University of Florida
Oxford University, England
Address i leliveied to Student Body by
GILCHRIST STOCIKTON. B.Litt. (Princeton), B.A. (Oxford)
February 20, 1923
The University of Florida
A. A. MURPHREE, LL.D., President
The College of Arts and Sciences offers advantages for a liberal edu-
cation in four-year courses leading to the degrees of B.A. and B.S.
James N. Anderson, A.M., Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins), Dean.
The School of Pharmacy, T. R. Leigh, Ph.D. (Chicago), Director.
The College of Agriculture provides instruction in all branches of
agriculture in short courses from four months to two years and in
a four-year course leading to the degree of B.S.A. Wilmon Newell,
D.Sc. (Iowa State), Dean.
The College of Engineering affords technological training in four-
year courses in chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical engineering,
leading to corresponding Bachelors' degree in engineering. John R.
Benton, B.Sc., Ph.D. (Gottingen), Dean.
The College of Law-Member of the American Law School Associa-
tion-offers a standard three-year course and confers LL.B. and J.D.
degrees. Harry R. Trusler, A.M., LL.B. (Michigan), Dean.
The Teachers College provides teacher training for public school ser-
vice, and offers four-year courses leading to the degrees of B.A. and
B.S. in Education, and B.S. in Agricultural Education. James W.
Norman, Ph.D. (Columbia), Dean.
The Graduate School-Courses leading to the degrees of M.A., M.S.,
M.S.A., M.A. in Ed. and M.S. in Ed.
The Teachers' Summer School is co-educational. College courses for
credit are offered.
The Agricultural Experiment Station conducts agricultural research.
The Agricultural Extension Division maintains branches of Farm
and Home Demonstration work, carried on by agents and through cor-
The General Extension Division carries the benefits of the University
to those who are unable to study in residence, through correspondence
study and public welfare work representing the Colleges of Arts and
Sciences, Education, Engineering and Law.
Sixteen units required for admission to the Freshman Class.
For catalog or further information address
E. L. COWAN, REGISTRAR
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
Mr. President, Members of the Faculty, and Students of the
University of Florida:
I have been invited to Gainesville to tell you about the
Rhodes Scholarships. I can remember very well the first
time I ever heard the words "Rhodes Scholarship" and I
rushed to the World's Almanac to find out what they meant.
After reading the requirements according to Mr.. Rhodes'
will I immediately lost interest. I felt that I had just as good
a chance of becoming President of the United States. My
brother's appointment for Florida again stimulated my in-
terest, and as the years passed by I came into personal contact
with several Rhodes Scholars. I looked them over and decided
to try myself. The year that I was appointed a disastrous
Latin prose examination eliminated my strongest competitors.
I escaped it, having passed the examinations the preceding
year and being on the waiting list. I think that President
Murphree is wise in having old Rhodes Scholars talk to you
about the Scholarships, for you cannot help from saying to
yourself "If that man got one it can't be very difficult". A
Rhodes Scholarship will not be to you the vague, impossible
thing I thought it was from my perusal of the World's Al-
manac. It is a wonderful opportunity open to any one of you.
You will compete against each other here and against men
in other colleges just like you, with your abilities and limita-
tions, and I think it is always comforting to realize that we
haven't got to play against "Bogie".
I am going to try to cram into a few minutes the story
of the Scholarships which to be complete must include some-
thing about Mr. Rhodes, his purpose in creating them, what
they are, how to get them, what is done with them when they
are won, and, lastly, something about Oxford, and that is just
where I am going to fall down worse, for I know I can never
do for you what nobody ever did for me-translate Oxford in-
to words. To know Oxford you must live there as a student. I
never knew it until the early morning mists from Thames
had soaked into the marrow of my bones and my "scout" had
ceased to awe me,-but Oxford comes later.
Cecil John Rhodes was born in 1853, on the day after
the 4th of July. Like Benjamin Franklin, he was one of
many children and like Theodore Roosevelt, ill health laid
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
the foundation of his future greatness. After his health
broke down he was sent at the age of seventeen to join a
brother in Natal. That year diamonds were discovered near
Kimberly, and he was a successful digger. At nineteen he
was restored to health and financially independent. It was at
this early age that he conceived "the governance of the world
by the British race" as his objective, but he decided to take
a degree at Oxford before actively pursuing his ideal. He
was matriculated at Oriel College, where he had been pre-
ceded two centuries previously by another great Empire
Builder, Sir Walter Raleigh. Due to another breakdown
Rhodes was at Oxford off and on for over eight years, but
when he took his degree he was also a member of Parliament
of the Cape of Good Hope.
After his return to South Africa his rise to financial and
political power was rapid. Nine years after taking his Ox-
ford Degree he found himself in control of three great stock
companies, the British South Africa Company, the DeBeers
Consolidated Mines and the Gold Fields of South Africa, and
also Prime Minister of Cape Colony. He had amassed a
great fortune. He dreamed of a Federation of South Africa
and upon the formula of "independence within the empire"
he welded the contending Dutch and British elements into
harmony. He had been slowly reaching northward, adding
vast territories to the British Empire, first Bechuanaland,
then the country beyond the Zambesi, and lastly an immense
area of 450,000 square miles named in his honor "Rhodesia".
The extension of German East Africa to the Congo by treaty
defeated his dream of "Africa, British from the Cape to
Cairo". In the crash that followed the Jameson Raid the
autocrat of Africa was pulled down from his pinnacle of
power. He resigned the premiership and retired to Rhodesia
where, by his presence and example, he stimulated the devel-
opment of his colony. Then came the Boer War. He was in
Kimberly during the siege and, weakened by the privations
he had endured, he died in 1902 after a British victory was
assured, but before peace had been signed. This was the man
who conceived and made possible these Scholarships.
In his will Rhodes established in perpetuity scholarships
for all the principal British Colonies, for each of the United
States and for Germany. His objectives in creating his Trust
1. A union of the English speaking peoples, and
2. World peace through a closer understanding between three
great powers, the United States, Germany and the British Empire.
Originally a Scholarship was worth 300 a year, which at
a normal rate of exchange was about $1500.00. Due to the
increase in prices in England, scholars will receive until fur-
ther notice a bonus of 50 a year, making 350 a year, which
in actual purchasing power is hardly equal to what the
original scholars received.
Two Scholarships are assigned to each state, and the states
are divided into three groups, two groups electing scholars
each year and one being omitted. Last December Florida
selected a scholar who will go into residence at Oxford next
October. Florida will choose another scholar next December
to go into residence at Oxford in October, 1924, and that is
the scholarship in which I would like to stimulate your in-
A Rhodes Scholarship is tenable only at Oxford and it is
good for three years.
The rules of eligibility are simple. A candidate must
1. Be a male citizen of the United States and unmarried.
2. Have passed his nineteenth and not have passed his twenty-
fifth birthday by October 1st of the year he goes into residence. (The
Florida Rhodes Scholar who will go to Oxford in 1924 must have been
born on or after Oct. 1, 1899, and before Oct. 1, 1905).
3. By Oct. 1st, 1924 have completed at least his Sophomore year
in some recognized degree-granting university or college in the United
A candidate may apply either for the State in which he has
his home or for any State in which he may have received at
least two years of his college education before applying. A
man who has spent two years in the University of Florida may
apply for Florida although his home may be in another state.
Originally as many candidates might apply as could pass
the examinations known as Responsions. These examinations
and the requirement of Greek kept down the number of appli-
cants. With the elimination of Greek and all other examina-
tions a new method of selection known as "Institutional Se-
lection" has been devised to keep the Committees from being
swamped with applications. Candidates must be approved
by their own colleges before they can apply to the Selection
Committees. Methods for making this preliminary selection
have been left to each college to devise for itself.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
The number of candidates who may represent a college
is determined by the size of the student body. For institutions
with less than 500 students not more than two candidates
are allowed, for institutions with from 500 to 1000 students
not more than three candidates, with from 1000 to 2000
students not more than four, and with more than 2000 stu-
dents not more than five.
President Murphree will decide when the University of
Florida shall make its selection in order to make it possible
for its representatives to file applications with the Secretary
of the State Committee of Selection.
The bases of a selection to a scholarship are:-
1. Qualities of manhood, force of character, and leadership.
2. Literary and scholastic ability and attainments.
3. Physical vigor as shown by interest in outdoor sports or in
Participation in athletics is an essential qualification, but
Committees have been instructed not to regard exceptional
athletic distinction as equal in importance with other re-
I know that these requirements sound staggering, but as
I have said, it is comforting to know that you will compete
against men just like yourselves. The ideal Rhodes Scholar
should excel in all three of these requirements, but the ideal
Rhodes Scholar is hard to find. I saw very few of them at
Oxford. The Rhodes Scholars as a group are simply average
American college men, who in their colleges stood out among
their fellow students, because they tried a little harder. I
think that each Rhodes Scholar is just a little disappointed at
first with his fellow scholars. They are not so wonderful as
he had hoped they would be. There are few geniuses among
them. In the American Club at Oxford you will find that
they look and talk like a group of congenial souls such as you
will find gathered together on any American campus.
The most important question for a newly elected Rhodes
Scholar to decide is what college he shall select. The aver-
age American student knows very little about Oxford col-
leges and Christ Church, Magdalen, and Oriel are merely
names to him, if that. I was at Christ Church and I would
recommend it, but the problem is not as simple as that. You
have to send to Secretary of the Rhodes Trust at Oxford
your list of colleges in the order of your choice. The Scholars
are scattered among eighteen of the colleges comprising
Oxford University and your first choice may have taken its
quota. In such a case your name will be passed down the
line until some college takes you. Your list should be ju-
diciously arranged so that the college of your second choice
will not take offense at your having selected another college
first. The only way I know how you can obtain such inform-
ation is to waylay old Rhodes Scholars, the more recently
they have returned from Oxford the better.
Many of you will ask, "Why should we go to Oxford?"
I shall tell you that it will not be to get a better education
than you can in the United States, for you can get just as good
here as you can afford or earn. I heard Prof. Dicey say that
Harvard was probably the best Law School in the English-
speaking world. Oxford can teach you nothing in medicine
that you can not get at Johns Hopkins. Oxford can possibly
give you a better course in the Classics, Greek and Latin,
than you can get in any American University, but few of
us are interested in that. Most men go to Oxford to broaden
their vision and to take advantage of the opportunity for
foreign travel. A student only spends twenty-four weeks
out of the year at Oxford in three terms of eight weeks each
sandwiched between two short vacations of six weeks each
at Christmas and Easter, and a long summer vacation of over
three months. There is plenty of time for traveling. I was
at Oxford during the war, but indirectly as the result of my
scholarship I am at home in London, Paris, Brussels, Antwerp,
and Vienna and it would not be easy to lose me in Rotterdam,
Berlin, Prague, Buda-Pest or Warsaw. In peace time a
Rhodes Scholar has a wide range. Many wander from
Scandinavia to North Coast of Africa. Most of them are
well acquainted with Continental Europe. Some have even
explored the Balkans and Turkey. A few have climaxed their
Oxford experience by returning home around the world via
India, Japan, and the Philippines. I have never known a
Rhodes Scholar who regretted having taken his Scholarship.
Show me one who does and I'll show you a man who missed-
Oxford, who lost his opportunity, who failed no matter how
he stood in the Final Schools. A Rhodes Scholar is thrown
into a strange environment together with two men from
every other state in the Union. Not only is he placed in close
contact with men from every corner of the English speaking
8 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
world, but he is given an opportunity of knowing intimately
men from every state in his own country, such as is afforded
by no American University. His detachment enables him
to judge his country and its institutions from a new p...int
of view. Mr. Rhodes wisely provided an age limitation so
that his scholars would be still impressionable and yet not
too young to be influenced unduly by a foreign environment.
Mr. Rhodes never desired to make Englishmen out of his
American scholars. What he wanted was Americans wh\li
would return to their own country enriched by their Oxford
experience and in sympathy with his ideal of World Ptace
and a deeper understanding among English speaking people...
He hoped that his ex-scholars would enter public life in theiir
own communities and this hope has not yet been realized t.,
any great extent, but I think that his wish that they shu.uld
leave Oxford with his ideal of "a better understanding among
English speaking peoples" as their own has been more than
How I wish that I might show you Oxford not as it is
shown by pictures, a series of colleges, architecturally beau-
tiful, but soul-less, and not as I might show it to you by guid-
ing you through its winding streets, but as I would like to
try to show it to you over an Oxford fire after you had spent
days pottering through the colleges by yourself with a guide
book in hand. Oxford cast a spell over me. There is some-
thing in the atmosphere that grips you. You seem to sense
its antiquity. You breathe in its learning. But most of all
I was impressed by its story, full of human interest and filled
with great and familiar names of men who influenced the his-
tory of the British Empire. Let me take.you down the High,
one of the world's most interesting and picturesque streets.
We pass on our right Oriel, Cecil Rhodes' college. Next comes
University College, asserted to have been founded by Alfred
the Great, but never proved. This is the college which expelled
Shelley and would not matriculate Rhodes, because he wouldn't
read for Honors, and the college of one of my own best friends,
De Villiers, a South African Rhodes Scholar, whose French
Huguenot ancestors had settled in Africa long before the Brit-
ish ever hoisted a flag over the Cape, a one-eyed man who saw
more than most of us do with two, who was British to the
core, but not English, and who used to amuse me by saying
"These English make me ill, sitting here in their fog-ridden
little island talking about their Empire. It's ours, ours, whose
forefathers went out and took it from the savage and the
On the banks of the Cher, at the end of the High, stands
Magdalen, the most beautiful college in Oxford, whose grace-
ful tower no Oxonian will ever forget, the college of Addison,
the Essayist, of Gibbon, the historian, of Charles Reade, who
wrote the "Cloister and the Hearth", and of the present Prince
of Wales. Returning up the High we pass Queen's, named
after its founder the Queen Mother of the Black Prince and
attended by him, but more interesting still is the fact that even
to this day Queen's brews its own ale. In this manner we
could wander through them all,-Balliol, which to Balliol men
is the center of Oxford intellectuality, in comparison with
which the other Oxford colleges are nothing more or less than
glorified lodging houses. Balliol is the college of Southey,
Sir Edward Grey, and Asquith,-Merton, the college of Sir
Randolph Churchill, which educated him so imperfectly that
when Chancellor of the Exchequer, which corresponds to our
Secretary of the Treasury, he was confronted with some deci-
mals he had to send for a permanent official to tell him "the
meaning of those damn dots".-New College, founded in 1379,
over a hundred years before Columbus discovered America,
and called "new" to distinguish it from other colleges founded
a few centuries sooner. This college is famous among Oxon-
ians of today for its beautiful gardens and endowed gate.
Every college maintains a porter at its entrance and shortly
after Great Tom rings the curfew the gates begin to close. To
help defray the cost of porters a charge is made for opening
the gate, the amount increasing with the lateness of the hour.
This is a grievous burden on the Oxford undergraduate, for
he is seldom in his own college when the gate closes, and if he
is, generally has visitors from other colleges, and he has to pay
to let his guests out. Some philanthropist, who as an under-
graduate had probably been not only always late, but also prob-
ably always broke, endowed the gate in his will. New College
students no longer have to pay for returning to thiir college
late in the evening. The charge is not abolishedl-oh no, Ox-
ford never abolishes anything-the fee is nmei.rly charged to
this Patron Saint of New College. The end.owmlent of the gate
is probably partly responsible for this college's gieat popu-
larity with American Rhodes Scholars. The fact that Oxford
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
never abolishes anything reminds me that upon matricolatiu:-n
an undergraduate receives a large tome, bound in c,:th. cion-
taining the University Statutes which he is apparently sup-
posed to read. Evidently the University has nev:ir ..!:-:ealc- a
statute, for they commence in medieval Latin arnd :-irn:ilg tihe
first prohibitions is the warning against shooting :,ows\-and-
arrows in the quads.
So I might comment on them all for each has its special
interest. Pembroke, Dr. Johnson's college; All Sou:,l. Blick-
stone's college; Trinity, Cardinal Newman's; Corpus Christi
and Hertford, interesting to Americans as the respective
colleges of General Oglethorpe, who founded the State of
Georgia, and of Charles James Fox. Wadham, the college of
Sir Christopher Wren, the architect of Tom Tower and St.
Paul's Cathedral, London. I haven't time to tell you of the
others, for I want to dwell a little more in detail on my own
college, Christ Church, founded by Cardinal Wolsey, and
known originally as "Cardinal College". It boasts such illus-
trious names as John Locke, the Philosopher, John Wesley,
William Penn, King Edward VII and a host of British Prime
Ministers, including Lord Liverpool, Lord Salisbury, Lord
Roseberry, Canning, Sir Robert Peel, Gladstone and others.
The head of the college is also Dean of Christ Church, Eng-
land's smallest cathedral. It is this combination of church and
college which makes it unique among Oxford Colleges. At its
foundation the number of students was limited to 101. The
101 strokes of Great Tom which are heard every evening at
nine o'clock were originally ordered as a separate reminder
to each one of the students that it was time to go to bed. Five
minutes after the last stroke the gates of every college in
Oxford, as I have already explained, are closed, though porters
are on hand to open them to those who knock-for a considera-
Christ church is especially proud of Tom Quad. Due to
its vastness, Tom Quad has an "air about it" which no other
Oxford quad has. All House men, as Christ Church men are
called, agree with the Oxonian who said:
"It seems incredible that the student who has had the right to pace
Tom Quad should go away and fail in life. It does not cease to seem
incredible when one learns that it has sometimes happened."
No story of Christ Church would be complete without men-
tioning Lewis Carroll, the astronomical mathematician, who
found a heroine in hii Dean's little daughter and who gave to
the world tlhi immortal and inimitable "-Alice' Adventures in
The \-war prevented men of my year from knowing the Ox-
ford that Rhodes AWllntt.l Lus to klnow, but in illlny -llVays our
opportunities \ere greater than those of iour redeceso:l-: rs.- ) an'l
our exIprien(:t- al)bral duhiring the l\'oril crisis %\ill grow
umore va\luihile as they r eede into the past.
A great p)hil:o-:pher ha, s:iid, "In order to:' do g at things,
I\Le Sihould live as thoughll we \wre\ ne\ :i ri t lie". Rhodes,
whether or nolt he had. ever read: this riemnairk. i.nderst:ood its
trie signil'eance. He dlid what he dlid in the lirief slpan of
forty-nine f year's. If e ehJ l lha ben given to l'rece''tli he night
have lihra'sed his hliloo:lhy of life in this manner:-
"In order to ido great things, v.e 5h',)ulll pi'an rLour live
:as thou:iighi we were never to die. but shouli-I work, wosrk, work
as thoui.igh we night have to liuiflle ,lT1 this mortal coril to-
Let i.u remember with RhaIle. while we live. that "the
greatest hIl: pine'ss in lilf is to bI.e derive': from the con-
scious pursuit of a great purpose". and let us not forget that
even in spite of all that h -iadl accomplished, his last vwori'
were. "So much to do--o little done".