• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Preface
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Main














Title: University record
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 Material Information
Title: University record
Uniform Title: University record (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the State of Florida
University of Florida
Publisher: University of the State of Florida,
University of the State of Florida
Place of Publication: Lake city Fla
Publication Date: October 15, 1932
Copyright Date: 1932
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: College publications -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Agricultural education -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
University extension -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Teachers colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Law schools -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1906)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issue for Vol. 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1907) is misnumbered as Vol. 1, no. 1.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Imprint varies: <vol. 1, no. 2-v.4, no. 2> Gainesville, Fla. : University of the State of Florida, ; <vol. 4, no. 4-> Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida.
General Note: Issues also have individual titles.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075594
Volume ID: VID00418
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEM7602
oclc - 01390268
alephbibnum - 000917307
lccn - 2003229026
lccn - 2003229026

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 621
    Preface
        Page 622
        Page 623
        Page 624
    Title Page
        Page 625
        Page 626
    Foreword
        Page 627
        Page 628
    Table of Contents
        Page 629
        Page 630
        Page 631
        Page 632
    Main
        Page 633
        Page 634
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Full Text




The


University


Record


of the


University


of Florida


Twenty-Fi've


Million


Dollars


Annually from Research


Vol. XXVII, Series I


No. 20


October 15, 1932


* *

















The University Record of the University of Florida is issued twice every month.


The Record comprises:


The Reports of the President and the Board of Control, the Bulletin of Gen-


eral Information, the annual announcements of


the individual colleges


University, announcements of special courses of instruction, and reports of the
University Officers.

These bulletins will be sent gratuitously to all persons who apply for them. The


applicant should


specifically state which bulletin


or what information


is desired;


Address


THE REGISTRAR,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.


Research Publications.-Research publications will


contain results


research


work.


Papers are published as separate monographs numbered in several series.


There is no free mailing list of these publications.


are arranged by the University Library.


Exchanges with institutions


Correspondence concerning such exchanges


should be addressed to the University Librarian, University of Florida, Gainesville,


Florida.


The issue and sale of all these publications is


under the control of the


Committee on Publications.


Requests for individual copies, or for any other copies


not included


in institutional


exchanges,


should


addressed


to the University


Library, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.


The Committee on


University


Publications,


University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.







LETTER


TRANSMITTAL


For some time an appraisal of the research work at the Univer-


sity
been
plan


of Florida has


been


contributed


most


efficient


badly


needed.


economic
application


To determine


structure


what


past


effort


has


and


future,


inventory


of research


projects


seemed


necessary


Accordingly


some time ago I appointed a committee of the faculty


consisting


Mr.


Harold


Hume


, Chairman,


Assistant


Director


Re-


search,


Agricultural Experiment Stations


Townes R.


Leigh,


Dean


College


College


of Pharmacy


Commerce


and


Dean


Walter


Journalism


Matherly


Clarence


Vernon


Noble


, Agricultural


Economist


, Experiment Station


Dr. Arthur


Bless


, Associate Professor of Physics, and Professor P


Reed,


Head of the Department of Civil Engineering.


The


accompanying


committee.
acquainted


This


with


bulletin


study


work


verifies


of the


result
belief


University


work


that


have


many


held


those


, viz.,


yearly contribution to the economic welfare of the State made by


University far exceeds


the amount appropriated


for it


sup-


port.


this


time


University


has


carried


on research


most


effectively


along


agricultural lines


as a result


stimulation


the Federal


Government.


When


work


was


first undertaken


funds for these investigations were provided almost entirely from


federal sources but


in recent


years


they


have


been supported in


large measure by State appropriations.


eral


along


Government


industrial


done


and


nothing


commercial lines.


Unfortunately


as yet to


stimulate


The State


has


the Fed-
research
neglected


important field.


There is little doubt that the present services of the


University


State


programs


may


greatly


research and


enlarged
carrying


addition


forward


more


other


diligently


some of the work that is already in progress.


JNO.


TIGERT.


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TWENTY-FIVE MILLION
DOLLARS ANNUALLY
FROM RESEARCH




































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"







FOREWORD


For years past,
appropriations, h.


research work


, supported by state and national


as been carried on at the


University of Florida.


In an effort to determine whether these expenditures are justified,


and,


looking


future


determine


whether


line


activity should be extended or curtailed,


made within the past year


a careful survey has been


. It has not been possible to cover every


detail


, but in a broad way the result


e University have
The findings of thi


been examined


study


from research activities at


carefully.


establish beyond doubt the fact that


research
mendous


carried


on at the


University


of Florida has


been a


tre-


factor in the development of the commonwealth and that


without these investigations the


potential resources of the state


would not have and could not have been developed to their value


as of this


time.


clearly


indicated


that


University


has


served the state well


that its limitation


have been


those


neces-


stated by force of circumstances,


and that it can from


time


forward


render a


service


tate


many


time


greater than


it has in the past.


The state cannot progress except on


the basis


of research and education and the


University is prepared to lead


the way.


The placing of exact values upon research is not easy


. In some


cases


values


are


tangible


and


can


approximated


readily


while in others they are intangible and fax-reaching.


Values of


this


sort are


cumulative


results


an investment


in the


development of the state,


they project themselves into the years


to come,


their effect


are never-ending.


The discovery


of funda-


mental facts pertaining to soils,


plants and animal


, for instance,


reaches


down


very


basis


successful


agriculture;


it in-


fluences the results of the farmer's


work indefinitely


the finding of one truth leads to the discovery
the way is opened for further advancement.


of another


. Moreover,


so that


Who can place a value upon


the discovery that the application


of copper to the soil would make


the growing of


crops on Ever-


glades lands


possible,


where


without


agricultural


crops


could


fT4-'k~rmf 4 nn honnir ranoclllfa frrim rcOQO roh


l-"^r JWM^-^VT V


1 R*-


Tw n T






Studies initiated in the field of economics and the social sciences


are


vast


importance


Florida.


The


problems


pressing


solution are vital to the welfare of the commonwealth.


Nowhere


else can they be solved


o well as at the University


. So far as the


outcome


an investigation


is concerned


is a


disinterested


party


devoted solely to finding the


truth


, to developing the


fact


Only in


this


way


can


the proper


solution


problem


taxation
instance


of assessment


of tax


districts and


of government,


be found.


Research


pharmaceutical


These


natural


pharmacy
resources


resources


has
tied


can


gone


enough


Florida'


and


should


indicate


native


plant


developed.


life.
This


can


take


place


only


through


properly


supported


and


directed


research.
secured.


a virgin


field


from


which


much


wealth


may


Chemical investigations


Florida's


water resources are


fun-


damental


to their


development and to their uses


in many ways.


As the state'


population increase


the value


the work


done


in thi


field will increase.


Florida needs more


not less


research at it


university and thi


earch should cover the widest possible field.









CONTENTS


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY .


Salt-Sick


S 6 . * 4 S 4 4 . *. S 4 4 4 4 5 4 9.4 ** . S S S S * a


. . S S S S 4 9. 5 5. 5 5 4 S S S S S S S 4 5. 4l 6 4


a a S S S S 5 4 5 5 S S S SI S S S 4 4 5 4 5 5 S S S 4 4 5 4 6 5 5 4 5 S S S S S S S S S 5 4 5


Range Cattle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636

The Dairy Herd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636
Pork Production .. 638

Soybean Silage For Cattle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639

Diseases of Live Stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640


Manson's Eyeworm

Poultry Diseases .


Internal Parasites of Poultry


Nutritional Diseases

Anaplasmosis .....


CHEMISTRY AND SOILS RESEARCH

Early Soil Studies .......

Studies of Florida Phosphates


Everglades Soil Problems .. .. .. . 6. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . 642


The Value of Manganese .....

Citrus Fertilizer Investigations

Analyses of Citrus Fruits ....


Forest Soil Research


ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . . .

Citrus Whitefly Fungi . . . . . . . . . .. .

Cottony Cushion Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Citrus Aphid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Strawberry Crimp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Cover Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . 646








CO N T ENTS- Continued


FIELD CROP RESEARCH


Permanent Pasture Studies

New Crops Introduced ....


Velvet Beans

Crotalaria ...


Vetch and Austrian Peas

Sugarcane Cayana 10


Peanuts .. .......... .......... . ...

C orn .. .. .. . . . ... . .*..**. . .

Cover Crop Studies . . ........... ..................

Lawn Grasses ... ... . ... .........

HOME ECONOMICS RESEARCH ............... ........ .........


Nutritional Studies of Florida Children


Vitamin Studies


... ... .. ..C.*.. .. ... C.. ... .C.. .


Preservation Studies


Pecans ........ ...... ........ . . ..... ........ 657

Sweet Corn .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 657


Citrus Vinegar


HORTICULTURE


.. .. . .... . .... S .. .. .. .. .. .. C. . 658


Tung-Oil .


Pecans


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659


Sour Orange Orcharding


Avocado Studies


Florida Ornamentals


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660


Cold Storage Research


Plant Introductions
General Activities


.. ... . .... ........ . . . . 661


PLANT DISEASE RESEARCH


Tomatoes . . . . . . . . . . . 663
W atermelons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665


- C a -


............................. . ...... 663


M m


I 1








CONTENT S- Continued


CHEMICAL RESEARCH


Leigh Fog Screen


..... . . . .......... . .. . 668


Studies of Water Supplies ...
Water Supply of St. Augustine


. . . ... . . . . . .. . . 668
.... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 669


Colorimetric Determination of Sodium and Potasium in Natural
W waters .. .. .. .. ... .................. .....


Coagulants in


Water


Purification


.. . ... .. .. . 669


Studies


of Mineral Resources


Naval Stores Research ....
Miscellaneous Investigations


Paint,


...... .. . . . .. ... 670
. . .. . . .. . . 670


Varnish, and Lacquer Studies


The U


of Tung-Oil in Spray


Lacquer


Use of Tung-Oil in Brush Lacquer


Manufacture of Varnish From Tung-Oil and Crude Turpen-
tine Gum in One Operation..........................


The U


of Tung-Oil in Paint


Some Chemical Problems


of the Florida Tung-Oil Industry


Manufacture of Ester Gum From Crude Turpentine Gum and
Glycerine in One Operation ....... .... ......


Painting Studies ...


Service Manufacturing


Pure Chemical


Acyl


. . . .. . . ... 672


Research


Derivatives of Ortho-Aminophenol.


Derivatives of Piperazine ....

Organic Compounds of Cerium


Anthraquinone


Derivatives


.... .... .... . ... .. ... 673


The U


of the Nitrogen Grignard Reagent in the Prepara-


tion of Rubber Accelerators ........
Chemical Reaction of Turpentine .....


* a 9 *..
* .. .


.a . ..a . .
. ... .. a. .


of Vanadium Salts in Analytical Work


RESEARCH IN ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL RELATIONS.........








CONTENTS


Investigations


- Concluded


n i Agricultural Economics


*-- W i- -W - -* - w - - - *I *I * * * * a a . .

An Economic Study of Potato Farming........................

Size of Business .......................

Yield of Potatoes .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

Investment per Farm .................. ............. .

Survey of General Farming in Northwest Florida ...... .....

Economic Study of Dairy Farming...........................

Studies of Cotton Grades and Prices. ......................


678


678

679


Cost of Handling Citrus Crops .


. * a *4 . * S


Investigation of Citrus Freight Rates ......

Competition in Truck Crops ..............

Studies of Cooperative Associations... ...

Bureau of Economic and Business Research...

RESEARCH IN THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. . . .

Engineering Experimental Work Accomplished


. .. a .


S S S S


. .. 680


* .. 9. ..5

* S. S S S


Utilization of Palmetto


Fiber for


Building


Measurements of Heat Transfer Through


Precision Timers for

The High Frequency


Calibration


Induction


The Imhoff Method of Sewage


of Rotary


Furnace.

Treatment


Materials.

Materials..

Watthour


*. ... 684


Meters...


. . . . . . . . . 685


RESEARCH WORK OF THE COLLEGE OF PHARMACY


Drug Plant Survey

Herbarium .......


Constituents of Florida Plants


Medicinal Plant Garden


..a... .a..*..S .S......*.S .........s.a ..
*.S. . a ..* . ... .. ..S. ..S..S . S S .....S


S. . .. . ... ....... .. . 688

S. .. . . . . ... 689


Improvements in Methods of Preparation of Pharmaceuticals.


Pure


Research








RESEARCH


THE


FIELD


OF


AGRICULTURE


1888


Florida


Experiment


Station


came


into


existence.


From


that time down to this it has


been furnishing growers and


agricultural workers of the state with helpful information.


One


can readily understand


little
tance.


impression


that


on Florida's


Those associated


earlier day


stood in


beginning


agriculture,


with


work


a peculiar position


and


Station


gave


little


Station in


even as workers


made
assis-
those
stand


in large measure today,


in that they were able to gain little knowl-


edge and little assistance on their problems from outside sources,


for Florida is a state peculiar unto itself,


and information secured


elsewhere


But as


or in other


years


have


fields
gone


very


on the


limited


Florida


application


station


here.


gained


strength,


knowledge


and


momentum


until


now


must


garded as a real factor in


the agriculture of the


state and in its


future development.
It is not possible within a limited space to call attention to all


of the way


helpful


which


the Florida Experiment Station


agricultural


industries


has


state.


been
best,


little can be done except to touch


upon a few


of the more impor-


tant and perhaps more striking achievements.


Since


establishment


248


Station


bulletins


and


444


press


bulletins


, touching almost every phase of the state'


agricultural


interests


, have been published.


In addition to these


bulletins


have been issued by the Agricultural Extension


Service,


supple-


meeting those public


hed by the Agricultural Experiment Station.


The


information


contained


these


publications


has


become


much a part of the daily work of


growers and


planters


that the


original source from which


the information came or the research


back


of it has been entirely


lost to sight.


For many years the work
tralized at one point; now, he


at Gainesville


of the Experiment Station was cen-
)wever, in addition to the main station


, there is a branch station for citrus at Lake Alfred, a


North Florida station


Quincy


a subtropical station at


Home-


stead


, and a station at Belle Glade for the Everglades,


all working




UNIVERSITY


cattle.
ments


FLORIDA


The work of the station is handled through several depart-


Agronomy


which has to do with field crops; Animal Hus-


bandry,


which look


after the problems


connected


with


pro-


duction of livestock; Chemistry


, interested in the problems of soil


fertility


and


wise


use of


fertilizers


Entomology,


concerned


with the control of insects attacking various crops; Horticulture,


dealing with


the problems of fruit and


vegetable


growing


Plant


Pathology,


which


takes


care of plant disease


problems


Agricul-


tural Economics


, interested in marketing and in problems relating


to farm profits; and Home Economic


, which carries on investiga-


tions in the values of food


and the


welfare of


our rural


popula-


tions.


What the Experiment Station learn


through it


research


workers is carried to the farmer


of the state and their families


through
Services.


Agricultural


Extension


and


Home


Demonstration


The financial and economic structure of Florida


today rests


large


measure


on agriculture


in many


numerous


forms.


From the very beginning this has been true,
so, for her future is inseparably tied up with


and it will always be
the wise and proper


use of land.


The Florida Experiment Station,


through it


various


activities
the state.


, has had a large part in the agricultural development of


and


future advancement of the state'


agriculture


will come about largely through


the activities of the Experiment


Station.


ANIMAL H1
The Department of Animal Hu


USBANDRY


bandry has charge of all animal


industry work such as dairy and beef


cattle investigations,


pork


production


studies,


and


poultry


management.


Florida


has


yet come into its own in thi


at work on the problem


field


of breeding,


, and the department is earnestly


nutrition, management, and


disease.


SALT-SICK


Salt-sick, an age-old


problem


in Florida cattle


production,


has


been solved.


It ha


engaged the attention of the Florida Experi-


ment Station since


1888.


In Bulletin 2


, issued by the Station in


-a-


.a


CP .1 11 I I


~ 1


I 1f r






TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY


FROM RESEARCH


-- -8~





UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


Maxwell, who has now undertaken the investigation of that singu-


lar cattle


disease


called


and


sometimes


Texas


Fever


and cattle-plague, which seems to have prevailed slightly in special


sections of


our state,


will not give it over until something more


satisfactory shall be determined."


However, Doctor Maxwell and


many of his successors had worked on the problem before


it was


finally


solved.


This disease


is known


to exist


in at least


Florida's 67


counties and is taking an enormous annual toll either


in deaths or in decreased efficiency of


our cattle.


Its cause


, cure,


and


prevention


have


been


worked


out.


has


been


proved


to be due to a deficiency in


certain mineral


elements


in soils and


grasses.


The use of


copper and iron will prevent it and, if


cases


are not too far advanced,


will


cure it.


Over three


hundred head


affected


cattle


under


range


conditions


have


recovered


when


treated.
industry


raise


This disease


and


cattle


been a serious drawback


large areas


because


state


inroads


people


salt-sick.


the cattle


have


ceased


Now


way


is open to begin again with the full


opportunity for success in so


far as


this trouble is concerned.


The


solution


of the problem is


one of the outstanding achievements of the Station.

RANGE CATTLE


With


the elimination of the fever tick as a cattle pest and


discovery


cause and


cure


salt-sick,


way


has


been


opened up for the raising of range and beef cattle of better quality


and


along


lines


that


promise


greater


return


cattlemen.


Moreover, competition in the


meat markets of


the country


is on


a different


basis from


what it was several


years ago,


because of


improved methods of handling and transporting dressed meats.


Recognizing


need


careful


experimental


work


in this


field


, the Experiment Station has laid plans for beef cattle studies,


particularly in


breeding and feeding.


Thi


is being done largely


in cooperation with outside agencies, and


what has


already


been


accomplished has


beef


cattle


indicated


industries


great
state.


value


this work


cooperation


with


Department


Agronomy


carrying


capacity


and


the


beef


- a WI ~ ~a a -


_- I.- -


1I i w


S


TI *IEU I* IEtI lir *l1 *I JII+ nr r nf *r. .Ia-I .-I-- 1


.


1


'Salt-sick,'


ir *~r~


rl ~u ~C


Y





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM


RESEARCH


S
II


m~jf;i~~~
esi~A


A HERD OF NATIVE RANGE CATTLE.
The quality of native Florida cattle must be improved to compete successfully in the markets.
Florida Experiment Station through its research work is rendering great assistance in the
improvement of Florida Cattle.


as the Register


of Merit


based


upon


records


animals


milk


and


butter


producers.


The


minimum


requirement


the American Jersey Cattle Club for the


that 250.5 pounds


of butterfat


hall


registration


produced


f Jersey
305 day


by a two-year-old heifer.


For each


day that the animal is older


than this at the start of the test


, the requirement is increased one-


tenth pound,


until at five years of age the cow i


required to pro-


duce 360 pounds of butterfat.
At the Experiment Station every cow in the dairy herd of Jer-


seys


is given an


opportunity


on test


milking period and again at five


four


cows


Station


dairy


year
herd


qualify


age.


have


during
To date


qualified.


her first
twenty-
?-


Thu


Station dairymen have demonstrated that dairy cows of first rank































A Hereford


FLORIDA


REPEATER J. 25TH.
sire used in studies on grading up native cattle.


mineral supplements been fully recognized.
soils are deficient in these materials, it is ir


Since certain Florida
nportant that the part


they play in animal functions


be carefully


studied.


The


result


already secured at the Florida Experiment Station in this field of


investigation are


great importance,


and


these,


together


with


the result


of future studies,


will have tremendous influence upon


the development of the state's


cattle industries.


PORK PRODUCTION


That hogs can be raised free from intestinal parasite


has been


demonstrated for other parts of the country


Swine


herd


man-


agement adapted to Florida conditions, as worked


out by the De-


apartment of Animal Husbandry, proves that hogs of medium meat


UNIVERSITY





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


h
m

-






.h.


A TON LITTER OF HOGS RAISED BY THE EXPERIMENT STATION.


A litter of pigs that weighed 27 pounds at birth and 2215 pounds at
ment Station. This litter is proof of the value of breeding,


six months,


raised


feeding and sanital


by the Experi-
tion as


practiced and recommended by the Station.


pigs weighing twenty-seven


weight of


pounds at birth


15 pounds in six month


was grown out


at the Florida Station.


to a
The


Department


shown


further


that


is entirely


practical


raise two litters each year from a brood sow instead


Closely


associated


with


work


and


in cooperation


only
with


one.


Department


Agronomy,


development


stem


raising field crops to supply


grazing for each


month in


the year,


finishing the animal


for market in September and in March,


when


price


are highest.


SOYBEAN SILAGE FOR CATTLE


has


making


been


a silage


found


entirely


which


practical


high


to use


feeding


soybeans


value.


alone


little


over





UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


sgving thi


valuable legume roughage


is of


material


importance


to Ftorida dairymen.
DISEASES OF LIVE STOCK


Manson's Eyeworm.-The


Manson


history of


the parasite


's eyeworm in poultry has been determined.


It wa


causing


found


that a certain species of cockroach was the intermediate host for


the parasite.


It was found that, by removing the droppings from


poultry


hou


regularly


parasite


could


controlled,


since the cockroaches


became infected by feeding upon the drop-


pmgs.


Poultry in turn became infected from


eating the infected


cockroaches.
Poultry Diseases.-Three to four hundred fowls are received at


laboratory


each


year


for the


diagnosis


various


diseases.


Thi


work is of great importance because it keep


touch with the disea


state


and


because


these


that are more or les


diagnose


and


s the Department
i prevalent in the
recommendations


based upon them undoubtedly


thousands of


ave Florida poultr


dollars each year in preserving the


y owners many
health of foun-


dation


stock


, laying


birds


, pullets,


and


baby


chick


means


of these diagnoses, certain specific diseases of poultry
have been investigated, and it is estimated that contact,


made with at least 500 poultrymen,


dling their flock


in Florida
have been


to whom information in han-


and controlling diseased conditions present has


been given.


Internal Parasites of Poultry


result


.-Very interesting and important


have been obtained from recent extensive studies relating


to the parasites of poultry


It has been found that on the whole


the use of vermifuges to expel worms is a useles


procedure and


that


untreated


birds


handled


exactly


those


treated


give


higher


egg


production.


been


demonstrated


that


worms


may


be controlled


by sanitation and that this method


should be


followed


rather than


that


giving worthless


medicine


tempting to remove worms.


This finding will be of material benefit


to poultrymen both in saving the expense of the medicine and in


doing


away with


the decrease


in egg


production,


which follows





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


, particularly


toward


close


winter,


been


attributed


to the lack of feed and to the prevalence of Texas fever.


There


appears


be no question,


however,


that


nutritional


deficiencies


very frequently


causes


responsible.


diseases


There


will


is great


worked


certainty


and


that


that
they


will


brought


under


control.


Definite


progress


has


already


been made.


of the


state


All of thi
on a firm


will assist in placing the cattle industries


basis.


The


results of these studies when


put into effect will be worth more than $2,000,000 annually to the
state.


Anaplasmosis.-How


prevalent


anaplasmosis


was


in the


state


prior to


the clearing


up of Texas


fever in


many


sections


known


, but in all probability the latter disease masked the former


is quite


well


microscopical


established


blood


parasite


that
and


anaplasmo


that


some


is caus


insect


or external


parasite


carries


the organism


from


one animal


another.


vestigations are now under way to discover the carrier,


an insect or tick


probably


and when this carrier has been found the inves-


tigation of control measures can


be intelligently undertaken.




UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


CHEMISTRY


AND


SOILS


RESEARCH


When the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station was estab-


listed in 1888,


the Department of


Chemistry was organized


and


from that time down to the present has rendered a great service


to the state.


From time to


time it


lines of


investigations have


changed


meet the


needs


a developing


agriculture


until


has touched every phase of the state's


In the earlier years it


progress in this


d


work was concerned largely with


direction.
natural


resources.


Early


Soil Studies.-In Bulletin


peared the first analy


No. 2


of Florida soil


, published


both


1888


chemical and


, ap-
me-


chanical


, made by the Department of Chemistry


Later these were


followed


extensive


studies


soils and


mucks.


Hundreds of


examination


were


made and


reported,


and


these


have


large


measure formed the basis


our present chemical


knowledge


Florida


lands.


Samples


were


collected


over


wide


areas


and


consequence


the soil information


secured at that time applies to


the state as a whole and has been of


great value over a period of


nearly


half a century


The


muck and peat


deposit


the state


have not as yet been appraised by the citizenry at their true worth,


but the early analytical work is of value today even as it wa


when


it was done.
Studies of Florida Phosphates.-Undoubtedly the early work of


the Department greatly


stimulated


the phosphate mining indus-


try in the state.


Many analyse


were published, 387


of them at


one


time


1890,


and


these


furnished


basis


upon


which


numerous
moreover,


instances


early


mining


manufacturing


operations
phosphoric


were


acid


undertaken;


fertilizer


ma-


trials was investigated and much information


upon which both


mining and manufacturing operations


were


based


was


supplied.


It is difficult to place a definite value on


this development


except


state


that


mining


phosphate


amounted to over eighty million tons.


rock
1929.


since


1888


has


last year for


which


figures are available,


3,088,298


long tons,


having


a value


of $9,901,704,


were mined.


The


use of phosphatic


materials


fertilizers, stimulated by the work of the Experiment Station. has





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


but when they were drained and the growing of


crop


attempted


difficulties were encountered.


Nearly everything that was planted


simply


refused


grow


solve


problems


that


arose


branch station was established in the Everglades by an act of the


Legislature, and immediately


studied


were


undertaken


to deter-


mine why the saw


grass soils were not productive.


As a


result


of these investigation


it was shown that the


use of


copper sul-


phate and manganese would overcome
fered with the culture of plants. The


the difficulties that


se two chemical


inter-


have now


come into


general


and


profitable use


growing


crop


the whole vast area.


It is safe


to say that practically


every ton


commercial


fertilizer


shipped


in the


Everglades


and


like areas carries


in it the quantity


either or both copper and


manganese


necessary


crop


production


when


applied


oils.


By the use of th


materials the area


that can be profit-


ably cultivated in the Everglades may be increased to one million


acres or more


on them


and


overcome


difficulties


cheaply


encountered


difficult


m growing


estimate


crops


tre-


mendous value of this work to the State of Florida.


-" s '."^- ~* ** ~ .-.. -.^


* I.,


* -


- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i a. r 1 i '- -- ----- -: '


lid 1


haefiflfl^^x~btW-vi-w


' . i t


I -





UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


CORN GROWN ON RAW EVERGLADES SOIL.
The plants at the left were produced on copper treated soil, those at the right
on untreated soil. Both were planted at the same time.


The


Value


Manganese.-In


cooperation


with


Federal


Department of Agriculture, experiments carried on in the Home-


stead section have shown that the use of 50 pound


of manganese


per acre will


take the place of stable


manure


previously


deemed


necessary


production


crops


grown


that area.


the cost of stable manure was steadily increasing, and the quality
decreasing, doing away with its use has meant a large saving to


I* *.V





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


Citrus Fertilizer Investigations.-During the period from 1905


1920 the


first extensive citrus fertilizer experiments


were un-


dertaken, and the


results of ten years of


experiments


were


pub-


lished in 1919.
this period, tl


More intensive soil studies were also begun during


object being


determine


loss


fertilizers


sustained through leaching rains, and the part played by


organic


matter in


soil.


During


this


period


also


first


tanks


were installed at the Experiment Station.


These


tanks were the


second


of such


tanks to be


installed in this country.


Since


that


time the value of such equipment in the study of fundamental soil


problems


become


so well


established


that


similar


equipment


has been installed in a large number of


experiment stations.


Experiments


with


sources


nitrogen


on citrus


have


shown


that


inorganic


sources


nitrogen


which


cost


much


less


than


organic


were


sources


closely


successfully


followed


in cost of fertilizer would


closely


used.


citrus


approximate


these


growers


$300,000


findings
; saving
a year.


Experiments with citrus, tomatoes, and celery, comparing muriate


and sulphate


of potash as sources of


potash,


indicate


that the muriate can be successfully substituted for the


present
ulphate.


As the


muriate sells for


approximately $10.00


per ton less


than


the sulphate,


there


will


be a


saving


growers


approxi-


mately $159,000 for citrus, $51,000 for tomatoes, and $80,000 for


celery


their


fertilizer


further work


bears


present


indications.


Extending these experiments


to other crops


might


mean


similar


savings


growers.


Likewise,


work


with


amounts of potash on citrus indicates that fifteen units of potash


per year


sufficient


produce


good


crops,


instead


to 20 units generally used.


Analyses of Citrus


Fruits.--As early


as 1891


analytical


work


on the orange was undertaken.
extended analyses at a later dat(


This was followed by much more
. These studies covered specific


gravity


chemical composition,


sugar,


acid,


solids, and


juice con-


tent.


conjunction


with


other studies,


they


have been used as


the basis of fruit maturity legislation.
Investigations in the waste products from citrus canning plants





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


ciple) of citrus may ultimately lead to the finding of new uses for
these substances, thus opening up a new source of revenue to the
citrus grower.
Cover Crops.-Studies of the use and benefits to be derived
from the use of cover crops in citrus growing have indicated that
the best way of handling these crops is to mow them and allow
them to remain on the surface of the ground, thus cutting down
the cost of grove operations through the elimination of plowing
and frequent harrowing. The present indications are that by
using sufficiently large amounts of organic matter an improve-
ment in the quality of the fruit will result as well as a better
utilization of the rainfall and a reduction in the loss of fertilizer


through


leaching.


The


saving


dollars


and


cents


these


studies to the citrus growers of the state would be difficult to
estimate, but the amount is very large.
Forest Soil Research.-Studies now under way in cooperation


with


United States Forest Service and the Florida Forest


Service


on the


effect


different


methods of


handling forest


areas and the effect on soil and the growth of grass and pasture


plants will,


carried to final conclusion, greatly influence the


future development of forest areas,
the state and the individual owner.


to the betterment of both





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


ENTOMOLOGICAL


RESEARCH


Because


Florida's


geographical


location


and


climatic


conditions,
injurious 1


insects of


man,


many


kinds


animals,


occur,


and


numbers


crops


which


grows.


The


situation


here is quite different from


that in northern locations


that


insects


in most


parts


state


active


through-


out the year.


Moreover,


the methods depended


upon for control


elsewhere can not as a rule


be used without modification.


Modi-


fled or new methods must be worked out in dealing with the situ-


action.


consequence,


entomological


studies


are


paramount


importance,


and


the results of


investigations of


insect


pests


cured


Florida


Experiment


Station


Entomologist


have


made possible the continued and profitable production of many of


the state's most important crops.


Insect studies were undertaken


at an early


date, and a


vast amount of assistance


been given


overcoming


certain


their


agricultural


inroads.


industries


Time


has


and


been


again


very


threatened.


But


difficulties


have


been


successfully


overcome


and


threats


moved.


It will be practicable to mention


important instances where


the Station ha


only a few
s pioneered


of the more
in the con-


trol or eradication of these insects.


CITRUS WHITEFLY


FUNGI


About
gating i


1885


n great


a small


swarms


havoc with tree and fruit.


a high mortality


, white-winged


Florida
In 1893.


these whiteflies at


insect
citrus


a station


was
grove


found


and


congre-
playing


worker discovered


Crescent City


made


careful post-mortem examinations of the flies and found that they


had


been killed by a fungus enemy


From


this discovery


devel-


oped the idea of controlling this insect by the use of fungi.


It is


believed that the


Florida Experiment Station is


the first organ-


ization in the world to


make large orchard use of fungi in insect


control.


Two of these friendly fungi,


Red Aschersonia and Yel-


low


Aschersonia,


now


being


grown


on artificial


media


and


disseminated


over


Florida


citrus


area


State


Plant


Board.


These


friendly


fungi


are


most


effective


controlling





UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


A FUNGUS THAT DESTROYS WHITEFLIES.
A culture of Red Aschersonia fungus used in fighting whiteflies. The fungus
mixed in water is sprayed on infested trees. The method of growing this
fungus was developed by the Florida Experiment Station and cultures
are available in quantity from the State Plant Board.


Spraying


operations to


combat


this


insect were not


found


prac-


tical.


worker


Experiment


Station


imported


tralian


ladybeetle


into


Florida


infested


groves


and


found


this


ladybeetle,


commonly


called


Vedalia,


effective


in controlling


cottony


cushion


scale.


In recent


years


Florida


P State


Plant





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


CITRUS APHID


estimated


that


citrus


aphid


damaged


citrus


dustry to the extent of $4,000,000.00 in the spring of 1925.


The


Department of Entomology studied the habits and life history of


this insect to determine how it might be controlled.


It was found


that


dusting


under


proper


atmospheric


conditions


was


very


effective


and


economical.


repetition


1925


damage


very improbable.


STRAWBERRY


CRIMP


The strawberry crop in Florida is an important one,


represent-


ing a gross return to the state of between $2,730,000 and $3,969,


000 annually


. One of the most serious diseases that has occurred


in connection


with this crop is that


known as strawberry


crimp.


A field laboratory was established near Plant City for the study


this


and


other


strawberry


diseases


and


a plant


pathologist


placed in charge.


The result of this


been


that the cause


and the remedy for strawberry crimp


have been


worked out.


has been shown that the disease is due to a nematode,


worm,


or minute


that is carried over from one season to another and intro-


I


duced into new plantings in infested plant


free planting stock has been determined and,


The value of disease-
whether new plants


are secured from without or from within the state, growers now


know


that the


freedom


of their plants


from


crimp


will


gov-


erned by the use of healthy planting stock.


Thus


, a major disease


of thi


crop has been overcome.


ASPARAGUS


MITE


Five


years


ago,


growing


asparagus


ferns


Florida,


farm crop worth a million dollars annually to the state,


was sen-


ously threatened


a new pest known


as the California


or two-


spotted mite.
effective mean


After two years of experimental work,


control has


a cheap and


been developed.


CELERY


LEAF-TIER


A practical and economical means of


control of the celery


leaf-


tier


has


been


worked


Experiment


Station


and


-r - -, a -





UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


MOLE CRICKETS


Mole


cricket


have


been


one


most


annoying


pests


Florida truck farming, with no satisfactory control method known.


Within the past two year


, the Experiment Station has discovered


that


substituting


egg mash


bran


ordinary


grass-


hopper bait a


will


enable


very


effective


growers


poison


land


obtained.


again


which


Thi


were


s discovery
practically


abandoned because of the activities of this pest.

MEALY BUGS


Mealy


bugs


have


always


caused


considerable


growers


of bulb


and in some years have been serious pest


The control of this insect by spraying is difficult.


in citrus groves.
The Experiment


Station


secured


and


bred


ladybeetle


which


will


feed


upon


the mealy bug,


and the value of the


e ladybeetle


has been demon-


strated


as a practical


control


method.


are also helpful in controlling the citru


These
aphid.


same


ladybeetles


Some of the other injuriou


insects for which the


Experiment


Station


has


measures


been
3 the


instrumental


pecan


in working


shuckworm and


effective


pecan thrips,


control
3 latter


having inflicted severe losses at times, especially on tomatoes and
citrus.





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


FIELD CROP RESEARCH


The work of the Department of Agronomy in


the Florida Ex-


periment Station i


concerned with the


production and improve-


ment by selection, breeding,


and testing of


corn


cotton


, peanut


hay


improvement,


pasture


and


grazing


plant


state looks for


leadership


the development of farm crops and


worthy


note


that our


knowledge


uch


plant


stance


, as velvet beans and crotalaria and such grasses as centi-


pede, Bahia, napier, Dallis and Para,


come from investigation


carried out by the Florida Experiment Station.


For many years


extensive


testing


grounds


have


been


maintained


in cooperation


with the Bureau of Plant Industry,


United States Department of


Agriculture, for the testing of grasses and other forage crop


possible


value.


making


good lawns,


in the


establish-


ment


and


improvement


good


pastures,


whether


on farm


range,
crops,


in the uses of cover crop


the Station ha


, and in the improvement of field


rendered a distinct service.


PERMANENT PASTURE STUDIES


Since


good


permanent pastures are


paramount


importance


beef cattle production,


this Department


been cooperating


with the Animal Husbandry Department in ascertaining the most


satisfactory


gras


and


legume


grown


various


types.
pedeza


Carpet, Bahia


have


been


Dalli


found


, Para, Bermuda, centipede,


suited


specific


location


and les-


these


improved pasture studies native grass pastures have been used as


checks.


Steers


that


grazed


an average


nine


month


improved pastures made gain


pounds of beef per acre and


these pastures carried one steer to an acre.


the native range


pastures, by allowing approximately


acres


per steer,


the gain


during the same period averaged about 11 pounds of beef per acre.


Time and methods of planting pastures


have been well


worked


out.


Investigations


show


that


closely


grazed


or frequently


pasture grasses maintain a continuous vegetative growth because


the residual leaf area,


not removed by


grazing or cutting,


elabo-


rates


sufficient


organic


foods


vigorous


vegetative


growth.





652 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

tion and body building of grazing cattle. Lysimeter studies of
pasture grasses grown on Norfolk sand demonstrate that fre-
quently cut grasses utilize fertilizers economically, while a large
percentage of the fertilizers applied to grasses grown to maturity
is lost through leaching.
During the 1930-31 season, 35,000 pounds of seed of improved
pasture grasses were planted on 4,000 to 5,000 acres in Florida.
NEW CROPS INTRODUCED
The Agronomy Department of the Experiment Station, in co-
operation with the Forage Crops Office, U. S. D. A., has intro-
duced and disseminated in Florida: velvet beans, crotalaria, Aus-
trian peas, monantha vetch, hairy vetch, centipede grass, Bahia
grass, Dallis grass, lespedeza (Japan clover), napier grass, Jap-
anese and cayana 10 sugarcane, pigeon peas, and kudzu.

VELVET BEANS
Velvet beans were first noticed by a member of the Experiment
Station as a trellis or porch vine about 1895. Some seed was
obtained from Mr. A. P. Newheart, of Ocoee, Florida, where it had
been used about 20 years as an ornamental. A quarter of an acre


*\





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RE


SEARCH


was


planted at


Lake City


on poor


with


good


success.


The


economic value and use of thi


crop were worked out by the Sta-


tion and some of the important varieties were originated here by


crossing.


Velvet bean


are grown on some 87,000 acres of Florida


lands


annually


and


produce


seed


and


forage


feed


and


land


improvement of inestimable


value to the state.


In nitrogen gath-


ered and vegetable matter furnished, ti
of a million dollars annually in Florida.
CROTALARIA


crop is worth in


excess


The


use of


crotalaria


been increasing


as a fertilizing


a tremendous


and


rate


improving


in recent


year


crop
The


crop


now


being


produced


on from


50.000


75.000


acres


Florida land.


Florida-produced


crotalaria


seed


(1931


crop)


had


a value of $1


20.000


and it is e


timated that the combined organic


matter,
million


nitrogen,


dollars


and


seed


annually


Experiment Station,


value


crop


Through


is well


efforts


in cooperation with the United States


over


one


Florida
Depart-


ment of


Agriculture,


this


valuable


crop


been


spread


widely


over the state.


'f
* a


.er'


mC
Ib-t

I I


*VJ *x"-







UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


VETCH


AND


AUSTRIAN


PEAS


a result of


work


Experiment


Station,


150,000


pounds of vetch and Austrian pea seed were planted on 6,000 acres


of West


Florida


lands in


1931.


This


combination


cover


crop


proving a great soil improver and increases the yields of corn and


other crops appreciably without the


addition


commercial fer-


tilizers.


tural


Thi


work


Extension


has


service


been
and


furthered


potential


greatly


Agricul-
general


value


farming area


of West Florida is very great.


SUGARCANE CAYANA 10


Cayana 10 sugarcane, a variety


originated by the


Depart-


ment of Agriculture and which resists mosaic and root-knot,


been


widely tested by the


Florida Agricultural


Experiment


has
Sta-


tion and is replacing old types of cane for syrup


West Florida.


a result of crossbreeding many new varieties have been origi-


nated


Everglades


Branch


Station


these


, together


with


other canes, are now under test for all-round


value,


not only for


the Everglade


but for the smaller farms of Florida.


654


- 1FA --




TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


PEANUTS


Variety tests of peanut


show that Florida Runner and Spanish


are the highest yielding varieties for


Florida conditions.


Closer


spacing of peanut


100 to


has


200 pounds per acre.


hown that yields


be increased from


Proper spacing for each variety


has


been carefully worked out by the Station.


Breeding i


under way


to secure new


and better varieties.


CORN


Varieties of corn


have


been discovered


that will yield approx-


imately


25 percent more grain than the varieties


now in common


on Florida


on Florida


farm


farms.


from


The
1929


average


1931,


annual


production


inclusive


was


corn


6,122,000


bushels with an estimated farm value of $4,689,333.


It can readily


be seen what the use of these improved seed varieties by


will represent in new wealth.


Florida


An increase of two bushels per acre


will add $500,000 to the annual value of the corn crop.
COVER CROP STUDIES
Decomposition studies on crotalaria striata at different growth


stages


show


varying results.


early vegetative


stages


decomposes


rapidly


because


higher


nitrogen


content


and


lower percentage of carbohydrate


accumulation of


soil nitrogen is


and fibrou


desired


material.


as in


case


If a rapid
of truck


crops,


the crotalaria


plant


should


incorporated


with


early


growth


stages.


on the


other


hand,


a retarded


accumulation of


soil nitrogen is required, in order that the crop


can make


use of it in


the spring month


, the plant


should be


advanced, stage


growth


before


being


incorporated


with


the soil.


Florida farmer


source


organic


rapidly
matter


utilizing the crotalaria


and


nitrogen.


plant as


better soils


of the truck crop areas,


one acre of crotalaria will yield from two


to three tons of
yield from 80 to


dry material top growth.


120 pound


This top growth


will


of nitrogen, or the equivalent of 533


to 800 pounds of nitrate of soda.


LAWN


GRASSES


qini'ohla rrvoaQaa fnr iravr rnind loXrni onA nrtnhloma ;rtna_




> UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

HOME ECONOMICS RESEARCH
Research in Home Economics covers the field of human food,


clothing and shelter.


These lines of investigation, made possible


by Federal appropriations, have only recently been undertaken
by the Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Home


Economics.


Already,


however,


this


work


has


progressed


enough to indicate its great value.


Attention over many years


has been given to the welfare of animals and plants.


How much


more important is it that the welfare of human beings should
receive attention!

NUTRITIONAL STUDIES OF FLORIDA CHILDREN


Physical and laboratory


examinations were made by Station


workers of 3,325 white school children in five Florida counties.
These findings were correlated with the progress made in school
by these children and with studies of their diets.
In the rural schools of certain sections of the state more than


60 percent of the children harbor hookworms.


Of the children


who repeated a grade in their school work, 95 percent were hook-


worm subjects.


This is significant from an economic standpoint


when the additional cost to the state for grade repetitions is con-


sidered.


The real significance of this study, however, is its bear-


ing on the health of Florida boys and girls.


Hookworm can be


controlled as soon as the united effort is made, similar to the work
of eradication of the cattle tick and other disease carrying para-
sites of the lower animals.
It was also found in this study that over 30 percent of the chil-
dren were not receiving the proper foods for development and


growth.


This condition was not due to their being economically


unable to secure proper food, but to lack of knowledge as to what


constituted a balanced diet.


It has been


demonstrated further


that children receiving a proper diet are much less susceptible
to hookworm infestations.

VITAMIN STUDIES


Station


workers


have


found


that carotin


can


used


a a -- a -- -





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


PRESERVATION


STUDIES


Pecans.-It


been found


that pecans


canned


in vacuum


an atmosphere of


nitrogen


or of hydrogen have a


pleasing taste


one year after canning.
Sweet Corn.---A study has been made of the organisms causing


spoilage of


canned sweet


corn.


Suggestions


and


recommen-


dations have been made which should eliminate a high percentage


of thi


spoilage.


Citrus
vinegar


Vinegar.-It has


made


from


been found


oranges,


that a


very


grapefruit,


good grade


and


other


types


of citrus fruits.


Thi


indicates another means of using the citrus


crop when there is a surplus.




UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


HORTICULTURE


Because


Florida,


of the large


work


number of horticultural


Department


plant


Horticulture


grown
covers


very wide field.


When the great extent of the state is considered


in connection


with


the diversity


of the


soils


some


realization


the great number of problem


handled


can be


gained.


The


work


Department covers the growing of tropical fruit crops


well as those of more temperate areas.


It deals with truck crops


many


kinds


and


ornamental


plants,


both


commercial


and


aesthetic


in endles


variety


Even


the answering of


correspon-


dence of thi


Department is


a task of no small magnitude.


Among


the lines


work that


have


been


carried


on and


now


under


way the following are interesting:

TUNG-OIL


The


present commercial plantings of


tung-oil


tree


Florida,


now


amounting


about


10.000


acres


directly


traceable


the initial plantings made at the Florida Experiment Station and


I I


1~11





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


the work done there.


Early test


indicated the tree


' adaptability;


later


work


gation, s
oil expre


included


studies,


variety


cover crops,


selection
mulching


fertilization


and


, propa-


cultivation.


sing plant has been erected by private capital


ers now have a cash


outlet for their product.


and grow


This is claimed


be the only modern tung-oil extraction mill in the world.


The first


tank car of tung-oil was shipped from Gainesville


in April,


1932.


A new crop that causes


little competition


with other product


Florida soil has come


into


existence through


the effort


and


en-


couragement of the Florida Station.


Tung-oil is used in the mak-


ing of varnishes


and paints,


as well as in the manufacture of


cloth
in 19


and


linoleum and


for many


29, principally from China,


other purposes.


Importation


reached a value of $14,972,000.00.


It appears probable that domestic needs eventually will be met by
home production.


PECANS


When


pecan


investigations


were


first


started


Florida


Experiment Station about


1900


there


were


very


few


budded


grafted orchards in


the commercial pecan


belt.


The


information


**


I -








wrl~




660 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

gained through investigations carried out by the Florida Station
has been largely responsible for the development of the cultivated
pecan industry in northern and western Florida and in adjoin-


ing states.


The production of pecan nuts in Florida has increased


until it is now in excess of one million pounds annually.


The


largest yield so far obtained in this state was from the crop of


1928, about two million pounds.


The growth and development


of this industry has been very closely correlated with the pecan
investigations of the Florida Experiment Station.
SOUR ORANGE ORCHARDING
Through cooperation with the world's largest manufacturer of
orange marmalade, the suitability of Florida sour oranges in place


of Spanish sour oranges has been established.


This has brought


about a demand for bright Florida sour oranges, and they


now being shipped from Florida in carload lots.


This opens the


way for the expansion of


citrus


production along an


entirely


new line.


AVOCADO STUDIES


Work


Station


composition


and


maturity


avocados has


furnished the first large amount of reliable


and


complete


information


concerning


composition


Florida


avocados and has opened the way to the development of a work-
able maturity standard. The relation of composition to the ma-
turity of the fruit has been worked out for most of the standard


varieties.


The relationship of storage temperature to the keep-


ing of avocados and the development of blackening in the pulp
is being worked out, and the cause of much of the difficulty in the


shipping of


certain


varieties has


been determined.


Thus,


Station


work


should


result


intelligent


harvesting


and


handling of one of the most highly nutritious of fruits.


Demand


for the fruit is certain to increase when it reaches the buyer in
the optimum condition for consumption.
FLORIDA ORNAMENTALS
Much work has been accomplished at the Florida Station in
ascertaining the types` and varieties of hedges, palms and vines
4-L1.a.. a 3 JasnL 1- Z -. < f. r i....





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


COLD STORAGE RESEARCH
In the winter of 1930-31 an experimental cold storage plant for
the study of cold storage problems with sub-tropical fruits was


completed and put into operation.


studies on


the freezing of orange


The field of work has included
juice and other sub-tropical


fruits and their products, the' cold storage of oranges, and the cold


storage of grapefruit.


Considerable progress has already been


made in the identification of undesirable tastes in extracted orange
juice, and this work is basic to much of the commercial applica-


tion of freezing processes.


The


Youngberry has been found to


be a very desirable fruit for frozen storage and basic work has
been done on a number of other fruits, some of which show great


promise for this field of merchandising.


Studies on the cold stor-


age of


oranges have


shown


the great


advantage of


moisture-


retentive wrappers in retaining the appearance and quality


oranges


during


storage.


The


studies


have


been


particularly


successful with the Valencia variety.


Studies on the cold storage


of grapefruit have been less markedly successful than those with
oranges, but much progress has been made toward the elimina-


tion


pitting,


prevention


internal


breakdown,


and


cutting down decay.


The development of successful methods of


cold storaging citrus fruit would not only be a valuable aid in
lengthening the marketing season but would also operate to im-
prove the methods of handling fruit on long haul shipments, as


foreign


countries.


Considering the


location and climate of


Florida, together with its seasonal production, this line of work
is of tremendous potential value.
PLANT INTRODUCTIONS


When


it is


remembered


that


Florida


agriculture


based


almost entirely upon exotic or introduced plants, to some extent


the value of new plant introduction can be recognized.


A single


new plant or a new variety of an old one may add hundreds of


thousands of dollars annually to Florida


agriculture.


The test-


ing of plants new to the state has been going on at the Station


for many years.


For instance, in the field of agronomy, it was


in this way that the value of the velvet bean, the two crotalarias




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


stations at Lake Alfred and Homestead.


The results will. be of


great value to the state in the future even as this sort of work


has been in the past.


Some of this work is being done indepen-


dently and some is in cooperation with the United States Depart-


ment of Agriculture.


New plants and crops will play a large part


in increasing the production of lands now in cultivation and in
bringing into cultivation lands not adapted to species or varieties
of plants now available.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
A great deal of help has been given by members of the Depart-


ment to growers of horticultural


products in the state and to


prospective


settlers.


The correspondence


has


been


extremely


heavy, amounting to around 4,300 letters per year, and, in addi-
tion, a number of bulletins have been issued giving information
on the culture of various horticultural crops including persim-


mons,


blueberries, papayas, miscellaneous


tropical fruits,


tung-


oil, strawberries, and pecans, and on citrus propagation. A number
of papers have been published in various magazines covering the


culture of many other fruits.


The work of collecting and cor-


relating data on various crops to the end that those attempting
to grow them shall have the best possible advice is a line of re-
search that has been worth thousands of dollars to those inter-
ested in Florida horticulture.





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


PLANT DISEASE RESEARCH
Research in the field of plant diseases is carried on by the De-


apartment of Plant Pathology of the Experiment Station.


main the


work covers


four branches:


diseases of


truck,


In the
fruit,


farm, and ornamental crops.
The investigation of truck crop diseases has been going on con-
tinuously almost since the Station was established in 1888, and
the accomplishments in this field have been of untold value in


solving the problems encountered by growers.


At this time the


truck crops produced total approximately fifty thousand carloads


annually,


with a value approaching forty million dollars.


It is


not too much to say that the plant disease investigations of the
Experiment Station are saving millions of dollars annually to the


truck


growers of the state,


and


some crops


could not now


produced at a profit were it not that the life histories of plant
disease organisms were studied and methods of control developed.
These methods have become a part of standard cultural practices.
Equally important is the work that has been done on citrus


diseases,


and


knowledge


now


employed


handling


these


troubles has originated in large measure in the Florida Experi-


ment Station.


These investigations are going, and must still go


forward, in the interests of citrus production.


of the citrus crop exceeds that of the state'


tru


It is possible to call attention to only a few


portant investigations carried
Pathology.


on by the


The annual value
ck crops.
of the more im-


Department of


Plant


~TOMATOES
The tomato, with an annual average value of about nine million
dollars, has the highest gross return to the state of any truck


crop produced.


It is susceptible to a number of serious diseases


that have received the attention of Station pathologists for many


years.


The


first


publication


on tomato


diseases


appeared


Bulletin Number 18, in 1892.


The value of tomato disease studies


is best exemplified by the results secured in the control of Nail


Head Rust.


In an effort to find a tomato resistent to wilt, an-


_1j .._ - --.. _I -----. -LI-- "*r .... 1 .. .. -. ..---L ------... . 1 .-.-.-. '1






UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


4





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY


FROM RESEARCH


Rust


has ceased


be a


disease


importance.


present


time breeding experiments are going forward with the object of


securing varieties


resistent


Fusarium


wilt


and


other


serious


tomato diseases that take their toll of the crop annually
WATERMELONS


Measured
produced 'in


not the


carloads,


1929,


largest,


which


watermelon


produced


in the


nearly


crop


state.


thousand


is one of t
Whenever


were


largest,


watermelons


are grown


on the same piece of land


more


than a season


two


Fusarium


wilt makes


its appearance.


So severe


are its


roads on


the stand


of plants


that it


becomes


unprofitable


the land longer, and to avoid heavy losses the growers are under
the necessity of securing new locations. This has made it neces-


sary


open


new


areas


farther


removed


from


usual


shipping centers at increased expenses for clearing, haulage and


other items.


Hence production costs have mounted steadily


1929


a plant


pathologist


was


assigned


study


this


disease;


as a result of this work three varieties of watermelons


lent quality, resistent to the wilt,


excel-


have been secured by breeding


and selection.


It remains to fix these varieties so they will


come


true to type from year to year when grown from seed.


However


the foundation for the solution of this problem has been laid and


we may


look forward


confidently to


time


when


this


serious


watermelon disease will no longer affect adversely the production


of this crop.


The solution of this disease problem will be of great


financial benefit to the watermelon growers of the state.
TOBACCO


parts of West Florida


growing


high


priced


wrapper


tobacco
a gross


under


annual


shade


is an important


value


industry


approximately


the crop


$2,250,000.


having


1921


serious diseases had invaded tobacco seed beds and fields.


When


called upon for assistance the Florida Experiment Station deter-


mined


that the


most serious of


these diseases


was


black shank,


due to the presence in the soil


a parasitic fungus,


and


under-


took to


produce varieties of tobacco resistent to


2 J


r -


- a a- 4


it, since it could


II


* -


* 3 . ....U A- -_ -- -- -- | . . | . .. r _ I -


.!


I





UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


DISEASE RESISTANT TOBACCOS.


This illustration


strains


shows


of tobacco.


the results


All the ground


secured


by the Florida Experiment Station in breeding resistant


is infected with Fusarium fungus.


The susceptible tobacco in the


center has gone down under its attack.


resistant


tobaccos on either side


are not affected.


value


apparently


these


efforts


carefully


insurmountable


is probable


directed


problem.


that


research


Had
shade


when


success


tobacco


applied


not attended


industry


West Florida would have been wiped out.

POTATOES


For


several


years


field laboratory for the


e Experiment
investigation


Station


has


maintained


potato diseases at Hast-


ings.


Several diseases


from year to year


had taken a heavy toll


of the crop, reduced the quality


of the product,


and decreased the


returns


growers.


has


been


definitely


hown


pathologists in charge that these potato diseases can be controlled
or eliminated by spraying and by using seed free from disease. It


was


pointed


out that


Florida's


notato


troubles


due


in larae


-. .- I- -'" -"-' - -"V -.C -W .-. r--.. ( .- --





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


tion and the seed potatoes of high quality brought into the state


certified


being


free


from


disease.


Seed


first-class


quality is now available for the use of Florida planters, greatly to


their advantage.


The Florida potato crop is valued at approxi-


mately five million dollars annually, and the work of the field labor-


atory at Hastings has resulted in material


reduction of losses


from various potato troubles.
CITRUS BLIGHT
As early as 1887 citrus growers in the Indian River section of


Florida
blight.


were losing many


citrus trees from what they termed


Recently a Station investigator has determined that this


trouble was not caused by a disease but that the trees died from


lack of water or plant food or both.


Groves planted in favorable


locations or supplied with proper food, water, and organic matter


have been shown not to be affected.


The fear that blight is a


contagious disease has been removed.
MELANOSE AND STEM-END ROT OF CITRUS


Melanose was not known to literature until 1896,


when it was


described from Florida as appearing in certain scattered plant-


wings.


About


1912


Station


investigator


discovered


that


disease causing decay in packing houses and in transit and known


as stem-end rot was caused by a fungus parasite.


Several years


later it was found that this same fungus parasite was also the


cause of Melanose.


It was found that by proper pruning, clear-


ing out, and destroying of dead wood in citrus trees that these


diseases could be controlled.


Later, it has been found that by


applying bordeaux-oil emulsion as a spray shortly after bloom-
ing time a greater saving at a lower cost can be attained.
CITRUS DISEASES


Citrus


trees


are


attacked


a number


different fungus


diseases.


The life history of these diseases and the methods by


which they may be controlled have been worked out.


As a result


of these studies the handling of the disease situation in the citrus


groves of the state has become a part of routine practice.
direction has the Station rendered a. orenftpr SPrvinPP t.h n


In no
t+hia





&UNIVERSITY


FLORIA
FLORIDA


CHEMICAL RESEARCH


Although


search


heavy


teaching


a considerable


loads


amount


have
been


necessarily


done as


retarded


a result


interest and enthusiasm of members of the Department, who have


devoted much


their outside


time


the field


research.


the present time the


graduate work is growing rapidly and grad-


uate student


are engaged in different line


own training and to add


to our knowledge of


i research for their
different problems.


Obviously, it is practically impossible to place a monetary value


on teaching


and


pure


research.


Practically


every


commercial


product which is now available owes it


birth and success to pure


earch,


which


has


frequently


been


done


without


idea


commercial


development.


The following i


a general outline of research


work completed


or in


progress at


present


time


members


Depart-


Inent of


Chemistry


In a few cases some of the


work was done


by these men before they


came to the


University


of Florida,


this
tion.


work or some phase of it has been continued at this institu-
Reports of a number of these research problems have been


public


hed


in various


been developed


j ournals,


and


some


to the extent that they


have


these
been


projects


put


into


have
prac-


tical application.


LEIGH FOG SCREEN


The


Leigh,
white


Leigh
makes
cloud


screen


device


, developed


Dean


Townes


it possible to form, in a few minutes, an impenetrable


several


miles


long.


Certain


gase


are


utilized


formation of


desired


rate


screen


speed.


The


which
itself


can


be produced at


is harmless


man


any
and


metals and does not irritate


cided


advantage


over


those


the eyes.


many


These
other


features are


screens.


a de-


The


mechanical portion of the device is so perfected that its operation


distribution


the screen is


quite simple.


The


practical


value of thi


fog screen is


obvious


, although


the actual


value


any implement of


warfare


is difficult to estimate.


STUDIES


WATER


SUPPLIES


a-W J I a lk n r *


D


1 ~.





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


Water Supply of St.


Augustine.-A


complete


water survey for


City


ment


of St.


plant was


Augustine


placed


was


made


in operation.


and an


experimental


In recognition


treat-
value


of this


survey,


Augustine


presented


experi-


A PLANT FOR STUDYING WATER PURIFICATION.


The plant used at the University of Florida for studies in


water


purification.


This work


importance to the towns and


cities


of the


State.


mental water plant to the Department of


Chemistry


This plant


is now used for research and for class studies in water treatment


and


purification.


Colorimetric


Determination


Sodium


and


Potassium


Na-


tural
tion


Waters.-Certain


these


elements


colorimetric method


have


been


adapted


the determina-


water


analyses.


Originally these methods were proposed for and used in analytical


work on soils and blood serum.


The method is exceedingly


ensi-


tive and satisfactorily


accurate.


is of


great





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


far cheaper in a great many cases to remove color from a soft


water than


to soften a


very


hard one.


United States


Bureau of Mines publication dealing with Florida waters the pre-
diction is made that in time all cities facing a choice between
removing the color from soft surface waters and softening a hard
one will swing to the use of the soft colored waters. With this in
mind the importance of this research can be estimated. In this


same connection a comparative study


alum and chlorinated


copperas for the removal of color from the highly colored swamp
waters found in the state has also been made.
STUDIES OF MINERAL RESOURCES
During the Summer of 1928 a study on the artificial coloring of


Florida


travertine was undertaken.


Its purpose was to devise


means of utilizing non-commercial sizes and shapes of the rock


in the manufacture of novelties.


This study was


successfully


carried through.
In cooperation with the State Geological Survey in an attempt


to encourage the manufacture of brick,


tile and pottery in the


state, physical and chemical tests of Florida clays have been made.
The series of clays for study was selected by the State Geologist.


They were analysed


chemically.


The


physical


tests


included a


study of the behavior of the clays when fired or burned.


These


studies are being continued and results will be published in the
reports of the State Geologist.
A study has been made of the variations in composition of the


beach sands found on the Florida coasts.


This work was done in


cooperation


with


the State


Geological Survey


and


results


have been incorporated in one of its reports under the heading
"Beaches of Florida."

NAVAL STORES RESEARCH


In cooperation with the Bureau of


Chemistry,


United States


Department of Agriculture, a study is being made of the various
factors influencing the quality and quantity of resin and turpen-


tine from long leaf and slash pine in Florida.


The second year of


this work has just been brought to a close and two additional





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


sible are being studied.


This research when completed will yield


a great deal of entirely new data that will be of value in the naval
stores industry.
Analysis of oleoresin from high, medium, and low yielding pine
trees and a checking up on the resin and turpentine content of
these trees to determine whether any relationship exists between
the constituents of oleoresin and tree yield is under way. A study
of the layers of oleoresin which occur when it is allowed to stand


for a period of six months or more is being made.


Early indica-


tions appear to indicate a considerable difference of turpentine
and resin obtained from these separate layers.

MISCELLANEOUS INVESTIGATIONS
Analyses of the ash of various meat and vegetable products


have been made.


These will furnish information of value in the


studies of animal diets.
A new method for bleaching sponges has been developed which
has distinct advantage over methods formerly in use.


Investigation of the effects of sea


water on cement tiles has


furnished information which may be utilized in the preparation
of more resistant kinds of tile.
A series of experiments are under way which are planned to
improve the quality of certain dental products and to decrease
the amount of time required for their preparation.
PAINT, VARNISH, AND LACQUER STUDIES
Since Florida produces large amounts of naval stores and the
production of tung-oil has been started, it is important that the
uses to which these products are put and the methods of prepar-


ing them for use should be investigated.


Studies in this field


have


been


initiated


Department


Chemistry


University of Florida along several lines.
The Use of Tung-Oil in Spray Lacquer. It was found that
bodied tung-oil could be used in place of resins in spray lacquer
and that the presence of the tung-oil increased the durability of


the lacquer.


The durability was determined by exposure tests


on lacquers whose formulas differed only in the composition of





UNIVERSITY


glossy surface.


FLORIDA


The bodying process developed consists in heat-


ing the oil while bubbling air through it.
Manufacture of Varnish From Tung-Oil and Crude Turpentine


Gum in One Operation.-This


method avoids the expense of con-


verting the turpentine


gum


into


resin and also several handling


changes.


It should encourage the manufacture of varnish in Flor-


ida,


where


necessary


ingredient


, except


driers


produced.
The Use of Tung-Oil in Paint.-It has been found that tung-oil


can replace linseed oil,


wholly or partially


, in paint making. Paints


containing tung-oil were found to give films that are more glo
and durable than those containing only linseed oil.


Some Chemical Problems


Florida


Tung-Oil


Industry.-


The chemical


procedures of


tung-oil industry


awaiting


solu-


tion include utilization of by-product


of the pressing plant,


Such


as hulls


and


press


cake


, development


new


uses


study


polymerized


which


now


no important


use


and


the physiological action of the oil and nuts.


Manufacture of Ester Gum


From Crude Turpentine


Gum and


Glycerine in One Operation.


- This very economical method for


producing high


quality ester gum ha


been perfected and should


encourage its manufacture in Florida and other southern states.


Painting Studies.-For the


past


seven


years


Department


of Chemistry has been cooperating with the Forest Products Lab-
oratory at Madison, Wisconsin, in a world-wide study on the paint-


ing characteristic


various


kinds of wood.


Several


thousand


pages of


data and comments


have already been published


on the


work as a whole, and in all of these the Florida work is mentioned


and illustrated.


The data secured from this study have already


been shown to be of great importance
tions.


under our climatic condi-


SERVICE MANUFACTURING


In connection with


the operation of the


University there is an


accumulation
Chemistry ha


certain


waste


zs turned some of


materials.
these to good


The
use.


Department of
Waste grease


nnjrv. wT an r"4 n


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- rt -m


I-fl f-


- a


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. 1 _


1


1





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


PURE CHEMICAL


RESEARCH


To the layman,


investigation


in the field of pure research may


appear


useless


and


unnecessary


Yet


these


lines


research


directed to the solution of fundamental problems, are responsible


for scientific progress in many fields.


Obviously, rno forward step


can be made without a knowledge of methods,


technique, and re-


agents,


and


without


setting


up of


theorie


proved


disproved.


Hence pure research has


its well


defined place in the


advancement of


chemical research.


In thi


field


, the Department of Chemistry has been active.


The


following lines of investigation are noteworthy.


Acyl Derivatives of Ortho-


Aminophenol.


-About 40 new mono-


and di-acyl derivative


ortho-aminophenol have been prepared.


These compounds are of particular interest in the study of mole-


cular rearrangement


and,


in addition


this


phase of


pure


search


, present


possibility


use


as insecticide


or anaes-


thetics.


The


toxic


effect


some


these


compounds


studied at the present time by the Bureau of Entomology


Being
United


States Department of Agriculture,


Honolulu,


More of these


compounds are being prepared,


and the physiological effect of all


of them will be studied.
Derivatives of Piperazine.-Experiments are under way involv-


ing the


preparation and study


of new


derivatives of


piperazine.


These compounds will be tested for possible medicinal use.


Organic


Compounds of Cerium.-Attempts are


being made


prepare
chemical


new


organic


compounds


cerium.


The


physical,


, and physiological properties of these compounds are to


be studied.


Anthraquinone


Derivatives.-This


was


a problem


organic


chemistry of particular interest in the field of vat dyes.


It resulted


in the production of a new


organic compound which may be


used


for dyeing cotton, linen,


and rayon.


Studies of


other compounds


of like nature are now under way.


The Use of the Nitrogen


Grignard Reagent in the Preparation


of Rubber Accelerators.-A number of new compounds have been


prepared


and


tested


as rubber accelerators.


One


these


com-


-I 1 I 1


I


__ _


1 f9J ^





UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


nature and the properties of


resin


vary


with


the conditions


under which the reaction is carried out. Experiments are in prog-
ress to study the effect of substituting for the aluminium chloride


other


compounds


known


exercise


similar


properties


Friedel


Craft reaction.


A study


of the effect of various reagents on turpentine and on


certain


common


hope


and


sciences


derivatives


that new materials


may


be discovered.


turpentine
or product


Thi


field


also


contemplated


value in
research


the arts
is very


important to the State of Florida since


production


useful


substance


derived from turpentine will increase the demand for


naval stores products.
Uses of Vanadium Salts in Analytical Work.-A study of vana-
dium salts has resulted in their use for new methods of chemical


analysis


copper


and


other


metals.


These


methods


mark


distinct advance


difficult field.





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


RESEARCH IN


ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL


/ Research
everywhere.
TjIt is simply


something,


RELATIONS


occupies


a prominent


position


minds


It does not, however, denote a mysterious
a method by which modern man attempts to


to discover the fact


to draw


conclusions


men


process;
find out


therefrom,


and to
human


use


these conclusions


progress.


research


in the
once I


formulation of


considered


programs for


interest


only


theorists. tasf become of interest to


BeePnCee


growing
as well


has


transformed


interest in


as the


physical


world,


value
and


the
and


of research.


biological


practical man.
everywhere t


The


sciences


social
have


Modern


where


is a


sciences
attacked


almost


every


problem


direct


indirect


concern


man.


Whether


in government


or in


industry


whether


religion


education,


whether


domains


politic


or in


those


social
ment


relation


hips,


precision


th
if


e setist has ent
we are not already


;ered
-ina :


with


research


instru-
age we


are steadily approaching such an age.


The people of Florida have never made adequate provisions for


research in the social sciences at the


University


The functions


of a university, say


Abraham Flexner


four


first


con-


servation


of knowledge


and


ideas


second,


the interpretation


knowledge and ideas


third


the search for truth


and fourth


training of students who will


"carry


on"


civilization.


The State


of Florida has understood the last function and made provisions


therefore,


other three


has


only


functions.


partially understood


The


State cannot


and


make


accepted 1
Progress


which its natural advantages entitle it until it is willing to spend
its income to conserve and interpret knowledge and to search for


the truth as well as to train student


"carry on" it


civilization.


While it is


impossible, as has already been indicated, to calculate


the money value of research in the social


sciences


, the expenditure


of thousands of dollars on the search for truth as to the economic,


social, and political


structure of the state would bring


back mil-


lions of dollars in public and private returns.


i As *a


i.fi f~unn.tinn tn dim.nvpr and dinspminn.t nw knnowl1


& J f* _r


-. I J. *





.UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


they


cease to be


scientists.
scientists.


When


they


become


controversialists


they


Reform is desirable, but reform must come


through legislative and other agencies.


The


University's


task is


furnish


these agencies


with facts,


with conclusions,


and


with


generalizations.
The State of Florida cannot afford to ignore the


benefits


to be


derived from expending funds for research in the social sciences.
To hide from the facts or to act on opinions and prejudices is to


muddle


as it


along.


advantage


Thi
s.


s


state


must


know its


disadvantages as


well


It must understand not only why it has made


progress


has


.but


also


why


has


made even


greater


progress.


Scientific inquiry will prevent


hasty,


untried, and


dis-


astrous actions.


Leader


as well as followers must be informed.


To achieve this end the State must support research.


To build a


commonwealth in which people not only follow the coarser art of


making money but also the finer art of living


respect for scientific


research is essential.


Spending money for the intangible


values


of social science research may be the safest road to


State's


realizing the


destiny.


Need for Research


in Economics.-The State of Florida needs


research


in economics


, general


as well


as agricultural.


does


not know with any degree of


potential wealth is.


exactness what either it


It does not know either its


actual


actual or potential


income.


No scientific


studies


have been made of the


balance of


trade


that


in certain


directions


least


runs


against


comprehensive study


has


been made of fundamental


natural re-


sources


, manufacturing,


domestic and foreign,


taxation


finance


and


, transportation,
tourist facilities.


trade


both


Need


Research


History


and


Political


Science.


- The


State of Florida needs research


concerning history


and


political


science.


Every state going through the processes of change such


as those with


which


Florida has been faced for the past decade


must be familiar with history


. It must know what has been done


in the past and what activities have been successful or unsuccess-


ful.


New


laws


must


based


upon


interaction


conditions and must be tested in the light of experience.


existing
To place


a* a a I -





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


where would not necessarily succeed here.


They must be adjusted


Florida


conditions


and


modified


Florida


circum-


stances.


we utilize


None


these


fruit


ends


science


, however,


and


can


secure


achieved


light


unless
we can


from other years and from other states and regions.
Need for Research in Sociology and Psychology.-The State of


Florida needs research in


sociology


and


psychology


This


state


as well as other states is faced


with


the complexities of modern


living.


No longer are its people pioneers pursuing their ends


sulated from


the rest of the world.


Group living is the order of


age.


problem


conflicts


and it


difficulties


must


scientifically surveyed.


Knowledge of similar problems and tasks


in other states and regions must be available.


Otherwise


methods


handling


criminals


and


operating


prisons,


caring


delinquent and


improvident,


uniting


groups


and


peoples


for the common good,


and


solving the


multitude


problems


facing this generation are likely to be disastrous in their applica-


tions or fall short of the desires of


enlightened men and women.


Need for


Research in


Education.-The


State


of Florida


needs


research in education.


Parent


in Florida as well as in the nation


as a whole are devotees to knowledge and enlightenment.


year witnesses increasing numbers flocking to


higher education as well as to the secondary school


Every


the institution


What i


be done with them when


they


arrive ?


Where are


tate


counties


and the cities to secure funds for the education of these


increasing numbers ?


What pha


education both


secondary


and


university


should


be eliminated


What


activities


not now


engaged


in but


necessary


should


engaged


These and a


multitude of


other questions educational research in Florida can


and should answer.


Need


Research


Social


Sciences.-The


value


search to the State of Florida in the various fields of social science


is difficult to calculate.


No one knows with accuracy the economic


value


a scientific


study


natural


resources


taxation


manufacturing possibilities,


istration, of numerous


education


related topics.


government admin-


The results of research in


11 a S 4 1 .3 S t S 4 n .


I


rm





UNIVERSITY


FLORIDA


able


value even


though


that value cannot


be reduced


to definite


monetary terms.


The


salvation


modern


civilization


in more,


less,


education.


education here is not meant formal education, but


education that comes from knowing and appropriating significant


fact


To solve


problems


which


modern


civilization


entails


we must gather all the fact


, interpret all the facts and draw valid


conclusions therefrom


upon


which


public and private action may


be based.


The University of Florida,


through the various colleges having


jurisdiction


over


the social


sciences,


vitally


interested


foregoing problems. Already it has made an appreciable beginning


field


achieved


economic


worthy


had adequate


results
funds


research.


this


Two colleges


respect,


research


even


purposes


especially


though


they


have
have


at their disposal.


These two college


are the College of Agriculture and the College


of Commerce and Journalism.


Investigations


Agricultural


Economics.---Investigations


agricultural economics have


been in


progress in


Department


Agricultural


tural


Experiment


Economic


Station


of the
since


University


1926.


The


of Florida Agricul-


studies


have


been


directed toward finding ways and means whereby the net incomes


farmers


state can


improved.


The


quickest


known


means


of rendering this assistance to farmers is by finding what


the incomes of farmers actually
find the principal factors which


are and then analyzing them
determine success or failure.


Economic


Study


Potato


Farming.-In


a study


294


potato


farms


Hastings


area


crop


year


1925


principal factors
net returns were


which


seemed


to explain


wide


variation


Size of business.


Those farms having the largest acreage of


potatoes made the highest labor incomes.


Yield of potatoes.


Labor income


increased as


yield


acre


increased.


Investment per farm.


The potato farms with


very large or


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I l A ,llA A





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


Survey


General


Farming


Northwest


Florida.-Records


were secured on 499 farms in Jackson County for the year


1925,


110 of the same farms for the
4


cash crops in thi


year


1928.


The principal
watermelons.


and
tion


cane syrup.


and


price


In 1925 the cotton


good


1928


yield


was


exact


high for this sec-


opposite


was


true.


Watermelons


and


cane


syrup


were


also


much


lower


price


1928 than in 1925.


In 1925 the average labor income of


the 110


farm


operators


included


study


both


years


was


$23


1928 there was no return to the operators for their year's


labor,


and


farms


lacked


their investments.


$269


paying


seven


percent


There was a return from the farm


interest on
s, however,


that was


not included in the labor income figure, represented by


the value of farm product


for home use


and the use of the house


as a


home.


1925


these


non-cash


returns amounted


$624,


and in 1928 to $551 per farm.


Economic Study


Dairy


Farming.


- Detailed studied


operations of 249 dairy farms located in the vicinities of Jackson-


ville


year


, Orlando, Miami,


1927


indicated


Tampa,


that


Petersburg,


fewer


and


hours


Ocala
labor


for the


used


producing


100 pounds of milk,


the labor income


and


the lower the cost and the higher


the larger the herd the more efficient was


the labor and the higher the labor income.


In the groups produc-


4,000 pounds of milk and


less


cow


retailers


and


whole-


sales lost about equally


but the relative advantage of the retail-


ers increased rapidly in the higher production groups.


From


1927 to


1931


the price of milk was reduced in


a slightly


greater proportion


than


the costs of


production.


Consequently,


profits


identical


farms


were


reduced


about


percent.


Retail prices paid


by farmers


for commodities used


in living de-


lined only


18 percent between June,


1927


and June


1931.


Studies of Cotton Grades and Prices.-A study


of the relation


of grade and staple to the price of cotton grown in Florida indicat-


that


local


buyers


failed


pay


farmers


premium


they


should receive for the better grades and staples.


This action


the part of buyers is having the effect of retarding any tendency


I '* A . ql S a S .


and on


area are cotton, Spanish peanuts,





UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


dling citrus fruit from the tree to the car, covering approximately


100


packinghou


two


seasons


1924-25


and


1925-26,


reveals that if the least efficient 78 percent of the packinghouses


were as efficient as the remaining 22 percent,


the saving in hand-


ling
This


costs


study


would


amount to $1,370,850 on a 25,000,000


indicates


that


some


important


box


crop.


factors


efficient


handling of citrus fruit


from


the tree to the car are


A reasonable investment per box.


Adequate volume,


in general at


least


75.000 boxes.


Large


volume per


car capacity-at


least


15.000


boxes.


Large volume per grower.


If the fruit of individual growers


must


kept separate


until packed,


at least 400


boxe


per


grower seems necessary for efficient operation.
Efficient arrangement of packinghouses.


Work is now going forward to


bring this study up


to date and


find what new factors have developed during the past few years.
Investigation of Citrus Freight Rates.-A study of citrus fruit


freight rates shows


that


the freight rate on Florida citrus fruit


since 1914 has been increased nine percent more than the freight


rate on California citrus fruit.


If the Florida rate could be placed


on a par with the California


rate


it would mean a


saving of


125,000 per year on a 25,000,000 box crop.


tion in


the Florida rates in line with


these fact


temporary reduc-
s was made from


February


to June 15 of the past season, resulting in


the sav-


several hundred


thousand


dollars


growers


this


state.


Competition in


Truck


Crops.


- Compilations


have


been


made


for each of Florida's important truck crops, showing the


weekly


competition


Florida


with


other state


and


import


from for-


eign countries for each season since 1924-25.


These compilations


show


Increasing


competition


which


Florida


is experiencing


and


indicate


season


year


when


this


competition


lights
tween


t.


A detailed study for


1928-29 shows the competition be-


the various producing areas within


the state.


Studies of


Cooperative


Associations.-Data


were


secur..d


I.1.





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


were found to be lack of volume, poor management, no need for


cooperative, lack of


cooperative spirit, insufficient capital,


conm-


petition, unsatisfactory prices, and others.


Since


unincorporated


cooperative associations are essentially


partnerships and have the disadvantage of unlimited liability for
each member, an analysis was made and published of the provi-
sions of the three state laws available for incorporation, and of


related Federal laws.


The information contained in this bulletin


should be of great help to associations that wish to organize on
a business basis.
Successful business practices of cooperative associations are be-
ing determined from the experiences of outstanding associations
and will be made available to those who wish to study them.
Bureau of Economic and Business Research.-The College of
Commerce and Journalism as well as the College of Agriculture
exists for the purpose of research in Florida as well as for instruc-


tion of the youth of Florida.


In recognition of this purpose, the


College of Commerce and Journalism established the Bureau of


Economic and Business Research in 1930.


This Bureau is not a


bureau separate and distinct from the College itself; it is rather
a unit within a unit, a clearing house for the research activities


of faculty memi
its operations.


,ers.


It has no specific appropriations to carry on


It has a director, who is a regular faculty member,


and two research graduate assistants.


The director is released


each year from a part of his teaching load and together with the
research assistants supervises and prosecutes the research proj-
ects of the Bureau.
During the academic years 1930-31 and 1931-32, the Bureau of


Economic and Business Research


bulletins.


published five monographs or


The titles of these monographs show something of the


activities of the Bureau: The Assessment of Real Estate for Pur-
poses of Taxation, by John G. Eldridge and Oscar L. Durrance;


Measures of


Business


Activity


in Florida, by


Montgomery


Anderson


Forewarnings of Bank Failure, by


Harwood B.


Dol-


beare


and


Merle 0.


Barnd;


Studies in Forestry


Resources


Florida: I. Timber Conservation, by Stuart Campbell and E.


TIn r r'"n i


m- .r . .. 1 YA rJ__ .... --___-----1 |1 -_ -


lrT





682 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

direct Florida studies in natural resources, in manufacturing, in
taxation, in finance, in commerce, in transportation, in tourist


facilities, and in many other related fields.


While it has had no


specific funds allotted to it and while it has been able to make


only the


merest beginnings,


research activities


are of


im-


measurable value to the State of Florida.


The


Bureau


Economic


and


Business


Research


could


directly of great value to the business men of Florida if it could


publish a monthly Florida review of business conditions.


This


review might carry data showing trends in current business and


economic conditions.


While it would not attempt to forecast cur-


rent business conditions in Florida, it would at least give sta-
tistics of past business activities and put the business man in the


position


where


could


judge


himself


future.


Already the Bureau has gathered current statistics on business


conditions and is keeping them up to date.


If these could be inter-


preted and published monthly and thereby be made available to


business


enterprises


Florida,


these


business


enterprisers


might be better able to meet economic changes and save them-
selves from serious losses.
To show more specifically the economic worth of business re-
search to the State of Florida, a simple illustration might not be


entirely


out


place.


Suppose,


example,


Bureau


Economic and Business Research had sufficient funds to study


the operations of retail


enterprises in Florida.


Such


a study


might cover the costs of doing business, the sources from which
they receive goods, the costs of transportation into the territory
which they serve, the types of customers they have, the profits
which the least as well as the most successful make, and numerous


other operating and managerial activities.


The data obtained


would give a picture of a sufficient number of stores to indicate
to the average retailer what his difficulties are as compared with


other retailers in Florida.


The data would be so combined that


specific


person


would


asked


reveal


any


competitive


advantages which he might have.


The conclusions drawn would


general application


and


would


enable retailers


solve


thoim r nrnhlona Qrarioa +h0V,. 1;mfln114-;^, n ,,,-,,, 4- ..'.. ^a..,-.





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


RESEARCH IN


THE


COLLEGE


OF


ENGINEERING


Although the Board of Control authorized an Engineering Ex-


periment


Station in


1929


, the organization


has existed


in name


only because no


funds have been available


for a


building


equip-


ment


, or personnel.


In research


, as with most things in life,


one


cannot


get something for nothing.


Elsewhere


in thi


report


depicted the excellent work carried on by the Agricultural Experi-


ment Station
given wherein
establishment


with funds


provided


by the


State.


Examples


the Agricultural Experiment Station has since it


1888


produced


work


which


has


returned


wealth to


the state


more than the


total fund


appropriated


dur-


ing the life of the Station.


The same thing can be demonstrated


for an Engineering Experimental Station,


if the opportunity were


given.


The erection


an Experiment Station


building


and


equipment is justified on the following grounds:


We are


not develop it


living in an industrial


age.


factories and industries


That state
will always 1


which
e poor.


does


Florida is already an industrial state.


More people are gain-


fully


employed in Florida


in manufacturing


and


mechanical


industries


than


are


engaged


Agriculture.


The


1930


census


shows:


Total males and females above 10 years


of age


gainfully employed in Florida.


Agriculture. . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing and Mechanical Industries
Transportation and Communication ......


.......
*...g...


133,530
141,951
47,928


Those engaged in industry produce more


wealth than those


engaged in agriculture and they pay more taxes.


The municipalities,


especially the smaller ones where taxes


are


unusually


burdensome, are entitled to


the same engineering


assistance


from


a state


Engineering


Experiment


Station


which


rural


communities


receive


from


Agricultural


Experiment


Station.


ENGINEERING


Below


is described


EXPERIMENTAL


some


research


WORK
work


ACCOMPLISHED


in engineering which


has


been


carried


on at


University


Florida.


This


is not





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


or not.


Naturally, the projects are those in which the individuals


are most interested and not necessarily those projects which would
aid in creating the maximum wealth for the state.


Projects which have been studied recently in the


College of


Engineering are as follows:
UTILIZATION OF PALMETTO FIBER FOR BUILDING MATERIALS
The results of this investigation were negative in character.
They showed clearly that it was not economically feasible at this


time to produce from the wood of the native palm,


veneers suit-


able


for manufacturing wallboard.


The dissemination


this


knowledge undoubtedly


dissuaded some reputable citizens from


investing their money in projects which were economically un-


sound.


These tests also had a wholesome effect in breaking up


questionable stock selling schemes in this field.


The saving to


the state is estimated at $100,000.00.
MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH MATERIALS
This investigation lead to the discovery of the most efficient
type of wall construction for the proper insulation of a building


under weather conditions prevalent in Florida.


The saving to


the people of the state will depend upon the dissemination of the


results of the tests and their adoption.


The heating and cooling


bill for Florida may not seem large but a saving in the aggregate
of 10 or 15 percent is an important economical item, and the added
comfort and efficiency in living is an intangible asset which can
not be appraised in dollars.

PRECISION TIMERS FOR CALIBRATION OF ROTARY


WATTHOUR


The


METERS


results of this investigation are of primary interest


technical


engineers and the engineering


profession


of Florida


has recognized this investigation by having these results present-
ed before the Florida Engineering Society and published under
the title "Theory and Design of an Electric Timer." Every con-
sumer of electricity in Florida is interested and ultimately benefits
when more accurate and cheaper devices for measuring his con-
--- a-- J -c-- .&L- -_ -- .. .





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM


RESEARCH


quiency
neering


Induction
Society,


Furnace"


which


was


presented


organization


published<


The
d the


Florida
results


Engi-
(see


1930


awarded


author,


Florida


Mr.


Engineering


Laurie,


Society,
a prize.


page
This


and


type


furnace has it


application in scientific fields where high tempera-


tures are


desired and


heating


must be


done either in


a vacuum


or in the presence of gases.


also used to make alloys and for


melting precious


metal


such as gold and platinum.


THE IMHOFF METHOD OF SEWAGE TREATMENT

The study of the Imhoff Method of Sewage Treatment ha


underway continuously since 1927


been


The results of this investiga-


tion have been


applied with success


three


plant


the state.


A preliminary report of this work wa


published in the December,


1928


, issue of The Municipal and Waterwork


News.


semi-tropical climate, its copious supply of water,


Because of
and the vast


number
disposal,


hazard


f tourists
drainage,


which


come


state


and the elimination of


are of vital concern


Florida.


each


year,


mosquito and


There


sewage
typhoid


need for much


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Transaction


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.


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"- ^ .* / 1


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UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


further


investigation


these


fields


and


normally


small


com-


munities
gations.


cannot


afford


carry


on extensive


research


investi-


The question


of the


preservation


beaches


preven-


tion of erosion, and the protection of the vast playgrounds of Flor-
ida are problems with which an Engineering Experiment Station


could most profitably concern it


In 1930 the Federal Govern-


ment


enacted


a law


authorizing


50-50


cooperation


any


state


which would
of its shore


engage in investigation looking to the preservation


line.


To date


Florida


has


not availed itself


of that


opportunity, yet it has the longest shore line of all


the union.


the states


An Engineering Experiment Station could well repre-


sent Florida in that undertaking.





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


RESEARCH


WORK


OF


THE


COLLEGE


OF


PHARMACY


The


enormous


economic


losses


caused


sickness


and


pre-


mature death have frequently


been


emphasized


by public


health


writers.


In the battle against disease,


pharmacy renders an indis-


pensable


service.


Without


good


health


difficult


lead


happy and successful life.


Neither pharmacist nor physician rec-


ommend


indiscriminate


use of


drugs,


certainly


no one


would wish to do without the general or local anesthetic in opera-
tions, the analgesic to stop pain, the germicide to prevent contagion


or infection, and the use of quinine in malarial fevers,


a few outstanding examples


of indispensable drugs.


to cite only
As a bridge


helps us over the roaring flood waters of a stream, so a drug helps
us over many a crisis in our lives.


Research


disease


work in


and


principles


pharmacy


is dedicated


attainment of health


and


method


pharmacy


lead


fight against


Improvement
;o a decrease


Sin the
in sick-


ness,


thus conserving definite economic human


values, and to


attainment of health,


which contributes to the enjoyment of life


in a way scarcely measurable in


terms of gold pieces.


Although the College of Pharmacy is primarily a teaching unit,


more than


thirty-five research papers


have been


published from


this


college


in the


nine


years


following


establishment


1923.


These


research


articles,


which


have appeared


leading


national scientific journals, may be grouped in four classes, as fol-


lows


research


on medicinal


plant


resources,


research


on the constituents of Florida


provements


in methods


drug plant


preparation


, (3)


research


pharmaceuticals,


on im-


and


pure


research


intended


primarily


advance


scientific


development


pharmacy.


Drug Plant Survey.-Florida has


a wealth


medicinal


plant


resources, and this has


been a subject of investigation since the


inauguration of the College of Pharmacy


To determine the plant


resources


a survey


has


been


under way


and


considerable


work


has been accomplished by members of the instructional staff and
I J 1 I I





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Christensen, B.


Industrial importance of medicinal plants


in Florida.


(In Dawe, Grovesnor: Industrial Survey of Florida. 1927.
183).


Some drug plants in Florida.


178-


Fla. Dept. Agr.


n. s. Bul. 14, 1929.


Collection of medicinal plants in Florida. Fla.


Dept. Agr. n. s.


Bul.


1930.


and Lovell D. Hiner: Quality of spearmint oil


produced in Florida.


Jour.


Am.


Phar. Assn. 21


147-149.


1932.


and Arnold D. Welch.


The relation of size of


ergot to potency.


Jour. of Phar. and Exp. Ther. XLV


183-


187.


1932.


Stuhr, Ernst T.:


Medicinal Plants of Florida. Jour. Am. Phar.


Assn.


17:761-766.


1928.


These publications have stimulated an interest in collection of
native medicinal plants and several collectors are now active, as


evidenced


letters


received


College


Pharmacy.


Estimated annual income from crude drugs collected is $75,000,


and this amount


undoubtedly will be


increased with


improved


market conditions.


Herbarium.


plants


- In


previously


connection


mentioned,


with


specimens


survey


have


been


medicinal
collected,


mounted,


labeled and


stored for study


and reference.


Photo-


graphs of many have also been prepared, placed on file and made


available in


class


instruction and for reference.


Many photo-


graphs have been supplied for use in textbooks and journals.. At
present the Herbarium consists of approximately 500 specimens
with an estimated value of $5,000.
Constituents of Florida Plants.-Research on the constituents
of various Florida plants represents a field of study which should


be emphasized


Florida.


Studies along this line on


several


plants have been underway for some time.


There grows in the


waste places of Florida the wild white oricklv DODDV (Araemone





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


of about 2.6 percent.


A study was also made of the wild coffee bean


(Glottidium


vesicarium)


which


grows


Florida


and


other


southeastern states.


Cases have been reported in which children


were


poisoned


eating these


wild


coffee


beans.


It was found


that the toxic principle of this plant was an irritating saponin.


similar study was
longifolia), which


made
have


of the
been r4


seeds


reported


sesbania


as causing


(Daubentonia
the poisoning


of chickens.


This research,


which was carried out by a graduate


assistant


under the


direction


a professor


pharmacy,


dis-


closed the fact that the poison is a saponin.
In such studies there is always a possibility
values in Florida plants which would be of ec


of discovering new
onomic value to the


state, and moreover it is important that full knowledge be gained
of the poisonous plants of the state that danger from them may
be minimized.


Medicinal Plant


Garden.-From


time


time


evidence


is pre-


sented in the crude drug market that our natural supply of medi-


cinal plants i


decreasing rapidly


because of the rapid


depletion


of the sources from which they are procured.


It is deemed impera-


c --- I ---------- *i^Y 11211





UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


tive,


regular


therefore,


that


demand


measures


crude


adopted


drugs


either


cultivation


supply


drug


plants


or to


find


natural


substitutes


for those crude


drugs


now in


use,


native


supplies of which are approaching depletion.


For this reason


the cultivation of medicinal plants is a promis-


ing potential industry for this state.
well as the educational point of view


From this point of view, as
considerable research work


on the cultivation of medicinal


plants has


been


fostered


by this


department.


; I





TWENTY-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS ANNUALLY FROM RESEARCH


As a result it has been demonstrated that the following can be
successfully grown under cultivation in Florida, and under reason-
able market conditions are promising commercial crops:


Stramonium
Lemon Grass


Psyllium
Coriander


Ginger


Fennel


Dill


Horsemint
Spearmint


The


papers on


these


phases of research


have


already


been


indicated.
Publications and correspondence on the subject of cultivation
of medicinal plants has stimulated an interest in this industry.
As a result, one crude drug farm has been in operation two or
three years in the vicinity of Fort Lauderdale, and others are in


contemplation.
able commercial


This suggests a potential industry of consider-


value.


the case of spearmint alone, if this


state produced only its proportionate share of the present demand
for the oil, it would mean an annual income of at least $50,000.
Improvements in Methods of Preparation of Pharmaceuticals.
Leading pharmacists of the country have voiced the opinion that
one of the outstanding problems in pharmacy today is the deter-


ioration of drugs and preparations.


It has been urged that more


attention be given to research on methods of improving the keep-


ing qualities of


medicines.


Drugs deteriorate


more rapidly in


warm, sunny regions than in ones cloudy and cold.


Thus, while


the balmy climate of Florida, with its health-giving sunshine, is
a wonderful asset for the well-being of the people, it is to be ex-
pected that this very warmth and sunshine will cause more rapid


deterioration .of


pharmaceuticals.


It is,


therefore,


particularly


appropriate that research along these lines should be emphasized
in Florida.


An important study of the keeping qualities of Donovan's


tion has been carried out.


Solu-


This preparation has been used for


almost a century


in the


treatment of


certain


diseases,


deteriorates rapidly and becomes unfit for use after a time.


but it
This





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


originated by a French savant in 1841.


It is interesting to note


that this project was considered to be of such importance that
our Head Professor of Pharmacy was awarded a research grant


by the


American


Pharmaceutical


Association;


only two


other


such grants were awarded in the United States that year.
Studies also have been made on the keeping qualities of oint-
ments and two other solutions are now being investigated. Re-


search


this


type


has


a decided


value


in cutting


down


economic loss caused by the spoilage of medicines, and by making
it more readily possible for the pharmacist to supply medicines
of full strength, it has great potential possibilities in promoting
health and saving lives.
Research has also been devoted to better methods of preparing


various


prescriptions,


of which


following will serve


as an


illustration.


It has been


estimated


government authorities


that


approximately


one-half


population


United


States is infected with eczematoid ringworm


of the hands and


feet.


This


disease,


which


also


known


"athlete's


foot,"


"golfer'


itch," etc., is prevalent in the southeastern states.


One


of the most common prescriptions for this infection is Whitfield's
Ointment, a preparation of benzoic and salicylic acids in an oint-
ment base. It is no easy task to prepare this ointment properly
in a short time. One of our professors studied several different
methods of preparation and recommended an improved process,
which was published and reprints were sent to every pharmacist
in Florida.
Pure Research.-In any field of scientific endeavor, it is neces-
sary that pure research be conducted to discover new facts and
principles on which further developments may be based. Some-
times the leading reference books give conflicting statements on
certain points, and as long as such points remain unsettled they
prevent a clear understanding of the field of study and act as a


hindrance
hydrolysis


further


arsenous


progress.


iodide,


paper


one


dealing


professor


with


pharmacy


described his accurate measurements bearing on certain points
on which there have been conflicting statements in the reference


It I w a S a 1 A *


1




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