TAKINcG AFKlCxTO- TH CLX RS OOM
A PUBLICATION OF THE CENTER FOR AFKICXN STUDIES
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WOULD YOU BELIEVE?
The following countries could fit
The area of Africa is
Source of Data: The 1990 World Almanac 4-.
and Book of Facts.
* Total, land & water, 50 States
" 1989 Information Please Almanac. Includes Iceland. Excludes
European USSR and European Turkey.
Copyright 2005 World EaglIBA, Inc.
Reprinted with permission from WORLD EAGLE,
1.800-854-8273. All rights reserved
0 World Eagle, Inc. 1990
AFRICA TODAY 1994 Revised Edion
l King Street, UtItsonK MA 01460 U.SA.
What subjects should every student study?
For what purpose should you be educated?
Part B: In small groups haves students complete
the following:You have decided to attend Timbuktu
University. Complete the admissions application and
write 4 sentences expressing why you should be allowed
to study at Timbuktu University.
Process: Problem Solving Group-work skill builder
Copies of questions for student groups
One copy of pictures, each group will discuss one
picture/poster. (You may use 4-6 pictures from text or
Put students in small groups to analyze "posters" in the
1. Sketch poster
2. Identify any symbols
3. Discuss poster "s relationship to the topic
4. Record the answers/guesses to the following
a.Where does this take place?
b. When did this happen?
c.Write a caption for the poster
d. What does the artist/photographer want you to
Sunshine State Standards for World History:
Objective 1: SSB2.4. 1, SSB2.4.6
Objective 3: SSA2.4.8. SSA3.4.3, SSA3.4.
Objective 4: SSA 1.4.1. SSA1.4.4
BA SIC LEARNINC OBJECTIVES:
Students will be able to
1. Locate Timbuktu on a map of Africa
2. Explain the ancient University System
3. Explain 5 key ideas of the history of Timbuktu
4. Give 3 reasons for the importance of the
This lesson can be used at a variety of grade levels
and with students with a variety of learning styles. The
teacher can use all or parts of any of the activities. The
readings and graphic organizers were created with
9th grade World History in mind. "History Alive!"
is the inspiration for this lesson plan, but the Center
for African Studies at the University of Florida is the
CKAP HIC OK ANIZ ERA
4 Degree Levels of the University System
Directions: list the main qualities of each degree level.
CKRAPHIC OKCGANIZER B3
THE TIMBUKTU LIBKXAMKIE
Directions: Briefly describe the significance of the
manuscripts of Timbuktu.
1. Scholarly significance of the manuscripts:
2. Diplomatic significance:
1. Primary degree:
2.. Secondary degree:
4. Circle of Knowledge
Gold was mined in the 11 and
salt was mined North of Timbuktu in the 12
The gold-salt trade gave Timbuktu the reputation for
13 14 and 15
3. Economic and social significance:
ARCHITECTS OF DJENNE
The first buildings of Timbuktu were the work of
16 architects. The 17
Mosque dates to the 18_ century. Other architects
came from 19
CENTER OF ISLAMIC LEAsKNINC
By the _20 century Timbuktu was a well-known
center of 21 Timbuktu had 22
universities and 23 schools. The university
centered at the _24_great mosques.
CKRAPHIC ORKCANIZER C
2 COLUMN NOTES
HISTO P. OF TIMBUKTU
EXERCISE: FILL IN THE BLANKS
LOCATION OF TIMBUKTU
Timbuktu is located in 1 the nation of
2 To the north is the 3 Desert. The
4 River flows nearby
FOUNDED BY THETUAKEC
The Tuareg people founded Timbuku in the 5
_century. The city's name may derive from_6
Many ethnic groups meet to trade here.
The Niger River flows first north to the edge of the
7 Desert. Then turns _8 again. The
trade in 9 and _10 depended on the
use of this river.
N iANSA N-iUSA
Mansa Musa was the emperor of 25 from
26 to 27 In 1325 Mansa Musa had the
28 Mosque built. Mansa Musa's use of
gold caused 29 in much of North Africa.
THE FKIDAY PAYEKS
This is another name for the mosque at 30
Every Friday, 31 worshipers would come
to pray. This mosque was built by 32 in
THE ASKIA DYNASTY
Another kind of leadership came with the 33
Dynasty, who dominated Timbuktu from 34 to
35 Timbuktu was able to 36
Economically and intellectually under this rule.
Mali was one of the many areas to fall under European
colonial control. The 37 moved into this
part of West Africa in 38 Timbuktu and Mali
won their independence in 39
RCEF C KNC S
AN SWE KS:
6.) Tin Abutut
11.) southern coastland
17.) Sidi Yahya
19.) the north
21.) Islamic learning
28.) Jingaray Ber
32.) Mansa Musa
1.) Western Africa
Timbuktu Heritage Institute
Libraries of Timbuktu
People of Timbuktu
The Global African Community
SVGGESTED ACTIVITIES: (DVWIT!)
DISCOVER- Have students list the 7
wonders of the ancient world they already know.
UNCOVER Have students work in 7 teams each as-
signed a "wonder". Using the internet and/or printed
resources, students will gather information on 1) when
that "wonder" was built, 2) its description, 3) its pur-
pose and 4) its demise.
WONDER Have students look through Wonders of
the Modern World for the most similar "wonders" of
the ancient world, ie: modern pyramids, colossal stat-
ues, etc... How do their answers compare? Have stu-
dents find at least two modern wonders that no longer
exist. How does their demise compare to those of the
INCORPORATE Have student groups decide how
they can best convey what they learned to others. Pro-
vide ample time for their "creations".
TELL Have students share what they learned with
1.2 "HOW many of the WONDERS are in
2 of the original 7 Wonders of the Ancient World
are in Africa:
1) The Pyramids of Giza (Egypt)
2) The Pharos (Lighthouse) of Alexandria (Egypt)
One of the 7 Natural Wonders of the World is in Africa
3) Victoria Falls (border of Zambia & Zimbabwe)
SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES TO INTEGRATE THE
CURRICULUM: ALL GRADES
There are a number of resources available to help
students uncover "WHAT" the 7 Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World are (see Appendix A, also Resources).
They range from elementary level pop-up books and
viewmaster disks to Eddie Bauer's "Seven Wonders of
the World" Compass & Book (recently advertised on E
Bay). U.E's Rare Book Collection contains 4 children's
books dated from 1812-1819 with drawings and text
about The 7 Wonders of the World.
~ EOK PHY/LAN UAE E A TkS/.AATH/F N E AKTS
Students of all ages can use a wall map to locate the
site where each of the "Wonders" originally stood. The
history of these areas can be explored using an interactive
website (see Resources), by sharing stories of the tallest
building, statue, lighthouse they've ever seen and/or
drawing their unique renditions of a "wonder" of their
choice. Geometric shapes can be used to describe each
of the seven wonders in visual art, dance or dramatic
presentations can also be created.
OBJECTIVE 2: STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO
AN SWE K:
2.1 "What is a World Heritage Site?"
In 1972, UNESCO created "The Convention
Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural
and Natural Heritage" for the purpose of
identifying and protecting cultural and natural
sites of "universal value". Cultural sites may be:
monuments, groups of buildings, and individual
sites of historic, aesthetic, archaeological, scientific,
ethnologic or anthropologic value, historic areas
of towns, or 'cultural landscapes'. Natural sites
may be sites with amazing physical, biological
or geological formations, those with outstanding
universal value to science or natural beauty.
2.2 "How Does a World Heritage Site Differ from a
Each World Heritage Site is designated by The World
Heritage Committee to be either: "cultural", "natural" or
"mixed" sites. Natural World Wonders, as well as the
last remaining Ancient World Wonders, are included
amongst World Heritage Sites.
2.3 "How Many World Heritage Sites are in
There are 754 World Heritage Sites as of July 2003,
(582 cultural, 149 natural and 23 mixed properties) in
129 areas worldwide. Currently 95 of the 754, or 12.6%,
of the World Heritage Sites exist within 31 African
SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES TO
INT EGATEEC CUKKJCULUM: .P PPER
1.) Have students write to UNESCO and request a
Map of World Heritage Sites.
2.) Color maps of Africa, include locations of World
3.) Read about Dr. Livingstone's Travels in Africa
4.) View & Do: Nova's "Treasures of the Sunken
City" Video (w/Lesson Plans)
Bahn, PG. The Alias of World Archeology. London:
Time-Life Books, 2000.
Bechky, Allen. Adventuring in Southern Africa. San
Francisco, California: Sierra Club Books, 1997.
Else, David. Jon Murray, and Deanna Swaney.. Africa-
The South. Oakland. California: Lonely Planet Publica-
Clayton, Peter A. and Martin J. Price. Eds. The Sev-
en Wonders of the Ancient World. London: Routledge,
*recommended for ESOL students, see www. usingeng-
D 'Epiro, Peter and Mary Desmond Pinkowish.
What Are The Seven W4onders of the World? New York:
Anchor Books, 1998.
Klurman. Melissa, ed. Fodor's Southern Africa, 2nd
Edition: The Guide for All Budgets, Completely Up-
dated, with Maps and Travel Tips (Fodor's Southern
Africa). Fodor, 2002.
Hammerton, J.A., ed. Wonders of the Past. New York:
G.P Putnam's Sons, 1924.
Jordan. Paul. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
London: Pearson Education Limited. 2002.
Martin. David. Victoria Falls: MOSI-OA-TUNYA.
Harare. Zimbabwe: African Publishing Group. 1998.
McIntyre, Chris. Zambia: The Bradt Travel Guide, 2nd
Edition. Old Saybrook, CT: The Globe Pequot Press,
Romer, J. and E. The Seven Wonders of the World: A
History of the Modern Imagination. London: Thames
and Hudson Ltd., 1995.
Shackley, Myra, ed. Visitor Management: Case
Studies from World Heritage Sites. Boston:
Reader's Digest Wonders of the Modern World,
Pleasantville, NY: The Reader's Digest Association,
Whitaker, Joseph. Whitaker's Almanack 2005 (Whitak-
er 's Almanac). London: A & C Black, LTD, 2004.
McGeveran, William A., ed. The World Almanac and
Book of Facts 2004 (World Almanac and Book ofFacts).
World Almanac, 2003.
ductDisplay "Treasures of the Sunken City"
"Seven Wonders of the World" www.history-minds.
www. schooldiscovery. com/ lessonplans/ programs/
www.schooldiscovery. com/ lessonplans/ programs/
"Water Ecology in Africa"
www. pbs. org/teachersource/search/standards_results.
THE INTE M EDI ARY-AN INDIRECT
Why go to a diviner rather than trying to tough it
out or determine the cause of one's own distress? This
indirect appeal to divinity by way of an intermediary
reflects the African culture in general (Akinyemi,
2004). For example, children are expected never to look
their elders directly in the eye, but to avert their gaze
respectfully, which is so different from the Western
emphasis on eye contact.
How can an individual state their case to the
Supreme Being when many African cultures eschew
"tooting your own horn." Only thoughtless braggarts
self-promote. In fact, a recent discussion with a Kenyan
academic revealed his dismay to discover that he was
expected to bargain for his salary when he was hired
at a major university in the U.S. recently. "Why would
they have a range of salary for the same position?" To
him, haggling over a professional salary is decidedly
Another aspect of this circuitous African approach
is the arranged marriage. A young man from Dakar,
Senegal, aged 27, recently returned home from six years
of school in the United States to two suggested marriage
partners, one right after the other. Both matches were
found inappropriate by a diviner, which, as we might
imagine, was a somewhat humiliating experience. He
is a handsome, educated young man who is ready to
marry. But, his family-and the diviner-must agree
with him on the appropriate mate.
One last example of this gracious idea of the indirect
approach is the path leading to the entrance of a home.
Think how much more attractive a curving path is that
does not run in a straight line from street to front door.
The Chinese study of energy movement also teaches
that indirect is best-nature exists with few straight
So, addressing the Supreme Being directly is just
not done. Therefore, the diviner steps in to be the
necessary intermediary between the seeker of guidance
and the Supreme Being. But, the diviner, too, does not
address the Supreme Being directly, rather he interprets
the "signs" delivered by the messenger between the
mundane world and the Powers That Be.
THECVOR UBA SYSTEM OF DIVINATION
"The Yoruba [of southern Nigeria] may have
the most complex system of divination in Africa."
(Salamone 121) In their culture, the diviner is known
as a Babalawo. He or she asks for guidance from the
Supreme Being, known as Olodumare. But, because
Olodumare is the Most Supreme Being, he is designed
to handle requests from the world of man through
Orunmila. As the Babalawo seeks communication
with Orunmila, he tumbles objects, often kola nuts
onto a tray. This tray nearly always has the face of
Esu, the messenger of the gods, along the rim, facing
the diviner. Esu carries the offerings and questions
to Orunmila, the god of divination. This ritual of
divination is called Ifa. The haphazard pattern (to the
untrained eye) of multi-faceted kola nuts reveal the
answer carried back to the diviner by Esu.
Esu could be considered to be the sanctioner
of these messages delivered through the diviner,
while Orunmila is the guide, the actual dispenser of
messages. And, Olodumare, the Most Supreme Being,
remains above the fray.
NULTIPL WAYS OF KNOWN(
In discussing non-linear, or so-called "irrational"
means of knowing, we must keep in mind that Western
science has described the way we establish facts in
the West. However, that's not to say there aren't other
ways of knowing just as valid. Consider the following
passage from Hunter Havelin Adams:
Because of the extensive influence the European has
had on the world, their [sic] way of knowing, values, ideas,
etc (i.e. their reconstruction [representation] of reality) has
become the model for the rest of the world and this has
given the appearance of the overall superiority of their
contributions to human history and the superiority of the
present period to ancient and medieval periods of human
...Nobody has a monopoly on truth. There is no
one correct way of knowing: there are ways of knowing.
And Western conceptual methodology cannot discover
any more basic truths to explain the mysteries of creation
than can a symbolic/intuitive methodology.
...Albert Einstein understood the dilemma
perfectly well when he said 'there is no inductive
method which could lead to the fundamental concepts of
physics. Failure to understand this constitutes the basic
philosophical error of so many investigators of the 19'
century.' Einstein also felt that 'there is no logical path
to these laws: only intuition, resting on a sympathetic
understanding of experience, can reach them.' He, in
fact, is said to have discovered this theory of relativity by
actually seeing himself riding on a beam of
light [in a dream]. Neils Bohr himself disclosed
that in his dreams the structure of the atom was revealed.
...Astronomers, biologists, and physicists are
gradually coming around to accepting that there is
something transcendental behind the empirical. ...As David
Bohm points out, if you have a fixed criterion of what fits,
you cannot create something new because you have to
create something that fits your old idea... and that limits
what we can think. (27-46)
We can accept the story of Balthazar, the wise man
from Ethiopia, because we 've heard how he followed
the bright star ever since we can remember. But how
did he and his companions understand the meaning of
And, here's another "star story" to ponder. The
Dogon people of Mali have written records dating back
700 years describing, with illustrations, the complex
Sirius star system. "These West African people have
not only plotted the orbits of stars circling Sirius but
have revealed the extraordinary nature of one of its
companions- Sirius B which they claim to be one of
the densist and tiniest of stars in our galaxy. What is
most astonishing about their revelations is that Sirius B
is invisible to the unaided eye." (Adams 27)
Neither the telescope nor Europeans had yet made
their way to the hills of Mali, or to Ethiopia 1000 years
earlier. Interpreting the universe has been man's most
important function since he could stand erect-which
also happened, we 11 recall, in Africa. Today, we have
science and religion--and many other perspectives
in between-to help us understand our place in the
Divination provides a means for resolving ambiguity.
The skill of the diviner aids people in exploring their
options and resolving issues. It forces them to make
a choice and understand why that is the best choice.
Through seeking sources of personal and community
problems, and aiding people to resolve those problems
in a way that restores peace and harmony, divination
can be considered a sacred and healing process-
connecting man effectively with the divine.
SUGGESTED CLA ACTIVITIES
1. Before any discussion of divination, ask the class to
freewrite a few minutes on seeing into the unseen. Ask
them to carefully choose the words with which they
refer to this concept. Who "sees" into the future? For
2. Assign a short paper on traditions of divination in non-
African culture. Include who the diviner is, what are the
tools, and how does the diviner obtain information.
3. Assign a longer paper on any aspect of another
one of the ethnolinguistic groups found on the
accompanying map of Africa. Include the name of the
group, the geographic location including the present-
day country in which this group is found. Also include
the contemporary status of this group-are they still
extant; is the social organization similar to what it was
historically; what climatic or geophysical conditions
contribute to the particular aspect of this group that you
are writing about.
"NO ONE SAW THE BEGINNING2, NONE SHALL SEE
THE END, EXCEPT COD"-Ghanaian Proverb
Adams, Hunter Havelin. "African Observers of the
Universe." Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern
(Journal of African Civilizations; Vol. 5, No. 1-2),
edited by Ivan Van Sertima 27-46. New Brunswick, NJ:
Transaction Publishers, 1990.
Akinyemi, Akintunde. Lecture on African Religion.
Center for African Studies, Summer Institute 2004.
Devisch, Rene. "Divination and Oracles." In
Encyclopedia of Africa: South of the Sahara, ed. John
Middleton, 493-97. New York: Charles Scribner &
Salamone, Frank A. "Divination." Encyclopedia of
African and African-American Religions, ed. Stephen
D. Glazier, 118-22. New York: Routledge, 2001.
Wiseman, Boris and Judy Groves. Introducing Levi-
Strauss and Structural Anthropology. Cambridge, UK:
Icon Books Ltd., 2000.
The xylophone is indigenous to West, Central, East,
and Southeast Africa. These instruments can be used as
accompaniment to singing and dancing. They can be
played alone, with drums, or in xylophonic orchestras.
Their melodic range can be from just a few notes to as
many as thirty different notes. There maybe one, two
or as many as six performers on one xylophone. A sin-
gle performer may use as many as four mallets during
a presentation. The performer usually kneels or sits on
the floor, with the instrument in front of him. They can
be constructed in a variety of ways and materials. Some
log xylophones are made of wooden keys, arranged in
order of pitch, which are laid across banana stems and
held in place with sticks. Other types, found in West
Africa, are composed of wooden keys, with each key
having a gourd or calabash resonator underneath. Still
another kind of xylophone is the pit xylophone, in which
a series of wooden slabs or keys are mounted over a
pit, trough or box. In areas where the xylophone is the
principal instrument, they are played for recreation and
during rituals. Central African log xylophones are dis-
mantled after each performance. Among some people
of northwestern Ghana, xylophones are used for special
announcements, such as funerals, with any number of
tunes that function specifically for this purpose. These
melodies can indicate whether it is a woman, man, an
cider or child who has died.
The human body has avoided classification by
scholars, and yet it is more widely used as a percussion
instrument than the drum. The body has been used as
percussion instrument in Africa probably more effec-
tively than anywhere else in the world. Movements such
hand clapping, feet stamping, tongue clicking, thigh or
chest slapping, tapping one s open mouth while singing
and listening for the changes in the sound of your voice,
are some examples.
*Sound is produced by the vibration of air (wind instru-
*Includes, but not limited to flutes and trumpets
These instruments are made from material with a
natural bore, such as bamboo, cane husk, millet stalks,
or the tip of a gourd or horn. An alternate material
may be carved wood or metal tubing, as seen among
the Dagomba (Ghana) and the Zaramo (Tanzania). It
can be played vertically or transversely; they may be
open-ended or stopped. The embouchure of end-blown
or vertical flutes may be notched or round. The number
of finger holes depends on the way the instrument will
be used. Flute ensembles may involve drums, voices,
or both. Other groups may include lyres, drums and
rattles in their performances. Many African people as-
sociate the sound of the blown instruments (whistles,
flutes, etc.) with voices of spirits.
Aerophones of this type are made from animal horns
or elephant tusks and are designed to be side-blown.
Sections or entire pieces of bamboo are attached to a
bell made from a gourd. Some trumpets are made of
metal and covered with leather or skin. Trumpets made
from gourds or bamboo are designed to be end-blown,
although there are some side-blown varieties. Some
are also carved from wood and are found in western,
eastern and central African societies. These are side-
blown. Trumpets can be played singly, in pairs or larger
groups. They can be used for signals and verbal mes-
sages, along with playing music. Horns are associated
with chiefs and kings.
CH O KDOPHON ES
-These instruments produce sound by the vibration of
*Some playing methods involve plucking and striking.
'Includes, but not limited to: the musical bow (most
common) and mouth bow, and zither.
THE NAUSICAL BOW AND MOUTH BOW
The simplest of all stringed instruments, it is com-
posed of a single string attached to each end of a bend-
able bow. The same bow can be used for hunting as
well. Some are played with resonators (such as half
gourds, half coconut shells, etc.) attached. The mouth
bow involves the player holding a section of the bow
string in the mouth. The shape and size of the altered
mouth cavity determines the amplification of the string.
Mouth bows may be played with a stick or some other
These are instruments have strings that run the en-
tire length of the body and are parallel to it, as well.
Although the entire body resonates, other resonators
might be added. Varieties include trough, tube, raft, and
simple stick types. Another type. the ground zither, is
quite common in Africa.
The African lyre is unusual in its design. Unlike zith-
ers or harps, the strings run parallel from a yoke to a
resonator. It appears to be concentrated in east Africa.
It has eight to twelve strings and is used in religious ac-
tivities. Additional chordophones include the lute (bow
and harp), fiddle, and harps.
A EM B KAN O P H ON S
*Sound is made by the vibration of a stretched mem-
brane or skin.
*Includes, but not limited to: drums and the mirliton (an
instrument that makes its sound by blowing or hum-
ming into the instrument).
The most widely used instrument in Africa is the
drum. During important occasions the drum is the most
important instrument played and the status of the player
is very high. Drumming has a very important meaning
in African life; it says something and serves a purpose.
The talking drums of the Ashanti people of Ghana serve
as language drums. Many African languages are tonal
and so a drum of a higher pitch represents the high-
pitched syllable, while the lower-pitched drum stands
for the low-pitched syllable. Thus, a master drummer
or highly skilled drummer could send messages because
he could play the many rising and falling pitch levels,
which are common to most languages. A master drum-
mer becomes such after years of practice and experi-
ence. Once he becomes one, he is recognized publicly
as a distinguished musician. Drums are generally used
within an ensemble or drum orchestra. At times, rattles
and bells are included. There are a variety of shapes:
cylindrical, conical, barrel, hourglass, goblet, footed,
long, frame, friction, kettledrums.
Instruments of this type produce sound by having
the sound changed in some way by blowing or singing
into it. One example is the horn flute (Nigeria). This
instrument modifies the sound of the human voice and
consists of a cow horn tube and a membrane from the
substance spun by spiders to protect their eggs. This in-
strument is the forerunner of our modern day "kazoo."
*Have students complete a K-W-L chart about Africa.
*Learn to count in one of the African languages.
*Learn a simple poem in Swahili. If you know someone
who signs, ask them to teach you the sign language for
this poem. The signs are quite simple. Umoja, Umoja
means we work together. In sunshine and rain time,
And all kinds of weather. Note: Umoja means unity in
Swahili and is one of the principles of Kwanzaa.
(Music & You music series-- MacMillan Pub.)
*Make rattles, drums and shakers from easily found
materials. Then let students accompany simple songs.
*Display any African instruments you have and allow
class to view and play. See if students can categorize
any instruments. Great recycle connection.
*Use names of countries in a rhythm pattern.
/O CAB U LARY
*idiophones *membranophones *aerophones
*chordophones *concussion (as it relates to music)
*rhythm *embouchure *bore *cylindrical
SUNSHINE STATE STNDKsDS:
The student performs on instruments, alone, or with
others, a varied repertoire of music. The student under-
stands music in relation to culture and history.
RECF RE NC ES
*Warren, E and Lee, Warren. The Music of Africa: An
Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
*The Diagram Group. Musical Instruments of the
World: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. USA: Paddington
Press Ltd., 1976.
*Nketia, J. H. Kwabena, Our Drums and Drummers.
Ghana: University of Ghana, Ghana Publishing House,
All the traditional Zulu beadwork relates in some
way to courtship and marriage. Symbolic coding is
influenced by a number of factors:
1.) The combination and arrangement of colors;
2.) The use of an object. It utilizes one basic geometric
figure, the triangle and a maximum of seven colors:
black, blue. yellow, green, pink, red, and white. Each
color holds positive and negative meanings. Black
next to white signifies marriage, red next to black
signifies an aching heart. Yellow following a black red
combination means withering away or pining for, and
blue, the pivoting color, followed by yellow, red, black
demands a response.
The three corners of the triangle represent father,
mother, and child. As a basic unit of design it can have
1.) Apex inverted pointed downward represents an
2.) Apex pointed downward represents an unmarried
3.) Apex joined with another to form a diamond
represents a married woman;
4.) Apexes that form an hourglass shape symbolize a
There are many ways of combining colors using them
in certain items rather than in others, or emphasizing
meaning by increasing the number of beads of a certain
color. One well-known item Ibheque (generally sold as
a love letter in souvenir shops supplied with a small tag
and simplistic interpretation of colors) illustrates the
factors listed above. During the early colonial period,
beads would have been carried by farmers, travelers,
hunters, soldiers, missionaries, and explorers. Beads
were a source of profit to the Xhosa society and not
merely for barter or decoration. Their insistence on
beads and lack of interest in red ochre prove this.
NEW TKXD E ROUTE
A new trade route has now developed within Africa,
using neither camel nor waterway as were once used.
Bead dealers fly into Nairobi bringing stone beads from
West Africa, glass beads from Ghana and Nigeria, and
old Venetian. Dutch and Czech glass trade beads. Beads
are also made in Kenya from Ki~ii stone (soft soapstone),
horn, bone, and shell. Colorful glazed ceramic beads
are also made there. The history of beads in Africa has
reversed and now many are exported to Europe and the
LAN CUACE AsRT
1.) Introduce lesson using African music and some
jewelry hidden in a closed container to arouse the
interest of the students. In elementary or middle school
levels read the tale Man sa Musa- The Lion of Mali
by Kephra Burns. In higher levels of school, bring in
pictures of ornate jewelry or royal depicting beading.
2.) Complete a KWI, chart on beads of Africa.
3.) Divide the class into small groups and "jig-saw" the
background information on beads. Write 5 sentences
telling the most important points of the section your
group read. Each group sequentially presents their
findings to the whole class. Make up your own definition
of the word "bead". Write a story based on the life of a
bead as it traveled from foreign lands toAfrica. Include
who, what, where, when and why. Answers as you
describe in detail the daily events that occur.
4.) Pretend that you are an explorer in search of a
precious bead and are on your way to Africa. Make a
list of what you would need to take with you.
5.) Write the step-by-step directions explaining to a
stranger how to make a powdered glass bead.
1.) Locate the different countries mentioned in the
article on a map of the continent of Africa.
2.) On a world map trace the trade routes to and from
foreign countries and Africa (i.e. India, Portugal, and
the United States of America).
3.) Compare pictures of beading in Native American
life with that of African life.
1.) Using graph paper, design a South African beaded
apron. Calculate how many beads you would need for
each color. If each bead cost 2 cents how much would
the apron cost to make? How much change would you
give to a customer who gave you $50.00?
2.) Make a time line of the history of beads in Africa
using the information in the article.
3.) Set up a "trade market" in your classroom where
students bring different items they want to trade.
Encourage bargaining strategies and use of oral
language. Use beads as money.
If you doubled the size of Texas, you would have
a close approximation of the size of Ethiopia. Due to
a variety in altitudes, Ethiopia has tropical, subtropical
and cool zones. Ethiopia is unique in that it is the oldest
independent country in Africa; it was the only country
to maintain freedom from colonial rule. There are
many different ethnic groups living in Ethiopia,
including the Oromo, Amhara and Tigre, and, there are
many different languages spoken. Most Ethiopians are
either Muslim or Christian, but there is a small percent
of the population that practices traditional religions.
Most Ethiopians work in agriculture, but there is a
textile industry which makes up two percent of the
gross domestic product. Textiles are exported to Italy,
Sweden, Belgium, Djibouti and Kenya.
NETELX OK NETXAL CLOTH: Netela cloth is a
white cloth often made with a small, colorful border at
each end. Many of the designs on the border include
some type of cross motif demonstrating the influence of
the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Hand woven by men
in the south central Gamo region of Ethiopia: this cloth
has been described as being light and gauze-like. (The
Gamo region is in South-Central Ethiopia)
HOW TO WEX;R NETLA,: Netela cloth is most
commonly used for clothing. Netela cloth made in pieces
measuring 63 inches by 102 inches are sometimes called
shamma, and they are worn by both women and men.
Women wear netela as head coverings that hang over
the shoulders and torso. These head wraps can be worn
with traditional dresses, as it was originally intended,
or they may be worn with western-style clothing. With
traditional dresses, the designs on the borders of the
netela often match the designs on the border of the
KECN'A AND TANZAMNIA
Tanzania was once called Tanganyika. In 1964,
Tanganyika joined with the island of Zanzibar to create
the nation of Tanzania. Tanzania is larger than Kenya,
with the size of Tanzania equaling a little more than
twice that of California and the size of Kenya equaling
a little more than twice that of Nevada. Both countries
have a tropical climate along the coast of the Indian
Ocean. In addition both countries are made up of many
different ethnic groups and a small minority of Asians,
Europeans and Arabs. Kenya has a higher percentage of
Christians, Tanzania has a higher percentage of Muslims,
and the island of Zanzibar remains predominantly
Muslim. English and Swahili are widely spoken in both
countries, and Arabic is widely spoken in Zanzibar.
Agricultural industries employ eighty percent and
seventy-five percent of the labor force in Tanzania and
Kenya, respectively Both Kenya and Tanzania produce
textiles for export, although it is an insignificant part of
gross domestic product.
KAXNCA CLOTH: The kanga is a colorful,
rectangular cloth made from cotton with a border all
around it. Kangas are usually sold in pairs, with each
one measuring about forty-three inches by fifty-nine
inches. Early kangas most likely had a spotted pattern,
because kanga is also the Swahili word for the crested
Kangas can be worn by men to sleep in, but women
wear kangas both inside and outside the home. There
are many ways for women to wear kangas. Some styles
are more traditional and some are more modern. Other
uses of kangas include wall hangings, backpacks, baby
carriers, curtains, tablecloths, and more.
HIIOKy OF THE KANCA: The first kangas
were made on the coast of East Africa about 1860, in
either Kenya or Tanzania. According to some books,
the first kanga was made by sewing together six white
handkerchiefs decorated by print blocks made out of
sweet potatoes or other vegetables. Jeanette IHanby
claims that the idea came from some "stylish ladies on
the island of Zanzibar or Mombasa" who bought printed
kerchief material in the length of six kerchiefs. They
cut the material in half and sewed it to make a 3-by-2
sheet. Whichever story is correct, it is clear that the first
kanga was made out of imported hand kerchief material.
Shopkeepers in Kenya and Tanzania took advantage of
the new fashion and began to import printed material
of the proper size. Many kangas are now designed and
printed in Kenya, Tanzania and other nearby countries,
and are popular throughout eastern Africa.
'WA HILI .Y iN G 5: Today kangas are a means of
communication and expression. In the early twentieth
century, kangas started to be printed with Swahili
sayings, first in Arabic script and soon after in Roman
letters. Some sayings are proverbs: others express
emotions or display specific messages. For example one
set of kangas says, "Kujaliwa wazazi ni neema," which
means "Having good parents is a blessing." Another
one says "Punguza hasira kua na subira," which
means "Don t be angry, be patient." New designs were
introduced in a variety of motifs, from abstract art to
political events. The diversity in the kangas are what
makes them good gifts for husbands to give to their
wives, children to give to their parents or for people to
Kenya and to share where they found the information.
(The US Census Bureau has foreign trade statistics that
will confirm that the US imports all the products listed
under Kenya's exports.)
For each group of 3-4 students that you have, make up
the following cards:
4 blue cards / to symbolize water
6 red cards / to symbolize meat/fish
6 green cards/ to symbolize vegetable
6 yellow cards/ to symbolize bread
6 purple cards / to symbolize clothing
1 gold card / to symbolize gold
1 white card / to symbolize salt
In each group, have the students take turns drawing one
card at a time (without looking) until all the cards have
been drawn. Explain to the students that their goal is
to trade within their group to try and get at least one
of each color. They are to assume that they are living
in a rural area, and therefore cannot count on getting
supplies elsewhere or on using a chilling mechanism
for the meat. Therefore it is crucial that they obtain
water to live. Also remind them that obtaining extra
meat is of no use unless they have salt to preserve it.
When they are finished, discuss why the distribution
worked out the way that it did and what would have
made it easier.
D. Have students view the following Swahili sayings
and literal translations from Hassan Ali's web site. Ask
them to figure out the most common meanings.
1.) Paka chume mtaani kwenu, halahala vitoweo vyenu:
A stray cat is wandering around your neighborhood,
watch out with your "vitoweo" (fish or meat)
2.) Shanuo baya pale linapokuchoma:
A comb becomes bad when it hurts you
3.) Msilolijua litawasumbua:
You will be troubled with what you have no knowledge
4.) Ukali wajicho washinda wembe:
An eye is sharper than a razor
5.) Mtumai cha ndugu hufa masikini:
He/she who relies on his/her relative's property, dies
6.) Mdhaniaye ndiye kumbe siye:
The one whom you think is the right one is the wrong
7.) Mti hawendi ila kwa nyenzo:
A log moves only with proper tools
8.) Moyo wangu Sultani, cha mtu sikitamani:
My heart is like Sultan, I don't long for anybody else's
9.) Usisafirie nyota ya mwenzio:
Don't set sail using someone else's star
10.) Nilikudhani dhahabu kumbe adhabu:
I thought of you as gold but you are a torment
R FE KE NCE S
Ali, Hassan. Kanga Writings.http://www.glcom.com/
Borgatti, Jean. Cloth as Metaphor: Nigerian Textiles
from the Museum of Cultural History. California: The
Museum, UCLA, 1983.
Bulion, Leslie. Fatuma's New Cloth. North Kingstown,
RI: Moon Mountain Publishing, 2002.
Cordwell, Justine M. and Ronald A. Schwarz eds. The
Fabrics of Culture: The Anthropology of Clothing and
Adornment. New York: Mouton, 1979.
Hanby, Jeannette and David Bygott. Kangas: 101 Uses.
Tanzania: Jeannette Hanby, 1984.
Kangas: A Medium of Communication.
Swahilicoast Publishers, 2000. http://swahilicoast.com/
Masoff, Joy. Mali: Land of Gold and Glory. Waccabuc,
NY: Five Ponds Press, 2002.
Picton, John and John Mack. African Textiles. New
York: Harper and Row, 1989.
Reboussin, Daniel. Textiles: West African Textile
Patterns. University of Florida, 1995-2004. http://web.
Silverman, Raymond A, ed. Ethiopia: Traditions of
Creativity. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press,
The World Factbook
relies heavily on expensive machinery, agri-chemicals
produced by western countries, genetically modified or
genetically engineered seeds and an abundance of land
and water. In contrast, sustainable and organic farming
is typically done on much smaller crops of land, and
can use much less mechanized means of production. It
is more culturally similar to traditional African farming
because it involves the production of several crops in
order to have a balanced eco-system. It relies on farm
produced fertilizers and is often more conservative of
water because organic farms tend to raise more diverse,
even indigenous crops. Finally, organic crops tend to
bring much higher prices on the global market. Not
surprisingly, many people are hoping sustainable and/
or organic farms will grow in Africa.
Some 38% of Africans live in cities today and that
number is expected to grow to 53% by 2030. One of the
greatest causal factors of social unrest is food shortage.
As poor Africans move to the cities, they often find they
cannot afford to buy food due to either sheer poverty
or price inflation: a cause of famines. Many newly
urbanized Africans attempted to protect themselves
against these shortages by maintaining farms planted
in front yards, in abandoned lots, often times to the
dismay of city planners and local authorities who made
such practices illegal fearing it could lead to even more
growth, squatters, polluted living conditions etc. But
further study by groups such as the Mazingara Institute
in Kenya have found that these efforts actually play a
vital role and if managed properly, can be an effective
way to foster food security. The role of such gardens
has been studied in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Nairobi,
Kenya, and Kano, Nigeria. Organic urban gardening
has been credited for stabilizing Cuba and is currently
being promoted in many western cities.
GE RILLA CARD EN IN G ON CAMN PVS
A great way to introduce these issues to your class
would be to plant a small garden somewhere on campus.
It would be a real challenge to see if you too can outwit
local authorities and ward off petty thieves in addition
to testing your gardening skill. While there is a great
tradition of African school gardens worthy of being
explored (see web resources list), valuable technical
support may come from western web resources. The
sites listed have well-made ready to use lesson plans, and
are incredibly helpful in teaching organic practices.
INDI ENOUS CKOPS: sorghum, millet, yams, wheat,
lentils, chick peas, cow peas, okra, coffee, greens
P R-CO LON IL T KXD : oranges, mango, papaya,
guava, many spices
COLONIAL CKOPS: corn, tomatoes, potatoes, cocoa
TYPICAL AFKRICAN V_.BAN C;ADFDN CRKOPS:
corn, okra, lettuce, greens, carrot, peppers, mango,
1.) Use your garden to explore the role of diet in
future developing countries. They say the water needed
to feed one person on an American diet can feed 32
people on a plant-based diet. Plant some spinach in a
pot and have students measure the amount of water
it takes to bring it to maturity. If water were scarce.
would they feed it to a goat to produce meat? How has
this factor shaped African cuisine?
2.) Read some examples of the African garden in
literature (for example, Chapter 4 of Camara Layes
Dark Child). Have student's write a memory essay
about a gardening experience.
3.) Follow any of the many activities on the journey
to forever website such as making a compost bin, or
determining the composition of soil.
4.) Have students write a persuasive essay that
argues for or against allowing urban gardeners to grow
on empty city lots.
Resources for lesson plans and gardening advice for
our school garden:
NGO's working in Africa to promote sustainable
www. southcentre. org
Resources for info on sustainable and organic
www.new- agri. co. uk
Sites devoted to urban gardening in Africa and around
www nal.usda. gov/afsic/
http:/members.optusnet.com.au/ %7Ecohousingicu ba/
Sources for hard-to-find African seeds:
Sites to learn about African school farms:
BIB LB G IAP HY
Binns, Tony and Nicholas I;ereday. Feeding Africa's
Urban Poor: Urban and Peri-urban Horticulture in
Kano, Nigeria. 1996.
Lynch,Kenneth, Tony Binns, and Emmanuel Olofin.
Urban Agriculture Under Threat: The Land Security
Question in Kano, Nigeria. 2001.
Binns, Tony, R.A Maconachie, and A. I. Tanko.
Water Land and Health in Urban and Peri- Urban Food
Production: The Case of Kano, Nigeria. 2003.
html: //www. un.org/special-rep/ohr Is/News
SAl EW47casessusa g. htm
"The end of an ox is beef, and the end oj'a lie is
grief." -African proverb from Madagascar.
Read: Mabela the Clever
Author: Margaret Read MacDonald
Summary of story: One day a cat comes to the village to
invite the mice into a secret society. Mabela thinks the
cat is up to no good. In the end, the cat learns that hon-
esty is the best policy. The mice learn to listen, look,
pay attention, and move fast if you have to.
"Knowledge is better than riches." -African proverb
from Cameroon. "le who learns, teaches." -African
proverb from Ethiopia. "Don't befooled by the color"
"The good flavor of tea is the sugar."
African proverb from East Africa.
Read the book Fatuma's New Cloth.
Author: Leslie Bulion
Illustrator: Nicole Tadgell
Publisher: North Kingstown, RI: Moon Mountain
Country: East Africa
Summary of story: Fatuma goes to the market with
her mother who has promised to buy her a new Kanga
cloth. Each vendor claims to hold the secret to chai tea.
Fatuma learns that what counts is on the inside.
Discuss characters, setting, plot, and moral of the story.
Have students complete character education and folk-
Show students an African country on a map and share
details about the country and its people. Show a video
or read a book about the country.
As more than one country is covered, have students
complete a Venn diagram using two or three of the
Bramwell, Martyn. The World in Maps Ajfica. Minne-
apolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company, 2000.
Knight, Margy Burns and Mark, Melnicove. Africa is
Not a Country. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press,
Murray, Jocelyn. Cultural Atlas for Young People Af-
rica. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc., 2003.
Musgrove, Margaret. Ashanti to Zulu: African Tradi-
tions. New York, NY: Dial Books for Young Readers,
WOKKSH EET 1:
TITLE OF THE STO Y:
AUT H 0 .:
I LLU T KnRATO R:_
SETT IN ;:
PLOT: Draw Pictures telling the events in order as they
happened in the story: Under or next to each box, de-
scribe what is happening in the picture.
M AO AL OF THE STORY/CHAXfACTEF TfKIT
TITLE OF THE STOfY:
IL L U ST RKT 0 K:
C HA KA GCT Kf:
WHAT HXPPECND IN THE fTOKy? (PLOT):
.A.OKRAL OF THE STOIY/CHAR.CTCK TKAIT
D ISP LXAYD:
rights then the black population, but fewer rights than
the white population. Under the apartheid laws, all
public property such as buses, parks, swimming pools,
and public bathrooms all had separate sections assigned
to the different ethnic groups. These laws were very
similar to the laws of the United States before the civil
rights movement of the sixties. White children received
the best education under the apartheid system, while
black children were encouraged to do manual labor.
Many people resisted apartheid laws when possible.
Large protest and demonstrations were held regularly,
usually ending in the government responding with
violence and arrest against the protesters. An example
of a protest that ended in violence against the black
population the Sharpeville Massacre. Blacks were
required to carry a passbook with them so that the
government could control their movements around
the country. On March 21, 1960, in a township called
Sharpeville, a group of protesters gathered and burned
their passbooks. The police fired on the demonstrators,
injuring 180 people and killing 69 protesters. This
brought disapproval of these laws from countries
around the world. March 21 is remembered every year
as Human Rights day. Another example of a protest
against apartheid laws was in 1975. The government had
changed the required language in schools to a language
known as Afrikaans. Most of the teachers and students
in many of the schools did not know this language. On
June 16, 1976, students marched to a stadium to protest
this new law. Police responded to the students protest
with violence resulting in the death of hundreds of
children. June 16 is now a national holiday called Youth
Day. In 1992, after years of opposition, the apartheid
laws were repealed. The first national free election was
held in 1994. This election is remembered ever year
on April 27, as Freedom Day.
NATIONAL HOLIDAYS OF SOUTH AFKICA
21 March: HUMAN RIGHTS DAY
Holiday celebrated to honor the people who were killed
at the Sharpeville Massacre.
27 April: FKREDOM DAY
Celebrates the first free election held after apartheid
1 May: WORKER DAY
This day honors the contributions of workers to
16 June: YOUTH DAY
This honors the children who lost their lives protesting
the language laws enacted by Bantu Education and
Apartheid. Also known as the Soweto uprising.
9August: NATIONAL WOMEN' DAY
Honors the contributions women have made to society.
24 September: H EITAX E DAY
This day celebrates South Africa's diverse cultures.
16December: DAY OF RECONCILIATION
This day is also known as the Day of the Vow. This
honors those that defeated a Zulu army at the Battle of
Blood River. It is also remembered as an important day
to those who fought to overthrow apartheid. It is also
celebrated as a day of overcoming conflicts in South
NOTE- A more detailed calendar of significant dates
may be found "http://africanhistory.about.com./library/
CVLTVRAL AND RELICIOVS
HOLIDAYS AND CCLCBRATIONS
The great diversity of many different cultures, ethnic
groups, and religions result in a variety of celebrations.
As immigrants from other lands moved into South
Africa, they brought their customs and religions with
TKRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS RITUALS
Many South Africans have converted to other
world religions, but they may still practice aspects of
traditional African beliefs. Most South Africans believe
that there is one Supreme Being who created the world,
but is not involved in the daily lives of the SouthAfrican
family. The traditional belief is that the SouthAfrican '
ancestors are in charge of what happens in daily life.
If the ancestor is happy, life will run smoothly, but if
the ancestor is unhappy chaos may erupt in the South
African's household. Often rituals will take place in the
South African home to keep the ancestor happy This
may happen even if the South African practices another
world religion such as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism,
Islam is a growing religion in South Africa. The