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 Material Information
Title: University record
Uniform Title: University record (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of the State of Florida
University of Florida
Publisher: University of the State of Florida,
University of the State of Florida
Place of Publication: Lake city Fla
Publication Date: June 1934
Copyright Date: 1934
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: College publications -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Agricultural education -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
University extension -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Teachers colleges -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Law schools -- Periodicals -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1906)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issue for Vol. 2, no. 1 (Feb. 1907) is misnumbered as Vol. 1, no. 1.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Imprint varies: <vol. 1, no. 2-v.4, no. 2> Gainesville, Fla. : University of the State of Florida, ; <vol. 4, no. 4-> Gainesville, Fla. : University of Florida.
General Note: Issues also have individual titles.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075594
Volume ID: VID00380
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEM7602
oclc - 01390268
alephbibnum - 000917307
lccn - 2003229026
lccn - 2003229026

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Page 165
        Page 166
    Annual report of the bureau of vocational guidance and mental hygiene
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
Full Text
I


The University Record

of the

University of Florida


Bulletin of the

IBureau of T)ocational guidance
and
Kfental rfygiene


Biennial Report
1932-33 and 1933-34


Vol. XXIX, Series I


No. 6


June 1, 1934


Published monthly by the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Entered in the post office in Gainesville, Florida, as second-class matter,
under Act of Congress, August 24, 1912
Office of Publication, Gainesville, Florida


















The Record comprises:
The Reports of the President and the Board of Control, the Bulletin
of General Information, the annual announcements of the individual
colleges of the University, announcements of special courses of instruc-
tion, and reports of the University Officers.
These bulletins will be sent gratuitously to all persons who apply for them.
The applicant should specifically state which bulletin or what information is
desired. Address
THE REGISTRAR
University of Florida
Gainesville. Florida

Research Publications.-Research publications will contain results of re-
search work. Papers are published as separate monographs numbered in sev-
eral series.
There is no free mailing list of these publications. Exchanges with insti-
tutions are arranged by the University Library. Correspondence concerning
such exchanges should be addressed to the University Librarian, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida. The issue and sale of all these publications is
under the control of the Committee on Publications. Requests for individual
copies, or for any other copies not included in institutional exchanges, should
be addressed to the University Librarian, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida.
The Committee on University Publications
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida


[1661

















ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE

BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE

AND

MENTAL HYGIENE


ROOM 110, PEABODY HALL


PERSONNEL

ELMER DUMOND HINCKLEY, PH.D. (Chicago) ..............

CHARLES 1. MOSIER, B.A- .... ..................

D ICK W JUDY ........ .......... ..................................... .............


.....- ......... .................D director

..-..-..- .........-- ..-..- .....- ..-.- Instructor

.....................Student Assistant


[1671






BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE


THE BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND
MENTAL HYGIENE

Observation over a period of several years has shown clearly that a large percentage of
students entering the University of Florida have no definite idea of the life work which
they wish to enter, and that, of those entering with a choice in this matter, many change
their decision after having been subjected to the courses of instruction involved in the
field of their choice. This condition naturally tended to cause a great deal of unrest
among the students thus affected, and resulted in a continual changing of courses, trans-
ferring from one college to another, and other obvious attendant conditions. In order to
assist those who, at the time of entrance, are in need of vocational guidance, to advise
those who are having present difficulty with regard to their vocational choice, and to aid
those students having mental and emotional difficulty, the need was felt for a Bureau
devoted particularly to this work.
In 1931, through the influence of President Tigert, Senator Wagg, and other interested
members of the Legislature, the Bureau of Vocational Guidance and Mental Hygiene was
created by a special act of the Florida Legislature. The Bureau is under the direction
of the Department of Psychology, and includes the following personnel: Dr. E. D. Hinckley,
Director; Charles 1. Mosier. Instructor; and D. W. Judy. Student Assistant. There follows,
herewith, a report of the activities of the Bureau during the past year.

VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICE

The possibility of scientific vocational adjustment emerges from the fact that there are
significant and measurable differences between individuals and between occupations. By
reason of these differences, individuals are better fitted for some vocations than for others;
and, for any particular work, some individuals are better equipped than are others. The
function of vocational guidance, then, is to analyze the characteristics, interests, and
abilities of the individual; to compare these with similar traits of men successful in
various types of work; and, to present these comparisons to the individual, together with
complete descriptions of the occupations involved, in order that he may choose more
intelligently the vocation which he will make his life work.
Since the most scientific and reliable method of checking the traits of the individual
is by means of various types of tests, the Bureau uses numerous vocational tests, some of
a general nature and given as a preliminary measure to all who apply for guidance. and
some of a more specific variety for use in the particular instances where they are needed
to supplement the other information obtained.
It is most important that the student know something about the qualifications for
different types of work. the advantages and drawbacks, salary range, and other similar
information with regard to each. In order to satisfy this need, the Bureau is supplied with
a series of career monographs embracing numerous occupations, the material being clearly
presented, compact, and scientific, being a compilation of the results of an extended
research campaign. Also, the University Library lists a number of books of a vocational
nature. The material which is found in the office of the Bureau is definitely supplemented
in the Library stacks. There is a great need for additional books which have been recently
written, and which give latest information in new fields. These will be added as funds permit.
In addition, it is exceedingly important that the student know the avenues of approach
to the work he chooses, lest he be stranded in a so-called "blind alley" job which will
circumvent his activity and prevent the utilization of the full extent of his natural ability






AND MENTAL HYGIENE


combined with his educational equipment. To meet this situation, the Bureau has supplied
itself with a series of Organization, Promotion, and Progress charts for a number of voca-
tions. showing clearly the "blind alley" jobs, the usual lines of promotion, organization
on the basis of distribution of authority, progress in comparatively unorganized fields, etc.
These charts are based on the results of an extensive research campaign over a period of
years, and hence the data are reliable from a practical and scientific standpoint. The
students have found these charts to he an excellent aid in solving their problems.
There follows a report of the activities of the Bureau during the past scholastic year:

A. ADMINISTRATION OF TESTS
1. The Psychological Examination of the American Council on Education was admin-
istered to the entering freshmen and transfer students. This is considered to be
the best measure of relative intellectual capacity in general use among college
students. The standing of each man in this regard is ascertained and is used in
cases of maladjustment during later college life. The five parts of the test are
very diagnostic of specific aspects of the general mental make-up.
2. The Strong Vocational Interest Test was administered to groups, including classes
and groups at the Y. M. C. A., and to all students who called at the office for
this service. By means of this test, the individual's characteristic set of interests
(including specific likes and dislikes with regard to 420 different items) may be
compared statistically with the characteristic set of interests of successful men in
26 different occupations. The interpretation of the score for each occupation
indicates to the counsellor, and through him to the student, the possible degree
of satisfaction he would merit in case he should choose that vocation for his life
work. This test, used in conjunction with specific aptitude tests, enables one to
give more adequate advice to the student than is possible when either test is used
alone.
3. The Scholastic Aptitude Test for Medical Schools, authorized by the Association
of American Medical Colleges, was administered to pre-medical and pre-dental
students who intend to enter medical school next year. This test measures such
factors as: comprehension and retention of materials such as will be considered
in medical school; visual memory of anatomical conditions; memory for content
of printed material; pre-medical information such as is ordinarily received during
the preparatory work; extent of scientific vocabulary possessed by the student;
the ability of the individual to follow directions; and, the relative degree of under-
standing of printed material. By means of the results of the test, the possibility
of success in medical school may be predicted for the student with a constantly
increasing degree of accuracy. This test is now a prerequisite for entrance into
most of the outstanding medical schools of the country.
4. The Fernson-Stoddard Legal Aptitude Test was administered to pre-law and law
students in groups, as well as to all others interested in determining their aptitude
for the legal profession. The test aims to measure the aptitude of the student
both for the type of work encountered in Law School and the type of work required
of the successful lawyer. A knowledge of law is not required, and specific legal
information does not affect the test score, since its purpose is to measure aptitude.
By means of this test the student can be measured in the following traits: ability
to read a law case and understand the essential elements, to discover elements of
similarity between two cases, to apply the findings in one case to another similar






BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE


case; ability to reason from premises to a conclusion; ability to read a difficult
law case with comprehension of the subject matter; and memory for newly
acquired information. The combination of these four measures have been found
to predict the success of the student in legal studies.
5. The Stanford Scientific Aptitude Test was given to engineering students, both
in groups and in individual cases. This test gives a good index of the ability
of the individual to handle some of the practical and theoretical calculations such
as those which will be required in the engineering field. It measures such factors
as: the ability of the student to proceed experimentally in the solution of a
problem; the ability to distinguish between good and poor definitions; relative
power of suspended judgment; ability to analyze situations for the purpose of
devising the best solutions; ability to detect inconsistencies and illogical conclu-
sions; aptitude for detecting fallacies; ability to draw correct inductions, deduc-
tions, and generalizations; extent of caution and thoroughness; proper tendencies
in selecting and arranging experimental data; interpretative accuracy; and, accuracy
of observation.
6. The Psychological Center Business Aptitude Test was administered once each
semester to all those who cared to take it, and from time to time throughout the
year to those individual cases where it seemed to be necessary. The test measures
the ability of the individual to succeed in enterprises of a general business nature,
without regard for the specific type of work. It provides measures of the traits
of observation and judgment, memory for names and faces, comprehension, arith-
metical reasoning, vocabulary of common business terms, and ability to follow
intelligently complex directions. In connection with this test the Bureau estab-
lished a new set of performance norms. For further consideration of this see the
section on research.
7. The Teaching Aptitude Test prepared by the center for Psychological Research
was administered according to the same schedule as the Business and Legal
Aptitude tests. This test measures judgment in teaching situations; reasoning
and information concerning school problems, comprehension and retention, obser-
vation and recall; and recognition of mental states from facial expressions. This
test considered as a whole provides a reliable and valid measure of the aptitude
of the individual for engaging in pedagogical work, when the scores are interpreted
in the light of the established norms. In cases where it is indicated, a supple-
mentary test, the Stanford Educational Ability Test, is employed to differentiate
between the three fields of Educational endeavor: Teaching, Administration, and
Research.
8. The Seashore Test for Musical Talent was administered to the members of the
University Glee Club in order to supply an objective rating of musical aptitude
as pertains to: ability to discriminate between fine differences in pitch; ability
to distinguish between slight differences in tonal intensity; acuteness of the sense
of time; ability to select the more harmonious of series of two combinations of
tones presented simultaneously; the ability to recall series of tones previously
presented; and, the ability to choose the more rhythmic of series of two groups
of tonal patterns. This test is the result of an exceptionally thorough standardiza-
tion, and provides an accurate account of these phases of the individual's aptitude
for music.






AND MENTAL HYGIENE


9. In addition to the afore-mentioned tests, which were administered to groups, a
number of other tests are available and were used whenever the need was felt in
any individual case. New tests for various purposes are constantly being added to
the Bureau's files. These, in addition to those already used, will make quite a
complete series of statistically standardized and usable material.
B. SCORING AND INTERPRETATION OF TEST RESULTS
The Bureau is equipped with necessary scoring devices for each of the tes:s
included in its files. Each test of the student is carefully scored, and the results
recorded in the student files of the Bureau. The name of each freshman is typed
on a separate card, each card including his score on the Psychological Examination.
Additional space is provided on the card for the results of additional tests which the
student may take while in the University. In this way, the Bureau's information
concerning each student is easily accessible. The records of the Bureau are open
to the administrative officers and faculty of the University, and special reports have
been made from time to time. In addition to this, the students may receive their
scores on vocational tests at any time, and, in exceptional instances, the result of
the Psychological Examination is interpreted for them. Each student is interviewed
in the light of the results of the various tests which he has taken, and appropriate
advice is given. The interview is one of the most important phases in the vocational
work. It provides a means of personal contact with the student, and in this way the
information gained from the test results may be applied to the student's own particular
circumstances.
C. VOCATIONAL INFORMATION
It has been the experience of the Bureau that a majority of students coming here
for vocational advice know little or nothing about the various occupations open to
them. Hence, a considerable amount of informative material has been added to the
Bureau's equipment. This comprises a series of research monographs presenting the
necessary information about more than fifty different vocations and professions. These
are very readable and authentic, and give the student a panoramic view of the occu-
pation from the standpoints of type of work, requirements and qualifications, necessary
educational training, salary range, permanency, etc. When the individual is in a
quandary as to his life work, he is first given the General Interest Test, and then is
advised to obtain all possible information with regard to a number of vocations, for
only by knowing something about a number of possibilities is the student enabled
to make an intelligent decision for himself. In addition to this material, there are
many books of a vocational nature in the Library; these add to the well-rounded view
which is so necessary on the part of the applicant for vocational counsel.
Together with the afore-mentioned monographs, the Bureau is supplied with a
series of Organization, Promotion, and Progress charts covering a variety of different
occupations. The Organization Chart illustrates the grouping, supervising, and sub-
ordinating of employees in the industrial field, with regard for their relation to each
other, and with regard for exercise of authority and control. The purpose of this
chart is to present to the student a comprehensive picture of the entire personnel
within an industry.
The Promotion Chart portrays the various lines of advancement open to the worker,
showing all the jobs in a particular field, and the relations between jobs. By means
of this chart, in conjunction with the Organization Chart, the individual is enabled
to foresee the possibility of advancement from various starting points, and is thus






BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE


equipped to judge his entrance accordingly. Herein, the student may determine the
qualifications which he must possess in order for him to advance in a particular field.
The Progress Chart is concerned with the professions which do not ordinarily
lend themselves to consideration in terms of organization and promotion, e.g., the field
of Law or Medicine. These charts illustrate the various lines which may be followed
in widely varied fields of unorganized activity.
These charts appeal to the student. because they present in an objective way a
wealth of information which is easily visualized. These, in conjunction with the
research monographs and vocational books, give the student a thorough view of a
wide variety of vocations.
On account of the lack of space for the Bureau's activities, the Psychological
Laboratory has been used for the purpose of a vocational reading room at times when
it was available.

D. RESEARCH
In an effort to increase the quality of the service rendered to the student who
applies for vocational guidance. as well as to advance the cause of pure science,
the Bureau has during the past two years, and in particular during the year 1933-34,
carried out a research program as extensive as the available facilities, both in time
and funds, have permitted. The research activities of the Bureau may be divided
into two categories: (I I Research projects undertaken and carried out wholly within
the Bureau by members of its staff; (2) Participation in, and guidance of, research
outside the Bureau. Under the second category will be considered certain projects
carried out by students in the classes in Business English and Business Psychology
where the investigation was planned and directed by members of the Bureau, and
theses prepared by candidates for the Master's degree, where such studies were carried
out with the assistance of the Bureau.

ABILITY OF UNIVERSITY OF FLOIuDA FRESHMEN:
At the request of President Tigert the Bureau undertook a survey of the ability of
University Freshmen for the years 1928-34. in comparison with the freshmen of other
ins itutions of higher learning. The measurement of ability adopted was the American
Council on Education Psychological Examination. The method employed in the survey
was to compute for each year the median Total Score on the Examination, as well as the
quartile deviations, for the University of Florida Freshmen. These values were translated
into their corresponding percentile rank on the National Norms, compiled from all
universities and colleges reporting their scores each year. Similar computations were made
of the median scores for other Sta:e Universities reporting scores each year, and for other
Southern Institutions reporting; these computations consisted in translating the median
score into its corresponding percentile rank when compared with the National Norms.
A second analysis was made with reference to the several parts of the A. C. E. Psycho-
logical Examination, representing several specific abilities, as well as for the level of
general ability represented by the Total Score. In this analysis, the median value for
each Universi.y of Florida Freshman class on each part of the test was computed, and
this value converted into its corresponding percentile rank on the National Norms.
The results of this survey indicated:
1. That the general level of ability of the University of Florida freshman was below
the median level of all the institutions reporting the use of the A. C. E. Psychological
Examination; that from the year 1929 there has been a steady decrease in the level of






AND MENTAL HYGIENE


the University of Florida Freshmen compared with the national median, with the exception
of 1933, in which year there was a noticeable upturn. but not sufficient to bring the level
back to the 1929 level. In 1934 the University of Florida median score was equivalent
to a national percentile rank of .437.
2. When compared with other State Universities the University of Florida was. for
each year, only slightly below the median, though there was a progressive loss of rank
from 1929 onward.
3. When compared with other Southern Institutions. the University was at the median
level, and when compared with other Southern State Universities reporting, was well above
their average.
4. The analysis of the various specific abilities over the period of years indicated that
in the two tests of verbal facility, "Completion". and "Opposites". and in the test of
perceptual relations, "Analogies", the University of Florida Freshmen fluctuated within
a small range above and below the national median: in the test of arithmetical reasoning,
"Arithmetic", they were consistently above the national median: in the test of immediate
rote memory and learning, "Artificial Language", and in general ability. "Total Score",
they fell consistently below the national median.
Copies of this report were prepared in collaboration with the Dean of Students, and
presented to President Tigert. A copy of the complete report is on file in the office of
the Dean of Students.

PREDICTION OF SUCCESS IN COLLEGE:
The principal study of the Bureau has been the attempt to develop a device for
predicting the honor point average of a student from measures which are available at
the time a man registers in the University for the first time. The method employed was
that of the multiple regression equation. The records of 630 students, freshmen entering
in the fall of 1932, were secured and data obtained on their scores on the A. C. E.
Psychological Examination, the English Placement Test, and their High School Average,
equated to a passing grade of 75. Their honor point average for the first semester of
1932-33 was taken as the measure of success in college. These measures, with the exception
of H. P. A. and High School grades, were reduced to standard scores. The intercorrelations
of these measures were obtained, and the multiple regression equation calculated. When
the prediction device had been obtained, it was applied to 441 of the freshmen entering
in 1933, predicting their honor point average for the first semester of 1933-34. The corre-
lation between the predicted honor point average and the obtained average was then
computed. In addition, the prediction device was extended to predict not only the first
semester average, but the average for the first year in college work. However, the results
will show that this extension is fruitless.
The results of this study yielded the intercorrelations between each of the measures
and every other measure. These intercorrelations are reproduced in the table below.

Psychological English High School H. P. A.
Examination Placement Grade 1st. Sem.
Psychological Exam................................ -
English Placement ............... ................ .714 -
High School Grade................................ .449 .422 -
H. P. A. First Sem ............................... .482 .481 .497 -
H. P. A. First Year.... ......................... .460 .426 .559 .956






BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE


The calculation of the multiple regression equation yielded the following results:

H.P. A. .175X + .194Y + .066 Z 4.66

where H. P. A. refers to the predicted honor point average for the first semester of college
work; X is the individual's standard score in the A. C. E. Psychological Examination; Y
is the individual's standard score in the English Placement Test; and Z is the individual's
High School Average, corrected to a passing grade of 75. The multiple correlation-the
predicted correlation between the predicted scores and obtained scores-was computed
to be .593, and the probable error of estimate to be .50 honor point.
When the prediction formula was applied to the freshman class for the year of 1933-34.
a correlation between the predicted honor point average and the obtained average of .602
was found. In the application of the formula to this year's freshman class, it was found
that of the twelve men for whom an honor point average of below zero was predicted, all
obtained averages below .75. and 63.3% actually fell below zero.
In the application of the formula to the full average it was found that a gain in
accuracy did not compensate for the added labor. The prediction of the year average from
the same variables, Psychological Examination, English Placement Test, and High School
Grades, had a multiple correlation of .622 and a probable error of estimate of .485. The
computations of the regression equation for the prediction of the year's average, taking
into account the predicted first semester average, have not been completed, but the high
correlation between the average for the first semester and the average for the year, because
of the inclusion of the first within the second, makes the project appear scarcely worth
while.
A follow up of this project is now under way in an attempt to discover the other
factors conditioning success or failure in college besides those included in the measures
of intelligence, English facility and high school achievement. This project is just started,
but the method as outlined includes the selection of two groups from the freshman class
of 1933-34: those whose obtained honor point average was more than 1 P. E. (.50 honor
point) higher than their predicted value; and those whose obtained average was more
than 1 P. E. lower than the predicted value. These two groups will then be investigated
for a number of the factors which might have caused their "unwarranted" success or failure.
in an attempt to find certain factors which are valid in the differentiating between the
groups. When these are found, they will serve as further variables on which to base
prediction of college success, and will contribute to an understanding of the causes of
success or failure.

CURRICULUM GUIDANCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION:
In an effort to facilitate the adjustment of the individual student to that curriculum
for which he has the greatest ability, a study was made of the graduates of the several
curricula offered at the University of Florida, with a view to determining if any significant
differences appeared in the scores on the various parts of the A. C. E. Psychological
Examination. This study involves two assumptions. both of which are felt to be fully
warranted: first, that the several parts of the Psychological Examination measure several
independent abilities in addition of the general level of intelligence; and second, that
these abilities are required in different degrees by different curricula. Thus, from the
Psychological Examination a measure of mathematical facility is easily obtained. It would
be virtually impossible for a man to be graduated from any of the Engineering curricula
if he were deficient in this ability. On the assumption that the four-year course leading
to a degree acts as a selective device, eliminating those who are deficient in the requisite






AND MENTAL HYGIENE


special abilities, while exerting no effect on those deficient in the non-essential abilities,
graduates were chosen for this study. Such a rigid selection of subjects necessarily limited
their number, and before conclusive results can be obtained, the present study must be
augmented. The method briefly involved determining for each curriculum the median
score and the quartile points on each of the parts of the Psychological Examination.
For certain of the curricula studied, no conclusive results were obtained, while for
others, even with the limited number of students, the results were quite definite. For use
in guidance these results are expressed graphically, so that a profile of a student may be
immediately compared with the corresponding profile of several vocations. It is not feasible
to include any of the graphs in this report, but a tabular representation of certain of the
results may prove interesting.

Curriculum C. A.L. An. Ar. 0. T. N.
Mean of All Graduates........ 64.3 64.0 58.8 60.0 64.0 67.0 324
Journalism ..............----- ---............ 65.0 69.0 47.0 38.0 72.0 67.2 14
A.B .................-- -...................... 82.4 88.6 69.0 78.0 82.3 88.8 27
Premedical Students* -......... 69.9 81.3 63.0 57.0 67.0 71.5 50
B.S ............ ............. 73.0 75.0 73.0 68.0 66.0 77.0 34
LL.B....--.........- ............- 63.9 74.5 54.9 49.0 67.0 64.0 37

In interpreting the table, it must be remembered that these are the most striking results,
but that other curricula also yielded differences of sufficient significance to warrant their
use and guidance. The notation at the head of the columns refer to various parts of the
Psychological Examination: Completion, Artificial Language, Analogies, Arithmetic, Oppo-
sites, and Total Score, and to the number of cases on which the median is obtained.
The numerical indices are expressed in terms of percentile rank. Further work to confirm
and extend these findings is being planned for next year.

THE VALUE OF THE HIGH SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM:
At the request of the Dean of Students the Bureau undertook an investigation of the
value of the high school testing program which had been carried out in the spring of 1933.
In this program the graduating seniors of certain high schools throughout the stale were
tested by a representative of the University of Florida. The tests administered were: The
Iowa High School Content Examination, the English Placement Test, and the A. C. E.
Psychological Examination. On the basis of the results of the tests, the students were
advised as to the advisability of attending college. Those who showed exceptional ability
were strongly urged to attend some institution of higher learning; those showing marked
lack of ability to do work of college caliber were discouraged from attending college.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the value of this program, and fell
into two problems. The first was to determine to what extent the tests employed were
valid for the prediction of success or failure in college. For the solution of this problem,
the method of correlation of score on test with honor point average during the first semester
for those one hundred and thirty-three men who entered the University of Florida was
employed. The second problem was to determine the extent to which the program had
succeeded in its purpose of encouraging the highest type of student and discouraging
the student without the ability to do college work from attending college. This problem
was answered by a comparison between the group of freshmen attending the University

The upper 75% in the Medical Aptitude Examination, the standard set for admission






BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE


after having been tested in high school with the entire freshman class, as to honor point
average, percentage of honor students, and percentage of failures (failure being considered
as a man who failed sufficient work to be dropped from the University).
The first question, that of the validity of the tests employed, upon investigation showed
an average correlation coefficent of correlation of .455, which was sufficiently high to
permit the prediction of honor point average from a single test with a probable error of
.5 honor point. When the four tests are used in combination the efficiency of the predic-
tion is materially increased (cf. results of the research on the prediction of honor point
average). In this connection it must be noted that only the upper range of students
attended the University, and the resulting homogeneity of the group in the variables
correlated operated to decrease the obtained coefficent of correlation.
The results of the second part of the investigation may be most adequately summarized
in tabular form. In interpreting the table it must be remembered that the tested group
forms a part of the entire freshman class, and that the effect of this is to reduce any
difference between them. It is not deemed necessary to compute the constants for that
part of the freshman class which had not been tested in high school. The table of results
follows:
Mean H. P. A. % Failure % Honor Students
Tested Group ................................................... 1.30 1.5% 17.4%
Entire Freshman Class ................... ................. 0.87 6.2% 7.2%
Difference ..................--------- ................... ............ 0.43 4.7% 10.2%
Probability that the difference is real ........ 0.64 1.000 1.000

From the table it can be seen at a glance that the students who had been tested in high
school demonstrated superior ability in college work, that there was a greater percentage
of honor students and a smaller percentage of failures.
To determine whether the difference between the two groups might have been caused
by the fact that the high schools in which the testing program was carried out were
superior schools and had sent the University better prepared men, a secondary investigation
was carried out, utilizing the results of an investigation by the Assistant Registrar. From
this investigation the rating of each high school was obtained and the average rank of
the high schools participating in the testing program, weighted proportionately to the
number of students participating in the test, was obtained. This average rank coincided
almost exactly with the average rank for fifty representative high schools of the state.
It was concluded, therefore, that the factor of excellence of the high school was without
effect in the foregoing investigation.

A STUDY OF NEUROTIC SYMPTOMS:
In connection with the work in Mental Hygiene, the Bureau has been carrying out.
throughout the past year, an extensive research project in the field of neurotic symptoms
and emotional maladjustment. The plan of the research is briefly to determine the
independent factors in emotional maladjustment, to devise a method of measuring mal-
adjus'ment in each of the determined directions, and to discover, in so far as possible,
the underlying causes of each type of maladjustment. The method involved the admin-
istration of a "Personality Schedule" made up of those questions which previous research
has shown to be most indicative of emotional maladjustment to five hundred students in
the University, chosen at random. The schedules were administered twice, a week apart,
to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. The data collected, the next step was
the computation of the tetrachoric coefficient of correlation between each of the forty-two
items in the schedule with every other item. These correlations were then subjected to






AND MENTAL HYGIENE


a multiple factor analysis to determine the least number of independent and uncorrelated
factors which would account for the observed inter-relationships, and the correlation of
each ihem with each factor. From these last correlations coefficients, a scale is being
developed for the measurement of each of the types of emotional maladjustment.
While the research is far from completed, the results to date indicate that there are
at leas' three types of emotional maladjustments; that none of the three is correlated
with intelligence; that individuals tend to be distributed evenly about the mean value
for each type of maladjustment and that only the extremes are of significance. At the
present time the work of devising the measuring scales and validating them is in progress.

BUlI'NESS APTITUDE TEST NORMS:
In the administration of the Business Aptitude Test it was found that the norms
supplied by the author of the test were inadequate for the work at the University of
Florida, since a large number of students here exceeded the upper limit of the established
norms. To remedy this lack, a new set of norms was devised, based on the University
of Florida Students who had taken the test. A comparison of these norms with those
previously published showed that the University of Florida Students tended to exceed
the norms provided, 90% of the Florida students exceeding the median of 362 subjects
"qualified for Business Positions". In addition to this study, the relationship between
business aptitude and the enrollment in the College of Business Administration was
ascertained to he .27, a correlation which, while not high, is significant of the fact that
students in the College of Business Administration tend to score higher on the test than
in all other colleges.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SCHOLASTIC INTEREST SCALE:
A study growing out of the prediction of scholarship is the attempt to develop a method
of differentiating between the successful student and the unsuccessful student in terms
of his expressed interests, likes and dislikes. In this study two groups of subjects were
used, all falling within the middle ten percent of the class in intelligence. These groups
were determined on the basis of whether they made an honor point average of "C" o01
above, or below "C". To both of these groups was administered the Strong Vocational
Interest Inventory, containing a list of 423 items, in which the subject may or may not
be interested. An attempt is being made to select those items which are valid in different.
tiating the successful student, defined as the one who makes grades higher than those
expected, from the unsuccessful student. This study has not been completed, but pre
liminary results indicate that a valid basis of differentiation will be obtained. When it
is, the items will be combined into a scale which may be applied to the two group';
mentioned in the prediction project, and Scholastic Interest will be one of the factors
which will be investigated in its relation to success in college.

VOCATIONAL CHOICES OF COLLEGE STUDENTS:
This survey, while quite incomplete, provides data which may be of interest, and ha'.
served to indicate the need for a more comprehensive survey at an early date. During
the course of the past two years, the Bureau has administered the Strong Vocational
Interest Blank to more than 350 students, asking them to select from a list of twenty-four
vocations, those in which they were most interested, i.e., those which they were most
likely to enter. In all, 1186 occupations were checked. The occupations checked, with
the number checking each, are listed below, in the order of their preference:






178 BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE

L aw yer ........................................................ .......... ........... 162
E engineer --- .................... ..... ......................... ............ 105
D octor ................................................................ .. ....... ..... 104
Journalist ........ ..... ... ... .................... ..... ..... ......... ... 102
T each er ........................ ............... .............. ..................... 102
A dvertiser ......- ........- ............- ........- .................... .............. .. 69
C hem ist ..- ........- ..............-... ......... ............... .......... .. 67
P purchasing A gent .... ..... ............................................... .. 62
M them atician ........ ............................ ............................ 50
O office C lerk ............................................... ....... ....... ..... 49
Personnel M manager ............................................................... 44
A accountant ........................................ ..... ........ .. 43
Insurance Salesm an ........... .............................................. 33
R eal Estate Salesm an ................. ... ........... ................... 33
School Superintendent .............. ... ...................... ........... 33
M minister .............. ..- ....- ..---- ..........- .....- ..- ..- ... ............... 24
P hysicist ......... ......... ............................... ............... 23
F arm er ...................................................................................... 23
A architect ....-.....- ....... - .................... --........- .... ........... 22
P psychologist .............. .....- ..- ...........- ....... ..- ......- ............. 20
A rtist ........ .............................. .........- ...- ......- .. ........... 5
Y M C A Secretary ................................. .................. 5
Specialty Salesm an ............................................... ........... 2
P physical D director ...............-...... ..... .... ..... .................. 1

In interpreting this as indicative of the vocational interests of the student body, il
must be remembered that this sample is selected on the basis of those who felt themselves
in need of vocational guidance, and that these do not represent their actual choice of
vocation, but the vocations from a selected and restricted list. A more comprehensive
survey should be made, determining for each student the vocation he actually plans to
enter, and the number of students who have not made a vocational choice. This data,
to yield the most information, should be classified according to class and college.

RESEARCH IN WHICH THE BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE HAS COLLABORATED:
The Bureau of Vocational Guidance assisted Mr. Douglas Oberdorfer in the preparation
of his thesis study on the measurement of Student Attitude on Social Subjects. The
assistance of the Bureau was rendered through advice, guidance, and facilities for statistical
work, and Mr. Oberdorfer has kindly consented to the inclusion of his research in the
report of the Bureau of Vocational Guidance.
The problem involved a measurement of the effect of classes in Sociology on attitudes
toward certain social questions. The method involved the administration of tests of Social
Attitudes on the subjects of the Church, the Negro, Birth Control, Evolution, and War.
The tests were administered both at the beginning and at the end of the semester to
experimental groups of sociology classes, and to a control group of students in English
101. For results of this investigation, the interested reader is referred to the copy of
Mr. Oberdorfer's thesis, "The Effect of the Study of Sociology on Certain Attitudes",
which is on file in the University of Florida Library.
The Bureau is collaborating with the Department of English in a determination of
the value of the diagnostic tests devised by that department for use in English 101-102.
The method involves the administration of the University of Florida Tes:s and the Pressy






AND MENTAL HYGIENE


English Diagnostic Tests to students in English 102, controlling the effects of practice,
and determining: (1) the correlation between scores on the two tests; and (2) equivalent
scores. The results of this investigation are not yet available.
A third study in which the Bureau of Vocational Guidance is directing investigations
is carried out by students and involves the determination of the effect of vocational choice
on college grades. The method employed involves a survey of a sample of the freshman
class determining for each man: (1) whether or not he has decided upon his vocation;
(2) if he has, the courses which he pursued last semester which he feels are directly
related to the vocation of his choice; (3) the grades of each student for the first
semester of college work. It is proposed to divide the subjects into two groups on the
basis of item 1. Those students who have not yet chosen a profession or vocation will
constitute the control group, and their honor point average will be computed. Those
students who have made a definite vocational choice will constitute the experimental
group and their honor point average computed first for those courses with vocational value.
and then for those courses with no seen vocational value. By a comparison of these mean
honor point averages it is hoped to arrive at some estimate of the influence of vocational
choice as an incentive in college work. This work is not yet completed but is under way.

MENTAL HYGIENE SERVICE

In addition to the vocational service previously described, the Bureau offers a much
needed service to the students who find their work hampered by the continual recurrence
of various problems, worries, maladjustments, and unnatural emotional conditions. This
service is open to those who request it of their own accord, and also to those who consult
the Bureau upon advice of members of the faculty and administrative officers.
The aim of this service is to locate cases of maladjustment, emotional instability, and
mental disease among the students; to administer procedures which will make possible
the adequate diagnosis of the difficulty; and, to give appropriate treatment, when practical.
The regularly accepted psychiatric procedures are used in the treatment of the mental
cases, the major emphasis being placed upon the personal interview. Certain specific tests
are used to supplement the interview, and, as a result of the combination of the two
methods, an adequate diagnosis is made, and the correct treatment determined for each case.
This service has not been widely publicised, lest an unfortunate stigma become attached
to the mental patient. However, it has been a very definite aid to many of the students,
and it is the desire of the Bureau that more mentally perplexed students may become
familiar with this part of the service.

STATISTICS OF TESTS ADMINISTERED

1932-33 AND 1933-34
1932-33 1933-34 Total
American Council Psy. Exam ...................................................... 783 521 1304
Strong Vocational Interest .............................. .....-------.... 204 139 343
Strong-Total Occupations ------- ----- ..... ... 714 472 1186
Stanford Scientific Aptitude ..............-....-.. ....... ............... ... 34 37 71
M medical A aptitude Test .............................. ................ ................ 31 45 76
Legal Aptitude Test ...............------- -----.......---- 51 33 84
Art Judgm ent -- ...................................... 18 1 19
G. Wash. Business Ap:itude ................---------------............. 131 86 217
G. Wash. Teaching Aptitude.......... ---------- ----- 42 38 80











BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE


Terman Test of Mental Ability...................
Seashore Musical Aptitude .............................
Bernreuter Personality Inventory ... ......
Personality Schedules..........................................
P ressy X -0 T est........... ..... .............................
Miscellaneous Attitude Scales .....................
M miscellaneous T ests ...............................................
Total Tests Administered............ ......................
Total Interviews (Mental and Vocational I.......


... 25 40
... 37 20
... 43 56
.. -- 676
... 35 40
..- 275 1520
... 73 32
... 1782 3284
... 640 760


STATISTICS OF STRONG TESTS


Total Blanks Scored.........................
Total Vocations Scored ..----------............----
Individual Occupations:
A advertiser .. ....... ............ ........
A architect ...... ..... ...........................
Artist ........... ---- ....-- ..
C P A ..... ..... ... ...-. .............
C hem ist ................................ ..........
D octor ..... .. ......................... ...
E engineer ---- ----.... .... -... -----... .....
F arm er ........... ... .. ..........
Journ alist .................. ........................
L aw yer ...............................................
Life Insurance Salesman .................
M minister .............. .................
P personnel ........... ..... .. ...... ........
P sychology .......... ----------------------.
Purchasing Agent .............. .............
Real Estate Salesman ... ............
T teacher ...............................................
Vacuum Cleaner Salesman .............
Y. M. C. A. General Secretary .....
City School Superintendent ...........
Office Clerk ..... --.. --..--....
M them atician ..............................
Physicist ............................... ...........
A accountant ... ..................................
Y. M. C. A. Physical Direc or .......


1932-33
......................... 204
.......................... 7 14

--...... ................. 4 2
S..................... 12
S................... 0
.......................... 27
-..................... 42
---...... ................. 5 7
............... 63
-...... .. -............... 12
........................ 54
.......................... 94
.... ..................... 2 1
....................... 15
.......................... 24
.......................... 9
......................... 36
...................... 24
....-..................... 65
.......................... 0
......................... 3
........................ 24
- -...... ... .............. 3 6
........ ................ 36
-....... .....-........ .... 1 5
.......................... 3
n


714 472 1186


1933-34
139
472

27
10
5
16
25
47
42
11
48
68
12
9
20
11
26
9
37
2
2
9
13
14
8
0
1


Totals ..........




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