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Title: University record
Uniform Title: University record (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the State of Florida
University of Florida
Publisher: University of the State of Florida,
University of the State of Florida
Place of Publication: Lake city Fla
Publication Date: February 1924
Copyright Date: 1924
Frequency: quarterly
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Subject: College publications -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Agricultural education -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
University extension -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Teachers colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Law schools -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
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 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1906)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issue for Vol. 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1907) is misnumbered as Vol. 1, no. 1.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Imprint varies: <vol. 1, no. 2-v.4, no. 2> Gainesville, Fla. : University of the State of Florida, ; <vol. 4, no. 4-> Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida.
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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Full Text



I ,~


A STUDY OF THE SMALLER

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

OF FLORIDA












By


JOSEPH R. FULK, PH.D.
Professor of Education


THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
TEACHERS COLLEGE
GAINESVILLE









































Copyright 1924
By
Joseph R. Fulk











FOREWORD


The data for this study were obtained chiefly from county
superintendents and principals of Florida, during the school
year 1921-1922. This is a cooperative piece of work. The
questionnaires thru which most of the facts were obtained
were prepared as a class project in an advanced course in Edu-
cation in Teachers College, at the University of Florida. The
following students, who were seniors at the time the study was
made, assisted in the formation of the questionnaire: W. J.
Bullock, Ray L. Hamon, William Jeacle, Horace O'Bryant, G.
Ballard Simmons, P. J. Sweeney, J. R. Wells, D. E. Williams
and A. L. Work. The same students tabulated the data, made
many of the tables, and all of the graphs. The writer wishes
to express his appreciation of the faithfulness and painstaking
work of this group of young men.
To the county superintendents and principals who gave so
freely of their time and energy in filling out the questionnaires,
the writer wishes to acknowledge his deep obligation. They
made the study possible.
The delay in the publication of this study is regretted by the
writer. To my wife, Nellie Swanson Fulk, who, by her skillful,
patient work, whipped the manuscript into shape for publica-
tion, should go the credit for its completion at this time. There
have been very few changes in conditions as shown by the data
used. Where changes are important, attention will be called to
them in the body of the study.
This is not put forth as a scientific study in education. It
is an effort to place some facts concerning the smaller elemen-
tary schools of Florida in a form that shows something of the
strength and weakness of the foundation of our educational
system. Our educational organization makes it possible for
us to know quite definitely the conditions in our secondary
schools. Standardizing agencies take care of that. Our ele-
mentary schools do not have a State supervisory and inspec-
torial force large enough to do this service. In this State
elementary education lies largely in "No Man's Land" of the
field of education.







FOREWORD


A general revival of interest in elementary education is
now taking place thruout the nation. Evidence of this move-
ment is shown by the organization of the National Council of
Primary Education in 1915; by the organization and remark-
able growth of the National Association of Elementary School
Principals, formed in 1921; by the attention elementary edu-
cation is receiving from the National Education Association,
thru committees and special studies; by the distinct recogni-
tion of the elementary school curriculum in the 1924 Year
Book of the Department of Superintendence; by the considera-
tion given to elementary schools in educational surveys; and
by the large number of excellent books dealing with various
phases of elementary education that have appeared within the
last few years. A partial list of recent publications that treat
of the elementary school is given at the close of this study.
It is hoped that the superintendents and principals of the
State will find some help in the management of smaller ele-
mentary schools in the facts and suggestions given in the
following pages.
Firm belief in the following words of Phillips Brooks stands
back of this effort: "He who helps a child helps humanity
with a distinctness, with an immediateness, which no other
help given to human creatures in any stage of their life can
give."
JOSEPH R. FULK
January, 1924










TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword --- -- --...........--------...........-................................................................. III
CHAPTER I
Introduction
The elem entary school a text school......-........................................................ 1
Beginnings of definite standards-- ------- --................. ...... ...........--.......... 1
Recognition of importance of elementary school........................................ 2
Purpose of the following chapters-...... ---......- -............................................ 3
Grouping and distribution of schools studied.............................................. 3
Source and interpretation of data............... .... ...-.....--...------ .................... 3

CHAPTER II
General Character of Schools Studied
A. Distribution and Types of Schools -----------............. ..........-................ .. 6
B. The School Year and the Number of Years in the High School
Course ..-- ...---- ..----.. ------------- ---................ .......... ..........-........ 8
C. The Minor Subjects of the Curriculum-------........................................... 8
D. Departmental Teaching ...........--- ------ --...... ..................... ..---.............. 11
E. The Kindergarten, and the Chart Class----.... --......- ......................--12
F. Parent-Teacher Associations....----------...........................................14
CHAPTER III
The Principal and Supervision
A. The Necessity for Classroom Supervision ...-..-.. --- -................---..-15
B. The Inefficiency of Direct Supervision by County Superintendents....19
C. The Principal and Classroom Supervision..----.. ..................---------20
D. The Principal and Teachers' Meetings.....................---.... ----..... .. 22
E. The Principal and the Promotion of Pupils.............................-------....... 25
F. The Principal, His Professional Qualifications---........................... 26
G Sum m ary ......................--........--... ........................................... ........ 29
CHAPTER IV
The Classroom Teacher
A. The Teacher and School Policies ................................................. 30
B. Certificates a Measure of the Teacher..-----.........--.........................31
C. The Teachers' Education and Experience........................... .......... ..32

CHAPTER V
The Pupils
A. Entering Time for Beginners--------- -----------...............................--34
B. Promotional Plans ---------------------------...........-...........--......-- 35
C. Number of Pupils per Teacher in the Elementary School and in
the High School--------.................................... -39
D. Pupils Completing Grade VIII, 1920-1921-- ------............................42
E. Age-Grade Distribution of Elementary School Pupils..........................43
Bibliography
I Names and Addresses of Publishers...................................................55
II Of Special Value for Superintendents and Principals..................57
III Useful for Teachers' Meetings ....----------.....................................61
IV For the Classroom Teacher .----------........---.. ---..........................63
V Special Bibliography on School Discipline........................... .......64
VI M miscellaneous ....---............-----............................................ 65
VII Periodicals ................................................ .............................. ....66
V














CHAPTER I


Introduction
Childhood, until within the last half century, has been quite
generally considered as a condition or state to be escaped from
as early as possible, as merely a stage preparatory for adult-
hood. The elementary school* has been and is yet very largely
a "tool" school-a text-book school confined chiefly to the three
R's. It has been a clumsy attempt to teach children adult,
educational texts. Secondary education at its best has been
systematically and progressively organized.' Standardizing
agencies have set definite and high qualifications for teachers
in high schools and fixed minimum equipment, length of school
year, etc. Officers thru inspection and supervision see to it
that these standards are attained in accredited secondary
schools. The smaller and weaker high schools, tho they may
not be able to meet in full the standards set by the accrediting
agencies, do have definite goals, which they ambitiously at-
tempt to reach. Every high school hopes and strives to get on
the accredited list. We have no effective plan for standardizing
elementary education. The elementary school has been in a
large measure the free-lance of our educational system.
The Rural School Inspectors of the State of Florida, Mr.
R. L. Turner and Mr. M. P. Geiger, have instituted a system
of state accrediting of elementary schools. A list of 160 State
accredited elementary schools, distributed over 39 counties, is
given in the last report of these supervisors. (74:192-200.)t
Of these schools, 137 have from one to four teachers, including
the principal. There are in the list 40 two-teacher schools and
48 one-teacher schools. "The eligibility of a school to be classi-
fied as an 'Accredited School' will be determined thru an in-
spection by the County Superintendent and State Inspector."
(74:191.) These officials grade the schools under the follow-
ing general heads: 1. Building. 2. Grounds. 3. Equipment.
*Thruout this study the term elementary school means the eight-year
elementary school, Grades I-VIII.
tThe first number in parentheses refers to the corresponding num-
ber in the Bibliography following the last chapter; the second number
refers to the page number of the reference.






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


4. Teacher. 5. School Organization. 6. Community Activities.
A grade of 80 per cent of all the requirements under each head
places a school on the list. "These requirements will not re-
main fixed, but as educational progress takes place and the
number of Accredited Schools increases, they will from time
to time be raised." (74:191.) This is a commendable begin-
ning in setting standards for the elementary schools of the
State.
In the reorganization of education that is now taking place
thruout the United States, the elementary school has so far
been little influenced, except in the larger cities. The colleges
and universities have exerted a powerful influence in raising
the standards of the secondary schools. The high schools have
not strengthened and encouraged the elementary schools as the
higher institutions have the secondary schools. The text-book-
tool conception of elementary education still largely domi-
nates. This condition weakens our entire educational system.
Dr. Flexner in his "A Modern School", states the case as
follows: "A modern secondary school can not be built on a
conventional elementary school. If the primary years are lost
in the conventional school, the child's native freshness of in-
terest in phenomena has to be recovered in youth-a difficult
and uncertain task, which, even if successful, does not make
up the loss to the child's fund of knowledge and experience."
(39:20.) In like manner, it could just as truthfully be said
that a modern college cannot be built on a secondary school
with such an insecure foundation.
We are beginning to recognize the facts that in the ele-
mentary school the child should have the beginnings of all
knowledge; that there is unity and continuity in all education;
and that the early years are the most important physically,
mentally and morally. This recognition is largely responsible
for the reorganization of elementary education that is now
taking place. The work-study-play or platoon plan and the
companion class are examples of recent developments in or-
ganization that are improving the form of the elementary
school and the content of its curriculum. (6: Chapter VIII; 2.)
These new types of organization make it possible to recognize
the complexity of modern life situations, and to provide means
by which the child is placed in an interest-provoking, useful







INTRODUCTORY


and developmental contact with these situations under trained
leadership.
The chief purpose of this study is to present some of the
significant facts of the smaller elementary schools of Florida,
grouped under the following heads: 1. General character of
the schools. 2. The principal and his supervision. 3. The teach-
ers. 4. The pupils. To give a reasonable basis of comparison
and for convenience of study the schools are placed in three
groups: Group A, having from 2 to 4 teachers, inclusive;
Group B, having from 5 to 8 teachers, inclusive; and Group C,
having from 9 to 15 teachers, inclusive. Many of the schools
have both an elementary department and a high school depart-
ment. The number of teachers reported include those in both
departments. The study, however, deals only with the elemen-
tary school.
The data used in the following chapters came directly from
county superintendents and from principals of the schools,
thru questionnaires. Questionnaires were sent to all county
superintendents of the State in December, 1921. Replies came
from 60 of the then 61 county superintendents. During the
months of January, February and March, 1922, other ques-
tionnaires were sent to 511 principals of schools having from
2 to 15 teachers, including the principal. Usable replies were
returned from 152 schools, distributed over 48 counties of the
State. Of these, 96 were Group A schools in 40 counties; 33
Group B schools, in 25 counties; and 23 Group C schools, in
18 counties. The following thirteen of the then 61 counties are
not represented: Baker, Bradford, Broward, Charlotte, Har-
dee, Hernando, Highlands, Holmes, LaFayette, Liberty, Mon-
roe, Nassau, and St. Lucie. The map of the State on page 5,
shows the counties in which the schools are located.
In many cases all of the facts called for in the questionnaire
were not given by the principals. In the summaries and dis-
cussions the actual number reporting on the item or items
under consideration will be given.
Florida has a centralized State school system. There is a
uniform State curriculum. A State text-book law provides for
"a uniform system of text-books for use in the high schools
and in the elementary schools." The county unit system of
organization is State-wide. These and other centralizing regu-
lations tend to unify the schools of the State. There is gen-






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


rally less variation from types in the smaller schools than in
the larger ones. Because of these regulations and conditions,
the random samplings considered in this study are believed to
be representative of all the schools of the three types included.
The largest number of schools included in any part of the study
is 23.2 per cent of the white schools of the State having more
than one teacher. (See Table I.) The enrollment in 119 of the
schools, given in the age-sex-grade tables on pages 45-47, in-
clhde 10.8 per cent of the total enrollment in the white ele-
mentary schools of the State in 1921-1922. (74:88-93.)
The distribution and conditions mentioned above, however,
are such that the study represents a fair sampling, and it is
very improbable that the findings would be appreciably dif-
ferent if the study included every school of the State in each
of the three Groups.
Miss McArthur's "A Study of the Conditions of the Rural
Schools of Peninsular Florida," (76.) and Dr. Roemer's "A
Study of Florida High Schools," (79.) together with this study,
give in broad outlines the elementary and secondary school
situation in Florida.






INTRODUCTORY


PINELLAS
*


Sara:



Counties


5choot 5


in which


included


in


This 5+adt


loco-Aed


are mar kedcL


;88 O






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


CHAPTER II
General Character of Schools Studied
A. DISTRIBUTION AND TYPES OF SCHOOLS
The counties in which schools included in this study are
located are marked on the map given on page 5. At a glance
this map shows the State-wide distribution of the schools. The
distribution of the schools in Groups A, B and C, is given in
Table I.
The following facts drawn from this table show more
clearly the distribution of the schools of the different Groups:
1. The 96 Group A schools are in 40 counties.
2. The 33 Group B schools are in 25 counties.
3. The Group C schools are in 18 counties.
4. Schools of each of the Groups are in 12 counties-Ala-
chua, Dade, Escambia, Gadsden, Hillsborough, Jack-
son, Jefferson, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Volusia.
5. Schools of Groups A and B only are in 8 counties-Bay,
Duval, Levy, Manatee, Okaloosa, Okeechobee, Polk,
Taylor.
6. Schools of Groups A and C only, are in 3 counties-
Brevard, Citrus, Pasco.
7. Schools of Group A only are in 15 counties-Calhoun,
Clay, Columbia, Flagler, Leon, Palm Beach, Pinellas,
Putnam, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Sarasota, Suwanee,
Union, Wakulla, Walton.
8. Schools of Group B only are in 5 counties-DeSoto,
Franklin, Hamilton, Lee, Madison.
9. Schools of Group C only are in 3 counties-Glades, Os-
ceola, Seminole.
Fifty-two schools were reported as consolidated schools.
Of these, 28 were in Group A, 12 in Group B, and 12 in Group
C. In Group B there were 5 grammar or grade schools in
cities, and 7 of the same type in Group C. The Group B gram-
mar schools were in the following counties: Dade (2), Escam-
bia (1), Hillsborough (1), and Manatee (1). Those of Group
C were in: Escambia (1), Hillsborough (2), Orange (2), and
Seminole (2).









GENERAL CHARACTER OF SCHOOLS


TABLE I. DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOLS IN GROUPS A, B, AND C, IN 48
COUNTIES, NUMBER OF SCHOOLS IN EACH COUNTY OF THE STATE HAVING
2 OR MORE TEACHERS, AND NUMBER OF SCHOOLS TAUGHT IN EACH
COUNTY IN 1921-1922.


No. of Schools in Groups


Counties




Alachua ..........................
Baker ............... ........
B ay ..................... ............
Bradford .........................
Brevard .....................
Broward .......................
Calhound ..........................
Charlotte ..........................
Citrus ........................
Clay ..................................
Columbia ......................
tDade ...........................
DeSoto .........................
Dixie ................. ......
Duval .......................
*tEscambia ....................
Flagler ......................
Franklin .....................
Gadsden ......................
Glades ..................... ..
Hamilton ..........................
Hardee ..........................
Hernando .....................
Highlands ........................
*tHillsborough ................
Holmes .....................
Jackson ......................
Jefferson ..........................
LaFayette .........................
Lake ....................... ...
Lee ..................... ......
Leon ...................... .....
Levy .......................
Liberty .....................
Madison .......................
fManatee ..........................
Marion .........................
Monroe .........................
Nassau .......................
Okaloosa ....................
Okeechobee .....................
*Orange ..........................
Osceola .......................
Palm Beach ...................
Pasco ..........................
Pinellas ............................
Polk ................ .........
Putnam .......................
St. Johns .....................
St. Lucie ....................
Santa Rosa ...............
Sarasota .....................
*Seminole ...................
Sumter ........................
, Suwanee ..........................
Taylor ...........................
. Union ...........................
Volusia .........................
. Wakulla .......................
, Walton .........................
. Washington .....................


0
1
0
0
0


3
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1


1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
1
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0


Totals ................................I 96 I 33 1 23 | 152


**Reported by County Superintendents.
*Grade school in city, Group C.


tGrade school in city, Group B.
tfEstimated, no report from Superintendent.


Total


6
0
3
0
2
0
4
0
4
1
3
7
1
1
8
5
1
1
6
1
1
0
0
0
5
0
4
3
0
8
1
1
4
0
1
3
11
0
0
3
2
6
1
2
4
2
3
3
1
0
3
1
2
3
2
2
2
8
4
2
0


.6>



0



26**
12
9
9
5
6
12
2
9
7
15
20
9
2
15
37
2
2
14
1
5
12
3
3
46
23
51
7
7
16
10
4
11
2tt
20
12
22
2
4
11
2
15
4
12
9
15
37
18
3
7
17
2
8
10
20
17
17
16
6
18
17
S 655


-4






58
3 6
2o5
Z+^



21
o

58
36
28
25
21
7
34
9
18
30
39
25
12
17
49
55
13
4
30
8
45
31
14
11
70
61
69
14
31
36
31
30
44
12
44
38
46
6
41
45
10
30
11
34
29
32
74
26
20
14
61
13
9
26
63
43
23
33
23
54
37
1887






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


B. THE SCHOOL YEAR, AND THE NUMBER OF YEARS IN THE
HIGH SCHOOL COURSE
The length in months of the elementary school year, and
of the high school year, is given in Table I.
TABLE II. THE SCHOOL YEAR IN MONTHS

Elementary School E High School t
No. of Months.... 41 51 61 71 81 91 I 41 51 61 71 81 91
Group A ............ 4 10 15 12 53 0 94 11 3 2 3 20 1 30
Group B ............ 0 1 4 3 24 1 33 0 1 1 3 18 0 23
Group C ............ 0 0 0 0 22 1 23 0 0 0 0 12 5 17
Totals ................. 41 111 191 151 991 211501 11 41 31 61 501 61 70

Two Group A schools did not report the length of the ele-
mentary school year. In Group A, 30 schools reported high
school departments. Of these, 11 had one year of high school
work; 15 had two years; 4 had three years.
In Group B, 25 high school departments were reported,
but only 23 gave the number of months in the high school year.
Of the 25, fourteen had two-year high school courses, five had
three-year courses, and six had four-year courses.
Only 17 of the 23 schools in Group C had high school de-
partments. Of these two had three-year courses, and 15 four-
year courses.
Table II shows that eight months was the usual length of
the school year. Of the high schools, 70.1 per cent had the
school year of eight months, and 66.6 per cent of the elementary
schools had the same. A year of nine months was reported by
two elementary schools, and by six high schools. There is a
tendency to give a longer school year to the high school than
to the elementary school in Group A schools. In that Group
56.3 per cent of the elementary schools had a school year of
eight months, and 70 per cent of the high schools had eight or
nine months. In Group B these percentages were 75.7 and 78.2
respectively, and Group C 100 and 100.

C. THE MINOR SUBJECTS OF THE CURRICULUM
"The Course of Study for Elementary and High Schools of
Florida," (1919), page 6, divides the subjects to be taught in
the elementary schools in two groups: major subjects, those
required by law to be taught in all elementary schools; and






GENERAL CHARACTER OF SCHOOLS


minor subjects, those that may be required by the local school
authorities. The major subjects are: reading, grammar, arith-
metic, spelling, history, geography, physiology, civil govern-
ment and agriculture. The minor subjects are: manual train-
ing, home economics, nature study, music, art, drawing and
physical culture.

TABLE III. MINOR SUBJECTS TAUGHT IN EACH GRADE OF THE THREE
GROUPS OF SCHOOLS

Groups Grades
| | I II III | IV V I VI I VII VIII
Drawing ................... A 35 36 36 26 19 16 14 13
B 13 13 15 11 5 5 2 2
C 20 21 20 15 7 6 4 4
*Handwork .............. A 17 17 17 14 14 14 13 11
B 7 6 5 3 1 1 0 0
________ C 128623345
Home Economics ...... A 0 0 0 2 4 4 7 7
B 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
C 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 5
Music ........................ A 12 13 14 13 12 11 10 9
B 4 4 4 3 3 3 1 1
C 10 10 9 8 7 7 4 4
Nature Study ......... A 39 40 33 23 15 13 11 10
B 20 20 17 9 5 4 2 2
C 19 20 17 12 6 4 1 1
*Includes Industrial Arts and Manual Training.
Table III gives the number of schools in which the minor
subjects, drawing, handwork (including industrial arts and
manual training), home economics, music and nature study
were taught, and the grades in which each was taught.
The principals in reporting the items in Table III, checked
the grades in which these subjects (as defined in the State
Course of Study) were regularly taught in their schools by
public school teachers. Work done in these subjects by private
teachers was not reported. No effort was made to get data
concerning physical education.
In Group A, 73 principals checked the minor subjects
taught; 23 checked no subjects. In Group B, 26 of the 33 prin-
cipals checked subjects taught, and all of the Group C princi-
pals checked the subjects taught. It is reasonably safe to
assume that these subjects were not taught in the 23 Group A
schools, and in the 6 Group B schools not checked. The form
in the questionnaire for reporting these subjects was clearly






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


explained, and was filled by checking only. Omission of checks
meant that the subjects were not regularly taught by public
school teachers.
In discussing the occurrence of the minor subjects in the
schools, Grades II, IV, VI, and VIII will be considered. These
grades represent the practice and tendencies with reference to
these subjects.
Considering the Groups as a whole, drawing was reported
in Grade II from 46 per cent of the schools; in Grade IV from
35 per cent; in Grade VI, 18 per cent; and in Grade VIII, 13
per cent. From the same grades, music was reported as fol-
lows: Grade II, 18 per cent; Grade IV, 16 per cent; Grade VI,
14 per cent; Grade VIII, 9 per cent.
The absence of handwork, including industrial arts and
manual training, is especially noticeable. Handwork in all
Groups was given as follows: Grade II, 20 per cent; grade IV,
13 per cent; Grade VI, 12 per cent; Grade VIII, 11 per cent.
In Groups B and C taken together, percentages are somewhat
lower, except in Grade II. They are as follows: Grade II, 25
per cent; Grade IV, 9 per cent; Grade VI, 7 per cent; Grade
VIII, 9 per cent.
In all Groups, home economics was reported 3 times in
Grade IV, 9 times in Grade VI, and 13 times in Grade VIII.
Expressed in percentages, home economics was taught in these
grades as follows: Grade IV, 2 per cent; Grade VI, 5.9 per
cent; Grade VIII, 8.6 per cent. Home economics was reported
once in each of these grades in Group B.
Music was reported in Grade II, from 17.7 per cent of all
the schools; in Grade IV, from 15.1 per cent; in Grade VI,
from 13.8 per cent; and in Grade VIII, from 9.2 per cent.
In all Groups, nature study was reported as follows: Grade
II, 52.5 per cent; Grade IV, 22.4 per cent; Grade VI, 13.8 per
cent; Grade VIII, 8.6 per cent. Altho nature study is scheduled
in the State Course of Study in Grades I, II and III, only, it
was reported as taught in all grades.
An examination of Table III will show that all minor sub-
jects, except home economics, in all Groups, and handwork in
Group C, begin to fall out of the schools with Grade V. The
very nature of the subject matter would cause this decrease in
the case of nature study, and would cause the increase in home
economics. Drawing, handwork and music should, in the very






GENERAL CHARACTER OF SCHOOLS


nature of their subject matter, continue fixed thru all the
grades.
From the data given it is clearly evident that these schools
do very little outside of the old-time elementary school sub-
jects. The nine major subjects, required by law, have crowded
out, or have succeeded in keeping out, the minor subjects. In
some cases, perhaps, this is due to lack of funds, in others, to
over-emphasis of the three R's, in others, to an over-crowded
program, and in others, undoubtedly, to inexperienced, un-
trained teachers and principals.
In fairness to all who have to do with the local causes of
this neglect of the richest parts of the elementary curriculum,
it should be stated, that these subjects are set apart in the State
Course of Study, as minor subjects, not required. Also, these
subjects do not receive the attention in the State course that
their importance deserves. The outlines of the five minor sub-
jects, given in Table III, are given 18.5 per cent of the space
devoted to the outlines of the subject matter of the elementary
school. Music is not outlined at all. One and one-half pages
of general suggestions are given to music in the introductory
remarks preceding the outlines by grades. The nine major
subjects are given 80 per cent of the total space. Arithmetic
alone is given 16 per cent of the total space; language, 15 per
cent; hygiene and physiology, 14 per cent; spelling, 11 per
cent. The five other major subjects receive 24 per cent of the
total space, as follows: history 7, agriculture 6, geography 5,
reading 4, civics 2.

D. DEPARTMENTAL TEACHING
In the questionnaire, these questions were asked concerning
departmental teaching: Do you have departmental teaching in
Grades I-VIII? If so, in what grades?
Departmental teaching was reported from one Group A
school, four Group B schools (three in Grades VII and VIII,
and one in Grades VI, VII and VIII). Only one Group C school
reported such teaching. That was in Grades VI, VII and VIII.
rhe grade plan of organization seems firmly established in
these schools. In the smaller schools one teacher often taught
two or more grades, but in such cases the pupils of these grades
were taught in all subjects by the teacher in whose room they
were seated. This plan often results in a very uneven distri-






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


bution of the pupils among the teachers, and in an unjust dis-
tribution of the work of the teachers. In schools of Group C,
one grade only is often given to a teacher, regardless of the
number of pupils in the grade. This, also, often leads to an
unfair distribution of the teaching load, and to the neglect of
pupils in the larger grades. Departmental teaching, especially
"n Grades VI, VII and VIII, offers a means, by which these in-
justices may be removed. In the other grades it is sometimes
best to divide a large grade, giving a part to a teacher that has
a small grade. The two sections of the divided grade may be
seated in one room, and one section pass to another room for
part or all of its recitations.
E. THE KINDERGARTEN, AND THE CHART CLASS
Kindergartens were reported by three schools of Group A,
and two of Group B. The reports from the Group A schools,
as shown by other data from the schools, were due to a misun-
derstanding of the term kindergarten. The two Group B
schools each listed a kindergarten teacher as a member of the
teaching force. No kindergartens were reported from the
Group C schools. Five kindergartens were reported from the
entire State by 60 county superintendents-one from each of
these counties: Bay, Leon, Monroe, Santa Rosa, Sarasota.
There is no mention of kindergartens in last Biennial Report
of the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Altho State law permits county boards of education,
and boards of trustees in any special tax district "to establish
and maintain kindergartens in communities guaranteeing the
attendance of twenty-five kindergarten children," (81:32) it
is evident that few communities have felt the need of this im-
portant part of the public school system. Financial difficulties
have undoubtedly prevented the establishment of public kin-
dergartens in many districts. Boards of education have found
it extremely difficult in most counties to support the regular
eight-year elementary school.
The elementary school must be extended downward, so
that the little child may receive proper attention in earlier
years. The reconstructed kindergarten is becoming a part of
the elementary school. Such books as Dr. Gesell's "The Pre-
School Child", (75:Chap. IV) are educating the teaching pro-
fession and the public to the great need of care for the child
old enough to look after itself, after a fashion, and not legally






GENERAL CHARACTER OF SCHOOLS


old enough to attend the public school. The International Kin-
dergarten Union, and other groups of people interested in early
elementary education, are formulating a kindergarten-first-
grade curriculum. (53 and 54.) There is surely something radi-
cally wrong with the present first grade work when thruout
the nation one child in every four fails to do the work of that
grade in one year. Kindergartens are growing in numbers in
nearly all the States of the union, especially in the small towns.
(33 and 48.) There are State kindergarten associations in 24
States.
The chart class seems to be an introductory grade in many
of the schools of Florida. Table IV gives the number of schools
of each Group having such a class, and its relation to Grade I.
TABLE IV. NUMBER OF SCHOOLS HAVING CHART CLASSES, AND THE
RELATION OF THESE CLASSES TO GRADE I
No. of Chart Classes Chart Classes
Chart Classes Part of Grade 1 Independent
Group A .... 74 55 19
Group B .... 21 16 5
Group C .... 11 10 1
Total ........ 106 81 I 25
There is a decided tendency in these schools to eliminate the
chart class, by making it a part or section of Grade I. An
effort was made to find out how long children were held in the
chart class before entering Grade I. The replies were very
indefinite, ranging from six weeks to one year in Group B
schools, and from four weeks to one year in Group C schools.
The chart class seems to be generally a supplementary
Grade I class, organized for beginners who enter school late
in the year. That the chart class is a fixed and recognized part
of the elementary school organization is shown by the fact that
in the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public In-
struction of the State of Florida, for the year ending June 30,
1922, there are 11,711 white children of the State listed as
belonging to that class. (74:90.) Chart classes are reported
from every county of the State, except Charlotte and Escam-
bia. Eight per cent of the white school children are given as
members of the chart class. The chart class of the State, in
1922, was somewhat larger than Grade VIII. The exact num-
bers are, chart class 11,711, Grade VIII, 11,487. There must be
many nine-year elementary schools in the State. Further at-
tention will be given to this class in Chapter V. (See page 54.)






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


F. PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS
It is conceded that the home and school must work together
for the good of the child, if the child is properly cared for.
This necessary close cooperation can best be secured in most
communities thru parent-teacher associations. The number
and per cent of schools reporting parent-teacher associations
are given in Table V.

TABLE V. NUMBER AND PER CENT OF PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS
IN EACH GROUP

Number Per Cent of Group
Group A .................... 21 21.8
Group B .................... 16 48.5
Group C .................... 13 56.5
Totals .......................... 50 32.9
In Group A there is a noticeably small per cent of associa-
tions, compared with those of Groups B and C. This may be
due to a lack of leadership on the part of the principals in the
smaller places, also to the greater difficulty of organizing co-
operative groups in such communities. The first is probably
the larger factor in the problem. The study of the principals
in chapter III may help somewhat in explaining this.
A properly managed parent-teacher association will smooth
many rough places for the principal and teacher; one not prop-
erly managed may make many rough places. In some communi-
ties other organizations may be used to do the work generally
done by it. Dr. Cubberley's statement found in his "The Prin-
cipal and His School," covers the question so well that it is
here quoted: "Whether a principal or a superintendent will
want to organize a Parent-Teacher Association will depend
somewhat on conditions in the community. If the town or city
is already over-organized with churches, lodges, and clubs, it
probably will be better to do what is needed by working
through committees of existing organizations. There are after
all only about so many leaders in any community, and if the
energies of these are absorbed in existing organizations, an
additional and less prominent organization may bring to the
front only a group of poorly balanced but energetic souls who
have failed to secure advancement in the older and more gen-
eral undertakings. Such a Parent-Teacher Association is likely
to prove troublesome and hard to handle because of its lack of






THE PRINCIPAL AND SUPERVISION


good leaders. In such a case it would be better to try to work
through educational committees of the Women's Club, the
Rotary Club, or the Chamber of Commerce, and to leave the
educational direction of these club activities more to the cen-
tral school authorities to handle." (6:549-550.)
Dr. Cubberley's chapter, The Parent-Teacher Association,
in the book mentioned above, gives very full information on
the organization, purposes, and management of associations.
A selected bibliography is given at the close of the chapter.
Information as to organization and purposes may be obtained
free of charge from the Secretary of the National Association,
1201 Sixteenth Street Northwest, Washington, D. C. The
United States Bureau of Education has published several bul-
letins that contain very useful suggestions for programs and
plans of work. These may be obtained, in most cases free, by
writing to the Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.
A word of further caution to principals may not be out of
place here. A parent-teacher association is not a teachers'
association, and it is not a parents' association. It must include
both. As soon as organized, the association should be set at a
definite, important, local problem. It should generally do one
thing at a time. The principal must lead and guide. How-
ever, this should be done by others thru him. The association
should not be permitted to tamper with the management of
the school, and it should not ordinarily provide equipment or
any thing for the school that is not called for by the school
authorities.

CHAPTER III
The Principal and Supervision
A. THE NECESSITY FOR SUPERVISION
In the United States we train most of our soldiers after we
declare war. By this means we develop when needed a type
of soldier that has not been excelled by the compulsory mili-
tary training systems of Europe. In most of the States of the
Union many of our school teachers begin teaching without
training. By this means we have not developed an efficient
body of teachers. Educationally we are the least efficient of
all the great nations of the world. (78.)







ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


There are many reasons for this difference. Only two or
three need to be considered here. Our federal government
thru its military educational system gives thoro training to
leaders. These leaders train the privates in service. Intensive
training under skillful officers in a thoroly organized system
soon changes selected men into fighting machines. As soldiers
in the ranks these men continue in service under the same com-
petent leadership.
The states thru their teacher-training institutions send
out a few men and women fitted for educational leadership.
These experts become administrators, organizers and super-
visors of schools. Most of the classroom teachers, the educa-
tional privates, that come to these leaders, are practically un-
touched by training for their work. The leaders in most cases
are handicapped by a centralized system, a multiplicity of
duties, and overhead interference. They can not give the in-
tensive training that the classroom teacher needs, can not
closely supervise their work; so they can not change unselected
men and women into skillful teachers. Most of our classroom
teachers continue in service from year to year without ade-
quate leadership, without direct supervision.
It seems that as a nation we are about as far from com-
pulsory teacher training as we are from compulsory military
training. At least, it is certain that for many years to come,
many of our teachers, if trained at all, must be trained in ser-
vice. Also, we know that thoroly prepared teachers grow under
proper leadership.
In the work of the public school as well as in all other lines
of human effort where an end is reached by the combined labor
of many, there is need of a coordinating and evaluating agency
with a vision of the completed whole-there is need of super-
vision.
School education has become in form at least a factory pro-
cess. The teacher is a "piece worker". At the close of the ele-
mentary school period, and again on entering college there is
a definite assembling and scrutinizing of the combined spe-
cialized educational operations that have been performed on
the child and youth. In a somewhat less serious way this
assembling and scrutinizing takes place also at the end of each
elementary and secondary school promotion period.







THE PRINCIPAL AND SUPERVISION


We are told by those who know that 39 different persons
perform different specialized operations in the manufacturing
of a man's coat. We know that in many cases almost as many
teachers perform different specialized teaching operations in
the production of a standardized youth, that is, one technically
qualified to enter college.
Each of the 39 individuals that in modern industry pro-
duces a man's coat, is a specialist. One makes button holes,
another sews on buttons, another cuts the lapel, and so on.
Each is trained to do his part, and to do it so perfectly that
when all parts are assembled, the completed coat, a properly
shaped and well made garment, is produced. These specialists
work under the direction and inspection of superintendents
or inspectors, who from the beginning see the completed and
perfect garment.
Although the education of a human being is not such a
simple mechanical matter as the making of a coat, there are
some factors in the two processes that are somewhat com-
parable. In the schools we do certain things to and for children
and youth in order to bring about more or less definite results.
Our school organization makes it necessary that specific opera-
tions be performed in each grade and subject, and by different
teachers. The assembled product, the child plus what the school
has done to him, is labeled, "fourth grade education", "ele-
mentary school education", "secondary school education", and
so on. While no absolute point can be fixed at which an indi-
vidual may be accurately labeled "educated", grades completed,
and diplomas received, do represent more or less definite re-
sults of specialized operations.
If all teachers were trained specialists in their respective
fields, if all organizers, administrators and supervisors of
schools were so thoroly and broadly professionally trained
that they could thru all the mazes of the educational processes,
see the assembled individual, then would school education be
definite, scientific, and continually developmental.
The coat would not fit well if the buttons were not properly
placed. It would not wear well if the sleeves were sewed in
slovenly. If John's reading is poorly taught in grade four, and
his language is bungled in grade six, can he ever fully recover
what was lost? In a thoroly organized clothing factory buttons
improperly placed, and sleeves carelessly sewed would not pass






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


the inspector. In a thoroly organized, administered and super-
vised school, John's reading and language would be saved by
expert supervision.
It is well to keep in mind the fundamental meaning of
supervision. The professional supervisor has super-vision. He
sees all from above; sees the whole and its parts, and their re-
lations. He sees all these, and is prepared to guide the teacher.
Perhaps, we have counted too much on school organization and
administration, and not enough on supervision, especially class
room supervision of instruction. The terms organization, ad-
ministration, and supervision are here employed as used by
F. A. Welch in his "Manual for School Administrators". He
says: "Organization is creating a machine, and administration
is running the machine. Supervision, however, * might
be compared to feeding the machine and examining the pro-
duct. This must receive constant attention so long as the ma-
chine is running. Supervision is the real professional end of
school management, and is the real test of a good superinten-
dent." (35:92.)
Dr. Charles A. Ellwood asserts that the American people
have "a childish, almost an absurd faith in the power of govern-
mental machinery". It seems that this "childish, almost absurd
faith" in the power of the machinery of school organization
and administration has kept many American educators from
getting at the most fundamental process in school manage-
ment-direct classroom supervision.
We are apt to rely too much on the 8-4, the 6-6, or the 6-3-3
plan; on logical long drawn out curricula; on teachable text-
hooks; on elaborate reports; on standard schoolhouses; on
scientific equipment. While all of these are necessary, and
have their places, they can not take the place of a well trained
teacher, professionally supervised. A house, elegantly and sci-
entifically furnished does not make a home. A thoroly organized
school in a house scientifically equipped in every way does not
necessarily make a good school.
The classroom teacher at her best is a "piece worker." She
may have vision for her grade or grades or for her subjects
but she can not have super-vision. She can not see the whole
and the parts in their proper relations; her present duties and
obligations loom so large that these are hidden or dimmed. The
graded system, the multiplication of school subjects, the spe-







THE PRINCIPAL AND SUPERVISION


cialization within subjects, and the lifting of school education
from a knowledge basis to a social basis, have thrown a tre-
mendous burden and responsibility upon the classroom teacher.
She should not be expected to carry this burden, and to meet
these responsibilities alone. She needs the guidance and coun-
sel of some person or persons who see the school as a whole.
Left to herself, even the well trained teacher tends to lapse
into a lower plane of work; tends to become a teacher of grade
four, or a teacher of English, instead of a teacher of children
in grade four, or in English.
The classroom teachers of the United States, however, are
not professionally trained; four-fifths of all our teachers have
had schooling less than two years beyond the high school; one-
fourth have not completed a two-year high school course. In
1921-1922, there were 5845 white teachers employed in Flor-
ida. Of these, 52.4 per cent held second grade, third grade or
temporary certificates. The Rural School Inspectors, Mr. Tur-
ner and Mr. Geiger, in their last report give the certificates of
538 teachers from 283 schools, in 29 counties as follows:
In 251, one-, two-, and three-teacher schools, 75.3 per cent
of the teachers held second or third grade certificates; in the
one-teacher schools, 86.7 per cent, and in the 32, four- to ten-
teacher schools, 51.8 per cent held the same grades of certifi-
cates. The schools were not the poorest in the counties repre-
sented. These Rural School Inspectors say of them: "These
schools were all that were closely graded in those counties in
the last scholastic year (1922). They are the ones to which
the county superintendent directed us." (74:163.) Certification
facts just given furnish a measure of our teachers' preparation
for their work.

B. THE INEFFICIENCY OF SUPERVISION BY COUNTY SUPERIN-
TENDENTS
The teachers in our small schools, with one to four or five
teachers, have except in a few counties, practically no super-
vision further than that given by the county superintendents.
During the school year 1921-1922, the county superintendents
of the State made 3204 visits of one hour or more to the white
schools of the State. These visits were usually made to the
small schools, and were in many cases the only attempts at
direct supervision in those schools during that period. Keeping






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


in mind the fact, that there were in 1922, 5845 white teachers
employed in the schools of the State, the direct supervisory
influence of these 3204 visits by county superintendents be-
comes almost negligible.
The various duties of the county superintendent and the
number and distribution of his schools make it impossible in
most counties for him to be of service to the schools as a
classroom supervisor. (See Table I.) The number of one-
teacher schools in the different counties of the State will help
determine the seriousness of the situation. In the question-
naire to county superintendents, 60 superintendents reported
the number of one-teacher schools as follows: none, 2 counties;
2 to 10, 16 counties; 11 to 20, 23 counties; 21 to 30, 11 counties;
31 to 40, 5 counties; 41 to 56, 3 counties. There were more
than ten one-teacher schools in each of 48 counties. Last year
(1923) there were in the State, as stated by Rural School In-
spector, Mr. Turner, 1008 one-teacher white schools. Five
counties, Duval, Escambia, Orange, Putnam and Volusia, had
rural school supervisors. In these five counties there were in
the order named 8, 21, 14, 12, and 13 one-teacher schools.
During the two school years, ending June 30, 1922, the State
Rural School Inspectors visited and examined 1,137 schools.
(74:185.)
These facts substantiate the generally accepted opinion
that there is practically no direct supervision in the one-teacher
schools of the State. (74:185-188.)

C. THE PRINCIPAL AS CLASSROOM SUPERVISOR
In village and city schools there is more care given to this
important phase of school management. However, in many
cases the principal is little more than a teaching principal.
Some principals taught as few as 3 classes daily, others as
many as 35. Of the 92 principals in Group A who reported the
number of classes taught, 77 taught from 11 to 35 classes
daily; 12, from 6 to 10; 3, from 3 to 5. In Group B, 32 schools
reported. The greatest number of classes taught daily by the
principal was 14; 21 taught from 6 to 14 classes; 8, from 2 to 5
classes; 3 did no teaching. In the Group C schools 6 principals
taught from 4 to 8 classes daily; 11, from 1 to 3; 6 did no
teaching. In Group A, 96 per cent of the principals were really







THE PRINCIPAL AND SUPERVISION


teaching principals; in Group B, 65 per cent; in Group C, 22
per cent.
When one considers the manifold duties that fall to the
principals of these schools, it is evident that there was no
direct classroom supervision by the Group A principals, and
very little by those of Group B. In 13 of the Group C schools
no principal taught more than two classes daily. In these 13
schools, the principal could find time for classroom supervision.
In many cases, also, the principals were primarily high school
principals, and devoted very little time to this phase of super-
vision, especially in the elementary grades, where it is most
needed. In 10 schools in Group A, 7 in Group B, and 8 in
Group C, there was some classroom supervision in the elemen-
tary school by regular teachers or supervisors.
In the questionnaire each principal was asked to give the
per cent of his time, while school was in session, given to class-
room supervision of his elementary teachers. Below is given a
tabulation of the principals' replies.
TABLE VI. RANGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF PER CENT OF TIME GIVEN BY
PRINCIPALS TO CLASSROOM SUPERVISION


jo0 Distribution in Per Cent t 0


0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 Above 50
Group A ............ 0-50 89 5 0 0 2 0 96
Group B -........... 0-90 22 3 1 4 1 2 33
Group C .......... 0-100 7 4 2 2 4 3 22
Totals ................ .............. 118 | 12 ] 3 6 7 5 151
While Table VI shows a wide range in the time given by
principals to classroom supervision, only 7.3 per cent of Group
A principals gave more than 10 per cent of their school time
to such supervision; 33.3 per cent of Group B principals gave
more than 10 per cent of their time and 65.2 per cent of Group
C principals, more than 10 per cent of their time.
It can safely be assumed that most of the principals re-
porting the per cent of time used in classroom supervision did
not follow a time distribution schedule. Their reports were
undoubtedly careful estimates, but are apt to be higher rather
than lower than the actual time used. This would follow, be-
cause most principals know the importance of this duty, and






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


would wish to measure up to it. The maximum school day in
Florida, exclusive of recesses, is 360 minutes in length. (81:-
10.) On this basis, 92.7 per cent of the Group A principals
spent 36 minutes or less daily in class room supervision; 66.6
per cent of the Group B principals and 31.8 per cent of the
Group C principals spent the same time. In all Groups, 78.1 per
cent of the principals spent 36 minutes or less daily in class-
room supervision. Expert authorities hold that from 30 per
cent to 50 per cent of a supervising principal's time should be
spent in classroom supervision in all its forms. (34:115-120;
30:142.) Classroom visitation for the purpose of supervising
instruction is of little value unless the principal remains in the
room at least thru one class period, and this visit should usually
be followed by a conference between the principal and the
teacher.
Expert opinion places supervision as the most important
duty of the principal. In practice, administrative and clerical
duties receive more of the principal's time than supervision.
Constructive supervision of classroom instruction is so im-
portant, and so much neglected that it seems fitting to give
here some definite references to readings, that will help prin-
cipals to help their teachers, help their pupils. All references
are to the bibliography following the last chapter.
Supervision:
1. General: (15:56-59; 6: Chap. XXII-XXIII; 9:58-60;
30; 10: Chap. I; 8:24-33; 35: Chap. IX; 17:Chap. V.)
2. Grading teachers for efficiency: (10: Chap. II; 34:
Chap. XIV; 23:238-263; 4: Chap XV; 15: 209-210; 8:27-28;
9:44-49; 17:Chap. VII.)
3. What teachers think of supervision: (34: Chap. I and
XIX; 49; 4:427-434.)

D. THE PRINCIPAL AND TEACHERS' MEETINGS
Classroom supervision is without doubt the most important
means by which the principal may assist his teachers in the
fundamental work of the school-the instruction of children.
There are, however, indirect means that may be used to the
same end. Among these is the teachers' meeting. In these
meetings the principal must be leader. Their frequency and
regularity, and the type of meetings, and the topics or prob-






THE PRINCIPAL AND SUPERVISION


lems discussed, depend almost entirely upon the principal. He
is not often handicapped in this matter by regulations of boards
or by the superintendent.
In this study the following information was called for con-
cerning teachers' meetings: (a) Do you have fixed times for
teachers' meetings? If so, how often?
(b) Do you hold separate meetings for your elementary
teachers?
(c) List important topics discussed at your teachers' meet-
ings.
TABLE VII. TIME OF HOLDING TEACHERS' MEETINGS





Group A ............ 22 5 4 1 12 74
Group B ............ 17 7 5 0 5 16
Group C ............ 17 3 3 1 10 6
Totals ................ 56 I 15 12 2 | 27 I 96
Table VII gives the replies to (a) above. In all Groups 56
principals reported fixed times for holding teachers' meetings.
That is, 36.4 per cent of the principals held these meetings at
regular intervals. Of these 56 meetings, 15 were held bi-
monthly, 12 monthly, 2 bi-weekly, and 27 weekly. A number of
principals reported "called" meetings as necessity demanded.
"Called" meetings, in most cases, are for the purpose of dis-
cussing or "settling" some emergency problem in school man-
agement.
As the number of teachers increases, there is a marked,
regular increase in the per cent of schools that have fixed times
for teachers' meetings. Group A reported 23 per cent fixed;
Group B, 51 per cent; and Group C, 74 per cent. There is a
decided tendency to hold regular teachers' meetings weekly.
Only one school in Group A reported separate meetings
for the elementary teachers; Group B reported 4, and Group
C, 13.
The irregular occurrence of teachers' meetings in almost
two-thirds (63.1 per cent) of the schools, and the fact that 27
of the 56 schools reporting regular meetings held them bi-
monthly or monthly, place these meetings on the whole as an






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


inefficient means of supervision or of professional advance-
ment.
Some measure of the value of these meetings may be ob-
tained by a study of the topics discussed. In Table VIII are
shown the topics discussed, as listed by the principals of 39
Group A schools, 20 Group B schools, and 19 Group C schools.
This table also gives the number of times each topic was listed
as discussed in each Group. The table is read as follows: Dis-
cipline was listed as discussed 21 times in Group A schools, 12
times in Group B schools, and 12 times in Group C schools-a
total of 45 times in all groups.

TABLE VIII. NUMBER OF TIMES IMPORTANT TOPICS WERE DISCUSSED
AT TEACHERS' MEETINGS

No. of Times Discussed
TOPICS Groups
Total
A B C
1. Discipline .................................... 21 12 12 45
2. How and What to Study.......... 13 4 3 20
3. Grading and Promotion............ 3 9 5 17
4. Play and Athletics-......-...........----8 5 3 16
5. Course of Study.......................... 4 3 6 13
6. School W welfare .......................... 8 3 2 13
7. Parent-Teacher Association .... 4 4 2 10
8. Attendance ................................ 0 2 5 7
9. School Improvement ............... 2 2 2 6
10. Individual Differences .............. 2 2 0 4
11. Library W ork ............................ 1 2 1 4
12. Schedule ...................................... 0 1 3 4
13. Student Government ................ 2 1 1 4
14. Intelligence Tests .................. 0 1 2 3
15. Chapel ........................................ 0 2 0 2
16. Humane W ork .......................... 1 1 0 2
17. Interest ...................................... 0 2 0 2
18. Sanitation .................................. 1 0 1 2
19. Supervised Study .................... 1 1 0 2
20. All Necessary Topics............. 0 1 0 1
21. County Fair .............................. 0 1 0 1
22. Phonics ...................................... 0 0 1 1
23. School Spirit .............................. 0 1 0 1
24. Teachers' Welfare .................... 1 0 0 1
Totals .......................................... 72 60 49 181

The 24 important topics, from 78 schools were reported
181 times. Discipline was reported 45 times, and is 24.9 per
cent of the total number reported. In each Group, Discipline
led in the number of times reported. The first seven topics
given in Table VIII, were reported 134 times, and they are
74.6 per cent of the total number reported.






THE PRINCIPAL AND SUPERVISION


The lead that Discipline takes in these topics is significant.
It indicates that the problem of school control, as such, occupies
an unduly large place in the management of these schools. It
is not at all likely that discipline was discussed in these teach-
ers' meetings from the standpoint of the moral development of
the child. Discipline in such situations usually has reference
to means of meeting concrete, immediate cases of misconduct
on the part of pupils in the schools. In such circumstances,
principals and teachers are apt to discuss and think of dis-
cipline as a distinct and separate part of school management,
as arithmetic is a distinct and separate part of the curriculum.
The 24 important topics listed may be grouped under four
heads: 1. Pupils and their direct care. 2. Organization. 3.
Community cooperation. 4. Miscellaneous. The first head in-
cludes the following topics of Table VIII: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10,
11, 13, 14, 17, 19, and 22; the second: 9, 12, 15 and 23; the
third: 7 and 21; the fourth: 16, 18, 20 and 24. The topics under
the first head were discussed 151 times in all Groups, or 83.4
per cent of the number of times' all topics were discussed.
These topics deal directly with the fundamental purposes of
the school-the care and the teaching of children. However,
it should be noted that more than one-fourth (29.8 per cent)
of the total number of topics discussed under the first head
had to do directly with discipline. That is, the discipline of
pupils seems to receive more than one-fourth of the attention
given to the care and teaching of pupils. On the basis of the
number of times discussed, discipline receives more attention
than supervised study, intelligence tests, individual differences,
student government, attendance, library work, and grading
and promotion.
The following references will assist principals in organ-
izing and conducting teachers' meetings and in school control:
1. Teachers' Meetings: (47: Index; 6: Chap. XXV; 5a;
17: Chap. VI; 15: Chap. V; 4:324-325; 8:30-33.)
2. Discipline: (47: Index; 6: Chap. XIV; 35: Chap. IX;
5a; 15: Index; 4: Index; 34: Bibliography V.)

E. THE PRINCIPAL AND THE PROMOTION OF PUPILS
Another means by which a principal may aid or hinder his
teachers is by taking a proper part in the promotion of pupils.
The principals were asked the following questions: Are pro-






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


motions in the elementary schools made by (a) Teachers alone,
(b) Principal alone, (c) Teachers and principal, (d) Teacher
and county superintendent?
Table IX gives the replies as made by 92 Group A prin-
cipals; 28 Group B principals, and 23 Group C principals.

TABLE IX. PROMOTIONS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
Promotions Made By Group A Group B Group C Total
Teachers Alone .................................. 20 5 1 26
Principal Alone ................................ 2 0 0 2
Teacher and Principal ...................... 67 23 22 112
Teacher and Superintendent .......... 3 0 0 3
Total ............................................ 92 28 | 23 I 143

In 20 per cent of the schools in Group A, the teachers pro-
moted their pupils without any advice or help from their prin-
cipals; in Group B, the same was done by 18 per cent of the
teachers; in Group C by 4 per cent of the teachers. Among
the 143 principals who reported, two promoted pupils without
consulting their teachers. These were Group A principals.
Three Group A principals reported promotions made by teach-
ers and county superintendents. Two Group B, and two Group
C principals reported that county superintendents had some
part in making promotions, but did not make them indepen-
dently of principals and teachers.
Table IX indicates that about one-fifth of the Group A and
Group B schools are made up of independent or semi-inde-
pendent teachers, one of which is called principal. Such schools
are not really a unit of a system. The principal is a teaching
principal. However, the number of schools in which promo-
tions are made by teachers and principals together, points to-
ward the development of units of school systems headed by
supervising principals. This development seems to have been
attained in 96 per cent of the Group C schools.

F. THE PRINCIPAL AND His PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS
A supervisor is one who has super-vision. A principal can
not in the fullest sense of the word be a supervising principal
unless he has this vision. His efficiency must depend in a
large measure upon his education, and his experience in school
work. However, even with high qualifications educationally,
and with wide experience, a principal can not do his best for a






THE PRINCIPAL AND SUPERVISION


school and its community unless he is retained as its head for a
number of years-perhaps, three at least.
The principals were asked to write their own educational
history. Table X groups their replies under four heads. In all
groups, 141 gave definite information.
TABLE X. EDUCATION OF PRINCIPALS


Types of Education 0 0
0 0 0 E- E-O
o o o .E-

No. Holding College Degrees.............................. 11 7 12 30 21.2
No. Normal-Two Years Beyond High School 20 12 9 41 29.1
No. Completed Four-Year High School............ 28 12 1 41 29.1
No. Not Completing High School...................... 29 0 0 29 20.6
Totals .............................................................. 88 1 31 | 22 1141 1100.0
The total number of principals holding college degrees is
practically the same as the total number not completing high
school. It should be noted that those not completing high
school all belong to Group A. Also, that only 13 per cent of
Group A principals, and 23 per cent of Group B hold college
degrees, while degrees are held by 55 per cent of Group C
principals. Of the Group A principals, 65 per cent have not
had as much as two years of college work, and 33 per cent had
not completed a four-year high school course. In Group B, 39
per cent have not had the equivalent of a normal course. In
all Groups, practically one-half (49.7 per cent) of the princi-
pals had not completed the lowest standard requirements for
teaching in the elementary schools-two years beyond a four-
year high school.
The school experience of the principals as principals, and
as classroom teachers is given in Table XI.
In all Groups, 70.4 per cent of the principals had served
as principal three or more years; in Group A, 65.6 per cent;
in Group B, 75.8; in Group C, 82.6 per cent. In all Groups,
40.8 of the principals had had 6 years or more experience as
principal.
More than half (54.7 per cent) of all principals had had
experience in elementary schools only before becoming prin-
cipals. In Group A, 61.3 per cent had had elementary school
experience only. Including the principals who had taught in
both elementary schools and high schools, more than three-






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


TABLE XI. SCHOOL EXPERIENCE


OF PRINCIPALS


As Principal
No. of Years


o


As Teachers
in


o
0 + M2 P1 EI1


Group A ..................133 33 118 12 1 96 57 3 17 116 93
Group B ................. 8 9 9 7 33 15 5 6 7 33
Group C .................. 4 1 3 5 11 23 9 2 9 12 122
Totals .............. 45 145 132 130 1152 1181 10 132 125 1148
Per Cent of Totals|29.6 129.6 121.1 119.7 1100.0 1154.7 ) 6.8 121.6 116.9 1100.0

fourths (76.3 per cent) of the total number had taught in
elementary schools. A surprisingly small number of princi-
pals, only 6.8 per cent, had taught in high schools only before
becoming principals. The largest percentage of principals with
no experience in classroom teaching was in Group B. More
than one-fifth (21.2 per cent) of Group B principals began
school work as principals.
The annual shifting of teachers and principals is character-
istic of our educational system. Table XII gives the number
of years 134 principals had served in the positions held at the
time the report was made.
TABLE XII. TENURE OF PRINCIPALS

+
No. of Years in Present
Position

Group A -------------..---.................. --...... 61 10 7 6 84
Group B ............................ 17 4 3 7 31
Group C ............................ 7 5 2 5 19
Total .......................... 85 | 19 | 12 | 18 134
Per Cent of Total ............| 63.4 I 14.2 8.9 | 13.5 100.0
Table XII explains itself. Almost three-fourths (72.6 per
cent) of Group A principals were new in their positions; more
than one-half (54.8 per cent) of the Group B principals were
new; and more than one-third (36.8 per cent) of the Group C






THE PRINCIPAL AND SUPERVISION


principals were new. Authorities generally agree that it takes
a principal at least three years to know his school and his com-
munity well enough to do his best work. Of these 134 princi-
pals, only 13.5 per cent had held their positions more than three
years.

G. SUMMARY
The schools exist primarily for the influence of the teach-
ing process as it affects the child. In a school system, expert
supervision is one of the chief means by which this process
may be improved. In the schools under consideration it is evi-
dent that whatever supervision is done, must be done almost
entirely by the principals. The data given show clearly that
most of the principals of these schools were teaching princi-
pals. Even with adequate professional preparation and ex-
perience, these principals, because of teaching and other duties,
could not effectively supervise their schools.
The irregular and indefinite times of holding teachers'
meetings, and the educational quality of the topics reported
and discussed at these meetings, indicate a rather meager use
by the principals of this important means of teacher improve-
ment in service.
The part that principals take in promoting pupils in the
elementary grades is evidence of healthful cooperation with
their teachers, and of interest in the work of these grades.
This common practice points towards the development of dis-
tinct units in systems of schools.
"As is the principal, so is the school." The principal can not
be a progressive leader of his teachers unless he knows his busi-
ness thoroly, and feels deeply the importance of it. He must
have educational vision before he has the power of effective
leadership. As the classroom teacher should be able to throw
light ahead, to light up new fields of thought, new interests,
for her pupils, so should the principal be able to illuminate
the field of education, throw light ahead for his teachers, and
lead them forward.
"Leadership in any field involves a broad fundamental
knowledge of the work in which the man is engaged." (6:562.)
One can not hope for a generally high quality of leadership in
principals one-half of whom have not completed the first two
years of college work. This leadership must be especially lack-






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


ing in the smallest schools, where more than one-third of the
principals had not completed a high school course. With more
than one-half of the principals college graduates, there would
be a much higher grade of leadership in the largest schools.
More than three-fourths of all principals had had experi-
ence as teachers in elementary schools before they became prin-
cipals. This would add to their usefulness as principals.
Even with high educational qualifications and long experi-
ence, a principal must hold the same position for a number of
years in order to know and meet the needs of his community.
When one considers the facts that almost three-fourths of the
principals in the smallest schools were new in their positions,
and that only 13.5 per cent of all the principals had held their
positions more than three years, the evil effects of the teaching
"procession" become evident.
Finally, the quality of leadership, and the handicaps placed
upon the leaders, stand out as very positive weaknesses in
most of these schools. Competent leadership is necessary to
make unified, purposeful schools out of the usually conglom-
erate schools of our villages and small towns. This leadership
in our system of schools is lodged primarily in the principal.
Dr. Cubberley is undoubtedly right when he says: "The princi-
pal virtually decides the fate in his school of many construc-
tive policies of the authorities above him." (6:548.) Making
application to the Florida school system in its practical work-
ing, it can be added with safety, that in a large measure, not
only the fate of the "constructive policies", but the construc-
tive policies themselves, must depend upon the principal. Our
county unit system, as at present organized and administered,
forces the county superintendent in most cases to delegate this
leadership to his principals.

CHAPTER IV
The Classroom Teacher
A. THE TEACHER AND SCHOOL POLICIES
While the general policies of any school system must grow
into the classroom thru overhead authorities-the State de-
partment of education, boards of education, superintendents,
and principals-the actual working out of these policies de-
pend finally on the classroom teachers. In thinking of the or-






THE CLASSROOM TEACHER


ganization, administration, and supervision of schools, one is
apt to understress the fact that there must be efficient teachers
thru whom these mechanisms must work, in order to success-
fully reach the pupils for whom the schools exist. Sometime
enough people will awaken to the importance of the early years
of education to see to it that the best educated, and in all re-
spects the best teachers are placed where they belong-in the
elementary school.

B. CERTIFICATES A MEASURE OF THE TEACHER
The certificates held by teachers is one means of measuring


their preparation for teaching. Table XIII
certificates held by 722 teachers-248 in
Group B, and 274 in Group C.


gives the kinds of
Group A, 200 in


TABLE XIII. CERTIFICATES HELD BY TEACHERS









Group A 7 2.8 40 16.2 96 38.7 78 31.5 9 3.6 14 5.6 4 1.6 248
Group B 5 2.5 18 9.0 63 31.5 76 38.0 16 8.0 16 8.0 6 3.0 200

Total N o.1 151 .... 1751 ...... 12371 ...... 12281 ...... 1451 ...... 1821 ...... 1401 ...... 1722
Per Cent C



of Total ...... 2.1 ...... 10.4 ...... 32.8 ...... 31.6 ...... 6.2 ...... 11 .4 ...... 5.5 ....
of Total 7 2.8i-110.46-38.7 31.5 62-111.41 1.6248
Group B, 5 8906 157 8. 6801 0
Grou C 3 .3 17 6. 82. 42. 07. 21. 01. 7
T otal N o.) 15 ... 5 ...2 7 ...| 2 |...| 4 1... 8 |...| 4 |...| 2
Per Centj Fr c im
of T t l ... 21... 04 ....3 ... 16... .2... 14 .... 55...


One-eighth of
grade certificates.


the 722 teachers held temporary or third
Almost one-third of all held second grade,


and 31.6 per cent of all held first grade. So, slightly more than
three-fourths (76.9 per cent) of the 722 teachers held one of
the four types of certificates-temporary, third grade, second
grade, or first grade. Less than one-fourth of all (23.1 per
cent) held primary, state or special certificates. It is at least
interesting to note here that the percentages of the kinds of
certificates held by these teachers were practically the same
as those held by the total number of white teachers of the
State. According to the last Biennial Report of the Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction of the State of Florida, 74.2






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


per cent of the white teachers of the State held certificates of
the first four kinds given in Table XIII, and 25.8 per cent held
one of the last three kinds given in Table XIII. (74:95-96.)
The following additional facts should be noted in connec-
tion with Table XIII:
1. More than one-half of the Group A teachers held third
or second grade certificates.
2. Forty per cent of the Group B teachers held third or
second grade certificates.
3. Almost 35 per cent of the Group C teachers held third
or second grade certificates.
4. Third grade certificates were in all Groups, decreasing
from Group A to Group C.
5. State certificates increased from Group A to Group C
in about the same rate that third grades decreased.
6. The total number of third grade certificates is a trifle
less than the total of State certificates-75 and 82, respectively.
Measured by certificates these teachers do not rank high.
Too many of them hold certificates below the first grade.

C. THE TEACHERS' EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE.
In Table XIV, the education and teaching experience of
722 teachers are considered-248 in Group A, 200 in Group B,
and 274 in Group C.
TABLE XIV. EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE OF CLASSROOM TEACHERS

Education Years Taught
Grades Taught
Groups Groups
A B C|| A B C
1 .................................................... ------------------12 14 ............ 7 5
2 .......................... ............... ............ 12 13 ............ 4 4
2 --------------------------12 13 .......... 4 4
3 .................................................... 12 13 ............ 3 4
4 ........................................ 11 12 13 4 3 5
5 -......... ...........................-............ 12 14 ............ 4 3
6 ........................................-............ 12 14 ............ 4 4
7 -...............................--....-............ 12 14 ............ 5 5
8 .................................... 12 13 13 8 8 8
High School .......................... 14 14 15 I 12 | 10 4

In Table XIV Group A teachers have been placed in three
classes-those teaching in Grades 1-4, inclusive; those teach-
ing in Grades 5-8, inclusive; and those teaching in the high
school. In Groups B and C. the elementary teachers have been






THE CLASSROOM TEACHER


taken by grades, and the high school teachers as one class, as
in Group A.
The columns under Education give the median school grade
completed by the teachers in Groups A, B and C. This means,
for example, that one-half of the teachers in Grade 1, Group B,
had completed at least Grade 12, or the high school; in Group
C, one-half of the teachers in Grade 1 had completed at least
Grade 14, or the normal school.
The columns under Years Taught give the median number
of years taught in each of the three Groups. This means, for
example, that in Grade 1, Group B, one-half of the teachers
had taught seven years.
The following facts from Table XIV will help to measure
the education and teaching experience of these teachers:
1. One-half of the Group A teachers, in Grades 1-4 had
not completed the third year of the high school; half of those
teaching in the four upper grades of the elementary school had
not completed high school; and one-half of those teaching in
high school had not completed a normal course.
2. In Group B, one-half of the elementary teachers in
Grades 1-7 had not completed high school; one-half of the
eighth grade teachers had not taken work one year beyond the
high school; and one-half of the high school teachers had not
completed two years work beyond the high school.
3. In Group C, one-half of the teachers in Grades 1, 5, 6,
and 7 had not completed a normal course; the other elementary
teachers had not completed one year beyond high school; and
one-half of the high school teachers had not completed work
three years beyond the high school.
4. Only in Grades 1, 5, 6, and 7, in Group C, did one-half
of the teachers have the standard minimum educational quali-
fications for elementary teachers-two years beyond high
school-and in no group did one-half of the high school teach-
ers meet the minimum standard for high school teachers-four
years beyond high school.
5. In Group C, teachers of Grade 8 have a lower mean
education than the teachers of Grades 1, 5, 6 and 7, by one
year.
6. In all groups, more than half of the teachers had taught
three or more years.






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


7. In Groups B and C, half of the teachers of Grade 8 had
taught longer than teachers of any other elementary grade of
these groups; also in Group A, the teachers of the four upper
elementary grades had taught twice as long as those of the
first four grades.
8. In Groups A and B, the mean term of service of the
high school teachers was greater than the term of service in
any of the elementary grades of these Groups.
9. The median number of years taught in the high school,
Group C, is lower than in Grades 1, 4, 7 or 8 of that Group, and
is only half as great as in Grade 8.
From the facts given in Table XIV, it is evident that at
least half of the teachers in these schools had taught long
enough to become experienced practitioners in education. This
is a significant condition. Tho not well educated for teaching,
as shown by Table XIV, they had been teaching long enough
to have become quite well trained in service, if they had been
all the time aided and encouraged by professional, progressive
leadership. Here, again, the crying need for expert superin-
tendents, principals and supervisors becomes apparent.

CHAPTER V
The Pupils
A. ENTERING TIME FOR BEGINNERS
In Florida, children may legally enter school when they are
six years of age. It seems that this regulation is taken literally,
and that children actually begin school when they attain that
age. The principals were asked to answer these questions: Do
beginners enter at any time ? If not, at what time in the school
year may beginners enter school? Table XV gives the replies
from 137 schools.
In 64.2 per cent of these schools beginners entered at any
time. Beginners were admitted at any time in more than
three-fourths (76.7 per cent) of Group A schools. In Group B,
more than one-half (56.6 per cent) permitted them to enter
at any time, but in Group C less than one-fourth (23.8 per
cent) permitted entrance at any time. These irregular en-
trants can not do the work with those of the first grade who
entered at the beginning of the term or semester, so they are






THE PUPILS


placed in a sub-first grade group and called the chart class.
Table XVI brings out the fact that there is a tendency in the
schools of all Groups to admit beginners at the first of the
term and at mid-term, that is, at the beginning of each semes-
ter. This was done in 16.8 per cent of all the schools. This is
a movement in the right direction. For the protection of the
pupils entering and for the good of the schools, the time of
entering should be fixed definitely in each semester. In some
States it is a common practice to permit beginners to enter
only during the first two weeks of each semester. In the
smaller schools where one teacher must care for two or more
grades, and where promotions are made only at the end of the
school year, it might be advisable to admit beginners only dur-
ing the first two weeks of school. There would be fewer fail-
ures in Grades I and II, if such a regulation was made by the
school authorities of the State, and rigidly enforced. If such
a regulation is fully explained to parents, there will be little
difficulty in enforcing it.

TABLE XV. TIME BEGINNERS MAY ENTER SCHOOL


Time Beginners Enter o

1. At any time.-........-- ........---- 66 17 5 88
2. First 2 weeks of term................ 0 0 2 2
3. First 3 weeks of term............---... 0 1 0 1
4. First 6 weeks of term................ 2 2 0 4
5. First month of term.................. 3 3 3 9
6. First of each month-----................. 2 0 0 2
7. First 2 months of term.............. 0 1 2 3
8. First of term and mid-term...... 10 5 8 23
9. Until Christmas .....-- --.................. 0 0 1 1
10. First Semester .................... ... -------- 3 0 0 3
11. Indefinite ...................................- 0 1 0 1
No. of schools reporting---................... 86 30 21 | 137

B. PROMOTIONAL PLANS
Children should be successful in school. Every effort should
be made by parents, teachers and school authorities to place
children in school when they are ready for school, to keep
them there regularly, and to see to it that they are happy and
successful in their school work.
The rate at which pupils pass through the various grades
of the elementary school is determined chiefly by the intelli-






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


gence and effort of the pupils, the quality of the instruction,
and the promotional plan or plans used in the school. The
graded system of schools with its fixed curriculum (running
course) developed the economical plan of teaching pupils in
groups, classes of grades. These grades were moved forward
as grades, at a set time, usually at the end of a school year.
Thus grew up the annual promotional plan, sometimes called
the "lock-step" plan. The pupils who could not keep step were
held back another year, and, with a new group of pupils,
passed over the same work the following year. A third of a
century ago this plan was so well described by J. L. Pickard
in his "School Supervision", that his statement is quoted here:
"One method of administration places the several grades,
as it were, in a series of rooms adjoining, but separated by a
wall in which is a closed door. Once a year the door is opened
for the passage of those who are provided with cards bearing
the requisite percentage marks, and then closed for another
year. To obtain these cards is the sole aim of the children, who
think only of release from one cell and of admission to an-
other, which they hope may prove more attractive, but of
whose attractions they have no knowledge. They are not lured
upward and onward. They are goaded by the dread of con-
tinuance for another year in the room which has lost all of its
attractions for them. Wise supervision has succeeded in open-
ing the doors more frequently." (77:91.)
"Wise supervision has succeeded in opening the door more
frequently" in many schools, altho annual promotions are still
common thruout the United States, especially in rural and
smaller towns and city schools. In Table XVI the promotional
plans are given as reported by the principals of 135 schools-
82 in Group A, 30 in Group B, and 23 in Group C.
TABLE XVI. PROMOTIONAL PLANS

Time Promotions Are Made Groups Total
A B C
Regularly Once a Year.................................. 80 28 21 129
Each Semester or Half Year........................ 2 2 2 6
Individual Promotions at Any Time.......... 81 22 17 120
It is clearly evident that the annual promotion plan is al-
most universal in these schools. Only six schools (4.7 per cent)
reported semester or semi-annual promotions-two schools in






THE PUPILS


each Group. The question, Are individual pupils promoted
whenever they show ability to do the work of the next grade?
was answered in the affirmative by 81 of the 82 principals of
Group A schools, by 22 of the 30 Group B principals, and by
17 of the 23 Group C principals. In view of the fact that such
a small number of the schools reported semi-annual promo-
tions, it is surprising that so many promoted individuals at
any time during the school year. Such individual promotions
are rather difficult to handle even with regular semi-annual
promotions. However, many pupils may without serious loss
or inconvenience "skip" a half-year's work, especially in
Grades III, IV, V and VI. Very few children are able to suc-
cessfully "skip" a full year's work. With the annual promotion
plan so firmly established, it is not at all probable that these
schools make any considerable number of individual promo-
tions.
A year is a long time in the life of a child. If children must
be promoted regularly by the almanac, such promotions should,
if possible, be made at least twice a year. The slow pupil may
need three semesters or half years for a year's work. The
superior child may easily do two years' work in three semes-
ters. There is room for some safe recognition of individual
differences in the semi-annual promotion plan. In most cases,
schools having at least one teacher for each of the elementary
grades, may promote pupils regularly twice a year. In ele-
mentary schools with less than eight teachers, and with a
small enrollment for each of the three upper grades, depart-
mental teaching will make it possible to promote pupils twice
a year. In schools where the classroom teacher is required to
care for 60 or 70 pupils, the plan may be difficult to use. How-
ever, in such a case, the teacher will usually find it necessary
to divide her pupils into at least two groups or classes for
recitation work. These classes could just as well be High and
Low classes; that is, the work of the High could be a half year
in advance of the Low.
In introducing the semi-annual promotion plan into a
school that has been using annual promotions, there are at
least two difficult problems to be solved. Some plan has to be
devised by which the pupils of each grade may be placed with
fairness in two classes, the High and Low. The other problem
is to combine and alternate the work of the two classes so that






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


the teacher will not be swamped by the multiplicity of daily
recitations. It takes time to solve these two problems. Unless
achievement and mental tests can be used, it will take one
school year to make a just division of pupils into High and Low
classes. If the principal at the beginning of the school year,
explains the plan to his teachers, and takes plenty of time to
discuss it thoroly with them in teachers' meetings, the division
can be made without any serious objection either by parents
or pupils. A standard for each class should be established at
the beginning of the year. Without the use of standard tests,
the teachers and principal can during the year determine the
class for which each pupil is fitted by the quality of his work,
the efforts he puts forth, and his physical condition. At the
close of the school year all pupils would be promoted as usual,
but some of the pupils in each grade would be moved forward
one-half year, and others a full year. For example, pupils in
Grade V would be promoted regularly to Grade V High and
Grade VI Low. Most grades by this plan will fall into two
almost equal divisions. For evident reasons the plan should
not be discussed with pupils until the change is made at the
close of the school year.
The problem of combining and alternating the work of the
High and Low classes must be solved by a thoro study of the
content of each subject of the State course of study, followed
by casting the results of this study into a workable daily pro-
gram of recitation and study periods. This, the principal and
teachers, must also work out before the change is made. The
High and Low classes in the same grade may, without serious
hindrance to either class, be combined in the following so-
called minor subjects: manual training, home economics, na-
ture study, music, drawing and health lessons. The two classes
may also be combined in spelling and penmanship in Grades
V, VI, VII, and VIII; in reading in Grades VI, VII, and VIII;
and in civil government and agriculture in Grade VIII. The
number of pupils in the grade and in the classes might make
possible other combinations. The State course of study per-
mits many alternations that would help in the formation of
the daily programs. In Grades V, VI, VII, and VIII, the num-
ber of recitations a week in the different subjects, and the time
given to each recitation, could be varied according to the abil-
ity of the class, and the number of pupils in the class.






THE PUPILS


Semi-annual promotions are not urged here as the best solu-
tion of the promotional problem, but as a plan that offers de-
cided advantages over the annual plan both to pupils and
teachers.

C. NUMBER OF PUPILS PER TEACHER IN THE ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL AND IN THE HIGH SCHOOL
The growth of the high school has been very rapid in the
last forty years. High school attendance in the United States
has increased 500 per cent in the last thirty years. During
the same period the population has increased 68 per cent The
growth of High Schools in Florida has been very rapid in
recent years. (79:4.) There is a decided tendency in some
communities to develop the high school at the expense of the
elementary school. Standardizing agencies and organized in-
spection have made it possible for school authorities to appeal
directly to local pride when asking for improvements and ex-
tensions for high schools. The elementary school is too often
taken for granted.
One means of determining whether or not there is a fair
distribution of funds and effort between the elementary school
and high school is by comparing the number of pupils per
teacher in the two types of schools. Table XVII shows the
number of pupils per teacher in 26 Group A schools, 18 Group
B schools, and 15 Group C schools. Each of the 59 schools con-
sidered in the table consisted of an elementary school and a
high school, and was the only school in the district.
TABLE XVII. ENROLLMENT AND NUMBER OF PUPILS PER TEACHER IN
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AND IN HIGH SCHOOL

Total Average Av. No.
Enrollment Enrollment Pupils per
Teacher

0 r. 0 W
o ,-
o o 0



Group A (26 Schools) 2129 213 82 8 90 9.1 29 12
Group B (18 Schools) 2767 330 154 18 172 10.6 28 17
Group C (15 Schools) 4321 939 287 63 350 17.8 34 17
The number of pupils per teacher is based on the actual
enrollment at the time the data were gathered. The Group A






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


principals were teaching principals. Their full time was given
to teaching. In most of the schools of Group B and C the prin-
cipals did some teaching. In every case the teaching time of
the principals was reported by classes or grades taught, and
counted as one-fourth, one-half, three-fourths, or full teaching
time as the case might be. Many of the principals of the Group
A schools taught part time in the elementary school, and part
time in the high school. A few classroom teachers in each of
the Groups did the same. In these cases the teaching time was
counted as reported-part in the elementary school and part
in the high school. The divided time of teachers and princi-
pals was in all cases considered in fourths.
The average number of pupils per teacher as given in Table
XVII is not over large for the elementary school, but the ele-
mentary teacher in Group A has more than twice as many
pupils as the high school teacher in the same Group; in Group
B the elementary teacher has almost twice as many as the high
school teacher.
A study of the enrollment, and the per cent of pupils in the
high school, given in Table XVII, will show more clearly the
unequal distribution of teachers. Below is given the actual
number of high school pupils and teachers in each Group.
Group A-In 7 schools, 7 teachers gave full time to 93 high
school pupils.
In 8 schools, 6 teachers gave full time to 75 high
school pupils.
In 6 schools, 3 teachers gave full time to 31 high
school pupils.
In 5 schools, 1/ teachers gave full time to 14
high school pupils.
Group B-In 11 schools, 11 teachers gave full time to 180
high school pupils.
In 3 schools, 6 teachers gave full time to 85
high school pupils.
In 1 school, 3 teachers gave full time to 36
high school pupils.
In 1 school, 11/ teachers gave full time to 14
high school pupils.
In 2 schools, 11/ teachers gave full time to 15
high school pupils.






THE PUPILS


Group C-In 10 schools, 40 teachers gave full time to 597
high school pupils.
In 1 school, 7 teachers gave full time to 100
high school pupils.
In 1 school, 6 teachers gave full time to 81
high school pupils.
In 1 school, 5 teachers gave full time to 100
high school pupils.
In 1 school, 3 teachers gave full time to 35
high school pupils.
In 1 school, 21/ teachers gave full time to 26
high school pupils.

Table XVIII brings out more clearly the number of pupils
in the high schools.

TABLE XVIII. NUMBER OF YEARS IN HIGH SCHOOL COURSE AND NUM-
BER OF PUPILS ENROLLED IN EACH TYPE OF HIGH SCHOOL


Group A (26 Schools)
Group B (18 Schools)
Group C (15 Schools)
Totals....................


Number of Years in I
One Two
Year Years
4-4 W CH V2
.0 0- 00 0-
0zV u 0

8 39 14 145
....... .......... 10 153

8 | 39 | 24 298 i|


ligh School Course


Three
Years




4 2
4 8
2 5
10 17


Four
Years




4 88
13 882
17 1 970


:9
9
'7
'5


The following facts derived from Table XVIII, and from
other data given by the principals throw some light on the
high school enrollment, and the distribution of teachers:


1. In Group A-av. enroll.:



2. In Group B-av. enroll.:



3. In Group C-av. enroll.:


1-yr.
2-yr.
3-yr.
2-yr.
3-yr.
4-yr.
3-yr.
4-yr.


high
high
high
high
high
high
high
high


school=- 5,
school=1l1,
school= 7,
school=15,
school=22,
school=-22,
school=28,
school=69,


range
range
range
range
range
range
range
range


2- 11
1- 23
3- 13
4- 22
14- 48
15- 30
26- 31
35-110






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


D. PUPILS COMPLETING GRADE VIII, 1920-1921
The holding power and efficiency of a school is measured
largely by the proportion of pupils that complete the curricu-
lum. While Grade VIII is not the end of the public school
course, custom has made much of its completion, and it does
mark the close of the elementary school period. Complete data
on the number of pupils completing Grade VIII at the end of
the school year, 1920-1921, were given by the 59 schools con-
sidered in Section C of this chapter. The facts are brought
together in Table XIX.

TABLE XIX. PUPILS COMPLETING GRADE VIII, 1920-1921

Boys Girls m



_z z .2 <
Group A (26 Schools).... 61 48.8 67 51.2 128 5
Group B (18 Schools).... 71 39.4 109 60.6 180 10
Group C (15 Schools).... 125 46.4 144 53.6 269 18
Totals....... ----............------ 257 I 45.5 320 54.5 577 10

In each Group the percentage of girls exceeded that of boys.
This difference was very marked in Group B. In Group A, the
number of pupils finishing Grade VIII was 6 per cent of the
elementary school enrollment for 1921-1922; for Group B, the
per cent was 6.5; for Group C, 6.2 per cent. (In 1920-1921,
6.7 per cent of all white children in the elementary schools of
Florida were in Grade VIII.)
The average number of pupils completing Grade VIII, in
the Group A schools was 5. The range was from 0 to 12. In
Group B, the average was 10 pupils, ranging from 3 to 22; in
Group C, 18 pupils, ranging from 9 to 33.
The number of pupils who complete Grade VIII, and go
on into high school is another important measure of a school
system. The number of pupils who completed Grade VIII, in
1920-1921, and entered either the home high school or some
other secondary school in 1921-1922, was reported by 83 prin-
cipals. The reports are shown in Table XX.






THE PUPILS


TABLE XX. PUPILS COMPLETING GRADE VIII, 1920-1921, AND ENTERING
HIGH SCHOOL, 1921-1922

Grade VIII Number and Per Cent Entered
Completed High School
Group A (45 Schools).... 274 172 62.8
Group B (22 Schools).... 237 199 83.9
Group C (16 Schools).... 327 295 90.2
Totals........................ 838 666 | 79.5

The per cent of pupils who entered high school was not sur-
prisingly low, when one considers the fact that 21 of the 45
Group A schools had no home high schools. In those 21 schools,
132 pupils completed Grade VIII, and 62 of these pupils or
46.9 per cent entered some high school the following term.
From the 7 Group B schools having no home high school no
pupils entered high school. In these seven schools 40 pupils
completed Grade VIII.
The holding power of the Group C schools was very high.
In this Group 9 out of every 10 pupils completing Grade VIII
passed on into high school. In Group B a fraction over 8 out
of 10 entered high school. Taking the three Groups as a whole,
8 pupils out of every 10 completing Grade VIII entered high
school.

E. AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
PUPILS
In Florida, children may enter school at six years of age.
The compulsory school age is "between the ages of seven and
sixteen years, both inclusive". (81:99.) The present State-
wide compulsory school attendance law became effective July
1, 1919. This law requires children between the ages of seven
and sixteen "to attend a public or private school each year, for
a term or period of not less than substantially the number of
days" school is held in the district in which the children reside.
Several classes and types of children are exempted from this
attendance. (81:99-101.) A local option compulsory attendance
law was passed in 1915. A comparatively small number of
districts and counties made use of this law, which required
children between the ages of eight and fourteen to attend
school at least 80 days each year.
As shown in chapter II, the length of the school year in
the schools included in this study ranged from four months to






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


nine months. The State course of study for elementary schools
is based on a school year of eight months. No provisions or
suggestions are made in the State course for adapting the sub-
ject matter outlined for the various studies to schools that
have less than eight months in their school year. Should a
child attending school in a district which has four months of
school each year, spend sixteen years in passing thru the ele-
mentary school? If not, how many years should be required?
The above legal requirements and facts concerning attend-
ance and the school year are given here in order to partially ex-
plain the wide range of the ages of pupils in the different grades
of the elementary school as shown in the tables which follow.
Each principal was asked to place in a table given in the
questionnaire, the number of pupils enrolled in each grade of
the elementary school, with the age and sex of each pupil.
These facts placed in a convenient form make up what is com-
monly called an age-sex-grade distribution table. Usable tables
containing these facts were returned by 118 principals-76
Group A schools, from 36 counties; 24 Group B schools, from
18 counties; and 18 Group C schools, from 14 counties. The
data combined for each Group are given in Tables XXI, XXII
and XXIII. In the three tables are included 16,833 pupils.
Because of the difference in the permissive entrance age
and the compulsory entrance age, a range of two years is al-
lowed for each grade, also for the chart class. For example,
pupils in Grade IV, 9 or 10 years of age are neither over-age
nor under-age for Grade IV. They are called normals. Pupils
in Grade IV less than 9 years of age are under-age for Grade
IV. They are called accelerates. Those in Grade IV more than
ten years of age are over-age for Grade IV. They are called
retards. The normals are in heavy faced type. The accelerates
are at the left of these heavy faced figures.
These tables consider only the chronological age, sex, and
grade position of the pupils. No recognition is given to indi-
vidual differences in other respects.












TABLE XXI. AGE-SEX-GRADE DISTRIBUTION, GROUP A SCHOOLS-
76 SCHOOLS IN 36 COUNTIES


I I I i I J j
Age 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Total
A 15167189 10 1 111_______ 1_____ __________________
sex IMIFMI MFiMi FIVIFMIFIIFIMIFIMIFIMIF MI FIMI FIMI FIMIF MI FIMI FIMI FIMI FI MI F
Chart Class ...................... 22 22117111551 571 671 391 181 71 61 81 61 11 01 21 01 41 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 3111 2741585
Grade I .............................. 4 71 961125111211021 551 531 271 251 281 121 121 51 61 11 31 1 1I 11 1 01 I I I I I I I I I I I 3451 3321 677
Grade II .......................... I 81 211 80110811071 991 681 501 401 31 251 101 161 121 41 4 41 21 31 0 01 01 11 01 I I I I I I I 3561 3371 693
Grade III ........................ I I 1 181 241 871 771 941 891 671 541 371 311 381 151 201 19 171 31 91 21 21 31 I I I I I I I I I 13891 3171 706
Grade IV .......................... I I I I 11 101 211 581 91110011291 821 641 721 521 401 26 131 121 131 41 31 41 11 01 01 11 01 01 01 01 11 01 3941 4051 799
Grade V ............................I I I I I | 4 21 181 321 511 711 611 941 841 581 451 54 411 231 27 81 131 61 51 31 31 21 1 I I I I 1 352[ 3531 705
Grade VI ........................I I I I I 11 01 61 81 15 201 38 621 771 851 691 62 531 481 371 301 191 151 91 01 51 21 1 01 01 0 11 0) 3311 3321 663
Grade VII ........................I I I I I I I I I I 11 41 121 161 441 691 461 69 451 651 261 341 391 271 81 91 51 61 11 31 21 0 11 01 230 3021 532
Grade VIII ......................I I I I I I I I I I I I I 11 51 11 17| 311 47 761 481 451 44 271 421 8 231 7 131 6 71 21 11 01 11 1841 2481 432
Totals, Sexes and Ages..j 261 291275130112681302130312701278130113103271269|28713501309i2621282 22012021161112211031 971 321 351 201 24 81 101 41 11 31 1128921290015792
Totals by Ages .............. 55 576 | 570 1 573 ] 579 1 637 1 556 1 659 544 422 283 1 200 I 67 1 44 1 18 I 5 I 4 15792


















TABLE XXII. AGE-SEX-GRADE DISTRIBUTION, GROUP B SCHOOLS-
25 SCHOOLS IN 18 COUNTIES


5


6


7


8


10


11


12


Sex IMI FMI FIMI FIM FlM[ FIMI FMI FIMI FMI F
Chart Class ......................| 81 111101|1041 341 231 91 21 11 1[ 21 31 ]_ I I I
Grade I ............................| 12] 61136]15311131 881 301 231 91 131 81 31 21 01 1i 0[ 1] 0
Grade 11 ..........................| 71 211 9311141 851 841 391 461 231 191 91 7[ 71 51 3| 1
Grade III ........................ | 11 01 131 181 881104 811 891 501 511 37[ 131 51 151 41 16
Grade IV ..........................I | | 31 1| 271 311 8911041 92| 781 551 601 371 181 20| 13


G rade V ............................
G rade V I ..........................
G rade V II ....................


I I I I I 1 1


I I I I I I 21 3
I I | I I I |


2 20| 231 721 87 951 801 721 571 231 31


221 261 681 661
01 1l 61 17[


74| 78[ 511 52
331 471 40 54


Grade VIII ......................I I I I I I I |I I 1 21 11 6| 8| 22| 25
Totals, Sexes and Ages..| 201 171245127812561244[2401246|241127912691268]274|244|235|228|1641102


14


15


16


17


M F M F M F M F I |
I I I I I I


18 1!

FIMI


9


20 21


Total


FIMIFIMIFI MI F


I I I I I I I 1 1551


S I I |II 1 I I 1 1 3121
21 21 01 11| | | | I I|I1 1 1 2681
1 1 | I I I I 1 1 1 1 11 1 2801
71 41 41 11 11 01 1| | 1 | | | 1 1 3351


1441 299
2861 598
3001 568
3071 587
3101 645


181 181 41 9 31 11 11 01 | I I I I 1 3091 3081 617
151 15 101 101 41 31 21 01 | I I I I I 1 248| 2531 501
351 331 301 161 81 61 51 21 11 1 01 01 1| 0 | | 159| 1771 336
291 301 321 301 151 161 11 91 51 81 21 0 11 01 1251 127[ 252
11i071031 Sii 1':71 3:1 2'1: 191 111 61 91 21 01 21 01 1 21911221214403


Totals by Ages ................| 37 1 523 | 500 [ 486 1 520 1 537 | 518 | 463 1356 210 | 147 | 57 | 30 | 15 [ 2 [ 2 [ I 14403


I












TABLE XXIII. AGE-SEX-GRADE DISTRIBUTION, GROUP C SCHOOLS-
18 SCHOOLS IN 14 COUNTIES


Age 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Total
Sex MI FIMI FIMI FI,MI FIMI FIMI FIMI FIMI FIMI F MI FIMI FIMI FIMI FI M FI M F M FI M M I FI [ F Mj
Chart Class ......................I 54| 591 431 331 281 17[ 151 121 10 51 71 21 4 2 11 0 01 11 |I I I | I I --- -1631i1311 294
Grade I ............................ 171 2712281228113911911 771 411 301 201 181 231 91 81 91 31 21 1 21 01 | I I I I I I I I I I I 1 5311 54211073
Grade II .............. ..............I I 101 1611321185111611041 531 611 331 301 131 161 151 81 51 7 21 31 21 11 1| 01 I I I --| 3821 4311 813
Grade III ..........................I I I 391 321134114811481191| 821 54| 481 36| 37| 17116[ 6 31 61 41 1| 0| 1 I I I I I I 5111 49211003
Grade IV .......................... I | 01 51 25 341141127|10811961 741 741 581 351 271 24 161 101 41 11 01 21 01 1 1 | 1 4261 5091 935
Grade V ............................ I I | 21 31 221 33112911241 831 851 731 711 461 42 351 171 8I 81 41 21 21 01 I) ---4041 3851 789
Grade VI ..........................I I I I I I I I 01 41 191 43| 931111 80| 88 64| 47 311 541 201 141 101 191 1 01 I 1 318 3801 698
Grade VII ........................I I I I- I I I I 4 10 2 33 82102 80 82 47 30 27| 161 3 3 2 1 0 1 2661 2781 544
Grade VIII ......................I I I I I I 1 1 1 3 1 3 16 22| 71 94 681 651 431 411 231 261 51 51 11 21 0 0 1 0] I 2311 258 489
Totals. Sexes and Ages..j 171 271292130313531446138213471382144814031485135113681375134813121303 204|1861108| 821 411 531 101 71 11 31 01 01 1| 0| I 132321340616638
Totals by Ages ................ 44 [ 595 ] 799 | 729 1 830 | 888 | 719 ] 723 | 615 390 ] 190 | 94 ] 17 | 4 [ 0 1 1 I 16638







48 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA

An age-grade table in a school or system of schools in
which there is a uniform or nearly uniform school year for all
pupils, and in which the curriculum is in every way adapted to
the needs and abilities of the pupils, will show approximately
the following distribution of pupils: 15 per cent retards, 70
per cent normals, and 15 per cent accelerates. In general, over-
ageness or retardation should balance under-ageness or ac-
celeration. This last statement is supported by the fact that
intelligence testing within the last few years has proved con-
clusively that "taking large groups of unselected children, there
are approximately as many children of superior ability, per
thousand, as there are of inferior ability." (6:351-352.)
The retardation of pupils in any school or system of schools
may be the result of one or more of the following chief causes:
1. Mental under-ageness. 2. Short school year. 3. Physical
defects and diseases. 4. Improper home care. 5. Irregular
school attendance. 6. Too many grades per teacher. 7. Too
many pupils per teacher. 8. Faulty curriculum. 9. Poor teach-
ing. 10. Inflexible promotions. 11. Lack of efficient supervi-
sion. It becomes evident from an examination of Tables XXI,
XXII, and XXIII that a child of superior mental ability, under
unfavorable school conditions may become a retarded child.
Keeping in mind that under ideal conditions the retards and
accelerates should each be approximately 15 per cent, and the
normals approximately 70 per cent, Table XXIV shows a dis-
tressing situation, especially in Group A schools. Conditions
are much better in Groups B and C.
TABLE XXIV. PERCENTAGE OF RETARDS, NORMALS ANE ACCELERATES IN
ALL GROUPS, AND IN ALABAMA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA
Schools Retards Normals Accelerates
Florida: Groups A, B and C.... 37.0 56.9 6.1
Group A ...................... 45.5 49.6 4.9
Group B ...................... 31.9 61.8 6.3
Group C ...................... 32.3 61.1 6.6
1Alabama: Rural and Village...... 54.4 40.1 5.5
City .............................. 43.6 52.1 4.3
"Kentucky: Rural .......................... 39.0 53.2 7.8
Graded District .......... 32.0 61.7 6.3
City .............................. 23.6 72.2 4.2
'Indiana: County ......---..........- ... 26.5 64.3 9.2
City .............................. 23.9 68.9 7.2
1An Educational Study of Alabama. 1919, pp. 92-93, 2-yr, range as in
this study.
2Public Education in Kentucky. 1921, p. 204, reduced to 2-yr. range.
3Public Education in Indiana. 1922, p. 25, reduced to 2-yr. range.







THE PUPILS


A comparison with somewhat similar types of schools in
three other States indicates that conditions with reference to
retardation and acceleration are not very different in Florida
from those found in Alabama, Kentucky and Indiana. Group
A schools have a higher percentage of retards and a lower
percentage of normals than any other schools given in Table
XXIV, except rural and village schools in Alabama. Group A
also has the lowest percentage of accelerates, except Kentucky
and Indiana city schools.
From the data given in previous chapters, the high per-
centage of retardation, and the low percentage of acceleration
in Group A schools, are undoubtedly due largely to the follow-
ing causes: 1. Short school year. 2. Too many pupils, or grades,
or both, per teacher. 3. Poor teaching. 4. Lack of supervision.
Other causes may be more important than these in particular
schools, but these stand out as the fundamental causes.
Considering the retardation of the three Groups (37 per
cent), as the rate for the State, there were enrolled in the ele-
mentary schools of Florida, in 1921-1922, 57,934 retarded
white pupils. (74:90-92.)
In Table XXV are given the percentage of retardation and
acceleration by grades in each Group, and for all Groups com-
bined. The same facts with reference to acceleration and re-
tardation are shown in Graphs I-XII.

TABLE XXV PERCENTAGE OF RETARDATION AND ACCELERATION
BY GRADES

Group A Group B Group C All Groups
C) C3 C)
Grades < O

Chart .............. 37.6 0.0 25.1 0.0 61.2 0.0 39.9 0.0
I ...................... 34.6 1.6 15.1 3.0 22.6 4.0 24.0 3.1
II ...............-.... 39.0 4.2 28.9 4.9 38.0 3.2 33.4 4.0
III .................... 44.9 6.0 32.9 5.4 31.0 7.0 35.8 6.3
IV .-....---........ 49.9 4.1 34.1 9.6 34.9 6.8 39.5 6.7
V ...................... 52.8 8.0 38.4 7.4 39.1 7.6 43.5 7.6
VI .................... 53.0 7.5 32.3 10.7 37.2 9.4 41.5 9.2
VII .................. 51.0 6.2 40.8 7.1 23.9 12.5 38.1 8.8
VIII ................ 52.3 7.9 51.4 6.7 30.1 8.8 42.7 8.1
All Grades...... 45.5 4.9 1 31.9 1 6.3 32.3 ) 6.6 37.0 1 6.1








ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


Graph 1. Di tri button of

school Popjlotion.
Group A Schools Acc
5.1,qZ P pis


o Graph l. Distribution of R-+ordofton. 19

o Groutp A SchoosI -.5 .7-. Pupil 9

Io Pq:rctn+aog of R e-ordc4aon bt Grades Ir



S5 .q 53. o
0 -\\ \'\\\\\'\\\" N\X\\ \\\.. \\\\v \\\,\ ^0







Chart 1 4 S .2: I 5n 3I 0




0q Graph _. Ditfribu+ion of Accelero+ion \o

sc Group A Schools- S.19Z P_ pils

-1 Percgnftge of Acc.clrafsont by Gradegs 3

Slo




3c

7,o

IQ *I 7 9., 6*Z -T.q 10
l -a^\\4\\S\\\^ ^ ^^ ^


I E -m j. 3x 7 ir. Virl


Chart I







THE PUPILS
-7
Graph V'. Distribution of
School Populatxion.
Group B Schools- 4o4 Ppils /


Groph V. DistributAion of Rq-+ordaion.
Group ) Schools-4.405 PLpils.
Perccn+fa_ of Retarda rion bL) Gradle-


.5~1.4


38.4-



L


5.1 I


Chart I


285q


K


32 34-I


r 3m M :


,, Graph I. Distribution of Acce-le-ration.
a8 Grou ip Schools 4,405 Pupils
SPercenraQ~e of A cce ra--ion bcy Graclqd. 10
Go



3so


' or.6 t"o- "
'Chart I 11 : M ME M2mo


N2.
K\







ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


ra Dsrbuoof
Graoh[. Disftibu+ion of


School Populaoion.
Group C Schools-6.658 Pupils.


, Graphl If. Dis-ribution of Re+ordation
go Group C Schools 6,6o58 Pupils.
Parcenfoie of PRe-ardaofion b m Grod s.










Chart I I 1 T I -\\\\\


Ibo -


SlX 31E : T TY -Ze


Graoph X. Distribution of AcciclroA-ion
Group C Schools ;38 Pupils.
Perc~n4a5g of Acc glerfa-on bc Graodes.








.q.5


charf I







THE PUPILS


GrophXt. Di5 ri bu+ion of
School Popoulaion
Groups A,~B&C Schoos -
1,.655 Pu I\5


4,


.I GraphX[. DIsfribution of i toardcaoon. o
o Group5 A B & C Schools- Io,81 5 Pupi. a
o1 Perc.n4a~ae RerordaQion b) Grdad-. 6_


o 50
r g.5 4Z.o
4c0 39.. q.5 .\ k\\I






crhar+ I JI irX _r T m r


0O-- 10I


Graph XIi. Dis+ribu+ion of Accelera+,on
Groups A. B, &C Schools I,855 Pupils.
Perc ,n4-oza o-F Ac.cC- e ra-ion b Grodes.










o \ 4.0 \.- \s "7
C4o


Chor)t


I I m T


1Y : 3W -m T1







ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


The excessive oxer-ageness of the pupils is shown in Table
XXVI. This table gives the distribution of the 6,213 retarded
or over-age pupils.

TABLE XXVI. DISTRIBUTION OF RETARDED PUPILS BY YEARS IN ALL
GROUPS

Number of Retarded Pupils

Number of Years Retarded I
o 0 0

One year retarded.............................. 1089 783 1008 2880
Two years retarded............................ 701 340 600 1641
Three years retarded......-................... 435 172 304 911
Four years retarded.......................... 229 90 154 473
Five years retarded.......................... 105 22 55 182
Six years retarded...-.......................... 52 8 24 84
Seven years retarded........................ 24 2 8 34
Eight years retarded........................ 3 0 1 4
Nine years retarded.......................... 2 0 1 3
Ten years retarded............................ 0 0 0 0
Eleven years retarded-....-................ 1 0 0 1
1 2641 1 1417 2155 6213

A study of Tables XXI, XXII and XXIII discloses the facts
that there are more retarded boys than retarded girls in each
Group, and that there are more accelerated girls than accel-
erated boys in each Group. Table XXVII gives the data for
each case and Group.

TABLE XXVII. TOTAL NUMBER OF RETARDS AND ACCELERATES BY
GROUPS AND SEXES

Retards Accelerates

Boys Girls Boys Girls
Group A ............................................ 1461 1180 110 178
Group B .............-...--..--................ 753 664 123 158
Group C .............................. ........... 1194 961 178 265
Totals.......--...........................-.. 3408 2805 411 601
Per Cent of Totals............................ 54.9 I 45.1 40.6 1 59.4

The enrollment in the Chart Class, as shown in Tables XXI,
XXII, and XXIII, supports the statement made in chapter II,
that there must be many nine-year elementary schools in
Florida.






BIBLIOGRAPHY


TABLE XXVIII. ENROLLMENT IN CHART CLASS AND GRADE VIII

Schools Enrollment

Chart Class Grade VIII
Group A ............................................... 585 432
Group ................................................... 299 252
G roup C .......................................................... 294 489
Totals..................................................- | 1,178 I 1,173
State of Florida (74:90, 92) ........................ 11,711 11,487

BIBLIOGRAPHY
The following bibliography is not comprehensive; it is
selective. Perhaps, the best has been omitted in some cases.
The fields are so full of the good. However, it is definite.
For the convenience of those who may wish to so use it,
space is left between each item of the bibliography. In these
spaces names and addresses of other publishers, and authors
and titles of other books and articles may be placed alphabeti-
cally. These may be lettered under their respective numbers, as
3a and 5a, pp. 92 and 93. At the end of the bibliography are
blank pages which may be used for bibliographic or other notes.
I. NAMES AND ADDRESSES OF PUBLISHERS
The names and addresses of publishers of books, pamphlets
and periodicals in this biblography are given below, preceded
by abbreviations used in the lists.
Allyn. Allyn and Bacon, Boston.

A. B. Co. American Book Co., New York.

Appleton. D. Appleton and Co., New York.

Badger. R. G. Badger, Boston.

Bobbs. Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, Ind.

Bruce. Bruce Publishing Co., Milwaukee, Wis.

Bu. of Ed. Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.


Century. Century Co., New York.






56 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA

Character. Character Education Co., Washington, D. C.

Ed. Ad. and Sup. Educational Administration and Super-
vision, Warwick and York, Baltimore, Md.

El. Sch. J. Elementary School Journal, University of Chi-
cago.

Flanagan. A. Flanagan Co., Chicago, Ill.

Gen. Ed. Bd. General Education Board, New York.

Ginn. Ginn & Co., New York.

Gov. P. Of. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.


H. M. Co. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

J. of N. E. A. Journal of National Education Association,
Washington, D. C.

Lincoln. Lincoln School of Teachers College, New York.

Lipp. J. B. Lippincott and Co., Philadelphia.

Long. Longmans, Green and Co., New York.

Macm. Macmillan Co., New York.

N. E. A. National Education Association, Washington,
D. C.

N. T. Assoc. National Tuberculosis Association, 370 Sev-
enth Ave., New York.

Peabody. Peabody Journal of Education, George Peabody
College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn.

Sch. and Soc. School and Society. The Science Press, Utica,
N. Y.






BIBLIOGRAPHY 57

Sch. Rev. School Review. University of Chicago Press.

Scribner. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

S. B. & Co. Silver, Burdett and Co., Chicago.

Teach. Col. Teachers College, University of Florida,
Gainesville.

Uni. Pub. Co. University Publishing Co., Chicago.

Welch. W. A. Welch Manufacturing Co., Chicago.

Williams. C. F. Williams and Son, Albany, N. Y.

World. World Book Co., Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York.

York. York and Warwick, Baltimore, Md.


II. OF SPECIAL VALUE FOR SUPERINTENDENTS AND PRIN-
CIPALS

1. Baldwin, B. T. Educational Research. Bu. of Ed. Bul-
letin, 1923, No. 42. Gov. P. Of. 10 cents.
A survey of research in education, 1920-1922.

2. Barrows, Alice. Bibliography of the Work-Study-Play
or Platoon Plan. City School Leaflet, No. 10, July
1923. Bu. of Ed. Free.

3. Bonser, F. G. The Elementary School Curriculum. 1920.
H. M. Co.
"Offered as a practical help to teachers, supervisors, principals,
and superintendents in the improvement of the elementary cur-
riculum." Takes the middle ground between a curriculum of
projects and one of subjects, and offers a natural transition to
the former.

3a. Brooks, S. S. Improving Schools by Standardized Tests.
1922. H. M. Co.
A most useful book for principals. The author says: "In its
field, the book is unique in at least two respects: (1) it is a






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


narration of actual experience-, and (2) it describes in detail
how a comprehensive, periodical testing program was planned
and carried out-." Every essential detail of a testing program
is given in a plain way.

4. Burton, W. H. Supervision and the Improvement of
Teaching. 1922. Appleton.
"This book is an attempt to discuss concretely the problems and
procedures of the elementary school supervisor." For superin-
tendents, principals and grade supervisors. A large book, XX
x510 pp. A cyclopedia of the subject. Very complete bibliogra-
phies.

5. Charters, W. W. Curriculum Construction. 1923. Macm.
Principles of curriculum building. Interpretation of collected
studies "in terms of the functional theory of curriculum con-
struction."

5a. Cole, T. R. Learning to be a Schoolmaster. 1922. Macm.

6. Cubberley, E. P. The Principal and His School. 1923.
H. M. Co.
An elementary school principal's manual. The author says in
his preface: "An attempt has been made in this volume to do
what in the industrial world is commonly spoken of as "job
analysis'." Definite, and very full references to recent books
and periodicals dealing with all phases of the principal's work.

7. Dansdill, Theresa. Health Training in Schools. 1923. N.
T. Assoc.
This book is a "comprehensive course of study for State and
local school systems. It is also a compilation from which sugges-
tive material may be drawn for the construction of other simi-
lar courses of study." A veritable cyclopedia of health educa-
tion.

8. Deffenbaugh, W. S. and Muerman, J. C. Administration
and Supervision of Village Schools. Bu. of Ed., Bul-
letin, 1919, No. 86. Gov. P. Of. 10 cents.
Excellent plans for a self survey.

9. Deffenbaugh, W. S. Administration of Schools in Smaller
Cities. Bu. of Ed., Bulletin, 1922, No. 2. Gov. P. Of.
10 cents.






BIBLIOGRAPHY


10. Department of Elementary School Principals. First Year
Book, 1922. The Technique of Supervision by the Ele-
mentary School Principal. N. E. A.


11. Department of Elementary School Principals. Second
Year Book, 1923. The Problem of the Elementary
School Principal in the Light of the Testing Movement.
N. E. A.


12. Department of Elementary School Principals. Third Year
Book, 1924. (To be published July, 1924; will deal
with the functions of the elementary school principal.)
N. E. A.


13. Department of Superintendence. Yearbook, 1924. A
Study of the Curriculum. N. E. A.


14. Educational Red Book. Published annually. Williams.
A buyer's guide, for superintendents, principals and boards
of education. Tells where to buy everything in any way con-
nected with schools. Saves time and worry.


15. Finney, R. L. and Schafer, A. L. The Administration and
Supervision of Village and Consolidated Schools. 1920.
Macm.
A pioneer book in this field. For principals of smaller schools.
Covers entire field; concrete; full references.


16. Fox, Florence C. Major Projects in the Elementary
School. Bu. of Ed. Bulletin, 1921, No. 36. Gov. P. Of.
10 cents.
Organization of subject matter in terms of projects, and a
series of projects in civics, history and literature.


17. Gates, C. Ray. The Management of Smaller Schools. 1923.
H. M. Co.
A handbook for the guidance of inexperienced principals and
superintendents. Very definite and practical. Very much like 5a
above.






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


18. Hahn, H. H. Projects in Observation and Practice Teach-
ing. 1921. Uni. Pub. Co.
An application of the project method to the training of teach-
ers. Purpose, "to develop principles of teaching in their natural
setting." Written primarily for training schools; but usable
by principals. Page references to the best books in the field.

19. Health Education Series. Bu. of Ed.
Classroom weight record and 15 numbers published (Jan.
1924). Write for a free sample of each.

20. Jones, W. W. Student Cooperation in School Govern-
ment. Sch. and Soc., 1921, vol. 13:251-258.

21. McMurry, C. A. How to Organize the Curriculum. 1923.
Macm.
An attempt to select and combine the best in the present over-
loaded elementary school curriculum, to "promote the continuous
educative growth of children through the school period."

22. Maxwell, C. R. The Observation of Teaching. 1917. H.
M. Co.
A manual for superintendents and principals who need help
to know what to look for in classroom visitation.

23. Modern Health Crusade. N. T. Assoc.
Write for free literature.

24. Nutt, H. W. The Supervision of Instruction. 1920. H.
M. Co.
Primarily a manual for those who train supervisors. Rather
technical.

25. Phillips, C. A. Modern Methods and the Elementary
School Curriculum. 1923. Appleton.
An attempt "to state significant aspects of the course of study
in connection with the nature, instincts and capacities of chil-
dren." Very useful for teachers' meetings. Not technical, but
definite, concrete.

26. Reinoehl, C. M. Analytical Survey of State Courses of
Study for Rural Elementary Schools. Bu. of Ed., Bul-
letin, 1922. No. 42. Gov. P. Of. 20 cents.






BIBLIOGRAPHY


27. Satchell, J. K. Student Participation in School Adminis-
tration. Sch. Rev., 1922, Vol. 30:733-741.

28. School Health Studies. Bu. of Ed. Write for samples.

29. School Records. Records and Reports. Williams. A
booklet and other useful helps. Free.

30. Sherrod, C. C. The Duties of the Elementary School Prin-
cipal. Peabody, Nov. 1923:135-142.

31. School Assemblies, Some Uses of. Lincoln. Free.

32. Student Council, The. Lincoln. Free.

33. Vandewalker, N. C. and Howard, H. E. References on
Pre-School and Kindergarten-Primary Education.
Bu. of Ed. Kindergarten Circular, No. 14. Bu. of Ed.

34. Wagner, C. A. Common Sense in School Supervision.
1921. Bruce.
An excellent book; correctly named. Not technical. Espe-
cially valuable for superintendents and principals who have not
had special training.

35. Welch, F. A. A Manual for the Use of Superintendents,
Principals and School Officials. 1922. Welch.
The title describes the book. More elementary than No. 6.
Valuable, tho handicapped by having no index or references.

III. USEFUL FOR TEACHERS' MEETINGS

36. Andress, J. M. Health Education in Rural Schools. 1919.
H. M. Co.
Good to head up health work. The author says: "This volume
is based on the conviction that the practice of hygiene should be
one of the foremost aims of the school."

37. Character Education Methods. 1922. Character.
The Iowa plan that won the $20,000 award. Results of an
interstate character-education-methods competition among 26
States. Best single book on character education thru the public
schools. Children's code of morals also published by Character.







ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


38. Finney, R. L. The American Public School. 1921. Macm.
Present day public school problems in the light of their his-
torical development. Teachers should know the history of their
business.

39. Flexner, Abraham. A Modern School. 1916. Gen. Ed. Bd.
Free.
Refreshingly radical.

40. Gregory, C. A. Fundamentals of Educational Measure-
ments. 1922. Appleton.
Covers in an elementary way the field of achievement and
mental tests. A beginner's text.

41. Hines, H. C. A Guide to Educational Measurements.
1923. H. M. Co.
Covers same ground as 40, in much the same way.

42. Horn, J. L. The American Elementary School. 1923. Cen-
tury.
The sub-title, A Study of Fundamental Principles, describes
the book. Useful with a group of trained teachers.

43. Martz, C. E. and Kinneman, J. A. Social Science for
Teachers. 1923. H. M. Co.
The social studies form the core of the curriculum. This book
recognizes and helps teachers to see their part in "making democ-
racy safe for the world". Not a technical book, but "frankly a
very elementary treatise on the life of people in organized
society".

44. Merriam, J. L. Child Life and the Curriculum. 1920.
World.
The author says: "My discussion of the curriculum herein
presented is virtually a report upon the actual conduct of a
school during the past twelve years." Experimental work done
in the University Elementary School at Columbia, Missouri.
Reference and reading lists for pupils very valuable. Usable
with great profit with any group of teachers. Sanely radical.

45. Pittman, M. S. Successful Teaching in Rural Schools.
1921. A. B. Co.
An application of the best present day practices in education
to the one-teacher rural school. Presented in the form of a series







BIBLIOGRAPHY


of attractive letters. Excellent for groups of teachers in schools
with two to five or six teachers.


46. Phillips, C. A. Modern Methods and the Elementary School
Curriculum. (See 25, above.)


47. Stark, W. E. Every Teacher's Problems. 1922. A. B. Co.
The case plan used: 241 problems solved and proposed, dealing
with all the phases of the work of teachers and principals.
References definite and full. The author says the chief purpose
of the book is to enable the teacher to become "a professional,
problem-solving teacher."


IV. FOR THE CLASSROOM TEACHER

48. Abbot, Julia W. Kindergarten Education. Gov. P. Of.
10 cents.


49. Cook, Selda. Teachers' Ideas of Helpful Supervision. Ed.
Ad. and Sup., Dec. 1923:554 ff.


50. Rapeer, L. W., Editor. How to Teach Elementary Subjects.
1918. Scribner.


51. Robbins, C. L. The Socialized Recitation. 1920. Allyn.


52. Strayer, G. D. and Engelhardt, N. L. The Classroom
Teacher. 1920. A. B. Co.


53. Subcommitte of the Bureau of Education of the Interna-
tional Kindergarten Union. 1922. Gov. P. Of. 10
cents.


54. Teachers of Kindergarten and First Grade. Horace Mann
School, New York. A Conduct Curriculum for the Kin-
dergarten and First Grade. 1923. Scribner.
An outgrowth of years 'of experiment. Introduction by Patty
Smith Hill. Almost the last word in this field.







ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


V. SPECIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SCHOOL DISCIPLINE*

55. Bagley, William C. School Discipline. 1914. Macm.
Entire book of 252 pp.

56. Colvin, Stephen S. An Introduction to High School Teach-
ing. 1917. Macm.:59-128.

57. Strayer, Geo. D. and Engelhardt, N. L. The Classroom
Teacher. 1920. A. B. Co.
Training for citizenship-student government-moral educa-
tion-punishment, etc.: 95-111.

58. Bennett, Henry E. School Efficiency. A Manual of Mod-
ern School Management, 1917. Ginn.
The problem of punishment, student government, etc.: 95-111.

59. Mattfield, H. W. Jr. A Study of Smoking. Sch. and Soc.
Jan. 1924:26-31.

60. O'Shea, M. V. Everyday Problems in Teaching. 1912.
Bobbs.
Problems of discipline: 35-66.

61. Davis, S. E. The Work of the Teacher. 1916. Macm.
Governing and maintaining morale, student participation in
government, etc.: 102-138.

62. Burnett, T. J. The Essentials of Teaching. 1916. Long-
mans.
A book for amateurs. pp. 148-174.

63. Lincoln, L. I. Everyday Pedagogy. 1915. Ginn.
Discipline: 282-289.

64. Dutton, Samuel T. School Management. 1903. Macm.
The government of the school: 86-97.

65. Fitch, J. C. Lectures on Teaching. 1908. Macm.
Discipline: 92-120.


*Prepared by J. B. Walker, a graduate student in Teachers College,
University of Florida.







BIBLIOGRAPHY


66. Murphy, D. C. Turning Points in Teaching. 1901. Flan-
agan.
Managing the bad boy; managing the bad girl; critical mo-
ments in the schoolroom, etc.: 56-104.

67. Sanborn, F. Discipline in Schools. Education, Dec. 1922:
244-49.

68. Sampson, C. H. Factors in Discipline. Educational Re-
view, June, 1923:24-5.

69. Training Teachers in Management. El. Sch. J., May, 1923:
651-2.

70. Rich, S. G. Educational Functions of School Discipline.
Educational Review, October, 1923:143-146.

71. Geisert, H. A. Educative Discipline. Education, April,
1923:457-467.

72. Patri, A. Moral Education. Building Character Through
Self Discipline. Delineator, May, 1923:2.

VI. MISCELLANEOUS

73. Abel, J. G. Consolidation of Schools and Transportation
of Pupils. Bu. of Ed. Bulletin, 1923, No. 41. Gov. P.
Of. 25 cents.

74. Cawthon, W. S. Biennial Report of the Superintendent of
Public Instruction of the State of Florida, 1920-1922.

75. Gesell, Arnold. The Pre-School Child. 1923. H. M. Co.
Health and education of the child before the sixth year.

76. McArthur, Gertrude. A Study of the Conditions of the
Rural Schools in Peninsular Florida. 1922. Teach. Col.

77. Pickard, J. L. School Supervision. 1890. Appleton.
A solid old book. History of supervision. Uses term supervi-
sion in widest sense.






ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA


78. Research Department of the National Education. The
Menace of Illiteracy. J. of N. E. A., Oct. 1922:343-344.

79. Roemer, Joseph. A Study of Florida High Schools. 1921.
Teach. Col.

80. Seerley, H. H. The American Teacher. Bu. of Ed., Bul-
letin, 1922, No. 44. Gov. P. Of. 5 cents.

81. Superintendent of Public Instruction. Compilation of the
School Laws of Florida, Including Laws of 1923.


VII. PERIODICALS
A. Professional

82. American Educational Digest, Lincoln, Nebraska.
"The school executives' magazine."

83. American School Board Journal. Bruce.
For superintendents and principals.

84. Education. The Palmer Co., Boston.

85. Educational Administration and Supervision. Ed. Ad.
and Sup.

86. Educational Review. Doubleday, Page and Co., Garden
City, N. Y.

87. Elementary School Journal. El. Sch. J.

88. Journal of Educational Research. Public School Publish-
ing Co., Bloomington, Ill.

89. Journal of the Florida Education Association. Winter
Park, Fla.

90. Journal of the National Education Association, N. E. A.

91. National School Digest. 2457 Prairie Ave., Chicago.






BIBLIOGRAPHY


92. School Life. Bu. of Ed.

93. School Review. Sch. Rev.


B. Current Events in School

94. Current Life. The Current Life Co., 500 Fifth Ave., N.
Y. City.
"An illustrated survey of the world for junior students and
busy adults."

95. Looseleaf Current Topics. Institute of Public Service,
1125 Amsterdam Ave., New York City.
Excellent for elementary school.

96. The Scholastic. Scholastic Publishing Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.
"An ideal magazine for the classroom," so say the publishers.






68 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA






BIBLIOGRAPHY 69






70 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA







BIBLIOGRAPHY 71







72 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA







BIBLIOGRAPHY 73







74 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OF FLORIDA




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