BOARD OF CONTROL
July 1, 1950 June 30, 1952
J. HILLS MILLER
President, The University of Florida
FOR THE BIENNIUM
ENDING DECEMBER 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE
THE REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY ----------- 5
REPORTS OF THE DEANS AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS
The Provost for Agriculture --. ---------------- 51
The Dean of the College of Agriculture ---------- 51
The Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station ------ 53
The Director of the Agricultural Extension Service ------ 74
The Dean of the College of Architecture & Allied Arts ------ 97
The Dean of the College of Arts & Sciences .. ---------104
The Dean of the College of Business Administration ----------- 111
The Dean of the College of Education ------ --- --- ---- 120
The Dean of the College of Engineering -------_--- 123
The Director of the Engineering & Industrial Experiment Station ---- 135
The Dean of the Graduate School ...-.....- ------------------. 166
The Director of the School of Journalism ------------ .......- 168
The Dean of the College of Law --------- -171
The Dean of the College of Pharmacy _---------- 176
The Dean of the College of Physical Education, Health, and Athletics .-------- 179
The Dean of the University College ..------- ------ 183
The Dean of the General Extension Division ..........-------. ----..--.-.....184
The Coordinator of Military Departments .-------------- ..- 190
The Director of the Division of Music ---------- 191
The Director of Alumni Affairs ..---- -_.. ------- ------------193
The Director of Athletics ------------------------.194
The Business Manager -.--_-.--------------- --. ------.-- 199
The Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory -- ---- --- 210
The Director of the Institute of Inter-American Affairs --- ---- --- 218
The Director of Libraries ............---------------------.. .. ... 224
The Acting Director of the Florida State Museum -----------227
The Director of the University of Florida Press ------_.- ------- 229
The Director of Public Relations ...... -- -----------........ 230
The Director of Radio Station WRUF ------------- ... .. 231
The Registrar --.........._.. --.. ---------------------232
The Dean of Student Personnel ------------ -- 236
The University Examiner -----------247
To the Honorable,
The Board of Control of the State of Florida
We pause once again at this season of the year to make our biennial inventory.
It is, indeed, to its credit that a wise Florida legislature many years ago envisioned the
desirability of having institutions of higher learning render, through their governing
Board, a periodic accounting of their activities, and included within the framework of
the State's educational laws provision for the filing of biennial reports. This educational
"stock-taking" is a healthy procedure. It serves the interests of the people of the State
of Florida and the Legislative bodies whose legislative enactments support the institu-
tions, the governing boards who are charged with supervisory responsibility, the presi-
dent and administrative officers who have direct responsibility, and finally, the in-
structional, administrative, and research staffs whose labors and contributions are subject
The biennial reports constitute a cumulative record of day to day activities, efforts,
achievements, discouragements, and yearnings of many people, all working for a com-
mon purpose-the education of Florida youth, and the building of a greater and better
Florida. Viewed in this light, the reports assume a very special significance.
In reviewing the departmental reports of the University of Florida for the biennium
July 1, 1950 to June 30, 1952, one can measure the distance travelled and the goals at-
tained with a fair degree of accuracy. The cumulative story is, indeed, an interesting
one. The achievements are noteworthy. However, progress has not been made without
substantial sacrificial effort. Unfilled needs have necessitated devious and costly detours
and delays, and inevitably stand as road blocks to maximum progress.
To the Chairman, Honorable Frank M. Harris, and members of the Board of Control,
we are greatly indebted for patience, understanding and helpfulness in the solution of
our problems. To the Governor, Honorable Fuller Warren, and members of his cabinet;
and to the heads of the several agencies with which we have had friendly and profitable
relations, we would express our deep gratitude for fullest cooperation at all times.
The rather remarkable record of achievement appended hereto could not have been
possible without the encouragement and support of these splendid public servants. It is,
therefore, with a sense of appreciation and also of pride that I present herewith the
Biennial Report of the University of Florida.
J. Hillis Miller, President
University of Florida
In reviewing the work of the biennium ending June 30, 1952, certain high points of
accomplishment and progress stand out boldly. Some have been accented by design;
others have gained ascendency because of unexpected turns of events. Several experi.
mental projects have been acclaimed with greater enthusiasm than anticipated. Con-
siderable emphasis has been placed on research, graduate work, and the planning of a
new medical center. One new and important unit has been added, the Institute of
Gerontology, and the work of another has been expanded with a change of designation,
i.e., the School of Inter-American Studies. I should like to review these items in some
detail, while covering in briefer outline the work of the various academic and adminis-
trative units of the University. In doing this I respectfully invite the reader to turn
to the detailed reports of the deans, directors and other administrative officers, as sub-
mitted to the President. There is no substitute for reading these reports if the reader
desires a clear picture of the progress of the University.
When World War II drew to a close, student enrollment at the University of Florida
started a dramatic upward swing which was to place it within four brief years in the
ranks of the largest state-supported institutions in the country. The peak was reached
in the year 1948-1949 when 11,340 students were enrolled in the regular academic session x
and 6,643 in the summer sessions, making the total enrollment for the year 17,938.a'The
year 1949-1950 witnessed an even larger increase in the enrollment for the regular
session, to-wit, 11,709, but a slight tapering off during the summer session, with regis-
tration standing at 5,927, gave a total for the year of 17,636.
Enrollments have declined slightly with the exodus of the G.I.'s who constituted the
bulk of the post-war group. The decrease by 1952 over a four-year period was approxi-
mately 2,000 under the peak total enrollment of the regular and summer sessions referred
to above. The percentage decrease is considerably smaller than that experienced by the
majority of institutions of higher learning in the nation.
Six hundred and one women enrolled in the University of Florida in the fall of 1947,
the first year the institution was made co-educational. In that year, and in the two
subsequent years, the University rejected many applications because of the lack of
housing and other facilities to accommodate them. It was necessary for the University
to lease a number of apartment buildings in the city to house the women students.
Some old barracks at nearby Alachua Air Base served as housing quarters for many
men students. There were 1,659 women for the regular session of 1948-1949 and 1,458
in the summer session of 1948; 2,033 women enrolled for the regular session of 1949-1950;
1,544 in the summer session of 1949; 2,433 women in the regular session, 1950-1951;
1,555 in the summer session of 1950; 2,532 in the regular session of 1951-52, and 1,232
in the summer session of 1951. (See Enrollment Report Appended as Exhibit 1.)
Because plant, housing and teaching facilities were sorely inadequate for a pre-war
enrollment of 3,500 students, the University administration and State Government were
confronted with problems of first magnitude to provide for the trebling of the student
body. The utilities such as the electric system, the telephone system, sewerage disposal,
water supply, etc. were completely inadequate, and new installations became necessary,
which meant that the building program of the University had to start not at the surface
or ground level, but underground. A magnificent new sewerage treatment plant, with
a capacity of 700,000 gallons a day, an auxiliary sewerage treatment plant providing a
sanitary research laboratory, and a campus incinerator were among the first units to be
The State provided generously for new construction projects during the legislative
sessions immediately following World War II, and construction of buildings amounted
to approximately $20,000,000.00 paid from State, Federal and auxiliary funds during the
period 1946-50. However, the 1951 session of the legislature adjourned without making
any provision for educational buildings. Despite the expenditures above noted, the
University has only about one-half of the educational space it needs for 10,000 students.
In 1950, the University of Florida had 86 square feet per student, whereas the average
for other land grant colleges in the nation stood at 149 square feet per student.
A number of building projects in the previous biennium have been brought to
completion during the present biennium and some of the University's more pressing
needs have been met by renovations and additions made possible for the most part
from Federal and other sources.
In the spring of 1952, contracts were let for the erection of new student residential
halls costing $2,106,000.00 which will be financed almost entirely from the sale of
revenue certificates. Since funds were not provided by the State, it has been necessary
for the University to borrow money to erect these necessary housing facilities for its
students. This procedure has necessitated a general increase of rents for the residential
halls and is a real handicap to many worthy Florida students of moderate means whose
families are unable to meet the increased costs. With the completion of the new dormi-
tories, the University will then have permanent housing accommodations sufficient to ac-
commodate only 3,000 students. A minimum of 60% of the student body should be
accommodated on the campus in University residence halls. This means that the present
available space should be doubled by the construction of new residence halls within the
The new ROTC Building, costing $210,000, affords good quarters for our important
military and air force units and will enable them to maintain their traditional record
of efficiency, which was seriously threatened with the inadequacy of space prevailing
during the past biennium. The renovation of Science Hall at a cost of $125,000 has
brought relief from an impossible overcrowded situation which developed when the hall
was declared unuseable.
A new official residence for the President of the University, now under construction,
has been made possible through savings from other housing and building projects on
campus. The completion of this residence will serve a useful purpose by providing a
place near campus where Alumni and friends of the University may gather from time to
time; for the entertainment on occasion of large segments of the faculty and student
body, and as a headquarters for distinguished guests of the University. Nothing can en.
chance the public relations of an institution or have more enduring influence in promot-
ing friendly relationship between administration, faculty and students than such a
We are also pleased to report the acquisition of 830.1 acres of land during the
biennium at a cost of $58,305. (See complete list of buildings and land acquisitions ap-
pended as Exhibit 2.)
FISCAL AND BUDGETARY OPERATIONS
The following statement of income by sources during the biennium covers the fiscal
operations of the University of Florida and its several important units:
Source 1950 Amount 1951 % 1951 Amount 1952 %
State and County Appropriations 9,720,762.00 60.06 10,148,431.82 59.89
Federal Appropriations 598,963.53 3.70 762,745.57 4.50
Student Fees 1,886,314.55 11.65 1,426,096.98 8.42
Auxiliary Enterprises 3,053,619.39 18.87 2,933,282.69 17.31
Gifts and Grants from
Private Sources 145,697.34 .90 457,897.53 2.70
Agricultural Sales 303,111.74 1.87 554,221.63 3.27
Sales and Services of
Educational Depts. 327,868.81 2.03 520,131.00 3.07
Endowment 8,548.13 .05 6,431.79 .04
Miscellaneous 141,115.20 .87 135,921.67 .80
TOTALS 16,186,000.69 100.00 16,945,160.68 100.00
It should be pointed out that because of the shift in student enrollment from GI to
civilian enrollment, there was a very substantial reduction in revenues from federal
sources covering tuition fees of GI students in the last biennium. All educators and
government agents realized that it would be necessary for the State governments to
absorb the additional cost of education due to terminating federal funds, when the GI
peaks had been reached and federal subsidies were no longer available.
The Board of Control
The Board of Control was augmented during the biennium by two new members ap.
pointed pursuant to legislation creating two additional congressional districts in Florida.
In keeping with a commitment by the Honorable Fuller Warren, a woman was named
to membership on the Board for the first time in history. Mrs. Alfred I. duPont of Jack-
sonville was selected for this appointment and the selection met with instant response
in all sections of the State in view of Mrs. duPont's well known interest in education and
her wide business experience. The Honorable George W. English, a graduate of the
University of Illinois and Harvard University, and a prominent Fort Lauderdale banker
and lawyer, was the second member to be added under the provisions of the new legisla-
tion. These members, together with the formerly constituted Board, have been ex-
ceedingly helpful in assisting the administration to solve numerous and difficult problems
arising from time to time.
The Board of Control has, within recent months, perfected policies and procedures
which not only will greatly simplify the presentation of recommendations by the admin-
istration, but which, in our opinion, will greatly add to the effective functioning of the
Board in its relationships with the various institutions of higher learning. Action upon
many trivial matters, which in the past required much time-consuming attention, has now
been delegated to the Secretary of the Board and to the administration. These small
items may now be cleared between Board meetings, thus avoiding delays. Interim actions
will, of course, be ratified at subsequent Board meetings.
The Board has also been instrumental in helping the University to evolve procedures
and fiscal policies for the handling of its vast business operations. In cooperation with
the Business Office, a modern and up-to-date accounting system has been installed, which
we feel will have lasting benefits.
ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
Departmental biennial reports seem to stress Faculty and Staff Improvement more
than any other feature of the academic-research profile of the biennium. Rotation of
membership on the University Personnel Board twice annually brings constant new
thinking and concentration on personnel and faculty nominations. Department heads
have become aware of the fact that their candidates will be scrutinized by an impartial
University-wide group who have no favors to ask nor axes to grind. They consider each
nominee not only from a standpoint of adaptation and suitability in the department con-
cerned, but to the entire University community of scholars. There is a realization that
the reputation of the University is affected with each appointment. If the candidate has
a high and scholarly reputation, his coming will enhance the reputation not only of his
college, school or department, but that of the University. The reverse would apply to
poorly prepared or trained candidates. The same is no less true of the research staff.
Money invested in incompetent research workers is money wasted.
Consequently, there has been a careful plan of selectivity with respect to new per-
sonnel. We wish time and space permitted a detailed list of the scholarly individuals
who have been brought to the University during the biennium. Moreover, numerous
members of the staff have pursued further graduate or post-graduate work in the great
graduate centers of the nation and there is not a single unit which has not boasted of
one or more staff members completing or undertaking work on their doctor's or master's
Improved salary scales have gone far in retaining many of our most promising
younger faculty members and men of science and have enabled the University to compete
for the services of outstanding rather than mediocre teachers and researchers. While
the present salary scale has improved the position with respect to competition among
Southern institutions, it still falls far short of permitting free competition for staff re-
cruitment among the majority of the great colleges and universities of the nation. To
this end, we propose to bend our every effort in the new biennium. We are hopeful that
a far-sighted people will not be satisfied with less than the best trained personnel obtain-
able to teach the youth and future citizens of this great State and to continue in the
development of its great natural resources.
Modern society in both peace and war depends upon scientific studies in basic prob-
lems in a great variety of fields. Unfortunately for the nations of the world and the
human race, much more attention has been devoted during the past century and especially
during the past three and a half decades (which embrace World War I and World War
II) to scientific studies and research relating to war and war activities than to those areas
revolving around the social sciences and the humanities. Many of the staff members
of the University of Florida are interested in pure, i.e., basic or fundamental research
in their particular fields of endeavor. It would be difficult to predict the possible future
uses of knowledge derived from this fundamental research. Utilitarian aspects are usually
left for future consideration.
Present international tensions have induced a great interest on the part of the Fed-
eral government and many industries in both basic and applied research in practically
all the fields covered by the staff of a modern university. These Federal agencies have
set aside certain funds for applied research and other funds for fundamental research,
of which the University of Florida has been a recipient in rather large measure.
The University of Florida has offered the use of its staff and facilities for the benefit
of the nation in this period of tension. In addition to our teaching responsibilities, we
have made substantial contributions to the advancement of knowledge in both funda-
mental and applied research related to national defense. There is every evidence that
this type of service will be greatly expanded.
In anticipation of and preparation for our own larger participation in research activ-
ities, we named a Committee on Research Contracts in the spring of 1951 consisting of
the following people: John S. Allen, Chairman; Ralph E. Page, R. B. Eutsler, R. A.
Morgen, J. Wayne Reitz, with Stanley L. West and George F. Baughman as ex officio
members. This Committee has developed procedures for handling research proposals
originated by staff members of the University of Florida. It advises staff members
whether or not the University will be prepared to make an application to a corporation
or a federal agency for particular research projects, assists staff members in preparing
proposals for submission to the appropriate agencies, and gives assistance to persons
designated by the University to follow these proposals through to final consideration by
the various agencies. This action provided the initiative and channel through which
important and unusual proposals came to light, sometimes from unexpected sources.
During the two-year period under review, the University has greatly expanded its
research activities. It has received grants from the Federal government, research
contracts and grants in aid from private sources amounting to nearly two million
dollars. The research programs have, in fact, been carried on largely from non-State
Closely allied to our research program is the matter of patents and copyrights. In-
creased research has logically resulted in more and more patentable proposals. After
careful screening by our Research Council, the most promising proposals are processed
as patent applications. Several patents have been issued in recent years but the Uni-
versity and inventors were handicapped because of the inadequate outlets or means of
utilizing the new patented processes or discoveries. Fortunately, a contractual arrange-
ment with the Research Corporation was consummated during the biennium which pro-
vides an excellent channel through which patent applications may be processed and also
disposed of, if subsequent patents are issued by the Patent Office. The Research Cor-
poration is nationally known, and has wide contact with American industry. We antici-
pate that our contract and patent relationship with it will prove very fruitful in the years
ahead. Suffice to say, the biennium has witnessed an almost phenomenal upsurge in
research activities on the campus of the University of Florida. The volume and quality
of work has been equalled by only a relatively few institutions in the nation.
A true University is both a center of learning and a center for increasing knowledge.
There is no adequate measure of the contribution which the University research has
made to a more effective teaching program, to an expansion of the frontier of knowledge,
and to the practical solutions of everyday problems. Suffice to say that a formidable
list of research projects, concluded during the past four years, and others that are being
constantly studied, have done much to make the University of Florida a significant factor
in the lives of the people of Florida and in the progress of the State. Research papers,
articles, and books published, within the period 1949-1951, total 1,506 while graduate
theses total 634 in number. These publications are indicative of the constructive effort
which has been put into this important phase of the University's functions.
As we have already indicated, detailed departmental reports will accompany and be
made a part of this biennial report. However, I should like to present in brief summary
the high points of our academic and research programs as revealed by the deans and
directors of the professional schools and research divisions.
In view of the fact that the University College serves the entire University in that
all students are required to complete the first two years of undergraduate work in the
University College before proceeding to the College of Arts and Sciences or specializa-
tion in the professional schools, we shall review the program of this college first.
Two years ago the University College reported its part in the National Evaluation of
General Education as conducted by the American Council on Education. This work has
moved along in a desirable way. The College has sent six faculty members to the na-
tional workshop this summer.
In the midst of re-examining materials of study, it appears desirable to indicate the
creative work that has come from members of the College staff. Only the books and
textbooks of such import that they have been published by the leading publishing
companies of the country are cited:
The Social Science staff, under the able leadership of its Chairman William G.
Carleton, has published thirty or more articles concerning the work of this area in lead-
ing periodicals the country over. The other staff groups also have published many
articles. Dr. Carleton and Dr. Hanna are under contract with the Dryden Press for a
social science textbook for college use in 1953. Dr. Carleton is also under contract with
the same publishing firm for an American cultural and anthropological history. The
Lewis Historical Publishing Company of New York has just completed a two-volume,
500,000 word, history of Florida by J. E. Dovell, a staff member. Arthur L. Funk, an-
other staff member, has just completed editing a source book in modern European his-
tory to be published this coming winter by the American Book Company. Dr. George
C. Osborn has just published a book manuscript covering the life of James K. Vardamon
of Mississippi. Mr. Samuel Proctor has published with the University of Florida Press
a biography of Napoleon Bonaparte Broward. He is currently at work on a history of
the University of Florida to be published in June 1953. Another staff member, Dr. Oscar
Svarlien, has finished his manuscript of a textbook in international law, to be published
this coming spring by the McGraw-Hill Company. Dr. Clyde B. Vedder is currently at
work on a textbook in criminology to be published by the Dryden Press.
Dr. L. W. Gaddum, the Chairman of the Physical Science group, with Dr. Knowles
has completed the manuscript for a physical science textbook for publication by Hough-
ton Mifflin Company in 1953. Dr. Elliott, a staff member of this group, has completed
the manuscript for a high school text to be published by Harper Brothers Publishing
Company in 1952. This staff too has a number of leading articles appearing in national
Dr. J. Hooper Wise and his colleagues in the English division have just received
(1952) from Harcourt, Brace and Company College English: the First Year. This monu-
mental work of nearly 1,000 pages collects in one volume the materials for a complete
course in freshman English. An exercise manual accompanies the volume. The Uni-
versity of Florida Press is publishing this year J. E. Congleton's book, Theories of Pas-
toral Poetry in England. Stephen F. Fogle of this same staff had A Brief Anthology of
Poetry published by American Book Company in 1951. The University of Oklahoma
Press published A Petroleum Dictionary by staff member Lalia P. Boone. Wise, Congle-
ton, and Morris are completing the revised edition of Meaning in Reading to be pub-
lished by Harcourt, Brace and Company in 1953.
Dr. Robert F. Davidson, Chairman of the Humanities division, has just received from
the Dryden Press (1952) his new text for use this fall, Philosophies Men Live By. Pro-
fessor A. D. Graeffe's text Creative Teaching in the Humanities, published by Harpers in
1951, has been highly praised and widely discussed.
The new revised text Man and the Biological World by Rogers, Hubbel, and Byers
published by McGraw-Hill in 1952 will be ready for class use the coming semester. We
should mention here that two members of this biology group, Dr. Berner and Dr. Carr,
are on leave working for the British Military Government on an entomological problem.
We have stressed in previous biennial reports one of our primary aims-the develop-
ment of an outstanding Graduate School on the campus of the University of Florida. I
am pleased to report substantial progress in this direction, though we still lag in some
essentials. With the retirement of Dr. Thomas M. Simpson on July 1, 1951, following
a loyal and notable service of 34 years as Head Professor of Mathematics, thirteen of
which were coupled with the deanship of the Graduate School, the administration of the
Graduate School was entrusted to Dr. C. F. Byers as Acting Dean, pending a search for
a successor to Dean Simpson. It may be said that the nation was canvassed with a view
to securing the most able person available for this important position. We were exceed-
ingly fortunate in securing Dr. L. E. Grinter, formerly Vice President and Dean of the
Graduate Division of Illinois Institute of Technology, who will assume his responsibili-
ties beginning August 1, 1952. Our expanding program of research, which is gaining
nation-wide attention, and which we have dealt with in another section of this report,
demanded top-level direction by an outstanding man of research, training and experience.
Accordingly, Dr. Grinter was appointed to the dual role of Dean of the Graduate School
and Director of Research, his qualifications being ideal for this double responsibility.
Dr. Grinter is a native of Kansas, and after receiving an undergraduate degree at the
University of Kansas, was awarded the M. S. and. Ph.D. degrees at the University of
Illinois. He returned to the University of Kansas to receive the degree of Civil Engi-
neering in 1930. He holds membership in many educational societies, and is author of
numerous scientific monographs and a half dozen books in the fields of structural
engineering and mechanics. Dr. Grinter has been consultant to the Board of Control
for Southern Regional Education, and is now a member of the Board's Commission on
Graduate Studies which has its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.
In April of 1950 a Graduate Advisory Committee, consisting of representative faculty
members, was appointed to study the graduate administrative procedure of the University
and to evaluate the graduate program. Dr. Byers rendered service above and beyond
the call of duty in supervising and pressing the work of this Committee. The Graduate
Council approved reports and recommendations of the Committee establishing the duties
of the Graduate School, Graduate Council, and the Graduate Dean. In fact, the entire
administrative machinery has been reorganized and the Graduate School has been made
responsible for the overall university standards for graduate work and coordination
among the programs of the various colleges and divisions of the University. The re-
sponsibility for the details of the graduate programs is now vested in the respective
colleges and divisions through their deans and established graduate administrative de-
vices. A graduate faculty has been designated and a policy established relative to such
matters as staff loads, appointment of the Graduate Council, supervisory committees,
budget, admission, registration, and candidacy.
The following areas were approved during the biennium to offer the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy: agricultural economics, Inter-American Area Studies, pharmaceutical
chemistry, plant pathology, sociology (Latin American), and soils. The doctoral pro-
gram in speech and business administration has been expanded to include new areas.
The Graduate School now offers the master's degree in fifty-one fields and the Ph.D. in
twenty-four, as well as the Doctor of Education degree.
Enrollment for graduate study continued to expand during the first year of the
biennium with 2,863 students in the year 1950-51 and 1,629 students in the summer session
of 1951. The second year of the biennium showed only a slight decline in enrollment
with 2,257 students registered for 1951-52 and 1,274 registered for the 1952 summer ses-
sion. During the biennium, 922 masters, 11 Doctors of Education, and 47 Doctor of
Philosophy degrees were conferred.
Sample illustrations of progress in graduate work and of methods used by the several
colleges and schools in implementing the reorganization of the Graduate School are
interesting at this point.
The Dean of the College of Agriculture states:
During the biennium there was a considerable increase in enrollment of
graduate students. Facilities and staff were taxed to the utmost to offer the
desired quality of training on the graduate level. One hundred and sixty
graduate degrees were awarded to students majoring in some phase of agri-
culture as follows: 77 Master of Agriculture, 45 Master of Science in Agri-
culture, 32 Master of Science and 6 Doctor of Philosophy degrees. At the
beginning of the biennium the Doctorate was being offered in Fruit Produc-
tion, Vegetable Production, and Animal Nutrition only. Farm Management,
Agricultural Marketing, Plant Pathology and Soils qualified as additional
areas for offering this degree. The Department of Agronomy has submitted
its proposal for offering the Doctorate to the Graduate Council for considera-
tion. There are several areas in the College of Agriculture where the staff
is well qualified to offer work leading to this degree, but laboratory facilities
and equipment are the limiting factors for making the request up to the present
time. It is the hope that these handicaps may be overcome at the earliest
practicable date. Many well qualified students are being turned down and
sent to other graduate schools because of this lack of physical essentials for
high quality training.
The Dean of the College of Architecture and Allied Arts reports:
The graduate work of the Department of Architecture is substantial in
quantity and scholarly in quality. Graduate work in Architecture, first
undertaken in 1929, is at the highest level of any school in the South. In
the important work in Community Planning, four candidates are working on
their Master's degrees. In Building Construction, established in 1948, an
unusually high level of scholarship is evident. In this fundamental field,
graduate courses have recently been instituted to provide means of study of
advanced building technology, and research work has been added to encour-
age experimental studies.
The work of students in the new graduate program in the Department
of Art has been of distinguished character. This program, organized in
1950, has developed remarkably and is meeting a previously unfilled need
in Florida. During the biennium the graduate degree, Master of Fine Arts,
has been awarded to seven candidates.
The Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, in speaking of the new graduate
The College of Arts and Sciences has assumed its obligations under this
new plan for the organization of graduate work at the University of Florida
. The Office of the Dean is in the process of setting up a record system
for the keeping of detailed academic records of graduate students, determin-
ing admissions, effecting registration, and processing other routine matters.
Graduate student advisement is being organized in terms of assigning re-
sponsibility to department heads or their departmental graduate committees
The responsibility of the College Curriculum Committee has been en-
larged to include all matters of graduate curricula. This organization permits
a single agency of the college to evaluate and approve the total programs
of instruction of each department.
The Dean of the College of Business Administration reports:
The number of graduate students was few before the second World War,
but the enrollment rose to 57 in 1948-49, 76 in 1950-51, and 72 in 1951-52.
Admissions already approved for the year 1952-53 indicate that the enroll-
ment for the coming year will be as high, if not higher than during
the past two years. Of the graduate students registered during the year 1951-
52, 18 were candidates for the Ph.D. degree, 9 the M.A. degree, and 35 the
M.B.A. degree ... Three M.B.A. and M.A. degrees were conferred in June,
1952. One Ph.D. degree will probably be conferred in June, 1952. One
Ph. D. degree will probably be conferred in August, 1952. Several candidates
for the Ph.D. degree have completed all course and language requirements
for the doctorate and expect to receive their degrees during 1952-53.
In order to accommodate the increased demand for graduate work, the
College has broadened its offerings in the graduate field. Fifty-eight graduate
courses are now offered in various fields. Offerings in the following fields
provide sufficiently broad training for the Ph.D. candidates in accounting,
economic theory, finance, foreign trade, insurance, labor, public finance,
management, marketing, real estate, transportation, and public utilities.
The Dean of the College of Education reveals that in 1952, the number of students
receiving advanced degrees or certificates exceeded the number receiving bachelor de-
grees, and introduces the following figures by way of substantiation:
1950-51 1951-52 Total
Bachelors 262 232 494
Masters .. ..-------- 189 247
Doctorates ------ 8 7
*Post Graduate Certificates --------- -- 38 13
**Advanced Post Graduate
Certificates ---- 22 257 34 301 558
*Thirty-six semester hours graduate work
*Master's degree plus 36 hours graduate work
The Dean of the College of Engineering says:
Instruction on the graduate level has been enriched by the procurement
of additional staff members who are experts in certain phases of Chemical
Engineering. Since July, 1950, two students have met the requirements for
the Doctor of Philosophy degree with major work in chemical engineering.
A graduate program in both Sanitary and Structural Engineering leading to
the Ph. D. degree in these fields has been developed and awaits formal ap-
proval. Ten courses at the graduate level are offered by the Department of
Engineering Mechanics. These are taken for major credit by graduate
students pursuing work toward a Master's degree in Engineering Mechanics
and also for minor credit by graduate students in other fields of engineering
or science. It is planned to introduce additional graduate courses in the
future as additional staff is added, and ultimately build up these offerings,
staff, and equipment to enable offering a doctorate in this field.
The Dean of the College of Pharmacy reports:
During the past two years, graduate degrees granted by the College
were 15 Master of Science degrees and 5 Doctor of Philosophy degrees.
Dr. Robert D. Calkins, Director of the General Education Board, in his annual
report for 1951, reviews fifty years of education in the South and points so clearly to
certain factors with which we are concerned that they bear repetition here: "To look
back over the progress that has been made in southern education is itself an invitation
to look forward to the next half century," he says, and adds:
In the path ahead are a number of serious obstacles that an ambitious
South can ignore only at great penalty to its own future. One of these is
the failure of the Southern people to recognize fully that really good educa-
tion is the bootstrap by which they can and must lift themselves. The mind,
more than any other human resource, is the power from which progress
proceeds. In a nation that demands ever greater and greater educational
qualifications, the South can overtake the national procession only by devel-
oping its intellectual resources as rapidly as possible, and this requires a
speeding up of its educational advance . In recent years, the South has
taken a new interest in expanding and strengthening its graduate instruc-
tion . it is now recognized that the South has lagged behind the nation
in this branch of education, and that a catching up is necessary if the rap-
idly developing South is to obtain the manpower required for its own
progress. The result has been a great multiplication of graduate programs
... The South undoubtedly needs more graduate facilities and more students
in graduate schools. Unless it builds strong programs and maintains high
standards of preparation, however, the benefits will be meagre and the result
may be to weaken rather than strengthen the educational system.
The new Dean of the Graduate School will not be bound by any traditional adminis-
trative procedures or experimental work undertaken to date, but will be given every
opportunity to consider every aspect of the graduate program and to make recommen-
dations relative to further reorganization or implementation of the existing programs.
It is significant to point out that the addition of two wings to our Central Library
at a cost of approximately $2,000,000, and the enlargement of our Library holdings were
designed at least in part to meet the requirements of an expanding graduate program.
We like to point with pride to the fact that within a decade, the University of Florida Li-
brary has risen from 13th to 7th place among 40 college and university libraries in the south-
ern states with respect to volumes, and has risen from 7th to 1st place, within the same
period, in annual expenditures for new acquisitions. Today it stands 16th among 22
selected college and university libraries in the nation with respect to holdings, and 9th
with respect to total library expenditures. We propose to move forward in the national
group within the coming decade as we have in the southern group within the past decade.
If a personal reference is not inappropriate, the President of your University has
been serving as Chairman of the Committee on Graduate Studies for the Southern
Regional Board of Education during the past year and, together with selected members
of the staff, has given a great deal of time and study to graduate problems, not only of
the University but of the southern region generally. He is prepared to say that there
is nothing of greater importance to the ongoing of the University and hence to the
ongoing progress of the State than a continuous emphasis upon our graduate program.
School Year 1st Sem. 2nd Sem. Summ
1951-1952 1,143 1,101 1,32
1950-1951 1,258 1,315 1,62
1949-1950 1,210 1,278 (1) 1,5
1948-1949 987 1,042 (1) 1,35
1947-1948 547 710 (1) 1,01
1946-1947 225 295 (1) 66
1945-1946 75 136 (1) 35
1944-1945 58 71 (1) 10
1943-1944 40 40 (1) 9
1942-1943 53 49 (1)
GRADUATE SCHOOL STATISTICS (1942-1952)
er Master DEd PhD Master DEd
27 75 1 8 130 2 1
29 71 2 7 146 4
56 66 3 2 134 2
52 35 2 0 82 1
11 26 0 0 47 0
66 14 0 1 25 0
8 1 0 2 12 0
PhD Master DEd PhD
Since assuming the presidency of the University of Florida, only a few statements
have been made by me touching upon the need and character of health education
services for the State. The most important of these statements may be summarized as
follows: (a) the State of Florida needs a program of health education at the higher and
professional level; (b) if such a center is established, it should be of the highest quality;
(c) it should be established at the seat of our great state university where so many
ancillary scientific, library, and educational facilities are already available, and (d)
it should not be established at the expense of the needs for our existing professional
schools and colleges.
In connection with this statement, it was emphasized that medical, dental and nursing
education are the most difficult kinds of education to establish on a sound and lasting
basis. We are dealing here with the health of our people and with the conditions under
which they remain healthy and under which they are treated when they are ill. This
is not a matter with which we deal in a superficial manner. The worst thing in the
world is to establish a poor medical school, which can so easily happen if in its estab-
lishment we do not first assess the health needs of the State and the need for adequate
physical facilities in order that the school will meet the specific health problems of our
The time has come when we should move in on this problem in a thorough-going and
intelligent way. The Legislature of the State of Florida has not only given us a mandate
to go forward toward a solution of this problem, but over the last few years, it has dem-
onstrated the care with which we should proceed. In this connection, a historical state-
ment would seem to be in order.
In 1945 the Florida Legislature provided, under Senate Concurrent Resolution Num-
ber 3, for a comprehensive study and survey of education in the State of Florida. Honor-
able Millard F. Caldwell, then Governor of Florida, by Executive Order, appointed a
committee, known as the Florida Citizens Committee on Education, to make a compre-
hensive study and survey of education in Florida, including medical education, and to
report the findings and conclusions of their study. This Citizens Committee consisted of
a number of Florida's outstanding citizens from all sections of the State.
The Citizens Committee filed its report in March 1947, and under Chapter XXIII
devoted to Education in Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Nursing, reached the con-
clusion, after considering all sites in the state proposed by persons interested in a medical
school, that such a school should be located at the University of Florida in Gainesville.
At the 1947 session of the Florida Legislature, House Resolution 43 and Senate Reso-
lution 16, authorized and directed "the Board of Control and the State Board of Educa-
tion to make a survey and investigation and report thereon with reference to the
establishment of a medical and dental college in the State of Florida." In October 1948,
pursuant to the above-mentioned resolutions, the Board of Control and the State Board
of Education of Florida appointed a Committee to make a Medical Survey and selected
as director of this Committee, Dr. Vernon W. Lippard, then Dean of the School of Medi-
cine, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, and now Dean of the Medical School of
the University of Virginia. The Report of the Director of the Survey and Advisory Com-
mittee was filed February 1, 1949. The Committee strongly recommended the location
of the Medical School at Gainesville.
The 1949 session of the Legislature passed a bill designating the University of Florida
at Gainesville as the site for the State Medical School. The bill was Senate Bill 329
entitled "A Bill to be entitled an act to create and establish a school of medicine and
nursing at the University of Florida." The companion House Bill was No. 537.
The 1951 Session of the Legislature appropriated the sum of $100,000 to defray the
cost of initial plans for a medical center at the University of Florida and, upon the
request of the Board of Control and with the approval of the State Budget Commission,
this sum has been released for the purpose intended.
Following the designation of the University of Florida as the site of the new medical
school, the Board of Control and the University officials, through the Florida State Im-
provement Commission, sought funds from the Federal government for the development
of plans for the school. The Federal government made an initial contribution of $10,000
for further study of the overall needs for medical education in the State, and Dr. Vernon
W. Lippard, already identified as chairman of the Survey Committee and now Dean of
the Medical School of the University of Virginia, and Dr. Basil C. MacLean, Director of
the Strong Memorial Hospital, the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, were
invited to serve as consultants and to give consideration to the type of medical school or
medical center that might be established, with the understanding that a further report
would be made to the Federal government and that the additional money would be
sought to complete the plans.
In a memorandum prepared after consultations with the Board of Control architects,
and representatives of the State Improvement Commission, it was recommended that the
medical center be developed as an integrated unit for instruction of medical, nursing and
other health personnel, for the care of all types of short term illness of hospitalized and
ambulatory patients and for research. In addition to the major clinical services of a
community hospital, it should embrace all the specialties or sub-specialties and be pre-
pared as a teaching hospital to accept a higher than average percentage of complicated
cases. The comprehensive services offered should include a dental clinic, pending the
development of a dental school. There should be a division of psychiatry, not for the
custodial care of psychotic patients but for the treatment of emotionally disturbed
patients, including alcoholics. Such a center would permit many opportunities for re-
search in various fields.
Cancer research, the report went on to say, which is now being carried on in temporary
quarters at the University (and which has already attracted over $200,000 from private
sources), could be more intense and productive if supplemented by clinical or hospital
facilities. The study of degenerative diseases (which would relate the Medical Center
to the Institute of Gerontology now in operation at the University) is another field which
claims more attention as the average span of life increases. Facilities for the use of
radioactive isotopes (now being used in connection with cancer and other research at
the University) in diagnosis and treatment, and for modern care of infantile paralysis
and other communicable diseases should also be provided.
Notwithstanding the excellent spade work which has been done to date, other vital
steps seemed necessary to assure the people of this State that the medical program
which it is embarking upon is the very best from the standpoint of need, economy and
finance, and sound medical principles and objectives. An additional study was essential
before the State could be ready to define its health objectives, to blueprint its physical
plant, to determine its curriculum in the several health disciplines, to design its labora-
tories, and to determine its medical research program. Such an overall study required
an allocation of funds, which I am pleased to advise were provided by the Commonwealth
Fund in the amount of $96,500. Leading medical men of the State have been called upon
for consultation and advisory service, and their services have been generously offered.
Following receipt of the Commonwealth grant, Dr. Russell S. Poor of the National
Science Foundation was persuaded to take a year's leave of absence in order to direct
the study. Dr. Poor has specialized in the natural sciences and received a Doctor of
Philosophy degree from the University of Illinois. In recent years, he has been Director
of the University Relationships for Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, and therefore
has a rich background of experience for undertaking the survey. Dr. John M. Maclachlan,
head of the University's Sociology Department, has been relieved of his duties to serve
as Chief of Staff for the Commonwealth Fund Survey.
An Executive Committee of leading United States educational and medical experts
and a sixteen-man medical advisory board have been appointed to serve as consultants
and to assist with the survey.
It is contemplated that the study will point up definite proposals, which may be
available for the consideration of the 1953 session of the Legislature.
The State Medical School should be considered the apex of the medical care program
of the State and the members of the staff should be able to assist practitioners throughout
the State. Ways and means of establishing such a consultation service will be a major
consideration in the study. The advisability of establishing a tropical medical depart-
ment, the availability and means of selection of a competent medical staff, the formulation
of up to the minute graduate and pre-medical curricula, the administrative orientation
of the center in the structure of the University are illustrative phases to be studied.
School of Inter-American Studies
The University of Florida for more than two decades has assumed a leading role in
the field of inter-American cultural relationships. The Institute of Inter-American Affairs,
which came into existence in 1930, was superseded during the biennium by the School of
Inter-American Studies. We were fortunate in securing Dr. A. Curtis Wilgus, Professor
of Hispanic-American history at George Washington University, and long a well-known
exponent of Inter-American relations, as Director of the School. The School aims to
foster intelligent understanding and mutual appreciation among the peoples of the
Western Hemisphere. The School undertakes to stimulate specific studies on subjects
common to the Americas, to encourage research projects and publications dealing with
Latin America, to stimulate interchange among the Americas of lecturing professors and
other specialists, and to advance inter-American interests in all fields of human endeavor.
The School is a service division of the University, having its own administrative
officers, but no faculty of its own. The faculty serving the school includes those members
of the faculties of the various departments and colleges who are engaged in teaching
courses having inter-American content.
Two annual Caribbean conferences have been sponsored by the School. Program
participants have included a roster of eminent diplomats, scholars, business men, and
government officials well known in two continents by virtue of their contributions and
interest in Latin-American affairs. The University's leadership in this area of activity,
so natural to Florida because of its geographical location, is recognized as outstanding.
As the nation comes more and more to realize the dependency of North and South Amer-
ica upon each other and the urgency of Western Hemispheric solidarity in the uncertain
years ahead, this program will begin to bear fruit. Meantime, the foundation stones
have been laid and the structure of a very important program of International relations
in the area of Latin American affairs is rising at the University of Florida. No person
can now foresee the ultimate importance and destiny of this program.
To date, special master's degree and/or doctor's degree programs with inter-American
emphasis are available in many disciplines, including architecture, art, business, eco-
nomics, geography, history, international affairs, language and literature, Latin American
area studies, political science, sociology, Spanish, and certain areas of agriculture, animal
industry, biology, education, and engineering. Other areas in which regular graduate
programs also are offered and in which one or more courses having specific Latin Amer-
ican content or application are available are anthropology, botany, journalism, pharmacy,
public administration, and zoology.
You are invited to examine with care the more detailed report of the Director.
The College of Agriculture, The Agricultural Experiment Station, The Agricultural
Extension Service, and the School of Forestry
The College of Agriculture (including the School of Forestry), the Agricultural Ex-
periment Stations, and the Agricultural Extension Service continued during the biennium
to improve the quality of services rendered to the ever-expanding agricultural and for-
estry economy of the State. By conducting agricultural and forestry research, training
men in agricultural and forestry sciences, and disseminating the findings of research
throughout the length and breadth of the State, these closely coordinated units of the
University continue to pay rich dividends.
The College of Agriculture, including the School of Forestry, has made progress in
training young scientists to serve the varied demands of the expanding and increasing
technical agricultural and forestry industries. During the biennium 415 and 61 bachelor
degrees were awarded in agriculture and forestry, respectively. In agriculture 154 mas-
ter's degrees were awarded and in forestry, there were 9. At the beginning of the
biennium only two departments offered the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. In these two
departments, six doctoral degrees were awarded.
To provide for further training at the graduate level, three additional departments
have now qualified for offering the doctorate. This graduate program would not be
possible without full cooperation between the College and the staff of the Agricultural
Emphasis is being placed on improving the quality of instruction and evaluating cur.
ricular offerings. Two new curricula have been developed for training students to
qualify for the highly specialized work in the citrus industry. A forest products tech-
nology curriculum has been added to meet the growing demand for specialists in
Agricultural Extension Service
As the off-campus education arm of the total agricultural program of the University,
the Agricultural Extension Service performs a vital function. Without the Agricultural
Extension Service results of research findings would lie dormant and ineffective. With
it farmers, homemakers, and forest operators are kept currently informed in the latest
scientific developments coming from the Agricultural Experiment Station and federal
and private agencies.
Today 64 of Florida's 67 counties have county agents and 47 have home demonstration
agents. Seventeen specialists serve as the link between county and home agents and
sources of research information. In 1949, 87,820 Florida families were served by some
phase of the Agricultural Extension program and in 1951 the number increased to 93,305.
Boys and girls enrolled in 4-H Club work increased from 26,095 to 28,695 in the same
These increased demands on the extension service reflects a rapidly growing State,
the rapidity with which new research discoveries are being made, and in increasing
number of requests for assistance on gardening and homemaking coming from urban
dwellers and people on retirement.
Increased demands on the Agricultural Extension Service have not been met with a
corresponding increase in personnel to handle the work. The result has been greater
efforts to supply information on problems of immediate concern at some expense to an
aggressive program in agriculture and home economics designed to meet problems of a
long term nature. There are serious gaps in the corps of extension specialists. These
gaps must be filled if Florida families are to receive maximum benefit from all that is
known about their agricultural and home economics problems.
Agricultural Experiment Stations-Research
Inasmuch as Florida's economy over the years has been largely dependant upon agri-
culture, vast segments of the Florida population are, of necessity, vitally interested in
the organized agricultural research programs conducted by the Agricultural Experiment
Stations. The effect of agricultural experimentation conducted by the University of
Florida has revolutionized Florida's economy and has greatly enhanced the wealth of the
State. It has placed the State in a most favorable position with respect to per capital
income among the states of the Union. Cash income to Florida farmers, citrus growers,
cattle owners, vegetable producers and allied interests amounted to less than $250,000,000
per annum two decades ago. Today income from these sources is about one-third of the
total income of the State, and has reached almost astronomical figures by comparison
with a decade or two decades ago, to-wit, $1,000,000,000.00 per annum.
The people of Florida will, therefore, be interested in a brief resume of some of the
newer developments of the Agricultural Experiment Station during the past two years.
Many problems have been investigated and are being investigated separately or coopera-
tively by the twelve departments of the Main Station at Gainesville, by the nine branch
stations in the several localities of the State, and by the five field laboratories of the
station's system. Two hundred thirty-seven active projects are now under consideration
At the main station in Gainesville, a dairy research unit has been completed except
for certain auxiliary buildings, and has been placed in full operation. A beef research
unit is being developed on a tract of 700 acres where most of the area was cleared, miles
of fences built, some necessary buildings constructed, and a herd of cattle acquired for
the research project. A new poultry unit, complete but for an office and classroom build-
ing, consisting of laying houses, skid houses, breeding houses, a laboratory building, and
a superintendent's cottage, has been established; a meats laboratory and a livestock
pavilion are nearing completion, including a tobacco-curing barn, and several small
greenhouses for plant virus research, were provided for the Veterinary Science, Agron-
omy, Plant Pathology, and other departments.
During the biennium, the Suwannee Valley Station at Live Oak was activated and
another unit, officially named the Indian River Field Laboratory, was established, to-
gether with buildings and equipment near Fort Pierce for research on citrus, vegetable
and field crop in that area. This laboratory is operated jointly by the Citrus Station for
citrus research, and the Everglades Station for vegetable and farm crop research.
Intensive frost and weather forecasting service was conducted in cooperation with
the United States Weather Bureau covering the whole of the Florida peninsula. In the
administration of the forecasting and temperature survey work, the peninsula is sub-
divided into ten field districts with a meteorologist in charge of each district under the
supervision of a central Lakeland office. These ten districts were equipped with a total
of 400 temperature survey stations, all in operation during the biennium, most of which
were equipped with thermometers and thermographs so that the duration of critical
temperatures could be measured.
Research on cost of producing citrus fruits, important vegetable crops and dairy
products was conducted in the Division of Agricultural Economics and findings of these
cost studies have been used extensively by growers in determining the most profitable
production practices. Cost data of producing dairy products is considered essential in
fixing the price of milk in the important cities of the State.
Among tests in the field of agronomy, the Early Runner peanut, a new variety devel-
oped from an artificial cross, was released to growers in 1951. It is twenty days earlier
than the common Florida Runner-an advantage for early feeding-and produces higher
yields and better quality of dug peanuts for market. Floranna clover was selected by
researchers of the department and released to certified seed growers in 1951. It is sig-
nificantly better adapted in Florida than any other variety of annual white sweet clover
for pastures on higher lands. Alfalfa hay production of three to five tons per acre has
been obtained with adequate liming and fertilization for four years.
Approximately 500 new forage crop introductions of grasses and legumes have been
received from the USDA each year, planted in the nursery, and growth and other charac-
ters recorded. A few of these appear promising.
In the field of animal husbandry and nutrition, considerable progress is reported.
More intensive research has been made possible by adding to the staff an animal breeding
and genetics specialist. This addition, together with the meats laboratory, livestock
pavilion, and a new beef research unit strengthens the department materially. Much of
the research in animal nutrition has attracted the interest of commercial firms, who are
cooperating through grants-in-aid or the donation of materials. These firms fully realized
the benefits which may accrue to them from new discoveries. The use of radioactive
isotopes to investigate the function of trace minerals in farm animal nutrition has brought
national and international recognition to the Nutrition Laboratory.
The Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Florida has been a leader
in the new and many developments which have occurred on the role of antibiotics in
animal feeding. Antibiotics are now used in swine, poultry, and calf feeds throughout
the world. The adoption of the use of antibiotics in animal feeds by most, if not all,
feed manufacturers are following very rapidly after the Florida Station showed their
beneficial role in swine feeding.
Studies have shown that antibiotics are needed throughout the growing-fattening
period of the pig. The Florida Station was the first to show that aureomycin would lower
the protein needs of the pig. The Florida Agricultural Experiment Station was the first
to show that the new vitamin B1s was of benefit to the pig. This vitamin is needed for
its rapid growth.
Research in dairy production has been expanded and now includes effects of aureomy-
cin on the growth of dairy calves when fed the antibiotic. Tests have been developed
for the detection of antibiotics in milk. Other studies have been continued, and one of
them expanded to include results obtained in artificial breeding. New and improved
insecticides are being made available to Florida agriculture through the Department of
Entomology, and effective methods of controlling pests have been effected. Tests on
flue-cured tobacco proved that TDE in the form of dusts, wettable powder and emulsion
sprays is extremely effective against hornworms and budworms. This insecticide is now
recommended as a standard control for these pests in Florida, as well as elsewhere in the
flue-cured tobacco belt.
Very significant advances were made in research investigations relating to the pro.
cessing by canning and/or freezing of vegetables and fruits. Black Valentine, Tender
Green, Top Crop and several numbered varieties of beans were found satisfactory for
processing by canning and/or freezing, as were several varieties of sweet corn, cauli-
flower, broccoli, and Korean peas. Smith's Perfect cantaloupe, with approximately 25%
syrup solution, made a good frozen product.
Many new varieties of fruits and vegetables have been introduced in various locations
of Florida. Breeding work was started with roses and hibiscus for better and hardier
materials for Florida. The Plant Pathology Department is continuously investigating
virus diseases which cause reductions in yields and are detrimental to Florida agriculture
In fine, the main station, all of the branch stations and field laboratories have made
significant contributions of inestimable value to Florida agriculture and to the State's
economy. Space permits only the barest mention of the accomplishments at each sub-
station in recent years.
At the Citrus Station, the introduction of concentrated sprays and the necessary work
with the industry to train operators in their use is deserving of mention. Work on
slow decline was greatly expanded and soil treatment with DD prior to replanting af-
fected areas has shown remarkable results. In cooperation with the Florida Citrus
Commission, a method of control in the marketing of fresh fruit was developed.
At the Central Florida Station at Sanford, a new cantaloupe is being developed and
studies on cotton varieties have indicated that Sea Island cotton can be grown successfully
in that area.
At the Everglades Station at Belle Glade, intensive investigations have been in
process in the breeding of both sweet and field corn, the culture of rice, and on fiber
crops. As heretofore indicated, the Indian River Field Laboratory at Fort Pierce was
established as a part of the Everglades Station program.
At the Gulf Coast Station at Bradenton, a new tomato hybrid is now ready for
release as a new variety.
At the North Florida Station in Quincy, the release of southland oats in 1950 was
instrumental in increasing production in Florida from 288,000 bushels in 1950 to 1,080,000
bushels in 1952. A new variety of cigar wrapper tobacco, having appreciable resistance
to root knot and certain leaf spots as well as to blackshank, was made available to a few
growers in 1952.
At the Range Cattle Station at Ona, Pangola has proved to be the most productive
improved grass grown on the sandy soils of central Florida. Yield of forage and cattle
gains are closely correlated with fertilizer rates and date of application. Pensacola Bahia
was found second to Pangola with wide adaptation and high grazing value.
At the Sub-Tropical Station at Homestead, field tests and extensive cooperative grower
trials of the Southern Tomato Exchange Program's number 89 led to release by USDA
of a wilt resistant variety tomato under the name HOMESTEAD. A practical method of
propagating sapodilla was developed and a superior variety of this fruit was released
under the name PROLIFIC. The Mysore raspberry was proved adapted to South
Florida. Nurseries have already sold hundreds of bushes. Hybrids of this purple fruited
raspberry x Latham, Sunrise and Taylor red raspberries have produced red fruits for
The Suwannee Valley Station at Live Oak was activated November 1, 1950, to investi-
gate some of the problems of agriculture in that section of Florida. The leading projects
outlined for study are on tobacco and pastures. Other subjects considered during the
year were swine, field crops, legumes, soil management, several horticultural crops and
other crops common to the section. All research was conducted cooperatively with
farmers on farms owned by them.
The West Central Florida Station at Brooksville has revised its cattle breeding re-
search program. In this program, herds of Angus, Hereford, Brahman, Santa Gertrudis
and Brahman-Angus will be used in an attempt to obtain information on the proportions
of European and Asiatic blood which are best suited for different conditions in the
At the West Florida Station at Jay, progress has been made in corn production and
pasture establishment, and at the Field Laboratories work continued on pecan investiga-
tion, potato investigation, strawberry, watermelon and grape investigations.
The foregoing constitutes only the briefest resume of the vast work of the Agricultural
Experiment Station. As one agricultural leader recently observed: "As goes the progress
of the agricultural program of the University, so goes the progress of Florida's agricul-
ture," while another declared at a public meeting that the "Agricultural divisions of
the University of Florida are the money-makers for all educational programs of the
The immensity of the contribution of the agricultural research staff of the University
of Florida over a period of years can better be realized when it is pointed out that the
total costs of higher education, i.e., the cost of building, operating and maintaining all
of the institutions of higher learning in the State and their respective plants, from the
date of their beginning to the present could be paid for from the increased yield in State
income during the past biennium over that of a similar two year period in the early
1920's and 1930's.
To put it another way, if the State had been deprived of the genius, the tireless efforts
and final accomplishments of the research staff of the University of Florida, its economy
would be hopelessly lagging today and it would be totally handicapped and without ade.
quate income and/or a supporting tax structure with which to operate its education and
eleemosynary institutions. The "money making divisions" of the University have there-
fore not only repaid a hundredfold every cent invested in them, but have furnished the
wherewithal to support the State's activities.
A particular service rendered by the Station during the biennium was the complete
revision of the Handbook of Pesticides and Their Uses in Florida's Agriculture. This
handbook, based on experimental tests conducted in Florida, is of inestimable value
in using, under Florida conditions, the large number of recently released pesticides.
It is because of the many intricate problems of agriculture and the widespread recog-
nition by producers and lawmakers that research can and will be of value and vital
assistance to agriculture that the work and productivity of the agricultural experiment
stations have increased year after year. Such research will not and must not become
static. It is one of the foundation stones upon which agriculture in Florida rests.
The College of Architecture and Allied Arts
The biennium has been among the most significant in the history of the College,
for mankind is turning to the arts for leadership in the compelling task of shaping a
decently humanized world.
The building industry, now largest in the nation, looks to the architectural profession
for leadership in new building types, new materials, and new systems of construction.
Last year, student enrollment in Architecture at Florida was the largest in the South and
sixth largest in the country. Programs of student organizations have been revitalized,
and such men as Frank Lloyd Wright, William Lescaze and George Nelson have served
as visiting lecturers.
The contributions of art to human welfare are becoming well understood. Last year,
course registrations in Art were the highest in the history of the Department. A notable
addition to the staff has been the appointment of Stuart R. Purser, head of the Depart-
ment. A program in Costume Design has been organized, and the new program of
graduate work is meeting a previously unfilled need in Florida. Visiting artists and
lecturers have included Lester Longman, Arthur Osver and Gyorgy Kepes.
Building in semi-tropical areas like Florida poses many unanswered problems. Fur-
thermore, Florida towns and cities need to find ways to eliminate ugliness and disorder
in their physical design in order that tourists may find them pleasing places in which to
live. Research in those fields would pay rich dividends.
A beginning has been made of a great University Center of the Arts, a place for
teaching and research, and where students, faculty and the general public can study
examples of the best contemporary work in the visual arts. During the biennium, 47
exhibitions and more than 50 films have been brought to the campus. The slide collection
numbers almost 10,000 slides, covering every field of visual design.
It should be pointed out that exhibition and work space for The Center is among
the most deficient in the nation.
The College occupies all or part of five different buildings. All of the space is make-
shift in character, and 80 per cent of it is in temporary wooden buildings. Facilities for
the study of architecture and the arts ought, in themselves to be an inspiration and a
means of instruction. Florida looks to the College for leadership in the task of shaping
human environment and enriching human life through the arts. The provision of ade-
quate physical facilities for the College, therefore, would pay rich dividends to every
person in Florida, and will be given special consideration in our requests for the bi-
College of Arts and Sciences
During the past two years, the College of Arts and Sciences has devoted considerable
time and energy to the task of evaluating its place and function in the overall educational
program of the University. An extensive revision of curricular offerings has resulted
from this study. The College has also restated its primary objectives in the field of
liberal education. A serious attempt has been made to modify the academic program
and procedure so that these objectives can be fulfilled effectively and efficiently.
As a result of these investigations, 129 courses were deleted from the College offerings,
78 new courses were introduced, 121 courses were renumbered, and new degree require-
ments consistent with the current philosophy of the College were adopted. I am pleased
to report that these changes have materially strengthened the academic program of the
College. The graduate program will be discussed in connection with the work of the
During the academic year 1950-51, 2,162 students were enrolled in the College. 1,236
of this group were undergraduates and 926 were graduate students. During the second
year of the biennium the student enrollment was 2,092. This drop of three per cent
appears to compare somewhat significantly with the national and University trend in
student enrollment. During 1951-52, 1,228 undergraduates and 864 graduate students en-
rolled in this College.
During the biennium, the faculty of the College recommended 955 for Baccalaureate
degrees. This represents an increase of 43 per cent over the number of similar degrees
recommended during the preceding biennium. During this same period, 181 Master of
Arts degrees, 80 Master of Science degrees, and 53 Doctor of Philosophy degrees were
awarded to students who had received their graduate instruction in this college.
There were 159 full time faculty members on the budget of the College during the
academic year 1950-51. During the second year of the biennium the staff was increased
Members of the faculty have published 29 books and 213 monographs, articles and
abstracts. This list of publications does not take into account the numerous papers and
research reports prepared by members of the staff for presentation before various pro-
fessional meetings. In addition to the publications and research papers mentioned above,
various members of this faculty supervised the preparation of 114 graduate theses.
Two faculty members were awarded honorary degrees. Foundation awards were
granted to five members of the College faculty. Members of the instructional staff are
serving in editorial capacities for 13 scholarly publications, and many are currently serv-
ing as officers in 12 national, regional, and State societies and associations.
Problems inherent in the training of secondary school teachers are of mutual concern
to colleges of education and colleges of liberal arts. Throughout the country several very
significant experiments have been undertaken which are designed to furnish pertinent
data regarding this function. The College of Arts and Sciences would welcome an op-
portunity to participate in this type of study and steps have been initiated toward this
The function of a liberal arts college on the campuses of large universities is, of
necessity, conditioned by its environment. Under such conditions, the college is quite
properly expected to concentrate on needed and desirable "service" functions. It is
difficult, if not impossible, for any college to develop a "pure" program of liberal arts.
Plans are now under consideration whereby the College of Arts and Sciences would be
authorized to formulate a proposal for the creation of a branch of the University of
Florida which would serve as an experimental college of liberal arts. Available data
indicate that an educational innovation of this sort could make an extremely worthwhile
contribution to the overall development of the State of Florida.
College of Business Administration
A comprehensive analysis and re-evaluation of course offerings and curriculum group-
ings, both on the undergraduate and graduate levels, has brought the course offerings
into line with present day needs and demands of business. The College has added one
new curriculum, Industrial Relations, divided the management curriculum into two
parts: Industrial Management for those interested in management problems in general
and Resort and Club Management for those interested in resort and private club man-
agement. New graduate offerings have already been referred to.
The Bureau of Economic and Business Research has continued to issue Economic
Leaflets, a monthly publication with over 2,500 names on its mailing list. On a contract
for the Federal Housing and Home Finance Agency, it completed a study of the Jackson-
ville mortgage market. On a contract for the Gainesville Chamber of Commerce, it com-
pleted and published "Gainesville Economic Survey." It has completed its study of
Florida Manufacturing started in 1949 from a grant of the General Education Board, and
has published three reports thereon. It is now engaged in a study of incomes, by
counties, a study of municipal finance (in cooperation with Public Administration Clear-
ing Service), a study of commodities manufactured in Florida with an estimation of
Florida's consumption of such commodities, and a study of Florida's commercial fisheries.
The Placement Service of the College has functioned effectively. It has prepared a
booklet to help students in seeking jobs, has developed a program for faculty evaluation
of graduating students, and is now serving alumni in job placement. The students in
the College have shown a high degree of interest in it and its activities. The student
organizations have formed a Business Administration Student Organizations Council,
which sponsors an annual "Business Day" and also publishes by and for the students a
paper called the "Bus Ader."
The annual Florida Southeastern Business Conference, sponsored jointly by this Col-
lege and the General Extension Division, has continued to attract to the campus each
year an imposing array of speakers and participants in a conference theme designed to
help business men understand better the conditions, both internal and external, which
will bear largely on the future of our expanding economy.
Of significant and paramount importance to the College was the recent Board action
providing for the erection of the first portion of a Business Administration Building.
Planned for an early start, this part of the building will permit the College to house its
staff and hold its classes under one roof for the first time. It is hoped that the next
biennium will see an appropriation to permit the building to be completed in its entirety.
The College of Business Administration celebrated its silver anniversary in February
1952 and received tributes from many business interests in the State including bankers,
real estate operators, managers of numerous industrial concerns, as well as a host of
Floridians engaged in accounting, economics, finance, and other types of business opera-
tions. A Council of Alumni and Advisors prominently identified with Florida business
affairs was named for the purpose of aiding and advising the College of Business Admin-
istration with respect to its future needs and growth.
College of Education
The peak registration in the College of Education for all times occurred in the spring
semester of 1951. There was a slight decline in the spring semester of 1952.
There is serious need for more qualified students to become teachers. If all the
graduates from the teacher education programs of all institutions within the State in 1952
accept teaching positions, Florida will still be short more than 1,000 teachers needed to
fill normal replacements. The shortage is very acute in the elementary schools.
Graduate work in education continues to increase ard has already been alluded to.
The percentage of members of the Education staff with doctor's degree has increased
from 48 to 60 per cent during the biennium. All staff members participate in a week
of intensive pre-planning prior to the opening of the fall semester. This has proved to
be a valuable experience.
Two cooperative research projects are under way: one relates to desirable methods of
integrating audio-visual education into a pre-service program of teacher education,
financed by Teaching Films Custodians of New York; the other is a study of the influ-
ence of the different types of educational leadership on the school programs, financed by
the Kellogg Foundation. The total of the grants which will be received for these two
projects is $68,400.00.
The College plays an important role in providing field services for the schools of the
State. However, lack of staff prevents it from meeting many of the demands for this
service. During the biennium, staff members responded to 408 requests within the State
for services such as high school evaluations, county surveys, talks, and consultant services;
and eighty-two requests for consultant services or participation in regional or national
programs of professional organizations. Moreover, they took part in sixty-five special
projects carried on within or without the State. All of these services are rendered in
addition to full teaching loads.
Extension class teaching is another type of field service provided. During the period
covered by this report, requests were received for 105 extension classes, but only 70 were
taught enrolling 1,581 teachers.
College of Engineering and Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
The College of Engineering continues to meet the current impact of the rise of tech.
nology. Its expanded facilities are being used by an efficient staff for research that has
been of value to the State and nation. -But research has been considered not as an end
in itself but as a vital part of our instructional program.
The students of the college have received many awards in regional and national compe-
titions. The Florida Engineer which they have published has brought much favorable
comment from engineering educators throughout the nation. It is believed that the
education which the Florida student receives comes not only from his formal classes, but
also through the intimate contacts which occur with a staff actively engaged in research
on Florida's problems. Such students receive inspiration which upon graduation evi-
dences itself in a desire to help build a greater Florida.
Employees who have interviewed students have commended our form of engineering
education-one in which the man receives not only a broad basic technical training but
also education in the principles of good citizenship.
Research by the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station has also been signifi-
cant. Work has been greatly facilitated during the past year as a result of the completion
of the first unit of the Engineering and Industries Building.
A large expansion of the research program resulted from the establishment of labora-
tories for research in the field of fluorine science and technology, for the study of radio-
active substances, for secret defense work on electro-chemical devices, and for research
activities in pulp and paper technology. Since these laboratories were established, the
Chemical Corps of the Federal Government has entered into a contract with the Uni-
versity for research on gaseous substances containing fluorine.
Laboratories for research in radioactive substances were also established in 1951, and
two projects in this field are now in operation sponsored by government agencies. The
objective of both projects is the prevention of tropical deterioration of materials.
Work done by the laboratory to demonstrate that scrub oak can be converted to pulps
suitable for making book and bond paper, rayon, cellophane and plastics, and a wood
substitute for boxes, has created a tremendous amount of interest, because scrub oak has
always been considered a worthless tree. The adoption by industry of the techniques
developed in the laboratory will make scrub oak a cash crop in Florida and in other
southern states where there are vast acreages of the tree.
The Southern Regional Education Board is now setting up a regional program of
training and research in the field of pulp and paper. Two institutions of higher learning
in the region have been recognized by the Board as members of the regional program
because of extensive work in pulp and paper that they are now doing. They are the
University of Florida, where emphasis is placed on graduate training and research, and
North Carolina State College, which has an undergraduate training program. Cooperation
between the member institutions and with other institutions in the region is expected to
result in the establishment of a few strong, well-equipped laboratories for training and
research in pulp and paper.
A new ceramic tile plant was put into operation in the central part of the State in
1950 as a direct result of the research being conducted by the ceramic section of the
Department of Chemical Engineering. Aid given by staff members in this area made
this plant possible.
In a cooperative program between the staff and the State Road Department, several
significant contributions were made. As a result of studies, a new paint specification for
bridges and other structures on the highway was developed and approved by the Road
Department. Present studies on pre-stressed bcrete are now making progress and the
result should be of value to the State Road Derartment during the coming biennium.
In the area of sanitary research, progress has reached the point where the Engineering
Division of the State Board of Health has changed its specifications in accordance with
the research findings of the Station. The result has been a saving to many communities
in the installation of new sewerage disposal systems. In addition, this program has at-
tracted financial support from the Winn-Lovett Foundation, one of the civic minded com-
mercial establishments of the State.
The storm location and storm protection work has continued as a service to all the
citizens of the State. The new storm protection laboratory has developed methods for
testing building components against high velocity winds and seepage of rain driven water
under storm conditions, while the radar storm tracking program has developed apace with
the installation of another radar unit at the Weather Station at Tampa.
While making contributions to aid industries, the basic research program has not
been overlooked. The studies on heat transfer in gasses to clouds of particles have at-
tracted rather wide attention and the results will be of eventual value to the development
of engines for high speed aircraft.
The research on space charge wave studies has given a better understanding of the
action of electrons in high vacuum tubes of special design. While the present program
is one of basic research in the study of the behavior of the electrons, the research will
eventually be translated into more power and better performance in radio, television
and other electronic devices.
The Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station is the research laboratory for
Florida industries. Cooperating with the teaching activities of the colleges, it is furnish-
ing engineers to the industry of the State and their leadership will pay great dividends in
School of Journalism:
Enrollment in the School increased 25 per cent last year but even then it was unable
to meet the growing demand for its graduates in Florida and neighboring states.
Following its accreditation in 1950, national recognition came through the adoption
by the Associated Press of its Style Book, and the selection of faculty members to four
national committees. Greater State recognition came in selection of the School for the
headquarters of the Florida Press Association. In addition, the school is completing a
readership and market survey for State and national distribution.
The School sponsored four high school conferences and participated in some 14 State
meetings and conventions. Advertising and Radio News Sequences were added and a
new faculty member assigned to head up the advertising program. The typography lab-
oratory was enlarged and a laboratory added for radio news and advertising.
College of Law
The pre-law academic training of students admitted to the College of Law has im-
proved very substantially during the biennium. It is interesting to note that 32.5 per cent
of the students entering in the preceding biennium had Baccalaureate degrees, whereas
53.5 per cent of the students entering during the past two years had such degrees. The
curriculum reorganization begun four years ago has been substantially completed, and
the revised and enriched curriculum will be announced for the 1953-54 academic year.
The biennium has been marked by an internal strengthening of the faculty, rather than
by an increase in size. Over 6,000 volumes have 'been added to the library, which now
totals 38,586 volumes. During the biensm, the College was host to the Sixth Annual
Law Review Conference and the Southern Regional Elimination Round of the National
Inter-Law School Moot Court Competition. One of the most important and gratifying
developments during the past two years has been the pronounced increase in faculty par-
ticipation in the legal activities of the State. Members of the faculty have spoken at
approximately sixty professional meetings and acted as advisors to many committees of
The Florida Bar.
Subsequent to the completion of the two new additions to the University Library, a
browsing room and divisional rooms in the humanities, the social sciences, and the
natural sciences were set up in 1950, in an attempt to overcome some of the barriers to
reading which are so common in large libraries. Something over 40,000 volumes and
1,004 current magazines have been placed in these rooms. Since September, 1951, stack
permits have been granted to undergraduate students as a means of facilitating their
work and conserving the time of staff members. Library reading rooms have been estab-
lished in the men's and women's dormitories and in the College of Health and Physical
Education. Circulation records indicate an increase in book use from 664,390 for the
biennium 1948-50 to 771,181 for the past two years.
In April 1951 the headquarters and library of the Florida Historical Society were
moved to the University and are now established on the fourth floor of the Library. The
rare volumes and manuscripts in this collection constitute a very important addition to
the University's materials on Florida's history..
Division of Music
The Division of Music was given authorization by the Board in March, 1952 to grant
a B.A. degree with a major in music in the College of Arts and Sciences. Registration
for such a comparatively new division of activity appears unbelievable. There were
2,901 registrations for credit, an increase of 1,187 over the previous biennium and a regis-
tration in ensemble music without credit of 1,343. Faculty research and creative pro-
duction has been significant with sixteen music manuscripts produced, four of which have
already been published, twenty-eight original arrangements for public concert, and ten
published magazine articles. There has been a marked increase by way of contribution
to the State's educational structure through in-service Clinic-Credit-Conferences courses
for public school music teachers, through the General Extension Division, in cooperation
with the Florida Music Educators Association. Campus and State service for advancement
of music included 541 faculty appearances as concert performers, lecturers, adjudicators,
and conductors; 490 student appearances in public performance; 97 Florida communities
thus served; 2,504,181 recorded public attendance.
College of Pharmacy
Increased enrollments on both the undergraduate and graduate levels placed the
College third in size as compared to seventy-four schools and colleges of pharmacy in the
nation. The reputation of the College of Pharmacy for its high standards has attracted
many men and women from other states and foreign countries, many of whom are pursu-
ing the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum although they hold degrees in other fields.
The number of degrees granted reached a new high, and the demand for graduates con-
tinued to exceed the supply.
Progress in the graduate program of this College is attested to by its increased enroll-
ment, now twenty-eight students. Fifteen annual grants-in-aid totaling about $25,000.00
were received from pharmaceutical firms, the U. S. Army, and the American
Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education. Including work in the Medicinal Plant
Garden, the research projects have covered a wide range of subjects of interest to the
people of Florida.
Appreciation of the service which the College of Pharmacy is rendering to the pharma-
cists of the State is evidenced by two $5,000.00 grants from the Florida State Board of
Pharmacy to aid the Bureau of Professional Relations and by the operation of two stu-
dent loan funds by the Ladies Auxiliary of the Florida State Pharmaceutical Association.
College of Physical Education and Health
Outstanding in the progress of the College of Physical Education and Health has
been the activation of a department for the training of physical therapists. Of consider-
able significance in this respect has been recognition of the University of Florida by sev-
enteen nationally known medical centers in accepting University of Florida students for
preparation in this work which is accepted as partial requirements for their degrees.
The Department of the Professional Curriculum has had a rapid rise in the demand
for graduate education so that since 1950, some 290 graduate students have received in-
struction. Undergraduate instruction was given to 4,523 students last biennium.
Noteworthy among the accomplishments of this department has been the fact that
since the year 1948, the enrollment of women in the elementary school training program
has increased from 28 to 58.
A complete revision of the Department of Student Health has been effected. Note-
worthy improvements have been (a) reorganization of the operating system, which elim-
inated the position of superintendent; (b) production of a Manual of Operating Pro-
cedures; (c) Expanded and detailed monthly reports to the President, the Board of
Control; and (d) addition of psychiatric and physical therapy services.
Evidence of results of the program of physical fitness and sports for men is indicated
by the fact that tests showed in 1950 some 70 per cent of students failed the physical fit-
ness test in September, while the end of the year showed less than 10 per cent failures.
The year 1951 found the physical fitness failures reduced to 8 per cent. While subjected
to less objective measurement, the program of sports education for women included area
of the dance, aquatics, personal grooming and hygiene that were so satisfactory that at-
tendance has consistently moved upward.
Intramural sports for men and women served approximately 75 per cent of all students
with a program of nineteen sports and twenty-three clubs and interest groups. In addi-
tion, some five hundred faculty and three hundred seventy-five faculty and employee
children have been provided a program of recreation.
The General Extension Division
As Florida grows and develops, the problems of her people change with the trends
and direction of progress. Citizens have discovered that the University can use its
specialized skills and resources to help them and they ask for that help in increasingly
To serve the public, the General Extension Division (I) conducts adult education
programs; (II) provides leadership training for high school youth; (III) extends Uni-
versity instruction for credit; and (IV) offers statewide visual, library, consultant services
and loan materials.
The University adult education programs are specifically designed to help Floridians
with their problems of the family and home; to enable them to meet new requirements
on their present jobs or to prepare for new positions; to help businessmen adapt them-
selves to new conditions and train their workers; to bring professional men up-to-date;
to aid voluntary organizations active in welfare; to assist civic groups in community
development; and to up-grade the employees of State agencies. Interested Floridians
are being informed concerning current economic, social, governmental, and international
problems, how these problems affect them, and what they can do about them. They are
given help in developing their talents, skills and appreciation in more worthwhile cul-
Through the youth programs, an effort is being made to provide activities in forensics,
drama, and scholarship which once involved all of the better schools of the State. To
train leaders in group activities, youth clinics have been held on student council, student
publications, discussion and parliamentary procedure, and outdoor education. All of this
work is being coordinated in a total, recognized University leadership program for high
In extending University instruction, the General Extension Division makes available
to the people of Florida certain University experiences and courses which can be con-
ducted successfully away from campus. This work is conducted through classes and
workshops and by correspondence study.
The General Extension Division of Florida established the Florida Film Library and
the State Extension Library more than thirty years ago. The loan materials, all of which
have been purchased with money collected as fees and service charges, now have a re-
placement value exceeding $140,000. The central location of the Division at Gainesville
enables citizens of every county of the State to receive materials with dispatch.
During the past biennium, the General Extension Division, using all facilities of the
University available to it, was able to give instruction to 41,922 Floridians. Of these
11,893 were registered in extension courses for University credit, 28,288 were enrolled in
short courses, seminars and institutes, and 1,741 were entered in extension activities for
high school youth. In addition, there were 159,872 participants in programs conducted
by organizations with the help of the General Extension Division. The Florida Film
Library of the Extension Division booked 50,961 units of visual aid materials, and the
State Extension Library had a circulation of 146,747 from its reference and children's
The construction of a General Extension Division building on the campus, especially
designed to house the departments of the Division and to accommodate its programs,
might be designated as the "Citizens' Center." Until such a building is available, it will
be impossible to meet the needs of adult Floridians who wish to come to the University
for information and instruction offered through the Division.
The Military Departments
The Army ROTC Department with its Professor of Military Science and Tactics and
the Air Force ROTC Department with its Professor of Air Science and Tactics collectively
are termed the Military Departments. Solely for University administrative purposes, the
President designates one of the professors as "Coordinator of Military Departments."
By the end of the biennium, all activities of the Military Departments had been con-
centrated into a single ROTC area. This concentration was made possible by the com-
pletion of a very fine three-story masonry building housing the offices of the two depart-
ments and providing a total of six classrooms. A portion of the old facilities was modi-
fied to provide excellent accommodations for the office of the University Military Property
Custodian and for the storage and issue of all military property under conditions afford.
ing maximum protection from loss by fire, hurricane, or theft. The overall facilities
provided the University of Florida ROTCs most probably excel those of any comparable
University in the South. At the beginning of the 1950-51 school year, the total enroll-
ment in the departments was 2,728; for 1951-52, the total enrollment was 3,061. Each
year the departments have markedly increased their enrollments; since 1948 the enroll-
ment has increased about one thousand.
The Army ROTC
The Army ROTC includes three units: Infantry, Field Artillery, and Transportation
Corps. In 1950-51 the total enrollment was 1,665. One hundred sixteen Advanced Course
Students received their commissions in the Army Reserve. Under the Distinguished
Military Graduate program, five cadets were preferred commissions in the Regular Army.
In 1951-52 the total enrollment was 1,466. One hundred sixty-one Advance Course stu-
dents received their commissions in the Army Reserve. Under the Distinguished Military
Graduate program, fourteen cadets were preferred commissions in the Regular Army.
Department of the Army Annual Formal Inspections and Technical Inspections have re-
sulted in most favorable reports of this Army ROTC. At the end of the period, fourteen
Army officers and seventeen noncommissioned officers were with the department.
The Air Force ROTC
The Air Force ROTC offered instruction in four options: Administration and Logis-
tics, Flight Operations, Air Installations, and General Technical. In 1950-51 the total
enrollment was 1,063. One hundred thirty-eight Advanced Course students received their
commissions in the Air Force Reserve and four were proffered commissions in the Reg-
ular Air Force. In 1951-52 the total enrollment was 1,595. One hundred fifteen Advanced
Course students were commissioned in the Air Force Reserve. Annual Inspection reports
have classified this ROTC unit as comparing most favorably with other Air Force ROTCs.
At the end of the period, sixteen Air Force officers and fifteen noncommissioned officers
were with the department.
The splendid program of Inter-collegiate Athletics under Coach Bob Woodruff dis-
closes that we have broken even on football games won and lost. Attendance jumped
from 211,123 in the 1950 season to 284,896 in the 1951 season. The new addition to the
Florida Field Stadium, costing $707,000, increased the seating capacity by 13,000 seats,
which enabled the University to handle the record crowds coming to Gainesville for the
several home games. During the 1950-51 season, we won eleven and lost twelve basket.
ball games, while in 1951-52, we won fifteen and lost nine. In the 1951 baseball season,
we won sixteen games and lost nine, whereas in 1952, we won twenty-one, lost two, and
tied two, emerging as the winner of the Southeastern Conference. In 1951-52, four track
meets were held and we lost none. During the 1950-51 swimming season, we won four
and lost five meets, and in the 1951-52 season, we won four and lost three. We rated
fourth place in the Southeastern Conference in the tennis tournaments in both the 1951
and 1952 seasons.
The Board of University Examiners
The Board of University Examiners reports that 328 progress tests were given and
comprehensive examinations were administered in the biennium to 128,639 individual
students. The Board continued its statewide service of conducting The Florida State-
wide Twelfth Grade Testing Program and the total number of white and negro schools
tested was 559 while the total number of Florida high school students tested was 32,386.
The Museum has been studied carefully during the past year by a strong faculty com-
mittee with a view to utilizing this magnificent unit with greater effectiveness, both for
instructional and exhibition purposes. Recommendations of the Committee are now in
process of being put into effect. A new director, chosen from the faculty of the Uni-
versity, has been selected and will undertake a reorganization of the museum in the fall.
Significant new acquisitions have been reported by Mr. Niles Schaffer, who has served
as Interim Director for several years, and who will now resume his former duties as
curator. During the biennium, accessions valued in excess of $25,000.00 were acquired
and approximately 63,000 persons visited the Museum.
Radio Station WRUF
WRUF, converted to a frequency modulated station in 1948 now operating programs
as WRUF and also WRUF-FM, continues the training of students for the radio industry.
It has not been possible for the station to supply the demand for young people who have
received their training and actual experience in the station laboratories.
Few units of the University can boast of richer accomplishments the past two years
than the University of Florida Press. Recognition of the excellence of the work of the
Press brought it into membership in 1950 of the Association of American University
Presses. Fifteen major books or publications have been brought out during the biennium
and the Press has been designated by the Library of Congress as publisher of Volumes
it through 17 of the Handbook of Latin American Studies.
The University of Florida is proud of the increased interest manifested in its activi-
ties by hosts of alumni throughout the State. The Division of Alumni Affairs reports
that there were 54 University of Florida local alumni clubs at the conclusion of the last
biennium and today we have a total of 63 clubs. All are on an active basis. The local
clubs have sponsored university programs including appearances by faculty and staff
members before civic groups, high school audiences, and alumni groups, and have pre-
sented interesting programs pertaining to the University of Florida over local radio sta-
The Division of Alumni Affairs has continued to publish four issues of the Florida
Alumnus Magazine. Over 93,000 of this publication have been sent to alumni during
the past two years. In addition, the friends of the University financed the publication
at the Division and distributed many thousands of copies of a series of brochures entitled
The University of Florida Looks to the Future.
An up to date filing system has been put into effect which now carries the correct
addresses of 19,000 alumni. Active membership in the Alumni Association has reached
a 33% average, comparing favorably with averages at similar institutions of higher learn-
ing in the country.
During the spring of 1952, Mr. D. R. (Billy) Matthews, who has served so capably
as the Director of Alumni Affairs, resigned in order to announce his candidacy for the
Democratic nomination as a representative of Congress from the 8th Congressional Dis-
trict of Florida. After consultation with leading alumni of the State, it was unanimously
felt that Mr. Leland W. Hiatt, a prominent alumnus then serving as the Superintendent,
Apalache Correctional Institution, would be the most suitable successor to Mr. Matthews.
Accordingly, Mr. Hiatt was approached and tendered the offer jointly by the Alumni
Association and the Board of Control.
Mr. Hiatt attended the University of Florida and Colorado A. & M. College. He has
served as a past president of the Alumni Association and has become well and favorably
known throughout the State because of outstanding service rendered as State Welfare
Commissioner and Superintendent of the Correctional Institution.
Alumni of the University continued to assume important roles in every area of State
activity. We are again honored to have an alumnus of the University named for the
high office of Governor of the Commonwealth. The Honorable Dan McCarty of Fort
Pierce received the Democratic nomination in the primaries of June, 1952, which nom-
ination is tantamount to election in Florida. He will succeed another Florida alumnus,
Fuller Warren, to the governorship. Dan was awarded the Bachelor of Science degree
in Agriculture in 1934. His brothers, Brian and John, are also alumni of the University,
the latter having served as president of the student body.
D. R. (Billy) Matthews will take his place in the new Congress in January, 1953,
having been designated congressmen-elect in the recent June Democratic primaries. The
Board and the public generally will be interested in perusing a list of Florida Alumni
who are public officials, appended hereto as "Exhibit 3."
The decline in the proportion of veterans in the student body during the biennium
has resulted in a transition of student life toward a pattern more typical of the prewar
years. Students of typical college age are rapidly assuming important positions of
leadership in the student body. This trend will continue although a few veterans from
the Korean War should soon begin study at the University.
This biennium has seen increasing calls upon members of the student body for service
in the Armed Forces. Practically all of our men face a call to service. They are, how-
ever, very uncertain as to when they shall be called. It is our feeling that the uncertainty
of calls to military service has been reflected in changed student morale and attitudes.
These forces will continue to affect college youth in the following ways:
There will be increased pressure on men students to achieve scholastic success in
order to have their Selective Service deferments continued. In instances where men
have low scholastic aptitude, or are otherwise unable to succeed, this is likely to produce
negative reactions toward fellow students and toward the University. There is evidence
that during the 1950-52 biennium this particular pressure has resulted in considerable
negative response from the students.
For many college youth, choices such as early marriage versus prolonged postpone-
ment until after military service will continue to create serious personal problems. Unless
satisfactorily resolved, these uncertainties will result in lowered student morale. The
University can help with these problems by making available advice and counsel from
experienced staff members. To do this will involve greater effort and expense than has
hitherto been available.
In order to meet the needs of the student body for help with their personal, social,
educational and vocational problems, the following developments have occurred in the
Student Personnel program during the biennium:
Coordination and cooperation among faculty and staff groups who work closely with
students has increased. This has resulted in better services to students. An effort has
been made to acquaint members of the faculty and staff with the services which are avail-
able for students on campus and there is an increasing trend for our staff to utilize the
specialists who are available.
Academic advisement services have improved and increased. In some colleges, marked
increases in faculty time available for advisement have occurred. There has been an
increase in emphasis placed upon student advisement throughout the University.
The residence halls personnel program has increased in effectiveness during the bien-
nium. Favorable results are already evident. In units where adequate personnel staff
has been available, there have been considerably fewer student problems in evidence.
Inevitably major difficulties have arisen out of housing units where trained staff is not
available and where student morale and conduct are dependent entirely upon the feeling
of individual students.
The social and recreational program has increased in scope. A more diversified pro-
gram has been developed for all students.
The clinical services of the University have been coordinated in a Center. Quality
and quantity of these services have improved although many students were necessarily
denied these services because of inadequate staff available.
Plans were completed for the employment of a University psychiatrist whose primary
responsibility will be in the Student Health Service, but who will work cooperatively
with the other clinical services.
Coeducation has largely become a fact at the University of Florida during this bi-
ennium. Women students have entered all aspects of academic and student life. They
are represented in all of the colleges of the University and have organized a Women
Students' Association, two honor societies, and an inter-sorority council.
The program of counseling of women students has been strengthened by the em-
ployment of an Assistant Dean of Women.
Approximately 3,960 students were given financial aid during the biennium amount-
ing to $195,833.
Scholarships were awarded to 2,313 students totalling $647,466.
New scholarship funds became available amounting to $286,408. (See tabulation
Many worthy students were enabled to continue their education by accepting part-
time employment. It will be seen from the following figures that a major portion of
our students engage in some type of self-help:
No. of students interviewed for jobs _
No. of students on work scholarships
A. Athletic --------- 83
B. Cafeteria ..------.. --- 790
No. of students employed as student assistants
Much time and attention has been given by the President to student relationships.
For the most part, these have been constructive and wholesome. Certain incidents
have marred a record of perfect concord but these have proved beneficial, we hope,
for both the student body and the administration. They have tended to bring the
President and the student leaders into closer contact and association, and augur for
improved relationships in the future.
LIST OF NEW SCHOLARSHIPS
American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers -
Architecture and Building Construction --- -- -----
State Forest Rangers School -
William H. Bridges Fellowship in Pulp and Paper Research
California Veterans Institute
Florida Farm Bureau .....- -----
Florida Gladiola Growers Association
Gulf Life Insurance Company .. .. -----
Jacksonville Claim Men's Association
John H. Perry .....................-----
Property and Casualty Insurance Short Course -- .----
Riverside Lions Club ......---_- ..- -
John Parker Welch Scholarship .--- ---
Maude K. Towson ..... ---.--- --- ----
Buckner Scholarship ----------.... .
Idella M. Williams ------------------
H. A. Wyckoff --.....--------. -- -------------........ ..... -..
Clinton Foods, Inc. ----- --- --------
W. R. and R. 0. Crabtree --------- ------ ..--- .
Dad's Club of Ft. Lauderdale ---- --- -.... ... ---900.00
Pauline Dillenback --- ---..... .----- .- ---------- 500.00
Senate Bill 944-Racing Fund ----- ----..---- -- ---- ............. 268,682.00
TOTAL ------.------------- ... $286,407.00
Institute of Gerontology
Florida is a state where many people come to live after they retire. Sociologists
at the University, familiar with migrations, pointed out that preliminary studies indi-
cated the entire Gulf and South Atlantic coastal regions are on the receiving end of
a heavy and rapidly swelling current of immigration of elderly persons; furthermore,
that Florida seems to be getting the lion's share of such migrations. They cautioned
that the problems of this group of citizens are problems which are important not
only to themselves but to all the people of the State of Florida. Accordingly, the
University administration took cognizance of the matter, and more than two years
ago instituted a serious study under the leadership of Dr. John S. Allen, Vice President,
and several outstanding members of the faculty familiar with sociological and economic
aspects of aging populations. The findings of this committee led to recommendations
for the establishment of an Institute of Gerontology which was realized by the Board
of Control's approval on April 17, 1951. Dr. Allen was named director of the new
Institute. Announcement of the creation of this new unit met with almost instant and
widespread public interest both within and outside the State, especially in those areas
having large migrations of aged persons. Substantial financial assistance from non-
state agencies made possible the First Southern Conference on Gerontology, which was
held on the Campus of the University in March, 1951. This Conference and Proceed-
ings, subsequently published, aroused widespread national interest, creating a large
demand for detailed information respecting the work of the Institute and copies of
the Conference Proceedings.
Research in many of the University departments has continued at an accelerated
pace on many vitally important phases such as the nutritional needs of aged persons;
housing for retired persons; the compilation of migration statistics involving age,
sex, social composition, and areas of settlement of the migrants; social and economic
patterns of retirement towns; to what extent Florida communities have become aware
of community programs and civic activities designed to meet the special needs of re-
tired persons who settle in Florida; income maintenance after retirement; and others.
The success of the First Conference led to a second, and a third is scheduled for
the beginning of 1953. Outstanding speakers and experts on Gerontology from the
United States and abroad have accepted program assignments in these conferences,
bringing a wealth of information of immeasurable help to the Institute and to re-
sponsible authorities in the State. Florida organizations continue to support the
Conferences with substantial financial assistance. It is clear that the coming of these
aged persons to the State may mean much to the commonwealth and be advantageous
to the nation as a whole, but their presence in great numbers in a limited area may also
give rise to not a few serious problems. For this reason it seemed prudent for Florida
and her neighboring states to have available a rich store of tested information for
guidance in formulating policies and programs that may be put into effect. This scientific
approach we hope will make the programs as realistic and beneficial as possible.
In addition to the very substantial gifts and grants for research and training programs
at the University, a number of significant cultural gifts were received which have
more than monetary value. They include:
A collection of paintings by the Scotch artist, Tom Currie-Bell, presented by his
widow and valued at $12,000.00.
The congressional papers of Honorable J. Hardin Peterson, distinguished alumnus
of the University.
A collection of valuable books from the library of the late U. S. Senator Duncan
U. Fletcher, presented by his daughters, Mrs. Thomas J. Kemp and Mrs. Nelle Smith
Gordon, and by his nieces, Mrs. E. G. Baxter and Mrs. Fred Yerkes.
A collection of 1,000 books presented by Dr. Arthur B. Moelman.
The gift of several lots in Gainesville by Senator and Mrs. W. A. Shands.
A gift of a bronze plaque by the Senior Class of 1951 for the entrance gates of the
Papers of Judge Nathan Philemon Bryan, First Chairman of the Board of Control
as a gift from his widow, Mrs. Julia S. Bryan of Jacksonville.
A collection of 552 volumes from the library of the late Dr. J. N. Anderson, Dean
of the Graduate School, as a gift from his widow, Mrs. J. N. Anderson.
A cash gift of $100.00 from the Florida State Federation of B'Nai B'rith to the
Library for the purchase of books for the Judaica Collection.
Two cash contributions of $1,000.00 each from Honorable Walter B. Fraser of St.
Augustine for publications in the field of Latin American areas.
Two contributions of $1,000.00 and $500.00 respectively from Mr. F. B. Adams of
New York for publication of unique volumes relating to Florida's history.
A contribution of $2,500.00 to the University Press from the Chase Investment Com-
pany of Sanford.
A collection of valuable journals for the Architectural Library as a gift from
Mr. Mellen C. Greeley of Jacksonville.
A gift of $1,000.00 from a former alumnus, Mr. Cecil Hastings, Jr. of Santa Monica,
California, for the purchase of needed equipment for the Department of Mathematics.
A presentation of 2,000 Bibles by The Gideons International to the University.
Honorary Degrees Conferred
During the biennium the University conferred honorary degrees upon three dis-
tinguished men prominent in the business life of the nation, as follows:
James C. Downs, Jr., of Chicago, Illinois, DCS, February 2, 1952. Mr. Downs is a
banker, author, lecturer, and real estate economist. At the time the degree was con-
ferred, he was senior partner of Downs, Hohl and Company of Chicago, Illinois.
S. Kendrick Guernsey of Jacksonville, Florida, DCS, February 2, 1952. Mr. Guernsey
is a leader in business and former International President of Rotary. At the time the
degree was conferred, he had been Vice President of Gulf Life Insurance Company
for over twenty years.
Thomas J. Watson of New York, New York, LLD, February 2, 1952. Mr. Watson
is a business executive and an industrial leader. From 1919 to 1951, he was President
of International Business Machines Corporation. At the time the degree was con-
ferred, he was Chairman of the Board of Directors of that Corpdration.
Extra Curricular Activities of the President
The President of the University of Florida made 56 local addresses to campus or
city groups during the biennium, including national associations or conferences coming
to Gainesville, alumni, faculty, fraternal and student groups. He made 31 addresses
within the State and 6 major addresses in various parts of the nation. Invitations
representing more than twice the total of these speaking engagements, were declined.
He has, therefore, had an opportunity to inform large segments of the citizenship of
the State and educational groups in the Nation about the program of the University.
A dozen articles were published in magazines or educational journals during the
The President served as Chairman of the March of Dimes Campaign for the State
of Florida during both the 1950 and 1951 campaigns.
He has accepted membership on the following national or regional boards and
committees and/or commissions:
Member, Committee on Religion and Public Education, American Council on Educa.
Director and Chairman, Jacksonville, Branch, Federal Reserve Board of Atlanta.
Member, Board of Trustees, Institute of International Education.
Member, Commission on Development of Graduate Studies, Southern Regional Board
Member, Committee for Cooperation in Higher Education, Southern University Con-
Member, Radio Committee, National Association of State Universities.
Member, Executive Committee, National Commission on Accrediting.
Member, Executive Committee and Vice President, Southeastern Conference.
Member, Planning and Policies Committee, American Council on Education.
Chairman, Executive Committee, National Selection Committee for the Institute of
Member, National Committee on Faculty Fellowships for the Fund for the Ad-
vancement of Education (Ford Foundation).
Honors conferred during the biennium included the conferring of the honorary degree,
Doctor of Science, by the University of Tampa, and the L.L.D. by the University of
Faculty and Staff
As we bring this resume of the biennial activities of the University of Florida to a
close, we would be remiss if we failed to acknowledge a deep sense of appreciation to
the splendid men and women of the staff for their diligence, loyalty, and indefatigable
efforts. The record of achievements, which the reports in their entirety reveal more
conclusively than is possible in this brief review, speaks eloquently in their behalf.
Several of the best beloved members of the staff have been removed from our ranks
by death, others by retirement. We should like to acknowledge our debt of gratitude
to them, whose names appear on the list appended hereto as "Exhibit 4."
This report brings to a conclusion not only the activities of the University of Florida
for a two-year period encompassed by the dates beginning July 1, 1950 and ending June
30, 1952, but also those of a century. I am sure no person now living could possibly
have visualized the extraordinary growth of the State or the processes of higher educa-
tion within the State, when it was determined to establish the East Florida Seminary,
the earliest antecedent of the present University of Florida, at Ocala in the year
1853. Within less than a decade after the East Florida Seminary came into being, the
Morrill Act was passed by the United States Congress, creating land-grant colleges by
"donating public lands to several states and territories which may provide colleges
for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts." Eight years after the passage
of this act, the second important and component part of what now constitutes the great
agricultural activities of the University of Florida came into existence through the
establishment of the Florida Agricultural College in 1870. Another thirteen years went
by before the Florida Agricultural College was finally located and commenced
operation at Lake City, Florida. The Buckman Act of 1905 consolidated the East
Florida Seminary (which had been transferred from Ocala to Gainesville in 1866) with
the Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, and transferred the activities of these
combined institutions to Gainesville. At that time, the University of Florida became
a combined State university and land-grant college, for men students, and for women
in certain professional and graduate fields. Thereafter, no significant change in the
organization occurred until the institution was made coeducational by an act of the
Florida Legislature in 1947.
The University now has a plant investment of $30,000,000.00.
Its average post-war enrollment has been approximately ten thousand. No other
agency has contributed so largely to the upbuilding of the State, of which it is a part,
than the University of Florida.
Preparations have been underway for the past two years to celebrate in an appro-
priate fashion the University's Centennial. A history of the institution is being writ-
ten to record the dramatic growth of this great institution.
We are now entering upon not only a new biennium but a new century. Although
the attainments have been extraordinary to date, they are but a part of what might have
been accomplished had the institution enjoyed through the years more generous sup-
port from the State. If there is an awareness on the part of the people that their own
well-being and happiness are largely dependent upon the progress of the University
of Florida, it is safe to predict that the development of the State, at the end of another
century, will be infinitely greater by comparison than it is today.
BUILDINGS AND IMPROVEMENTS AUTHORIZED DURING THE PERIOD
JULY 1. 1950 TO JUNE 30. 1952
Name of Project 'or Expended
R. 0. T. C. Building .................................... ...............................---.....--. 209,688.11
W ater Tower ................... ... ................... ..........................................-- 130,000.00
Meat Products Lab. (Univ. Portion) .................................................... ................. 20,341.00
Fraternity Row ........ ..................... ....................................... .......... ........... ...--- ..- 65,155.93
Drainage System .....................................- ...... .... ............----- ---......- -- 47,700.81
Renovation Anderson, Bldg. D and E .................................... ................... 19,486.26
Extension of Utilities South of Stadium Road .............-.............. ................. 24,623.03
Rehabilitation Temporary Dorms .................................................. ................. 15,000.00
Conversion Building R and curtains for P. K. Yonge ........................................... 5,340.49
Air conditioning P.K. Yonge Cafeteria .................... ...... ....................... 10,000.00
Lab. for Agronomy Dept. (Univ. Portion) ............. .................................. 4,000.00
I. B. M clock system ............................................ ...................... .. ... ................ 6,000.00
Garage and Lum ber Shed .................................. ........................ ....... .................. 15,552.85
Renovation Science Hall -----......--....---..... ..---......------- ...-- --------.....--- 125,000.00
Special drilling equipment ........- ............ .. ....... ...............- ...... .............. 5,000.00
Official Residence and Reception Center -......................... ............................. .. 125,000.00
Radar- Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station ........................................ 20,000.00
Soda Fountain- Tolbert Hall ............................................................. ................. 1 21,542.62
Rehabilitation Grove Hall ...................... ................... ..... .......................... 2,900.00
Repainting interior of Grove Hall ............................................... ... .................... 5,200.00
1952 Student Hall construction ...................... ......... ......-- ................ ---....- 2,106,000.00 *
Grove Hall Sprinkler System ........................... ..... ......... ................................ 7,100.00
Rehabilitation Dorm I ........................................ ...... .... .................... ......... 814.12
Air conditioning P.K. Yonge Library ......................................... ........................ 7,500.00
Additional facilities and equipment Student Service Building ................................ 100,000.00**
* Revenue in the amount of $1,998,000.00 obtained from the sale of revenue certificates.
**This amount obtained from the operation of the University auxiliary activities.
BUILDINGS ERECTED AT UNIV. OF FLA., AGRICULTURAL EXP. STA. SINCE JULY 1, 1948
Date Author- Year
NAME OF BUILDING LOCATION ized or Con- Corn- COST Source of Funds
Plant Virus Greenhouse # 3 ....................................Main Station Farm
Plant Virus Greenhouse #4 ....................................Main Station Farm
New Poultry Unit ................................................. Main Station Farm
Tobacco Barn #2 ..................... ..............................Main Station Farm
Plant Virus Laboratory ..........................-.............Main Station Farm
2 Plant Virus Greenhouses ....................................Main Station Farm
Isolation Barn ............................... -------............. Main Station Farm
Feed Storage Barn ............................................... Beef Research Unit
Main Station Greenhouse .....................................Main Station Campus
Vegetable Products Laboratory ............................ Main Station Campus
Hay Dry Barn ....................................................... Main Station Farm
Newell Annex .........................................................Main Station Campus
Residence ...................... .... ...... ........... ............Hague Dairy Unit
S3 Cattle Feeding Sheds ...-..............-..................Hague Dairy Unit
Residence .................................... .... ................ Hague Dairy Unit
Residence ................................... ... ................ Hague Dairy Unit
Dairy Lab. and Barn ..............................................Hague Dairy Unit
Parasite Barn .................................---.............. Archer Road
Calf Barn ................................. ......------------ Hague Dairy Unit
Machinery and Feed Storage Shed ........................Beef Research Unit
Meats Laboratory ...............................................Main Station Farm
Livestock Barn and Judging Lab. ........................Main Station Farm
Residence .................................................................Beef Research Unit
Central Florida Experiment Station-Sanford
Greenhouse and Headhouse ....................................Sanford, Florida
State appn.-Res. release
Federal Res. and Mktg. Funds
Federal Res. and Mktg. Funds
State appn.-Special release
Special State-Develop. Beef Unit
State Bldg. Fund
State Bldg. Fund
Grant, General Education Bd.
State Bldg. Fund
State Bldg. Fund
State Bldg. Fund
State Bldg. Fund
State Bldg. Fund
State appn.-Special release
Funds transferred from Fla. State
4/49 1949 1,800.00 Spec. State Appn. Develop. New
Beef Research Unit
9/51 1952 27,100.00 $6,000 paid by Station (Appn. Res.
Release) from State-Rest by Uni-
6/5/51 1952 145,235.59 State Appn.-Res. release
4/17/51 1952 12,500.00 State Expense
11/16/51 1952 1,706.00 Incidental
NAME OF BUILDING LOCATION
Citrus Experiment Station-Lake Alfred
Shop and Laboratory ........... ....... ..................Lake Alfred, Florida
Implement Shed and Plant Shelter ......................Lake Alfred, Florida
Everglades Experiment Station-Belle Glade
Office and Laboratory ................. ....................Belle Glade, Florida
Pump House ...........................................Belle Glade, Florida
Headhouse ..................... ..........................Belle Glade, Florida
3 Greenhouses ........................................... Belle Glade, Florida
Gulf Coast Experiment Station-Bradenton
Storage and Implement Shop .............................Bradenton, Florida
Laboratory ............................... ........ ..... .. Bradenton, Florida
Greenhouse .................... .........- .......--- ....- Bradenton, Florida
0' North Florida Experiment Station-Quincy
Dwellings ..............................................Quincy, Florida
Office and Laboratory Bldg ................................... Quincy, Florida
Range Cattle Experiment Station-Ona
Office and Laboratory .......................................Ona, Florida
Feed Room and Pens .................. ...................Ona, Florida
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station-Homestead
Insectary ................. .......... ......- -....... Homestead, Florida
West Florida Experiment Station-Jay
Storage Building ..............................................Jay, Florida
Storage Building .......................... ............Jay, Florida
Potato Investigations Laboratory-Hastings
Addition to Machine Shed ......................................Hastings, Florida
Mobile Unit-Marianna Marianna, Florida
Date Author- Year
ized or Con- Com- COST Source of Funds
State Bldg. Fund
State Bldg. Fund
State Bldg. Fund
LAND ACQUIRED DURING THE BIENNIUM 1950-1952
Description Location Date Acreage Value
Experimental Timber Tract ................................Alachua County 1951 22.4 $ 265.00
Residential Property .........................................Gainesville 1950 0.3 3,500.00
(Indian River Field Laboratory) ...................St. Lucie County 1950 400.0 8,000.00
(Indian River Field Laboratory) ....................St. Lucie County 1951 320.00 12,800.00
(Citrus Experiment Station) .--.........................Polk County 1952 1.5 80.00
(Devil's Millhopper) .......................................Alachua County 1952 48.5 5,000.00
Arboretum (NW 23rd Road) ................................Gainesville 1950 2.1 2,500.00
Medical Center Site
(adjacent to campus) ........................................ Gainesville 1951 15.0 22,500.00
(adjacent to campus) ....................................... Gainesville 1951 .3 3,000.00
Experiment Station ..............................................Hardee County 1952 20.0 660.00
Total 830.1 $58,305.00
A use permit was also granted to the University of Florida by
April 15. 1952, for Sea Horse Key.
the Federal Government on
ON RESEARCH CONTRACTS & GRANTS
Government Other Total
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station ...........
Agricultural Experiment Station .............-...-............
Physics Departm ent .................... ... ................
Cancer Research Laboratory .............. ................
Pharm acy College .................--- ....-..-..--....--
Chemistry Department ... ........... .......... .. .. .......
M medical School ...-.........- .... ........... ------
Mathematics Department ................-...... ......
Biology Departm ent ................. .............. .....-...... .......
Bureau of Economic and Business Research .....-.........
College of Education ... .....................- ... .... .
M miscellaneous ...........- .......- ------ -.............
ON RESEARCH CONTRACTS & GRANTS
Government Other Total
Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station .......... 447,456 63,480 510,936
Agricultural Experiment Station .................................... 26,500 43,084 69,584
Physics Department ..................... ...---......-....--- ........... 98,607 98,607
Cancer Research Laboratory ................. ....................... 39,900 10,000 49,900
Pharmacy College .................... .................... .. ............ 5,200 3,600 8,800
Chemistry Department .......... ............... .................. 46,000 46,000
Totals 663,663 120,164 783,827
FLORIDA ALUMNI WHO ARE PUBLIC OFFICIALS
Fuller Warren, Governor (term expires Jan. 1, 1953) Tallahassee, A&S, 1928
Dan McCarty, Governor-elect (takes office Jan. 1, 1953) Ft. Pierce, BSA, 1934
J. Ed Larson, Treasurer, Tallahassee, LLB, 1933
Richard W. Ervin, Jr., Attorney General, Tallahassee, LLB, 1928
Robert A. Gray, Secretary of State, Tallahassee, Journalism, 1903
Thomas D. Bailey, Superintendent of Public Instruction, MAE, 1939
Alfred A. McKethan, Chairman of State Road Dept., Tallahassee, BSBA, 1931
James T. Landon, Hotel Commissioner, Tallahassee, BSBA, 1935
Arch Livingston, Motor Vehicle Commissioner, Tallahassee, A&S, 1927
SUPREME COURT JUSTICES
H. L. (Tom) Sebring, Tallahassee, LLB, 1928
B. K. Roberts, Tallahassee, LLB, 1928
U. S. Senators
Spessard L. Holland, Bartow, LLB, 1916
George Smathers, Miami, LLB, 1938
U. S. Representatives
A. S. Herlong, Jr., Leesburg, LLB, 1930
Charles Bennett, Jacksonville, AB & JD, 1934
Chester B. McMullen, Clearwater, LLB, 1924 (Retiring Jan. 1, 1953) Mr. McMullen
is being replaced by Courtney Camp-
bell who is not an alumnus of the
U. of F.
William Lantaff, Miami, LLB, 1936
D. R. "Billy" Matthews, Congressmen-elect, Gainesville, BA 1929 and MA 1948
JUDGES OF THE CIRCUIT COURT
Duval Circuit Edwin Ladd Jones, 1354 San Mateo Ave., Jacksonville, LLB, 1933
5th Circuit F. R. Hocker, Ocala, LLB, 1913
6th Circuit John Dickinson, 2555 Third Ave., St. Petersburg, LLB, 1926
6th Circuit Orville L. Dayton, Jr., Dade City, LLB, 1932
8th Circuit John A. H. Murphree, Gainesville, LLB, 1928
9th Circuit Terry B. Patterson, Court House, Orlando, LLB, 1936
llth Circuit William A. Herin, 219 N.E. 20th St., Miami, LLB, 1933
12th Circuit Francis Lynn Gerald, Court House, Ft. Myers, LLB, 1935
12th Circuit W. T. Harrison, Bradenton, LLB, 1912
13th Circuit I. C. Spoto, 2914 Aquila St., Tampa, LLB, 1928
14th Circuit E. Clay Lewis, 385 Bunkers Cove Road, Panama City, LLB, 1929
15th Circuit George W. Tedder, Jr., Blount Building, Ft. Lauderdale, LLB, 1948
15th Circuit Joseph S. White, Box 46, West Palm Beach, LLB, 1923
16th Circuit Aquilino Lopez, Jr., 1426 Reynolds, Key West, LLB, 1933
MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE 1953
Philip D. Beall, Florida National Bank Building, Pensacola, LLB, 1937
C. H. Bourke Floyd, Apalachicola, AB, 1930
Dewey M. Johnson, Quincy, LLB, 1930
Harry E. King, Beymer Building, Winter Haven, Law 23-25
James E. (Nick) Connor, Inverness, Ed. 22-24
W. T. Davis, Madison, LLB, 1924
Evans Crary, Stuart, LLB, 1927
C. LeRoy Adams, Live Oak, A&S, 29-31, deceased. (Dr. Adams was shot and killed by
Ruby McCullom, negress, on
Wayne E. Ripley, 1016 Lynch Building, Jacksonville, LLB, 1929
J. B. Rodgers, Jr., P. O. Box 417, Winter Garden, LLB, 1939
S. D. Clarke, Monticello, East Florida Seminary
James A. Franklin, P. O. Box 1111, Ft. Myers, LLB, 1921
Doyle E. Carlton, Jr., Wauchula, GC, 1943
E. William Gautier, 1200 Magnolia St., New Smyrna Beach, LLB, 1933
George W. Leaird, 210 Blount Building, Ft. Lauderdale, LLB, 1935
Verle A. Pope, P. O. Box 519, St. Augustine, A&S, 24-25
W. A. Shands, 207 N. E. 9th Ave., Gainesville, Law 1906-10 and 1926-28
George C. Dayton, P. O. Box 244, Dade City, LLB, 1933
House of Representatives
Ralph D. Turlington, 1904 N. W. 13th St., Gainesville, BSBA, 1942
J. Emory (Red) Cross, P. O. Box 411, Gainesville, BSBA & LLB, 1945
John J. Crews, P. O. Box 264, Macclenny, LLB, 1949
J. Ed Stokes, 200 Harrison Ave., Panama City, Law 15-16
Doyle E. Conner, Starke, BSA, 1952
John S. Burwell, 720 S.W. 12th Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, Ed. 1925
Thomas E. (Ted) David, 2206 Funston St., Hollywood, BA 1942
Marion B. Knight, Blountstown, Law 20-21
George S. Okell, 902 Biscayne Bldg., Miami, Law, 1930
Wm. Lacy Mahon, Jr., 702 Graham Bldg., Jacksonville, LLB, 1949
Robert L. Floyd, 607 Biscayne Blvd., Miami, UC 1936-37
Cecil G. Costin, Jr., Port St. Joe, LLB, 1948
J. W. McAlpin, White Springs, Ag. 1919-20
James S. Moody, Plant City, BSBA & LLB, 1939
Thomas Johnson, 310 Tampa St., Tampa, LLB, 1948
Sam M. Gibbons, 918 First National Bank Bldg., Tampa, LLB, 1947
Sherman N. Smith, Jr., 1601 20th St., Vero Beach, Extension Div. Courses, 1941
Hugh Dukes, Cottondale, BSA, 1934 & MSA, 1939
Prentice P. Pruitt, Monticello, LLB, 1950
J. A. (Tar) Boyd, Leesburg, Bus. Ad., 1937
Carl E. Duncan, Tavares, LLB, 1923
Frank Marshburn, Box 69, Bronson, A&S, 1912-15
Walter O. Sheppard, P. O. Box 1910, Ft. Myers, LLB, 1950
Joe Bill Rood, 1209 14th St., Bradenton, BA, 1941
C. Farris Bryant, 1016 E. Palm St., Ocala, BSBA, 1935
Willard Ayers, P. O. Box 591, Ocala, BA & LLB, 1936
Ferrin C. Campbell, P. O. Box 235, Crestview, LLB, 1950
Henry W. Land, Apopka, BSA, 1933
James E. Keezel, Box 506, Winter Park, A&S and Law 25-31
Owen S. Allbritton, III, Bank of Clearwater, Clearwater, LLB, 1951
F. Charles Usina, P. O. Box 177, St. Augustine, A&S, 1936
Charles E. Shepperd, St. Augustine, Honorary Member
Frank Fee, Ft. Pierce, LLB, 1935
Mack N. Cleveland, Jr., Atlantic National Bank Bldg., Sanford, GC 1942-43
J. C. Getzen, Jr., Bushnell, LLB, 1930
Jeff Webb, P. O. Box 66, Chipley, BSA, 1942
FACULTY DEATHS AND RETIREMENTS
Beal, John Walter, Shop Foreman, Engineering Experiment Station, April 14, 1951
Clover, George William, Coordinator, Veterans Administration Accounts and Head
Cashier, March 14, 1951
Howard, Everett Edmunds, University Physician, Physical Education, May 15, 1951
Reed, Harold Merrill, Chemist, Vegetable Processing, Horticulture, Agriculture
Experiment Station, May 21, 1951
Tomlin, Robert Franklin, Assistant Professor of Law, December 23, 1951
Warner, Jacob Dewey, Vice Director in Charge, North Florida Experiment Station,
November 17, 1951
Bau, Daniel Tshu-Eng, Assistant Professor of Architecture, May 23, 1952
Heath, Fred Harvey, Professor of Chemistry, January 26, 1952
Miller, Herbert Leroy, Collier County Agent, Agricultural Extension Service, January
Jackson, Vestus Twiggs, Professor of Chemistry, November 25, 1950
Keown, Mary Ellen, State Home Demonstration Agent, August 11, 1950
Nola, Louise, Assistant Professor of Accounting, June 4, 1950
Otis, Merriam Cope, Interim Professor of Pharmacognosy & Pharmacology, January 28,
Powell, P. J., Associate Meteorologist, June 29, 1950
Wilmot, Royal James, Assistant Horticulturist, Agricultural Experiment Station, May
Faculty on Retirement
Ayer, Althea F., LI, Negro Madison County Home Demonstration Agent, November
Bless, Arthur Aaron, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Physics, August 31, 1951
Brush, Warren David, Ph.D., Instructor in Dendrology (Silviculture), June 30, 1951
Newins, Harold Stephenson, MF, Director of School of Forestry, and Professor of
Forestry, June 30, 1951
Simpson, Thomas Marshall, Ph.D., Dean Emeritus of the Graduate School and Pro-
fessor Emeritus of Mathematics, June 30, 1951
Ziegler, Edwin Allen, ScD, Professor of Forest Management and Economics, June 30,
McCarty, Martin E., MA, Interim Assistant Professor of Freshmen Mathematics, June
Roesel, Tillie A., MSA, Sumter County Home Demonstration Agent, June 30, 1952
Smith, Arthur Allen, Interim Instructor in Architecture, June 30, 1952
Atkin, Ernest George, Ph.D., Professor of French, July 1, 1950
Crago, Alfred, Ph.D., Head, Veterans' Guidance Center, June 30, 1950
Dunn, Charlotte Delia, MA, Instructor in Elementary Education, June 30, 1950
Leake, James Miller, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of History, June 30, 1950
Mowry, Harold, MSA, Director Emeritus, Agriculture Experiment Station, January 31,
Stevens, Frederick Delos, BS, Sugar Cane Agronomist, Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, June 30, 1950
Stevens, Grace Adams, MA, Instructor in Elementary Education, June 30, 1950
REPORT OF THE PROVOST FOR AGRICULTURE
To the President of the University
Sir: I submit the reports covering the activities of the College of Agriculture, in-
cluding the School of Forestry, the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and the Agricultural
Extension Service for the biennium ending June 30, 1952. Also included is the report
for the Conservation Reserve at Welaka. These reports not only summarize accomplish-
ments, but also point up the ever-increasing importance to the state of the University's
program of teaching, research, and extension in the fields of agriculture and forestry.
Director H. S. Newins of the School of Forestry retired June 30, 1951, after 16 years
of service. During this period he developed the School from a one-man department in
the College to a fully accredited one among the forestry schools of America. Dr.
Clemens M. Kaufman, professor of forestry at North Carolina State College was appointed
to succeed him, effective July 1, 1951.
J. Wayne Reitz
Provost for Agriculture
REPORT OF THE DEAN OF THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
To the President of the University
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report for the Resident Instruction
Division of the College of Agriculture for the biennium ending June 30, 1952.
During the biennium there was a gradual decrease in enrollment of under-graduate
students in the College of Agriculture from the peak reached in the 1948-50 biennium,
but a considerable increase in enrollment of graduate students. There were 415 Bachelor
of Science in Agriculture degrees awarded during the biennium compared with 559
during the preceding biennium. Work with graduate students was much heavier, how-
ever, and the facilities and staff were taxed to the utmost to offer the desired quality of
training on the graduate level. During the biennium 160 graduate degrees were awarded
to students majoring in some phase of agriculture as follows: 77 Master of Agriculture,
45 Master of Science in Agriculture, 32 Master of Science, and 6 Doctor of Philosophy
degrees. At the beginning of the biennium the Doctorate was being offered in Fruit
Production, Vegetable Production, and Animal Nutrition only. Farm Management, Agri-
cultural Marketing, Plant Pathology and Soils qualified as additional areas for offering
this degree. The Department of Agronomy has submitted its program to offer the
Doctorate to the Graduate Council for its consideration. There are several areas in the
College of Agriculture where the staff is well qualified to offer work leading to this
degree, but laboratory facilities and equipment are the limiting factors for making the
request up to the present time. It is the hope that these handicaps may be overcome at
the earliest practicable date. Many well qualified students are being turned down and
sent to other graduate schools because of this lack of physical essentials for high quality
There has been but very slight change in the number of staff members in the College
of Agriculture during the biennium. Emphasis has been placed on quality rather than
on quantity. At the beginning of the biennium there were 63 staff members, including
24 who were engaged in part-time research or extension work in the Agricultural Ex-
periment Station or the Agricultural Extension Service. At the present time the staff
numbers 69, but 35 of these men are part-time employees of the research or the extension
divisions. It is essential for a good teacher to keep abreast of the research in his
particular field, and much better results in the teaching program are attained when the
instructor can offer first hand the results of his research.
During the biennium two of our staff members were called back into military service
and were granted leave for an indefinite period. Three members of the staff were
awarded their doctorate degrees at outstanding universities, and five other members
have been granted leaves for varying periods of time for graduate study. Professor John
R. Greenman was granted leave from September 1, 1950 to August 31, 1951 to serve with
the Point-4 Program in Europe where he rendered outstanding service in assisting with
the establishment of Agricultural Extension Service work in Holland, Turkey, Greece,
Italy and Portugal. Dr. John T. Creighton, Head of the Department of Entomology, is
currently on leave for one year with the Economic Cooperative Administration to assist
with the organization of a College of Agriculture in Bangkok, Thailand. Particular
note is made of the work of Professor W. F. Callander who was a special lecturer on the
staff of the Department of Agricultural Economics for the biennium. He made a great
contribution to the work of that department in offering an advanced course in agricul-
tural statistics and to the University as a whole in the establishment of a much needed
Statistical Laboratory. Professor Callander was for over a quarter of a century at the
head of the Crop and Livestock Estimates work for the Nation and is recognized inter-
nationally as an outstanding authority in the field of agricultural statistics.
The only change in the departmental setup of the College of Agriculture during the
biennium was the approval of the recommendation to establish a separate Department
of Bacteriology. In the past, the Division of Botany has administered the teaching
programs in Bacteriology, Botany and Plant Pathology. This separation of the work
will be mutually beneficial. This change became effective on July 1, 1952 and plans are
now in progress to strengthen the program in Bacteriology.
The Rockefeller Foundation made a three-year grant of $30,000 to the College of
Agriculture for the setting up of a Counsellor Program for Latin-American agricultural
students. Professor Albert S. Muller, a graduate of Cornell University and with 27
years of teaching, research and administrative experience in educational institutions in
Puerto Rico, Brazil, Venezuela, Guatemala and Honduras, has been engaged to head
this program and will report for duty on September 1, 1952. Professor Muller is a
plant pathologist and plans to offer courses in his field along with his duties as
Counsellor to our ever-growing number of Latin-American students in agriculture.
Although the great need for additional office, laboratory and equipment for per-
forming better work in the training of agricultural students is not to be minimized,
much progress has been made, particularly in laboratory facilities, during the biennium,
but the use of most of these facilities is just becoming available at the beginning of the
1952-53 academic year. Partial completion of a new Poultry Husbandry Unit will assist
materially in the teaching of poultry practices. The completion of an Agronomy Field
Laboratory with the use of adjoining land for essential practice work and the installation
of new equipment has given much needed relief to previous overcrowded conditions.
The first unit of a Meats Laboratory has been completed and a Livestock Pavillion has
been partially completed. Even these uncompleted laboratories will give much im-
mediate assistance to the work in the Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
for handling students in meats and in livestock judging. The work in Dairy Husbandry
has improved rapidly since the completion of the dairy research unit near Hague. The
present dairy herd of 216 animals has been improved materially through breeding and
purchases and is available for student laboratory training, including judging, breeding,
milk secretion, feeding and management studies. Also, the Department of Horticulture
moved into its new greenhouse area in January, 1951, and has made much progress in
adapting this new area for the more adequate training of horticultural students. Early
in the spring of 1952 it was learned that the Men's Garden Club of Gainesville was
experiencing difficulty in finding a suitable location for the projected Wilmot Memorial
Camellia Garden, in honor of the late R. J. Wilmot of the Agricultural Experiment
Station Horticulture Department and nationally known as Secretary of the American
Camellia Society. Camellia plants had been donated for this project by friends from
all over the camellia-growing areas of the United States. The Department of Horticulture
offered a site in its new area which was eagerly accepted by the Men's Garden Club.
It is the hope that this Memorial Garden will serve as the beginning of a more extensive
arboretum and that it will prove a real asset to the University of Florida campus.
C. V. NOBLE, Dean
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE AGRICULTURAL
To the President of the University
Sir: Florida's growth and development are very rapid at the present time. Her econ-
omy rests largely on her agriculture, and organized research is the main prop of this large
agricultural industry. It is interesting to speculate what the State's economy might be
now if the vast Everglades, since 1925, had remained unproductive; if her citrus groves,
since 1935, had yielded less and less, and if her beef production, now twelfth in the USA
had remained static during the last several decades. The loss or severe curtailment of
production of one or more of Florida's major crops such as citrus, tomato, potato, to-
bacco, watermelon, or others, or of her livestock would prove disastrous. However, such
dangerous situations have confronted the agricultural enterprises on numerous occasions
and in these research has pointed the way to renewed satisfactory and increased output.
Organized agricultural research has made progress. During the past biennium fifty.
seven new research projects were initiated. These, including many problems of numer-
ous agricultural enterprises, are investigated directly or cooperatively by the twelve
departments of the Main Station, by the nine branch stations or by the five field
laboratories of the station system. In addition, during this time thirteen other projects
were completely revised and brought up to date; many others were continued, but
twenty-four were closed either because sufficient data had been obtained, or because
changing situations no longer warranted their continuance. The total number of active
projects at the close of the biennium is 237.
Many problems of agriculture are not merely those of single areas of investigation but
require the combined and cooperative effort of researchers of different specialized fields
of training. In agricultural research there is a tendency more and more toward cooper.
tive effort. In this, Florida's organized program is no exception. Many of the present,
and particularly newer of the 237 active projects are cooperative in that they cut across
departmental lines. In directing such a program of research it is of primary importance
to encourage team work; such commendable cooperative effort is not infrequent in the
Florida Stations and it is productive of results.
Improvements and Additions
Many changes, additions and improvements occur in the physical equipment and
facilities during the course of a biennium in an institution as large as the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations. At the Main Station the dairy research unit, men-
tioned in the previous report, has been completed except for certain auxiliary buildings
and placed in full operation; a beef research unit is being developed on a tract of 700
acres where most of the area was cleared, miles of fences built, some necessary buildings
constructed thereon, and a herd of cattle acquired for this research program; a new
poultry unit, complete except for an office and classroom building, consisting of laying
houses, skid houses, breeding houses, a laboratory building, and a superintendent's
cottage, has been established; a meats laboratory and a livestock pavilion are nearing
completion, and additional facilities, including a tobacco curing barn and several small
greenhouses for plant virus research, were provided for the Veterinary Science,
Agronomy, Plant Pathology, and other departments.
Implement and grain storage sheds were constructed at the Potato Investigations
Laboratory, the Citrus, Everglades, Range Cattle and West Florida Stations; a labora-
tory and office building, several tenant houses, and other needed buildings were con-
structed on the properties of the North Florida Station (including the Mobile Units).
Water wells were drilled and pumping units installed at several of the field laboratories
and branch stations, and various items of equipment for laboratory or field use were
During the biennium the Suwannee Valley Station at Live Oak was activated and
another unit, officially named the Indian River Field Laboratory, was established together
with buildings and equipment near Ft. Pierce for research on citrus, vegetables and field
crops in that area. This Laboratory is operated jointly by the Citrus Station for citrus
research, and the Everglades Station for vegetable and farm crop research.
Editorial and Mailing
In keeping with the ever-expanding research work of its staff members, the Station
issued its largest number of publications ever published in a biennium. These included
31 new bulletins, 1,085 pages and 275,500 copies; six bulletins reprinted, 212 pages and
103,500 copies; 32 new circulars, 254 pages and 351,500 copies; and seven press bulletins
were reprinted, including 28 pages and 31,500 copies. The six page bulletin list was
printed five times for a total of 10,000 copies. In addition to these Station publications,
individual staff members of the Station system published, as listed in the two annual
reports of the biennium, about 535 articles in outside scientific journals and periodicals.
Hundreds of thousands of new and old bulletins were distributed from the Mailing
Room on request.
Station staff members other than Editors presented 231 radio talks on the Florida
Farm Hour over WRUF. Of these, 207 were revised and forwarded as farm flashes to 37
other radio stations. Station workers were quoted in the weekly Florida Farm Review
script prepared here and distributed by the Associated Press and in the monthly Florida
Gardens script by the same agency, which began in September, 1951.
A library of taped features, ready for distribution on request, was started with eight
talks taped at the Citrus Station. A number of talks were put on tape and sent to radio
The Station was covered frequently in news stories to daily and weekly newspapers
and Florida, Southern and national farm journals.
Library space in a growing institution is constantly at a premium. By transferring
1500 volumes of duplicates or little used material to recently acquired but temporary
additional storage it was possible to secure some relief for the crowded shelves, and to
reduce some of the physical load on the staff. All of the shelves were rearranged to the
advantage of patrons and staff.
The Library has 27,799 bound volumes. It added 3,777 volumes of which 2,222 were
purchased through the College of Agriculture book allocation and 1,555 out of the
Agricultural Experiment Station Library's budget. The latter were fully cataloged by
this Library's catalogers as were 16,575 domestic and foreign documents. Parts of
periodicals totalling 11,503 were received, cataloged and shelved. The catalogers pre-
pared and typed 45,911 cards, and made notations and corrections on 5,609, while the
University Library furnished 4,964 cards covering the books purchased from the College
of Agriculture book fund. Altogether 56,484 cards were added to the catalog during the
biennium. This Library also furnished 251 main entry cards to the University Central
Catalog. Progress is being made on cataloging Latin-American documents and to
increase the holdings of such material.
Circulation: 1821 pieces of material were lent to the branch-stations while 38,020
pieces were lent on the campus. Beside staff and faculty using the Library for which no
record was kept, 19,037 students used it.
Federal State Frost Warning Service
Intensive frost and weather forecasting service was conducted in cooperation with the
United States Weather Bureau covering the whole of the Florida peninsula. In the ad-
ministration of the forecasting and temperature survey work the peninsula is subdivided
into ten field districts with a meteorologist in charge of each district under the super-
vision of the Lakeland Office. Each field meteorologist made his winter residence within
the local area under his supervision. These ten districts were equipped with a total of
400 temperature survey stations, all in operation during the biennium, most of which
were equipped with thermometers and thermographs so that the duration of critical
temperatures could be measured. Results of the temperature survey and research work
were published in ten mimeographed volumes each season.
Specialized frost and minimum temperature forecasts were issued from the Lakeland
headquarters during the winter seasons for the ten districts, for groves, and truck fields
so that the temperature forecast could easily be adapted to individual farms. The fore-
casts for both seasons proved highly accurate. The 1950-51 season had 65 nights on
which frost and/or freezing temperatures were recorded while the 1951-52 season experi-
enced 41 such nights. Specialized shippers' forecasts, operational weather forecasts and
localized rain forecasts were furnished daily to interested shippers and growers. Consid-
erable research in frost protection was conducted at sites in the field and at the meteoro-
logical laboratory at Lakeland. Research in temperature forecasting in Florida is a
continuing project, and research results are reflected in forecast verifications.
Research on cost of producing citrus fruits, important vegetable crops and dairy
products, which has been conducted for a number of years, was continued in the biennial
ending June 30, 1952. The findings of these cost studies are used extensively by growers
in determining the most profitable production practices. Vegetable farmers are concerned
over the increasing per acre cost of producing vegetables. These costs have risen more
than the prices received for vegetables in the past few years. This research indicates
that the use of higher yielding varieties than commonly used, mechanization of farms
and proper fertilization and cultural practices will materially assist in keeping per unit
(package) cost down. Costs data of producing dairy products is considered essential in
fixing the price of milk in the important cities of the State.
In cooperation with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the Farm Credit
Administration, USDA, costs and factors affecting costs of harvesting, packing fresh citrus
fruit, and processing citrus products were obtained on Florida and Texas citrus.
In cooperation with the Crop and Livestock Estimating Board of the USDA, growers
in Florida were kept advised as to supplies and market conditions at different seasons of
A study of the preference for citrus fruit, conducted at the household level in a small
southern city, was begun in 1950. The study showed that consumers have distinct pref-
erences for certain types of fresh fruits and processed citrus products. In most cases,
if the preferred product cannot be had, consumers will accept another citrus product but
in reduced quantity. In some cases apples, bananas and other fresh fruits are substituted
when the desired citrus product is not available or if the price is considered out of line.
Most consumers believe that citrus has valuable health qualities but they are unfamiliar
with what these qualities are. The results of this study, now in the hands of the printers,
will be of material assistance in guiding advertising programs on citrus fruits.
The demand for citrus fruit in the Memphis, Tennessee, market was conducted in
cooperation with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. The work carried on at
Memphis in 1951 and at Jacksonville, Florida, in 1950 yielded important data on
merchandising techniques but was disappointing in determining the effect of price on
quantity purchased. Because of this it was necessary to develop a new approach to this
problem. An experimental design, which is a novice in economic research, was devised
by Dr. Marshall R. Godwin of our department and has been used in a study of demand
on the Lexington, Kentucky, market. While the field work was only completed in early
June, 1952, preliminary results are most gratifying.
A study of part-time farming in the Jacksonville area has been undertaken to deter-
mine the contribution and factors affecting contribution of farming to people engaged
in industry. Preliminary results indicate that food for home needs and relaxation are
the chief contributions of part-time farming. A study of farming by retired people,
closely related to part-time farming, has recently been initiated. Because of Florida's
climate and other advantageous conditions, much interest is being manifested in this
Cooperating with the Farm Credit Administration, USDA, analyses have been made
of the sales programs used by firms handling California walnuts and California lemons
to determine if the sales programs used with these commodities are applicable to Florida
The effect that waxing of Florida potatoes had on demand for potatoes was determined
in research conducted on the Baltimore market. Customers preferred waxed potatoes to
unwaxed in a ratio of 4 to 1. Furthermore, waxing increased the sales of Florida pota-
toes. In the biennial 1948-50, losses resulting from potato spoilage were found to be
largely due to improper equipment and handling. During the biennial just closed,
harvesting and packing house equipment and improved methods of handling which re-
duces the injury of potatoes in the marketing processes have been determined partly.
Under a Bureau of Agricultural Economics, USDA, contract of approximately $14,000,
a study to determine the characteristics of movements by type of carrier and reasons
for shippers to choose one type of transport rather than another for shipment of fresh
citrus, is being conducted.
Through cooperative arrangement with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics work
has been initiated on the potential utilization of land for grazing and alternate uses.
During the biennium, research was continued on previously reported projects relating
to curing hay in Florida, and irrigation, fertilization and culture of flue-cured tobacco.
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 477, "Artificial Drying of Hay and Seed
with a Slatted Floor System," and Circular No. S-27, "Fumigation and Equipment for
Nematode Control in Soils for Flue-Cured Tobacco," report the results of some of the
work done on these two projects. The initial phase of flue-cured tobacco irrigation
research has been completed and a publication reporting the results is being prepared.
Three additional projects were initiated during the biennium. They are: Design
and Operation of Heat Exchangers for Farm Drying Equipment; Determination of Opti-
mum Air Deliver, Air Temperature and Depth of Seed for Mechanical Drying; and,
Irrigation of Permanent Pasture for Lactating Dairy Cows. Considerable data have been
accumulated relative to these projects. A manuscript, entitled "Mechanical Drying
of Peanuts" is in press.
A full time Assistant Research Agricultural Engineer has recently been added to the
staff in order that the research program could be expanded. As a result, preliminary
work and plans have been made for the following projects: A Study of Seed Scarifi-
cation; Flat-Woods Pasture Irrigation; Equipment and Methods for Pasture Renovation,
and Methods of Reducing Harvester Damage to Irish Potatoes.
Progress was made in continuing investigations of nutrition and management of field
crops and pastures, and development of improved varieties. Additional personnel and
facilities would provide for more rapid solutions of some of the many problems arising
Among tests of legumes the Early Runner peanut, a new variety, developed from an
artificial cross was released to growers in 1951. It is twenty days earlier than the common
Florida Runner-an advantage for early feeding-and produces higher yields and better
quality of dug peanuts for market. Floranna clover was selected by researchers of the
department and released to certified seed growers in 1951. It is significantly better
adapted in Florida than is any other variety of annual white sweet clover for pastures on
higher lands. Alfalfa hay production of three to five tons per acre has been obtained
with adequate liming and fertilization for four years. The Hairy Peruvian variety was
used in these trials and the hay was fed by ANIMAL HUSBANDRY in tests where it
compares favorably with other hays. Big trefoil has shown good herbage production
throughout the year on wet or moist soils of Central and North Florida and is recom-
mended for pastures. Imported white clover seed, particularly New Zealand, has proven
decidedly inferior and Southern White and Ladino produce the most grazing.
Jumbo peanuts are not grown in Florida although they are now in very great demand.
Usually they do not fill well under Florida conditions, but heavy yields have been pro-
duced in test for two years on the better peanut soils, where gypsum dust was used at
early bloom stage and where harvesting was earlier than that of common runner peanuts
to prevent shedding of nut in the soil.
Among more than 3,000 selections of sweet lupines, none were satisfactory in
disease resistance nor as vigorous as common bitter varieties. Attempts to break the
repulsion linkage of sweet type and vigor with X-ray treatments have been initiated.
Approximately 500 new forage crop introductions of grasses and legumes have been
received from the USDA each year, planted in the nursery, and growth and other charac-
ters recorded. A few of these appear promising.
Extensive work to obtain rootknot resistance combined with good flue-cured tobacco
leaf type has failed so far because of an apparent tight repulsion linkage in available
material. Attempts to break the linkage with X-ray treatments are in progress.
Marked responses in growth to the sulfate ion have been obtained with peanuts,
tobacco and corn on Arredondo and Hernando fine sands. Sulfur seems of greater im-
portance than usually believed. More investigations on this point have been started.
Development of white-bud of corn and correction with zinc depend somewhat on
weather factors and season of the year.
Studies with radioactive calcium strongly suggest that calcium deficiency in any part
of the root zone will inhibit plant growth.
Clipping trials indicate more forage from wheat than from oats in the cooler
Yields of nearly all crops are improved by addition of organic matter to the soil
such as turning cover crops or crop residues.
A turf specialist added to the staff in 1951, has surveyed turf problems throughout
Florida. This research program is beginning with evaluation of a number of grass
varieties, and systems of management including fertilization, irrigation and pest control
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Considerable progress was made in this department during the biennium through
research conducted either directly or cooperatively with many other of the station's
departments and with several of the branch stations. In addition to the new facilities
mentioned above, provision was also made for more intensive research by adding to the
staff an Animal Breeding and Genetics specialist. This addition together with the meats
laboratory, livestock pavilion, and a new beef research unit strengthens the research
of the department materially.
Much of the research in animal nutrition has attracted the interest of several com-
mercial firms, who are cooperating through grants in aid, or the donation of materials.
This too has aided in furthering the research of the department. The use of radioactive
isotopes to investigate the function of trace minerals in farm animal nutrition has brought
national and international recognition to the Nutrition Laboratory. During the period
1950-1952 use of radioisotopes has made possible (1) the demonstration that levels of
molybdenum such as occur naturally in the state cause abnormally rapid loss of phos-
phorus from cattle body stores; (2) that copper counteracts molybdenum through enzy-
matic pathways and not direct combination; (3) that calcium is excreted in the small
intestine and then reabsorbed so that high calcium to phosphorus ratios as occur with
citrus products on winter ranges accentuate a phosphorus deficiency and should be
corrected by feeding additional phosphorus; (4) older animals, as in a breeding herd,
require minerals at levels comparable to rapidly growing young animals; (5) zinc, at
much higher levels than occur in Florida products and pastures, is not a hazard to cattle
because it is not absorbed from the intestine; (6) that dairy cattle and poultry obtain
a large proportion of the calcium and phosphorus from the feed of the day corresponding
to the production of milk and egg, thus emphasizing the need for a constant supply
of a balanced mineral intake; (7) that thyroxine is the only hormone of the thyroid
required by chickens for growth and production; (8) that in swine, blood volume, per
100 pounds of live weight, decreases with increasing age and size.
Trace mineral studies, in addition to those involving radioisotopes, have demonstrated
(9) that heart failure (falling disease) of cattle apparently is due to a concurrent copper
and phosphorus deficiency; (10) that bulls once made severely deficient in copper may
be permanently or partially sterile; (11) that monstrosities in calves occur with ab-
normal frequency in copper deficiency-molybdenum toxicity areas and may be prevented
by high levels of copper in the ration.
New feeds have been evaluated and dehydrated celery tops, bean vine meal, ammo-
niated citrus pulp, sweet potato feed, protein enriched sweet potato feed, and dehydrated
para and carib grasses have been shown to be valuable livestock feeds when incorporated
in proper amounts in the rations. As a by-product of the studies with dehydrated grasses
it has been shown that muck-produced grasses are abnormally rich in carotene, (pro
vitamin A), chlorophyll, and protein at certain stages of production.
This department, along with Lederle Laboratories, was among the first to show that
antibiotics were beneficial for animal feeding. The Florida Station has been a leader
in the new and many developments which have occurred on the role of antibiotics in
animal feeding. Antibiotics are now used in swine, poultry, and calf feeds throughout
the world. The adoption of the use of antibiotics in animal feeds by most, if not all,
feed manufacturers followed very rapidly after the Florida Station showed their beneficial
role in swine feeding.
Studies have shown that antibiotics are needed throughout the growing-fattening
period of the pig. If the antibiotic is taken away from the ration after the pig reaches
100 pounds in weight, the rate of gain is decreased. The Florida Station was the first to
show that aureomycin will lower the protein needs of the pig. Investigations of this
type now conducted by numerous experiment stations throughout the country confirm
the Florida work. This will result in a saving of thousands of tons of protein supplements
in swine and poultry feeding throughout the United States as well as other countries.
It has been shown that a new processed cottonseed meal made by the USDA Southern
Regional Laboratories of New Orleans can be fed as the sole protein supplement for
growing fattening pigs in dry-lot. Previous to this finding, cottonseed meal was used
only at a maximum level of 10 per cent in the ration. The Florida studies show that
levels as high as 35 per cent of the new processed meal can be used with excellent results.
The Florida Station was the first to show that the new vitamin, B13, was of benefit to
the pig. This vitamin is needed for its rapid growth. Tests have shown that a factor in
soybean meal which pigs need for growth is destroyed when the meal is over-heated; also
that urea will give excellent results as a protein substitute when added to citrus molasses
for beef cattle feeding.
Preliminary trials showed that the addition of a small amount of dry hay is of con-
siderable benefit when fed to cattle when grazing oats. It helps in rate of gain and in
preventing scouring. Pangola and Bermuda grasses produced good hays for beef cattle.
Inasmuch as they compare very favorably with prairie hay in feeding value, these locally
grown hays can be used to replace some of the approximate ten million dollars worth of
hay which is imported into Florida each year.
Research in dairy production has been expanded and now includes effects of aureo-
mycin on growth of dairy calves when fed the antibiotic. Other studies have been con-
tinued and one of them expanded to include results obtained on artificial breeding. Two
young bulls have been selected to correct off-type of mammary system and udder at-
tachments revealed in an official classification of 35 young Jerseys. Of 647 completed
records of bulls formerly in artificial service over 75 per cent were 5 to 10 years old
when inducted into artificial service. The average gain for the period of 61 through 120
days of age of 6 calves receiving aureomycin supplementation was 74.9 pounds as com-
pared to 62.7 pounds for 6 other calves on the control ration.
Dairy manufacturers research conducted on ice cream indicates that undesirable
effects of hard water minerals contributed to the mix when water is used as a diluent
can be overcome by the use of emulsifying materials. Softening of the hard water by
means of a sodium ion exchanger also corrected difficulties due to hard water. Tests
have been developed for the detection of antibiotics in milk. Standard plate counts on
milk showed only a two-fold increase during storage when raw milk contained 0.1 of
penicillin per milliliter as compared to a 20-fold increase in the control. In addition
to inhibiting growth of Streptococcus lactis penicillin in concentration of 0.3 to 0.6 unit
per milliliter reduced acid production of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus and L.
case by about 50 per cent.
New and improved insecticides are still being made available to Florida agriculture
and much of the work of this Department was related to these materials and their eval-
uation as controls for the various pests. Tests on flue-cured tobacco proved that TDE
in the form of dusts, wettable powder and emulsion sprays is extremely effective against
hornworms and budworms. This insecticide is now recommended as the standard con-
trol for these pests in Florida as well as elsewhere in the flue-cured tobacco belt. Several
insecticides and miticides were tested on a variety of ornamental plants. Parathion
has proven effective against most of the scales, whiteflies, aphids and other pests that
Honey plant investigations were begun on a two and a half acre area which can be
irrigated when necessary. More than a hundred potential honey plants were introduced
and borage, ever-flowering locust, and a few others promise to be of considerable value
as sources of honey.
Work was started on projects related to insecticide residues on vegetables and other
produce, control of pasture pests, and the use of systemic insecticides in the control
of insects and mites attacking ornamentals and other cultivated plants.
The department took an active part in the grasshopper research program and helped
to formulate control recommendations which are proving effective in the affected areas.
Members of the department took leadership in the revision of the entomological
sections of the Handbook of Pesticides which is being used so widely throughout Florida.
On many occasions they have given advice and help to farmers, county agents, seed and
insecticides dealers, and others confronted with insect problems.
During this biennium four bulletins and one technical paper were published from
the Department of Home Economics. These publications dealt with the thiamine, ribo-
flavin and niacin content of Florida-produced foods; the effect of processing on the
nutritive value of milk; the nutritive value of various breads and supplements; and the
food preferences, together with some aspects of aging, of Florida men.
The present experimental work consists of studies of lasting effects of deficient diets
in early life which may carry over on the subsequent life pattern of both animals and
humans. Investigations indicate that a vitamin A deficiency in the early life of the
rat has profound effects on skeletal structure and on kidney and lung efficiency in later
life. Diets deficient in calcium and phosphorus in early life produced skeletal ab-
normalities which were not corrected during realimentation on a complete diet. It
was found also that a deficiency in bone building materials, of which calcium and
phosphorus are the primary ones, is the chief cause of retardation of carpal develop-
ment and of light mineralization in school children. Data now available indicate that
the deficiency began very early, perhaps even in prenatal life and extended over a
period of years.
Sweet corn prepackaged and non-packaged required rapid pre-cooling and low
temperature storage (32"F.) to hold the sugar content. At higher temperatures, double
the sugar loss frequently resulted in sealed packages compared with those ventilated.
Tomato transportation studies were conducted on a laboratory-built transit simula-
tor which duplicated rail car shock and fruit injury. Market quality and shipping in-
juries were closely correlated with maturity, with an increase in softening in the two
days preceding pink stage. Bruising and off-flavors increased greatly when softening
occurred in transit. Injuries to fruit caused by rough inner surfaces of the container
were reduced by the use of a proper paper liner. Mature-green fruit borne in sunny
locations on vines ripened faster than in shaded, but the latter were firmer and had
a higher total pigment when ripe. Number 89 of the Southern Tomato Exchange Pro-
gram and Jefferson tomatoes proved equal, or slightly superior, to Rutgers in yield
of marketable mature-green fruit. These and Urbana were equal to Rutgers in ripening
Black Valentine, Tendergreen, Top Crop and several numbered varieties of beans
were found satisfactory for processing by canning and/or freezing, as were several
varieties of sweet corn, cauliflower, broccoli and Korean peas. Smith's Perfect canta-
loupe, with approximately 25% syrup solution, made a good frozen product.
Canned celery cuts could be maintained in good condition if packed in acidified
liquid made with 2% salt, 0.3 % citric acid, and the cans exhausted for five minutes and
processed for twenty minutes each at 212 F.
Vine killing and delayed harvest reduced skinning of potatoes.
An increase in growth and yield of beans and tomatoes was obtained with soil fumi.
gation and no harmful residual soil effects were noted during three growing seasons.
Irrigation proved to be essential in high production of quality vegetables. No beneficial
effects and advantages were gained by foliar nitrogen sprays over soil applications in
The use of Korean Crowder Southern pea has been extended for breeding purposes
in attempts to develop better strains for home and commercial production. Several of
the English pea lines have shown up favorably, and Purple Florida 501 is one of the
several beans that show promise. Several cantaloupe crosses (Smith's Perfect and other
varieties) are being grown in an effort to develop a variety satisfactory for Florida pro-
Vegetable work has been expanded to include pesticide residues. Research initiated
includes investigations in removal of DDT, parathion, chlordane and toxaphene and
techniques involved in field and packing house sampling.
Trees of 21 low-chilling peach varieties have been planted at five locations in North.
ern Florida, and several plum varieties are under observation. Varieties of Ness berries
show promise as do some of the new blueberries. An organic mulch has proven its
value in fruit plantings in combating nematodes.
Pecan trees (Moore) at Monticello and Quincy showed significantly less cold damage
when grown with potash in the fertilizer than where potash was omitted. Extensive
foliage samples contained less nitrogen in low than those from high-yielding pecan trees,
which emphasizes the value of leguminous green manure crops grown in orchard man-
agement as determined by Station research.
Tung research showed that zinc sulfate applied within two feet of the tree trunk was
effective in correcting bronzing. The importance of a proper nitrogen-potassium balance
in fertilizers has been established. Trees were not improved by boron which proved to
be toxic in relatively small amounts. Budded nursery trees and seedlings can be banked
to prevent cold injury when necessary.
It was found that certain tulip varieties would flower successfully following bulb
storage for 60 days in 400 F. Hand-pollination and sulfuric acid treatment, or both, did
not increase germination of Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien, seed.
Mulching proved effective in maintaining an acid soil condition for camellias. Con-
tinuous mist was found to be very effective in rooting cuttings of woody ornamentals in
both greenhouse and outside propagating benches.
Breeding work was started with roses and hibiscus for better and hardier materials
for Florida. Several species of roses were assembled along with varieties for use in this
research. Tests to determine the best stocks for rose varieties have been started along
with general nutritional requirements of the plants.
The development of cards and selection of an accession system for plants has been
installed in the Department.
Research during the biennium included investigations of virus diseases and damping-
off of vegetables, diseases of small grains and pecans.
Work on virus diseases consisted of their identification, and determining their host
range and relative importance on certain crops. Three different viruses were found
which affect cucurbits growing in Central Florida. Two of these, cucumber mosaic and
watermelon mosaic viruses, evidently occur in several strains. Several distinct viruses
were found on pepper, and certain weeds have been implicated as sources of one or
more of the pepper viruses. In a test of approximately 450 kinds of peppers obtained
from various parts of the world for resistance to viruses, certain ones showed some re-
sistance or tolerance to cucumber mosaic and to tobacco mosaic. These will be used
in a breeding program in an effort to incorporate resistance in commercial varieties.
Virus diseases reported in 1950 have been causing material reductions in yields of
green weight and in seed of lupines. No satisfactory control has been found. Alta
blue, a bitter blue lupine, released in 1950 has produced greater yields of green weight
and seed in north Florida and Georgia than the commercial variety.
"Damping-off" and other diseases of cuttings in the propagation of nursery stock are
major problems and losses have been high. The organisms largely responsible are
species of the fungi Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora, Pythium and Fusarium. Tests show
these problems can be minimized by supplying cuttings with a continuous mist of water
under normal outside light intensity. Methyl bromide as a soil fumigant has been ef-
fective in greatly reducing the incidence of soil-borne diseases of nursery plants.
Certain soil-inhabiting fungi which are antagonistic toward each other, when grown
on artificial culture media, seem to offer little antagonism in builder's sand as measured
by the degree of pathogenicity to snap bean plants.
Methyl bromide has given satisfactory control of damping-off of celery seedlings in
plant beds where certain parasitic fungi are involved.
Better stands and yields of snap beans were obtained when the vegetation was turned
under two or more weeks before planting the seed than when the seed was planted
immediately or one week after turning under the vegetation.
Surveys were made to determine prevalence and severity of small grain diseases,
and the findings will be used as a basis for developing control methods. Methods have
been devised for maintaining the major parasites of small grains, including the obligate
ones for year-round study in the laboratory. Field and laboratory epiphytotics have been
established for comparing various lines and progenies for resistance to diseases.
Staff members in the department took leadership in the revision of sections on plant
disease control in the Handbook of Pesticides. This manual has proven most valuable
as a guide in pest control.
The construction of the poultry unit on the Experiment Station tract along State
Highway 24 was completed in the Spring of 1952. Buildings included in the new unit
are: a laboratory building, superintendent's dwelling, four large permanent poultry
houses, and 22 portable all-purpose poultry houses. This new unit although complete
except for an office and classroom building should permit research to meet the needs
of the poultry industry in Florida.
The flock of approximately 500 Single Comb White Leghorns, 400 Single Comb Rhode
Island Reds, 100 Light Sussex, and 200 New Hampshires has been maintained to provide
young stock and mature birds for experimental purposes and demonstrations.
Close cooperation with the Marketing Bureau and Poultry and Egg Inspection Division
of the State Department of Agriculture, the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, and other
departments of the University of Florida in promoting the welfare of the Poultry In-
dustry of the State has been maintained.
Further efforts to detoxify citrus seed meal in order to render it satisfactory as a
source of vegetable protein for poultry feeding have been made, but without success.
High efficiency formulas for growing broilers in batteries were tested; these produced
birds averaging 3.25 pounds at 10 weeks of age on 2.6 pounds of feed per pound of body
Techniques in the use of radioactive calcium and phosphorus were developed at the
Station to study the uptake of these elements from the various segments of the ali-
mentary tract. These isotopes were used to trace the secretion and deposition of calcium
and phosphorus in laying hens.
Sunflower seed meal was compared with soybean meal as a vegetable protein and
proved satisfactory for laying birds. Only one experiment using this product was con-
ducted. Results from this one trial indicate it was satisfactory for use in the diet of
young stock also.
Citrus molasses was added to the diet of young stock with very variable results.
More work must be done with this product before definite recommendations can be
Dehydrated para and carib grass were compared with alfalfa leaf meal as a component
of the diet for young stock in only one experiment. Results indicate that these products
can be used as a satisfactory replacement for alfalfa leaf meal.
The mapping of soils in the field was continued with 784 square miles being mapped
in detail in Sarasota, Escambia and Orange Counties; and 5,222 square miles of recon-
naissance survey in the Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns Valleys. A soil association map
of Hillsborough County was published.
Experiments showed that the amount of anhydrous ammonia held by a soil was re-
lated to the moisture content and the pH; also, that large losses of ammonia may result
if applications greater than 50 pounds per acre are used on many of the sandy soils. The
application of nitrogen for winter legume establishment in grass sod resulted in a stim-
ulation of the grass and a decrease in stand of clover. Survival of clover plantings was
increased by use of the minor elements, copper, zinc, manganese and boron on acid
flatwoods soils. Most soils in Peninsular Florida are critically deficient in sulfur and
the fertilizer for mineral soils where clover is grown must contain a source of sulfur.
Experiments with radioactive phosphorus showed that superphosphate applied to the
surface soil in fescue grass was more available than that applied three and six inches
deep; also, that 70 to 90 per cent of phosphorus uptake by corn on Greenville sandy
loam was from residual rock phosphate in the soil. No response to various sources of
boron was obtained by summer-grown field crops, such as corn, cotton, peanuts and
Experiments with DDT, Chlordane and Aldrin applied at normal rates as insecticides
had no effect on microbiological action in Arredondo fine sand. Soils fumigated three
consecutive years with D-D and Dow-W40 produced beans that were poorly nodulated.
Nematode population in soil was larger under corn grown on the same land year after
year than in soil under peanuts grown successively in Norfolk fine sandy loam.
A new device called a "Water Picnometer" which indicates the per cent of moisture
in the soil was invented for use in large scale irrigation control.
Investigations are being continued on the nature, cause, agents of transmission, reser-
voir hosts, methods of diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and other phases of
infectious, contagious, parasitic diseases, ailments and conditions which are of major
economic importance to the livestock and poultry industries of the State.
During the biennium several new and potentially dangerous diseases were diagnosed
among livestock and poultry on Florida farms and ranches. Included among these are:
anthrax, vibriosis, trichomoniasis, and leptospirosis of beef and dairy cattle; leptospi-
rosis, erysipelas and virus pneumonia of swine; infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease,
trichomoniasis and "air-sac" disease of poultry. Investigations and cooperative experi-
ments are being conducted on some of these newly discovered diseases.
A simple, practical technique was developed and suitable apparatus designed to
facilitate performing blood transfusions under field conditions in cattle and horses re-
quiring this form of therapy.
Improvements in the physical facilities consisted of new laboratory equipment, the
overhauling of the old building and the conversion of some storerooms into laboratories.
In order to compensate for the shortage of greenhouse space a concrete floor with a
protective wall was constructed to provide protection for pot work for investigations
of decline and nutrition. A shortage of laboratory space is a continuing handicap and
the converted storerooms can be considered as temporary only. The old building which
is a considerable fire hazard should be replaced. Additional grove area is badly needed
for long time experiments which can not be handled satisfactorily on a cooperative basis.
Much time of staff members was devoted to discussing recent findings before schools
of growers and various trade meetings, to answering many inquiries received through
the mail regarding some phases of citrus culture, and to explaining the Station's ex-
tensive research program to many visitors from other nations. Considerable field work
was done to start the practical use of numerous new developments.
Research developments have been numerous and only a few of the more important
ones will be mentioned herein. The use of parathion has been established to replace
oil emulsion sprays for scale control; this results in improved quality of the fruit.
Some very fine work on the medical aspects of the problem and the establishment of
blood testing as a means of identifying parathion poisoning and as an indicator of ap-
proaching toxicity has greatly reduced the hazards from the use of this material. An-
other development was the successful introduction of concentrate sprays and the
necessary service work with the industry to train operators in their use. Concentrate
spraying, following the techniques developed at the Citrus Station, are now widely used
with great saving to the industry. A very efficient duster was perfected; a hedging
machine was developed which replaces much hand work.
Work on leprosis or nailhead rust confirmed the Argentine findings that a mite
belonging to the genus Brevipalpus is responsible for the lesions. It was found that
control of this mite controlled the disease.
Work on slow decline was greatly expanded and soil treatment with DD prior to
replanting affected areas continues to give good results. Recent work indicates that
much of the root damage may be below one foot depth and that the killing of feeder
roots below this depth takes place very rapidly. No causal organism has been success-
fully isolated to date.
In the field of plant nutrition there have been two outstanding developments. Yellow
spot, known in Florida for many years, was recently identified as molybdenum de-
ficiency. A spray containing 1 Oz. of sodium molybdate per 100 gallons was found to
control this deficiency. Iron chelates were found to be highly satisfactory sources of
iron on the acid soils and also to be effective at higher concentrations on alkaline soils.
This offers the first practical method for controlling iron chlorosis which has plagued
the industry from its inception. This finding, which has attracted wide interest through-
out the country, is of great fundamental significance since it is possible that the same
sort of combination will be useful in the nutrition of many kinds of crops used for
irrigation revealed that the usual method of titrating the chloride and calculating the
results as sodium chloride was incorrect since in many such waters there was only suf-
ficient sodium to account for 40% of the chlorine. Other chlorides including calcium,
and magnesium chlorides were present in large amounts; strontium was also found
in considerable quantities in some waters.
Clarification and gelation, two undesirable conditions sometimes occurring in frozen
citrus concentrates were found to be due to the action of pectinesterase on the pectin
in the juice. The effects of juice yield, extraction methods, inclusion of pulp, and the
conditions for heat inactivation of the enzyme were determined and findings of this
research are applied now in many processing plants. Following successful research on
essential oils, further studies were made on the possible by-products obtainable from
citrus wastes. A study of the glucosides, hesperidin and naringin, resulted in the de-
velopment of excellent dyes for wool and wood using the glucosides as intermediates.
Studies are now in progress to establish a method of recovering these chemicals during
the concentration and refinement of citrus molasses. Much interest has been aroused
in groups interested in glucosides as chemical intermediates and these may very well
lead to other excellent by-products to increase the income from the cannery and con-
centrate plant refuse.
Fruit decay has been a major problem in the marketing of fresh fruit since the
beginning of the Florida citrus industry. In cooperative work with the Florida Citrus
Commission a method of control was developed using Dowicide A plus examine which
acts as a preventative of peel burn. The value of Dowicide A has long been recognized
but it had been impossible to use it at concentrations sufficiently high to give good
results without severe peel burn. Examine was found to prevent this burn making it
possible to use Dowicide-up to 2% concentration for two minutes immersion with a
decay control of 75 to 85%. This method is being installed in packing houses at the
Central Florida Station
Studies on the nutrition of vegetable crops, improvements in disease and insect
control, testing of new varieties and crops adapted to this area, breeding for disease
resistance and improvements of cultural practices, constituted the activities of this Sta-
The cooperative celery breeding project with Cornell University was continued. The
released early blight resistant variety, named Emerson Pascal, has shown a tendency to
bolt, especially during prolonged cool weather.
In seedbed studies the use of the product MC-2 gave excellent control of nematodes,
weeds and damp-off organisms: it also greatly stimulated the growth of celery seedlings.
Further studies on the poor growth of vegetable crops in some fields indicated that
accumulation of copper residues from copper sprays may cause injury.
All mineral fertilizers continued to produce larger yields of celery than the usual
mixed fertilizer containing substantial amounts of organic materials.
A new cantaloupe, resistant to downy mildew, is being developed from selections
made at this Station, and offers considerable promise.
Work is progressing on the control of nematodes with some of the newer organic
Studies on cotton varieties have indicated that Sealand Cotton can be successfully
grown in this area, producing better than one bale per acre when properly cared for.
The research program has advanced steadily with considerable emphasis on virus
disease investigations, the breeding of new varieties of both sweet and field corn for
better adaptability to local conditions, the culture of rice, and on fiber crop investiga.
tions. In this latter effort kenaf, a satisfactory substitute for jute and ramie, and also
for linen, has received most attention. However, because of interest of the U.S. Navy
in the hard (leaf) fiber from Sansevieria (spp.) as a locally produced alternate for
abaca (Manila hemp) some work was done also with this plant. The fiber work is being
conducted cooperatively with the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
The Indian River Field Laboratory at Ft. Pierce was established during the biennium
as a part of the Everglades Station program. A fair start has been made on essential
buildings on a 40-acre tract that has been cleared and drained. A total area of more
than 700 acres was made available to the State by local interests for this work. Citrus
Research, also at the Laboratory, is under the supervision of the Citrus Station.
The breeding and selection work with snap beans has resulted in two varieties of
promise which are now undergoing extensive field tests.
In trace element research the most important findings were, (1) the necessity of
the application of some form of soluble iron to rice, especially where earlier use of the
peat lands for vegetable crops has left traces of arsenic and, (2) the tendency of cobalt
to improve the accumulation of copper in the liver of cattle under otherwise identical
conditions of diet.
Work with pasture grasses and grain crops, along with the animal gains obtained,
have encouraged rapid development of the cattle industry now under way in the Ever-
Improved facilities both in personnel and equipment have opened the way for
research in the field of pesticide residues that has gotten under way during the past year.
In agricultural engineering the research consisted of the mechanical handling of
soft bastt) fiber crops, especially through the stages of harvesting, decorticating and
degumming of the fiber, important because of the continuing rising cost of labor.
Work was continued on the methodology of soil and tissue testing and the application
of these methods to a large number of samples growing out of an ever-expanding soil
fertility program on both organic and mineral soils, and to the increasing number of
soil samples brought in by growers and County Agents.
Gulf Coast Station*
Research during the biennium at this Station has continued to emphasize fundamental
as well as practical studies dealing with vegetable and gladiolus production.
A new tomato hybrid, resistant to four important diseases (leafmold, Alternaria, gray
leafspot and Fusarium wilt), is now ready for release as a new variety. This stock
which produces large, deep fruits of fine quality, has given high yields in six different
tomato-growing areas of the State.
Cooperative tests have shown that the disastrous Helminthosporium leaf blight disease
of sweet corn can be held in economic control by spraying with either nabam or zineb
Further investigations were made on the compatibility of insecticides, fungicides and
nutrients for certain vegetable crops in order to determine what spray combinations when
mixed together perform satisfactorily from the chemical, biological and physical stand-
The control of nut grass was shown to be possible by the use of 2, 4-D sprays.
Greenhouse trials have shown that (1) celery plants with severe blackheart can be
restored to normal growth by sprinkling a solution of calcium salt on the tips of the
plants and (2) crease-stem of tomato is associated with insufficient copper and rapid
growth prior to fruit setting on the first fruit cluster. These findings are being extended
to field trials.
A three-year study dealing with the cumulative effect in soil of certain insecticides
and soil fumigants on crop.yields and various soil microbiological processes has been
In breeding gladiolus resistance to Fusarium corm rot, 169 seedlings were selected
from more than 34,000 for propagation and more critical evaluation. This disease, causing
an annual loss estimated at one and one-half million dollars, continues to be severe.
Control measures to date are unsatisfactory because of latent infections in practically
all planting stocks. Post-harvest dusting of corms with wettable Spergon gives partial
control. Greenhouse studies indicate that plants supplied with nitrate nitrogen are
more resistant to the disease than plants supplied with ammoniacal nitrogen.
Dolomitic limestone fertilization had no effect on gladiolus flower production but
high levels of potash significantly increased the quality of the flower spike. Soft growth
of flower spikes, especially on new land, was traced to copper deficiency.
Formerly known as the Vegetable Crops Laboratory
North Florida Station
Disease and insect control, crop variety testing, breeding, rotation and fertilization
studies were continued on field crops and pastures. Emphasis was placed on development
of improved pastures as well as on the compounding of rations from home grown feeds
for the production of beef cattle and swine. Studies were made also on the evaluation
of various pasture grass-legume mixtures for summer grazing and for wintering beef
The release of Southland oats in 1950 was instrumental in increasing production in
Florida from 288,000 bushels in 1950 to 1,080,000 bushels in 1952. In view of the build-up
in prevalence and distribution of new races of crown rust, to which Southland is suscepti-
ble, additional varieties are being increased for release. An enlarged lupine breeding
program was initiated to develop improved varieties adapted to Florida conditions. Pre
liminary tests indicate the possibilities of more extensive production of soybeans in
Replacing part of the ground snapped corn with citrus molasses in a fattening ration
composed of ground snapped corn, cottonseed meal, and hay resulted in larger feed con-
sumption, larger but less expensive gains with yearling steers.
Urea nitrogen was satisfactorily substituted for half of the nitrogen ordinarily
furnished by cottonseed meal in steer fattening rations.
A pasture combination of Coastal Bermuda grass, Crimson and White clovers pro-
vided year-round feed when surplus grass was stored as hay in September.
A combination of parathion and rhothane, or metacide and rhothane, has been de-
veloped for control of major insects affecting cigar-wrapper tobacco and has been recom-
mended to the farmers. A combination of sulfur and rhothane, or sulfur and DDT,
was likewise developed for control of insects affecting peanuts and is in general use in
A new variety of cigar-wrapper tobacco, having appreciable resistance to root knot
and certain leaf spots as well as to blackshank, was made available to a few growers in
1952. Zineb (6.5 per cent dust) proved more effective than ferbam (15 per cent dust)
in controlling blue mold in plant beds; it also controlled the same disease in the field,
where it occurs only sporadically but sometimes causes serious loss. Soil treatment
with urea gave good control of bacterial (Granville) wilt; fumigation with D-D gave
about equally good control of wilt and also control of nematode diseases.
With the best rotation, virgin Norfolk fine sandy loam lost organic matter during
the first five years of cultivation. For five years, peanuts following peanuts and harvested
yielded about the same as those hogged off. Lupine following peanuts every year made
very poor growth while lupine grown once in a three-year rotation made good growth.
Range Cattle Station
Numerous needed facilities and additional equipment were provided during the bi-
ennium to strengthen and expand the research program which, on the annual field day
attracts as many as 1,000 people. Among these additions were the purchase of twenty
acres of land, nine grade Shorthorn calves and one Brahman bull calf. Wells and troughs
were provided, and fences rearranged to expedite handling of the cattle which have in-
creased from 570 to 737. Feeding and storage sheds were rebuilt and equipment for
irrigation trials was purchased.
Pangola has proved to be the most productive improved grass grown on the sandy
soils of central Florida. Yield of forage and cattle gains are closely correlated with
fertilizer rates and date of application. Pensacola Bahia was found second to Pangola
with wide adaptation and high grazing value.
Protein is the nutrient most closely associated with palatability and utilization of
forage. Low protein herbage is unpalatable and cattle do not eat enough to maintain
their weight. Feeding 1.6 pounds daily of cottonseed pellets to steers on carpet and
common Bahia pastures changed an average daily loss of 0.21 pounds for a forty-two-day
period, beginning June 15, to a daily gain of 1.53 pounds for the following 122-day period.
These gains were made as the pastures deteriorated in quality.
Experimental results show that drouth often limits the production of winter clovers
in Florida. With sufficient rainfall during the winter and spring, cattle on a grass-clover
pasture will make 500 to 700 pounds per acre annually while in dry years gains may be
100 pounds or less.
Irrigation may provide high protein forage when grass is scarce and low in quality.
Cattle made 1,050 pounds gain per acre during the 1951 season on grass-clover pasture
to which had been applied 14.5 acre-inches of water while cattle on a similar but un-
irrigated pasture made 229 pounds.
A project to determine the productivity of English and Brahman cattle and grade
animals of both breeds when kept on different types of pasture has been started. Sixty
cows will be kept in each of three herds.
Research on the fruit and vegetable crops of the area whose acreages are constantly
and rapidly increasing continued satisfactorily except for the tremendous amount of time
necessary to handle visitors and inquiries from growers and others interested in the
growing of these crops and plants.
Practical control of mealybug in pineapple plantation beds was accomplished by
applying parathion dusts or sprays. Effective control of aphids and leaf miners on
potatoes and tomatoes was obtained with organo-phosphate insecticides, especially para-
A second new virus disease was found on papaya. Tomato late blight control was
as good when manganese instead of zinc sulfate was added to nabam, with elimination
of plant injury caused by nabam zinc sulfate spray.
Reduction of soil rot proved feasible by spraying the soil beneath tomato vines with
certain fungicides, especially Orthocide-406.
Study of seasonal juice development in Tahiti lime fruits led to raising juice require.
ments of fruits for shipment from 40 to 42 per cent.
Field tests and extensive cooperative grower trials of the Southern Tomato Exchange
Program's number 89 tomato led to release by USDA of this wilt resistant variety under
the name HOMESTEAD.
A practical method of propagating sapodilla was developed and a superior variety
of this fruit was released under the name PROLIFIC. The Mysore raspberry was proved
adapted to South Florida. Nurseries have already sold hundreds of bushes. Hybrids
of this purple fruited raspberry x Latham, Sunrise and Taylor red raspberries have
produced red fruits for further study.
Soil studies showed that phosphate accumulation on old farm land makes possible
reductions in relative proportions of phosphate in fertilizers of fruit crops on rockland
soils and truck crops on marl soils. Yields and quality of tomatoes grown on marl
were most effectively increased by high potash in the fertilizer.
Suwannee Valley Station
The Suwannee Valley Station was activated November 1, 1950, to investigate some
of the problems of agriculture of this section of Florida.
In the station's research program a number of research men of the Main Experiment
Station are working in cooperation with these at the Suwannee Valley Station.
The leading projects outlined for study are on tobacco and pastures. Other subjects
considered during the year were swine, field crops, legumes, soil management, several
Horticultural crops and other crops common to this section. All research was conducted
cooperatively with farmers on farms owned by them.
On May 15, 1951, a thermograph and rain gauge was installed on the Station to obtain
desirable temperature and precipitation records. Machinery, office and laboratory equip-
ment necessary for such a research program have been purchased.
The investigations on tobacco involve seed bed management, soil treatment for
nematode and variety tests. Those on pastures center around fertilization, management,
and winter legumes. Inasmuch as no cattle are available for grazing trials yields per
acre are determined by calculations from the weight of clippings obtained by mowing.
In pasture fertilization trials on three types of soil, nitrogen proved to be the limit-
ing factor. No increase in yields was noted when phosphate or potash only were used
either alone or in combination. For clover, phosphate, potash and lime are all found
to be essential. Yields of grass and seed of Pensacola Bahia varied with the amount
of nitrogen applied; the most economical amounts apparently being from 80 and 120
pounds per acre. Ammonium nitrate was used as the nitrogen source in this instance.
For a study of a wide variation of soils and growing conditions five different areas
were chosen for the clover trials which included more than sixty different strains planted
in replicated plots. Clover well limed and fertilized on light sandy soils approaching
a Norfolk type failed completely. On the finer Jonesville soil type, clover mixtures made
a fair to good growth combination with love grass and with bahia grass when properly
limed and fertilized and properly managed. The most promising winter legumes were
the Louisiana white, crimson, ball, kenland red, and white sweet clover. Tests of the
most promising types will be repeated next season. Considerable interest has been
developed in pasture legumes and it is expected that several farmers will plant clovers
Trials with corn were confined to variety test and fertilizer studies. Eighteen varieties
of field corn were tested and yields varied from 4.9 bushels per acre of an inbred strain
to 96.2 bushels of a hybrid. Dixie 18 and Georgia 281 were consistently the higher
yielders. Fertilizer trials were conducted on four different farms, one in Hamilton,
one in Columbia and two in Suwannee County. Various levels of nitrogen, phosphate
and potash were used. Yields of corn varied with the nitrogen applied on most farms.
Tests with different varieties of soybeans, and cotton, and various winter legumes
such as blue and yellow lupines, peas and vetch are also in progress.
West Central Florida Station
Something over 200 acres of the new 300-acre pasture project on thin, rolling, jack
oak sand have now been cleared. Continuous cover crops of winter and summer legumes
are being attempted on this tract for at least two full years before seeding to permanent
pasture. An attempt will be made to determine what grasses and what management
systems, if any, can render the use of such land practicable for improved pastures. If
successful, this will give the Station 800 acres of improved pasture.
The cattle breeding research program is being revised at this station. In this pro-
gram herds of Angus, Hereford, Brahman, Santa Gertrudis and Brahman-Angus will be
used in an attempt to obtain information on the proportions of European and Asiatic
blood which are best suited for different conditions in the Southeast.
West Florida Station
The physical resources have been improved by the construction of a farm equipment-
fertilizer storage shed and a corn-hay storage building. Several major pieces of
farm equipment have been added so that the experimental program can be carried on
Progress has been made in corn production and pasture establishment. Corn yields
of more than 80 bushels per acre have been attained consistently on well fertilized plots,
and a similar yield, on a field basis, was made in the 1951 season. Sufficient moisture
during the growing season is now the first limiting factor in corn production in this
area. Mixtures of grasses and clovers have been found which will, with sufficient mois-
ture, furnish excellent grazing for nine to ten months of each year. The fertility level
required is high but economical. Ladino clover shows the most promise for long
season grazing, with Kenland red clover and Crimson clover as excellent forage pro-
ducers during approximately seven and four-month periods respectively. All three of
these clovers have been used in a thirty-acre grazing experiment, and preliminary work
shows considerable promise. Several grasses are being studied with the clover mixture.
In addition, several cool-season grasses, such as orchard grass, Brome grass, Harding
grass and Red top, are under study to attempt to extend the length of the grazing
Satisfactory progress has been made on the fertility requirements of peanuts, oats,
soybeans and lupine. The peanut is the least responsive plant under study to fertilizer
additions. Satisfactory yields have been made, but the plant does not respond at high
fertility levels as other crops do.
The variety testing program has been expanded and much information, of practical
value, is being gathered on the highest yielding and most disease resistant varieties of
field crops grown in this area.
One staff vacancy was filled for full time pasture research studies. Small plot clipping
tests in this field have been increased.
Work at the Laboratory was continued in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, USDA. Several new insecticides were tested and further work
was done with DDT and other older materials. DDT and parathion continue to give
excellent control of several of the more important pecan pests. EPN and Metacide,
two of the newer materials, show promise as controls for these pests. All of these are
outstandingly effective against the nut casebearer which formerly was a very destructive
pest. Insecticides have continued to give indifferent results against the shuckworm.
Under conditions of severe infestation four applications of DDT, parathion, EPN, and
Metacide, at three-week intervals, have failed completely to control this pest.
Pecan trees sprayed by airplane in 1952 with 18X concentration of zineb (parzate)
plus one-fourth per cent summer oil plus wettable parathion showed as good control
of scab on June 10 as that obtained with the standard bordeaux mixture applied with
the usual grove sprayer.
Bordeaux mixture, ziram + summer oil, and zineb (dithane Z78) + summer oil
have been equally effective in controlling scab on Moore, Moneymaker and Mohan pecan
trees. The spray dates were April 10, May 10, June 10, July 7, and July 27.
Investigations on the culture and disease control of crucifers and potatoes continued
during the biennium and findings resulting from this research are listed below:
Soil and plant treatments were developed for control of whiptail (molybdenum de-
ficiency) of cauliflower. These consisted of treating the soil directly with sodium
molybdate or spraying the plants with it when in the seedling stage.
Tests demonstrated that cabbage yields could be increased 20 per cent if crops receiv-
ing standard fertilization were side-dressed three times with materials containing 24
pounds of nitrate nitrogen per acre per application.
Whole potatoes and cut seed pieces of the same weight proved equally productive.
It was found necessary to grow broccoli in late winter and spring to produce the best
yield and quality of flower clusters.
One early and two midseason yellows-resistant, high-yielding cabbage varieties were
found to be suitable for commercial production in yellow-sick soil. Nabam and phygon
XL-N fungicides were found to be effective for control of downy mildew of cabbage
in plant beds. Planting of black-rot-free or hot-water-treated seed and yearly rotation
of seedbeds were found essential for control of black rot of cabbage.
One of the primary achievements at this laboratory was the development and prep-
aration for release later on of a new variety of strawberry which shows promise of wide
acceptance. This variety compares favorably with the standard varieties for disease
resistance; it yields and ships well and has proved excellent for processing by freezing.
The sting nematode (Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner) has been found in Hillsborough,
Polk, Hardee, and Manatee Counties. Tests have shown that soil fumigation is very
effective, but it is also possible that certain cultural practices would also be effective in
controlling this pest.
Watermelon and Grape Investigations
As a result of research, several watermelon strains of the types Garrison, Congo, and
Black Diamond now exist that are resistant to wilt and anthracnose. These strains are
being developed into pure lines by selection and breeding.
Development of a grape variety that will live and fruit in Florida apparently is well
under way. Progeny of the Pixiola x Golden Muscat cross show evidence of excellent
vigor, fruit production, and adaptability. Breeding stocks are being increased rapidly.
In the pasture program the attention of ranchers is being directed to proper forms
of management. Several new grass varieties in trials at this laboratory seem promising.
W. M. Fifield
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE AGRICULTURAL
To the President of the University
Sir: I submit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service of the
College of Agriculture for the biennium ending June 30, 1952.
The number of Florida families benefited by one or more phases of the Agricultural
Extension Service programs continues to increase although there has not been a cor-
responding increase in personnel to handle the work load. The number of rural and
urban families benefited in 1949 was 87,820; in 1950 the number was 89,796; and in
1951 93,305 families were reached.
State staff members for men's work are housed on the Campus of the University of
Florida and those for women's work at Florida State University. Two Negro District
Agents are office in the Agricultural Building on the Campus of Florida A & M College.
Field staff members are housed in the counties in offices provided by local boards of
county commissioners or in Post Office buildings.
During the biennium county agents were placed in three new counties which did
not have an agent at the time of the last report, namely Collier, Clay, and Liberty.
Home demonstration agents were placed in two new counties, Bay and Clay. The present
county staff is as follows:
64 County Agents
37 Assistant County Agents
47 Home Demonstration Agents
15 Assistant Home Demonstration Agents
10 Negro County Agents
12 Negro Home Demonstration Agents
The State staff is as follows:
1 Assistant Director
1 Assistant to the Director
1 State Home Demonstration Agent
3 District Agents for Men
3 District Agents for Women
2 District Agents for Negroes
4 Extension Editors (part-time)
4 4-H Club Agents
17 Specialists for Men
8 Specialists for Women
3 Department Heads (part-time)
The four Extension Editors and three of the specialists are employed on a cooperative
basis by the Agricultural Extension Service, the Agricultural Experiment Station and/or
the College of Agriculture.
Financing Extension Work-Local boards of county commissioners cooperate in the
employment of county Extension agents. These boards provide part of the salaries of
the agents, and all of their travel expense within the counties. The boards also provide
office space, except where agents are housed in Federal buildings, some clerical assistance
and certain supplies and equipment. The appropriations by county boards which are
applied to financing the work in the counties have increased materially during the bi-
ennium as indicated by the comparison between sources of funds for the years 1949-50
and 1951-52 as shown below.
SOURCES OF OPERATING FUNDS
Federal --------- $355,098.72 $368,419.95
State ......------- --- 489,952.08 461,295.00
County .-- ----- ---- -- 363,396.00 457,313.00
Percentage of Revenue from each Source:
U. S. Department of Agriculture --.. 33.2% 28.63%
State Appropriation .------ -. 37.2% 35.84%
County Appropriation ------ 29.6% 35.53%
Within limitation of funds available progress has been made in the Extension pro-
gram. Some urgently needed work could not be begun, the general increase in cost of
operations has been felt, and every effort made to obtain efficiency in the Extension
program with the resources available.
Editorial and Mailing
Distribution of information to Florida farm families through publications, newspaper
and farm journal articles, radio programs and other media by the Editorial and Mailing
Department probably reached its highest point in the history of the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service. The Department serves both the Extension Service and the Agricultural
Experiment Station through cooperative employment of personnel.
Publications-During the first year of the biennium publication of bulletins and
circulars reached a new high point, while the second year was about average in this field,
due to limited funds. For the biennium 171,500 copies of nine new bulletins totaling
332 pages were printed and reprints included 90,000 copies of four bulletins totaling 180
pages. Also, 141,500 copies of 13 circulars totaling 73 pages were issued.
Miscellaneous materials printed included 128,500 copies of 14 record books totaling
100 pages, mostly for 4.H club members; two final and 24 monthly reports of the
National Egg-Laying Test; 4-H membership cards, calendar of events, window cards, etc.
Distribution of bulletins, circulars, record books and supplies is handled from the
Mailing Room. Each new bulletin is sent to libraries, county and home demonstration
agents, and specialists in subject matter. Notification of availability is sent to others
on the list, and subsequent copies are sent only on request. Even so, demand is so
heavy that supplies are exhausted entirely too soon.
Mailing lists were revised and reduced during the last year of the biennium.
The Editorial Office also distributes USDA publications to specialists and county
and home demonstration agents.
News and Journal Releases-A clipsheet containing fromn 8 to 15 stories of news and
hints from the Extension Service, Experiment Station, College of Agriculture and related
agencies was printed and distributed weekly to newspapers, radio stations, county and
home demonstration agents, vocational agriculture teachers and others working with
groups of farm people. The Editors furnished an average of nearly one story daily
to one or more newspapers direct or to the Associated Press wire service. Around 35
special stories were prepared and sent to county and home demonstration agents for
release in their counties.
Four Florida farm papers used 18 articles which occupied 489 column inches; three
Southern journals printed five articles for 62 column inches; and one national publica-
tion carried one article which ran 19 inches.
Broadcasting Activities-In November 1951 the Extension Service staged its first
television show, one in a University series of 30-minute weekly programs. County and
home demonstration agents had appeared previously on TV.
In June 1952 the Extension Service was given two minutes on the Mutual Newsreel, a
The Florida Farm Hour over WRUF completed 28 years, being the oldest farm radio
program in the country continuously on the air. It was aired for 30 minutes Monday
through Friday and 15 minutes on Saturday. It featured farm news highlights daily and
covered practically all phases of agriculture, in addition to weekly home economics
notes. It presented talks by Extension specialists and agents, Experiment Station, College
of Agriculture, State Plant Board, Production and Marketing Administration, REA and
other workers, including eight remote control and seven taped features, and interviews.
Six tapes containing 11 talks by Extension staff members were sent to one county
agent and five tapes containing nine Extension talks to another for use in their local
Farm Flashes for five days each week were sent direct to 22 stations and through 17
county agents, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Some of these
were USDA flashes, most of them, however, being material developed here.
4-H Club Work
During the biennium participation in 4-H judging contests, livestock and poultry
shows, and the awards programs increased substantially. A total of 219 dairy cattle
were shown at the State 4-H Dairy Show in Orlando and 42 teams participated in the
Dairy Judging Contest. Some 3,000 chickens were shown by 4-H Club members at the
State 4-H Poultry Show in Orlando, and 33 4-H poultry judging teams competed in the
State-wide contest. Enrollment in boys 4-H Clubs increased from 11,301 members in
1950 to 12,304 members in 1951 and the number of members completing projects in-
creased from 7,624 to 8,560. A total of 18,258 projects were carried by all 4-H Club
members in 1951; of this number 12,937 were completed. There has also been a definite
improvement in quality of products produced in 4-H projects.
A few of the activities that helped to build the 4-H Club program included 26 leader
training meetings, 1,824 demonstration teams trained, 55 4-H judging contests held, 2
short courses, 5,500 boys at summer camps, 112 achievement days held, 493 educational
trips, 3,770 recreation and social meetings and 197 local 4-H Clubs organized on a
An increase in the number of acres under cultivation and the number of animals
raised by 4-H Club members was made during the biennium.
Camps-Five 4-H Club camps are now in operation in the State. During the biennium
a total of 70 weeks of camps was held at the white 4-H camps and 14 weeks at Negro
camps. Approximately 9,100 4-H members attended camps during the two summers. A
new 4-H camp in Highlands County was opened for 9 weeks in 1951 and will operate for
10 weeks in 1952. In addition to these 4-H camps, 8 institutes for adults were held at
Short Course-Enrollment for the Boys 4-H Short Course at Gainesville was 342 in
1951 and 336 in 1952. At the 1952 Short Course the third tractor driving contest was held
and drivers from 14 counties participated. The State 4-H dairy judging contest and the
State 4-H public speaking contest were also held at the 1951-52 Short Courses. There
were 10 contestants in the finals for the public speaking contest.
Awards Program--There are 25 State awards for Florida 4-H members. These awards
include free trips to the National 4-H Club Congress, gold watches, scholarships, cash
awards, trophies and county medals. The trip to the National 4-H Club Camp in Wash-
ington is considered the outstanding annual 4-H award. Two boys and two girls win this
trip each year. A third boy is selected to attend the annual Danforth Leadership Camp
at Shelby, Michigan.
An outstanding boy and girl from each county are selected annually to receive a
certificate at the Florida State Fair on 4-H Club Day. A dairy efficiency contest is held
to select the best dairy club boy in each of the 10 4-H Club districts. These boys receive
cash awards and the best State dairy project winner receives a large plaque. The out-
standing county in the State in dairy 4-H work is selected and given a large plaque.
Local Leaders-Approximately 15 leader training camps were held during the bi-
ennium to select and train local leaders. These camps were attended by agents and
leaders from the various counties.
4-H Councils-One of the important 4-H activities in the State is the work of the
county and State councils. About 30 counties in the State have organized county councils
which plan and assist the Extension Agent to carry out programs in the county.
The State Council has its annual meeting at the time of the Boys' 4-H Short Course.
Each county is permitted to send two delegates to serve on this council.
Negro 4-H Work-The results of Negro 4-H Club work with boys are included in this
report. The Negro 4-H Club program is supervised by Negro Extension personnel. The
State 4-H Club Agent provided subject matter materials for Negro work and assisted with
officer-leader schools and other phases of the Negro 4-H program. The State Agent
worked closely with Negro groups in planning 4-H shows, judging contests and in build-
ing exhibits for county and State fairs. He employed the camp personnel, helped plan
camp programs for the Negro groups and assisted Negro District Agents in planning the
Negro 4-H short courses and the annual Extension conferences.
The Negro awards program was accepted by Florida for the first time in 1951. Awards
were offered and winners were selected in field crops, health, garden, meat animals and
Beef Cattle-During the biennium the county agents assisted 2,919 cattlemen in
securing purebred bulls or heifers, 15,409 cattlemen were assisted in controlling internal
and external parasites and diseases, and 5,998 cattlemen were assisted in improving
methods of feeding beef cattle.
Swine-The quality of Florida hogs continues to improve. During the biennium,
2,303 swine producers were assisted by county agents in securing purebred boars and
gilts; 23,393 hog raisers were assisted in controlling external and internal parasites and
common diseases that affect swine; and 5,690 farmers were assisted in improving methods
A total of 54,094 livestock raisers were assisted during this biennium with various
phases of livestock production.
4-H Club Activities-During the biennium, 5,818 4-H Club members were enrolled in
livestock projects, and 3,921 members carried their projects to completion. The number
of units involved in completed projects during this period numbered 8,678 units.
A series of livestock judging schools for 4-H Club members was held during the past
year. A State livestock judging contest was held for the first time at the Florida State
Fair, with 23 teams competing. The winning team will represent Florida in national
competition in junior livestock judging at the International Livestock Exposition in
Chicago, Illinois, this fall.
The Extension Dairy work during the biennium has been characterized by an ex-
pansion of the Dairy Herd Improvement Association and the artificial breeding projects.
The objectives of these two programs are more efficient herd management, reduction of
expenditures for out-of-state purchases of cows, and the raising of more and better re-
placement cows through the use of production-proved dairy sires.
Dairy Herd Improvement Association Work
The advancement of the dairy herd improvement program is shown by the following
table for the testing years ending in October of the years shown.
Number Cows Lbs. Lbs. Per 100 Lbs.
Year on Test Milk Fat 4% Fat-Corrected
1949-50 4,177 6,548 295 $2.73
1950-51 6,134 6,547 302 2.66
1950-51 +1,957 -1 +7 -.07
The 47 percent increase in number of cows completing test in 1950-51 showed a seven
pound increase and a seven cents lower feed cost of producing 100 pounds milk. This
indicated more efficient herd management.
Increased interest in the dairy herd improvement program is evidenced by the more
than 8200 cows which were enrolled in the program on January 1, 1952. This represented
the second highest percentage increase of all the states of cows on test as compared with
the previous year. Twelve percent of all Florida's dairy herds of over 15 cows are
enrolled in the DHIA program.
Official Cow Testing
The Extension Dairyman is State Superintendent of Official Cow Testing, which is
carried on in cooperation with the national breed associations. Twenty-four herds are
on Advanced Registry test and 16 on Herd Improvement Registry test in this program.
Artificial Breeding Program
The artificial breeding project, started on an organized basis in November, 1948, has
continued to expand. The number of cows bred through this program for the past two
calendar years are:
Proved sire records were issued on 12 bulls during the year and "daughter averages"
on 10 other bulls. The summary of county agents' reports showed 228 farmers assisted
in buying purebred bulls in 1950 and 177 in 1951.
Feeding and Herd Management
The summary of county agents' reports showed 1863 farmers in 1950 and 1226 in 1951
were assisted in feeding problems for dairy cattle. A special study of feed provided
from pasture was made on nine DHIA herds.
Special 4-H Dairy Activities
Six district and one state 4-H dairy shows and judging contests were held as an in-
centive for better work on the part of the 1199 4-H Club members with dairy projects.
The Florida State 4-H Dairy Team won the National 4-H Dairy Cattle Judging Contest at
Waterloo, Iowa, in October, 1951, and thus qualified to represent the United States in
the International Dairy Cattle Judging Contest scheduled to be held at the British Royal
Agricultural Show in England in July, 1952.
Home Milk Supply
The summary of home demonstration agents' reports for 1950 showed that 3837 fam-
ilies were assisted in improving the home milk supply and in 1951 4525 families were
so assisted. Extension agents also cooperated with the Bureau of Animal Industry and
the State Live Stock Sanitary Board in arranging county-wide tuberculosis and Bang's
disease testing of family cows.
Florida's poultry industry has expanded during the biennium. The greatest expansion
centered around commercial broiler and turkey production. The poultry industry still
is in 5th place in importance among agricultural enterprises of the State.
Some of the more important phases of the poultry extension activities included pro-
moting the production of eggs and poultry meat to aid in improving the nutrition of
the farm family, and urging the adoption of efficient practices in producing and marketing
poultry and poultry products.
County and state poultry associations, the various state agencies, feed and equipment
dealers, and poultry processors have assisted in the development of the poultry extension
One hundred and two hatcheries with a total capacity of 4,474,201 eggs are cooperating
in the National Poultry Improvement Plan, the purpose of which is to improve the
quality of chick by breeding and to reduce the incidence of pullorum disease. The
Agricultural Extension Service is cooperating with the officials of the State Live Stock
Sanitary Board, who are in charge of the plan in Florida.
Quality Poultry Meat and Eggs
All agencies in the State worked together in developing a program to produce and
merchandise higher quality poultry meat and eggs offered to the consumer. This
program included producing and handling eggs on the farm, grading and candling,
cooling, packaging of eggs; the proper processing methods in dressing and drawing
poultry and consumer education.
Egg Laying Test
The following records were obtained in the 25th National Egg Laying Test which
lasted for 350 days: Average production of 209 eggs per bird, feed consumption of 97.2
pounds per bird, 5.3 pounds of feed to produce one dozen eggs, a mortality of 14.4
percent. A quarter of a century of official egg laying tests reveal the value of good
breeding stock and improved feeding and management practices. Analyses of data
furnish important information to distribute to the industry.
In addition to this type of test, a Random Sample Test was inaugurated during the
spring of 1952. Day old chicks were selected at random, sent to Chipley where they will
be brooded and reared until 5 months of age and then they will be tested for their egg
production ability. All results will be based on original number of birds and profit
and loss basis.
The 26th Egg Laying Test is in progress at this time.
The 9th and 10th Annual week-long Poultry Institutes were held at Camp McQuarrie
during the summers of 1950 and 1951. Approximately 300 people registered at each
Institute. A complete poultry program was presented covering the different phases of
production and marketing.
The Florida Poultry and Egg Council, State Poultry Producers Association, Breeders
and Hatchery Association, R. O. P. Federation, and Turkey Association are state-wide
organizations serving the poultry industry. Extension workers have presented subject
matter material to the members at their regular meetings and at their annual meetings.
The allied industry organizations are the Florida Feed Dealers Association and the
Poultry and Egg Dealers of Florida.
Hatchery and Breeder conferences were held in December of 1950 and 1951 at the
Poultry Laboratory on the Campus of the University of Florida with an attendance of 45
poultrymen at each conference.
Two nutrition conferences were held in Gainesville and a poultry program was
Educational and demonstrational programs in forestry for the State were initiated,
developed and directed by the Extension Forester. County agents, farmers, 4-H Club
members and others were assisted in establishing and conducting forestry demonstrations.
The Extension Forestry programs were coordinated whenever possible with such
public and private agencies as State and U. S. Forest Services, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, Wood Using Industries, Soil Conservation Service, Production-Marketing Ad-
ministration, Fish and Wildlife Service and Forest Experiment Stations.
Outlines and instructions were prepared for establishing the following demonstrations
Fire Protection by (a) Plowed fire lines, (b) wide improved pasture grass fire
Planting forest trees for (a) Reforestation, (b) windbreaks, (c) shade and
shelter plantings for livestock, (d) fence post plantings, (e) Christmas tree plantings.
Marketing Forest Products So as to convert trees into highest value products, and
leave all young and immature trees to grow for future harvests.
Provide for Home Needs for Wood (a) by reserving enough mature lumber trees
for farm use, (b) growing naturally durable species for fence posts, (c) providing for
farm needs of fuelwood, and, (d) growing trees suitable for handle material, stack poles,
sills, gates, etc.
Naval Stores (a) By pointing out additional profits possible by working trees for
gum, (b) demonstrating new turpentining methods, and (c) emphasizing better gum
4-H Forestry Projects
Accepting that forest restoration rests largely with rural young people, much time
was spent in teaching forestry to farm boys. In addition to furnishing county agents
and club members with practical 4-H project work outlines, 220,000 catalpa seeds and
456,000 red cedar seeds were collected and distributed free to 4-H Club boys for forest
nursery projects. Under the 4-H Forestry Awards Program, boys are required to manage
5 acres, or more, of timber land. Each year the State winner in this contest wins a free
trip to the National Club Congress. During the annual 4-H short courses, at 4-H club
summer camps, and at other meetings more than 1000 rural boys received instruction in
Statistical Summary During Biennium
Number of farmers assisted in forest fire protection ......-------- 21,003
Number of farmers assisted with forest planting .----------. --- 2,447
Total number of pine seedlings distributed to farmers ----- 10,870,880
Number of farmers assisted in making weedings, thinnings and prunings 648
Number of farmers making selective cuttings -------- 725
Number of farmers assisted with naval stores production ..-.....-- 266
Number of farmers assisted with timber measuring and marketing -... 646
The Extension Economist in Marketing worked with Florida Citrus Mutual in
formulating and carrying out a statewide marketing program. He cooperated with the
Florida Citrus Commission in developing advertising and dealer service programs and
worked with the Growers Administrative Committee and Shippers Advisory Committee
of the Citrus Marketing Agreement assisting them to hold meetings and determine
marketing policies to be followed.
Lime growers and their organizations in southern part of state were assisted in
developing plans for a marketing agreement and for standardizing grades and packages.
The Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association was assisted in formulating a state-wide
marketing policy and program.
Several growers vegetable marketing organizations in large vegetable areas were
assisted in organizational and marketing problems-especially methods of improving
grades and packs and some work was done with growers who are trying out new methods
of packing vegetables in the field with the use of large special machinery.
Assistance was given in organizing a state Livestock Auction Market Association to
which all 33 livestock auctions in state belong.
Conferences were held with several groups of dairymen in the state who were setting
up milk marketing organizations and assistance given them in organization and plan-
ning. Eight Dairy Herd Improvement Associations were advised on articles of incor-
poration, accounting practices, organization set-up and tax problems.
Other Commodities and Activities
The Extension Economist in Marketing served as Secretary of the Watermelon Growers
and Distributors Association. Through this organization growers were assisted with
marketing problems such as improved packing of cars, obtaining adequate cars for load-
ing, consideration of a marketing agreement, and change in grade standards. A two-week
Watermelon Packing Short Course for 20 packers at Trenton and Bell was held. The
Economist served as Chairman of the Southeastern Regional Transportation Committee
and on the Executive Transportation Committee of the National Council of Farmer
Cooperatives helping them to solve transportation problems for growers and shippers of
Requests from county agents and individual farmers were answered, and many trips
made to meet with them to provide information and advice on marketing, organizational
and taxation problems.
Farm and home planning with individuals was carried through its tenth and eleventh
years in cooperation with nine county agents. About 270 low-income farm families were
contacted annually. The farm business of each was analyzed and plans for the ensuing
year made. Approximately 1,000 recommendations for changes are made annually and
each year about 70 percent of the recommendations are carried out in a creditable manner,
resulting in an increased net income per farm of from $50 to $1,000. The average has
been about $220 or an increase over each preceding year of about 10 percent. Plans for
servicing these selected farmers in groups are now being completed, and consideration
given to extending the work to other counties.
Starting in farming has also been a leading project. Assistance has been given both
in training veterans teachers and in discussions with their students.
A general outlook publication and monthly mimeographed sheets summarizing cur-
rent outlook information important to Florida agriculture are prepared annually and
mailed to about 1,200 leading agricultural workers and the press. A summary of each
publication was broadcast on the Florida Farm Hour.
In cooperation with other Agricultural Extension Service personnel, records and
methods used in a land-clearing demonstration are in the process of analysis.
On popular demand for information, three studies were made and mimeographed
reports prepared on the economics of pasture development, the price-weight relationship
of feeder pigs, and small dairy farming.
One specialist gives more than half time to teaching Agricultural Extension Methods.
Annually he offers five different courses and plans and supervises a three-week summer
school for Extension workers, when four courses are offered, two of which are in the
field of Extension Methods. The average attendance has been 21 county workers and four
members of the state staff. In 1952 a citrus course was offered at the Citrus Experiment
Station with an attendance of 11 agents.
Major activities during the biennium were directed toward: (1) Bringing informa-
tion on all phases of field crops, pasture and turf production to the attention of county
agents, and others; (2) assisting county agents in the development and execution of
county programs of work in agronomy; and (3) distributing foundation seed of major
field crops to qualified seed producers.
Each year, the Extension Agronomist planned and conducted area meetings for seed,
fertilizer, and pesticide dealers in December, and assisted in planning and conducting
a seedsmen's school in January. He assisted in planning and conducting a subject mat-
ter program at the annual meetings of the Seed Producers Association of Florida in
November 1950 and March, 1952.
Community meetings were held in January of each year in approximately 20 coun-
ties in the general farming area, at which outlook information, information on price
supports, marketing quotas and conservation payments and recommendations for pro-
duction and management of field crops and pastures were presented to more than 3000
A subject matter program on turf was carried out at the annual meetings of the
Central Florida Lawn and Turf Institute held at Mt. Dora.
Activities during the biennium were designed to secure the establishment of more
pastures and the improvement of the carrying capacities of established pastures. County
agents were furnished production recommendations and outlines for desirable variety
and fertilization demonstrations. Records indicate that approximately 500,000 acres of
improved pasture were established during the biennium.
Trial plantings of Kenland red clover were made in most of the counties having
suitable soils and a number of demonstration plantings of Hubam clover were made on
several different types of soils in all sections of the state. Thirteen hundred pounds of
foundation seed of Floranna, a superior variety of annual white sweet clover selected
at the Main Station at Gainesville, were placed with 14 growers in six counties for the
beginning of a certified seed production program. In cooperation with the Main Station,
planting material of Pangola grass was again distributed to cattlemen in the northern
portion of the peninsula.
Temporary Grazing Crops
In the fall of 1950, the Agronomist assisted with the distribution of approximately
10,000 bushels of Station-produced foundation seed of Southland oats. A tag on which
planting and fertilizing recommendations were printed was attached to each bag of seed
distributed. Some proof that these recommendations were followed and that Southland
is a superior oat for Florida was shown by answers to a questionnaire sent to 300 growers
in the spring of 1951. The average yield reported was 40.8 bushels per acre, or two
and one-half times the average for other varieties.
Production projects with 4-H Club members and contests among adult farmers were
used to demonstrate the soundness of recommended practices. Hybrid corn seed was
used by 4-H Corn Club members and on 40 percent of the 737,000 acres planted by Florida
farmers in 1951. It is estimated that 50 percent of the 1952 acreage was planted with
hybrid seed, as compared with only 32 percent in 1950. Progress in improvement of
corn yields through use of hybrid seed and other improved practices is shown by a
comparison of the 16 bushels per acre yield obtained in 1951 with the 11 bushels per
acre average for the preceding 10-year period.
Each year, 4-H Club corn production activities were climaxed with the Annual State
Corn Show at the North Florida Fair in Tallahassee. Production records of 4-H Club
members were outstanding each year. For example, 34 boys in Escambia County pro-
duced an average of 74.9 bushels per acre in 1951.
Each year during the biennium the project leader assisted seed producers in securing
foundation single cross seed for planting approximately 600 acres for production of seed
of the hybrids Dixie 18 and Ga. 281.
The further development of supplies of certified seed of Dixie Runner was stressed
and each year approximately 20 tons of foundation seed, produced at the Experiment
Stations, was distributed by the project leader to growers throughout the commercial
Latest information on soil fumigation for control of nematodes was presented to
farmers at early spring meetings in the six major tobacco producing counties and Ex-
tension recommendations for control of weeds, insects and diseases, and for correlation
of soil type, fertilization and spacing, were emphasized at proper times throughout each
Florida was the only commercial winter source in the nation for many fresh vege-
tables. The State produced a majority of the cabbage, celery and Irish potatoes harvest-
ed in winter months. Florida also ranked with California and Texas in acreage, ton-
nage, and dollar value of year-around vegetables for fresh market.
State Extension Program
Vegetable crop specialists of the Agricultural Extension Service assemble, evaluate,
transpose and disseminate research results of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions, the United States Department of Agriculture, and other agencies and institutions
conducting related studies. A number of methods were used to inform the industry on
practices shown by research to give good yields of high quality vegetables at reduced cost.
By incorporating many of the methods outlined, and others, county agricultural and
home demonstration agents carried improved practices to the farm and city in every
section of the state. Their activities increased in nearly every phase of participation,
annually assisting over 20,000 farmers and over 10,000 families in commercial and home
food production. Around 4,000 boys and girls, annually completed 4-H home and market
In cooperation with county agricultural agents and research workers of the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, growers from the major vegetable producing areas
received on-the-spot answers to their problems through area vegetable meetings. These
proved very satisfactory in initiating improved practices and informing research workers
on grower needs.
Crop production guides were published on watermelons, tomatoes, sweet corn, sweet
potatoes, cucumbers, snap beans, squash and eggplant as Extension Circulars 96 through
103. Extension Circular 104 was prepared to answer the many requests from home
In cooperation with the Florida Seedsmen's Association, annual short courses were
presented to train store and field personnel in basic methods and current recommenda-
tions. A special vegetable production short course was given for representatives from
seven European countries under the Point IV Program. The Southeastern Short Course
on Transit Losses was conducted in cooperation with the Railroad Development Associa-
tion of America.
Agent's Vegetable Training Schools
To supplement other sources of information special training in new practices and
techniques was given agents and assistant agents through one-day schools held at Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Specific topics and recommendations coinciding with current developments were
presented by the vegetable crop specialists in mimeographed "Vegetarian" newsletters.
Cooperation with organizations such as the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association,
Florida Agricultural Research Institute, Florida Seedsmen's Association, and the Florida
State Horticultural Society in annual and commodity meetings, newsletters, programs,
and proceedings was very effective in reaching growers and related interests.
Current research was viewed through annual grower field days conducted in most
of the experiment stations and laboratories over the state.
The merchandising program is aimed to reach as many retail fresh fruit and vegetable
handlers as possible, and to encourage them to be more quality conscious and merchandise-
With a slogan of "Sell More and Waste Less", produce merchandising schools have
been conducted for retail food clerks in various parts of the state. At these schools
approved methods of care and handling are discussed and demonstrated along with
effective and accepted merchandising practices. During the past two years 65 retail
training meetings have been held with an average attendance per meeting of 15 people.
One hundred forty-five food stores have cooperated in the vegetable merchandising
In reaching the retailers and organizing the training meetings, various individuals
and organizations have played an important part. Interested and helpful individuals
have ranged from truck farmers to newspaper advertising-men. The type organizations
that have proved helpful have been retail cooperatives, chains, voluntary chains, and
To secure assistance and subject matter, close cooperation has been given and received
by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, the USDA, the Florida branch of
Distributive Education, County Agents, and other Extension Specialists.
During the past biennium, all production records for Florida citrus were broken.
The total production for the 1950-51 season was 105.3 million boxes and while the 1952
season is not yet over it appears that the state will market something like 119 million
boxes of citrus.
The citrus industry is complex and dynamic. There are many problems to be solved.
The programs of the Agricultural Extension Service are designed to assist the industry to
solve these problems. A State Extension Citrus Advisory Committee has been instru-
mental in developing programs which have assisted county agents to render more and
better service to citrus growers and handlers.
During the past biennium emphasis has been placed on training in citrus for Exten-
sion personnel in addition to the usual educational programs for citrus growers. Two
annual two day training schools for county agents in citrus counties were held, one at
the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, and the other at the U. S. D. A. Sub-Tropical
Fruit Station, Orlando. A special three weeks summer course in citrus for county agents
was arranged at the Citrus Experiment Station. This course is on a graduate level and
carries three hours credit.
During the biennium the Extension Service assisted in organizing and conducting
three area schools for citrus growers. Each school met for two hours one night each
week and ran for about 18 weeks. The total enrollment for the three schools was 409
citrus growers. These schools have been very successful and others are being planned.
Three Citrus Institutes are held annually and are attended by a total of some 12 to 15
hundred growers. For the first time in 1952 a Lime-Avocado Growers Institute lasting
one day was held in Dade County with some 150 growers attending. It is planned to
make this an annual event.
In addition to specialized programs, county agents in citrus producing counties are
conducting a well organized program of planned grower demonstrations and tours to
bring to growers the latest research findings in citrus production.
Soil and Water Conservation
The Director of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service is Administrator of the
Soil Conservation Districts Act for the State Soil Conservation Board. Acting in this
capacity he is responsible for the mechanics of organizing new Soil Conservation districts
and for other district activities such as annual elections of district supervisors and the
changing of district boundaries. The Extension Soil Conservationist assists with the
details of these functions. He keeps in touch with District Conservationists and assists
them in getting a more complete and up-to-date soil and water conservation program ap-
plied to the individual farm. The Extension Conservationist works with county agents
and Work Unit Conservationists in carrying out 4-H Club Soil Conservation Projects.
At the beginning of the biennium, there were 49 soil conservation districts chartered
in Florida. Since that time four new districts have been chartered. At present there are
two districts in the process of being organized. The boundaries of two districts have
been changed to include additional areas in each.
Field and pasture tours have proved to be a practical way to teach conservation
practices. Such tours are usually arranged jointly by the county agent, supervisors of
the local Soil Conservation District, and technicians assigned to the districts by the U. S.
Soil Conservation Service.
On these tours farms are visited, where soil and water conservation practices have
been applied. These tours are attended by both farmers and business men, who are
interested in better conservation.
This program includes the Florida Farm Buildings Plan Service which provides the
rural people of the state with approved plans for all types of farm structures. On file
for duplicating are 311 Van Dyke prints which include 31 new plans recently designed
by the Engineering Specialist. These include 8 plans in a series of livestock structures
developed in cooperation with the Extension Animal Husbandman. In answer to requests
from farmers, 11,272 sheets of building plans have been furnished from the Plan Service
files during the biennium. In addition 2,200 file copies of plans were furnished county
and home demonstration agents, vocational agriculture teachers, and Farmers Home
For use in teaching adult groups and for exhibits visual aid material has been prepared
including charts, slides, and models. A pig farrowing house, one of 14 model farm
buildings, was constructed and has been used by specialists and county agents. This
model has been used at 26 meetings attended by a total of 1,167 farmers and dairymen.
The farmstead model, which has 7 modern farm buildings and 5 old farm buildings,
has continued to be very effective and has been exhibited at state and county fairs during
1951 and 1952.
During the period covered by this report, White and Negro Extension agents assisted
44,987 farm families in all phases of farm structures.
The Farm Electrification Specialist has placed much emphasis during the biennium
on the importance of good wiring on the farm and in the home. A wiring panel has been
used as an effective teaching aid. This panel shows that poor wiring results in low
voltage which causes heating, lighting, and power equipment to give unsatisfactory
performance. It also demonstrates the safe use of fuses and circuit breakers.
About 80% of Florida's farms are now receiving electric service and much time
has been spent on promoting good lighting and the selection and economical use of
farm and home electrical equipment.
During 1950 and 1951 White and Negro county Extension workers assisted 2,658
families to obtain electricity, 8,613 families in the use of electricity in the home, and
1,447 families in using electricity to produce income.
During the biennium the Electrification Specialist gave a total of 186 talks and
demonstrations on subjects pertaining to farm electrification to approximately 11,890 rural
The 4-H electric program has been given considerable emphasis. A 4-H electricity
record book has been published and 6,500 copies of a leaflet on simple electricity en-
titled, "Electricity Made Easy," were prepared and distributed. The number of 4-H
members completing electric projects in 1951 showed a 266 per cent increase over the
number completing in 1950.
Close cooperation has been maintained with all the electric power suppliers in the
state including the 15 rural electric cooperatives. Approximately 3 out of 4 electrified
farms in the state receive service from the cooperatives. Each of the six electrification
advisers employed by the cooperatives has been given personal assistance with an
effective work plan and with problems of teaching farm people.
In teaching the proper selection, operation, and care of farm machinery, 167 demon-
strations and exhibits have been arranged and 35 county and 2 state 4-H Tractor Operators
Contests held. These public events were attended by 226,840 rural people. Two state-
wide tractor maintenance schools were conducted for 66 adult volunteer local 4-H leaders
who assisted the county agents in conducting the 4-H Tractor Maintenance Project. The
total number of farmers assisted by county agents with farm machinery problems during
1951-52 was 10,026.
Farm Processing Facilities
The Engineering Specialist designed and constructed the first two successful farm
driers in the state in 1946. There are now over 200 similar drying installations operating
on Florida farms. The four demonstration driers that were established have been
visited by over 9,000 farmers this year. A model of the combination drier was con-
structed last year and has been used in 26 meetings which were attended by 1,785 farm-
ers. During the biennium county agents have assisted an estimated 1,650 farmers with
problems on facilities for processing farm products.
The Engineering Specialist met 13 groups totaling 1,075 farmers, agents, and teach-
ers for the purpose of discussing problems in irrigation. Six demonstrations which
attracted 1,400 farm people were conducted during the past biennium. The county agents
reported assisting 2,926 farmers in irrigation problems in 1951-52.
Nineteen farm visits made by the Specialist included farm drainage problems in
locating water furrows and ditches and the use of explosives in ditching. County agents
reported assisting 4,249 farmers with drainage problems.
Two demonstrations were established in land clearing during the biennium. These
demonstrations have provided valuable information for the 1,250 farmers who visited
them. The county agents report having assisted 3,552 farmers with land clearing problems.
Citrus Grove Management
Detailed cost records were kept on 217 groves of cooperators in 1950-51. One
hundred ninety of these groves were over 10 years of age.
Citrus production costs per acre increased 27 percent in 1950-51 over the previous
season on these older groves. Operating costs for this season at $159.75 per acre were
the second highest of the 20 seasons of these records and only 14 cents lower than the
highest season of 1946-47.
Total costs without owner supervision were the highest of these records in 1950-51
at $216.99 per acre. The 1950-51 figure exceeded that for the previous season by 32 per-
cent, and was 9 percent higher than the previous high season of 1946-47. Total costs per
box were 65 cents in 1949-50.
Information concerning the desirability of purchasing citrus groves was revised and
reissued as AE Series No. 51-2, "Should I Buy a Citrus Grove?" Data for Orange
County was released as AE Series No. 51-6, "Eighteen Years of Citrus Costs and Returns
in Orange County Florida, 1931-49." Data for all groves of the project were brought
up-to-date and released as AE Series No. 52-3, "Nineteen Years of Citrus Costs and
Returns in Florida, 1931-50."
Material was prepared and presented to the Editorial Department for use over radio
stations and for news releases. Articles were prepared and published in 21 issues of
the Citrus Magazine, 6 issues of the Citrus Industry, and one issue of the California
Citrus cost accounts were discussed before college classes in horticulture and agri-
cultural economics. Published material in this work was distributed to each member of
each class. A total of 2,472 copies of publications was used for this purpose.
The tabulation and presentation of this work was expedited by the issuance of 16
different forms, or a total of 7,350 copies. Seven form letters were written, totaling 2,150
copies. Thirty-two publications were issued representing a total of 20,250 copies. A
total of 55 different publications, letters, and forms were issued, representing 29,750
copies, or a total of 100,400 pages of material.
Florida is the largest honey producing state in the southeast. The honey crop has
been estimated to be worth well over two million dollars annually. Honey production
in 1950 was 15.6 million pounds and in 1951 was 17.9 million pounds. Florida produced
its highest yield in history in 1951 and was third in the United States in honey production.
Florida State Fair Program
The Extension Apiculturist supervises exhibits of apiary products at the Florida State
Fair and encourages beekeepers to use the Fair to promote and advertise honey to the
public. Over six tons of honey were displayed in 1950-51.
4-H Club Apiary
The primary purpose of the 4-H Club apiary located at Camp McQuarrie is for
instruction work with 4-H Club boys. Honey is now produced in quantity from ten
colonies of bees to supply over eight thousand boys and girls going to camp each year.
A surplus of 540 pounds was marketed in 1950.
The 4-H Club apiary provides an excellent laboratory for studying production
methods, extracting and handling and packing honey.
Cooperative Extension Programs
Pollination studies on legumes and watermelons with honey bees were carried in
cooperation with staff members of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Other
cooperative programs with Experiment Station and Extension personnel included plant
identification of honey plants and planting legumes and trees for honey production. The
use of honey and honey products is a project that is carried on with the Extension
Nutritionist. The information from joint projects is disseminated to county agents and
beekeeping associations by news letters, visual aids, and talks.
Since marketing honey is the beekeepers major problem, the Extension Apiculturist
devotes a major portion of his time to projects and programs that market honey. The
Florida Honey Cooperative, organized late in 1949, has moved large volumes of properly
graded and standardized honey. The collection of several different crops of honey has
made it possible to blend these honeys and thereby furnish the buyer a standard product
in volume. There has been practically no carry over of honey from one season to
another in Florida since the cooperative was organized.
Home Demonstration Work
Home Demonstration Work is an integral part of the Agricultural Extension Service
of the University of Florida and also functions as the Home Demonstration Extension
Department of the Florida State University under an agreement made nearly 40 years
ago. Florida State University provides housing for the State Home Demonstration Staff
and a financial budget which permits additional personnel, supplies, equipment and a
pre-service training program for prospective Home Demonstration Agents.
Home Demonstration workers are responsible for the development of coordinated
state-wide programs for white and Negro home demonstration women and girls.
During the biennium emphasis was placed on the need for well-balanced county
programs built around established demonstrations in the home. More volunteer leaders
were trained to assume responsibilities in their communities and counties.
Six specialists were appointed during the biennium. Three were new positions and
three were unfilled positions. The three new positions established in the State Office in
1951 were: Editor and Visual Aids, Food Conservation, and Health Education Specialists.
Appropriations were provided for Home Demonstration Work for the first time in Bay
and Clay Counties. Assistant Home Demonstration Agents were appointed in three
additional counties: Alachua, Lake, and South Hillsborough Counties.
Two positions in the Florida State University budget were maintained to give pre-
service training to prospective Home Demonstration Agents considered suitable for later
appointments. During this biennium four young women had the advantage of this pre-
Forty-seven Boards of County Commissioners and eight County School Boards
cooperated with the Agricultural Extension Service in making appropriations for Home
Demonstration Work in the counties.
In-service training of State and County Home Demonstration personnel was given by
Faculty and Staff members from University of Florida, Florida State University and the
United States Department of Agriculture. Area conferences and workshops were held for
home demonstration agents with district agents and specialists participating. In-service
training meetings were held in each district with every home demonstration agent, white
and Negro, receiving training in subject-matter fields of work.
Girls' 4-H Club Work
At the close of 1951, 16,391 4-H Club girls were enrolled in 634 4-H Clubs. There
were 4-H County Councils in 32 counties which planned programs and served as
advisory groups to the home demonstration agents.
During 1950-52 there were 706 training meetings for 4-H Club leaders with 11,987
leaders attending. In every phase of 4-H Club work the importance of leadership de-
velopment was emphasized. As a result 2,900 adults were serving as 4-H Club leaders
and 1,095 older 4-H Club girls were serving as Junior leaders in June, 1952.
Each year approximately 600 4-H Club girls, their adult leaders and county home
demonstration agents attend the State Girls' 4-H Short Course. The program is planned
to give leadership opportunities to the girls throughout the week.
4-H Club Camps
A total of 4,634 4-H Club girls attended the 3 district and several county 4-H Club
camps during the biennium. The week's program is planned to provide recreational,
educational and inspirational training for the 4-H Club members.
Florida State Fair
As a part of the State Fair program each year, outstanding 4-H Club teams give
demonstrations to a fair audience. During the 1951 and 1952 Fairs 40 teams of 4-H Club
girls gave such demonstrations.
National 4-H Programs
Two girls were selected to attend the National 4-H Camp at Washington each year.
This trip is considered the highest form of recognition which can be given to a 4-H
Each year the Danforth Foundation awards a two weeks' scholarship to the American
Youth Foundation Christian Leadership Training Camp at Shelby, Michigan to the
Florida 4-H Club girl who has been outstanding in leadership and achievement.
Each fall the outstanding records of 4-H Club girls from each county are submitted
to the State Home Demonstration Office. County winners receive a medal and a certifi-
cate for their achievement. From these records, state winners are selected in each
phase of the program.
Food and Nutrition
The 1950-52 food and nutrition program was developed as a continuation of the
long-time agricultural and home economics program to improve the health and living
standards of Florida families. During part of this period the State Home Demonstration
Office was without specialists to direct this phase of the program.
Work was carried on with farm and rural non-farm families and many urban fam-
ilies, including all cultural and economic levels. Approaches and procedures varied
with the different groups and individuals according to their needs.
A number of methods and teaching devices were used to accomplish the objectives.
Emphasis was placed on the development of local leadership and upon establishment of
good practices with individuals and families.
The program was organized around two phases, Adult and 4-H Club program. Work
with the two groups was interrelated. The basic divisions of each phase were: (1) Nu-
trition and health; (2) food selection, preparation and meal planning; (3) home pro-
duction of the family food supply; and (4) wise use of the food dollar.
Nutrition and Health-Three main factors contributing to good nutrition and health
were stressed: (1) an appreciation of what good nutrition can contribute to health and
happiness, (2) a working knowledge of what constitutes a healthful diet at different
stages of life, and (3) economic ability to provide a nutritional diet. During the bien-
nium 25,704 families were trained to recognize the difference between good and poor
nutritional practices and manifestations. Six thousand one hundred and sixty-nine fam-
ilies were helped with child feeding problems. Thirty-eight thousand six hundred and
sixty-eight families were assisted in improving their diets.
Food Selection, Preparation and Meal Planning-The food selection, preparation and
meal planning phase placed emphasis on the right choice of food, home production or
wise purchase of food, proper storage of food, scientific preparation and cooking of food,
and gracious serving of appetizing family meals. The Basic 7 food groups were used as
a guide to food selection and meal planning. Families assisted by home demonstration
agents in wise buying of food totaled 13,676 and 28,418 families were assisted in using
local and seasonal foods to best advantage.
Home Food Production-Home production of the family food supply was approached
from the point of view of good nutrition, health, and economy. Where practical, families
were encouraged to have home vegetable gardens, fruit plantings, milk cows, poultry
flocks and meat animals for home consumption. According to home demonstration
agents' reports there were 45,111 families which improved the family food supply by
making changes in home food production. Home demonstration and 4-H Club members
grew 37,058 home gardens and 9,886 home orchards were started with 191,284 fruit trees
and vines planted. There were 1,092,481 chickens in home flocks and 3,435 dairy cows
purchased during this two-year period.
Food Conservation serves to stabilize the economy of rural farm families, and to
provide them with a nourishing year round food supply. The objective of this program
was to reach as many Florida families as possible to encourage and assist them in con-
serving farm surplus for family use. Demonstrations were established to show families
the benefits of a conservation program. There was a constant need for teaching correct
procedures and techniques of canning, freezing and storing.
The program was carried out through the combined efforts of the subject-matter
specialists and the county home demonstration agents.
Food Preservation-Area training meetings and county-wide meetings were held
during the biennium to bring to agents the latest canning methods and information.
During this period 2,919,169 pints of fruits and vegetables and 447,526 pints of meats
were canned by home demonstration cooperators.
As a new method of conserving food, freezing is very popular. In 1950, 4,070 home
freezers were reported by home demonstration agents and in 1951, 6,071 freezers were
in use. Locker plants were also used. Five thousand five hundred twenty-four families
used lockers in 1950 and 6,452 in 1951. Agents reported a total of 757,456 pints of
fruits and vegetables, and 758,559 pounds of meat were frozen in 1950 and 1951 by
Curing of meats contributed much towards providing an adequate home meat supply.
During the past two years home demonstration agents assisted families in curing
2,162,186 pounds of meat for the family table.
The major objectives of the home improvement program during the biennium were
to assist Florida families to: (1) Obtain comfortable, convenient, helpful, and beautiful
homes; (2) make better use of income, time, and ability to meet the needs and wants
of family members; and (3) enable families to make the best use of their religious,
educational, and recreational opportunities.
Housing-The home demonstration agents' reports for the biennium show that 7,018
days were spent in all phases of home improvement work. Agents were assisted by
2,714 volunteer local leaders who received training at 544 meetings.
The agents reported that 7,047 families were assisted with building, remodeling, and
repairing dwellings, 3,768 with storage problems, 5,186 with kitchen improvements, and
15,706 with selecting and improving furniture and furnishings.
Family Living and Consumer Problems-Some of the problems agents and volunteer
local leaders assisted in solving related to increasing family income, planning before
spending in order to make the money go farther, producing food and feed when prac-
ticable, practicing orderly work habits, and making use of opportunities for religious,
civic, educational and recreational activities for all family members.
Homemakers numbering 14,301 were assisted with better housekeeping skills and
practices; 5,089 with time management; 4,378 with home accounts, financial planning,
use of credit and family living; 19,768 with buying problems; and 13,913 in using
timely economic information to improve family living.
Nearly 15,000 families were aided in improving home recreation during the biennium.
In addition, 775 communities were assisted with improving organized recreational facili-
ties and 1,612 4-H and adult clubs improved buildings and/or grounds of community
houses, churches, and schools.
Through 4-H Club work in home improvement, 4,165 girls beautified their home
grounds and 5,190 improved the interior of their homes. In addition, 6,653 girls re-
ceived training in recreational leadership and 7,647 in music appreciation.
The home improvement specialist guided and directed the farm and home safety
and fire prevention program for women and girls as a part-time project. During the
biennium, approximately 7,446 women and 7,622 girls were enrolled for the program.
The agents in 47 counties were assisted in this phase of work by 1,047 leaders and 1,952
meetings on safety and fire prevention were held. The Extension Service camp program
for 4-H Club members provides an opportunity for training in water safety and the
10,000 girls and boys, white and Negro, who attended the five regional camps during
the year were given instructions in the rudiments of water safety, swimming and life-
Clothing and Textiles
The major objectives of the Agricultural Extension Service clothing program was to
develop standards in clothing, which would improve the health and appearance of each
family member, as well as give poise and satisfaction to the wearer, thus providing
better and happier living within the clothing budget.
The Selection Program-Material and Equipment
Factors which determined Extension activities in this field included the high cost
of clothing, the sale of large numbers of new sewing machines and sewing equipment,
and the many new fabrics and finishes on the market today. Assistance was given in
the selection and care of materials as well as in the selection and care of home sewing
equipment. During 1951, 1,077 families were assisted with care and repair of their
home sewing machines and 12,679 families were aided in buying and care of fabrics.
The Clothing Construction Program
This program was approached by encouraging more and better home sewing. To
further this aim, leaders were trained in groups. Reports from the county home demon-
stration agents in 1951 show that 813 women carried the construction and selection pro-
grams to additional homemakers. Some 15,319 families were helped in clothing con-
struction, an increase of approximately 1,000 families over 1950.
Budgeting and Clothing Planning
Clothing being an item on which families can cut expenses as prices advance, time
was given to planning clothing needs and discouraging impulse buying. There were
2,710 families enrolled in a clothing budget or account program in 1951, as compared
to 1,978 families in the same program for 1950. Work on this program was conducted
in 643 communities.
Information on clothes for small children was provided for 1,994 families by county
home demonstration agents.
Remodeling of garments for smaller children involved a major part of the work on
children's clothes in 1951.
Home Industries and Marketing
A major objective of the Extension Home Industries and Marketing program is the
wise use of available resources on the farm and in the home. This program was estab-
lished in November, 1949.
The program is planned and carried out in the 47 counties of Florida which have
home demonstration work. It is developed through the cooperative efforts of the Home
Industries and Marketing Specialist, other specialists of the Agricultural Extension
Service and the home demonstration agents who work with volunteer leaders, home dem-
onstration and 4-H Clubs, and others.
Marketing and Consumer Education
Extending cash income by buying wisely has been the phase of the program which
has received the most emphasis. Consumer information on selecting and using foods-
especially fruits, vegetables and meats-was given to agents, leaders and others. The
Home Industries and Marketing Specialist cooperated with the Home Improvement
Specialist in preparing and distributing information on selecting house furnishings,
equipment, and household textiles.
Money, Time and Energy Management demonstrations for women and girls were
developed in cooperation with the Home Improvement Specialist. Agents, leaders and
club members received instructions on how to improve ability to manage money, time
Standardization of Products
When requested, assistance was given on standardizing home produced products
which are offered for sale. Laws governing standards and selling of products were
studied and interpreted.
Training was given in skills necessary to produce quality products, especially food
and craft products made of native materials. Timely and useful information on improv-
ing production and marketing practices, and on improving facilities was given to indi-
viduals and groups when requested. Assistance was given to persons interested in
improving established businesses and in starting new ones.
Statistical Report During Biennium-The specialist worked with approximately 10,000
persons in addition to Extension Service personnel and trained 788 volunteer leaders
in 32 counties. Home demonstration agents reported spending 2,469 days developing
the home industries and marketing program. With the aid of 2,439 volunteer leaders,
they assisted 14,176 families.
The use of native materials in making craft articles was demonstrated at 612 meetings.
In 37 counties, 3,277 club members standardized products for market. These women
and girls reported receiving $949,426.78 cash for farm and home products sold. In
addition to the cash sales of their products many families donated home-made products
to charity and community drives as contributions in place of cash.
In 1951, 2,493 4-H boys and girls were enrolled in home industries, arts and crafts
and 2,074 completed work on 7,571 articles.
Editorial and Visual Aids
The Assistant Editor was appointed in February 1951 to give news coverage for home
demonstration work. In October she was also assigned responsibilities as Visual Aids
The major objectives of the Editorial and Visual Aids program were to: (1) Inform
the public on home demonstration work; (2) develop an awareness of the importance
of home economics education in a democracy; (3) bring home demonstration work and
the community together to improve the educational opportunities for children and
adults; (4) evaluate the offerings of home demonstration work and 4-H Club work in
meeting the needs of the community; (5) interpret the aims and activities of home
demonstration and 4-H work.
News and feature articles were published on National 4-H Club Week, National Home
Demonstration Week, the Annual 4-H Short Course and Council of Senior Home Demon-
stration Women, 4-H camps and Farm and Home Institutes, fairs, recognition and
awards. Articles were published also in the subject-matter fields of nutrition, marketing
and home industries, food conservation, clothing and textiles, and home improvement.
Visual Aids The visual aids program is linked with the editorial program by making
use of such educational stimuli as circular letters, charts, graphs, diagrams, demonstra-
tions, discussion groups, exhibits, field trips, filmstrips, film slides, flat pictures, illustrated
talks, kodachrome slides, maps, posters, recordings, tableaus and terreria.
Work with Negro families is an integral part of certain programs carried on by the
Agricultural Extension Service. The activities carried on with Negro families have
been mentioned throughout this report. Negro county and home demonstration agents
are employed in counties where Negro populations are heaviest and these agents work
exclusively on educational programs designed to be of benefit to Negroes. Other Exten-
sion programs are for all groups, both white and Negro.
In 1951, 6,485 Negro families were benefited by some phase of the Negro Extension
program and 6,250 Negro boys and girls were enrolled in 4-H Club work.
The work of the Negro county and home demonstration agents is under the im-
mediate supervision of a Negro district agent for men and a Negro district home demon-
stration agent for women. These district supervisors are housed at Florida A & M College.
Extension specialists at the University of Florida and Florida State University provide
technical information to this group through correspondence, personal visits to the
counties, area training meetings and the Annual Conference for Negro Extension workers.
H. G. Clayton, Director
The School of Forestry
To the President of the University
Sir: The forest products industry is continuing to expand in Florida. As it expands
the increased requirement for raw material must be met. To do so, however, will require
trained personnel for managing forests on a sustained yield basis in keeping with the
productive capacity of the forest lands. Protection of the forest lands, and development
and refinement of wood uses which will increase the service efficiency and increase the
usable percentage of the annual wood volume produced must also be the task of trained
The School of Forestry now provides training in Forest Management and Wildlife
Management. Education in fundamentals and in the theory and science of forestry is
stressed. The field training essential to a starting career in forestry is provided. During
the biennium 61 baccalaureate degrees and 9 master's degrees were granted. Employ-
ment opportunities have been plentiful, both with the wood using industry and with
A curriculum in Forest Products Technology has been added to provide training in
the wood technology and wood products phases of forestry. To meet the requirements
of this curriculum eight new courses have been added. Two courses have been deleted
from the offering and all others reviewed and revised for content in the light of advances
in knowledge and practice in forestry.
The research program being developed now includes major projects in forest land
quality determination, forest measurements, stand improvement, forest tree improvement,
wood preservation, and development of logging and small sawmill equipment. The
forest products research program is being expanded as equipment and facilities became
Dr. E. A. Ziegler and Dr. W. D. Brush retired in June, 1951. Since 1950, five staff
members have been added, including highly qualified men in the fields of forest products
technology and forest genetics. In the biennium two staff members have been on leave
for a period of one year for study toward the doctorate degree. Two others are making
arrangements to continue their training during the coming year.
The State Forest Ranger School, Lake City, is continuing to train technicians needed
to grow and harvest forest crops. The staff at the Ranger School is eminently qualified to
offer this type of training and the School is excellently located with regard to forest land
area and forest industry.
C. M. Kaufman, Director
University of Florida Conservation Reserve
To the President of the University
Sir: The University Conservation Reserve, at Welaka, serves primarily as a research
and training area for graduate students in the Department of Biology and for undergradu-
ate and graduate students in the School of Forestry. During the biennium 118 students
made use of the facilities. In addition, 57 staff members of the University and visiting
scientists from other institutions have taken advantage of the biological resources avail-
able. There were 552 mGmbers of 14 scientific and lay organizations interested in biology
and forestry and wild life conservation who visited or used the Reserve during the
Reforestation operations are practically complete. It was necessary to plant only
2,750 pine seedlings during the biennium as compared to a previous total of 33,000.
Wood harvesting operations were increased with 102,500 board feet of lumber sawed
and delivered to the University. This is over five times the amount removed during
the previous biennium, yet this rate of cutting can be maintained indefinitely under
sound management practices.
J. Wayne Reitz
REPORT OF THE DEAN OF THE COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
AND ALLIED ARTS
To the President of the University
Sir: More and more it is to the arts that mankind is turning for leadership in the
compelling task of shaping a decently humanized world. For that reason, the two-year
period ending June 30, 1952 has been among the most significant in the history of the
College of Architecture and Allied Arts.
Twenty-seven years ago, when the foundations of the College were first established,
the attic of Peabody Hall where the first classes were held served the 34 students
reasonably well. But the size of the student body has grown through the years, and
during the initial semester of the biennium more than 700 young men and women enrolled
for work in the College. The original attic has long since been outgrown, and the
College now occupies all or part of five different buildings: three large temporary
structures, the attic of Walker Hall, and the balcony of the Student Book Store.
Through the years it has been the purpose of the College of Architecture and Allied
Arts to improve man's physical environment and enrich his life through education in
architecture and the arts. To that end the College provides professional education for
useful service in the field of the arts, creative and cultural opportunities for students in
other colleges of the University, and appropriate services to the citizens of Florida in
This report gives information on the manner in which the units of the College of
Architecture and Allied Arts, namely, the Department of Architecture, the Department
of Art, the Bureau of Architectural and Community Research, and the University Center
of the Arts, are performing their teaching, research and service functions and are meet-
ing the responsibilities which have been placed upon them.
Department of Architecture
Architecture, one of the oldest professions, is concerned with the design and con-
struction of shelter and environment for all the activities of man. The building industry,
now largest in the nations in terms of expenditure and employment, looks to the archi-
tectural profession for leadership in the development of new building types, new ma-
terials, and new systems of construction. Because building is at the highest level in the
nation's history, it is not surprising that enrollment has continued almost at the post-war
peak of 1949-50. During the second year of the biennium, student enrollment in the
five-year program in Architecture was the largest in the South, and sixth largest in the
During the previous biennium, major improvements were effected in the curricula in
Architecture and in Building Construction. The task of this biennium has been the
restudying and perfecting of details, and the experience of the last two years has con-
firmed the values anticipated from the changes. During the biennium, the curricula
in Interior Design and in Landscape Architecture have likewise been revised. The
Department has maintained its professional accreditation by the National Architectural
Accrediting Board, and continues to enjoy national interest in its educational program.
The programs of student organizations have been revitalized during the biennium.
As a consequence a very fine esprit-de-corps exists between students, faculty and admin-
istration, and there is splendid cooperation in all manner of educational enterprises.
Such cooperation has made it possible to bring to the campus during the past year inter-
nationally known men such as Frank Lloyd Wright, William Lescaze, George Nelson,
Edwin Bateman Morris, Paul Rudolph, and Ralph Gulley, as visiting lecturers and
During the biennium the Student Builders Association, acting in cooperation with
the National Association of Home Builders, formed a National Student Builders Asso-
ciation. University of Florida students have served as national officers of this Associa-
tion from 1950 to 1952 during the first two years of its existence. During 1952 a Uni-
versity of Florida Chapter of the national honorary building construction fraternity,
Sigma Lambda Chi, was installed.
The Student Chapter of the American Institute of Architects has been granted a
national charter under the continued sponsorship of the Florida Association of Archi-
tects of the American Institute of Architects. This organization, one of the largest on
the campus, has become a powerful force in the development of fine relations among
students, and beyond the campus among the practicing architects of Florida. During
the biennium the Student Chapter cooperated in founding the Annual Awards Dinner,
and instituted three new campus events: the Beaux Arts Ball, the Architectural Field
Day, and the Monthly Lecture Luncheon. Through these activities our students have
shown a marked will to leadership, and there can be little doubt that the future leader-
ship for America's largest industry, building, is being formed successfully on the
The Department began the biennium with a staff of 28 full time members. Because
unprecedented activity in the building field has created a critical shortage of trained
personnel, and because other universities with higher salary scales have needed teachers,
an unusually large number of staff members resigned during 1951. Through the
sympathetic understanding and vigorous leadership of the University administration,
salary adjustments which became effective January 1, 1952 have enabled the Department
to end the biennium with a staff of 24 full time members.
The Department of Architecture has long followed a policy of building its staff with
young men of high promise. It has sought to build its staff with men eager to solve the
manifold problems of professional education; men who will achieve fame in the solu-
tion of these problems; and who will achieve it here. Such a policy differs from that
of richly endowed institutions and those with more adequate salary scales. The policy
is not without its difficulties, for many men are inclined to go to more lucrative posi-
tions in private enterprise or competing institutions, rather than to remain to play