The University Record
University of Florida
Special Forestry Bulletin
Vol. XXXI, Series 1
No. 7 Extra No. 2
July 22, 1936.
Published monthly by the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Entered in the post office in Gainesville, Florida, as second-class matter.
under Act of Congress, August 24, 1912
Office of Publication, Gainesville, Florida
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THE COMMITTEE ON UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS
University of Florida
nPote by U.S. Forest Servie
Headquarters of Summer Camp,
Department of Forestry, University of Florida
THE TEACHING OF FORESTRY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
H. S. Newins, M. F.,
Professor of Forestry,
University of Florida
Florida is fortunate indeed to have established,
through an act of the State Legislature of 1935, a De-
partment of Forestry in the College of Agriculture at
the University. What the department is teaching can
best be discussed by first reviewing the field of op-
This great State has played a prominent part in
the industries involving the Southern Yellow Pine, the
Cypress, the Cedar, the Southern Hardwoods and the tur-
pentine and rosin of the Naval Stores enterprises, and
is continuing to carry forward these industries of the
forest. Florida is most resourceful in those bounties
of Nature which constitute such a rich heritage of the
State--climate, soil, animal and plant life--all of
which contribute so generously to the vocational and
research studies in forestry.
The climatic factors of Florida with their health-
giving rays of sunshine and accessible soil and atmos-
pheric moisture, are conducive to a most luxuriant for-
est growth of valuable hardwoods and softwoods, such as
can be easily renewed by Nature after cutting, provided--
and this is important--that forest fires are controlled
in Florida. Uncontrolled forest fires today destroy
the small trees which would otherwise grow up to be the
timber of tomorrow.
Florida, as a peninsular state, has a most stra-
tegic location with respect to forest flora and wild
life, thus affording the wide variation of species that
are found from the Southeastern states down into the
sub-tropical areas of southern Florida. This State is
one of the largest in size east of the Mississippi River,
and has as much as twenty-three million acres of so-cal-
led "wild lands". The broad fronts of shore-line on the
Gulf and the Atlantic, together with the enormous extent
of shore-line bordering the interior lakes, afford an
exceedingly wide variation of subjects for the study of
conservation and forestry. Indeed, there is no other
state which has so many of these peculiar forestry ad-
vantages. Florida has the bulk of the remaining virgin
stand of Cypress timber of the United States. The Ever-
glades of the southern portion of the State have attrac-
ted such attention as to be under consideration as a
National Park to be ranked with the Yellowstone in Wy-
oming, and the smaller Abraham Lincoln Park in Kentucky.
The original forests of the South have already
been very largely exploited for timber, and now with
our second growth stands we are on the threshold of a
new era in forestry. Conservation and forestry are best
appreciated at this stage. Twenty-five years ago the
Federal Government established a nucleus within the
State of the present system of our Florida National
Forests which numbers now more than one and a quarter
million acres in the Choctawatchee, Appalachicola, Os-
ceola, and Ocala units. Today the Florida State Forest
Service has under cooperative fire protection manage-
ment more than 2,013,911 acres, as well as an additional
515,276 acres under cooperative educational work, thus
making a grand total of more than three and a quarter
million acres of Florida forest lands, both National and
State, under organized Forest Fire Control. This forest
fire protection extends, however, to only fifteen per
cent of the total forest lands of the State, and thus it
should be the goal of all citizens and tax-payers to
further the interests of forestry education so as to ra-
pidly include under cooperative fire protection large
The Florida Park Service also has developed the
Myakka River State Park
Hillsboro River State Park
Gold Head Branch State Park
Torreya State Park
Highlands Hammock State Park
Fort Clinch State Park
Florida has a thriving livestock industry which
is largely dependent upon the forests for grazing areas.
It is interesting to observe that more than 60 per cent
of the grazing areas of the commercial forests of the
United States are located in the South. While the stock-
men are improving their breeds, they are at the same time
developing their range conditions and giving serious at-
tention to the improvement of their forest properties.
The turpentine and rosin operators are improving
their methods both in the woods and at the turpentine
still so rapidly that it is now becoming more and more
apparent that some additional forestry education along
these lines is essential for the forest owner to keep
abreast with the times. The less economical methods of
chipping trees for turpentine gum are being replaced by
more scientific practices, and the old-fashioned tur-
pentine still has become obsolete in the face of the
type of still now constructed in accordance with govern-
ment specification. Scientific research is also being
employed to seek new outlets which will afford more
avenues for the use of the many valuable products ob-
tained from turpentine and rosin as procured from our
Longleaf and Slash Pines.
Forest conservation has a new interpretation to-
day. The preservation of our natural resources for the
wise use of the greatest number of citizens implies
more scientific training and education concerning the
management of our many resources of wild life, of re-
creation, and of the aesthetic phases of forestry.
The Department of Forestry at the University has
developed two curricula to meet the challenge and de-
mand for more training in Forestry and Conservation
within the State. One curriculum is for the woodsman
who desires to improve his technical knowledge of for-
estry, but does not care to devote more than one or two
years to this study. Perhaps he may be an operator in
a logging camp, a saw mill, in a kraft mill where paper
containers are made, or in the naval stores industry as
well as in the employ of the State or Federal govern-
ment.upon the forest and park units of the State. Or
he may be the son of a family interested in any of the
numerous woods occupations of the State, who desires
to take a more active interest in the business, or in
the forest conservation of Florida. Courses of study
are now available at the State University for these men
in the Forest Ranger, or Semi-Professional curriculum.
For those men who desire to pursue the four-year
course there is the degree curriculum which is intended
to qualify graduates for the forest industries and for
competitive Civil Service examinations in National and
State Forestry as well as for positions in Municipal
Forestry, such as Roadside Beautification. In any event,
the citizens of Florida are now entitled to receive a for.
estry education at their own University. This means
that the citizenry of Florida will be benefitted not
only by the knowledge which their native sons will re-
turn to them from the actual lessons of the field and
laboratory, but by a stimulus in forest research to
solve the forest problems of the State through neces-
sary experiments which are so essential to Florida's
forest industries. As a parallel, perhaps this research
can come to mean as much to these industries as the work
of the Agricultural Experiment Station has already meant
to Florida's Citrus Industry.
In the four-year curriculum the freshman and soph-
omore years are spent in the General College of the Uni-
versity where those students who are seeking a forestry
education are indirectly under the supervision of the
forestry staff. They are qualified to become members
of the Forestry Club, which is the social-professional
organization of the Department of Forestry. During
these two years other students may decide upon forestry
as a vocation. The forestry students will take the
prescribed and elective forestry courses during their
junior and senior years, including the required summer
camp of eight weeks.
The courses of forestry in the degree curriculum
are patterned after the requirements of the average
accredited School of Forestry according to the rating
of the Society of American Foresters. This Society
has a present enrollment of more than 3,000 members,
and exerts a powerful influence over forestry educa-
tion. There are more than 25 Schools and Departments
of Forestry in the United States; only 14 of these are
accredited. These accredited Schools are all located
north of the Mason and Dixon Line. This seems to offer
a direct challenge to develop here at the University of
Florida an accredited School of Forestry. Toward this
objective the Department of Forestry is exerting every
effort, and has already made much progress to develop
such facilities as library, staff personnel, equipment,
floor space, demonstration forests and budget as may be
commensurate with the field of opportunities as are so
amply illustrated in so great a forestry state as Flor-
TRAINING FOR FOREST RANGERS
Applicants 18 years of age or over who meet the regular entrance requirements of the
University, and who have been employed in some practical forestry service, may apply to
the Dean of the College of Agriculture for the Short Course for Forest Rangers.
Since all regular students entering the University are enrolled in the General College
where clock hours, class grades, and credits as prerequisites to the completion of its curricu-
lum have been abolished, in a like manner the College of Agriculture will administer the
admission, progress records, and the granting of appropriate certificates to students who are
in training as Forest Rangers. The work of the short course is given to increase the prac-
tical efficiency of these men. The usual University credits will not be granted, and the
work taken does not count toward any University degree.
Much of the laboratory instruction will be given in nearby forests to which classes will
be transported by bus or automobile.
Upon satisfactory completion of the first-year curriculum and summer camp, students
will be given a certificate of work accomplished. They may return later, complete the
second year, and secure a certificate of completion of the Ranger curriculum.
CURRICULUM FOR FOREST RANGERS
Hrs. per Week Courses
-General Chemistry ......... 4 Bty. 8
-Principles of Forestry...... 4 Cy. 1
-Forest Influences .......... 8 Fy. 1I
-Seeding, Planting, and Fy. 1
Nursery Practice ......... 8 Fy. 1
-Forest Protection .......... 4 Fy. 1
-Plane Trigonometry ........8
Hrs. per Week
-Botany of Seed Plants...... 4
-General Chemistry ......... 4
-Forest Regions ............ 2
-Tree Identification ......... 4
-Forest Improvement ........ 8
-Forest Reproduction ........ 4
Summer Camp.-Eight weeks. At least 40 hours a week in the forest doing practical
work, making observations in surveying, mensuration, identification, protection, improve-
ments, and utilization.
As. 201 -Agricultural Economies .... 8
Cl. 228 --Surveying ................. 5
Fy. 201 -Lumbering ................ 8
Fy. 208 -Naval Stores .............. 8
Fy. 205 -Forest Finance ............ 8
Ps. --General Physics ........... 4
As. 811 -Rural Law ................ 2
Ag. 806 --Farm Machinery ........... 4
Fy. 202 -Wood Identification ........ 8
Fy. 204 -Forest Economics .......... 8
Fy. 206 -Grazing and Wild Life ..... 8
Fy. 208 -Forest Administration ..... 8
*Second-year courses will not be offered in 1986-87.
Curriculum in the College of Agriculture leading to the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Agriculture
(First two years are completed in the General College)
-Surveying ................ 8 Ay. I
-Introduction to Economic Bty. I
Entomology .............. 4 Fr. I
-Dendrology ................ 8 Fy. I
-Silviculture ................ 3 MI. I
-Elementary Physics ........ 8
Laboratory .............. 1
Approved Electives ......... 1I
-Forest Soilr ...............
-Forest Mensuration ........
-Forest Protection ..........
-Engineering Drawing ......
Approved Electives ........
Eight weeks: Silviculture, Forest Engineering, Utilization, and Forest Management.
Required for graduation.
-Logging and Lumbering ....
-Wood Technology ..........
-Forest Economics ..........
(Naval Stores) ...........
Approved Electives .........
Fy. 404 -Forest Administration and
Fy. 406 -Reforestation and Nursery
Fy. 408 -Wood Preservation (Includ-
ing Conditioning) ........
Fy. 410 -Forest History and Policy..
Approved Electives ........
DESCRIPTION OF FOREST RANGER COURSES
Fy. 101.-Principles of Forestry. 4 hours.
A basic course required of all students in Forestry, designed to acquaint them with fundamentals, and a survey
of the field.
Fy. 102.-Forest Regions. 2 hours.
The silvicultural and economic factors affecting the important regions of the United States.
Fy. 103.-Forest Influences. 1 hour, and 2 hours laboratory.
Factors affecting and controlling the growth and development of forest trees and stands, and effects of forests
Fy. 104.-Tree Identification. 2 hours, and 2 hours laboratory.
The identification of native and naturalized trees and use of botanical keys.
Fy. 105.-Seeding, Planting, and Nursery Practice. 1 hour, and 2 hours labora-
Methods of growing forest seedlings and principles and ways of transplanting them.
Fy. 106.-Forest Improvement. 3 hours.
Character and construction of roads, trails, electric lines, lookout towers, and improvements and convenieness.
Fy. 107.-Forest Protection. 2 hours, and 2 hours laboratory.
The protection from fire, animals, insects. and other enemies.
Fy. 108.-Forest Reproduction. 2 hours, and 2 hours laboratory.
Natural reproduction and improvement of forest crops; application to different types of forests.
DESCRIPTION OF UPPERDIVISION FORESTRY COURSES
Fy. 301.-Dendrology. I hour, and 4 hours laboratory. 3 credits. NEWINS AND STAFF.
The botany of trees of the United States; forest taxonomy; silvical characteristics, including general range
and local occurrence; field identification.
Fy. 302.-Forest Mensuration. 1 hour, and 4 hours laboratory. 3 credits. NEWINS
Measurement of products and of logs; measurement of individual trees; measurement of stands of timber;
measurement of growth.
Fy. 303.-Silviculture. 2 hours, and 2 hours laboratory. 3 credits. NEWINS AND
Establishing, developing, and reproducing forests; effect of site on forest vegetation; action of forests on
site; improvement and reproduction; silvical requirements of local species.
Fy. 304.-Forest Protection. 3 hours. 3 credits. NEWINS AND STAFF.
General protection from fire, tree diseases, insects, and from climatic, mechanical, and chemical injuries; pre-
vention, detection, and suppression of fire.
Fy. 401.-Logging and Lumbering. 3 hours. 3 credits. NEWINS AND STAFF.
Utilization of major forest products; logging engineering; transportation; equipment; costs; lumber manu-
facture; plant; milling practice; merchandising products.
Fy. 0402.-Wood Technology. 1 hour, and 4 hours laboratory. 3 credits. NEWINS
Wood structure; wood identification; commercial woods of the United States; commercial woods of Florida.
Fy. 403.-Forest Economics. 3 hours. 3 credits. NEWINS AND STAFF.
Forest influences; the forest as a natural resource; the development of forestry and public land policies;
production, distribution, and consumption of forest products; forest taxation; lumber and timber economics;
industrial relations of forest and forestry; forest resources; tariff on lumber and forest products; forest legisla-
tion; forest policy.
Fy. 404.-Forest Administration and Organization. 3 hours. 3 credits. NEWINS
Forest management; underlying principles of forest management; forest organization; management plans;
subdivisions of forest area; forest regulations; working circle; rotation; cutting cycle; normal forest.
Fy. 405.-Forest Products (Naval Stores). 4 hours. 4 credits. NEWINS AND STAFF.
Rough forest products-poles, piling, logs, cross ties, posts, pulpwood supplies, mine timbers; boxes and
crates; cooperage; furniture and flooring; veneers and plywood; naval stores industry-field operations, tur.
pentine still and products.
Fy. 406.-Reforestation and Nursery Technique. 1 hour, and 4 hours laboratory.
3 credits. NEWINS AND STAFF.
Seed extraction, cleaning, grading, testing, viability, and storage; nursery practice, sowing; vegetative propa-
gation, fertilizers, watering, cultivation, transplanting; lifting; packing.
Fy. 408.-Wood Preservation (Including Conditioning). 2 hours, and 2 hours
laboratory. 3 credits. NEWINS AND STAFF.
Decay; preservatives; treating plants and apparatus; methods and costs; objects treated and results; fire
proofing; painting and finishing woods; conditioning of wood-storage and stacking, air seasoning, kiln drying,
Fy. 410.-Forest History and Policy. 3 hours. 3 credits. NEWINS AND STAFF.
Federal forest policy; U. S. Forest Service; Indian Forest Service; federal acquisition policy; timber pro-
duction, silvicuntural, watershed, recreational, grazing, wild life and educational policies.