UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
L utEau of /oaaUtionaL gUiaanaEr
and Jl_ ntai I y3 ns
1934-35 and 1935-36
No. 8, Extra 1
August 15, 1936
Published monthly by the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Entered in the post office in Gainesville, Florida, as second-class matter,
under Act of Congress, August 24, 1912
Office of Publication, Gainesville, Florida
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The Committee on University Publications
University of Florida
OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
ROOM 110, PEABODY HALL
ELMER DUMOND HINCKLEY, PH.D. (Chicago).............................................Director
CHARLES I. M OSIER, B. A ....... ......... ........ ......... ............... ........ Instructor
FRANK WALRATH, JR .............................. ................. Student Assistant
JOHN ALDEN BROWN, JR .....................................................Student Assistant
BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
THE BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND
Observation over a period of several years has shown clearly that a large percentage of students
entering the University of Florida has no definite idea of the life work which they wish to enter, and
that, of those entering with a choice in this matter, many change their decision after having been subjected
to the courses of instruction involved in the field of their choice. This condition naturally tended to
cause a great deal of unrest among the students thus affected, and resulted in a continual changing of
courses, transferring from one college to another, and other obvious attendant conditions. In order to
assist those who, at the time of entrance, are in need of vocational guidance, to advise those who are
having present difficulty with regard to their vocational choice, and to aid those students having mental
and emotional difficulty, the need was felt for a bureau devoted particularly to this work.
In 1931, through the influence of President Tigert, Senator Wagg, and other interested members of
the Legislature, the Bureau of Vocational Guidance and Mental Hygiene was created by a special act
of the Florida Legislature. The Bureau is under the direction of the Department of Psychology, and
includes the following personnel: Dr. E. D. Hinckley, Director; Charles I. Mosier, Instructor; Frank
Walrath, Jr., Student Assistant; and John Alden Brown, Jr., Student Assistant. From January through
June, 1936, Louis L. McQuitty replaced Charles I. Mosier, when the latter was granted a leave of
absence. There follows, herewith, a report of the activities of the Bureau during the past two years.
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SERVICE
The possibility of scientific vocational adjustment emerges from the fact that there are significant
and measurable differences between individuals and between occupations. By reason of these differences,
individuals are better fitted for some vocations than for others; and, for any particular work, some indi-
viduals are better equipped than are others. The function of vocational guidance, then, is to analyze
the characteristics, interests, and abilities of the individual; to compare these with similar traits of men
successful in various types of work; and, to present these comparisons to the individual, together with
complete descriptions of the occupations involved, in order that he may choose more intelligently the
vocation which he will make his life work.
Since the most scientific and reliable method of checking the traits of the individual is by means of
various types of tests, the Bureau uses numerous vocational tests, some of a general nature and given as a
preliminary measure to all who apply for guidance, and some of a more specific variety for use in the
particular instances where they are needed to supplement the other information obtained.
It is most important that the student know something about the qualifications for different types of
work, the advantages and drawbacks, salary range, and other similar information with regard to each.
In order to satisfy this need, the Bureau is supplied with a series of career monographs embracing
numerous occupations, the material being clearly presented, compact, and scientific, being a compilation
of the results of an extended research campaign. Also, the University Library lists a number of books
of a vocational nature. The material which is found in the office of the Bureau is definitely supplemented
in the Library stacks. There is a great need for additional books which have been recently written, and
which give latest information in new fields. These will be added as funds permit.
In addition, it is exceedingly important that the student know the avenues of approach to the work
he chooses, lest he be stranded in a socalled "blind alley" job which will circumvent his activity and
prevent the utilization of the full extent of his natural ability, combined with his educational equipment.
To meet this situation, the Bureau has supplied itself with a series of Organization, Promotion, and
Progress charts for a number of vocations, showing clearly the "blind alley" jobs, the usual lines of
AND MENTAL HYGIENE
promotion, organization on the basis of distribution of authority, progress in comparatively unorganized
fields, etc. These charts are based on the results of an extensive research campaign over a period of
years, and hence the data are reliable from a practical and scientific standpoint. The students have
found these charts to be an excellent aid in solving their problems.
There follows a report of the activities of the Bureau during the past two scholastic years:
A. ADMINISTRATION OF TESTS
1. The Psychological Examination of the American Council on Education was administered to the
entering freshmen and transfer students for 1934-1935. This is considered to be the best
measure of relative intellectual capacity in general use among college students. The standing
of each man in this regard is ascertained and is used in cases of maladjustment during later
college life. The five parts of the test are very diagnostic of specific aspects of the general
2. The Strong Vocational Interest Test was administered to various groups and to all students
who called at the office for this service. By means of this test, the individual's characteristic
set of interests (including specific likes and dislikes with regard to 420 different items) may be
compared statistically with the characteristic set of interests of successful men in 26 different
occupations. The interpretation of the score for each occupation indicates to the counsellor,
and through him to the student, the possible degree of satisfaction he would merit in case he
should choose that vocation for his life work. This test, used in conjunction with specific
aptitude tests, enables one to give more adequate advice to the student than is possible when
either test is used alone.
3. The Scholastic Aptitude Test for Medical Schools, authorized by the Association of American
Medical Colleges, was administered to pre-medical and pre-dental students who intend to enter
medical school next year. This test measures such factors as: comprehension and retention
of materials such as will be considered in medical school; visual memory of anatomical condi-
tions; memory for content of printed material; pre-medical information such as is ordinarily
received during the preparatory work; extent of scientific vocabulary possessed by the student;
the ability of the individual to follow directions; and, the relative degree of understanding of
printed material. By means of the results of the test, the possibility of success in medical school
may be predicted for the student with a constantly increasing degree of accuracy. This test
is now a prerequisite for entrance into most of the outstanding medical schools of the country.
4. The Fernson-Stoddard Legal Aptitude Test was administered to pre-law and law students in
groups, as well as to all others interested in determining their aptitude for the legal profession.
The test aims to measure the aptitude of the student both for the type of work encountered in
Law School and the type of work required of the successful lawyer. A knowledge of law is
not required, and specific legal information does not affect the test score, since its purpose is to
measure aptitude. By means of this test the student can be measured in the following traits:
ability to read a law case and understand the essential elements, to discover elements of similar-
ity between two cases, to apply the findings in one case to another similar case; ability to reason
from premises to a conclusion; ability to read a difficult law case with comprehension of the
subject matter; and memory for newly acquired information. The combination of these four
measures has been found to predict the success of the student in legal studies.
5. The Stanford Scientific Aptitude Test was given to engineering students, both in groups and
in individual cases. This test gives a good index of the ability of the individual to handle some
of the practical and theoretical calculations such as those which will be required in the engineer.
ing field. It measures such factors as: the ability of the student to proceed experimentally in
the solution of a problem; the ability to distinguish between good and poor definitions; relative
power of suspended judgment; ability to analyze situations for the purpose of devising the best
BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
solutions; ability to detect inconsistencies and illogical conclusions, and generalizations; extent
of caution and thoroughness; proper tendencies in selecting and arranging experimental data;
interpretative accuracy; and, accuracy of observation.
6. The Teaching Aptitude Test prepared by the Center for Psychological Research was adminis-
tered once each semester to all those who cared to take it, and from time to time throughout
the year to those individual cases where it seemed to be necessary. This test measures judgment
in teaching situations; reasoning and information concerning school problems, comprehension and
retention, observation and recall; and recognition of mental states from facial expressions.
This test considered as a whole provides a reliable and valid measure of the aptitude of the
individual for engaging in pedagogical work, when the scores are interpreted in the light of the
established norms. In cases where it is indicated, a supplementary test, the Stanford Educa,
tional Ability Test, is employed to differentiate between the three fields of educational endeavor:
Teaching, Administration, and Research.
7. In addition to the afore-mentioned tests, which were administered to groups, a number of
other tests are available and were used whenever the need was felt in any case. New tests
for various purposes are constantly being added to the Bureau's files. These, in addition to
those already used, will make quite a complete series of statistically standardized and usable
B. RECORDING AND INTERPRETING OF TEST RESULTS
Consistent with the practice of previous years, a 3 x 5 inch card was prepared for each student
entering the University for the first time: Each Student's card shows his scores on each test which
he has taken in the Bureau and in addition his scores on the Iowa High School Content Test and
the Psychological Examination of the American Council on Education. In this way, the Bureau's
information concerning each student is easily accessible. The records of the Bureau are open to
the administrative officers and faculty of the University, and special reports have been made from
time to time. In addition to this, the students may receive their scores on tests at any time. Each
student is interviewed in the light of the results of various tests which he has taken, and appropriate
advice is given. The interview is one of the most important phases in the vocational work. It
provides a means of personal contact with the student, and in this way the information gained
from the test results may be applied to the student's own particular circumstances.
C. VOCATIONAL INFORMATION
It has been the experience of the Bureau that a majority of students coming here for vocational
advice know little or nothing about the various occupations open to them. Hence, a considerable
amount of informative material has been added to the Bureau's equipment. This comprises a series
of research monographs presenting the necessary information about more than seventyfive different
vocations and professions. These are very readable and authentic, and give the student a panoramic
view of the occupation from the standpoints of type of work, requirements and qualifications,
necessary educational training, salary range, perir anency, etc. When the individual is in a quandary
as to his life work, he is first given the General Interest Test, and then is advised to obtain all possible
information with regard to a number of vocations, for only by knowing something about a number
of possibilities is the student enable to make an intelligent decision for himself. In addition to this
material, there are many books of a vocational nature in the Library: these add to the well.rounded
view which is so necessary on the part of the applicant for vocational counsel. The Bureau also
maintains an up-to-date card index of all available periodicals in psychology and related fields.
Together with the afore-mentioned monographs, the Bureau is supplied with a series of Organiza-
AND MENTAL HYGIENE
tion, Promotion, and Progress charts covering a variety of different occupations. The Organization
Chart illustrates the grouping, supervising, and subordinating of employees in the industrial field,
with regard for their relation to each other, and with regard for exercise of authority and control.
The purpose of this chart is to present to the student a comprehensive picture of the entire personnel
within an industry.
The Promotion Chart portrays the various lines of advancement open to the worker, showing
all the jobs in a particular field, and the relations between jobs. By means of this chart, in con-
junction with the Organization Chart, the individual is enabled to foresee the possibility of advance-
ment from various starting points, and is thus equipped to judge his entrance accordingly. Herein,
the student may determine the qualifications which he must possess in order for him to advance in
a particular field.
The Progress Chart is concerned with the professions which do not ordinarily lend themselves
to consideration in terms of organization and promotion, e.g., the field of Law or Medicine. These
charts illustrate the various lines which may be followed in widely varied fields of unorganized
These charts appeal to the student, because they present in an objective way a wealth of infor-
mation which is easily visualized. These, in conjunction with the research monographs and voca-
tional books, give the student a thorough view of a wide variety of vocations.
On account of the lack of space for the Bureau's activities, the Psychological Laboratory has
been used for the purpose of a vocational reading room at times when it was available.
In order to increase the quality of the service rendered the Student Body, as well as to advance
the cause of pure science, the Bureau has engaged in the following research projects:
More adequate norms for use at the University of Florida were established for the Stanford Scientific
Aptitude Test, The Teaching Aptitude Test, the Business Aptitude Test. These norms were expressed
in percentile ranks on the entire group taking the test at the University of Florida since 1928.
A. C. E. PROFILE:
A study was made of the Psychological Examination on sub-test scores of the graduates of the
University to determine what abilities measured by the Examination were requisite to graduation and
success in each of the several curricula offered at the University. On the basis of the results of this
investigation it is possible to advise the student as to the curriculum in which he would most easily achieve
success, and this, together with the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, affords an excellent basis for
The following reference contains a full report of the study: Charles I. Mosier, Group Factors in
College Curricula, Jr. of Ed. Psychol., October, 1935, Vol. XXVI, No. 7, 513-522.
SCHOLASTIC INTEREST SCALE:
The Scholastic Interest Scale developed at Colgate University was applied to a group of 240 selected
University of Florida freshmen, and the correlations between scholastic interest and honor point average
obtained for each curriculum group. The test was found to correlate significantly with both first semes-
BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
ter and year honor point averages, intelligence constant, in all curriculum groups except Business Admini-
stration and related fields. There the correlation was sensibly zero.
FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE NEUROTIC PERSONALITY:
The work begun last year in the determination of symptom syndromes in neurotic personality among
"normal" subjects was continued by a refined technique on 42 principal symptoms. This investigation
is being extended from the 42 principal symptoms to a consideration of 223 symptoms in the Thurstone
STANFORD SCIENTIFIC APTITUDE TEST VALIDATION:
In order to determine whether the S. S. A. T. is a valid instrument for the estimation of scientific
ability this study was performed. Scientific ability was measured, insofar as it is measurable, by grades
in science courses. The records of 125 students who had taken the S. S. A. T. were collected with data on:
S. S. A. T. Total Score
Honor Point Average to date
Honor Point Average in science courses
A. C. E. Psychological Examination Total Score
A. C. E. Psychological Examination Arithmetic Score
A. C. E. Psychological Examination Analogies Score
Year in college at date of taking test
Curriculum of registration.
The intercorrelations of each item with every other item were obtained for the first six items, partial
and multiple coefficients computed. The results indicate that the S. S. A. T., while it does serve as a
valid basis for predicting grades in science. is not as valid as any of the three parts of the A. C. E. Psycho-
logical Examination investigated. The multiple correlation between scientific honor point average and
the best possible weighted combination of Total Score, Analogies and Arithmetic was .576, while that
with the best weighted combination of Total Score, Analogies, Arithmetic and S. S. A. T. was .613.
These results indicate that the S. S. A. T. measures little scientific ability not already measured by the
Psychological Examination. From this data there was computed also a regression for the prediction of
honor point average in scientific subjects.
RELATION OF TEACHING APTITUDE TEST SCORE TO YEAR IN COLLEGE:
This study was performed to determine whether freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors differed
significantly one from the other as to their average scores on the Teaching Aptitude Test. This knowl-
edge is essential to the interpretation of test scores in vocational guidance. One hundred twenty-two
University of Florida students were studied. For each student was obtained his Total Score on the
George Washington Teaching Aptitude Test, and a record of his year in college at the date of taking
the test. The subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of college year. The composition of
the groups is indicated in the summary of results. For each group a frequency distribution of Total
Score was prepared, and the quartile points, mean, standard deviation, and standard error of the mean
were computed. The principal results are summarized in the following table:
Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors
Number of Cases......................... 43.0 35.0 19.0 25.0
Q-1............. .................. 124.3 145.5 140.8 150.2
M edian............ ..... ............. 141.5 151.1 152.5 155.4
Q-3 ............................. 157.1 161.6 162.7 161.2
M ean............ ................... 134.7 144.3 138.3 149.9
Standard Deviation................ ...... 23.1 14.2 14.4 16.7
Standard Error of Mean................... 3.5 2.4 3.3 3.3
AND MENTAL HYGIENE
Inspection of the table reveals that there is a marked tendency for the mean test score to increase with
increasing years in college. However, when we consider the median score, this tendency disappears,
leaving only a marked increase between the freshmen and sophomores. Testing the differences between
the means by the customary statistical criterion of the Critical Ratio, we find only one difference, the
senior-freshmen difference, that is definitely not due to chance. The conclusion is that any significant
increase in mean test score with increasing years in college is dependent on the selective effect of college,
operating to eliminate the exceptionally poor students, rather than being due to an increase in the teach-
ing ability of the individual. This interpretation is consistent with, and indicated by, not only the
relation between means and medians, but by the shapes of the frequency distributions themselves.
RELATION OF LAW APTITUDE TEST XORE TO YEAR IN COLLEGE:
In its purpose, the nature of the problem and the method, this study is related to the preceding
investigation. The subjects were 157 University of Florida students who had previously taken the
Ferson Stoddard Law Aptitude Examination. They were divided into seven groups on the basis of
the year in college (i.e., freshman, sophomore, etc.) in which they took the test. Frequency distribu-
tions were made of total score on the Law Aptitude Examination for each of the seven groups, and the
same statistical constants computed as utilized in the preceding study. The principal results are summar-
ized in the table below:
LAW APTITUDE SCORE AND COLLEGE YEAR
Group Fresh. Soph. Junior Senior 1-Law 2-Law 3-Law All Law
N......... 68.0 37.0 19.0 13.0 7.0 6.0 7.0 20
Q-1........ 65.0 70.5 68.8 71.3 *
Median ... 79.3 73.8 79.2 87.5 87.5 95.0 87.5
Q-3........ 89.5 84.6 95.6 96.9 *
Mean...... 77.5 74.6 82.0 86.0 83.2 89.2 88.9
S. D........ 16.9 14.6 17.5 22.2 *
S. E........ 2.1 2.4 4.0 6.2 *
*Too few cases to compute.
None of the differences between the means is statistically significant. There is, however, a general
upward trend, both in the means and in the medians, more marked in the case of the means. When,
however, it is considered that only the more intelligent students survive to the junior and senior years
(we may take this assumption as true, on the average), the differences in mean test score will be inter-
preted as a difference in the composition of the groups, rather than as a change in test score of the indivi-
dual with increasing years in college.
For purposes of comparison between University of Florida students and those of other institutions,
a comparison is made in the table below between the quartile points for all University of Florida students
and the national norms supplied by the publishers of the test.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LAW APTITUDE SCORES AND NATIONAL NORMS
N Q-1 Md. ,-3
National Norms............ 1015 67.0 80.0 92.0
University of Florida........ 157 68.1 79.1 91.5
It will be seen at once that the students taking the Law Aptitude Test at the University of Florida are
strictly comparable with those comprising the group on which the national norms are based.
COMPARISON OF Two FRESHMAN CLASSES AND THE HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS ON THE A. C. E. PSYCHO-
BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
Problem: To determine the relative ability of two successive classes of University of Florida Fresh-
men, and the comparison between the abilities of college freshmen, and the high school seniors from
whom they are recruited.
Method: The 1934 Edition of the A. C. E. Psychological Examination was administered to all
freshmen entering the University of Florida in 1934 (866), and to 5842 seniors in the high schools of the
state. Of the latter group, 845 entered the University of Florida in the fall of 1935. Frequency distri,
butions were made for each group, College 1934, College 1935, and High School Seniors. The quartile
points for each group are listed separately for the five parts of the Psychological Examination, and for
Total Score. A second comparison was made between the High School Seniors and College 1934, to
show the extent to which college freshmen were drawn from each tenth of the available high school
seniors. This was made only for Total Score.
Q-1 H. S...................
M d. H .S............ ...........
Q-3 H. S....... .. ...........
C. A. L.
Decile of High School
Number of University
From this we may conclude that the University is obtaining a selection from the total available high
school seniors which is made, at least in part, on the basis of general aptitude as measured by the A. C.
E. Psychological Examination. Whether this selective force is in part due to the High School Testing
Program cannot be definitely answered.
FACTOR ANALYSIS OF NEUROTIC SYMPTOMS:
This study was outlined in the last Biennial Report. It has been continued in two directions. First,
the analysis of 40 items was furthered by applying Thurstone's Criterion of Simple Structure and obtain-
ing four reference vectors which represent "pure" traits. The relation of each item to each trait was
determined. From the traits which were closely related to the reference vectors, the pure traits were
identifiable as: 1. Group Self-consciousness, 2. Self-consciousness in face-to-face situations, 3. Excit-
ability, and 4. Depression. The first two are somewhat closely related, as are the last two. The first
and the third and fourth, the second and the third and fourth are unrelated.
The second phase of the problem was an empirical determination of the influence of the Battery on
simple structure. The total battery of forty items was broken up into smaller batteries of twenty each
AND MENTAL HYGIENE
and a complete re-determination of the principal reference vectors made from each of the smaller batteries
to determine whether the size and nature of the tests or items included in the battery influenced the
nature of the reference traits. This study is not complete but tentative results indicate that the influence
of the battery on simple structure is negligible, and the "loading" of a test item on a "pure" trait is
constant from one battery to the other provided the pure trait is represented by at least one other test
in the battery. The criterion of the satisfaction of the necessary and sufficient condition is that the com-
munality of the test be the same in one battery as in another. If the communality is not the same, the
loadings determined are valid, but incomplete.
PREDICTION OF SCHOLASTIC SUCCESS:
The last Biennial Report describes a study which was made in an "attempt to develop a device for
predicting the honor point average of a student from measures which are available at the time a man
registers in the University for the first time." This study, as well as several others, reveals that for
some students the predicted average closely agrees with the obtained average; while, for other students
there is a relatively large disagreement. It may be possible that the honor point average can be predicted
with greater reliability for some students than for others. A study is now in progress which appears
to substantiate this viewpoint and which may enable us to state just how reliable a prediction is for
each individual student.
VARIABILITY OF TEST PERFORMANCE:
It has been noticed that'some people make a high score on all tests; that others make high on one test
low on another, and average on a third. The latter may be said to be more variable than the former
A statistical study is being made to determine whether or not variability of test performance is a character
istic in which individuals differ. Preliminary results indicate that it is such a characteristic and that the
characteristic is related to vocational choice and mental health. Further study, which is now in progress,
is essential before a definite conclusion can be stated.
INCONSISTENCY OF TEST PERFORMANCE:
It has been noted that some persons in endorsing the items of a personality scale appear to be more
inconsistent than others. They, for example, having endorsed one item. will fail to endorse another
item which the majority of people say is very similar to the first item. They are inconsistent in that
they endorse only one of two similar items. The majority of the people would have endorsed each or
neither. The inconsistency may appear many times in the completing of a single inventory. A statistical
method has been devised for measuring the degree of inconsistency of each subject in completing various
personality inventories. A study is in progress to determine whether or not each person exhibits the
same relative degree of inconsistency on one test as he does on another test.
MENTAL HYGIENE SERVICE
In addition to the vocational service previously described, the Bureau offers a much needed service
to the students who find their work hampered by the continual recurrence of various problems, worries,
maladjustments, and unnatural emotional conditions. This service is open to those who request it of
their own accord, and also to those who consult the Bureau upon advice of members of the faculty and
The aim of this service is to locate cases of maladjustment, emotional instability, and mental disease
among the students; to administer procedures which will make possible the adequate diagnosis of the
difficulty; and to give appropriate treatment, when practical.
The regularly accepted psychiatric procedures are used in the treatment of the mental cases, the
major emphasis being placed upon the personal interview. Certain specific tests are used to supplement
422 BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
the interview, and, as a result of the combination of the two methods, an adequate diagnosis is made,
and the correct treatment determined for each case.
This service has not been widely publicised, lest an unfortunate stigma become attached to the mental
patient. However, it has been a very definite aid to many of the students, and it is the desire of the
Bureau that more mentally perplexed students may become familiar with this part of the service.
STATISTICS OF TESTS ADMINISTERED
Name of Tests of Tests
Strong Vocational Interest Blank (scored on 1912 vocations) 499
Ferson-Stoddard Law Aptitude......................... 101
George Washington Teaching Aptitude.................. 76
Bernreuter Personality Inventory ........................ 83
Stanford Scientific Aptitude............................. 58
Pressey X-O0................. ......... 5
Allport-Vernon Study of Values .... ................... 1
Art Judgment Test............................... 23
A C. E. Psychological . ............ ................ .. 1135
Seashore Musical Aptitude Test......................... 6
Thurstone Personality Schedule ......................... 200
Minnesota Current Affairs Test........................ 200
Total Test Administered ............................... 2387
Total No. of Interviews............... ............. 2400