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Title: University record
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 Material Information
Title: University record
Uniform Title: University record (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the State of Florida
University of Florida
Publisher: University of the State of Florida,
University of the State of Florida
Place of Publication: Lake city Fla
Publication Date: February 1922
Copyright Date: 1924
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: College publications -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Agricultural education -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
University extension -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Teachers colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Law schools -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1906)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issue for Vol. 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1907) is misnumbered as Vol. 1, no. 1.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Imprint varies: <vol. 1, no. 2-v.4, no. 2> Gainesville, Fla. : University of the State of Florida, ; <vol. 4, no. 4-> Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida.
General Note: Issues also have individual titles.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075594
Volume ID: VID00473
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEM7602
oclc - 01390268
alephbibnum - 000917307
lccn - 2003229026
lccn - 2003229026

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Full Text







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
TEACHERS COLLEGE


Issued I.y the
Department of Secondary Elducation



PROCEEDINGS OF
THE SECOND ANNUAL CONFERENCE
OF
FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS
APRIL 7 AND..i 1921


Lt'l:eJ and comr il ? 4
JO1 ROEMER, PI; D Profe%,or of Secondw3r Educalion
Iligh School Vi-.ilor








r3'T-





CONTENTS
Page
Forew ord ............. ............................................... .................................... 3
P program ............................................................................................................ 4
R oster of A attendance ................................................ ................................ 6
M minutes of the Conference.. ... ..... ............... .... .......... .......... ............... 8
Report of Committee on Resolutions............................................................ 11
Conference Com mittees.......... ....... .... ............... .......................... 12
Welcome Address, by Dean J. W. Norman, Teachers' College, Uni-
versity of F lorida.................................................................................... 13
Fundamental Principles underlying the Reorganization of the High
School Curriculum, by Jos. Roemer, Professor of Secondary
Education .and -High School Visitor, University of Florida............ 17
Reorganization Io'the Sieinc' Course for the High Schools of Flor-
J, a;.bj It. M. Evans, Prihcipli;.Quincy High School---...................... 54
'Pelininary Report of the Committee' urrtie sociall Studies, by R. M.
'Sealej; Prficipal,:Tailhliassi e High Sl ------...............................--- 98
Reorganization of ForeigirLangkuages for th'feligh Schools of Flor-
ida, by F. W. Buchholz, Principal, GaineMsille High School........ 116
Address: Latin in the High School, by Honorable W. N. Sheats,
State Superintendent of Public Instruction................................- 125
Address: Athletics in the High School, by Honorable W. N. Sheats,
State Superintendent of Public Instruction...................................... 137
Reorganization of Mathematics for the High Schools of Florida, by
C. M. Jones, Principal, Perry High School...................................... 146
Reorganization of Vocational Work in the High Schools of Florida,
by S. A. Draper, Principal, Leesburg High School.......................... 152
Present Status and Possible Improvement in our High School Li-
braries, by Sexton Johnson, Principal, Orlando High School........ 176


















FOREWORD
The success attending the annual session of the High
School Conference is most gratifying. During the meeting
held April 7-8, 1921, many of the plans formulated a year
before were carried forward. The various committees that
had been appointed to make reports on the high school cur-
riculum gave evidence of having spent considerable time and
labor upon their tasks; their contributions and the discus-
sions resulting therefrom being especially illuminating.
An effort has been made herein to reproduce, verbatim,
the discussions; consequently, the bulletin is much larger
than the first one.
To Professor Joseph Roemer, of the department of Sec-
ondary Education of the University of Florida, full credit
should be given for compiling the material of these bulletins.
His paper, and also the rest of the proceedings, should be of
interest to all of the high school principals and teachers of
the state.








PROGRAM


(Peabody Hall)

THURSDAY MORNING, 9:00 O'CLOCK
Words of Welcome-President A. A. Murphree.
1. Organization.
2. Appointment of Committees.
3. Group Meetings:
The committees appointed on the various subjects will
have preliminary meetings preparatory to their reports
to be made later to Conference.
THURSDAY AFTERNOON, 2:00 O'CLOCK
4. Address-Fundamental Principles Underlying the Reor-
ganization of the High School Curriculum-Joseph
Roemer, Professor of Secondary Education, Uni-
versity of Florida.
5. Report of Committees:
a. Mathematics-C. M. Jones, Lakeland, Ch'm Con.
b. Discussion-Round Table.

THURSDAY EVENING, 7:45 O'CLOCK
(University Gymnasium)
6. Address-Dr. O. I. Woodley, late President Marshall
College Normal School, West Virginia.
7. Smith-Towner Bill-Affirmative, H. C. Johnson, 15 min.
Negative, S. W. Cason, 15 min.
FRIDAY MORNING, 9:00 O'CLOCK
8. Report of Committees:
a. Social Sciences-R. M. Sealey, Tallahassee, Ch. Com.
b. Discussion-Round Table.
9. Report of Committees:
a. Foreign Languages-F. W. Buchholz, Gainesville,
Chairman Committee.
b. Discussion-Round Table.
10. Address-Superintendent W. N. Sheats.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


FRIDAY AFTERNOON, 2:00 O'CLOCK
11. Report of Committees:
a. Natural Sciences-R. M. Evans, Quincy, Ch'm Com.
b. Discussion-Round Table.
12. Report of Committees:
a. Vocational Subjects-S. A. Draper, Leesburg, Ch'm
Com.
b. Discussion-Round Table.
13. Address-Present Status and Possible Improvement in
Our High School Libraries-Sexton Johnson, Or-
lando.
14. Address-A Uniform State System of Records and Re-
ports-S. A. B. Wilkinson, Perry.



Florida State High School Meet

FRIDAY
3:00 P. M.-Friday Preliminaries for State Track Meet.
(Fleming Field)
8:00 P. M.-State High School Declamation Contest.
(University Gymnasium)

SATURDAY
9:00 A. M.-Annual Meeting of Florida High School Athletic
Association.
(Peabody Hall)
1:00 P. M.-Finals in Florida State High School Track and
Field Meet.
(Fleming Field)






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


REGISTER OF ATTENDANCE OF THE SECOND ANNUAL
CONFERENCE OF THE FLORIDA HIGH
SCHOOL PRINCIPALS
(Only partial list)
Draper, S. A., Principal Leesburg High School.
Ezell, B. F., Principal DeLand High School.
Ewing, E. C., Principal Lake Worth High School.
Johnson, A. F., Principal Williston High School.
Fillers, A. H., Principal Kissimmee High School.
Sims, L. R., Principal Panama City High School.
Frye, T. C., Principal Arcadia High School.
Woodward, S. L., Principal Plant City High School.
Workman, J. H., Principal Pensacola High School.
Evans, R. M., Principal Quincy High School.
Sealey, R. M., Principal Tallahassee High School.
Wilson, W. D., Principal Fort Myers High School.
Jones, C. M., Principal Lakeland High School.
Corr, P. W., Principal Zephyrhills High School.
Wardroper, J. H., Principal' Newberry High School.
Metcalfe, H. G., Principal Live Oak High School.
Hensley, P. H., Principal Ocala High School.
Wilkinson, S. A. B., Principal Perry High School.
DeLaney, Miss Eunice, Principal Orlando High School.
Buchholz, F. W., Principal Gainesville High School.
Bennett, L. E., Principal Fort Pierce High School.
Alstetter, M. L., Orlando High School.
Holmes, J. A., Live Oak High School.
Johnson, C. D., Teachers College, University of Florida.
Odom, E. S., Teachers College, University of Florida.
Johnson, H. C., Teachers College, University of Florida.
Hamon, R. L., Teachers College, University of Florida.
Hamon, Mrs. R. L., Teachers College, University of Florida.
Pollard, Miss Mattie A., Teachers College, University of Flor-
ida.
Simmons, G. B., Teachers College, University of Florida.
Adams, B. D., Teachers College, University of Florida.
Wells, J. R., Teachers College, University of Florida.
McLane, E. F., Teachers College, University of Florida.
Bratley, H. E., Teachers College, University of Florida.
Wheatley, J. S., Crescent City High School.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


Simmons, E. R., County Superintendent, Gainesville, Florida.
Fulk, J. R., Professor School Administration, Teachers Col-
lege, University of Florida.
Norman, J. W., Dean Teachers College, University of Florida.
Haynie, E. A., State Supervisor Vocational Agriculture, Uni-
versity of Florida.
Roemer, Jos., Professor of Secondary Education and High
School Visitor, University of Florida.
Bristol, L. M., Professor of Sociology, University of Florida.
Quigley, T. H., Professor of Industrial Education, University
of Florida.
McRee, J. E., Atlanta, Georgia.
Hankinson, P. H., Atlanta, Georgia.
Strang, Carl, Atlanta, Georgia.
Perry, M. D., Atlanta, Georgia.
Cawthon, W. S., State High School Inspector.
Sheats, Hon. W. N., State Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion, Tallahassee.








MINUTES OF THE SECOND ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF
THE FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS
THURSDAY, APRIL 7th, 1921
MORNING SESSION
The meeting was called to order by President Metcalfe of
Live Oak, after which an address of welcome on behalf of the
University was extended by Dean J. W. Norman of Teachers
College.
The following officers were then elected: President, Prin-
cipal R. M. Sealey of Tallahassee; Secretary, Principal W. D.
Wilson of Fort Myers.
After an announcement by State High School Inspector
W. S. Cawthon, concerning changes in the program, the meet-
ing adjourned in order that the various committees might fur-
ther consider the subjects assigned to them.
AFTERNOON SESSION
The meeting was called to order by the President. An
address was then given by Dr. Joseph Roemer of the Univer-
sity of Florida, on the subject, "The Fundamental Principles
Underlying the Reorganization of the High School Curricu-
lum," followed by a brief discussion.
A motion by Principal S. A. Draper of Leesburg was
unanimously carried that each Committee work out both a
"Six-three-three" and an "Eight-four" plan of curriculum.
In the absence of Principal C. M. Jones of Lakeland, the
Committee on Mathematics did not report as scheduled, so the
report on Natural Sciences was made by Principal R. M.
Evans of Quincy.
On motion by Principal Frye of Arcadia, the Natural Sci-
ence Committee was requested to include Agriculture as one
of the subjects for their consideration.
Principal C. M. Jones then spoke briefly concerning pro-
posed legislation concerning the qualifications of County Su-
perintendents. Principal S. A. Draper then moved that a
Committee of nine be appointed to further consider the
matter. The Chairman asked Principal Jones to name the
Committee, which resulted in the following appointments:
Principal R. M. Sealey, Dr. Joseph Roemer, Principal J. H.
Workman, Principal R. M. Evans, Dean N. M. Salley, Pro-






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


fessor W. S. Cawthon, Principal P. H. Hensley, and Principal
W. D. Wilson.
The meeting then adjourned.
FRIDAY MORNING SESSION
The meeting was called to order by the President. Prin-
cipal A. H. Fillers of Kissimmee was then elected as Vice-
President of the Conference.
A report was then made by Principal R. M. Sealey of the
Committee on Social Sciences, followed by general discussion.
The report of the Committee on Foreign Languages was
submitted by Principal H. G. Metcalfe, followed by general
discussion, and a special report by Principal P. H. Hensley
of Ocala.
State Superintendent W. N. Sheats then addressed the
Conference.
FRIDAY AFTERNOON SESSION
The meeting was called to order by President Sealey.
The following resolutions were presented by Principal
C. M. Jones which were unanimously adopted:
"Whereas, the office of State Superintendent of Public
Instruction of the State of Florida does not receive a salary
commensurate with service; and whereas, all similar offices
in other states receive a larger salary than paid in this State;
Be it resolved, that it is the sense of the high school principals
of the State of Florida that the salary of this office should be
increased to the sum of $5,000.00 per annum by the present
Legislature and request that a bill be introduced to this effect."
"Whereas, we believe that it is an educational crime for
county superintendents to be elected without professional and
academic training; Be it resolved, by the high school prin-
cipals of the State of Florida, that a bill be introduced in
the present Legislature requiring county superintendents to
have the above qualifications."
On motion of Principal J. H. Workman, Professor W. S.
Cawthon and Dr. Joseph Roemer were elected joint editors
of the High School Department of the Florida School Journal.
The report of the Committee on Mathematics was then sub-
mitted by Principal C. M. Jones of Lakeland, followed by dis-
cussion.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Principal S. A. Draper of Leesburg then gave a report on
Vocational Guidance.
A motion by Dr. Roemer that the Committee on Vocational
Subjects be supplemented by additional appointments by State
High School Inspector W. S. Cawthon, was carried.
A paper by Principal Sexton Johnson of Orlando on the
subject, "The Present Status and Possible Improvement in
Our High School Libraries," was read by Mr. M. L. Alstetter
of the Orlando High School.
An address on "A Uniform State System of Records and
Reports" was then given by Principal S. A. B. Wilkinson of
Perry.
The Committee on Resolutions then submitted the report
attached herewith.
On motion it was ordered that the Secretary notify the
Chairman of the Conference Committees that the Committees
would be continued.
A rising vote of thanks was extended to the two stenog-
raphers.
The meeting was adjourned until the next annual Con-
ference.
(Signed) W. D. WILSON,
Secretary.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS

No. 1. Resolved that it is the sense of this body that the
6-3-3 plan of organization would be a solution of the problems
at present confronting many of our high school adminis-
trators.
No. 2. Resolved that in the opinion of this body, the state
Textbook law should be so revised as to permit greater elas-
ticity in the selection of high school textbooks.
No. 3. Resolved that this body is opposed to the post-
ponement of the date of the next adoption of high school text-
books.
No. 4. Resolved that a fee of one dollar be solicited from
each high school principal and teacher in the state to defray
the expenses of publishing the proceedings of this meeting,
and that each principal and teacher be furnished with a copy.
(Signed) RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
General Conference
Committee:
W. S. Cawthon, University, Chairman,
and Director of Conference
John H. Workman, Pensacola
Chas. M. Jones, Perry
F. W. Buchholz, Gainesville
R. M. Sealey, Tallahassee
R. M. Evans, Quincy
S. A. Draper, Leesburg
W. D. Wilson, Fort Myers
Jos. Roemer, Gainesville
English Section:
John H. Workman, Pensacola, Chairman
Miss Levina Shores, Jacksonville
Ira McAlpin, DeFuniak Springs
Mathematics:
Chas. M. Jones, Perry, Chairman
D. M. Cook, Tampa
Miss Eunice Delaney, Orlando
Foreign Languages:
F. W. Buchholz, Gainesville, Chairman
H. G. Metcalfe, Live Oak
A. C. Alleshouse, Miami
Social Studies:
R. M. Sealey, Tallahassee, Chairman
S. L. Woodward, Plant City
E. W. McMullen, Clearwater
Science:
R. M. Evans, Quincy, Chairman
R. J. Longstreet, Seabreeze
Miss Maude Saunders, DeFuniak Sp'gs
Vocational:
S. A. Draper, Leesburg, Chairman
W. O. Lockhart, Lemon City
Miss Lucy Cushman, Tallahassee
Avocational:
W. D. Wilson, Fort Myers, Chairman
E. L. Robinson, Tampa
Samuel Long, Winter Haven









SECOND ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF HIGH SCHOOL
PRINCIPALS
THURSDAY A. M., APRIL 7th, 1921
The Second Annual Conference of Florida High School
Principals met at the University of Florida on Thursday,
April 7th, 1921. The opening session was held in Peabody
Hall at 9:30 A. M.
The meeting was called to order by the President, Mr.
H. G. Metcalfe of Live Oak, who expressed his pleasure at
being present and announced that an address of welcome was
to have been made by President Murphree, but that all could
readily understand why he was not present. In his absence,
Dean Norman of Teachers College was called upon for a few
words of welcome.

WELCOME ADDRESS
By J. W. Norman, Dean Teachers College, University of Florida
I was asked just a few minutes ago to make the welcome'
address for this occasion. I am afraid not having prepared
that I shall not do so as gracefully and as heartily as I should
do in welcoming this body. I know that everyone who attends
occasions like this wishes to feel that he has a very hearty
welcome, and although I may not be able by words to express
the welcome all of us here at the University wish to extend
to you, still I want to assure you that nothing gives us more
pleasure than to have the principals and teachers of the State
with us.
It is my opinion that meetings of this kind are one of the
greatest agencies for educational advancement. Teachers who
conscientiously and persistently assemble themselves together
for a study of their mutual problems sooner or later gradually
forge to the front in their profession. Ideas are advanced,
questions are asked and discussions follow. Sometimes these
discussions become rather heated, but after they are over we
discover that we have learned something. It is somewhat like
a chemical reaction. Whenever two chemicals are put to-
gether there is frequently a tremendous boiling, but after the
boiling is over there is a different kind of a product. Someone
has called this "synthetic creation." By synthetic creation
we mean this: If one has an idea and another has a different






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


idea and these two ideas come in contact, there is something
like a chemical reaction and the result is a synthetic creation;
that is, when the two ideas come together, a third and entirely
different idea is formed from their composition that is neither
one nor the other, but a different product. In these meetings,
a great deal of this kind of thinking goes on.
In explanation of this idea let me give an example. Last
year at the meeting of this Conference, there was considerable
discussion about General Science. Some were violently op-
posed and others as ardently in favor of it, and I have thought
in the past year a great deal about the discussion on that
occasion. I have frequently referred to it in my classes dur-
ing the year and I have asked others, both in the classroom
and out of the classroom, this question, "What do you think
of the course in General Science? What has been your ob-
servation?" and out of this my knowledge about the subject
has been very greatly increased. I have been trying to solve
that question and no doubt a number of you have been think-
ing of the same thing. At this meeting I am sure that other
questions will come up of like nature and that many ideas
will be created synthetically. The ideas advanced, the ques-
tions raised, and the discussions which follow them will inevi-
tably greatly improve our educational thinking.
The University is exactly the proper place where meetings
of this kind should be held in order that we may have more
of this kind of thinking. I therefore give you the most hearty
welcome I can, and I am sure the other members of the faculty
join me in welcoming you to the University. I trust that many
more of you will be present before the day is over.
Mr. Metcalfe: I am sure I speak for the Association when
I say that we deeply appreciate these words of welcome; it is
always a pleasure for us to come here; it is like coming back
home, and I am sure that we all feel that way. I may say
that the officers of this Association do not hold their positions
because of their good behavior but are supposed to change
annually, and consequently organization is next in order. The
officers of this Association, as I understand it, consist of a
President and a Secretary-Treasurer. Nominations are now
in order for President.
Mr. Buchholz: I move that we elect Mr. R. M. Sealey of
Tallahassee for President by acclamation.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


Mr. Cawthon: I second the motion.
Mr. Metcalfe: Mr. Sealey has been unanimously elected
President. I request the newly elected President to come for-
ward and take charge of the meeting.
Mr. Sealey: I suggest that the present President continue
in charge.
Mr. Metcalfe: I should like to remind you gentlemen that
the retiring President has already "been through it once" and,
furthermore, when this present organization has become
great and famous, as it undoubtedly will, it will be considered
a source of great gratification to me to be able to say, "I was
the first President."
Mr. Sealey (in the Chair) : The next thing in order of
business is the election of the next officer of the Association,
the Secretary-Treasurer. Nominations are now in order for
said officer.
Mr. Cawthon: I nominate Mr. W. D. Wilson.
Mr. Metcalfe: I move the nominations close and that we
elect Mr. Wilson by acclamation.
Mr. Sealey: Mr. Wilson is unanimously elected and will
immediately assume his duties.
Mr. Cawthon: In regard to a change in program, let me
say that President Murphree, Mr. Roemer, myself, and others,
had hoped to have a gentleman of some prominence in high
school and college circles to address us this evening in the
College Gymnasium, but we failed to secure such an one. In
the place of Doctor Woodley, there will be an address by Mrs.
J. Stuart Lewis of Tallahassee, prominent in the Federation
of Women's Clubs in the State. I do not know the subject of
her address, but I feel sure that she will bring us a worth
while message. Her address will take place in the College
Gymnasium this evening at 7:45. Immediately after that
there will be the debate which is scheduled next on the pro-
gram. The subject is the Smith-Towner Bill. It will be
handled by S. W. Cason and H. C. Johnson, two Senior stu-
dents of Teachers College, who are members of the University
Triangle Debating Team.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


We plan now to break up the Conference in Committees.
We want to give each Committee on curriculum organization
time to work out its report. Rooms in this building have been
assigned the various Committees. We are now closing in time
for each Committee to get in a two-hour session preparatory
to the reports which are to follow during this Conference.
We hope each person or Committee will feel free to visit
other Committee rooms or class rooms and get such help or
advice as is deemed advisable.
Mr. Norman: Before we adjourn I should like to empha-
size what Mr. Cawthon has just said about making yourselves
at home. We shall be very glad to have you in any of our
class rooms. Wherever you find a class room, go in, because
when we go to your schools, this is what we do. We should be
very glad to have you come to any of our classes, and also to
tell us what you find wrong, and then next year when you
come again, we hope that it will not be that way.
Mr. Hensley: Before we adjourn I should also like to ask
a question about the meeting of the Florida High School Ath-
letic Association. Does that include all members and schools
that belong to the Association?
Mr. Cawthon: All of them, and of course any other schools
are welcome to be there.
Mr. Sealey: The Conference is now adjourned until two
P. M.

THURSDAY, TWO P. M., APRIL 7th, 1921

Mr. Sealey: The house will now come to order. May I
request that all members move to the front part of the room
and occupy the front rows of seats? It gives me great
pleasure to introduce Doctor Joseph Roemer, Professor of
Secondary Education and High School Visitor of the Uni-
versity of Florida, who will speak to us on the subject, "Fun-
damental Principles Underlying the Reorganization of the
High School Curriculum."







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE RE-
ORGANIZATION OF THE HIGH SCHOOL
CURRICULUM*
By Jos. Roemer, Prof. of Secondary Education and High School Visitor
of the University of Florida
Mr. Chairman, Gentlemen of the Conference, and Visiting
Friends: I have been looking forward to this occasion with a
great deal of pleasure for the past several months, because I
have anticipated the pleasure of meeting a great many of the
high school men of the State, whom I have only known through
correspondence; and I have also anticipated it with a great
deal of pleasure due to the reports given me by Mr. Cawthon
and those who attended the Conference last year.
This afternoon, I am going to follow the statement printed
on the back of each program, that this Conference is not to be
a long-winded speech making affair, but more of a round table
discussion. I shall endeavor to follow out the spirit of the
statement. In order to be brief and as pointed as I can, I
have worked out this little outline which I am going to follow:

BASIC PRINCIPLES IN CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION
I. Two lines of discussion.
1. State course of study as h whole.
a. Total possible units of course.
b. Prescribed units of course-CONSTANTS.
c. Limited electives
d. Free electives VARIABLES
2. Content of each unit in curriculum.
II. Function of high school curriculum chief determinant.
1. Cardinal Principles.
7 objectives:
(1) Health.
(2) Command of fundamental processes.
(3) Worthy home-membership.
(4) Vocation.
(5) Citizenship.
(6) Worthy use of leisure.
(7) Ethical character.
2. Correlative Principles.
a. Adaptability.
b. Flexibility.

*Part of this address was published separately under the title: "A
Study of Florida High Schools."







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


c. Unification.
d. Differentiation.
e. Specializing phase.
f. General phase.
III. Ideal versus Real Condition.
1. Conditions State-wide-Nation-wide.
2. Problems involved.
a. Length of term.
b. Size of school.
c. Number of teachers.
d. Curriculum.
3. Junior High School-Solution of Problem.
IV. Junior and Senior High School Basis of Procedure.
1. Present curriculum of small schools.
2. Virginia plan for small rural Junior High Schools.
3. Dual plan advisable for Florida.
a. 6-3-3 plan.
b. 8-4 plan.

I have no original or profound speech to make. In some
of our church gatherings one minister will always read "The
Articles of Faith." I am going to follow that example and
enunciate as the program states, the "Fundamental Princi-
ples"-in other words, the "articles of faith" of our religion.
I think it is a pretty good thing to get together and break the
"pedagogical bread" once in a while, and as Dean Norman
said this morning, have heart to heart talks and discussions,
even though we get into some "scraps." We cannot all see
alike but out of the differences in ideas and opinions will
come something new and worth while. I had an argument
just this morning with my good friend from Plant City in
which I was unable to convince him to see my way. I called
him a pessimist. He said, "Your idea of a pessimist is one
who does not agree with you." Whether it is pessimism or
not, I shall say what I think and then let you other men say
what you think, and close with a united "think" which in the
end ought to be a great "think."
From this outline you see I am going to follow pretty
largely the bulletin known as "The Cardinal Principles of
Secondary Education." "This Bulletin is not a spasmodic
effort of one or two men, but the combined thinking of the






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


men of the whole secondary school world for the last quarter
of a century. Most all of the great things of the world are
movements that are the product of the minds of numerous
men. What we stand for today is not something that some
one man said or thought ten or twenty years ago, but the
accumulated growth to which numerous ones have added their
little bits. And it has grown better and broader because each
man has contributed his bit. We started about 1880 in the
N. E. A. appointing committees to study some phase of the
secondary school. Since then there have been numerous com-
mittees appointed. There was a Committee of Ten; a Com-
mittee of Eight; a Committee of Seven; a Committee of Five,
etc. Each Committee investigated certain phases of the sec-
ondary school and reported back to the National Association.
The influence of these committees has been far reaching in
secondary education. For example, the final report of the
Committee of Five, which had to do with History, practically
fixed the kind and sequence of History in our public high
schools for the last quarter of a century. In 1913 there was
a new committee formed by the N. E. A., known as the Com-
mission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. "This
Commission was a direct outgrowth of the work of the Com-
mittee on the Articulation of High Schools and Colleges, which
submitted its report to the N. E. A. in 1911. That committee
set forth briefly its conception of the field and function, of
secondary education and urged the modification of college
entrance requirements in order that the secondary school
might adapt its work to the varying needs of its pupils with-
out closing to them the possibility of continued education in
higher institutions. It took the position that the satisfactory
completion of any well planned high school curriculum should
be accepted as a preparation for college. This recommenda-
tion accentuated the responsibility of the secondary school
for planning its work so that young people may meet the needs
of democracy."*
Through sixteen of its committees this Association is
issuing reports dealing with the organization and adminis-

*Bulletin, 1918, No. 35, Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


tration of secondary schools and with the aims and methods
and content of the various studies. The findings, recommen-
dations and reports of these committees are embodied in Bu-
reau of Education bulletins released by the N. E. A. To date
there have been released some eight or nine reports. To assist
these committees through constructive criticism, a reviewing
committee was organized in 1913. In addition to this task
of criticising the reports, it seemed desirable that the Review-
ing Committee itself should outline in a single brief report
those fundamental principles that would be most helpful in
directing the reorganization of secondary schools. The bul-
letin referred to above, entitled "The Cardinal Principles of
Secondary Education," is the direct product of this general
Reviewing Committee. It sets forth the cardinal tenets or
foundation principles of the whole secondary school. It is a
small bulletin of only about thirty-two pages, but it is perhaps
the most valuable piece of literature that has come from the
secondary educational world in the last quarter of a century.
This outline at my back is based directly upon the spirit of
this bulletin. Consequently, there is nothing new to be said
here this afternoon. I shall merely restate what this bulletin
contains and add a little bit of local coloring. When that is
done, we will then be ready to go into our specific problems
in Florida.
But before applying a remedy, it is necessary first to
diagnose the case. We cannot intelligently discuss the re-
organization of our curriculum until we know definitely some
things about our high school conditions. After this running,
oral, discussion of the seven main objectives of the high
school, let us see to what extent the high school is accom-
plishing its mission.
In order to have complete and recent data on this ques-
tion, I gathered some facts just recently. These charts you
see scattered along the wall here were made up from those
blanks you principals filled for me not many days ago. I have
data on every high school in Florida regardless of size or
classification, and consequently, it is a real picture of present
conditions. Let us now go into an analytic study of our
Florida high schools after which we will discuss the remedy.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


A STUDY OF FLORIDA HIGH SCHOOLS

ORGANIZATION
There is not a more pleasing chapter of the history of
Florida education than the development of the public high
school. Starting as it did in the closing years of the last
century, it grew to such proportions as to justify state super-
vision and inspection as early as 1907, and now has reached
such a magnitude as to demand more than one inspector. The
story of its growth in number of teachers employed, amount
and value of library and laboratory equipment installed, new
buildings added, etc., reads like a fairy tale to one who traces
it back through the Biennial Reports of the State Department
of Education. When the future is considered in the light of
past development it brings a flush of heart to those who have
absolute faith in the great democratic movement of the mod-
ern high school.
In order to get a little better idea of its present condition
and possible future lines of development, the writer thought
it would be of interest to take a cross section, as it were, of
its present status. This is not, in any way, intended to be an
exhaustive study, but merely an attempt to call attention to
a few of the outstanding phases of high school development
in Florida.
The bulletin is divided into three chapters. The first chap-
ter deals with the general organization of the high school
including such topics as number of high schools, kind of high
schools, enrollment, etc.; the second chapter has to do with
the training, tenure, supply, etc., of teachers; and the third
chapter deals with the course of study.
In presenting the data contained herein, it was deemed
advisable to group the high schools for discussion under the
following headings: FOUR YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS; THREE
YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS; TWO YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS;
ONE YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS.
In order to make the study as helpful as possible and to
have the conclusions drawn from as full data as possible, a
very thorough search and great effort was made to secure
data for every high school in the state regardless of size.
Through the kindness of Professor W. S. Cawthon, State High
School Inspector, the name and location of all high schools







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


in the state was secured, then data obtained concerning them
by means of a blank which was filled by each principal.

At this point the writer wishes to express his deepest ap-
preciation to the high school principals for their extreme cour-
tesy in filling so promptly and carefully the blank sent them.
Their willingness to cooperate made the study possible. Special
mention is also due to Messrs. S. W. Cason, G. C. Hamilton,
H. C. Johnson, and H. L. Tolbert, senior students in Teachers
College of the University of Florida, for their assistance in
preparing the material for publication.

Tables I to IV give the enrollment for each particular high
school of the state for February 1921. Table V is a summary
of tables I to IV. The tables follow without further comment.


TABLE I

Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(4 Year High Schools)


GRADES

Location 9th 10th 11th 12th Grand Total
of School
o 52 2 .2 2 5.

______m u a m _ _
Alachua ........ 16 28 44 16 23 39 4 3 7 3 6 9 39 60 99
Apalachicola 2 5 13 15 28 1 7 8 0 7 7 0 3 3 14 32 46
Apopka ............... 7 7 14 3 4 7 3 3 6 0 2 2 13 16 29
Arcadia 1 23 31 54 15 28 43 10 29 39 7 11 18 55 99 154
Avon Park .......... 7 16 23 5 5 10 2 3 5 1 5 6 15 29 44
Barberville ...... 7 7 14 6 6 12 1 5 6 2 3 5 16 21 37
Bartow 1 ......... 25 24 49 22 34 56 20 28 48 6 20 26 73 106 179
Bonifay .......... 12 15 27 3 13 16 2 4 6 2 3 5 19 35 54
Bowling Green 7 12 19 2 8 10 1 4 5 3 4 7 13 28 41
Bradentown 1 6 35 57 92 24 34 58 18 19 37 11 11 22 88 121 209
Brooksville ....... 14 9 23 16 7 23 6 6 12 8 7 15 44 29 73
Bushnell ............. 2 5 7 5 9 14 2 2 4 0 1 1 9 17 26
Chipley 1 ............20 29 49 18 20 38 5 5 10 4 3 7 47 57 104
Clearwater 1 6 24 39 63 18 21 39 16 20 36 13 22 35 71 102 173
Cocoa 1 ............... 9 10 19 6 13 19 5 11 16 2 3 5 22 37 59
Crescent City .... 6 8 14 1 5 6 3 3 6 3 0 3 13 16 29
Dade City ....... 16 32 48 7 14 21 4 4 8 3 11 14 30 61 91
Daytona 1 ....... 28 38 66 13 36 49 14 15 29 6 9 15 61 98 159
DeFuniak Spgs. 25 29 54 16 21 37 11 14 25 8 11 19 60 75 135
DeLand 1 ....... 22 28 50 23 24 47 5 29 34 5 14 19 55 95 150
Delray ................ 5 10 15 4 5 9 6 6 12 0 4 4 15 25 40
Dunnellon ....... 8 13 21 3 5 8 6 5 11 0 2 2 17 25 42
Eau Gallie ......... 7 0 7 1 2 3 1 5 6 2 0 2 11 7 18
Eustis .......... 15 7 22 7 13 20 8 8 16 3 2 5 33 30 63
Fellsmere ........... 2 5 7 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 5 8 13
Fernandina ....... 2 14 2 6 8 1 2 3 0 3 3 5 23 28
Ft. Lauderdale 6 25 28 53 12 18 30 12 10 22 11 14 25 60 70 130
Ft. Meade ..... 19 24 43 13 20 33 7 15 22 6 13 19 45 72 117
Ft. Myers 1 6 .... 30 31 61 18 23 41 8 11 19 8 8 16 64 73 137
Ft. Pierce 6 ........ 12 31 43 15 14 29 6 11 17 2 12 14 35 68 103
Gainesville 1 6 .. 50 39 89 21 43 64 24 34 58 8 17 25 103 133 236








PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE 23


TABLE I-Continued
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(4 Year High Schools)


GRADES

Location 9th 10th 11th 12th Grand Total
of School

_________ C, F4 mo6
Gonzalez ............. 9 61 15 8 4 12 3 4 7 1 4 5 21 18 39
Graceville ............ 11 6 17 9 11 20 5 3 3 6 26 22 48
Gr. Cove Spgs... 3 16 3 1 4 1 2 3 0 1 1 7 20 27
High Springs 9 7 16 3 6 9 1 7 8 2 1 3 15 21 36
Homestead ...... 8 1 18 8 9 17 3 7 10 4 4 8 23 30 53
Inverness ........ 9 5 14 3 1 14 2 6 8 5 4 9 19 26 45
Jacksonville .... 242 255 497 118 167 285 66 91 157 50 78 128 476 91 1067
Jasper .............. 10 20 1 5 6 1 8 9 3 1 4 15 2 39
Key West .......... 19 33 52 21 21 42 6 12 18 6 11 17 52 77 129
Kissimmee 1 .. 14 3246 7 19 26 9 15 24 4 9 13 34 75 109
LaBelle ............ 7 9 16 1 7 8 4 1 5 2 3 5 14 20 34
Lake Butler .... 5 12 17 1 5 6 3 4 7 1 2 3 10 23 33
Lake City .......... 31 30 61 12 21 33 14 15 29 7 4 11 64 60 124
Lakeland 1 6 ...... 49 72 121 43 42 85 20 34 54 21 37 58 133 185 318
Largo 1 ............ 5 27 32 4 9 13 6 12 18 5 5 10 20 53 73
Leesburg 6 .......... 12 14 ; 12 13 25 9 8 17 14 6 20 47 41 88
Lemon City ...... 15 13. 6 7 13 5 7 12 1 2 3 27 29 56
Live Oak 1 6 ...... 17 18 14 19 33 5 9 14 1 7 8 37 53 90
Lynn Haven ... 4 2 3 5 2 2 4 0 2 2 4 11 15
Madison ............ 15 6 21 8 7 15 13 24 37 3 7 10 39 44 83
Marianna .......... 4 18 22 6 12 18 3 17 20 4 7 11 17 54 71
Mayo ...................... 7 6 13 5 6 11 1 5 6 3 3 6 16 20 36
Melbourne 1........ 12 21 33 6 16 22 3 5 8 9 4 13 30 46 76
Miami 6 ............... 115 172 287 84 107 191 76 81 157 46 48 94 321 408 729
Milton .................. 18 20 38 11 16 27 9 18 27 7 4 11 45 58 103
Monticello .......... 11 16 3 13 16 2 4 6 3 5 8 13 33 46
Montverd (Ind.) 29 26 55 6 18 24 6 7 13 5 8 13 46 59 105
Mulberry 9 18 27 11 16 27 3 1 4 5 10 15 28 45 73
Muscogee 3 5 8 6 1 7 2 2 4 1 1 2 12 9 21
New Smyrna 22 21 43 4 17 21 7 5 12 10 4 14 43 47 90
Oakland-Win-
ter Garden 5 11 16 1 4 5 1 5 6 3 6 9 10 26 36
Ocala 1 6 ............ 35 34 69 11 32 43 13 18 31 11 20 31 70 104 174
Okeechobee .... 9 7 16 5 9 14 3 1 4 0 3 3 17 20 37
Orlando 6 ........... 66 77 143 45 54 99 24 40 64 17 24 41 152 195 347
Oviedo .................. 4 6 2 2 4 0 0 0 0 3 3 4 9 13
Palatka .. 20 25 45 11 21 32 6 14 20 5 11 16 42 71 113
Palmetto ...... 12 31 43 14 24 38 1 10 11 9 20 29 36 85 121
Panama City 3 12 16 28 7 8 15 7 6 13 2 4 6 28 34 62
Pensacola .... 72 106 178 40 58 98 33 78 111 17 21 38 162 263 425
Perry ................ 9 16 25 9 14 23 7 5 12 3 11 14 28 46 74
Plant City .... 41 42 83 31 31 62 6 25 31 7 20 27 85 118 203
Punta Gorda 10 14 24 13 7 20 2 6 8 6 4 10 31 31 62
Quincy 1 6 *. 12 23 35 9 15 24 12 11 23 10 15 25 43 64 107
Redlands 8 10 18 2 4 6 3 2 5 1 3 4 14 19 33
St. Augustine .. 24 35 59 24 25 49 12 18 30 14 13 27 74 91 165
St. Cloud 7 13 20 3 10 13 1 4 5 7 13 20 18 40 58
St. Pet'burg 87 130 217 73 134 207 51 81 132 30 55 85 241 400 641
Sanford 1............39 35 74 21 42 63 7 19 26 9 16 2 76 112 188
Sarasota ...... 13 16 29 15 13 28 7 8 15 3 1 4 38 38 76
Seabreeze 9 13 22 4 12 16 2 8 10 2 7 9 17 40 57
Sebring .... 8 10 18 1 7 8 2 8 10 6 2 8 17 27 44
Starke ................ 9 10 19 8 5 13 1 3 4 4 6 10 22 24 46
Stuart .................. 8 13 5 8 13 2 3 5 1 5 6 13 24 37
Tallahassee 28 37 65 2 38 61 17 2 3 10 2 31 78 117 1
Tampa 180 21 411 133 207 340 81 109 190 73 92 165 467 639 1106
Tarpon Spgs. 9 17 26 14 13 27 8 10 18 4 4 8 35 44 79
Titusville 5 1722 4 6 7 3 10 3 9 12 19
Trenton .............. 5 12 17 1 11 1 4 1 4 5 9 28 37
Umatilla .............. 3 8 11 11 17 2 2 4 2 1 3 13 22 35
Vero ............... 8 18 26 3 7 10 1 5 6 5 4 9 17 34 51







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE I-Continued
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(4 Year High Schools)

GRADES

Location 9th 10th 11th 12th Grand Total
of School --

0 0 0 0

Waldo1........... 5 1 3 0 0 0 1 1 2 4 6 10
Wauchula 28 2 57 15 1 30 2 28 13 1629 62 82144
Webster ....... 15 1 31 4 5 9 4 1 5 2 1 3 25 23 48
WT. Palm B'ch 43 56 99 31 52 83 24 34 58 10 33 43 108 175 283
Williston ...... 5 611 7 7 14 1 7 8 0 6 6 13 26 39
Winter Haven 1 20 2 45 20 24 44 22 19 41 27 36 71 95 166
Zephyrhills3 6 16 7 5 12 5 4 9 3 5 8 21 24 45
1207812713147911|1365120331339811 8841134812232[| 65711017116741 498417111112095
1On Senior List of State Department 1920-21.
2 On Junior List of State Department 1920-21.
SOn Intermediate List of State Department 1920-21.
SStatistics for 1916-17.
SStatistics for 1917-18.
6 Member of Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 1920-21.
1 These figures include 180 boys and 231 girls enrolled in the two Junior High
Schools in the ninth grade.

TABLE II
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(3 Year High Schools)


GRADES


Location
of School


9th 10th


Gr'd Total


0 0 0 0 0 o0 0 0
___In_____ 0 H I-m 0 H o 0 I 0
Clermont ........................ 6 3 9 2 2 4 1 0 1 9 5 14
Floral City ........................ 2 5 7 0 4 4 0 2 2 2 11 13
Ft. White .......................... 16 3 19 5 5 10 1 6 7 22 14 36
Geneva ................................ 2 3 5 1 1 2 0 1 1 3 5 8
Greenwood ........................ 3 7 10 0 3 3 1 2 3 4 12 16
Groveland ........................ 4 6 10 2 1 3 2 1 3 8 8 16
Havana x ............................ 6 13 19 6 13 19 3 2 5 15 28 43
Jupiter ................................ 5 2 7 0 0 0 2 0 2 7 2 9
Lake Wales .................... 7 4 11 8 1 9 0 100 0 15 15 30
Macclenny .......................... 2 6 8 3 2 5 0 2 2 5 10 15
Melrose .............................. 5 5 10 1 5 6 0 3 3 6 13 19
Micanopy .......................... 4 18 22 2 2 4 4 4 8 10 22 32
Newberry ......................... 8 10 16 1 5 6 0 1 1 9 16 25
Pinetta ...--........................... 1 4 5 1 5 6 0 3 3 2 12 14
White Springs .................. 4 17 21 1 3 4 3 3 6 8 23 31
Winter Park .................... 4 10 14 4 6 10 4 41 8 12 20 32
Grand Total .................. 791114119311 371 581 9511 211 441 651113712161353
1 On Junior List of State Department 1920-21.
2 On Intermediate List of State Department 1920-21.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE

TABLE III
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(2 Year High Schools)


Location
of School


A ltha ...................................
A lva ................... .............
A nthon .-.--- .---------------------
Anthony .........................
A rcher ...................................
Baker ..................................
B ell ... ................... ..............
Branford ............................
Brooker ...............................
Bunnell 2 ...............................
Campbellville ... ...........
Carrabelle ......................--....
Center Hill ........................
Century ...........................
Chattahoochee ....... ......
C itra ........................................
Cocoanut Grove 1 ...- .......
Colem an ................................
Concord ................................
Dania ............................... -------
E lfers 2 ............ .... .........
Enterprise 2 ..........
Frostproof
Greensboro ....... .....
Greenville ..............
Gretna 1 ................................
Haines City ...---.-----
Hastings .......--------------
Hawthorne ....--- ..
H illiard ..............................
Jennings .... ........ ...
Kathleen .......................
Lake Worth .........................
Larkins ..................- .............
Laurel H ill ........................
Lawtey ..
Law tey ................................ -
Lecanto ..............................
McIntosh .............-....---
M illville .............................
M t. D ora ..............................
Oxford ...........---..----....-.....
Safety Harbor .....................
Sebastian ...............................
Summerfield ...................---.
Wildwood 1 ............................
Zellwood ............................


GRADES

9th 10th Grand Total


S0 E 0 H m 0
6 13 19 0 6 6 6 19 25
4 8 12 3 2 5 7 10 17
2 2 4 3 3 6 5 5 10
2 1 3 3 1 4 5 2 7
7 3 10 3 3 6 10 6 16
2 1 3 0 4 4 2 5 7
4 4 8 0 1 1 4 5 9
2 2 4 0 6 6 2 8 10
1 10 11 1 4 5 2 14 16
2 1 3 0 1 1 2 2 4
1 3 4 3 0 3 4 3 7
0 2 2 2 7 2 7 9
3 3 3 0 5 5 3 8 11
4 1 ,5 1 3 4 5 4 9
3 2 5 0 5 5 -3,' 7 10
16 6 12 1 6 7 7 12 19
- 4 3 7 2 1 3 6 4 1l
2 7 9 0: 2 3' 2 10 12
2 7 9 5 1 6 7 8 15
5 2 -7 1 2 '3 6 4 10
3 4 7 3 3 6 6 7 13
7 3 10 4 4 8 11 7 18
2 4 6 5 11 16 7 15 22
2 1 3 1 3 4 3 4 7
5 3 8 1 2 3 6 5 11
2 4 6 1 3 4 3 7 10
4 11 15 2 2 4 6 13 19
1 2 3 4 5 9 5 7 12
2 1 3 2 0 2 4 1 5
4 7 11 1 4 5 5 11 16
3 5 8 2 4 6 5 9 14
13 22 35 2 9 11 15 31 46
2 2 4 5 4 9 7 6 13
5 2 7 0 5 5 5 7 12
3 6 9 0 2 2 3 8 11
0 2 2 0 3 3 0 5 5
5 3 8 0 2 2 5 5 10
13 9 22 6 4 10 19 13 32
3 9 12 1 2 3 4 11 15
6 10 16 2 0 2 8 10 18
4 8 12 2 3 5 6 11 17
1 3 4 3 1 4 4 4 8
3 3 6 1 3 4 4 6 10
4 6 10 1 3 4 5 9 14
2 3 5 0 3 3 2 6 8


Grand Total ..................... 1611 2141 37511 791 146| 22411 2381 3611 599
1 On Junior List of State Department 1919-20.
2 Statistics for year 1919-20.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE IV
Enrollment in Florida High Schools
(1 Year High Schools)

GRADES
Location
of School 9th Grade
Boys Girls Total
A ucilla ...................................... ................... 3 3 6
Belleview ......................................................... 1 2 3
Brewster .... .................................................... 5 4 9
B ristol .............................................................. 3 2 5
Cedar K eys....................................................... 5 2 7
Crystal River .................................................. 1 0 1
Gardner ............................................................ 5 2 7
H ernando .......................................................... 1 2 3
M ontbrook ........................................................ 1 0 1
M orriston ........................................................ 1 3 4
O coee ............................................................... 2 4 6
Reddick .......................................................... 1 2 3
St. Andrews .....,............................................ 5 3 8
Sopchoppy '........-........................................- .. 1 1 2
Wellbbrn ... .. .... -........ 4 5 9
a -Total ........................................... 39 1 35 1 74




TABLE V
Total High School Enrollment Classified According to Kind of High
Schools


Kind of GRADES
School 5



_ S 5 ES 0

1-Year ...................... 15 74........................... 39 35 74 .5
2-Year ...................... 45 375 224.................... 238 361 599 4.5
3-Year ...................... 16 193 95 65.......... 137 216 353 2.7
4-Year ...................... 98 4791 3398 2232 1674 4984 7111 12095 92.3
Total ....................| 1741 5433| 37171 22971 16741 53981 77231131211
Percent ...................-........- 41.41 28.31 17.41 12.91 41.11 58.91..........1100


To say there are only 98 four-year high schools in all the
state may seem disparaging, but the bright side of the picture
is revealed when we realize that 92.3 per cent of all the pupils






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


are enrolled in these, while only 5 per cent are enrolled in the
60 one and two-year high schools.
It is unfortunate to realize that in Florida, as in every
other state, nearly one-half (41.4 per cent) of all the high
school pupils are in the 9th grade, and over two-thirds (69.7
per cent) are in the first two years of high school, whereas
only 12.9 per cent are in the 12th grade.
Let us next see how many months in the year pupils attend
high school. That is, how many months the high schools run
in which the pupils are enrolled. Table VI gives the enroll-
ment according to the length of term the schools run, while
table VII classifies the high schools on the basis of the number
of months run. Tables VI and VII follow.

TABLE VI
High School Enrollment Classified According to the Length of Term
-o
C'V, 0
Kind of NUMBER OF MONTHS
School 6




o co L o C; P -'; o
1-Year ...................... 15 5 .......... 5 20 40 9 74 .5
2-Year ...................... 45 13 11 61 23 399 105 599 4.5
3-Year ...................... 16 22 ......... .......... 30 323 .......... 353 2.7
4-Year ...................... 98 123 .............................. 2607 9488 12095 92.3
Total ....................I 174| 75| 11| 661 73| 33691 94881131211
Percent .................... .......... I......... .11 .51 .61 25.71 73.11.......... 100

TABLE VII
High Schools Classified According to Length of Term


Kind of 3 Number of Months Run
School 0




1-Year ..........................-------------- 15 ............ 1 4 9 86
2-Year .............................. 45 1 4 3 32 5 25.9
3-Year .............................. 16 ............ ............ 2 14 9.1
3-Year------------------------18----------------- 145 -9.1
4-Year .............................. 98 .................................... 45 53 56.4
Total ............................- 1741 11 51 91 100j 591
Percent ............................ I............ .61 3. I 5.21 57.41 33.81 100





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


From table VII we see that only 33.8 per cent of all the
high schools run nine months, yet table VI shows they enroll
73.1 per cent of all the pupils; and that while 57.4 per cent of
all the schools run only eight months, yet they enroll only 25.7
per cent of all the pupils. These conditions reveal the fact
that 92.3 per cent of all the pupils are enrolled in four-year
high schools, which makes the situation exceedingly prom-
ising.
Table VIII is inserted at this point for the purpose of
giving the reader a clearer conception of the development of
the high school since inspection began. These data were taken
from the Biennial Reports of the State High School Inspector.
The exact classification of high schools is reproduced here
which accounts for the seemingly confusing terminology in
the classification.
TEACHING FORCE
Another way to get a good idea of the status of the high
school is to consider the teaching force thereof. The old say-
ing, "As is the teacher so is the school," applies as truly to
the high school as to any part of the school system. Hence
the purpose of the chapter is to ascertain the following facts
concerning the teaching force of the Florida high schools:
How many high school teachers are there in the state giving
full time to the high school; where were these high school
teachers trained; what per cent of these high school teachers
is men, and what per cent is women; what per cent of the
men and women teachers were new in their jobs last year;
how long do the teachers work in one place? etc. The answers
to these questions should give us a little keener insight into
the status of our high schools.
Table IX which follows gives the total number of high
school teachers classified according to sex and type of school;
table X shows the number of teachers classified according to
the size of the school they work in; and table XI shows the
number of teachers classified according to the size of the high
school as measured by the number of teachers in the high
school faculty. The tables follow.









TABLE VIII
Total Enrollment in All Florida High Schools from 1907 to 1921


Classes and Number of High Schools Grades

S- ~ -\ 9th 10th 11th 12th Boys Girls Total
Year
YS____ ______ No V1NO
O I gH g No. % No. % No. % No. % N. No. % No.
c2 CA -I C l l 0 tq C7 CO (12-fr7 -/|Ei
1907-08 ................ ...- ......................... 783 42.6 454 24.2 350 19.66 251 13.6| 71839.11 1120 60.9|1 1838
1908-09 ........ .. ...- ..-.. -- -- .... ....---.- 917 42 559 25.6 38917.8 319 14.6 88040.3 130 59.7 2184
1909-10 39 10 29 -- .-..-- .....---- .... .- ..- --- 8 86 1420 46.8 824 27.2 446 14.7 34111.3 1252 41.3 1779 58.7 3031
1910-11 -.... .....-... ..---- ..- -.. -.. 615 9 29 .... .... 14 73 1218 45.4 78929.4 406 15.1 270 10.1 1057 39.4 1626 60.6 2683
1911-12 .... .... -.. ..... ....-.--- .... 12 13 10 30 ........ 18 83 1650 47 97127.7 544 15.5 343 9.8 1378 39.3 2130 60.7 3508
1912-13 .... ........ .. ...............25 832........ 17 82 188343.2 125428.7 769 17.6 45816.5 1815 41.6 254958.4 4364
1913-14 .... ........ .......... 23 1139.... ..14 87 2110 43 |1363128 846118 552111 11876 39 2995161 4871
1914-15 ............ 22 12 12 51 .... ........ .... .... ........ ..---- 97 198744 115226 737 16 613 14 1829141 2660 59 4489
1915-16 ............ 23 16 11 55 ....----..--- .-...- ...---- .... 105 2650 42.6 1663 26.8 1128 18.1 778 12.5 2743 44.11 3476 55.9 6219
1916-17 ---- ..... ----- -..- ..---. --40 21 25 26 112 2670 43.3 1678 27 1042 16. 823 13.2 2676 43.1 3537 56.9 6213
1917-18 .......---- ... . .. .... .... 48 21 16 18 103 2858 40.2 1989 28 1312 18.5 949 13.3 2847 40.1 4261 59.9 7108
1918-19 .... .... .... .... ... .... 48 23 10 .... 81 3126 40.2 2006 25.8 1439 18.5 1166 15.5 3030 40 4737 60 7767
1919-20- .............. .... .... 38 13 15 66 2678 40 1811 26.9 1212 18 1042 15.1 2723 40.5 4020 59.5 6743
1919 -20 -- ---- --- ---- --- ---- --- ---- --- ---- --- 38 13 15 ---- 66 4
1920-216 ... 16 98 15 .... 45 ........ 2 ... 176 5433 41.4 3717 28.3 2297 17.5 1674112.8 5398 41.1 7723 58.9 13121
Principal teaches Sth, 9th and 10th grades. See discussion in Bulletin for explanation of groups in this
2 With at least one teacher's whole time. year.
s Regardless of the number of teachers. 7 This refers to the modern use of the term in case of these
With less than three teachers, two schools.
6 With three or more teachers.


----


C

a


a

C/
C)
0
01

0


5*1
SI
z
C)
SI






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE IX
Showing the Number and Percentage of Teachers in the Various Kinds
of High Schools

Kind of School co. os NO. TEACHERS
Schools

0 0

S_____No. %
1-Y ear .....................--.................-... 15 8 7 15 2.3
2-Year .........................- ................. 45 38 14 52 8.1
3-Year ................................................ 16 18 10 28 4.4
4-Year .............................................. 98 166 380 546 85.2
Total ....................-.........-............ 174 | 230 411 641
Percent of Total ............................................ 35.9 64.1 | 100
TABLE X
High Schools Classified According to Number of Teachers Employed

Kind of
Sihdoo NUMBER TEACHERS
School
ZM

x: 6 U C4, x C4--Z
MC 0 C.C CS Cs >C
OE EE E 9E WE-i W E ZE- OF-'
I -Year- 15.1....... 3a15 15
2 -Y e a r . . . . . 4 5 3 8 7 --------. -------. .----- --. .------- ..----... ........ ........ ........-
3-Year .................. 165 7 .....1.. ........ .......... .....
3-Year ............. 1 7 7 1 1 ........ ....
4-Year .................. 98 3 13 14 23 15 8 8 5 2 7
Total .................... 1741 631 27| 15 241 151 81 8| 5I 21 7
Percent ............................ 36.2| 15.51 8.6| 13.81 8.61 4.61 4.61 2.91 1.2| 4
TABLE XI
Showing the Distribution of Teachers Classified According to the Size
of the High School as Measured by the Number of Teachers
in the High School Faculty


NUMBER OF TEACHERS

Kind of ___
School ,

0 cd cd Z WC > cd > 0 W C,
CcC 0C a) 0cC a) >CC C
0E FE E- E- WE- E-, C-
1-Y ear .................... 1 15 -.... ....... ..... .. ... ... .......--- --- -- ...
2-Year .................... 45 38 14 ........--- -- .. ---- -- --
2-Year---- ----------45 3
3-Year .................... 16 7 14 3 4...........-------- -- -.-- ---
4-Year .................... 3 26 42 92 75 48 56 40 18 146
Total .................... 1741 631 541 451 96| 751 481 561 401 181 146
Percent ............................I 9.8 8.41 7.11 14.9 11.71 7.5| 8.81 6.21 2.8 22.8






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


There are several interesting facts contained in tables IX
to XI. For the sake of brevity, a few of the chief ones can be
stated as follows:
85.2 per cent of all high school teachers work in
four-year high schools, while only 14.8 per cent are
employed in one, two, and three-year high schools.
35.9 per cent of all high school teachers are men
and 64.1 per cent are women.
36.2 per cent of all high schools are one-teacher
high schools.
15.5 per cent of all high schools are two-teacher
high schools.
Over one-half (51.7 per cent) of all high schools of
the state are one and two-teacher high schools.
Practically three-fourths (74.1 per cent) of all the
high schools of the state are four-teacher high schools
or less.
While 36.2 per cent of all the high schools are one-
teacher high schools, they employ only 9.8 per cent
of all the teachers.
While 51.7 per cent of all the high schools are one
and two-teacher high schools, they only employ 18.2
per cent of all the teachers.
While 74.1 per cent of all the high schools are four-
teacher high schools or less, they only employ 40.2 per
cent of all the teachers.
Practically one-fourth (22.8 per cent) of all the
teachers work in high schools with over nine teachers
in the faculty.
Another important question in this connection is: Where
were these high school teachers trained? It was practically
impossible to obtain these data for every teacher in the state,
consequently the writer took the 36 high schools which are
members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secon-
dary Schools as a basis. He had the data for these schools
already in hand, as it is called for in the Southern Commission
blank which each high school principal fills. Although the
following table covers only the 36 best and largest high schools
in the state, yet the writer feels that it fairly well represents
the state-wide situation. Table XII which gives these data is
followed by table XIII which is merely a summary of table
XII. With this explanation the tables follow.






32 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

TABLE XII
Table Showing the Higher Institutions in Which the Principals and
Teachers Were Trained Who Work in the Thirty-six Florida High
Schools Which Are Members of the Southern Association of Colleges
and Secondary Schools.1

Teachers Teachers
Holding a Not
Bachelor's Holding a
Degree Bachelor's
Name of School State or More Degree
or Country
a)


Agnes-Scott College................. Ga ..........--- 0 4 4 ........-.......... 4
Alabama Polytechnic .............. Ala. .............. 0 1 1 ...-...- ..-..... 1
Alabama, University of.......... Ala ....-........ 1 0 1 ...--..--.... 1
A lm a College .......................... M ich. ............ O 1 1 ............--.... 1
Andrew College ............----- Ga. ...--......... 0 1 1 .. 1
Arkansas, University of ........ Ark.....-......... 2 2 ........... ...... 2
Athens College ........................ Ga .--............. 1 1 ............---......-- --- 1
Austin College ........................ Texas 1 0 1 .....-......... ... 1
Baker College .............---- ............. Kan. .......-- .... 0 1 1 -......-.. ........- 1
Beloit College .......................... W is. ............ 0 2 2 ...... ............ 2
Berea College ..--..----- ........- Ky. .............. 1 1 ......-- .....-..... 1
Bowling Green Bus. Univ....... Ky. .............. 1 1 2 0 1 1 3
Brenau College ........................ Ga. -.............- 0 2 2 ........ ....... 2
Burritt College ........................ Tenn. ........... 1 0 1 ...........--- .... 1
Carson-Newman College......... Va................ 3 1 4 ............ ...... 4
Chicago, University of......... l .....---.. 2 3 5 0 1 1 6
Citadel College .-.... ..----S. C. ............ 1 0 1 --------.. -- 1
Colorado St. Teach's Coll....... Colo .......... 1 0 1 ----.. -- 1
Columbia College .................... Fla. .....---.. 1 1 2 0 4 4 6
Columbia, University of...... N. Y --...--.... 0 2 2 ....-..-..-...... 2
Converse College .................... S. C .--- 1 0 1 ----.................. 1
Cornell University.................... N. Y. ....---...... 1 1 2 ...--- .. ...... 2
Culver Stockton College........ Mo .........--.. 0 1 1 ...... ........... 1
Cumberland University .......... Tenn. ......- 0 1 1 -..-- ..--.---.-- 1
DePauw University ................ Ind. .............. 0 2 2 ......... ...... 2
Dartmouth College --.......--. N. H ....-....... 1 0 1 ............ 1
Davis-Elkin College ................ W. Va. ... 0 1 1 .......--....... 1
Earlham College .................... Ind .............. 1 0 1 -- .... 1
Elizabeth College .-----................... Va................ 0 1 1 -----1--- -- 1
Emory University .................. Ga. ..----..... 3 0 3 ......--.--... 3
Ecuador, University of .......... Ecuador .... .....-------..- 0 1 1 1
Florida St. Coll. for Women..... Fla. .............. 0 50 50 0 2 2 52
Florida State Normal.............. Fla. ...... ... .......... ....-- ---- 0 1 1 1
Florida, University of............. Fla. .............. 14 0 14 3 3 6 20
France (some institution)...... France ........ 2 2 4 1 2 3 7
Franklin College ....-............... Ind.....--.... 1 0 1 .......----.. .-- 1
Furman University ....---....... S. C ..---.. 1 2 3 ....-.-- .--.. 3
George Washington Univ...... D. C............ 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
Georgia N. and Ind. Coll......... Ga ...---. 0 1 1 0 2 2 3
Georgia, University of .......... Ga ............-----.-- ---- 0 1 1 1
Goshen College........-. ... I d. ...........- 0 1 1 ......-.....- 1
Goucher College ............---- Md.........----. 0 2 2 ...... ..... 2
Grinnell College ..I....- ... Ia ................ 2 2 . . 2






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE 33

TABLE XII-Continued


Name of School


State
Country


Gym. City Bus. Coll................. III ... ......
Hamilton College .................... Ky ..-----
Harvard University ................ Mass............
Hampden-Sidney College ...... Va. ---
Hillsdale College ..............-----. Mich............
Howard College ......... -----............... Ala. ...--.......
Illinois, University of .......--..... Ill................
Indiana State Normal............ Ind ....
Indiana, University of ........... Ind ..............
Iowa State Normal ................ Ia ..........
Kalamazoo College ....----............ Mich .........
Kansas A. & M. College........ Kan............
Kansas State Normal ............ Kan............
Kansas, University of............ Kan............
Kentucky, University of ....-.. Ky ..............
K nox College ............................ Ill. ................
Leland Stanford University..-. Cal. ..............
Liberty College ................-- Ky .........
Lima College ............................ Ohio ......
Louisiana, University of........ La ............
Mars Hill College.................... N. C ............
Martha Washington Coll....... Miss .........
Marquette College .-----................. Wash.........
Marvin College ........................ Ky.......
Meridian College .................... Miss..........
Michigan State Normal .......... Mich .....
Michigan, University of ........ Mich ...
Minnesota, University of........ Minn..........
Mississippi A. & M. Coll....... Miss. ...........
Miss., University of -----..............-- Miss. ...........
Miss. State Normal ..............-- --.. Miss. ...........
Missouri St. Teach's Coll....... Mo. ..........
Missouri, University of .......... Mo ..........
North Carolina, Univ. of........ N. C ..........
North Dak. A. & M. Coll....... N. Dak. .-
New Hampshire College ........ N. H ............
Oberlin College .......................----. Ohio----
Ohio, University of ................ Ohio ........
Oklahoma A. & M. College.... Okla ...........
Oxford College ........................ Ohio -...-..-.
Palmer College ........................ Fla..... ......
Peabody Coll. for Teachers.... Tenn.....
Pennsylvania A. & M. Coll..... Penn.
Pennsylvania, Univ. of .......... Penn ........
Piedmont College .................... Ga. .......
Phillips University ........... Okla. ........
Princeton University .............. N. J ............
Randolph-Macon Coll. (men)... Va. ......


Teachers
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree
or More




Teachers
Not
Holding a
Bachelor's
Degree



0 1 1
a


0 1 1

O 1 1

0 01 0
0 0 0
0 01 0

0 1 1
1 11 1


i


3
1
1
3

8
1
1
5

1
1
1
1
2
1
3

1
1
2
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
7
1
1
2
1
1
2







34 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

TABLE XII-Continued

Teachers Teachers
Holding a Not
Bachelor's Holding a
Degree Bachelor's
Name of School State or More Degree
or Country

r- >101


Randolph-Mac. Coll. (wom.)....
Reynolds College ..................
Richmond College ..................
Rollins College .......................
Royal Naval College ..............
San Antonio College ..............
Scarrett College ................
Smith College ........................
Shorter College ....................
Southern College ....................
South'n Methodist Univ. ........
Southern Normal School ......
South Dakota, Univ. of ..........
South Carolina, Univ. of........
Stetson University ..................
Stout Institute ........................
Swarthmore College ..............
Syracuse University ..............
Tennessee, University of ......
Valparaiso University ..........
Virginia, University of ..........
Virginia Military Institute....
Wake Forrest College ............
Wentworth Academy ..............
Wentworth Institute ..............
Wesleyan College ..................
West Va., University of.........
Western College .................
Westminster College ..............
William Jewell College ..........
Williams College ..............
Winthrop N. and Ind. Coll.....
Wisconsin, University of ......
Wittenburg College ................
Wooster College ....................
None or not given ................


Va .............. 0 6 6 ....... ...... 6
Texas ......... ...... ...... ...... 1 0 1 1
Va. .............. 0 1 1 .................. 1
Fla. .............. 1 2 3 0 1 1 4
England .... 1 0 1 0 0 0 1
Texas ........ .......... .... 0 1 1 1
Mo. .............. 0 1 1 ...... ...... ...... 1
Mass. .......... 0 1 1 ............... 1
Ga .............. 1 0 1 ......--.....-...... 1
Fla .............. 1 1 2 1 0 1 3
Texas .......... 0 1 1 0 1 1 2
Ky. .............. 2 0 2 0 0 0 2
S. Dak. ........ 0 1 1 .................. 1
S. C. ........... 1 0 1 ............-...... 1
Fla. ............. 3 11 14 0 1 1 15
W is. ............ ...... ...... ...... 1 1 2 2
Pa. .............. 1 2 3 ...... ...... ...... 3
N. Y. .......... 0 1 1 ...........-....... 1
Tenn. .......... ...... ...... ...... 0 1 1 1
Ind. .............. 2 0 2 1 0 1 3
Va. .............. 0 1 1 ............ ...... 1
Va. .............. 1 0 1 ..---.... ---........... 1
N. C. ............ 1 0 1 ...... ...... ...... 1
Mass. .......... 1 0 1 -. .....- ....-- 1
Mass. .......... ...... ...... ...... 1 0 1 1
Ga. .............. 0 5 5 0 1 1 6
W Va. ........ 2 1 3 ............ ...... 3
Ohio ............ 0 1 1 ......-......-...... 1
Pa. ................ 0 1 1 -......-......-..... 1
Mo. .............. 1 0 1 ............-......- 1
Mass. .......... ...... ...... ...... 1 0 1 1
S. C. ............ 0 2 2 0 1 1 3
W is .......-..... 2 2 4 ................. 4
Ohio ............ 1 0 1 ................-.. 1
Ohio ............ 1 0 1 ...... ...... ...... 1


TOTAL .................................. ........................ 1 911171126211 141 511 6511 327
Percent of Total........................ ........................II 281 52| 8011 4.3115.71 2011 100
SNot all the institutions listed above are recognized as standard by the
Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE 35

TABLE XIII
Table Showing Summary by States Where the Principals and Teachers
Were Trained Who Work in the Thirty-six Florida High Schools
Which Are Members of the Southern Association of Colleges and
Secondary Schools.'

Teachers Teachers
States in Which Holding a Not
Higher Institutions Bachelor's Holding a Grand
Are Located Degree Bachelor's Total
or More Degree
Florida .............................. 85 17 102
Georgia ............................ 19 5 24
Virginia ............................ 19 0 19
Illinois .............................. 14 2 16
Indiana ............................ 13 1 14
Kentucky .......................... 10 2 12
Ohio .................................. 9 1 10
Tennessee ........................ 7 3 10
South Carolina ................ 8 1 9
W isconsin ........................ 6 2 8
M ississippi ...................... 6 1 7
M issouri ............................ 6 0 6
Pennsylvania .................. 6 0 6
K ansas .............................. 4 1 5
North Carolina ................ 3 2 5
New York ........................ 5 0 5
M ichigan .......................... 3 2 5
Texas .....---....---...-....-.. 2 3 5
Massachusetts ................ 4 1 5
West Virginia ............. 4 0 4
Washington .... ....... 3 0 3
Iowa .................................. 2 1 3
California ........................ 2 1 3
Alabam a .......................... 2 1 3
Louisiana .......................... 2 0 2
Minnesota ........................ 2 0 2
Maryland .......................... 2 0 2
Oklahoma ........................ 2 0 2
Arkansas .......................... 2 0 2
New Hampshire .............. 1 1 2
Colorado .......................... 1 0 1
New Jersey ................----...... 1 0 1
North Dakota .................. 1 0 1
South Dakota .................. 1 0 1
District of Columbia ...... 0 1 1
Ecuador ......----...................... 0 1 1
England ............ .... ----- 1 0 1
France .---............- .... 4 3 7
Not given ........................ -0 12 12
Total............................- 262 | 65 H 327
Percent of Total..............| 80 | 20 H 100
1Palmer College and Florida Military Academy are considered here since
they are both members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


The outstanding facts of tables XII and XIII are:
There are teachers from 126 higher institutions of
learning out of the state. These institutions repre-
sent 34 states, the District of Columbia and 3 foreign
nations.
Only 31.1 per cent of all the high school teachers in
these schools were trained in any kind of higher insti-
tution of learning in the State of Florida.
80 per cent of all the teachers are college graduates.
The 68.9 per cent of teachers in these 36 high
schools trained outside of Florida, do not represent any
one state or higher institution of learning, but come
from a large number of institutions scattered over a
wide range of territory.

Still another interesting question in this connection is:
How long have the teachers in these high schools worked in
their present positions? Two tables dealing with the question
are presented here. Table XIV which includes all the high
school teachers of the state, shows only the number and per
cent of teachers that are serving their first year in their po-
sitions. Table XV which included all the teachers for the 36
Southern Association high schools, shows the number of years
each teacher has been in his or her present position. Tables
XIV and XV follow.

TABLE XIV
Showing Number and Percent of High School Teachers New in System

NEW TEACHERS IN SYSTEM

Kind of m Men Women Total
School
6cg I No. % No. No. %
1-Year .......................... 15 15 3 37.5 .......... .......... 3 20
2-Year .......................... 45 52 24 63.1 14 100 38 73.1
3-Year .......................... 16 28 6 33.3 5 50 11 40
4-Year .......................... 98 546 82 49.4 193 50.8 275 50.4
Total ........................| 1741 64111 1151 50 l 212| 51.611 3271 51






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


TABLE XV
Showing the Tenure of the Principals and Teachers in the Thirty-six
High Schools Which Are Members of the Southern Association of
Colleges and Secondary Schools.1

TEACHERS
Teachers Teachers
Trained in NOT
Years in Higher Insti- Hier nsei-
Present c tutions in tutions in
H Florida Florida
High School ,


P__ E -4 Pe
First .................................... 11 10 35 45 22 72 94 150 46
Second .................................. 7 3 13 16 15 24 39 62 19
Third .................................... 6 4 12 16 8 17 25 47 14.4
Fourth ...........----- ...........--- 5 ........ 3 3 2 5 7 15 4.6
Fifth .............. ................... ....... 6 6 1 6 7 13 4.1
Sixth ..........................- ....... ........ 4 4 ........ 5 5 9 2.7
Seventh .............................. 1 ...... 1 1 ....... 2 2 4 1.2
Eighth ................... 2 ........ 1 1 1 2 3 6 1.8
Ninth ........- ..............-1 .........---..-..--. 1 2 3 4 1.2
Tenth .................... 1 ........ 1 1 ....... 3 3 5 1.4
Eleventh ............................. ....... ........ 1 1 2 3 5 6 1.8
Tw elfth .............................. 1 ................ --------........ ........ .. ...... 1 .3
Thirteenth .......................... 1 .............. --------........ 1 1 2 .6
Fifteenth ..---...... --........-........ 1 1 1 .3
Sixteenth ............................ ............... ..------ 1 1 1 .3
Tw enty-second .................. .. ...... 1 1 ........................ 1 .3
Twenty-second------------ -- ------1 1------------1 .
Total ................................II 3611 171 781 9511 52j 1441 19611 3271
Percent ..........................I......I||........ 31.1 2 || 68.9 II........1100
1 Palmer College and Florida Military Academy are considered here since
they are both members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools.
SThis percentage is arrived at by adding to the 95 teachers 7 principals
who were trained in higher institutions of learning in Florida.

From a study of these tables we see that:
50 per cent of the men teachers and 51.6 per cent
of the women teachers, or a total of 51 per cent of all
the teachers, are new in their positions.
46 per cent of all the teachers and principals in
these 36 high schools are new in their positions.
Practically two-thirds (65 per- cent) of all the
teachers in these 36 high schools are new or are serving
their second year.
Practically four-fifths (79.4 per cent) of all the
teachers and principals in these 36 high schools have
served only two years or less in their positions.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Numerous problems connected with a state school system
arise from a situation like this. Space will permit of the dis-
cussion of only a few of them. In the first place, it is almost
impossible to organize a system under such conditions. Scarce-
ly is the machinery of organization set up before the term is
over and it is all to be done over again. In fact it is extremely
difficult to get anywhere when more than two-thirds of all
the high school teachers are trained outside the state, and
when over half of the entire teaching force are new each year
in their positions. Close organization, team-work, continuity
of purpose and effort, and the like, can scarcely flourish in
such an atmosphere.
Two elements enter into this situation. One is the "tourist
teacher" who "winters" in Florida. On the salary which the
high school teacher receives, she can pay her railroad fare
each way, afford comfortable living quarters, and have enough
left to "see Florida" at odd times and during the holidays.
For such people it is merely a lark and a winter's outing on the
great playgrounds of the South. Of course this is not true of
all the teachers coming into the state. Many of them settle
down to continuous years of faithful service, but it is true
of too large a per cent.
A second element which aggravates this situation is the
great moving, restless spirit prevailing among the permanent
high school teachers of the state. That there is too much of
this among our permanent teachers is self evident and needs
no comment here.
The fact that over two-thirds (68.9 per cent) of all the
high school teachers must be secured from outside the state,
intensifies the seriousness of our certification problem. The
law providing for the transfer of standard certificates from
other states should go a long ways, however, towards allevi-
ating this problem. Personally, the writer feels we should
proceed on two fundamental bases of operation. The first is
we should strive to get certification of teachers pitched on
the basis of training received in standard, recognized normal
schools, colleges and universities. The quicker we shift to that
basis from the present "flying squadron" and "court-house ex-
amination" basis, the sooner will we get better teaching
service. This is no reflection on the personnel of the "flying
squadron" but it is an attack upon the present method of cer-






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


tification of teachers. The emphasis is upon the examinations
rather than the training received in normal schools, colleges
and universities.
In the second place, the writer feels that we cannot be
too careful about the health certification of incoming teachers.
Too great precaution can scarcely be taken to shield the chil-
dren of the state from the persons who come to Florida on
account of their health. Rigid physical examinations, ac-
companied by health certificates from home physicians, should
be required of all applicants seeking teaching positions.
However, when all is said, the future is promising when
we recall that 80 per cent of all the teachers in the best high
schools are college graduates; that 35.9 per cent are men; that
92.3 per cent of the pupils and 85.2 per cent of the teachers are
in four-year high schools; and that 73.1 per cent of all the
high school pupils in the state are in high schools running
nine months.
COURSE OF STUDY

In order to show definitely what units each high school is
offering, tables XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX have been pre-
pared. There is a table for each of the four kinds of high
schools. Table XX follows these, and is a summary of some
of the chief points of the preceding four.
Thinking it would aid some in getting the situation clear,
the number of teachers in each school, the number of pupils
in each school, and the total number of units offered by each
school are included. All the units offered are grouped arbi-
trarily under the eight headings found in these five tables.
The purpose of these, too, is merely to aid the reader in getting
at conditions. Tables XVI to XX are included.
If we try to summarize conditions in general which cover
all the four kinds of high schools, we can say that:
English and Algebra are the only subjects which
are offered by every high school. The only exception
being the one-year school, which devotes a year to
Plane Geometry instead of Algebra.
If we rank the fifteen leading subjects of the cur-
riculum in the order of their importance as measured
by their finding a place in the course of study, we have:






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


English-......-....-............-offered
Algebra ..................... "
Ancient History ..........
Latin ....................... "
Med. & Mod. Hist.......
Plane Geometry .......... "
Am. Hist. & Civics..... "
General Science ..-.......
Botany ..................-...
Zoology ............ ...........
Trigonometry .............
Phys. Geography ........
Physics .................. "
Solid Geometry ..........
English History ........


100 % of the schools
99.4% "
89.1% 7 "
85.6% 7" "
75.6% "
66.6% "
65.5% "
51.2% "
50 % o" "
48.7% "
42.1% ".
42 % ." "t
42 % o" "
36.8% "it
33.3% .


With a few exceptions, modern languages, voca-
tional studies and avocational studies, find no place in
the course of study for the one, two and three-year
high schools;
The more modern phases of the social sciences,
Sociology and Economics, are just beginning to find
a place in a few of our stronger high schools;
Health or Hygiene receives practically no attention
as a formal study in the high school curriculum.
Agricultural work, other than that done by the
Smith-Hughes schools, is practically nil.
The above summary has to do with the spirit of our high
schools, as registered by the units offered. Another way to
size up the situation is to strike at it from a different angle
by seeing how many high school pupils there are in the state
taking each course. It is one thing to say that the high
schools are offering such and such subjects, but it is quite
another to know exactly how many pupils are taking each of
these subjects.
The writer felt that it would be rather difficult to get
these data, since it would entail a good deal of work on the
part of the principals. He secured, however, these data for
63 of these 98 four-year high schools for the scholastic year
1919-20, through the kindness of Professor W. S. Cawthon,
State High School Inspector, who had gathered it for his
Biennial Report. Economy in printing, however, necessitated
its omission. Space here will only permit the giving of the
totals. Table XXI below contains these data on registrants
in various subjects.














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PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


TABLE XXI
Showing the Number of Pupils Registered in Each Subject of the High
School for the Scholastic Year 1919-20
(63 four-year high schools included)


ENGLISH ............................... 5426
1st year ..........................2248
2nd year ........................1414
3rd year .......----................. 926
4th year ........................ 838
MATHEMATICS .................... 5342
Adv. Arithmetic .......... 132
Algebra ..........................3433
Plane Geometry ..........1115
Solid Geometry ............ 318
Trigonometry .............. 344
FOREIGN LANGUAGES .... 3509
Beginner's Latin ..........1312
Caesar ............................ ------799
Cicero ............................ 197
Virgil .............................. 96
French ............................ 811
Spanish ..................----........ 294


SOCIAL SCIENCES .............. 4902
Ancient History ..........1831
Med. and Mod. Hist.....131
English History .....-.... 462
Am. Hist. and Civics....1296
NATURAL SCIENCES ........ 3182
Physical Geography .... 531
General Science .......... 750
Botany .......................... 510
Zoology .......................... 522
Physics .......................... 467
Chemistry ...................... 402
VOCATIONAL STUDIES .... 1569
Agriculture ................. 99
Manual Training .......... 241
Home Economics ........ 737
Commercial work ........ 492
MISCELLANEOUS ................ 513


If we rank these subjects according to the registrants by
groups, we have:
English......-..-- ................taken by 5426 pupils
Mathematics ...-.....--.. 5342 "
Social Sciences ........... " 4902 "
Foreign Languages ..... 3509
Natural Sciences ......... " 3182 "
Vocational Studies ........ " 1569
Or, if we take them singly by subjects, we have a high
correlation with the ranks on page 40 which deals with the
number of high schools offering each subject of the cur-
riculum.
Perhaps it is worth while in this connection to make a
little running discussion of the course of study. To begin
with, it seems a bit strange that only two-thirds as many high
schools offer Spanish as French. This is all the more notice-
able when we consider our proximity to Mexico, Cuba and
other Spanish speaking countries to the south of us, together
with the fact that in some localities within the state we have
a considerable Spanish speaking population.
Practically two-thirds of all the four-year high schools
offer Solid Geometry, and practically three-fourths of them
offer Trigonometry.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


There are several interesting things about the social sci-
ences. To begin with, English History seems to be on the
decline. It is probable that as a separate subject it will dis-
appear from the high school curriculum. Many of our leading
educators feel that we should teach English History as a part
or phase of European History, so as to give it its proper setting
or perspective. Sociology and Economics are making their
appearance in some of the larger, stronger four-year high
schools. This is a hopeful sign and a strong indication of the
lines along which the social studies will develop in the next
few years. In fact, there is no phase of our high school cur-
riculum in this state which needs recasting more than our
present social science course. It is hoped that we will soon
come to the scheme recommended by the committee of the
National Educational Association on the Reorganization of
Secondary Education.* This committee recommends that we
teach American History and Civics, based on an elementary
view of old world background, in the earlier grades of the
high school, following this by a study of European History,
stressing the modern period, and closing the course with an
intensive study of American history since the 17th century,
especially stressing present problems of American democracy.
Such a scheme would break down the present monopoly which
classical education has upon the freshman in high school, and
thus free him from the strangle-hold of English Composition,
Algebra, Latin and Ancient History.
Throughout the nation, Physical Geography has practically
disappeared from the high school curriculum. The kernel of
this subject has been absorbed by General Science, Physics
and the other high school sciences, or it has worked its way
up to where it belongs-in the college. One of the best evi-
dences of this statement is the fact that none of the great
publishing houses are bringing out any new high school books
in the field.
It is indeed a gratifying thing to see that practically two-
thirds of all our four-year high schools offer General Science.
In practically every state it has supplanted Physical Geog-
raphy in the freshman year.
It is the hope of the writer that at our next text-book
adoption, Biology will take the place of Botany and Zoology.
*Bulletin 1916, No. 28 U. S. Bureau of Education.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


As separate studies, these, too, have worked their way grad-
ually up into the college, and have been replaced by Biology.
In discussing this question, a recent bulletin* from the State
Department of Education of Texas, has this to say, which is
a very clear statement of the condition:
Botany and Zoology as separate high-school courses
are apparently disappearing from the high-school cur-
riculum. Only 1.4% of the Texas high school enrollment
in the year 1915-1916 studied the subject of botany, while
less than half this number were enrolled in zoology
courses (.58%). The reports of the United States Com-
missioner of Education show that from the years 1910
to 1915 the percentage enrollment in high-school botany
fell off 45% and in high-school zoology 59%. The ques-
tion naturally arises whether we should attempt to revive
the subjects, and aid them in their struggle for existence
or let them take the course that geology and astronomy
have taken. It should be stated here, however, that the
value of botanical and zoological truths are not any the
less appreciated; but the decreased interest in botany and
zoology as special whole-year courses is due rather to the
belief of many educators that the wanted biological truths
are approached and more sanely comprehended through
the general biology course. It is held by these educators
that the function of botany is not to give knowledge about
plants and plant activities, nor is that of zoology to give
knowledge about animals and animal activities, but on
the other hand, the educational function of both is to
develop an appreciation of the principles of life-to give
a knowledge of life and life activities. These life pro-
cesses are neither botanical nor zoological-being pecu-
liar neither to plants nor animals. They are biological
and are, therefore, best presented in a course in general
biology. This is the viewpoint of the majority of present
writers and leaders in educational matters. Of course
there are science men who disagree, claiming that the
scheme is unscientific and that it is impossible to com-
pound two distinct sciences-that the combination is an
unsavory mixture, and that it is but a futile attempt of
the uninitiated to make science easy and popular. Be
this as it may, the fact remains that botany and zoology
are disappearing as separate one-year high-school sub-
jects. They are being crowded out by biology and agri-
culture just as physical geography and human physiology
are being crowded out by the newer subject of general
science.
*Bulletin 85, February 15, 1919, entitled The Teaching of Science.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


A whole bulletin would be required if we discussed fully
the subject of vocational education. Space will permit of
only a few statements. It is evident that any kind of voca-
tional work is practically unknown anywhere in these high
schools except in the four-year schools, and that it is of minor
importance there. For example, table XXI shows that there
were in 1919-20 in 63 of these four-year high schools 1569
pupils altogether taking any kind of vocational work, while
there were 3433 pupils taking Algebra, 1831 taking Ancient
History and 2404 taking Latin. This ratio would be very
much more against vocational work if we had the figures for
the present year. This financial crisis we are facing in our
schools has hit hardest the vocational subjects.* As best the
writer can ascertain, a very large per cent of the high schools
this year have had to drop temporarily some or all of their
work in Manual Training and Home Economics. They plan,
of course, to reinstate them as soon as finances will permit.
The financial pressure mentioned above has had like effect
upon Music and Drawing in our schools. It is little short of
an educational tragedy that we have had to strip our schools
of the vocational and avocational studies, and thus leave only
the traditional academic course. The struggle for the past
quarter of a century has been to get this work going, with the
hope that it would add the leaven to the whole lump. No
critical student of our high school can fail to realize that we
are woefully lacking when it comes to training our pupils in
the things which function in the development of the artistic
and emotional side of their lives.
So far teacher-training is a failure in the high schools of
the state. The movement has long since passed out of the
experimental stage in America. It is recognized in many
states as a satisfactory way of supplying teachers temporarily
for the elementary grades. If it is properly organized it
works to an advantage. If we would recast the present law
in this state so as to properly organize and finance these
teacher-training departments and place them only in the good,
strong high schools, so as to certificate for one or two years
the graduates of these departments, we would go a long ways
toward eliminating this court-house examination system now
in vogue which is so very unsatisfactory. In this way, in a
*This does not apply to the Smith-Hughes work.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


few years, we would be feeding into our elementary grades
teachers who would be high school graduates with a little
professional training, instead of the teacher who has crammed
for an examination, which is neither a test of scholarship nor
of professional insight.
On the whole, the Florida high school course of study is
overwhelmingly classical and traditional. The whole affair
looks to college entrance rather than to occupational pursuits.
No one questions the fact that one of the functions of the
modern high school is preparation for college entrance, but
it is only one of its numerous functions. If all our boys and
girls who go to high school eventually went to college, perhaps
no criticism could be made of our present practices, but they
do not. To throw some light on this situation, table XXII has
been prepared. In these percentages some allowance has to
be made, since we are figuring the number of graduates of
June 1920 on the basis of February 1921 enrollment. The
same thing is true of the per cent going to college. This, how-
ever, is not enough to make any material difference. The
table follows.
TABLE XXII
Showing the Percentage of High School Enrollment Eventually Gradu-
ating and Going to College

Number Graduates Number Previous
the June Pre- June Graduates
Away in College
Kind of vious Following Year
School -


__________ ZW F _ _
4-Year .......................... 98 12095 485 847133211 266 351 617 5.1
36 Southern
Assn. Schools ........ 36 7234 314 594 90812.6 186 252 438 6.1

From table XXII we see that of the 12095 pupils in the
98 four-year high schools only about 11 or 12 per cent will
eventually graduate and only about 5 or 6 per cent will even-
tually find their way to college. That forces us to face squarely
this question: Which shall we train, the 5 or the 95? In order
to be sure of preparing the 5 shall we force all pupils through
the narrow curriculum looking only to college entrance? The
task and objective of the modern high school is to prepare






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


both groups without sacrificing either. It is most certainly
the duty of the modern high school to prepare the 5 to enter
the higher institutions of learning, but it is likewise its duty
to feed the 95 into their life-occupations with some helpful
training. It is for this reason that the writer feels justified
in saying that on the whole the high school course of study is
too classical and traditional to serve the best interests of all
its pupils. The 76 one, two and three-year high schools are
just the skeletons of real modern high schools. All the pupils
get in these schools is formal English, formal mathematics,
foreign language, the traditional history course and a modi-
cum of science usually taught without any laboratory or equip-
ment.
The teacher is not to be blamed and the pupil is to be
pitied. They are both the victims of the system. It is utterly
impossible and worse than foolish for one teacher to try to
teach two full years of high school work or for two teachers
to try to carry a full four-year high school course. Failure
is the inevitable outcome. Then what is the solution? For
Florida, as for the rest of the country, the only solution is
the junior-senior high school. Not the two and four-year high
schools as we use these terms in the state, but the modern
junior high school or the six-three-three plan. Instead of one
teacher trying to carry a two or three-year high school course,
or two teachers a three or four-year course, we should at-
tempt less and do more. Instead of these one, two and three-
year high schools offering a narrow curriculum of the tra-
ditional type, they should organize a real Junior High School
consisting of grades 7, 8 and 9, and then transport their grad-
uates to some centrally located point for their Senior High
School work in grades 10, 11 and 12. Instead of having a
large number of aspiring high schools with one teacher seek-
ing to do two or three years' work, we should have a series
of well organized Junior High Schools of grades 7, 8 and 9,
attempting less number of grades, but offering a greater va-
riety of work in each grade. Thus, by attempting a less num-
ber of years of work, they would be enabled to offer a wider,
richer, fuller curriculum which would meet the needs of the
t5 as well as the 5.
The Junior High School Movement has already found its
way into Florida, in a number of the schools. Tampa, so far,






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


has made further strides along this line than any other place
in the state. It has two Junior High Schools that are an honor
to the city. In these schools we see many of the essential fea-
tures of the Modern Junior High School in practice. Of
course, they do not have, as yet, all that we would like to see
them have, but they are moving out in the right direction.
It is not best, in a new movement, to jump full fledged into
an organization. There are always some "first steps." Evo-
lution, rather than revolution, is usually desirable. Perhaps
they have done about all that is possible under the present
state.organization. Development along certain lines is well
nigh impossible until we get a change in the state organization
and control of the high school in such matters as course of
study, textbooks and graduation requirements. It is for this
reason that so much depends on the textbook adoption, which
occurs soon. If regulations can be made so as to have text-
books adopted on two bases; namely, the 8-4 plan and the
6-3-3 plan, we will open up the way for greater progress.
That kind of a scheme would allow the more progressive
schools to organize their work on the Junior-Senior basis
without violating the regulations of the higher authorities,
or losing their places on the accredited list. The following
will show some of the innovations that Tampa has adopted.
By putting the Foreign Languages, Algebra, Commercial
Work, Manual Training and Home Economics, down into
the 7th and 8th grades; by finding a place in their curricu-
lum for the physical and artistic development of the pupils;
by instituting departmental teaching, promotion by subjects,
mid-year promotions, etc., they are cautiously and sanely inau-
gurating the real Junior High School movement, which means
a new day in secondary education. Their results speak for
themselves and are the final test. While Tampa's population
increased from 37,000 to 51,000 her high school enrollment
increased 41/2 times, and the number of her graduates 53/4
times. This indicates somewhat the power to draw, as well
as the power to hold the students in the high school during
the adolescent period, and this is one of the chief reasons for
which the Junior High School movement was instituted.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Such, Gentlemen of the Conference, is the present status
of our high schools. I feel we shall work blindly unless we
proceed in the light of these facts. In order to freshen your
memories, may I restate some of the major facts, and with
that I close.
I. Kind of high schools.
98 four-year high schools.
16 three-year high schools.
45 two-year high schools.
15 one-year high schools.
2 junior high schools.
II. Length of high school term.
1. No. months high schools run:
8.8 percent of high schools run 7 months (or less).
57.4 percent of high schools run 8 months.
33.8 percent of high schools run 9 months.
2. High school enrollment classified according to length of high
school term attended:
1.2 percent pupils in schools running 7 mos. (or less).
25.7 percent pupils in schools running 8 mos.
73.1 percent pupils in schools running 9 mos.
III. Size of high schools as measured by number teachers employed.
36.2 percent are one teacher high schools.
15.5 percent are two teacher high schools.
8.6 percent are three teacher high schools.
13.8 percent are four teacher high schools.
74.1 percent are four teacher high schools (or less).
4 percent are over nine teacher high schools.
IV. High school enrollment classified according to type of high school:
92.3 percent enrolled in four-year high schools.
2.7 percent enrolled in three-year high schools.
4.5 percent enrolled in two-year high schools.
.5 percent enrolled in one-year high schools.
V. Average size of the high schools.
One-year high school is 5 pupils.
Two-year high school is 13 pupils.
Three-year high school is 22 pupils.
Four-year high school is 123 pupils.
You can see at a glance that we have a complicated prob-
lem confronting us. It will be almost impossible to devise
a curriculum to fit such a condition. These seventy-six one-,
two- and three-year high schools are bound to be reorganized.
They must be made into four-year senior high schools or cut
down to nine grade junior high schools. They cannot intelli-
gently be encouraged to develop in their present form. Then
my conclusion is, we need to reorganize on the junior-senior






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


basis. We should have at least one senior high school in each
county with as many strong junior high schools as conditions
warrant. This will place a high school education of the
proper sort in reach of every Florida boy and girl.
Mr. Sealey: I am sure that we shall be greatly benefited
by the splendid information that Dr. Roemer has brought us,
because it will make our studies very much more intelligent.
We have a basis for our work now that we did not have before.
These figures were taken from reports made this year, so
that it is the latest thing we can have, and we are safe in
continuing our studies on this basis.
Mr. Workman: Are those figures authentic?
Mr. Roemer: Yes. They were given by you high school
principals.
Mr. Workman: It would be a good plan to get some idea
from the body here as to some action on these suggestions
that we make a course of study to suit both cases. Have one
committee commence to work on the 8-4 plan, and another
committee on the 6-3-3 plan.
Mr. Draper: We better not do that before considering
what we are going to do. We should at least ask Dr. Roemer
some questions about the Junior-Senior high school organiza-
tion. I am perfectly willing to adopt his idea and those rec-
ommended by the N. E. A., since that organization has worked
this out on the 6-3-3 plan. As far as I am concerned, it is
as good a course as I want, but we must decide definitely now
about the 6-3-3 plan.
Mr. Evans: We ought to have a course of study made to
fit all classes. The Junior High School has come to Florida,
and has come to stay. We will have to provide for it, but at
the same time it will be a good while before we can make an
absolute course of study to fit both classes.
Mr. Frye: Can we make a course of study flexible enough
to fit both cases, and not make two distinct courses?
Mr. Roemer: I think your idea exactly right. The ques-
tion is whether it can be made to work. It must work largely
for schools of four teachers and an eight months term.
Mr. Draper: It seems advisable to me to provide for
schools with four teachers running eight months. That seems
to be the most common type we have to handle.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Mr. Roemer: It occurs to me that it would be a mistake
to outline the course of study on a nine-month school term
when as yet the great majority of our schools run eight
months or less. It is one thing to outline an ideal course and
it is another thing, perhaps, to meet a practical situation. My
position stated another way is simply this: It would be a
mistake to harness up a high school course of study on a nine-
month basis and expect it to work to the best advantage where
most of the schools as yet run only eight months or less. Of
course, some of you are thinking, why cannot the teacher cover
the nine-month course in eight months by selecting and teach-
ing the essential things involved. I am wondering if it would
not be advisable for this group of trained men to do that
selecting and organizing itself and consequently hand over
to the inexperienced teacher the subject matter already organ-
ized and ready for instruction. In other words, is not this
group of men the logical party to select and organize the chief
things in a nine-months course to be taught in eight, rather
than the average inexperienced and usually untrained teacher?
I am simply raising this question for our consideration at this
point.
Mr. Cawthon: I would like to announce to the people pres-
ent that it has been my pleasure during the last year or two
to hand out to hundreds of our principals and teachers copies
of the "Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education." If there
is anyone here who does not have a copy, I have a sufficient
number for distribution, and will be glad to give him one,
if he will call for it. I would like to speak of a few things
in connection with our small high schools. During the five
years it has been my privilege to go among the schools of the
State, the little school of two high school grades has been a
source of worry. Somehow, there has seemed to be a hope-
lessness about doing anything for it. It is true I have not
done a great deal for other schools, but when I go to the
schools of, say 150 pupils, and find 6 or 7 in the ninth grade,
and possibly 2 in the tenth, and one teacher trying to teach
seven or eight classes, usually the principal of the school,
carrying on the so-called traditional course of study, the
Caesar, Ancient History, or the two years of Algebra, etc.,
there seems to be a lifelessness about it all, and no one seems
to know any remedy. I am wondering if something along






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


the lines proposed here, a reorganization of grades seven,
eight and nine, even as we stand now here in Flordia, would
not help? Mr. Evans has four or five such schools in his
county; Mr. Holmes has one or two in Suwannee County.
They are distributed all over the State. I am wondering if
our course of study is not purely traditional? I wonder if
we have given it sufficient thought? I would like to read a
few paragraphs: (Reading from bulletin)
"In the reorganization of our secondary schools, all schools
doing work of secondary grade will be organized, ultimately,
as high schools-Standard, Four-Year Schools-or Junior
High Schools. The many rural schools now doing two or
three years of high school work will be the first to be con-
verted into junior high schools. Here the needs of the vari-
ous communities are so similar, and the teaching force and
student bodies so small, that a program of studies, suited to
the needs of rural people, has been formulated, providing for
little variation on the part of either teachers or pupils."*
Of course we have not the rural communities that they
have in other states. You can travel here for miles and miles
and not see a farm or residence, and then go right into a little
town and then you go right out of that town and do not see
anyone else. We are, perhaps, peculiar in this respect. We
do not have the same foundation for the consolidated rural
school found in other states and it occurs to me that if we
could get a new course of study for schools of that class, and
put more life into it, and let it end with the ninth year, instead
of carrying it through the tenth, we would improve conditions.
I know that people of the rural communities do go to college,
and their needs should be recognized, but I believe in the re-
organization of this matter by putting new interest and new
life into it, vitalizing it and closing it up with the ninth year.
We now require for junior high schools four teachers, fifty
pupils, etc., with at least ten in the ninth, and one teacher
devoting full time to high school work. That means the prin-
cipal and means at least seven classes under the present ar-
rangement and generally means neglect of the rest of the
school. Those here are not directly concerned, but you have
these schools in your county, and you have to deal with them;

*Manual and Courses of Study for the High Schools of Virginia, 1919.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


you have someone now and then wanting full credit, and I
believe that this body of men can in future by talking to-
gether, improve that situation, and while it will affect only a
small part of our high school population, it is a part that
should not be ignored.
Mr. Frye: There is another thing that, it seems to me,
we should consider at this time. We realize the fact that
everything in the world is going forward, and we are being
attacked on all sides by business people and others for our
inefficiency, and being told almost every day that the school
is more or less of a failure because of the fact that it is not
vitalized. It seems to me that if we are going to have a broad
foundation, we should have a minimum requirement, or a
maximum requirement, or a double standard, as Mr. Roemer
mentions. We should consider that we are not going to con-
tinue just as we are now for a great many years.
Mr. Draper: The Smith-Towner bill may not pass, and it
may; I really hope that it may. I hope that it may pass for
various reasons, and whether or not bills of a like nature come
into being, we shall of necessity reorganize. It will be a big
reorganization in order to meet the demands, and we might
just as well do it right now. I move that we adopt a double
standard to meet these two conditions.
Mr. Sealey: Do I understand that each one of these com-
mittees proceed to work out a program, one on the 8-4 plan,
and one on the 6-3-3 plan, if this motion carries?
Mr. Cawthon: Yes.
Mr. Sealey: All in favor of the motion as stated, say
"Aye," all opposed, "No." The motion is carried.
Mr. Cawthon: There should be no interference with the
present course of study. We can study the situation, get the
facts in hand and be prepared. We might go a little further
and say that it should be so and so.
Mr. Roemer: I am just wondering since Mr. Cawthon's
discussion if it would be advisable to distinguish between the
City Junior High School and the Rural Junior High School.
I wonder if we could harness these 60 one- and two-year high
schools I have mentioned, located in the rural districts, to the
Junior High Schools in cities like Tampa or Jacksonville? In
Virginia they have Rural Junior High Schools and City Junior






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


High Schools. I am wondering if that would be advisable for
us or not? I am just asking the question.
Mr. Frye: As I understand this, we have already passed
a ruling now for a 6-3-3 plan and an 8-4 plan, and accordingly,
as I get it from the discussion that Dr. Roemer has offered
here of free and limited electives, this will work. I should
think, gentlemen, that the limited electives will take care of
that. While it is true that we could work out a plan for the
Rural Junior High School and the City Junior High School
under this system of limited electives, he has outlined, don't
you think that will take care of the situation, so that the
Rural Junior High School can offer those subjects pertaining
to the rural work, and the City Junior High School can offer
work that best fits for city life. In that way, it seems to me,
we could solve this problem.
Mr. Cawthon: It would be a question of whether the Ju-
nior High School would have the same teaching force. If so,
Mr. Frye would be right. If they had as many teachers as
they are now required to have, and had one grade less, which
generally means only one or two pupils, and had the same
number of teachers, then we could fit those pupils to go from
the last year of the Junior High School into one of the large
schools, such as Plant City, Tampa, etc. I am not sure, but I
believe that it can be done.
Mr. Sealey: Any further discussion? Is the Committee
on Mathematics ready to make a report?
Mr. Cawthon: The Chairman of the Committee announced
that he would be here, but I do not think he is here. Mr. C. M.
Jones is not here but Miss Delaney is here and ready to make
a report for the Committee. I move that we interchange on
the program the places of the two committees.
Mr. Sealey: Since the Science Committee is ready to re-
port, we will call on the Science Committee and following this
report, we will have a round table discussion.
Mr. Evans: We are just twenty-four hours ahead with
the program; this should come tomorrow afternoon. I wish
to say that I have a great deal more here than I am going
to read, and will say that if you get tired before I get through,
if you will just signify this to the Chairman, he will call me
down and I will be satisfied. Your Committee does not claim
any originality. We have tried to study the most advanced






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


ideas we could find anywhere and have incorporated them in
this report. This is not really a report, nor is it intended to
be regarded as a finished course of study. We do not expect
that a single word or idea in this so-called course of study
need necessarily be adopted. It is merely suggestive. If,
perchance, you should read this report, I am afraid it would
be rather heavy reading. We have quoted liberally from all
available sources and have put quotation marks wherever pos-
sible.

REORGANIZATION OF THE SCIENCE COURSE FOR THE
HIGH SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA
By R. M. Evans, Principal Quincy High School
The report of the committee on science of the Commission
on Reorganization of Secondary Education appointed by the
National Education Association says "six great objectives in
secondary education, namely, health, worthy home member-
ship, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, and ethical
characters are realized through science teaching." (Bulletin,
1920, No. 26, Bureau of Education.) Furthermore science
study should develop "interests, habits, and abilities; teach
useful methods of solving problems, stimulate the individual
to such activities as will bring pleasure and profit; give con-
trol of a large number of facts useful in school, home and com-
munity; and finally should contribute to the culture and refine-
ment of those pursuing science courses."
Science cannot be taught by any but well-prepared teachers.
"The science teacher should be an enthusiastic lover of science,
and a believer in its great value, when rightly used, in the
uplift of humanity." He who is not a natural leader of young
people ought never to attempt to teach science, nor should
one who lacks vision, initiative and energy under any circum-
stances undertake the subject. Science cannot be successfully
taught without a certain amount of laboratory equipment, but
results will depend far more upon the teacher than upon tha
equipment.
Instruction in science should by all means take advantage
of what the pupil already knows, and should form a definite
connection with his every day experience and activities. To
this end problems and projects having to do with objects and






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


occurrences familiar to the pupil can be assigned, and their
solution made a means of both discovery and growth. The
term "project" has been defined as "any projected or proposed
activity or experience which an individual purposes to enter
upon or carry through to the end. It may be to make an
electric motor, to understand how a motor works, or why it
will not work, to repair a broken motor, or to find out what
are the origin and nature of any one of the materials of which
a motor is constructed; it may be to find out about the struc-
ture and proper manipulation of an automobile or a bicycle;
it may be to rid a community of mosquitoes or house-flies, or
to find out how some former generation of men dealt or failed
to deal with any particular problem of health or disease; it
may be to find out how to prepare the meals for a group of
guests throughout a summer's vacation. The project may
involve any specific thing which the pupil purposes to do,
whether this thing is a small piece of work involving a few
minutes' effort, or a prolonged piece of work lasting for weeks,
the unit depending upon the conception of the piece of work
which it is purposed to accomplish." (Bulletin No. 26, 1920,
Bureau of Education.)
The adopted textbook in any subject should form the basis
of study for the class, but other texts should be easily acces-
sible and pupils encouraged to find all possible information on
any given assignment in addition to that given by the adopted
text. In this connection it is recommended that magazine
articles, newspapers, reference works, and other such sources
be drawn upon to secure needed information on any problem,
topic or project. The teacher should be able to direct pupils
in securing Government bulletins relating to any given topic.
THE CLASS AT WORK
Class work in science consists of three closely related parts,
namely: (1) Recitation, (2) Lecture-demonstration, (3) Lab-
oratory.
1. The recitation should consist of questions and answers
on textbook assignment, reports on special assignments, and
class conference on problems under consideration. The teacher
should under no circumstances monopolize the time of the
class, but each pupil should be made to feel that he must add
something to the class discussion. Good order in class may






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


be maintained by requiring the use of parliamentary practice.
2. The lecture-demonstration should be used to make
clear some point arising in connection with the recitation, the
class conference, or some problem under discussion; or it may
be necessary for the teacher to take occasion to perform an
experiment requiring greater skill than can be expected of the
class. The lecture-demonstration experiment should be a
model for the pupils, and to be sure of its success the teacher
would do well to test it out before the class assembles. Fail-
ure of an experiment before the class is embarrassing to both
teacher and pupils, and should be avoided if possible.
One or two selected pupils can be of assistance to the
teacher in experiments of this kind, and all the pupils may
take notes. The experiment may later be written in the pu-
pils' permanent note books, but with the notation "Performed
by the teacher."
3. Work done in the laboratory should be closely related
to that done in the class. Unless the teacher is provided with
a capable assistant not more than twenty-four pupils should
be working in the laboratory at one time, and not more than
two pupils should ordinarily be working together on the same
experiment. It is not necessary nor always desirable that all
pupils perform exactly the same experiments at the same time,
nor is it necessary to perform the same ones in exactly the
same way.
Pupils should be required to assemble and set up apparatus,
or to arrange materials for all laboratory work, the teacher
being free to make suggestions to those in need of help.
No experiment should be given unless it will help to make
clear some problem under consideration. Experiments de-
vised to prove generalizations already clear to the pupil are
useless; those requiring a collection of data are of little value;
those serving as "busy work" are childish; and those minutely
quantitative are beyond the comprehension of high school
pupils. Quoting again from Bulletin 26, Bureau of Education,
"The laboratory should be a place where the pupil puts ques-
tions to nature, observes accurately, and deduces conclusions
logically; not a place where directions are followed blindly and
meaningless results are obtained."
Field work and excursions to factories and other industrial
plants are highly beneficial; but such work should be definitely






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


planned beforehand, notes should be taken, and definite reports
covering different phases of the investigation considered in
the next class conference. Excursions that resolve themselves
into mere sight-seeing trips are worse than useless.
All data with reference to experiments performed should
be recorded in a bound notebook. The teacher should as far
as possible ascertain before the pupils leave the laboratory the
degree of accuracy with which the notes have been taken.
Afterwards the data recorded in the laboratory notebook
should be incorporated into neatly written, accurate descrip-
tions of experiments recorded in permanent notebooks. Draw-
ings of apparatus add much to the appearance of note books,
and indicate the degree to which the pupil observed accuracy
and precision in performing his experiments.
The teacher should give the class general directions for
recording experiments, but content rather than uniformity
should be considered in grading the work. Under no circum-
stances should a printed form with blank spaces left for
answers to questions ever be used.
Inasmuch as a majority of Florida high school graduates
will enter college it is well for the teacher to keep constantly
in mind college entrance requirements in science.
The wide-awake and energetic teacher will find in science
clubs an energizing force that will give impetus to the entire
subject. In large high schools separate clubs in physics, chem-
istry, biology, etc., may be maintained, but in the smaller
schools it will probably be better to have only one club com-
bining the various subjects.
SEQUENCE OF SCIENCES
Under this head we must keep in mind the needs of several
classes of high schools. The Junior-Senior high school, em-
bodying the 6-3-3 plan has already made its appearance in
Florida, and has in all probability come to stay. It will, how-
ever, be a good many years before the Two-Year, the Three-
Year, and the Four-Year high schools will be entirely super-
seded by the Junior-Senior school, and consequently the needs
of these schools must be considered in the formulation of any
course in science.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Another important consideration in making a course of
study is provision for the needs of high schools of different
sizes, equipment and teaching forces.
The following classes of high schools should be provided
for:
1. The Junior-Senior high school.
2. The large Four-Year high school. (Enrolling 300 or more pupils.)
3. The medium-sized Four-Year high school. (Enrolling 100 to
300 pupils.)
4. The small Four-Year high school. (Enrolling less than 100
pupils.)
5. The Three-Year high school.
6. The Two-Year high school.
7. The Smith-Hughes agricultural high school.
The following sequence of sciences is arranged for these
various classes of high schools:
1. Junior-Senior high school.
(a) Seventh year-Physiology and hygiene.
(b) Eighth year-General science.
(c) Ninth year-Zoology and botany. (Half year of each.)
(d) Tenth year-Chemistry, physics, physiography, advanced
zoology, advanced botany, household chemistry, industrial
chemistry, industrial physics. (Elective.)
(e) Eleventh year-Electives as in tenth year.
(f) Twelfth year-Electives as in tenth year.
Junior-Senior high schools enrolling not more than 300
pupils should offer courses in science more restricted than
can be offered by the larger schools. In such schools the work
of the last three years should be about as follows:
Tenth year-Physiography.
Eleventh year-Chemistry or Physics.
Twelfth year-Physics or Chemistry.
If eleventh and twelfth year classes are small the two may
be combined and chemistry and physics taught in alternate
years.
2. The large Four-year high school.
(a) First year-General science including hygiene.
(b) Second year-Zoology and botany. (Half year each.)
(c) Eleventh and twelfth years-Differentiated elective courses
to meet special needs and interests as follows:
(i) Chemistry-General chemistry, and chemistry special-
ized for various curriculum needs, such as household
chemistry, industrial chemistry, etc.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


(ii) Physics-General physics, and physics specialized for
various curriculum needs, such as physics of the home,
industrial physics, etc.
(iii) General geography or physiography.
(iv) Advanced biological sciences.
3. The Medium-Sized high school of four years.
(a) First year-General science including hygiene.
(b) Second year-Zoology and botany. (Half year each.)
(c) Third year-Chemistry, giving emphasis to industrial, farm,
and home chemistry.
(d) Fourth year-Physics, with special stress upon home, in-
dustrial, and farm physics.
4. The small Four-year high school.
(a) First year-General science including hygiene.
(b) Second year-Zoology and botany. (Half year each.)
(c) Third year-Chemistry or physics.
(d) Fourth year-Physics or chemistry.
Physics and chemistry classes should be alternated by years.
5. The Three-year high school.
(a) First year-General science including hygiene.
(b) Second year-Zoology and botany. (Half year each.)
(c) Third year-Chemistry or physics according to the needs
of the community.
6. The Two-year high school.
(a) First year-General science including hygiene.
(b) Second year-Zoology and botany. (Half year each.)
7. Smith-Hughes Agricultural high school-To be supplied.
GENERAL SCIENCE
This subject is not intended as an introduction to subjects
to be taken later, nor is it given primarily to awaken a desire
for further work in science-although it may have that effect
-but the main purpose is to create in the pupil ability to
meet and solve the problems confronting him every day in the
home, the shop, the street, the farm, and the school, and to
cause him to think clearly and accurately about common ob-
jects and happenings. Quoting still again from the Bureau
of Education Bulletin 26, "It (general science) should prove
the very best training for pupils who can take only one year
of high school science." But the required unit for graduation
should be physics, chemistry, or biology.
The teacher can find in textbooks many suggestive topics,
and these can be supplemented by usable material lying all
around him.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


General science lends itself easily to the project-problem
method of teaching, and the wise teacher will utilize the inter-
est which can be aroused and maintained by this mode of
instruction. There ought to be not one moment of listless or
meaningless effort in the class conference or in the laboratory
period if the teacher is alive to the opportunity to lead his
pupils to make discoveries for themselves in the realm of the
commonplace all about them. Air, water, fire; germination,
growth, decay; heat, magnetism, electricity, and light; up-
heaval, erosion, motion, and sound-these and many other
subjects bring up their hosts of related subjects, and these in
turn still others, until the number of projects and problems
presented for selection is practically exhaustless.
Class-Single standard period, three times per week dur-
ing the school year.
Laboratory-Double standard period, two times per week
during the school year.
The class work includes:
1. The completion of a standard textbook, with daily recitations
three times per week throughout the school year.
2. Lecture-demonstrations by the teacher, assisted by selected pupils.
3. Frequent class conferences to consider given problems and topics.
The laboratory work includes:
1. Not less than sixty exercises during the school year. By "exer-
cises" is meant experiments, reports on assigned problems, and all work
requiring "observation and interpretation of facts."
2. When performing experiments it is desirable in most cases for
not more than two pupils to be working together.
Syllabus of General Science
(Based upon Elhuff's General Science. Prepared by J. A. Cruikshank,
teacher of science in the Gadsden County High School)
I. Introduction. 5. Soap.
1. Why study science. 6. Bases.
II. Health. 7. Neutral substances.
1. Meaning of health. 8. Hard water.
2. Value of health. 9. Salts.
3. School work and health. IV. Chemistry of Baking.
4. Success and health. 1. Reasons for cooking.
5. Air, water, food, and health. 2. Study of baking powder and
III. Chemistry of common things, soda.
1. What chemistry is. 3. Yeasts.
2. Molecules. V. Preservatives and disinfectants.
3. Atoms. 1. Germs.
4. Acids. 2. How to destroy germs.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


VI. Habit forming agents.
1. Stimulants.
2. Narcotics.
3. Patent medicines.
VII. Oxygen and oxidation.
1. Air.
2. Preparation of oxygen.
3. Oxidation.
4. Kindling point and spontan-
eous combustion.
5. Friction matches.
VIII. Carbon dioxide.
1. Carbon and its forms.
2. Preparation of carbon diox-
ide.
3. Uses of carbon dioxide.
IX. Breathing and ventilation.
1. Breathing.
2. Mouth breathing and its ef-
fects.
3. Nose breathing.
4. Ventilation.
X. Matter and energy.
1. Matter (Defined, etc.)
2. States of matter.
3. Gravity.
4. Energy.
XI. Heat.
1. Definition introductory
facts.
2. Thermometers uses, how
made, etc.
3. Meaning of temperature.
4. Calorie.
5. Specific heat.
6. Sources and effects of heat.
XII. Heat of Vaporization.
1. Introductory remarks.
2. Boiling temperature.
3. Distillation.
4. Cooling by evaporation.
XIII. Heat of fusion and dissolu-
tion.
1. Heat of fusion.
2. Effects of salts on freezing.
XIV. Heating Buildings.
1. Transmission of heat.
2. Primitive methods of heat-
ing.


3. Modern methods of heating.
(a) Open stove, (b) Hot air
system, (c) Steam heat,
(d) Hot water system.
XV. Food.
1. Human body a machine.
2. Cells.
3. Nutrients.
4. Water and mineral foods.
5. Tests for nutrients.
6. Fuel value of foods.
7. Daily fuel needs of the body.
8. Bodily heat output.
9. Nutritive ration.
10. Varied diet.
11. When and how to buy.
XVI. Water.
1. Sources.
2. Why water should be puri
fled.
3. Methods of purification.
4. Use of water while camping.
5. Water as a solvent.
6. Physical properties of water.
7. States of water.
8. Water and climate.
XVII. The Air.
1. Mixture of gases.
2. Movements of air.
3. Density of air.
4. Weight of air.
5. Air pressure.
6. Barometers-kinds and uses.
7. Air currents.
8. Rain, snow, dew, and frost.
9. Isobars and isotherms.
10. Weather maps.
XVIII. Some properties of gases.
1. Gas pressure.
2. Boyle's law.
3. Compressed gases.
4. Compression and heat.
5. Refrigeration.
6. Artificial ice.
7. Liquid air.
8. Natural and artificial ice.
XIX. Simple Machines.
1. Evolution of machines.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2. Definitions energy, force,
work.
3. Unit of work.
4. A machine.
5. Mechanical advantage.
6. Efficiency.
7. Levers.
8. Classes of levers.
9. Incline plane.
10. Wedge.
11. Screw.
12. Pulleys.
13. Wheel and axle.
14. Power.
XX. Water wheels and windmills.
1. Water power.
2. Overshot wheel.
3. Undershot wheel.
4. Pelton water wheel and mo-
tor.
5. Turbine water wheel.
6. Value of stream or waterfall.
7. Windmills.
XXI. Steam and gas engines.
1. Steam.
2. Steam engine.
3. Uses of steam engine.
4. Steam turbines.
5. Gas engines.
6. Efficiency of engines.
XXII. Liquid pumps.
1. Influence of air in pumping
liquids.
2. Siphon.
3. Lift pump.
4. Force pump.
5. Centrifugal pump.
6. Wells and how to get water
from them.
XXIII. Gas pumps.
1. Gas pumps-introductory.
2. Compression pump.
3. Exhaust pump.
4. Pneumatic dispatch tubes.
XXIV. City water supply.
1. Problem of pure water.
2. Methods of purifying water.
3. Methods of supplying water.
4. Why water pressure is not
uniform.


5. Equal pressure.
6. Cost of city water.
7. Water supply and forests.
XXV. Magnets.
1. Natural magnets.
2. Artificial magnets.
3. Magnetic attraction and re-
pulsion.
4. Nature of magnets.
5. Induced magnetism.
6. Magnetic field about a mag-
net.
7. Care of magnets.
8. How to magnetize steel.
9. The earth as a magnet.
XXVI. Electrical Appliances and
machines.
1. Electricity.
2. Electrification by friction.
3. Lightning rods.
4. Current electricity.
5. Electrical units-Ohm, volt,
ampere.
6. Voltaic cell.
7. Prevention of polarization.
8. Daniel cell.
9. Gravity cell.
10. Dry cell.
11. Magnetic field about a cur-
rent.
12. Electromagnet.
13. Electric bell.
14. Telegraph.
15. Electric lights.
16. Telephone.
XXVII. Light.
1. Diffused light.
2. Lenses.
3. Cameras.
4. Spectrum.
XXVIII. The Human Eye.
1. Structure.
2. How we see objects.
3. Defects of eye.
4. Care of eyes.
5. Sight and health.
XXIX. Artificial light.
1. First artificial light.
2. Oil and gas.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


3. How lamps make light.
4. Illuminating substances.
XXX. Sound.
1. Personal experiences.
2. Caused by vibrations.
3. Transmission of sound.
4. Reflection of sound.
XXXI. Vocal cords and the ears.
1. Vocal cords.
2. The voice.
3. The ears.
4. Hearing.
5. Care of ears.
XXXII. The soil.
1. The soil.
2. Origin.
3. Physical composition.
4. Disintegrated rock.
5. Soil water.
6. Soil air.
7. Humus.
8. Bacteria and other living or-
ganisms.
9. Chemical composition of soil.
XXXIII. How to care for soil.
1. Value of this knowledge.
2. When to cultivate.
3. Why cultivate plants?
4. Soil in beds, pots, etc.
5. Soil drainage.
6. Irrigation.
7. Effects of sun's heat on soil.
8. Erosion.
9. Prevention of erosion.
XXXIV. How plants grow.
1. Seeds.
2. Grain.
3. Testing grain for nutrients.
4. Germination.
5. Roots.
6. Stems.
7. Leaves.
8. Flowers.
9. Producing new varieties.
10. Seedless fruits.
XXXV. Propagation of plants.
1. Use of seeds.
2. Use of roots.
3. Use of cuttings.


4. Grafting and budding.
5. Transplanting.
6. Shade trees.
7. Forest trees.
XXXVI. Use of plants to man.
1. For food.
2. For clothing.
3. Cotton, flax, hemp, jute.
4. Plants for rope and twine.
5. Plants for paper.
XXXVII. Low forms of plant life.
1. Algae.
2. Fungi.
3. Bacteria.
XXXVIII. Plant diseases and pests.
1. Introductory paragraph.
2. Wheat rust.
3. Apple rust.
4. Brown rot.
5. Pear blight.
6. Other diseases of plants.
XXXIX. The animal series.
1. Introductory paragraph.
2. Protozoa one-celled ani-
mals.
3. Worms.
4. Insects.
5. Crayfish.
6. Amphibians.
7. Value of amphibians.
8. Reptiles.
9. Birds.
10. Mammals.
XL. Animals as disease carriers.
1. House fly.
2. Mosquito.
3. Rat and flea.
4. The hog.
5. Hook worm.
XLI. Man's place in nature.
1. Introductory statements.
2. Selecting a home.
XLII. The earth and its neighbors.
1. The earth very old.
2. Earth and sun.
3. Earth and moon.
4. Eclipse of sun and moon.
5. Planets.
6. Stars-meteors.





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


PHYSIOGRAPHY
General science has largely replaced physiography as a first
year science, and perhaps rightly so, but there is no reason
why this subject should be entirely eliminated from the Flor-
ida course of study. Many of the larger schools of the near
future will offer a number of electives in science, and for the
advanced student a course in general geography or physiog-
raphy will prove invaluable.
The relation of physiography-earth science-to the hea-
venly bodies; the past geological history of the earth; the evo-
lution of the earth to its present state; the development of
the plant and animal kingdoms; the history and work of man;
the action of waves, tides, ocean currents, winds, rain, snow,
ice, earthquakes and volcanoes; the causes of deserts; climate
-its causes and effects; the connection between location and
commercial and intellectual progress-all these and many
other questions of utmost interest can be made wonderfully
effective if undertaken by means of the problem-project-con-
ference plan.
Class-Single standard period three times a week for the
school year.
Laboratory-Double standard period twice a week for the
school year.
Class work includes:
1. Completion of a standard textbook, supplemented by reports
on assignments for individual investigation, class conference, etc.
2. Lecture-table demonstrations by the teacher, assisted by selected
pupils.
Pupils are expected to do library work, make excursions
for observing geographical phenomena and material, definitely
record all observations, and collect specimens and clippings.
Lantern work, magazines, government reports and maps, com-
bine to make the course in this subject interesting and effec-
tive. In field work particular rather than general problems
are desirable.
The text now in use is Tarr's New Physical Geography,
and should this book be readopted it is recommended that the
Laboratory Manual for Physical and Commercial Geography
by Tarr and von Engeln be used as a guide in laboratory work.
A Guide for Laboratory Teaching, by O. D. von Engeln con-







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


tains many practical hints for the teacher in carrying out the
work, and where all needed material may be secured.
The following suggestive exercises were taken from A
Brief Laboratory Course in Physical Geography, by Everly,
Blount and Walton. The list was selected by Professor F. W.
Simonds, of the University of Texas, and is given here as it
appears in Bulletin 85, February 15, 1919, Department of
Education, State of Texas.
1. A Globe Exercise: To study latitude and longitude, etc., on a
globe representing the rotating earth.
2. Sunrise and Sunset Graphs: To study and compare graphically
the lengths of day and night through the year at different latitudes.
3. Standard Time: To study the time belts commonly employed in
the United States.
4. A Study of Minerals: A study of the characters and properties
of Quartz, Feldspar, Mica, Hornblende, Calcite, Lead Ore and Iron Ore.
5. The Study of Rocks: (a) Granite and gneiss; (b) Limestone and
marble; (c) shale and slate; (d) sandstone and quartzite; (e) miscel-
laneous rocks.
6. Composition of Soil: To study the composition of soil.
7. Chalk Modeling: A method of representing surface relief.
8. Introduction to Topographic Maps: An explanation of contour
maps.
9. Drainage Areas: To map and study the drainage of the United
States.
10. Minnesota.-St. Paul Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study the gorge
and terraces of the Mississippi River near St. Paul.
11. Louisiana.-Donaldson Sheet, U. S. G. S,: To study the swamp
flood plain and levees along the lower course of the Mississippi River.
12. Illinois.-Ottawa Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study a region of imma-
ture surface drainage. (The picture supplement should be included in
this exercise.)
13. North Dakota-Minnesota.-Fargo Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study
the characteristics of a newly made lake plan.
14. Arizona.-Kaibab Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study a high plateau
region.
15. Pennsylvania.-Harrisburg Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study portions
of the Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania.
16. California.-Shasta Special Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study a young
but inactive volcano.
17. California.-Shasta Special Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study the
glaciers on Mt. Shasta.
18. Wisconsin.-Whitewater Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study a glacial
region. (The picture supplement should be included in this exercise.)
19. New York.-Niagara Sheet, or Niagara Falls and Vicinity, U. S.
G. S.: To study Niagara Falls and River.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


20. Atmospheric Pressure: To determine whether the atmosphere
exerts pressure.
21. Mercurial Barometer: To find some means of measuring the
pressure of the atmosphere.
22. Conditions Affecting Evaporation: To learn the conditions af-
fecting evaporation.
Effects of Evaporation: To learn how the temperature of an object
is affected when a liquid evaporates from its surface.
23. Elementary exercise on Isotherms: To map and to study the
average annual distribution of temperature in the United States.
24. Distribution of Temperature.
25. Rainfall in the United States: To map and study the average
annual rainfall within the United States.
26. Seasonable Distribution of Rainfall: To plot and study the
amount and distribution of rainfall throughout the year at different
latitudes.
27. Section of Ocean Border-Continental Shelf: To show the widths
of the continental shelf, the depths of water, and the slopes of the
bottom.
28. New Jersey.-Atlantic City Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study the
sea border of a low growing plain.
29. Mains.-Boothbay Sheet, U. S. G. S.: To study the ocean border
of a high rocky plain well dissected by rivers.
30. Winds and Currents: To study the relation of the ocean surface
circulation to the planetary winds.
31. Rainfall and Vegetation: To study the distribution of rain over
the earth, and the vegetation areas and belts depending on rainfall and
temperature.
32. Experiments with Oxygen.
33. Experiments with Carbon Dioxide.
34. Experiments with Heat.

THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Two types of courses in biology are now to be found. One
is what is known as the "blended" course, "in which animal
and plant life are studied as a unit," while the other considers
"plant-biology, animal-biology, and human-biology" under the
separate heads of botany, zoology, and human physiology.
(Quotations from Tex. Bul. 85, Feb. 15, 1919.)
Much can be said in favor of the point of view of those
holding to both types, but inasmuch as the latter is more easily
understood, is more nearly in conformity with the training of
most teachers, and brings about a keener interest in plants and
animals, as such, by their separate consideration it is thought
best to have botany and zoology given as half year courses in
the same school year, and human physiology either in the






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


grammar school or in the first year of the Junior-Senior high
school.
BOTANY
The study of botany is important for the following rea-
sons:
1. It is closely related to agriculture, zoology, horticulture
and forestry.
2. It stimulates the pupil to close and accurate obser-
vation.
3. It affords to the student the pleasure of discovery.
4. It furnishes opportunity for worthy use of leisure.
5. It develops ethical character by giving broad concep-
tions of nature and of life.
The point of view with respect to the teaching of botany
has changed materially within the space of a few years. From
flower-analysis and the naming of flowers of a few years ago
a type of course designed to study representative plants of the
various orders was evolved; but the most recent type is the
synthetic course. Each of these types of instruction has some
value, but the synthetic perhaps most nearly approaches the
ideal. Anatomy and morphology, plant physiology, and plant
ecology, natural history of plant groups, and classification-
all these phases of the subject are important-and it has truly
been said that "a high school course in biology should com-
prehend the entire field of botanical study." (Tex. Bul. 85,
Feb. 15, 1920.)
Class-Single standard period three times a week during
half of the school year.
Laboratory-Double standard period twice a week during
half of the school year.
In no branch of science is field and laboratory work more
important than in botany.
The course of study given below is taken from Bulletin 85
of the Texas Department of Education, and is based upon a
syllabus formulated by the Committee on Education of the
Botanical Society of America. This syllabus was founded
upon the two important reports of the National Education As-
sociation-the "Report of the Committee of Ten" and the
"Report on College Entrance Requirements."







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Course of Study
Part I. The General Principles of Anatomy and Morphology.
A. The cell.
1. Wall, cytoplasm, nucleus.
2. History of cell theory.
a. Robert Hooke.
b. Schleiden and Schwann.
c. Dujardin, Von Mohl, and Schultze.
3. Reproduction.
a. Fission.
b. Mitosis.
4. Organs and tissues.
B. The parts of a flowering plant.
1. The seeds.
(a) Four types (structure and homologous parts).
(1) Dicotyledon without endosperm (e. g. lima bean).
(2) Dicotyledon with endosperm (e. g. castor).
(3) Monocotyledon (corn).
(4) Gymnosperm (pine).
(b) Food supply.
Experimental determination of its nature and value.
(c) Phenomena of germination and growth of embryo into
a seedling-including bursting from the seed, as-
sumption of position, and unfolding of parts.
2. The shoot.
(a) Gross anatomy of a typical shoot.
This should include the relationship of position of leaf,
stem (and root), the arrangement of leaves and buds
on the stem, and deviations (through light adjust-
ments, etc.) from symmetry.
(b) Buds, and the mode of origin of new leaf and stem.
(c) Specialized and metamorphosed shoots.
(d) General structure and distribution of the leading tissues
of the shoot; annual growth; shedding of bark and
leaves.
3. The root.
(a) Gross anatomy of a typical root.
(b) Position and origin of secondary roots.
(c) Root hairs.
(d) Specialized and metamorphosed roots.
(e) General structure and distribution of the leading tissues
of the root.
4. The flower.
(a) Structure of a typical flower.
(b) Comparative morphological study of several different
types.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


5. The fruit.
(a) Structure of a typical fruit.
(b) Comparative morphological study of several different
types.
A comparative morphological study of flowers and fruits
may be postponed to Part III and be studied in connection with
the classification of the angiosperms. A more intensive study
can be made at that time.
Part II. Physiology of Plants.
A. Role of water in the plant.
1. Absorption and osmosis.
2. Path of transport of water.
Function of fibrovascular bundles.
3. Transpiration and evaporation.
Functions of stomates, lenticels, cuticle, corky tissue, etc.
4. Turgidity and its mechanical value.
B. Photosynthesis.
1. Value of light in chlorophyll production.
2. Dependence of starch formation on chlorophyll.
3. Dependence of starch formation on light.
4. Dependence of starch formation upon carbon dioxide.
5. Evolution of oxygen.
6. Translocation of food.
C. Respiration.
1. Evolution of carbon dioxide.
2. Retention of oxygen.
3. Function of retained oxygen.
D. Digestion and assimilation.
Action of diastase.
E. Growth.
1. Localization in roots and stems.
2. Relationships to temperature.
F. Irritability.
1. Geotropism.
2. Heliotropism and phototropism.
3. Hydrotropism.
G. Reproduction.
1. Vegetative.
2. Sexual.
The subject of reproduction should be studied in Part III in
connection with the study of group types.
It is not to be expected that the physiology be studied as
a separate division of the course. The physiological processes
can more profitably be studied in connection with the mor-
phology of the plant structure in which the processes occur
as they are given in Part I.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Part III. The Natural History of the Plant Groups, and Classification.

The student should be required to have a rather definite
understanding of the great natural groups of plants. This can
be acquired by a thorough study of the vegetative structure,
reproduction and adaptations to habitat of one or more types
from each of the lettered groups, supplemented at times by
less intensive study of other forms in those groups. It is
recommended that the general homologies from group to group
be emphasized, to the end that the student will have a clear
appreciation of the evolutionary progress of the plant king-
dom. The origin and development of sex should receive
careful attention, especially in the algae. The types marked
by a star are recommended as minimum essentials.
A. Algae.
1. Blue green algae-Oscillatoria or *Nostoc.
2. Green algae-Pleurococcus; *Spirogyra; Hydrodictyon; *Vau-
cheria; Cladophora.
3. Brown algae-*Fucus.
4. Red algae-Nemalion or Polysiphonia.
B. Fungi.
1. *Bacteria.
(a) Forms.
(b) Habitat and nutrition.
(c) Locomotion.
(d) Reproduction.
2. *Yeasts-Commercial yeast.
3. Molds-Rhizopus or *Mucor.
4. White Rusts and Downy Mildews-Albrugia or Peronospora.
5. Sac fungi-*Powdery mildew.
6. Smuts-Tilletia or any species of *Ustilago (e. g. corn smut).
7. Rusts-*Puccinia (wheat rust).
8. Mushrooms-*Agaricus.
The external symptoms of plant diseases should be studied in
connection with the study of fungi. Stress economic
phases.
C. *Lichens.
Any species of the commoner forms will do for illustration. Study
symbiosis.
D. Bryophytes.
1. Liverworts-*Marchantia.
2. Mosses-*Funaria or Mnium.
E. Pteridophytes.
1. Ferns-*Any common fern. Study both the gametophytic and
sporophytic generations.
2. Fern allies--*Equisetum and Selaginella or Lycopodium.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


F. Gymnosperms-*Pinus or equivalent.
.G. Angiosperms.
A type of both a *monocotyl and a *dicotyl should be studied in
order to establish their relationships with simpler forms. In
addition to this, representative plants of the principal fami-
lies of angiosperms should be studied and classified. The
classification should include not only an elementary study of
the principal subdivisions of the angiosperms but the classi-
fication of some eight or ten species of plants. The student
should be acquainted with the commoner flowering plants,
both herbs and trees, of his locality. However, it must be
remembered that an extensive knowledge of the botanical
names is not important-the common names being sufficient
in most instances. For instance, if the student recognizes a
nightshade, it is of no importance to him to know whether it
is the solanum rostratum, solanum eleagnifolium or what not.
The preparation of an herbarium is not required nor recom-
mended except as a voluntary work for those with a taste for
collecting. If made, it should not represent so much a simple
accumulation of species as some distinct idea of plant associa-
tions, or morphology, or of representation of the groups, etc.
Part IV. Ecology of Plants.
It is not intended that this part be studied as a separate
division. On the contrary, the first four types (given below)
should be studied along with the structures with which they
are most closely related. However, plants in relation to their
natural environment should be studied as extensively as time
and conditions will permit. A great part of this work can be
done out of doors-in fact it is essentially field work. A good
plan is to assign each member of the class a certain area or
plot, and have him make a study of the vegetation of this
section. In the light of what he has learned earlier in the
course, he should be able to assume a viewpoint that would
enable him to appreciate and interpret the conditions found to
prevail in his allotted section.
In Part II reactions to various stimuli, such as heliotropism
and geotropism were cited. This subject can be further studied
here, if convenient, as an adaptation to environment. The
work that plants do in order to adapt themselves to their sur-
roundings, and thus survive the struggle for existence, should
be clearly understood by the pupils. The subject may have
been adequately covered in Part II or elsewhere in the course,







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


but in case it has not it should be taken up here as a division
of the course.
The following topics in ecology should receive considera-
tion, either here or at convenient times during the course:
1. Modification of parts for special functions.
2. Dissemination.
3. Cross-pollination.
4. Light relations.
5. Zonal distribution.
6. Plant societies.
a. Xerophytes.
b. Hydrophytes.
c. Mesophytes.
d. Halophytes.
e. Tropophytes.
ZOOLOGY
The reasons for the study of Zoology are similar to those
advanced for studying botany. "Zoology properly taught is
a highly educative subject, and at the same time an economi-
cal science. No subject offers better opportunity for accurate
observation, clear description, correct analysis and discrimi-
nating thinking than zoology. Pupils are instinctively inter-
ested in animals, and this interest properly developed and
stimulated will lead them to see both the beauty and the
design in all created life."
Field work in zoology cannot be too highly emphasized.
Animal life cannot be studied without coming in contact with
living animals, and to discover the habitat of a given creature
and know his habits and movements from personal observa-
tion is worth more to the pupil than all he can learn from
books or from examination of a preserved specimen. The
assignment to a pupil of a project to watch a caterpillar go
through its various metamorphoses and report all he sees, or
to study the life history of a mosquito will develop the scien-
tific attitude, and will go a long way toward solving the ques-
tion of interest in scientific studies.
Field work should of course be planned and directed by the
teacher, and reports of such work given intelligently by .the
pupil at the class conference and afterward incorporated in
his notebook.
Class-Single standard period three times per week dur-
ing the half year.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


Laboratory-Double standard period twice a week during
the half year.
The class work should consist of lesson assignments on
the regular text, lecture demonstrations, class conferences,
and reports on special assignments. Several texts other than
the adopted one should be accessible to the pupils, and other
sources of information valuable as reference material should
be collected by the teacher.
A good laboratory guide is found in the adopted text, but
if other exercises are desired any standard manual may be
followed. Accurate and neat notebooks must be kept.
As far as possible all specimens for laboratory work should
be collected by the pupils. In a few cases preserved specimens
will be necessary, and these can be secured from supply houses.
It may be desirable to study the internal structure of a
few animals, but ordinarily the external features, and more
particularly the movements and habits of live animals should
receive more attention.
The course of study given below is that given in Bulletin
85, Texas Department of Education, Feb. 15, 1919. This
outline is well adapted to the Florida textbook, and is here
given in full.
Course of Study
I. Introduction. Course of Study
1. The meaning of zoology and its relation to other subjects.
2. A brief survey of the animal kingdom.
3. The cell.
(a) A typical cell.
(b) History of cell theory.
a. Robert Hooke.
b. Schleiden and Schwann.
c. Dujardin, Von Mohl, and Schultze.
(c) Reproduction.
a. Fission.
b. Mitosis.
II. Insects-4 to 6 weeks.
1. Detail study of one form of local importance, as grasshopper,
cricket, beetle, or a true bug. The grasshopper or locust
is an especially good type. This study should comprehend
the following viewpoints: external and internal structure;
life history, physiology; habits; economic relations.
2. Comparative study of the commoner forms in each of at least
six orders. Protective coloration, habits, life history, ex-
ternal characters and economic problems rather than inter-
nal structure should receive chief consideration here.







74 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

III. Protozoa-1 to 2 weeks.
1. A microscopic study of two or three forms as amoeba, para-
mecium, euglena. Other forms may be substituted for
these in case they are found more readily.
2. The sporazoa.
(a) Relation to disease production.
(b) Life cycle of malarial protozoan.
IV. Sponges-2 days.
1. Differentiation and division of labor.
2. Commercial uses.
V. Coelenterata.
1. Geographical and geological importance.
2. Alternation of generations.
VI. Worms.
Stress parasitism, making an especial study of human parasites.
1. Flatworms.
(a) Planarian.
(b) Liver-fluke.
(c) Tapeworm.
2. Roundworms.
(a) Vinegar-eel.
(b) Trichina.
(c) Guinea-worm.
(d) Hook-worm.
(e) Ascaris and pin-worm.
(f) Hair-worm.
VII. Echinoderma.
1. Starfish-radial symmetry.
The starfish is a good type for a study of embryology unless
the textbook used gives it in connection with another
form.
VIII. Annulata.
1. Earthworm.
Individual dissections and a thorough study of the anatomy,
physiology and ecology are advised.
IX. Mollusca.
1. Detail study of fresh water mussel.
2. External morphology of other forms, as oyster, snail, squid, etc.
3. Button manufacture; pearl and oyster industries.
X. Crustacea.
1. Crayfish-structure, locomotion, protective adaptations, nutri-
tion, reproduction.
2. Brief study of other crustacea as crab, barnacle, cyclops.
XI. Arachnida.
No internal anatomy is advised.
External features and economic relations of spiders, scorpions,
"daddy-long-legs," mites, ticks.








PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


XII. Myriapoda.
No dissection advised.
Brief study only of class as a whole.
XIII. Fishes.
1. Ancestry of vertebrates.
2. External morphology and adaptation to habitat.
3. Fish culture.
4. Fishes as game and food.
XIV. Amphibia.
1. Life history of frog as an illustration of the law of biogenesis.
2. Dissection of frog to show vertebrate anatomy. The frog is
a good type for this purpose as it is easily obtained and
is clean to handle.
XV. Reptiles.
Internal morphology is not important. Adaptations and general
study of snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodiles, and alligators.
Relation of reptiles to amphibia.
XVI. Birds.
1. Relation to reptiles.
2. External and internal morphology.
3. Adaptation to flight.
4. Economic importance.
5. Poultry culture.
6. Recognition of common forms (at least 15) and field observa-
tions on habits, nesting, protection, feeding, etc.
XVII. Mammals. (See Daugherty, Economic Zoology, Saunders Co.,
for a good study of mammals.)
The following classes should be studied from the viewpoint of
natural history and relation to man. Any good text-book
will give the essential information about each group.
1. Marsupials.
2. Edentates.
3. Cetaceans.
4. Ungulates.
5. Rodents.
6. Carnivorates.
7. Chiropterates.
8. Primates.
XVIII. Variation and heredity.
1. Evolution.
2. Heredity.
(a) The physical basis of heredity.
(b) Laws of Galton and Mendel.
3. Animal breeding and the improvement of existing varieties.
4. Eugenics.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE
This course is intended for a year's work in the first year
of the Junior-Senior high school. The purpose of the course
is to develop the pupil's regard for his body to the end that
better health may result, and greater general efficiency be
obtained.
For laboratory work a good manual should be secured
and rather closely followed unless the teacher has had thor-
ough training and experience in this subject.
Class-Single standard period three times per week for
the school year.
Laboratory-Double standard period twice a week for the
school year.
Inasmuch as Ritchie's Human Physiology is the adopted
text in Florida the course outlined below, conforming to that
text, is taken from Texas Bulletin 85, Department of Educa-
tion, Feb. 15, 1919. This outline was adapted from the report
of Principal G. J. Koons to the Illinois High School Conference,
November, 1917.
Division (a) required; (b) advisable, but not required.

Course of Study
I. Introduction. One week.
(a) Importance of study. Scope and division of subject. Man's
place in animal kingdom. Physiological division of labor.
Relation of structure to function. Protoplasm. Cell
structure and reproduction. Kinds of tissues. Ritchie,
Chaps. I, II.
(b) Brief historical account. Demonstration of cell structure and
reproduction with microscope or lantern. Demonstration
of common tissues.
II. Supporting Tissues. Two weeks.
(a) 1. The human skeleton: Structure, Composition and growth
of bones. Pupils should be able to name and identify
on skeleton the important bones. Articulation. Im-
portance of correct posture. Skeleton deformities and
their causes. Ritchie, chaps. IV, V.
2. The muscular system: Kinds and structure of muscles.
Exercise. Simple exercise for developing and keeping
body in good condition. Ritchie, chap. VI.
(b) Demonstration with microscope slides of bone tissue and of
different kinds of muscles. Training and development.
Comparative value of different kinds of exercise.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


III. Foods. One week.
(a) Necessity. Kinds. Sources of food supply. Composition and
energy. Selection and preparation. Correct diets. The
school lunch. Dangers in water and milk supplies.
Ritchie, chaps. VII, X, appendix A.
(b) Composition of different kinds. Food charts. Simple methods
of detecting adulterations. Safe methods of storing and
preserving. Mistakes in diet. Is alcohol a food?
IV. Digestion and Absorption. Two weeks.
(a) Purpose of digestion. Structure and function of organs. The
teeth. Oral hygiene. Secretion and action of digestive
ferments. Digestion and absorption in the mouth. Im-
portance of careful mastication. Digestion and absorp-
tion in the stomach. Digestion and absorption in the
intestines. The pupil should be able to trace in a clear
and accurate manner the food from the time it enters
the mouth until it is built up into the tissues. Ritchie,
chaps. VIII, IX.
(b) Demonstration of the viscera of a cat, rat, or rabbit. Swal-
lowing. Causes of indigestion. Common diseases and
disorders of the digestive organs. Intestinal parasites.
Effect of alcohol on digestion and digestive organs. How
to keep the digestive organs in good working order.
V. The Blood and Its Circulation. Two weeks.
(a) Composition of the blood. Structures and functions of dif-
ferent parts. Structure, adaptation and function of or-
gans of circulation. Course of blood through the body.
Lymph and lymphatic vessels. Ritchie, chap. XI.
(b) The malarial parasite and the blood. Demonstration of Beef's
or Sheep's heart. Demonstration of capillary circulation
in frog's foot, tadpole's tail or fish's tail. Cause of
fainting. Influence of alcohol on the temperature of the
body and the organs of circulation. Athletic heart. Head-
ache remedies. So-called blood purifiers.
VI. Respiration. One week.
(a) Purpose. Necessity of oxygen. Structure, adaptation and
function of organ of respiration. Breathing. Exchange
of gases. Necessity of ventilation. Methods of ventila-
tion. The sleeping room. Ritchie, chaps. XII, XIII.
(b) Respiration in lower animals. Demonstration of "plucks" se-
cured from butcher shop. Lung capacity. Internal res-
piration. Artificial respiration and demonstration of
methods. The lung motor. Dangers from breathing
dust. Proper methods of sweeping and dusting. Outdoor
sleeping. Drafts. Breathing exercises. Diseases of the
organs of respiration, with special attention to colds and
tuberculosis. Preventive measures.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


VII. The Skin, and Elimination of Waste. One week.
(a) 1. Skin: Functions of the skin. Structure. Hair and nails.
Action of clothing in retaining heat of the body. Bath-
ing. Ritchie, chap. XV.
2. Kidneys: Structure and function of the kidneys. Effect
of alcohol upon the kidneys. Ritchie, chap. XIV.
(b) Effect of overheated and underheated rooms on the skin. Ef-
fects of humidity. Cause of fever. Chills. Common skin
diseases. Inflammation. Corns. Warts. Bunions. Moles.
Blackheads. Pimples. Ingrowing nails.
VIII. The Nervous System. Three weeks.
(a) 1. Protected position. Parts. Structure and function of dif-
ferent parts. Sympathetic nervous system. Reflex
action. Hygiene of nervous system. Rest. Play.
Sleep. Principles of habit formation. Ritchie, chaps.
III, XVI, XVII, XVIII.
2. Special senses. Structure and functions of the organs of
the special senses. Proper light for reading. Lighting
of homes and school rooms. Care of the eyes. Ritchie,
chaps. XIX, XX.
(b) Tobacco, alcohol, and drug habits. Pain. Nervous disorders.
Mental hygiene.
Demonstration of structure of eye with beef or hog's eye.
Demonstration of structure of ear with model. Methods
of testing hearing and sight. Defects of vision and how
remedied. Trachoma.
IX. Accidents. One week.
(a) Importance of cool head and quick action in accidents and
emergencies. What to do in case of drowning, asphyxia-
tion by gas, freezing, sunstroke, broken limbs, bleeding,
poisoning, sprains, burns. Ritchie, chap. XXI.
(b) The home medicine cabinet. What it should contain. Simple
household remedies and their use. Proper care of the
sick. The sick room. Food for the sick.
X. Home and Public Sanitation. Three weeks.
(a) 1. Organisms that cause diseases. Bacteria: Classes, charac-
teristics, reproduction, conditions favorable to growth.
How they get into the body. Diseases caused by bac-
teria. Protozoa: Characteristics, reproduction, condi-
tions favorable to growth. Diseases caused by proto-
zoa. Diseases caused by organisms other than bacteria
and protozoa, as ringworm, hookworm, tapeworm.
Ritchie, chaps. XXII, XXIII, XXIV, XXVI.
2. Hygienic and sanitary measures based on knowledge of
parasites causing disease: food preservation, disinfec-
tion, vaccine and serum treatments, protection from
and elimination of flies, mosquitoes, and other pests.
Ritchie, chap. XXV.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


3. Preventive measures and treatment of common diseases
caused by parasites, with special attention to common
communicable diseases.
4. Prevention of disease by the individual. Importance of
cleanliness, fresh air, pure food, pure water, healthful
exercise and sufficient sleep. Causes of lowered resis-
tance. Co-operation with civic authorities.
(b) Prevention of disease by civic authorities. Care of the streets.
Care of public places. Public water supply. Sewage and
drainage. Sanitary inspections. Supervision of sale of
milk and other foods. Quarantine regulations. Medical
inspection of schools.
The subject of sex hygiene is left to the judgment and dis-
cretion of the teacher. Instruction in this subject is a delicate
matter, and unless handled wisely and properly, is apt to do
harm rather than good. In some high schools a woman phy-
sician is secured to talk to the girls and a man to the boys.
This plan is a good one where the matter is attempted at all.

CHEMISTRY
This subject should ordinarily be placed in the third year
of the four-year high school and be an elective in the last year
or two of the Junior-Senior high school. In the smaller schools
this subject should be alternated by years with physics, the
two classes being combined.
Chemistry is not a subject surrounded by mystery, nor
does it deal with the occult, but it is a science having to do
with everyday life. No other subject deals with so many
problems of home, farm, factory, and industry; and the
teacher with the vision to connect up chemistry with the ex-
periences and problems of his pupils has before him a large
place of usefulness in our high school work. Chemical prin-
ciples, however, should be established before practical appli-
cations are attempted. The committee on reorganization of
science in secondary schools appointed by the National Edu-
cation Association says, "Laws and theories should be ap-
proached through experimental data obtained in the labora-
tory and through applications with which the pupil is already
familiar and in which he has a real interest."
Professor Twiss, in his Science Teaching, gives some "com-
mon sense rules and principles for teaching chemistry," which
we quote from Texas Department of Education Bulletin 85, of
Feb., 1919.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


The above mentioned rules are as follows:
1. "Begin with facts of observation and experiment and stick closely
to such facts throughout the course * *"
2. "Withhold laws until a sufficient number of the facts and relations
that are specific cases of the law have been studied and have become
familiar. The law can then be appreciated as a device for the
economy of thought."
3. "When a law has been once presented have the pupils connect the
statement of the law with every specific case that comes under it,
until they habitually do this for themselves."
4. "Withhold theories until they are needed to furnish explanations
of observed facts * *"
5. "If the students fail to understand a law or a theory when it is
presented, do not insist on their memorizing it so they can repeat
it glibly at once. Give time and more experience with concrete
cases and after a while they will have learned it * *"
6. "Laws and theories, therefore, should be introduced gradually as
the course proceeds, and more difficult conceptions should come
near the end of the course. * *"
7. "The laws of chemistry should always be expressed in such lan-
guage as clearly to imply that they are statements of the results
of experiments. * *"
No person who has had less than one year of college chem-
istry, preferably two, should attempt to teach this subject;
and even with that amount of preparation, in addition, in the
words of Prof. Schoch of the University of Texas, he should
"Inform himself particularly upon the following subjects:
soils, fertilizers, irrigation waters, feed and foodstuffs; the
technology of petroleum oils, tar oils, cottonseed oil, linseed oil,
the manufacture of soap, paint, and paper."
A course in general chemistry should be offered, and where
possible other courses such as household chemistry and indus-
trial chemistry should be given.
Class and laboratory work should be so closely connected
by time and subject matter that the work of neither period
will lag behind the other.
Excursions to factories and industrial plants where opera-
tions may be seen at first hand, if systematically planned and
carried out, should prove highly beneficial. Notes must be
taken on such observations and pupils required to make reports
on various phases of the observed industries at the next meet-
ing of the class.
Note books must be neatly and accurately kept, but the
content rather than the form of book should be most con-






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


sidered in grading. The teacher should devise some plan to
prevent students from using the work of others in getting
up their note books. Lecture-table demonstrations by the
teacher-assisted by selected students-may be incorporated
in pupils' notebooks, but should be marked "Performed by the
teacher."
Topics for investigation and report to the class conference
should frequently be assigned.
Class-Standard single period three times per week during
the school year.
Laboratory-Standard double period twice a week during
the school year.
Thirty-six to fifty experiments should be performed during
the school year. Some pupils can perform more than fifty,
but no one should be allowed to perform less than thirty-six,
and the teacher should then be sure that those performed
conform to college entrance requirements. The laboratory
manual which accompanies Brownlee and others' chemistry
should be followed, but the work varied to meet local con-
ditions.
The following outline of Brownlee, Fuller, Hancock, Sohon,
and Whitsit's Chemistry was made by Mr. J. A. Cruikshank
of the Gadsden County High School faculty.
Outline of Chemistry
(Based upon text by Brownlee, Fuller, Hancock, Sohon, and Whitsit)


I. Introduction.
1. Physical change.
2. Chemical change.
3. Heating metals in air.
4. Lavoisier's Experiment.
5. Burning.
6. Compounds and elements.
7. Solids, liquids and gases.
8. Identifying substances.
II. Gases and Their Measurement.
1. Gas pressure.
2. Effects of temperature and
pressure changes on vol-
umes of gases.
3. Charles' Law.
4. Use of Charles' Law.
5. Boyle's Law.
6. Use of Boyle's Law.


7. Correction for temperature
and pressure.
8. Correction for difference in
level.
9. Correction for pressure of
water vapor.
III. Oxygen.
1. Preparation.
2. Properties.
3. Combustion.
4. Slow oxidation.
5. Kindling temperatures.
6. Spontaneous combustion.
7. Bunsen burner.
8. Occurrence of oxygen.
9. Relation of oxygen to life.
10. Ozone.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


IV. Hydrogen.
1. Preparation.
2. Action of metals on water.
3. Displacement in acids by
metals.
4. Properties.
V. Composition of Water and Com-
bining Weights.
1. Analysis and synthesis.
2. Synthesis by volume.
3. Synthesis by weight.
4. Law of Definite Proportions.
5. Combining weights.
6. Reacting weights.
VI. Water and Solution.
1. Properties.
2. Distillation.
3. Steam.
4. Ice.
5. Solution.
6. Saturation.
7. Relation of solubility to tem-
perature.
8. Relation of solubility to
pressure.
9. Freezing mixtures.
10. Supersaturation.
11. Crystals.
12. Water of crystallization.
13. Effloresence and deliques-
ence.
14. Hydrogen peroxide.
a. Preparation.
b. Properties.
c. Uses.
15. Law of Multiple Proportions.
VII. Atoms and Molecules.
1. Law of Conservation of
Mass.
2. Atomic Hypothesis.
3. Atoms.
4. Molecules.
5. Explanation of Law of Defi-
nite Proportions.
6. Explanation of Law Multiple
Proportions.
7. Relation of reacting to at-
omic weights.
8. Value of atomic weight.


VIII. Chlorine.
1. Introductory statement.
2. Preparation.
3. Properties.
4. Uses.
IX. Hydrochloric Acid.
1. Preparation.
2. Properties.
3. Properties of acids.
4. Chlorides.
5. Tests for chlorides.
6. Uses of hydrochloric acid.
7. Proportion, volumetric com-
position, and relative com-
position of hydrogen in
hydrochloric acid.
X. Molecular Composition.
1. Volume relation of gases.
2. Law of Gay-Lussac.
3. Reacting weights and vol-
ume weights of gases.
4. Avagadro's Hypothesis.
5. Number of molecules in gas-
eous elements.
XI. Atomic and Molecular Weights.
1. Atomic weights.
2. Density and specific gravity.
3. Specific gravity and vapor
density of gases.
4. Determination of molecular
weights.
5. Determining number of at-
oms in the molecule.
XII. Chemical Formulas and
Names.
1. Significance of symbol.
2. Significance of formula.
3. Number of molecules.
4. Calculation of formulas.
a. When vapor density is
known.
b. When molecular weight
is not known.
c. Percentage composition.
5. Valence.
6. Variations in valence.
7. Chemical names.
a. Names of elements.
b. Binary compounds.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


c. Ternary compounds.
d. Acids and salts.
XIII. Chemical Equations.
1. Chemical reactions by equa-
tion.
2. How equation is written.
3. Equations for reactions al-
ready studied.
XIV. Chemical Calculations.
1. Reacting weight from equa-
tion.
2. Relative volume from equa-
tion.
3. Problems involving weight
and measure.
4. Problems involving weight
and volume.
XV. Sodium and Potassium.
1. Preparation of sodium.
2. Properties of sodium.
3. Chemical activity.
4. Action with water.
5. Uses.
6. Spectrum analysis.
7. Bases.
8. Preparation of potassium.
9. Properties of potassium.
XVI. Solution.
1. Conducting power of solu-
tion.
2. Electrolytes and non-electro-
lytes.
3. Dissolved salts and freezing
point.
4. Osmotic pressure and rela-
tions.
5. Discussion of electrolytes.
6. Chemical activity of electro-
lytes.
7. Ions.
8. Explanation of Electrolysis.
9. Difference between ion and
atom.
10. Ionization of acids and bases.
11. Neutralization.
12. Products of Neutralization.
13. Heat of neutralization.
14. Charges carried by ions.
15. Valence of ions.


XVII. Chemical Equilibrium.
1. Reversible reactions.
2. Dynamic equilibrium.
3. Reactions go to end.
4. Reactions that go to end
through volatility.
5. Law of Mass Action.
6. Applications.
XVIII. Sodium and Potassium
Compound.
1. General properties.
2. Preparation of hydroxides.
3. Properties and uses of hy-
droxides.
4. Sodium peroxide.
5. Sources of sodium chloride.
6. Manufacturing salt.
7. Potassium compounds.
8. Processes of making potas-


XIX.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


sium compounds.
Sulphur and Sulphides.
Occurrence.
Extraction and preparation.
Forms.
Stability and properties.
Compounds.
a. Preparation.
b. Properties.
c. Uses.


XX. Oxides and Acids of Sulphur.
1. Sulphur dioxide.
a. Preparation.
b. Properties.
c. Uses.
2. Trioxide.
a. Preparation.
b. Properties.
c. Uses.
3. Sulphuric acid.
a. Preparation.
b. Properties.
c. Uses.
XXI. Nitrogen and Atmosphere.
1. Occurrence.
2. Preparation.
3. Properties.
4. Action with elements.
5. Uses.
6. Inert gases.







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


XXII. Nitrogen and Ammonia
Compounds.
1. Ammonia.
a. Natural formation.
b. Preparation.
c. Properties.
d. Compounds.
(1) Preparation.
(2) Uses.
XXIII. Elements of Nitrogen
Group.
1. General characteristics.
2. Phosphorus.
a. Kinds.
b. Occurrence.
c. Preparation.
d. Uses.
3. Arsenic.
a. Occurrence.
b. Properties.
c. Uses.
d. Compounds.
4. Antimony and bismuth.
a. Occurrence.
b. Properties
c. Uses.
XXIV. Halogens.
1. Bromine, chlorine, iodine and
flourine.
a. Occurrence.
b. Properties.
c. Preparation.
d. Uses.
XXV. Carbon.
1. Unusual character.
2. Occurrence in nature.
3. Allotropic forms.
4. Properties.
5. Uses.
XXVI. Oxides of Carbon.
1. Carbon dioxide.
a. Occurrence.
b. Preparation.
c. Properties.
d. Hard water.
2. Carbon monoxide.
XXVII. Silicon and Boron.
1. Silicon.
a. Varieties.


b. Occurrence, properties,
and uses.
2. Boron.
a. Occurrences, properties
and uses.
XXVIII. Calcium and Compounds.
1. Calcium.
a. Occurrence, properties
and uses.
b. Compounds.
(1) Preparation, na-
ture, uses.
XXIX. Magnesium, Zinc, Mercury.
1. Occurrence and properties of
each.
2. Preparation, uses.
3. Compounds.
4. Preparation of compounds.
XXX. Iron and Steel.
1. Occurrence of iron.
2. Deposits.
3. Smelting.
4. Cast iron.
5. Blast furnace.
6. Wrought iron.
7. Various kinds of steel.
8. Methods of refining and
tempering different kinds
of steel.
9. Classification.
XXXI. Compounds of Iron.
1. Pure iron.
2. Iron ions.
3. Compounds of iron.
a. Preparation.
b. Behavior.
c. Uses.
XXXII. Copper and Its Compounds.
1. Occurrence and ores.
2. Metallurgy.
3. Production of matter.
4. Refining processes.
5. Properties.
6. Uses.
7. Compounds.
a. Preparation.
b. Properties.
c. Uses.







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


XXXIII. Silver, Gold, Platinum. 6. Significance of vacant spaces
1. Occurrence of each. in table.
2. Metallurgy of each. 7. Value of periodic system.
3. Photography. XXXVIII. Industrial Carbon Com-
4. Other uses of these metals pounds.
and some of their com- 1. Organic chemistry.
pounds. 2. Sources.
XXXIV. Aluminum and Its Corn- 3. Destructive Distillation.
pounds. 4. Illuminating gas.
ound. 5. Bone black.
1. Occurrence. 6. Fractional distillation.
2. Preparation. 7. Fermentation.
3. Properties. 8. Alcohol.
4. Uses. 9. Vinegar.
5. Alloys. 10. Soap making.
6. Thermnit Process. 11. Starch and sugar.
7. Compounds and their prep- XXXIX. Classes of Carbon Com-
aration and uses. pounds.
XXXV. Tin and Lead. 1. Structural formulas.
1. History. 2. Hydrocarbons.
2. Metallurgy. 3. Paraffin series.
3. Properties. 4. Olefine series.
4. Uses. 5. Other series.
5. Compounds. 6. Methane.
XXXVI. Chromium, Manganese, 7. Acetylene.
Conalt, and Nickel. 8. Benzene.
9. Substitute products.
1. Occurrence, preparation and 1. titte compounds.
10. Other compounds.
properties. 11. Reason for so many comn-
2. Compounds and study of pounds.
their preparation and 13. Chloroform, formaldehyde,
uses. acids, etc.
XXXVII. Periodic Law. XL. Radium and Radioactivity.
1. Early attempts at classifica- 1. Discovery.
tion. 2. Nature of radioactivity.
2. Periodic law. 3. Radioactive decay.
3. Long and short periods. 4. Series.
4. Families and groups of ele- a. Radium.
ments. b. Uranium.
5. Position of inert gases and c. Thorium.
hydrogen. 5. Value of radium.

PHYSICS

Physics is not surpassed by any other subject in its attrac-
tiveness, its utility, its power to create accurate habits of
thinking, and its ability to connect up school with the home,
the shop, the farm, and commercial activities. No other sci-







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


ence offers so many opportunities for use of the problem-
project-conference plan of teaching, nor does any other give
opportunity for association with the great minds of the world's
advancement as does this subject.
It is now pretty generally conceded that physics should be
taught in the last year of high school; and since it is given the
best place in the curriculum the course should demand both
accuracy and thoroughness.
Says the committee on reorganization of secondary science
in its report to the National Education Association: "Physics,
in common with other science courses in secondary education,
should be directed as far as possible to the realization of .. .
health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home
membership, worthy use of leisure, vocation, citizenship, and
ethical character."
The committee further says, "Among the habits and abili-
ties which should be developed in all science teaching and
which should be emphasized in physics instruction, the fol-
lowing may be enumerated:
(1) Observing accurately significant facts and phenomena, and at the
same time neglecting distractions and details that have no direct
relation to the problem in hand.
(2) Developing a methodical plan of attack before beginning an ex-
periment or set of observations.
(3) Using eyes, ears, and hands before consulting books, when knowl-
edge of phenomena is sought.
(4) Maintaining system, neatness, and order in the arrangement of
apparatus and appliances for observational and experimental work.
(5) Using care and intelligence in manipulation of tools and apparatus,
endeavoring to acquire a good technique.
(6) Making measurements where quantitative knowledge is required,
always carefully, intelligently, and as accurately as is demanded
by the nature of the knowledge sought, but not more so.
(7) Making and recording calculations accurately and rapidly, using
practical aids in computation such as logarithms, multiplication
tables, and the slide rule.
(8) Maintaining accuracy and methodical procedure in arranging and
tabulating the data obtained from experiments and observations."
The purpose of laboratory work is not to "verify laws,"
"fix principles in mind," or to give "skill in making measure-
ments," but, quoting again from the committee on reorganiza-
tion, "the pupil should go to the laboratory to find out by
experiment some facts that are essential to the solution of a







PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


given problem, and that cannot be obtained at first hand by
any other means."
Class-Single standard period three times per week during
the school year.
Laboratory-Double standard period twice a week during
the school year.
Thirty-six to fifty experiments should be performed dur-
ing a school year. Some pupils can do more than others, so
a minimum number of experiments should be required, but
pupils encouraged to do more than the minimum if they can.
Other exercises, as reports of excursions, field work, etc.,
should be recorded in the laboratory note book.
The following outline of Carhart and Chute's First Prin-
ciples of Physics is given in the hope that it may be of use
to some teachers.

General Outline of Physics
(Based upon Carhart & Chute's First Principles of Physics)


I. Introduction.
1. Matter and energy.
2. Properties of matter.
3. Physical measurements.
II. Molecular Physics.
1. Molecular motion.
2. Surface phenomena.
3. Molecular forces of solids.
III. Mechanics of Fluids.
1. Pressure of fluids.
2. Bodies immersed in fluids.
3. Density and specific gravity.
4. Pressure of the atmosphere.
5. Compression and expansion
of gases.
6. Pneumatic appliances.
IV. Motion.
1. Motion in straight lines.
2. Curvilinear motion.
3. Simple harmonic motion.
V. Mechanics of Solids.
1. Measurement of Force.
2. Composition of forces and
velocities.
3. Newton's Laws of Motion.
4. Gravitation.
5. Falling bodies.


6. Centrifugal and centripetal
force.
7. The pendulum.
VI. Mechanical Work.
1. Work and energy.
2. Machines.
VII. Sound.
1. Wave motion.
2. Sound and its transmission.
3. Velocity of sound.
4. Reflection of sound.
5. Resonance.
6. Characteristics of musical
sounds.
7. Interference and beats.
8. Musical scales.
9. Vibration of strings.
10. Vibration of air in pipes.
11. Graphic and optical methods.
VIII. Light.
1. Nature and transmission.
2. Photometry.
3. Reflection of light.
4. Refraction of light.
5. Lenses.
6. Optical instruments.
7. Dispersion.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


8. Color.
9. Interference and diffraction.
IX. Heat.
1. Heat and temperature.
2. The Thermometer.
3. Expansion.
4. Measurement of heat.
5. Change of state.
6. Transmission of heat.
7. Work and heat.
X. Magnetism.
1. Magnets and magnetic ac-
tion.
2. Nature of magnetism.
3. The magnetic field.
4. Terrestrial magnetism.
XI. Electrostatics.
1. Electrification.
2. Electrostatic induction.
3. Electrical distribution.
4. Electric potential and ca-
pacity.
5. Electrical machines.
6. Atmospheric electricity.
XII. Electric Currents.
1. Voltaic cells.


2. Electrolysis.
3. Ohms' Law and its applica-
tion.
4. Heating effects of a current.
5. Magnetic properties of a
current.
6. Electromagnets.
7. Measuring instruments.
XIII. Electromagnetic Induction.
1. Faraday's Law.
2. Self induction.
3. The induction coil.
XIV. Dynamo-Electric Machinery.
1. Direct current machines.
2. Alternators and transformers.
3. Electric lighting.
4. Electric telegraph.
5. The telephone.
6. Wireless telegraphy.
XV. Appendix.
1. Geometrical constructions.
2. Conversion table.
3. Mensuration rules.
4. Table of densities.
5. Geometrical construction to
show refraction of light.


Mr. Fillers: I do not know that I have anything special
to add except to say that General Science as taught today,
is not generally well enough given to allow of credit toward
graduation as the required Science in High School. I would
give it for credit, yes, but not give it as the required science.
Mr. Workman: In looking over 20 or 30 college catalogues
just out this year, I notice the absence of General Science and
Physical Geography. Yale's catalogue, and several others, do
not mention it among the subjects in which they would ex-
amine you; no mention is made of it in entrance examina-
tions; nowhere is General Science mentioned in these cata-
logues. In most of the catalogues I have looked over, it was
not mentioned even for credit, so that, while they might recom-
mend it in the University of Florida, teachers usually regard
it as a "joke" or a "filler."
Mr. Evans: We should possibly require some other sci-
ence than General Science for high school graduation.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


Mr. Fillers: Inasmuch as General Science is a compara-
tively new subject, no outline can be given, but we do have an
outline to the present adopted textbook, Elhuff's General Sci-
ence.
Mr. Draper: Is it not true that the N. E. A. Committee
on Science recommended General Science for every high
school, especially the small high schools?
Mr. Roemer: Yes. General Science is recommended in
the first year of every type of high school.
Mr. Woodward: Do you make any mention of the kind
of equipment that should be required for the laboratory?
Mr. Evans: We are working on that problem, but have
not quite finished. Dr. Roemer is helping us out on that and
we are not ready to report yet.
Mr. Roemer: Referring to the question of units, I find
there is quite a discussion between state departments and
university entrance committees on units. We should not allow
these things to confuse us. I think you will find the state
departments much more liberal than the universities. The
fact that university entrance committees will not take it, in
a way, recommends it to me. I do not think that should dis-
courage us at all. I am for General Science.
Mr. Workman: Here is the course of study for Oregon.
It does not mention General Science. Evansville, Indiana,
gives 1/2 unit for Home Economics and 1/2 unit for General
Science.
Mr. Cawthon: There seems to be a simple remedy, as
there is in the case of many other studies. There are other
subjects in the curriculum, and if the pupil is going to college,
let him plan his course accordingly. He could decide early,
in the first year or two, and if the college to which he is going
will not take General Science, he can take Physics or Chem-
istry, if offered. That would be one way out of the difficulty.
This is the case with Mathematics and other subjects, and it
seems to be more and more emphasized now that high school
pupils planning to go to college must figure on that.
Mr. Haynie: Why did he not outline a course in Agri-
culture?
Mr. Workman: That is a vocational subject.
Mr. Sealey: Are there any other questions you would
like to ask Mr. Evans?






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Mr. Metcalfe: As Agriculture is not incorporated in this
report, would it be recognized as a science credit?
Mr. Sealey: You might ask if the University of Florida
would accept it as a required science unit.
Mr. Roemer: The question was asked a while ago if
commecrial training would come under Mr. Draper's Com-
mittee. That would come under vocational work, it seems
to me.
Mr. Sealey: They are trying to saddle Agriculture on to
you, Mr. Draper. It seems to me that we began the discussion
in the midst of the report, so we will now continue.
Mr. Evans: I think that is the time to discuss these
things, while they are fresh in our minds.
Mr. Sealey: Are there any other discussions or questions?
Mr. Haynie: How about Agriculture? Do they not teach
Agriculture in some of the schools just purely as a science, as
a natural science instead of a vocational subject?
Mr. Evans: I suspect the gentleman is right. I presume
that this should come in the Junior and Senior High Schools,
and if this Committee is continued, we will incorporate that
in our next report.
Mr. Sealey: I understand the Committee is automatically
continued. The Chairman would entertain a motion as to
whether this Committee should continue the course in Agri-
culture as a Natural Science.
Mr. Frye: I make a motion that we do have this inserted.
Mr. Sealey: It is moved and seconded that the Commit-
tee on Natural Sciences include Agriculture as one of the sub-
jects in the course which they are planning. All those in
favor say "Aye," opposed, No." The motion is carried.
Mr. Evans: Of course there are other subjects, Zoology,
Botany, Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, etc., all in this report.
I do not want to weary you by reading these, but I would like
to bring up the question about Biology as a subject or sepa-
rating it into Zoology and Botany as we have done. Whether
it should be taught as a separate subject or as a half year
course in Botany and a half year course in Zoology, in the
nine-month schools? I should like to hear this discussed.
Mr. Salley: I would like to say something about that mat-
ter of Biology vs. Zoology and Botany. I believe you will find
that the best textbooks teach Biology rather than the two Sci-






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


ences separated. Just because we have been doing this way and
have these two books, I do not think we should feel wedded
to that practice. I believe the best and most modern practice
everywhere is in the direction of teaching Biology as a unified
science, rather than dividing it and teaching the two subjects
Botany and Zoology. Just because we are not favored with
a textbook, let us not feel that we could not combine them,
because these textbooks would necessarily not always be in
our way. With reference to General Science I would like to
say a word. I am heartily in favor of General Science, and a
whole unit of it too. The fact that some colleges do not take
it for entrance credit should not alarm us in the least. I
believe that Mr. Evans can determine better what the pupils
in his school need than the College Entrance Board at Yale
can determine. I do not think we should feel bound to follow
their recommendations, although we could get suggestions
from these boards.
Mr. Workman: It is not that I am opposed to General
Science, but our experience in dealing with it in the last six
or eight years is that the students are using it as a means
of escape, and it is a farce with us, a "joke." We do not seem
to get anything out of it and I am in hopes we can use some-
thing else in the place of it.
Mr. Evans: I cannot agree with the gentleman who has
just spoken. General Science is a good science. It more
nearly meets the needs of growing boys and girls than any
other science we have, because there is the contact there be-
tween their interests and everyday surroundings, and that is
developing not merely his needs, but it is also putting him in
touch and contact with those vital things; and it is given to
him in that formative period of his mind when it will make
an impression. I believe there is no science that cannot be
made extremely attractive if it is properly presented and
taught. If the teacher will take hold of the subject, show its
relation to everyday surroundings, make it vital and inter-
esting, and not ask a few parrot-like questions with answers
from the textbook, it will be worth while. The teacher who
looks around him, uses the material at hand, takes advantage
of civic conditions and awakens the pupil's interest in healthy
reform in the community, such as combating the house-fly, the
mosquito, contaminated water, shows the pupil its relations





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


to matters in the home, such as sewage disposal, electrical
appliances, making it really worth while and a part of him,
will find General Science the most useful science in the whole
course, as well as the most fascinating. For the pupil who
can have only one year of science, it is the science, and I hope
nothing will be done by this body to discourage it, as it means
the development of our pupils along scientific lines.
Mr. Metcalfe: I am not exactly at home in the discussion
of Science, but I have a sympathy with Mr. Workman in what
he said about pupils taking the line of least resistance. I think
we are entirely too free with these "unlimited" electives.
Then, too, I have great regard for what Mr. Evans says.
When he comes to practical grounds, there may be a good
deal to what he says, however, I do not like hash, I like roast
beef. I think it expresses the point of view of quite a number
of us who are accused of being cold and unsympathetic toward
General Science, when I say that we doubt the wisdom of en-
couraging too much laziness.
Mr. Fillers: I read a paper here about a year ago, and
about a half of it was on General Science. I do not advocate
making it the required science for graduation. It may be that
the time will come when it can be presented in a way and
the material be organized and standardized to the point where
it will be to the interest of all high schools and higher insti-
tutions of learning to give credit on graduation for it. I want
credit for General Science, but to make it the required science,
in other words, to require every student of the high school
to take General Science, to my mind, is emphasizing it too
much at the present time. It may be that after it becomes
thoroughly standardized, the time will come when we shall
make it the required science, but now I would not want all
the students in my high school to take it. Most of our stu-
dents are in the Latin department at the present time.
Mr. .......-------...........: I would not like to prolong the dis-
cussion, but I should like to know about the amount of time
that should reasonably be expected to be given to the double
laboratory periods in order that the course of every pupil be
rounded out in the experiments which the high school offers.
I find a difficulty in arranging a schedule of recitations at
the beginning of the year in the ................-------- High School,
with the teaching force, in providing for double laboratory






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


periods in all the sciences. There is bound to be overlapping
unless we shift the pupil. He must take the General Science
in the Freshman year, or perhaps any year that he can. Just
how strictly are we called upon to interpret that double lab-
oratory period and to insist upon it, I would like to know?
I found in my high school in the Botany class that it was im-
possible to have a double period. It was impossible to do
the work. I found my science teacher this year trying to do
all the work in one period. I have discouraged that. I do not
think the pupil should get full credit if carried on in that
way. Some of the brighter pupils can cover all of the work.
Mr. ......................... : We have done all that and still have
some of the morning General Science having to take half the
laboratory period in the morning and half in the afternoon.
Mr. Fillers: We have four sciences and seven periods
every day. Instead of having double periods every week, we
have two double periods one week and one the next, and it
works out very nicely. One day we will have Physics labora-
tory for two periods, and the last period a recitation in Chem-
istry; the next day we will have the first period recitation in
Physics and the next two periods Chemistry in laboratory.
We have no trouble at all. I alternate laboratory and recita-
tions, instead of having two double periods a week, we have
two double periods one week and three recitations and alter-
nate the next, and it works out very nicely.
Mr. Woodward: Is General Science offered as an elective
in each of the four years of high school?
Mr. Fillers: We give General Science through the Fresh-
man and Sophomore years only.
Mr. Cawthon: I think the usual practice is, however, to
offer General Science only in the first year.
Mr. Salley: I would like to say a word or two about Gen-
eral Science. One or two ideas have been suggested that I
believe are worthy of careful consideration, and these two
ideas, to my mind, are somewhat like Banquo's Ghost-they
sit at every round table where we have discussions about
these questions. First, is in regard to the rights of the stu-
dents, which I conceive to be the great rights of our schools.
The teacher has no rights except as he helps the pupil to
realize his aim. The course of study, the grades, the curricu-
lum, and the whole thing turns on the question, what is best





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


for the school? I believe we should not decry the course in
General Science, but that we should make for more efficiency.
The course in General Science is primarily to give the student
general practical contact with many phases of life. That is
the first essential, that he may have a feeling of at-homeness
in any situation of life where he is called upon to go. To my
mind, General Science should be so taught that it would prove
a drawing card to hold pupils in school, to catch and hold them
that they may become interested in taking it, and may be kept
longer in school and perhaps get acquainted with and study
more sciences later on. I may be in error, but I believe that
the tendency, instead of strengthening the course in General
Science, is to start other courses in other subjects, and these
tendencies I believe, arise from the fact that we are not con-
sidering that question that is to be answered all the time:
What is best for this student now, in this particular commun-
ity? I am inclined to believe that these General Science
courses, if they are conducted by highly trained, practical,
scientific teachers, will not be "snap" courses. We need not
allow them to be so, and I think there will be some "jokes"
coming to students later on who take these courses as "snap"
courses. At the State College for Women, we are building up
our Demonstration School on the 6-3-3 plan, and we heartily
believe in this course of General Science. There is another
point in this connection, as to whether colleges and universi-
ties should be allowed to dictate to high schools what they
shall offer. In Florida, we are going to have more freedom
with increasing electives, otherwise, we will have a course that
is not modern and progressive. To insure that, we must come
back to the question of what is best here and now. Our courses
should be so arranged that they satisfy the needs of today,
and they will be improved for tomorrow. And if there is
going to be any dictation as to what courses are offered, it is
going to come from the high school, rather than from the uni-
versities and colleges. I believe there is a tendency on the
part of the universities to extend a helping hand, and to rec-
ognize courses that meet the needs of the high school pupils
as they see their needs. A step recently taken by the Florida
State College for Women of adjusting ourselves to the needs
of the growing communities of Florida will illustrate my point.
A question came up to the Committee in the College of Arts






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


and Sciences as to whether we should accept more than two
vocational units for entrance. That was voted upon. We do
not accept more than two vocational units in the College of
Arts and Sciences. Later on in the School of Education there
arose the same question as to whether or not we should accept
only two vocational units out of the sixteen. It was voted
unanimously to accept four, and so now a student coming to
the State College for Women can enter one of the Schools
where four vocational units will be recognized. I believe the
tendency is for us to have high school authorities find out
what the people need, and then for us to meet you on your
ground.
Mr. Workman: I would like to ask a question as to the
credit for a year's course in Botany. There are some other
schools or states that grant only 1/3 unit for half year's work
in Botany. Some students from other high schools, however,
one from Chicago, and one from some school in Texas this
year, came to us claiming a whole year's course in Botany,
stating that the course covered a whole year and was given
for a year's credit.
Mr. Wilson: We should take units from other schools,
providing they are worthy of acceptance, whether they come
up to the Florida high schools or not. We shall have to prac-
tice that or else turn a great many people away that come
to us.
Mr. Fillers: It is my idea of the high school that General
Science should be given in the first year and General Biology
in the second year, then Chemistry in the third year and Phys-
ics in the fourth year. It has been my pleasure to teach that
general biology two years, and I can claim excellent results.
I think one can get better results from these second year
pupils than is possible to get from Freshmen in the high
school. The fact is that a great many people are not pre-
pared to teach Botany and Zoology as it should be taught,
and they make it more or less general. It belongs, I believe,
in the college or the university. The practical side is not
emphasized sufficiently, I believe, in the high school, and
that is too deep for students of that particular age.
Mr. McRee: Is there any other state except Florida that
offers Botany and Zoology instead of Biology?






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Mr. Frye: I believe Florida stands almost alone in this
practice, as far as I am able to ascertain.
Mr. Workman: I would like to ask a question of Dr. Roe-
mer. When you were talking about the decrease in registrants
did you say in courses offered or registrants in these courses?
Mr. Roemer: I was talking about the decrease in the num-
ber of registrants. The reports of the United States Commis-
sioner of Education show that from the years 1910 to 1915
the percentage of enrollment in high school Botany fell off 45
percent, and in high school Zoology, 59 percent. While I am
on my feet I should like to have the privilege of discussing this
a little further. I agree with Dean Salley that local needs
should determine the high school curriculum and that the
University in turn should be liberal enough to accept the units
offered by these high schools. The consensus of opinion
among the great group of modern educators is to the effect
that General Science is the most valuable science to offer high
school freshmen. This course not only meets local needs and
prepares pupils for participation in modern living, but it
also lays the broad foundation for later scientific study. The
Committee on the Reorganization of Science for the high
schools had this exact thing in mind when it published its
bulletin, which is the most recent one from the press. A good
many questions have been asked relative to the sequence of
sciences in the high school. In this connection may I say that
this bulletin works out this problem on several bases. It has
worked out one course for the Junior high school; one course
for the Senior high school; one course for the large cosmo-
politan high school; one course for the medium-sized high
school, and one course for the small high school. I believe
that with a few minor exceptions, we can say that for Florida
the best sequence of sciences would be (if we follow the spirit
of this bulletin), General Science for the ninth grade, General
Biology for the tenth grade and Physics and Chemistry for
the eleventh and twelfth grades. Practice varies over the
country as to what science is best in the eleventh and twelfth
grades. Some state departments recommend Physics for the
eleventh and Chemistry for the twelfth, while other state
departments reverse the order. Personally, I feel that is a
minor point in this connection, since either practice seems to
give satisfactory results.






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


Mr. Workman: Has there been an increase in the curve
in General Biology?
Mr. Roemer: Yes. Biology has come in each time to fill
the place of Zoology and Botany.
Mr. Salley: It seems to me that this is an indication to all
of us for the need of adjustment on the part of the schools.
This information takes the place of any one man's opinion
against another. It seems to me like the clear cut case of where
the data gives us actual needs and shows how they are being
supplied. The recognition of the value of General Biology as
a basis for the much-discussed courses of Botany and Zoology
is manifest. I believe if they are taught separately, they tend
toward a violation of unity, and it is almost impossible to
teach one without some bearing of the other upon it.
Mr. Sealey: This is a very interesting and helpful dis-
cussion, and I am sure we have all been benefited by it. We
will now have to close the program. Are there announce-
ments before we adjourn?
Mr. Cawthon: I just want to call the attention of the
members again to the evening program, which will be held in
the University Gymnasium. For the benefit of the new mem-
bers let me say that the program consists of two parts to-
night. The first part will be an address by Mrs. Lewis of Tal-
lahassee, and the second part will consist of a debate on the
Smith-Towner bill. This promises to be a very helpful pro-
gram and all members are urged to attend.
Mr. Sealey: The Conference stands adjourned until 9
o'clock tomorrow.

FRIDAY, NINE A. M., APRIL 8th, 1921
Mr. Sealey: The Conference will come to order. Are
there any announcements to be made at this time?
Mr. Cawthon: It is very encouraging to see several new
faces in the audience this morning. I am trying to get a list
of all the new people. Yesterday we passed a book through
the audience with the request that all persons register. With
your permission, Mr. Chairman, I am going to circulate this
same notebook with the request that all new persons register
at this time. At the end of the Conference we hope to have
a complete register of every person in attendance.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Mr. Sealey: Is there any matter of business to come be-
fore us? I think we should have a Vice-President of this
Association elected.
Mr. Roemer: We are going to adopt by-laws. Conse-
quently I am placing in nomination Mr. Fillers for Vice-
President.
Mr. Sealey: Are there any other nominations?
Mr. Sims: 'I move that the nominations close and that we
elect Mr. Fillers by acclamation.
Mr. Sealey: All who favor this motion say "Aye." The
motion is carried and Mr. Fillers is elected Vice-President.
The first thing on the program this morning is the report of
the Social Science Committee, of which I am Chairman. May
I ask the newly elected Vice-President to take the Chair at
this time.
Mr. Fillers (in the Chair) : It gives me pleasure to pre-
sent to this Conference one of the best known school men in
our State. His long years of service and the efficiency with
which he has presided at this Conference render any intro-
ductory words unnecessary. I therefore present to the Con-
ference Mr. Sealey who will make the Report of the Commit-
tee on Social Science.

PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE
SOCIAL STUDIES
By R. M. Sealey, Principal High School, Tallahassee, Fla.
Gentlemen:
Your Committee on the Social Studies begs leave to report
that the time does not seem ripe for making definite recom-
mendations concerning the course in the social studies. First
among the reasons for this is the fact that the committee has
not been organized and at work for a length of time sufficient
to warrant the making of any recommendations which we
should be willing to have considered as in any sense final. We
feel that in dealing with a matter of such tremendous import-
ance we should have at least a year of additional time in which
to continue our study and investigation in order that our final
report might be worthy of your most careful and deliberate
consideration. A second and perhaps a more important rea-
son for deferring this final report is to be found in the fact






PROCEEDINGS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE


that at the present time three very important committees are
at work on the course in the social studies in high schools.
These are the Committee on Patriotism thru Citizenship,
established by the American Historical Association; the Com-
mittee on History and Social Science of the National Educa-
tion Association; and the Committee on the Definition of
History Units, appointed by the Association of Colleges and
Secondary Schools of the Southern States. It is most im-
portant that we should await the completion of these reports
so that we may study them carefully.
The last-named committee in a preliminary report made
last December before the Association of Colleges and Sec-
ondary Schools of the Southern States has the following to
say:
"So rapid has been the recent development of certain new ideas
with regard to history in the schools, that the plan of five years
ago seems no longer to be worth discussing. Quite other schemes,
some of them revolutionary, are now at issue. * Complete
schemes of history teaching in schools have also been worked out
by certain cities, among which the Philadelphia course is particu-
larly to be reckoned with.
"As there is great likelihood that a new scheme of school history
will emerge from these discussions and become standard in the North
and West, it is imperative that the South decide upon a definite
attitude with regard to this important issue."
What is said here regarding history is equally true of the other
social studies.
There is probably no group of studies in the program of
the secondary school that is receiving so much thoughtful at-
tention at this particular time as that of the social studies.
When we consider the apparent trend of present-day events
together with the definition of the social studies as formulated
by the Committee on Social Studies of the Commission on the
Reorganization of Secondary Education of the National Edu-
cation Association we do not need to go further to find a rea-
son for this. The committee states that, "the social studies are
understood to be those whose subject matter relates directly
to the organization and development of human society, and
to man as a member of social groups." Since the great ques-
tions of the day are in so many instances primarily social
questions there is every reason why the closest thought should
be given to this matter of the social studies in secondary edu-




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