
Converse College ........-........... S. C. ...
Cornell University----....--.............--N. Y ....
Culver Stockton College ........ Mo.
Cumberland University .......... Tenn .....-
DePauw University .-----............... Ind.
Dartmouth College ................ N. H. ....
Davis-Elkin College ................ W. Va. --...
Earlham College ................---- Ind ........
Elizabeth College ....-----........... Va. .
Emory University .. -----.............. Ga. --
Ecuador, University of.......... Ecuador .
Florida St. Coll. for Women..... Fla. ....-
Florida State Normal----............ Fla..
Florida, University of ............. Fla ..........
France (some institution)...... France
Franklin College ........-- ............ Ind.......
Furman University .-----............... S. C..........
George Washington Univ....... D. C...........
Georgia N. and Ind. Coll......... Ga. --
Georgia, University of .......... Ga.........
Goshen College...................----- ...... Ind
Goucher College ............. Md...---....
Grinnell College ...................... I a.


Teachers
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree
or More


Teachers
Not
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree


C





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS 15


TABLE XII-Continued


Name of School





Gym. City Bus. Coll.-...............
Hamilton College ....................
Harvard University ................
Hampden-Sidney College ......
Hillsdale College ...................-
Howard College ......................
Illinois, University of ............
Indiana State Normal............
Indiana, University of ............
Iowa State Normal ................
Kalamazoo College ................
Kansas A. & M. College........
Kansas State Normal ...........
Kansas, University of ......-----
Kentucky, University of .......
Knox College .....-.....- ---
Leland Stanford University....
Liberty College ......----........-----
Lima College ........--................
Louisiana, University of....---.
Mars Hill College..........--........
Martha Washington Coll......
Marquette College ---........
M arvin College ......................
Meridian College .................
Michigan State Normal ..........
Michigan, University of ........
Minnesota, University of..-.....
Mississippi A. & M. Coll.......
Miss., University of ................
Miss. State Normal ................
Missouri St. Teach's Coll......
Missouri, University of ..........
North Carolina, Univ. of........
North Dak. A. & M. Coll.......
New Hampshire College ........
Oberlin College ........................
Ohio, University of ..............
Oklahoma A. & M. College....
Oxford College ........................
Palmer College --.................
Peabody Coll. for Teachers....
Pennsylvania A. & M. Coll.....
Pennsylvania, Univ. of .......
Piedmont College ..................
Phillips University ..........
Princeton University ..............
Randolph-Macon Coll. (men).-.l


State
Country


Ill. ................
Ky. ----
Mass ............
Va. ..............
Mich. .........
Ala. _.......... -
Ill. ......
Ind. --..
Ind ..............
Ia .. .......-
Mich ........ ...-
Kan .......
Kan. .......-...
Kan. -....
Ky. .....
Ill ........
Cal. ............ -
Ky.......
Ohio.
La. ...........
N . C. ............
Miss. ......
Wash. ...--.
Ky. .....
Miss. .......
Mich.
Mich. ....----
Minn.
Miss. ............
Miss ........
M iss ............
M o ..............
Mo. -
N . C ............
N. Dak .....
N. H ..........
Ohio .........
Ohio ........
Okla ...........-
Ohio .-
Fla .. ...... -
Tenn ..........
Penn .......
Penn ...
Ga........
Okla. .......
N. J. ............
Va........


Teachers
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree
or More







1 0 1
.. ..... I.. ......






4 1 5

-- .---- ------ - - -

0 1 1
0 1 1


Teachers
Not
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree





0 11





0 0 0
0 0 0
.... .. .. ....
O 1 1
0 1 1
.. i l



.... ------ i ---i




1 0 1










-- - 1-----
....- --....- ------


----- . . - ---- -




.... ------ -----
.... ------ -----











------|------.------
1"" 0 1 ""












-- ----- -----


TABL XII-Coninue








16 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE XII-Continued


Name of School


Randolph-Mac. Coll. (wor.)....
Reynolds College ...................
Richmond College ..-..............
Rollins College ......................--
Royal Naval College ..............
San Antonio College ..............
Scarrett College ......---..............--
Smith College ....-............-......-
Shorter College ...................
Southern College ................-
South'n Methodist Univ ........
Southern Normal School ......
South Dakota, Univ. of .......-.
South Carolina, Univ. of........
Stetson University ..................
Stout Institute .....................--
Swarthmore College ..............
Syracuse University ............
Tennessee, University of ......
Valparaiso University ..........
Virginia, University of ..........
Virginia Military Institute .--.
Wake Forrest College ............
Wentworth Academy ..............
Wentworth Institute .............
Wesleyan College .................
West Va., University of..........
Western College .....................-
Westminster College .........-..
William Jewell College ..........
Williams College ................
Winthrop N. and Ind. Coll.....
Wisconsin, University of ......
Wittenburg College ................
Wooster College ......................
None or not given....................
TOTAL ............................


State
or Country


Va .-
Texas .--
Va ..-
Fla ---
England ....
Texas ---
Mo.
Mass .......
Ga........
Fla. --
Texas ..........
Ky. .....
S. Dak. ........
S. C .........
Fla .-...
Wis..
Pa .--
N. Y. ............
Tenn. --
Ind. ..-.
Va. -... .
Va. ...--
N. C. -......
Mass. .--
Mass.......
Ga. -
W. Va....
Ohio ....
Pa. .......
Mo...-
Mass .. -
S. C. ............
Wis.-
Ohio -
Ohio . .

S-... ..............- .11
S........................


Teachers
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree
or More

Cl
0 a


Teachers
Not
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree

I;c


911171126211 141 511 6511
281 521 8011 4.3115.71 2011


1 Not all the institutions listed above are recognized as standard by the
Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.


Percent of Total.............-.......-


---








A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


TABLE XIII
Table Showing Summary by States Where the Principals and Teachers
Were Trained Who Work in the Thirty-six Florida High Schools
Which Are Members of the Southern Association of Colleges and
Secondary Schools.1


States in Which
Higher Institutions
Are Located

Florida ......- --- - 7---.....
Georgia ......... ... .....
Virginia ..-----------------...........
Illinois ---. . ......
Indiana ..... .... ..........
Kentucky ......-------- ..........
Ohio ......... ......... ......
Tennessee ..........
South Carolina ...............
Wisconsin ......------ .........
M ississippi -.................
M issouri ....-.....------- ...... ....
Pennsylvania ..............
K ansas ................... .....
North Carolina ............
New York .......................
M ichigan ....................
Texas........
Massachusetts ..........
West Virginia .---
Washington -...--
Iowa .--.. ........
California ........... --
Alabama ......-
Louisiana .................... ...
M innesota ...................
Maryland ....--..........
Oklahoma ...............
Arkansas ......................
New Hampshire .........
Colorado ... ......... ...
New Jersey ....................
North Dakota ...............
South Dakota ..................
District of Columbia ......
Ecuador .................
England ...................
France -................-
Not given ...... ...............


Teachers
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree
or More
85
19
19
14
13
10
9
7
8
6
6
6
6
4
3
5
3
2
4
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
4
0


Teachers
Not
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree
17
5
0
2
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
0
0
1
2
0
2
3
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
3
12


Grand
Total


102
24
19
16
14
12
10
10
9
8
7
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
12


Total......................... II 262 65 | 327
Percent of Total.............. 80 | 20 II 100
1 Palmer College and Florida Military Academy are considered here since
they are both members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


The outstanding facts of tables XII and XIII are:
There are teachers from 126 higher institutions of
learning out of the state. These institutions repre-
sent 34 states, the District of Columbia and 3 foreign
nations.
Only 31.1 per cent of all the high school teachers in
these schools were trained in any kind of higher insti-
tution of learning in the State of Florida.
80 per cent of all the teachers are college graduates.
The 68.9 per cent of teachers in these 36 high
schools trained outside of Florida, do not represent any
one state or higher institution of learning, but come
from a large number of institutions scattered over a
wide range of territory.

Still another interesting question in this connection is:
How long have the teachers in these high schools worked in
their present positions? Two tables dealing with the question
are presented here. Table XIV which includes all the high
school teachers of the state, shows only the number and per
cent of teachers that are serving their first year in their po-
sitions. Table XV which included all the teachers for the 36
Southern Association high schools, shows the number of years
each teacher has been in his or her present position. Tables
XIV and XV follow.

TABLE XIV
Showing Number and Percent of High School Teachers New in System

NEW TEACHERS IN SYSTEM
Kind of Men Women Total
School
00 CAW
6 No. % No. % No. %
____________aZ rZE ___Z91
1-Year ...................... 15 15 3 37.5 ......... ......... 3 20
2-Year ....................... 45 52 24 63.1 14 100 38 73.1
3-Year ......................... 16 28 6 33.3 5 50 11 40
4-Year ......................... 98 546 82 49.4 193 50.8 275 50.4
Total ....................... 1741 64111 1151 50 II 2121 51.611 3271 51





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


TABLE XV
Showing the Tenure of the Principals and Teachers in the Thirty-six
High Schools Which Are Members of the Southern Association of
Colleges and Secondary Schools.1


Years in
Present
High School




First ..................................
Second ......-..-......................
Third ......................- ........
Fourth .......................
Fifth ..........................
Sixth ....... .... ..............
Seventh ............-- ..-
Eighth ................... .
Ninth ....................
Tenth .................
Eleventh ..........-................
Twelfth .........................
Thirteenth ...............
Fifteenth .....................
Sixteenth ...................-
Twenty-second ............
Total ............................
Percent ......................


TEACHERS


Teachers
Trained in
Higher Insti-
tutions in
Florida

0



10 35 45
3 13 16
4 12 16
....... 3 3
....... 6 6
........ 4 4
........ 1 1
........ 1 1

........ 1 1



...... 1 1
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -
----- --- .. --------..


Teachers
NOT
Trained in
Higher Insti-
tutions in
Florida





22 72 94
15 24 39
8 17 25
2 5 7
1 6 7
........ 5 5
........ 2 2
1 2 3
1 2 3
.... 3 3
2 3 5

_ ""... 1 1
1 1
........ 1 1


II 3611 171 781 9511 52| 1441 19611 3271
---........ 31.12 || 68.9 1 .......100


1 Palmer College and Florida Military Academy are considered here since
they are both members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools.
2 This percentage is arrived at by adding to the 95 teachers 7 principals
who were trained in higher institutions of learning in Florida.

From a study of these tables we see that:

50 per cent of the men teachers and 51.6 per cent
of the women teachers, or a total of 51 per cent of all
the teachers, are new in their positions.
46 per cent of all the teachers and principals in
these 36 high schools are new in their positions.
Practically two-thirds (65 per cent) of all the
teachers in these 36 high schools are new or are serving
their second year.
Practically four-fifths (79.4 per cent) of all the
teachers and principals in these 36 high schools have
served only two years or less in their positions.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Numerous problems connected with a state school system
arise from a situation like this. Space will permit of the dis-
cussion of only a few of them. In the first place, it is almost
impossible to organize a system under such conditions. Scarce-
ly is the machinery of organization set up before the term is
over and it is all to be done over again. In fact it is extremely
difficult to get anywhere when more than two-thirds of all
the high school teachers are trained outside the state, and
when over half of the entire teaching force are new each year
in their positions. Close organization, team-work, continuity
of purpose and effort, and the like, can scarcely flourish in
such an atmosphere.
Two elements enter into this situation. One is the "tourist
teacher" who "winters" in Florida. On the salary which the
high school teacher receives, she can pay her railroad fare
each way, afford comfortable living quarters, and have enough
left to "see Florida" at odd times and during the holidays.
For such people it is merely a lark and a winter's outing on the
great playgrounds of the South. Of course this is not true of
all the teachers coming into the state. Many of them settle
down to continuous years of faithful service, but it is true
of too large a per cent.
A second element which aggravates this situation is the
great moving, restless spirit prevailing among the permanent
high school teachers of the state. That there is too much of
this among our permanent teachers is self evident and needs
no comment here.
The fact that over two-thirds (68.9 per cent) of all the
high school teachers must be secured from outside the state,
intensifies the seriousness of our certification problem. The
law providing for the transfer of standard certificates from
other states should go a long ways, however, towards allevi-
ating this problem. Personally, the writer feels we should
proceed on two fundamental bases of operation. The first is
we should strive to get certification of teachers pitched on
the basis of training received in standard, recognized normal
schools, colleges and universities. The quicker we shift to that
basis from the present "flying squadron" and "court-house ex-
amination" basis, the sooner will we get better teaching
service. This is no reflection on the personnel of the "flying
squadron" but it is an attack upon the present method of cer-





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


tification of teachers. The emphasis is upon the examinations
rather than the training received in normal schools, colleges
and universities.
In the second place, the writer feels that we cannot be
too careful about the health certification of incoming teachers.
Too great precaution can scarcely be taken to shield the chil-
dren of the state from the persons who come to Florida on
account of their health. Rigid physical examinations, ac-
companied by health certificates from home physicians, should
be required of all applicants seeking teaching positions.
However, when all is said, the future is promising when
we recall that 80 per cent of all the teachers in the best high
schools are college graduates; that 35.9 per cent are men; that
92.3 per cent of the pupils and 85.2 per cent of the teachers are
in four-year high schools; and that 73.1 per cent of all the
high school pupils in the state are in high schools running
nine months.
COURSE OF STUDY

In order to show definitely what units each high school is
offering, tables XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX have been pre-
pared. There is a table for each of the four kinds of high
schools. Table XX follows these, and is a summary of some
of the chief points of the preceding four.
Thinking it would aid some in getting the situation clear,
the number of teachers in each school, the number of pupils
in each school, and, the total number of units offered by each
school are included. All the units offered are grouped arbi-
trarily under the eight headings found in these five tables.
The purpose of these, too, is merely to aid the reader in getting
at conditions. Tables XVI to XX are included.
If we try to summarize conditions in general which cover
all the four kinds of high schools, we can say that:
English and Algebra are the only subjects which
are offered by every high school. The only exception
being the one-year school, which devotes a year to
Plane Geometry instead of Algebra.
If we rank the fifteen leading subjects of the cur-
riculum in the order of their importance as measured
by their finding a place in the course of study, we have:





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


English............-


.........offered


Algebra --............
Ancient History .......-..
Latin ------........-....-.. "
Med. & Mod. Hist -.... "
Plane Geometry .........-
Am. Hist. & Civics ....
General Science ..--....
Botany ...-------.......-..
Zoology ....-..........--- ..
Trigonometry .-.......--
Phys. Geography --.....
Physics ....--....-..-.....-- .
Solid Geometry ..-.......
English History ........


100 % of the schools
99.4% " " "
89.1% " " "
85.6% " " "
75.6% " " "
66.6% " " "
65.5% " " "
51.2% " ".
50 %" "
48.7% " "
42.1% " "
42 % " ".
42 %" ". "
36.8% " " "
33.3% " " "


With a few exceptions, modern languages, voca-
tional studies and avocational studies, find no place in
the course of study for the one, two and three-year
high schools;
The more modern phases of the social sciences,
Sociology and Economics, are just beginning to find
a place in a few of our stronger high schools;
Health or Hygiene receives practically no attention
as a formal study in the high school curriculum.
Agricultural work, other than that done by the
Smith-Hughes schools, is practically nil.
The above summary has to do with the spirit of our high
schools, as registered by the units offered. Another way to
size up the situation is to strike at it from a different angle
by seeing how many high school pupils there are in the state
taking each course. It is one thing to say that the high
schools are offering such and such subjects, but it is quite
another to know exactly how many pupils are taking each of
these subjects.
The writer felt that it would be rather difficult to get
these data, since it would entail a good deal of work on the
part of the principals. He secured, however, these data for
63 of these 98 four-year high schools for the scholastic year
1919-20, through the kindness of Professor W. S. Cawthon,
State High School Inspector, who had gathered it for his
Biennial Report. Economy in printing, however, necessitated
its omission. Space here will only permit the giving of the
totals. Table XXI below contains these data on registrants
in various subjects.





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


TABLE XXI
Number of Pupils Registered in Each Subject of the High
School for the Scholastic Year 1919-20
(63 four-year high schools included)


ENGLISH -----.......-..- .....---- 5426
1st year ...-...........- .......-2248
2nd year ..............---..1414
3rd year .....-...... ...... -- 926
4th year ----............... 838
MATHEMATICS ................... 5342
Adv. Arithmetic .......... 132
Algebra .....-.. -..............3433
Plane Geometry ..........1115
Solid Geometry ......... -- 318
Trigonometry ............-. 344
FOREIGN LANGUAGES ..- 3509
Beginner's Latin ......1312
Caesar ........................... 799
Cicero ................------....------...... 197
Virgil .....--......--....--------..-----. 96
French ..- -----........--.....-- .. 811
Spanish ......................... 294


SOCIAL SCIENCES .............. 4902
Ancient History .........1831
Med. and Mod. Hist.....1313
English History .......... 462
Am. Hist. and Civics....1296
NATURAL SCIENCES ..-... 3182
Physical Geography .... 531
General Science ....-..... 750
Botany ........................ 510
Zoology ......................... 522 -
Physics ...-...................... 467
Chemistry --.............. .. 402
VOCATIONAL STUDIES .... 1569
Agriculture ....-----.......------... 99
Manual Training .....-.... 241
Home Economics ........ 737
Commercial work ........ 492
MISCELLANEOUS ....---....... 513


If we rank these subjects according to the registrants by
groups, we have:
English.-....-----.......... - ..taken by 5426 pupils
Mathematics --.--......... " " 5342
Social Sciences .--.....-.-- " " 4902
Foreign Languages .... " " 3509
Natural Sciences --...--. " " 3182
Vocational Studies ..-... " " 1569
Or, if we take them singly by subjects, we have a high
correlation with the ranks on page 22 which deals with the
number of high schools offering each subject of the cur-
riculum.
Perhaps it is worth while in this connection to make a
little running discussion of the course of study. To begin
with, it seems a bit strange that only two-thirds as many high
schools offer Spanish as French, This is all the more notice-
able when we consider our proximity to Mexico, Cuba and
other Spanish speaking countries to the south of us, together
with the fact that in some localities within the state we have
a considerable Spanish speaking population.
Practically two-thirds of all the four-year high schools
offer Solid Geometry, and practically three-fourths of them
offer Trigonometry.


Showing the




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


There are several interesting things about the social sci-
ences. To begin with, English History seems to be on the
decline. It is probable that as a separate subject it will dis-
appear from the high school curriculum. Many of our leading
educators feel that we should teach English History as a part
or phase of European History, so as to give it its proper setting
or perspective. Sociology and Economics are making their
appearance in some of the larger, stronger four-year high
schools. This is a hopeful sign and a strong indication of the
lines along which the social studies will develop in the next
few years. In fact, there is no phase of our high school cur-
riculum in this state which needs recasting more than our
present social science course. It is hoped that we will soon
come to the scheme recommended by the committee of the
National Educational Association on the Reorganization of
Secondary Education.* This committee recommends that we
teach American History and Civics, based on an elementary
view of old world background, in the earlier grades of the
high school, following this by a study of European History,
stressing the modern period, and closing the course with an
intensive study oi American history since the 17th century,
especially stressing present problems of American democracy.
Such a scheme would break down the present monopoly which
classical education has upon the freshman in high school, and
thus free him from the strangle-hold of English Composition,
Algebra, Latin and Ancient History.
Throughout the nation, Physical Geography has practically
disappeared from the high school curriculum. The kernel of
this subject has been absorbed by General Science, Physics
and the other high school sciences, or it has worked its way
up to where it belongs-in the college. One of the best evi-
dences of this statement is the fact that none of the great
publishing houses are bringing out any new high school books
in the field.
It is indeed a gratifying thing to see that practically two-
thirds of all our four-year high schools offer General Science.
In practically every state it has supplanted Physical Geog-
raphy in the freshman year.
It is the hope of the writer that at our next text-book
adoption, Biology will take the place of Botany and Zoology.
*Bulletin 1916, No. 28 U. S. Bureau of Education.





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


As separate studies, these, too, have worked their way grad-
ually up into the college, and have been replaced by Biology.
In discussing this question, a recent bulletin* from the State
Department of Education of Texas, has this to say, which is
a very clear statement of the condition:
Botany and Zoology as separate high-school courses
are apparently disappearing from the high-school cur-
riculum. Only 1.4% of the Texas high school enrollment
in the year 1915-1916 studied the subject of botany, while
less than half this number were enrolled in zoology
courses (.58%). The reports of the United States Com-
missioner of Education show that from the years 1910
to 1915 the percentage enrollment in high-school botany
fell off 45% and in high-school zoology 59%. The ques-
tion naturally arises whether we should attempt to revive
the subjects, and aid them in their struggle for existence
or let them take the course that geology and astronomy
have taken. It should be stated here, however, that the
value of botanical and zoological truths are not any the
less appreciated; but the decreased interest in botany and
zoology as special whole-year courses is due rather to the
belief of many educators that the wanted biological truths
are approached and more sanely comprehended through
the general biology course. It is held by these educators
that the function of botany is not to give knowledge about
plants and plant activities, nor is that of zoology to give
knowledge about animals and animal activities, but on
the other hand, the educational function of both is to
develop an appreciation of the principles of life-to give
a knowledge of life and life activities. These life pro-
cesses are neither botanical nor zoological-being pecu-
liar neither to plants nor animals. They are biological
and are, therefore, best presented in a course in general
biology. This is the viewpoint of the majority of present
writers and leaders in educational matters. Of course
there are science men who disagree, claiming that the
scheme is unscientific and that it is impossible to com-
pound two distinct sciences-that the combination is an
unsavory mixture, and that it is but a futile attempt of
the uninitiated to make science easy and popular. Be
this as it may, the fact remains that botany and zoology
are disappearing as separate one-year high-school sub-
jects. They are being crowded out by biology and agri-
culture just as physical geography and human physiology
are being crowded out by the newer subject of general
science.
*Bulletin 85, February 15, 1919, entitled The Teaching of Science.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


A whole bulletin would be required if we discussed fully
the subject of vocational education. Space will permit of
only a few statements. It is evident that any kind of voca-
tional work is practically unknown anywhere in these high
schools except in the four-year schools, and that it is of minor
importance there. For example, table XXI shows that there
were in 1919-20 in 63 of these four-year high schools 1569
pupils altogether taking any kind of vocational work, while
there were 3433 pupils taking Algebra, 1831 taking Ancient
History and 2404 taking Latin. This ratio would be very
much more against vocational work if we had the figures for
the present year. This financial crisis we are facing in our
schools has hit hardest the vocational subjects.* As best the
writer can ascertain, a very large per cent of the high schools
this year have had to drop temporarily some or all of their
work in Manual Training and Home Economics. They plan,
of course, to reinstate them as soon as finances will permit.
The financial pressure mentioned above has had like effect
upon Music and Drawing in our schools. It is little short of
an educational tragedy that we have had to strip our schools
of the vocational and avocational studies, and thus leave only
the traditional academic course. The struggle for the past
quarter of a century has been to get this work going, with the
hope that it would add the leaven to the whole lump. No
critical student of our high school can fail to realize that we
are woefully lacking when it comes to training our pupils in
the things which function in the development of the artistic
and emotional side of their lives.
So far teacher-training is a failure in the high schools of
the state. The movement has long since passed out of the
experimental stage in America. It is recognized in many
states as a satisfactory way of supplying teachers temporarily
for the elementary grades. If it is properly organized it
works to an advantage. If we would recast the present law
in this state so as to properly organize and finance these
teacher-training departments and place them only in the good,
strong high schools, so as to certificate for one or two years
the graduates of these departments, we would go a long ways
toward eliminating this court-house examination system now
in vogue which is so very unsatisfactory. In this way, in a
*This does not apply to the Smith-Hughes work.





A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


few years, we would be feeding into our elementary grades
teachers who would be high school graduates with a little
professional training, instead of the teacher who has crammed
for an examination, which is neither a test of scholarship nor
of professional insight.
On the whole, the Florida high school course of study is
overwhelmingly classical and traditional. The whole affair
looks to college entrance rather than to occupational pursuits.
No one questions the fact that one of the functions of the
modern high school is preparation for college entrance, but
it is only one of its numerous functions. If all our boys and
girls who go to high school eventually went to college, perhaps
no criticism could be made of our present practices, but they
do not. To throw some light on this situation, table XXII has
been prepared. In these percentages some allowance has to
be made, since we are figuring the number of graduates of
June 1920 on the basis of February 1921 enrollment. The
same thing is true of the per cent going to college. This, how-
ever, is not enough to make any material difference. The
table follows.
TABLE XXII
Showing the Percentage of High School Enrollment Eventually Gradu-
ating and Going to College

Number Graduates Number Previous
the June Pre- June Graduates
Away in College
Kind of vious Following Year
School

O 0 0 - 0 0 0 Q) - 0
Zm C-l S I q P .] E-i P4
4-Year ......................... 9 12095 485 847 1332 11 266 351 617 5.1
36 Southern
Assn. Schools ........ 36 7234 314 94 90812.6 186 252 438 6.1

From table XXII we see that of the 12095 pupils in the
98 four-year high schools only about 11 or 12 per cent will
eventually graduate and only about 5 or 6 per cent will even-
tually find their way to college. That forces us to face squarely
this question: Which shall we train, the 5 or the 95? In order
to be sure of preparing the 5 shall we force all pupils through
the narrow curriculum looking only to college entrance? The
task and objective of the modern high school is to prepare




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


both groups without sacrificing either. It is most certainly
the duty of the modern high school to prepare the 5 to enter
the higher institutions of learning, but it is likewise its duty
to feed the 95 into their life-occupations with some helpful
training. It is for this reason that the writer feels justified
in saying that on the whole the high school course of study is
too classical and traditional to serve the best interests of all
its pupils. The 76 one, two and three-year high schools are
just the skeletons of real modern high schools. All the pupils
get in these schools is formal English, formal mathematics,
foreign language, the traditional history course and a modi-
cum of science usually taught without any laboratory or equip-
ment.
The teacher is not to be blamed and the pupil is to be
pitied. They are both the victims of the system. It is utterly
impossible and worse than foolish for one teacher to try to
teach two full years of high school work or for two teachers
to try to carry a full four-year high school course. Failure
is the inevitable outcome. Then what is the solution? For
Florida, as for the rest of the country, the only solution is
the junior-senior high school. Not the two and four-year high
schools as we use these terms in the state, but the modern
junior high school or the six-three-three plan. Instead of one
teacher trying to carry a two or three-year high school course,
or two teachers a three or four-year course, we should at-
tempt less and do more. Instead of these one, two and three-
year high schools offering a narrow curriculum of the tra-
ditional type, they should organize a real Junior High School
consisting of grades 7, 8 and 9, and then transport their grad-
uates to some centrally located point for their Senior High
School work in grades 10, 11 and 12. Instead of having a
large number of aspiring high schools with one teacher seek-
ing to do two or three years' work, we should have a series
of well organized Junior High Schools of grades 7, 8 and 9,
attempting less number of grades, but offering a greater va-
riety of work in each grade. Thus, by attempting a less num-
ber of years of work, they would be enabled to offer a wider,
richer, fuller curriculum which would meet the needs of the
95 as well as the 5.
The Junior High School Movement has already found its
way into Florida, in a number of the schools. Tampa, so far,






A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS


has made further strides along this line than any other place
in the state. It has two Junior High Schools that are an honor
to the city. In these schools we see many of the essential fea-
tures of the Modern Junior High School in practice. Of
course, they do not have, as yet, all that we would like to see
them have, but they are moving out in the right direction.
It is not best, in a new movement, to jump full fledged into
an organization. There are always some "first steps." Evo-
lution, rather than revolution, is usually desirable. Perhaps
they have done about all that is possible under the present
state organization. Development along certain lines is well
nigh impossible until we get a change in the state organization
and control of the high school in such matters as course of
study, textbooks and graduation requirements. It is for this
reason that so much depends on the textbook adoption, which
occurs soon. If regulations can be made so as to have text-
books adopted on two bases; namely, the 8-4 plan and the
6-3-3 plan, we will open up the way for greater progress.
That kind of a scheme would allow the more progressive
schools to organize their work on the Junior-Senior basis
without violating the regulations of the higher authorities,
or losing their places on the accredited list. The following
will show some of the innovations that Tampa has adopted.
By putting the Foreign Languages, Algebra, Commercial
Work, Manual Training and Home Economics, down into
the 7th and 8th grades; by finding a place in their curricu-
lum for the physical and artistic development of the pupils;
by instituting departmental teaching, promotion by subjects,
mid-year promotions, etc., they are cautiously and sanely inau-
gurating the real Junior High School movement, which means
a new day in secondary education. Their results speak for
themselves and are the final test. While Tampa's population
increased from 37,000 to 51,000 her high school enrollment
increased 41/� times, and the number of her graduates 58/4
times. This indicates somewhat the power to draw, as well
as the power to hold the students in the high school during
the adolescent period, and this is one of the chief reasons for
which the Junior High School movement was instituted.








TABLE XVI
4-Year High School Curriculum

No. No. Foreign Social Natural Avoca Teacher
Teachers Pupils Language Mathematics Sciences Sciences Vocational tional Training

4. Commercial Man. Dom.
LOCATION Tr. Sci.
O T 2 c .i . e b42 - -
OF N 0
O w - -t Si __ _=_
SCHOOL .,
z 4
E- o W' o o
08u.0 ^ Ig g .s I C.3.0- . 8 .


Alachua..............................
Apopka..................................
Apalachicola....................
Arcadia......................
Avon Park .............................
Barberville.................
Bartow .. ......................
Bonifay.. ..............
Bowling Green.................
Bradentown......................
Brooksville........................
Bushnell .......................
Chipley.......................................
Clearwater........................
Cocoa.. ...........................
Crescent City ........................
Dade City........................
Daytona .............. ................
DeFuniak Springs.................
DeLand................... ......
Delray................. .........
Dunnellon ............ .......
Eau Gallie.................
Eustis......... .......... .
Fellsmere ......................
Fernandina........................
Ft. Lauderdale...................
Ft. Meade..............................
Ft. Myers...............................
Ft. Pierce..................................
Gainesville....................
Gonzalez........ ........
Graceville....... ............
Green Cove Springs .
High Springs..................
Homestead..... ........
Inverness..... ......
Jacksonville.......................
Jasper..................................
Key West..................................
Kissimmee ...............................
LaBelle................................
Lake Butler............................
Lake City...........................
Lakeland................ ......
Largo.................................
Leesburg...................... ......
Lemon City.......................
Live Oak....... ....................
Lynn Haven .....................
M adison........ ........................
Marianna .................. .......
Mayo...................................
Melbourne ..........................
Miami ...............................
Milton ........................
Monticello................................
Montverde (Indus.)..............
Mulberry.. ............. ...
Muscogee..............................
New Smyrna.... ...................
Oakland-Winter Garden
O cala . .............. ...............
Okeechobee ..................... ...
Orlando................ ..............
Oviedo........... ..... .....
Palatka.......... ..
Palmetto........................
Panama City..........................
Pensacola................................
Perry...................................
Plant City........ ...................
Punta Gorda.....................
Quincy..................................
Redlands........ ....... ....
Sanford........................
Sarasota.......................
Seabreeze ..... .........
Sebring.................. ................
St. Augustine.....................
St. Cloud............................
St. Petersburg .........................
Starke....................... ......
Stuart .........................................
Tallahassee .............................
T am pa ........................................
Tarpon Springs .......................
Titusville..................
Trenton..........................
Umatilla ..........................
Vero .... ...*....................--
Waldo...................................
Wauchula-.... ---..............
Webster........... ............
West Palm Beach ...
Williston ............................
Winter Haven .................
Zephyrhills.............................
Total ..-........ ...............


1 1 RI 411 291 601 1


12
15h
22�
17%
20
23%
18
17
21
20
15
14%
28
19
19
20
27
20
23Y
17
17
14%
20
14
14
'20%
25
20%2
29
23
15
16
13
19
22%
19�
43
19
18%
26
19

22
25�
19
21
19%
24
13
31%
19
20
21%
39�
28%
18
19%
22%
21
23
19
23
20O
26
10
21
21






14
27�%
161
30
17%
22
19
23
20
20
14
20
15
29
18
16
24
27�
19
18
15
16
13
17
24
17
34%
16
23%
10%


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NAME
OF
SCHOOL


Clermont....................................
Floral City.........................
Fort White........ ..............
Groveland..................
Geneva................................
Greenwood.......................
Havana City...........................
Jupiter................. ......
Lake Wales.............................
Macclenny.............................
Melrose..........................
Micanopy................................
Newberry............................
Pinnetta............................
White Springs......................
Winter Park ........... .....


I I


I�


TABLE XVII
3-Year High School Curriculum


Foreign
Language


3 ...... ...... 2

3 ...... . 2


2 ............ 2
2 - 2
3 ...... :::::: 2

2 ...... . 2
2 . .. 2
3 2... ...... 2


Mathematics


1 .. .

1...... ....:::::..::::::..








1.
1 .. ....




S ...... .....
l ...... ......
1......
1.......
1�.......


Social
Sciences


No.
Teachers









1 c


Natural
Sciences


Vocational


- - - - ...... .... ... _ _ _ _ _ _ _
-91 1 IO I I I q� 1 01.1 0.01


I 101 2811 1f7'I 2161


53 ii............ ......II ..... II.. .. . .. . ... ........


Avoca-
tional


Teacher
Training


I I


I............I...... I...... .... I...... I...... ........... II. I. II. I. I.


TABLE XVIII
2-Year High School Curriculum

No. No. Foreign Mathematics Social Natural Vocational Avoca- Teacher
Teachers Pupils Language Sciences Sciences tonal Training

Home
o BEcon.
NAME .
OF U 0
SCHOOL 4;, be

.0'. Z uu Cd6 "0,H r
Co . Co o o 1 a a a ,
0 a i3 a



A ltha ............... ...................... 1 0 1 6 19 25 9 2 2 ...... ...... ...... 1 1 ............ ...... . ........... ...... I ...... I ...... ..... .. ...... ...... ...... ............
A l1 7 1 7 2............................................. 1 6 2 ........ ......... ...... 2 ........ .... ................. ...... ...... ...... .................. ... ... ...... ..... ... ...... ............

Anthony..... 1 A 1 8 2 1 1 .-.... ...... ...... . . . . . . .... .... .
A richer ...................................... 1 0 1 5 2 7 8 2 2 ...... ...... .......... ........ .. . 1 ... ...... ...... ...... ............. ...... ..... .......... ... .... ....... ..........
Baker.. ......... .... 0 1 10 616 8 2 2.................. 2 .................................. . .... .. .......
Bell ........................ 1 2 5 7 2...... ..... 1 2............... .... ........... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ............ ..... . .... . ..........
Branfordr ............ ........4 5 9 8 .......... 2... . ..... 1 ......... ..I......... % ...... I1 % ...... ................. ..................
Broker. ...... ............ 1 2 8 10 8 2 1 ...... ......... 2 ................. 11.... .......... 1........ ..... ........................... ............................
Bunnell 2 2 ..... ........12 2..... ...... 2 1 1 1 . ...... .............................. .....
Campbellton .. ............. 1 1 2 2 41 87 2 2 2 .......... 2 .......... . 1 1........ ......... ...............
Carabea .................. 4 0 1 7 8 2 21.................... . , ...... ..... . ...... ...... ............ ......... ............
Cam pbelo tor 1 0 1 2 .2...... 1 1...... . -

CenterHill.. .................1 2 1 18 2 2 . 1 1 ...... 1 ....... ...... ... .. .... ... ... ..... . ...... .... .. .......
Century . . 1. 2 2 . ....................3 8 2 2. ...... ...... 1 ...... .... 1 ... ... ..... .... ............................ ... ..... ......................
Chatter chee..... ................. 1 0 1 5 4 9 8 2 2 ... ... .. ......... ...... 1 1 ...... ...... ......... ......... ................. ..... .. . ......... ... ........ ...... ...... ............
Chtentahoochee.....1 0 1 51 8 2 2 1 ..
Citra . ... ............... 0 1 1 1 7 10 ... 2 ... .... ...... 1 ...... ........ ............ .......... ...... ................
Cocoanut rovee.. ........ . 1 .0 1 12 19 8 2 2 ...... 2... .. .. ......... ..... 1 .. ..... ..... ...... 1.. .. ... ....... "... .... .. ........
Concorlma ...T ...... ... 1 0 1 2 10 1 1 2 2 ............ . 2 ............ 1 ...... ............... .......... .. ............ ....... ...
aConcin .................... ....... 1 0 1 10 1 2 8 2 2 ...... ....... ................ 1 ........... ..... ............. .... ....... .......................... .... .......
Elfers'i ...... 1.............. 0 1 6 1 8 2 1...... ...... 2 .. ................. 1... ...... ....... ...... .. .................. ............. .. .. ........
Enterprise ..... 6 1 8 2 1 1...... ...... ...... 2............ ................ ........ . ...... ...... .... . 1...... ...... ... ...... ...... ......
Frostproof 1 1.................2 11 7 18 8 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 1 ........... . ..... .......... .........................
G r pnsbor ..... 1 . . . . . . .................1.... .... ... 2 .... ...... ... .... 1 ............ ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... ................... ...... ......
Milnvile...... ............. 20 3 4 7 8 2 1. ...........
Greenvieg ........... ..1 . ........ 2 0 7 8 2 ...... ... ... . . ... 2 ... . .. ...... 1 ....... ......... 1 % ...... ........ ......... ..................
ta ..... 1 1 8 2 2............ ... ... ..... . 2............ ...... 1 1 ...... ..... .. ................ ... ...... ...... ...... ...... .... .... .....

Hastings .... 1 2 6 13 19 9 2 ...... ...... ........ 2 1............. 11...... ...... 1 1.......... .. ...... ...................
H aW i nd o g s .........1........................... .. 5 . . 1. . . 2 2 ............. ...... I 1 . . .1.
H aw thorne .... ............. 1 0 1 5 7 12 11 2 2 ...... ...... ...... 1 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... ...... ...... ...... ..... ...... ...... ... ... ...... ... ...... ...... .....
Hilliard..... 1 0 1 4 1 5 7 2 1 ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... 1 1 ...... ...... ..... .... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... . .... .... ......... . ..... ...... ;"
Jennings1 5 11 16 8 ............. 2................... 1 1 1........... . ...... 1 1 .. .............. ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... % ...... ... ... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ............ ..........
Kathleen 1 0................... 1 5 9 14 8 2 2 2 ...... ...... ...... 2......... .... 1 ............. 1...... ... ..... ...... ........................
Laket fWorh. 1 ..112 15 11 2 2.........1 . ...
Lake Wo ----......2 1 31 4613 11 2 ...... ...... 2.... 1% ...... ...... 1 1 ............ ..... ...... ..... ...... ............ .........
Larkels 1 1 ......... 1... ..1 8 2 21....... ........ 2 .............. .. .... 1 ... ... 1 ............ ..... ... .. ... ...... ...... ............
Laurel H --------- 5 7 12 8 2 ............... ...... ...... ... 1 ......... .............. .......... .... ..... . ...... ............ ...... ................. ...... ...... ...... ......
Lawtey .................... 1 8 11 9 2 2 ................ 2..... ........... 1 1 ................ ...... .. .. ...... ...... ............ ...... ...... . ... .....................
L ecanto s ......... .............. 1 0 5 5 6 2 ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... 1 ...... ..... ...... ...... ...... ........... ......... ...... .......... . . ...... .. ............ ............
.................. 1120 1913 103 2 9 2 2.......2.... ..2......2...........11 .......
M untosh ......... .......... 5 5 10 8 2 2 ..... ...... .................. 1 1 ......... ........................... ............ .... ........ ........................
M illville O xf ........... 1 19 13 32 9 2 2 ............ ..... 2 .................. 1 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... .... ..... .. ...... ...... 1 ...... ............ ......
M ount D ora 1 0 1 4 11 15 6 2 1 ...... ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 1 .................. ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
O x ford .............. * ....................... ...... .18.10 2 1 ...... ...... ...... 1 ...... 1 1 1 ...... . ....... ...... . % ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
Safety H arbor 6 11 17 7 2 2 2 ..... ............ 1 .................. ............ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ........ .... ............ ...........
Sebastian ...... 4............ 4 8 9 2 ..... . ..... 2 1 ............ 1 1.......... ... . :. 1................ ............ ...... ........... .. ...... ......
W ildwood ......... ....... 1 0 1 5 9 14 9 2 2 ...... ..... ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 1 1 ......... 1 ............... ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......









No. No. F reign ... 2 Social Natural . Avca Teacher
Teachers Pupils Language Mathematics Sciences Sciences Vocational tonal Training


NAME

OF . &
SCHOOL " I . .



W ld cil ............................ 1 3 1 .... .. |... . . . ... .......

. .......1 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 ...... .... . .... ... ...... ...... . .... .. . .




a br er............................... 1 1 5 4 1 1 ...... . ... ..... 1 .. .... ...... .. .... ...... .... .. ...... .... ..... ......
Beri stol 1 1........ ...... ........... 1 1 1 4 1 .... ...... ..... 1 . . ........................ ...... ............

o... ... ............................ 0 1 5 1 4 11 1......... .... ............. . 1. . 1 .. . 1 1 .......... ...... ..... ........... ....... .. ...... ..............


Rr isto .i........................ O 1 31 2 4 1 1 ...... ...... 1...... ..... . ..1 . .. ... ............ ......... ........................ ....
darderacn...... .ers.101 5 2 7 4 1.......uage......1 .s.....1........1.....











HCrtanov.................................. 1 01 1 2 1 4 1 ...... ........ 1 ..1.... ..... ...1.... 1 ............... .... ............
adnerok................................ 1 1 1 2 1 6 1 1..........1...... ... ....... ... . .. 1 ......1........... ....... .....

Sopchoppo........ ........... l 2 4 1....00...... 01 . ...1................. 1 .. .. ..... ............11. 1.............. 1 .............. ..............

Sopchoppv..... ... 0 1 1 1 1 2 4_ 1..... .......1......1 . ..1............ 1.. ........... 1. .
St. Aidrews..... ..... 1 01 5 3 8 4 11................1.1.. 1 ....1........ .. . . .................... ....... ....
W ellborn.................................... 1.. 4 9 4 111 l........... 1. . . ..1 .... ..... . .. . ....................
Total....................................... 81 71 151I 391 351 7411 ...... ....I . I . I.. I.. I. II. I. I. I. II. I. I. I. I . I..lI.-- ..-l 1.-I -.....I .... I..... I I ...... I ... ....... ......II......I........


Foreign
English Languages Mathematics


Kind of
School i I



I No. % INo. % INo.! % INo.! % ||No. % | No.! % INo.l % |No.1 % | No. %
1-Year.......... 15 15100 6 40 93 1 6.6
2-Year ..... 45 45100 32 71.1 2 .4 00 1022.2 ................
3-Year ........... 16 1 100 14 87.5 1 6.3........ 1600 14 87.5 1 6.3 1 6.3
4-ear...... 98 100 9799 411 28 8 900 91 92.8 63 64.3 7 73.5


TABLE XX
Showing Number and Percent of High Schools of Each Type Offering Each Unit in Course of Study


Social
Sciences


cdr

a)O 0 0 I 0 0 Q, '
4 5 I~4 02
z q d U2 k


I � II


Natural
Sciences


.go
ld 'S .m(


o .0
N P<


Vocational


Co

S E~
c0 Oo
cd od


Avocational



0


||No ] % (No.!| %| No.!| % |No.!| % ]No.!| % |No.1 % H |No.I| % |No.!| % No.!| % |No.!I % |No.!| % |No.! % |No.!| _%INo.I| % No.! * % No.!| % | No. | % |I|No.! % N!0/INOI
( % | No. I Jo


1 73. 2 13.3 2 13.3 13.3....... ......
39 86.6 33 73.3 2 4.4 15.5 ........ ..... ..
13 81. 12 75 7 43.8 11 68.8 .......
9. 9 9 85 86.8 47 48 94 95.9 11 11.2 4


4 26.6 1 6.6 3.3 1 6.6 1 6.6....... ...-
19 42.2 2 4.4 1 31.1 1 33.3 14 31.1 ........
3 18.8 1 6.3 37.5 3 18.8 3 18.8 8 50
47 48 7 71 1 62.2 68 69.4 67 68.4 65 6.4


8.... .....


...... 1 6.6 ........ ................ .......
2 4.4 5 11.1 3 66.6 3 66.6 1 2.2
1 6.3 1 6.3 1 6.3 1 6.3 ........ ....... ........ .....
24 24.5 21 21.4 42 42.9 12 12.3 13 13.3 2


581 33.31 1141 65.51 11| 6.31 41 2.311 731 42 1 111 6.31 891 51.21 871 50 1 851 48.71 7 42 j 471 27 11 251 14.41 241 14 I 481 27.61


. .- Compiled from Tables number XVI to XIX..1-, , -.--
SCompiled from Tables number XVI to XIX.


.oa I.. .. 1117411- l 7 4110- 1- j4' II - 51TI e T 421 24-11 2! 111.111 101 T 71 1791 99741 1191


1Tea r II


Teacher
Training




.0


32 32.6


11......11......1......1......11......1.


.1.~....1......1......l......l......)...


o


56 6 641 36.8| 73 l 18


I


II U v .u o l uo


r II II I I� ��


No.
Pupils








S - r

0 s �


. . . . . .. I II. . .


--r(-----ll~--~.-~-----II II


II


~ I


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.-J � -1 �11 - 1 - 1 a][ �q 11 -1


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. . . . .. . . . . . .


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