• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Half Title
 Map of the lesser antilles - the...
 Where Denmark rules
 Out of the beaten track
 The British Isles
 Under the tricolor
 The loftiest of the Caribbees
 The birthplace of an empress
 The gibraltar of the West...
 Little England
 The last of the Caribbees
 Iere, the land of the humming...
 The tip end of the continent














Title: Isles of spice and palm
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075457/00001
 Material Information
Title: Isles of spice and palm
Physical Description: xii, 2 303, l p. : front., illus. (map) plates. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Verrill, A. Hyatt ( Alpheus Hyatt ), 1871-1954
Publisher: D. Appleton and company
Place of Publication: New York and London
Publication Date: 1915
 Subjects
Subject: Description and travel -- Antilles, Lesser   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by A. Hyatt Verrill...
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075457
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000606620
oclc - 24562916
notis - ADD5721

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Half Title
        Page xiii
    Map of the lesser antilles - the isles of spice and palm
        Page xiv
    Where Denmark rules
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Out of the beaten track
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The British Isles
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 40a
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Under the tricolor
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 56a
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    The loftiest of the Caribbees
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 70a
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 78a
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    The birthplace of an empress
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 102a
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 110a
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    The gibraltar of the West Indies
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 124a
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 132a
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Little England
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 158a
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    The last of the Caribbees
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 170a
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Iere, the land of the humming birds
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 188a
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 198a
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    The tip end of the continent
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 206a
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
Full Text











ISLES OF
SPICE AND PALM

















11 I


UNDER BARBADOS PALMS


(Pasa 1441


I





ISLES OF

SPICE AND PALM



BY
A. HYATT VERRILL, -? 4 6
AUTHOR Or "PORTO RICO PAST AND PRESENT," "CUBA PAST AND
PRESENT," "THE CRUSE OF THE CORMORANT,"
"IN MORGAN'S WAKE," ETC.


IILUSTRATED




NEW YORK AND LONDON
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
1915





























COPYRIGHT, 1915, BT
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY


Printed in the United States of America












INTRODUCTION


Five days' sail from New York lie these islands of
perpetual summer, lands where luscious fruits and
gorgeous flowers may be gathered throughout the
year, where feathery palms wave in the trade wind
above surf-washed, coral beaches; where lofty moun-
tains rise, forest-clad, to the drifting clouds, and
where worry, care and hurry are unknown. Why
the American public has failed to appreciate the at-
tractions offered by the Caribbees is something of
a mystery, for yearly thousands of our people travel
to far distant corners of the earth, seeking the very
things which may be found so much easier and in
greater abundance among the islands at our doors.
To many, the West Indies are synonymous with
sweltering heat, venomous serpents, noxious insects
and dangerous maladies; but nothing could be fur-
ther from the truth. Few of the islands are uncom-
fortably hot, even in the coastal towns, and in none
of them do we ever find the terrific heat and unbear-
able humidity of our northern towns in summer.
Moreover, in nearly all the islands there are high
hills and towering mountains, and by ascending a few






INTRODUCTION


hundred feet from the coast a spring-like, delightful
climate may be found. Indeed, the islands are fully'
as pleasant in summer as in winter, and in some ways
are even more attractive at that season. It may
appear paradoxical to think of going to the tropics
to keep cool, but as a matter of fact the smaller
islands have an average summer temperature far
lower than that of New York, while extremes and
sudden changes are unknown. Only in two or three
islands do venomous snakes occur, and these are
so rare and are confined so exclusively to the forests
or "bush" as to be unworthy of consideration. As
far as noxious insects are concerned, one is more
troubled by insect pests in the North than in these
islands. Flies are very scarce, mosquitoes are almost
absent-save in the vicinity of swamps-and the
centipedes and scorpions are no more to be feared
than northern wasps or hornets, and one might live
for months on the islands and never even see one of
these much maligned creatures.
With reasonable care no Northerner need fear dis-
ease in the West Indies. The once terrible yellow
fever has been stamped out; malaria is less common
than in our own cities; smallpox-when it does occur
-is of so light a form that no one pays any atten-
tion to it, and in many of the islands intestinal or
stomach diseases are absolutely unknown. Taken all
in all, the West Indies are far healthier than our






INTRODUCTION


own States, and two of them-Cuba and Porto Rico
-lead the entire world in point of health.
Certain of the islands are well known and are
favorite winter resorts for Americans, and Cuba,
Porto Rico, Jamaica and Nassau are crowded with
tourists, "society" and temporary residents through-
out the winter months. But these are by no means
the most attractive nor the most beautiful of the
islands which encircle the blue Caribbean Sea. If you
wish merely to avoid the rigors of a northern winter;
if you must have all the "modern improvements" in
order to exist in comfort and enjoy life; if you must
motor, golf, tango, attend the opera or otherwise
conduct your life as in the metropolis, by all means
go to Havana, Kingston or some other large city
of the tropics and keep in the beaten track. If, on
the other hand, you love beautiful scenery, are in-
terested in strange people and quaint ways, or are
seeking new experiences, visit that chain of island-
gems which stretches in a broad curve from Porto
Rico to the tip of South America and which is known
as the Lesser Antilles.
Here the arrival of the weekly or monthly steamer
is an event and the commercialism and civilization
of the North have not yet destroyed the picturesque
and primitive ways or disturbed the customs, tradi-
tion and life of centuries long past. By days of
travel these islands are close at hand; by customs,






INTRODUCTION

manners and life they are as remote as the Antipodes.
In them are combined all the majesty of the Alps, the
beauty of Capri or the Bay of Naples and the
luxuriance of a vast hothouse. It is to bring these
islands to the attention of the public, to describe and
make known their beauties and attractions, to point
out their most interesting features and to provide a
reliable guide to the Isles of Spice and Palm that
this book has been written.
















CONTENTS


CHAPTER
I. WHERE DENMARK RULES
II. OUT OF THE BEATEN TRACK
III. THE BRITISH ILEs .
IV. UNDER THE TRICOLOR .
V. THE LO*IEST OF THE CARIBBEES
VI. THE BIRTHPLACE OF AN EMPRESS
VII. THE GIBRALTAR OF THE WEST INDIES
VIII. LrrrTL ENGLND .
IX. THE LAST OF THE CARIBBEES .
X. IERE, THE LAND OF HUMMING BIRDS
XI. THE TIP END OF THE CONTINENT
XII. THE QUAINTEST SPOT IN AMERICA
APPENDIX. FACTS AND FIGURE .


PAGE
S 1
. 15
S 23
S 51
S 66
100
120
S 143
S 166
S 182
S 203
S 217
S 231















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


Under Barbados Palms


Map of the Lesser Antilles, Isles of Spice and Palm
Charlotte Amelie. St. Thomas .
Fredericksted. Santa Cruz .
The Great Cone of Saba Rising from the Sea
Salt Ponds, St. Martins .
Basseterre from the Harbor .
The "Circus" Basseterre. St. Kitt .
Mending Nets Along the Beach. St. Kitts .


Night-blooming.Cereus on a Garden
A Bit of Waterfront. Plymouth
A Street in Plymouth
St. Johns and Its Harbor
Street Scene in St. Johns. .
A Guadeloupe Belle .
Street Scene in Point-a-Pitre
Carib Types. .
A Bit of Coast. Dominica


Wall. St. Kitts .


Roseau and Botanic Stations from the Marne. Dominica
Entrance to the Botanic Station. Dominica
The Odd Openwork Church Spire, at Fort de France.
Martinique .
The Savanna with its Palms and Statue of Josephine.
Martinique .
xi


PACING
PAGE
1
8
8
16
16
24
24
30
30
40
40
48
48
56
56
70
70
78
78

102

102


Frontispiece






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1ACIfG
PAGE
The Cascade of the Canal de Queydon. Martinique. 110
Along the River Banks are Picturesque Fishing Villages.
Martinique. 110
View of Castries. St. Lucia 124
Coaling a Steamer. Castries. St. Lucia 124
The Desolation Wrought by the Eruption at St. Vincent 132
The Wonderful Pitons Looming Against a Lurid Sky 132
Trafalgar Square. Bridgetown. 150
Martin's Bay on the Windward Coast. 150
The Stone Lion at Gun Hill 158
Pottery Sellers, Grenada 158
How Nutmegs Grow. Barbados 170
Picturesque Palms Along the Coast. Tobago. 170
On the Way to Market. Trinidad. 188
Frederick Street, Port of Spain 188
The Bocas del Drago .. 198
The Pitch Lake, Trinidad. 198
A Coolie Woman. 206
The Canals are a Feature of Demerara 206
A Bit of Transplanted India. Demerara 210
A Hindu Home in the Suburbs. Demerara.. 210
Everywhere the Hindus are Seen. Demerara 214
Magnificent Roads Lead into the Country 214
The Women Look Like Dutch Women Turned Black.
Paramaribo 218
Paramaribo Woman in the Quaint Costume of Surinam. 218
Bush Negroes, Strangest People of All 218
Javanese in Flowered Silk Clothes. Paramaribo. 224
Dutch Houses with Dormer Windows and Bridges of
Dutch Bricks. Paramaribo .. 224















ISLES OF
SPICE AND PALM












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ISLES OF SPICE
AND PALM

CHAPTER I
WHERE DENMARK RULES
IT is an ideal voyage-the trip across the
Gulf Stream and the summer seas-where
winter is left behind the second day out
and the ship plows southward with flying fishes
skittering across the tranquil water and the
Southern Cross twinkling above the rim of the
sea. It is not too warm-the sweeping Trade-
winds temper the heat of the sun until the air
is like a balmy day in June-and rarely is
there enough sea to disturb the most sensitive
passengers.
Here and there upon the indigo water
patches of dull-yellow Gulf-weed are seen, and
hourly they increase in number and size until,





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM
on every hand, there are vast areas of the weed
-gleaming like acres of dull gold in the bril-
liant sunshine-for the course lies close to the
edge of the fabled Sargasso Sea, where enor-
mous quantities of the strange sea growth
float and drift at the will of winds and currents.
At last a blurr of haze is seen upon the horizon
and soon the cloudlike shadows resolve into the
lofty mountains of Porto Rico and the many
peaked hills of St. Thomas.
After five days of naught but sea and sky St.
Thomas seems fair indeed with its hills, covered
with greenery, towering for over a thousand
feet above the sea and at their feet tiny villages
nestling by sandy beaches and with coconut
palms fringing secluded coves.
Rounding a jutting headland the magnifi-
cent harbor of Charlotte Amelie is entered with
the picturesque town spreading upward on its
three hills, its white, red-roofed houses gleam-
ing in the sunshine and the white-crossed, scar-
let banner of Denmark fluttering above the
customs house. To the left is the great dry-





WHERE DENMARK RULES


dock and the huge coaling station of the Ham-
burg-American Line and to the right the larger
and more modern coaling docks of the Danish
Government. Formerly St. Thomas was one
of the busiest ports in the Antilles, for its deep
and safe harbor, its coaling facilities, and the
fact that it is a free port, brought ships from
far and near, and the harbor was always filled
with a fleet of steam and sailing vessels flying
flags of every nation.
Today its commerce has disappeared, the
European war has closed the German coaling
station, the Panama Canal has taken from its
trade, there is no agriculture to fall back upon
and aside from gathering bay leaves, distill-
ing bay oil and earning a few dollars carrying
freight and passengers to and from the ships in
the harbor the people have few means of mak-
ing a livelihood. But they are a care-free
happy lot, and while largely black and colored
the inhabitants are pleasant, courteous, and the
white element is wonderfully hospitable. Ev-
eryone speaks English, although Danish is





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

the official language, and the boatmen, owing
to their dealings with ships of many lands, usu-
ally speak half a dozen tongues, and will accept
coins of any nation. There is not much to be
seen in St. Thomas, although the town is ex-
tremely picturesque, scrupulously clean, and
possesses a peculiar attraction all its own.
There is but one straight and level street,
which runs close to the waterfront from east to
west, and from this side streets lead sharply up
the hills, often so steeply that they are built
in flights of steps. Along the main street are
many stores and shops where the visitor may
purchase cigars and cigarettes, bay rum, and
Panama hats at bargain prices, and in the mar-
ket place are many odd and new tropical fruits
and vegetables. Close to the landing place is
a tiny plaza filled with palms, shade trees, and
flowering shrubs, and nearby is the quaint and
ancient red fort where stolid Danish soldiers
laze in the shadows of the massive gateway.
Above the town, upon the summit of the cen-
tral hill, is an ancient tower known as "Black-
4





WHERE DENMARK RULES


beard's castle," while on the hill to the east is a
similar structure called "Bluebeard's tower."
Although neither of these ever had any con-
nection with their famous namesakes, yet they
are well worth visiting for the splendid views
of the town and harbor which may be obtained.
Seen from these heights the whole panorama
of the landlocked harbor, the pretty town, the
outlying islets and even the distant, hazy out-
lines of St. Johns, Porto Rico, and the Virgin
Islands, lies at one's feet. Just north of the
harbor, and separated by a hilly, narrow cape,
is a great harp-shaped bay, its surface spark-
ling in the sunshine and tinted with wonder-
ful shades of sapphire, amethyst and tur-
quoise where the water laps the sandy beaches
beneath the nodding palms. In times long
past this lovely bay was a famous resort for
pirates and buccaneers who laid mi wait to dash
forth and prey upon the merchantmen pass-
ing through the Caribbean. Today it is silent
and deserted but a favorite place for bathing
and picnicking.
5



I,





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

Far beyond the peninsular that separates
this charming bay from the open ocean and
rising abruptly from the sea is a most remark-
able object. This is Sail Rock-a barren pin-
nacle, so shaped that its white cliffs appear
exactly like a square-rigged ship under full
sail. Even close at hand the resemblance is
startlingly perfect and even mariners have
been deceived by this strange bit of nature's
handiwork when seen at a distance.
A more extensive view may be obtained by
climbing upward to the summit of the hill
behind the town and which is known as "Ma
Falie," but the visitor who labors to the top
is far more likely to pronounce it "My Folly,"
for the road, or path, is steep and rough, the
sun is hot and the results are scarcely worth
the effort of the ascent. Though usually
green and fresh yet there is no forest growth
upon St. Thomas and the island is very dry in
comparison to the other Antilles. There are
no lakes or rivers and the scarcity of water is
made evident by the method employed in se-
6






WHERE DENMARK RULES


curing water with which to sprinkle the streets.
Instead of filling the cart from a hydrant, the
St. Thomas street-sprinkler is driven to the
edge of the dock, the driver perches himself
upon a shelf-like board at the rear and by
means of a bucket attached to a rope dips up
the seawater to fill the tank.

VIRGIN ISLANDS
Eastward from St. Thomas and visible
from its hills are the Virgin Islands, mere
specks on the map, seldom visited by steamers
and belonging to various nations. The near-
est to St. Thomas is St. John, also Danish,
a rugged, forest-covered spot famous only for
the superior quality of its bay leaves and bay
oil and with scarce two thousand inhabitants,
most all of whom are blacks.
Though scarcely known to the outside
world, yet St. John is the source of more than
half the bay rum of the world and which
has made the name of Michelson and St.
Thomas famous. The latter island produces






WHERE DENMARK RULES

forgotten ports swarmed with armed craft fly-
ing the banner with the skull and crossbones.
One of the group-Saint Bartholomew, or St.
Barts, as it is more often called-belonged to
Sweden until 1878, and during the American
revolution its port of Gustavia was a famous
resort of privateers. To this out-of-the-way
harbor were brought goods of every imagin-
able sort captured from the British merchant-
men, and so vast was the quantity stored at
Gustavia that when Admiral Rodney attacked
and sacked the town he captured merchandise
worth over two million dollars. Today fish-
ing, salt manufacture and a meager cultiva-
tion of the soil are the only industries and the
people find it hard indeed to keep soul and
body together.

SANTA CRUZ
But to the southward of St. Thomas, across
some fifty miles of the bluest of blue seas, lies
another Danish island with a present as well
as a past and far more interesting than its






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

moribund neighbors of the "Saints and Vir-
gins." This is Santa Cruz or St. Croix-the
island of the Holy Cross-a land of rolling
hills, smiling valleys and white beaches, the
whole set in a sea of wondrous brilliancy and
color. From the summits of its lofty hills to
the breaking surf upon its shores Santa Cruz
is marvelously green-green of every imagin-
able tint and shade, from the delicate yellow-
green of young cane to the malachite of pine-
apples, the emerald of logwood and the deep
color of bay trees. Sugar is king in St. Croix
and everywhere, as the steamer skirts the
coast, vast fields of cane are seen, spread like
a patchwork quilt of green across the lowlands,
covering the hillsides and often reaching to
their very summits. Here and there the tow-
ers of ancient windmills dot the landscape;
the tall chimneys of sugar mills rise from amid
the cane, and from groves of trees and clumps
of palms neat houses and buildings peep
forth. It is a charmingly pretty spot, almost
artificial in its trim, well-kept aspect, and with





WHERE DENMARK RULES

a coast where cliffs and headlands alternate
with snow-white beaches and palm-fringed
coves, each lovelier than the last, until, on
rounding a wooded point, the ship drops an-
chor in the harbor of Frederiksted.
Sweeping in a great crescent is the snowy
coral beach, fringed with the turquoise sea,
and just above the water's edge are the white,
pink and yellow buildings shaded with feath-
ery palm trees and sharply outlined against
the soft green background of the hills.
Frederiksted, the chief town and port of
call, is locally known as "West End," while
Christiansted, fifteen miles distant, at the op-
posite extremity of the island, is called "Bass-
end." Neither of the towns possesses any
noteworthy buildings or unusual attractions,
but they are clean, neat and well kept, with
stores and warehouses of Spanish-American
type, attractive wooden and concrete resi-
dences with cool, shaded balconies and pretty
flower-filled gardens. Frederiksted is far
more tropical and foreign in appearance than
11





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

St. Thomas, but the streets are of white coral
limestone which reflects the heat and light of
the sun in a blinding glare, and the visitor sel-
dom cares to linger long in the confines of the
town. There are numerous carriages and au-
tomobiles for hire at extremely reasonable
rates, and one cannot do better than to hire
one of these conveyances and drive into the
country where all is fresh, cool and attractive.
Santa Cruz possesses admirable roads, some
following close to the edge of the coast and
affording glimpses of beautiful beaches where
one may enjoy splendid sea bathing or may
see huge piles of pink conch-shells ready to be
burnt for lime. Other highways lead into the
hills and to various sugar and pineapple plan-
tations, while the most attractive of all is the
highroad that carries one across the island to
Christiansted.
Although subjects of Denmark the people
of Santa Cruz all speak English, as do their
St. Thomas neighbors, and in many ways the
island is more American than Danish, for its





WHERE DENMARK RULES


trade has always been with the United States,
the best plantations are owned by Americans,
and in former times it was a favorite health
resort for people from the States. In fact,
the only signs of Danish dominion are the
names of the streets and storekeepers, the
quaint, obsolete fort, a few dozen foreign-
looking soldiers and the scarlet flag, with its
white cross, which floats lazily above the gov-
ernment buildings.
Of all things in Santa Cruz, perhaps the
most interesting is the little packet schooner
which plies between the various Danish isl-
ands. This little vessel, the Vigilant, has
sailed the waters of the Caribbean for nearly
two centuries and has been a pirate, a slaver,
a privateer and a man-of-war by turns. Her
tiny cabin has been the scene of many a wild
orgy; upon her decks many a fierce corsair has
paced to and fro; in many a hard-fought bat-
tle her scuppers have run red with human
blood, and in her hold fettered captives have
wailed out their untold misery while rotting






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM -

beneath an equatorial sun. Through storms
of shot and shell, through tidal waves and
hurricanes she has held her own, and could her
staunch teak timbers tell their tale, wouldd
prove a* story more wonderful, more fascinat-
ing and more thrilling than the wildest fiction
ever written.












CHAPTER II


OUT OF THE BEATEN TRACK
NEARLY fifty miles eastward from
St. Croix, massive, conical Saba rises
from the sea; beyond it Statia, with
the grand sweep of its lofty volcano and dim
in the distance-hazy and as elusive as the
clouds that drift above it-looms St. Kitts.
Strangest of all the islands and wonder-
fully interesting is Saba. Here on this sea-
girt, isolated, volcanic cone the people dwell
in a snug little town, nearly one thousand feet
above the sea, on the floor of an extinct crater,
and although literally at the top of the island,
the name of the town is "Bottom." Passing
Saba on the south, no one would dream that
human beings dwelt upon the frowning mass
15





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

of rock, but when sailing to the eastward one
may catch glimpses of red-roofed houses and
a tiny church nestling amid the greenery of
its lofty hills and valleys. Strangely enough,
most of the Saban men are sailors and are
famed as seamen on all the seven seas, as they
have been since the days when doughty Van
Trompe and sturdy Van Home, with brooms
at their mastheads, swept the oceans clean.
Stranger still, throughout the Caribbean
one sees trim sloops and schooners with "Saba"
painted across their counters as their home
port, and yet the island has no harbor, no safe
anchorage and no good landing place.
To reach Saba one must voyage by sloop
or schooner from St. Kitts or one of the larger
islands, and despite the discomforts of the
passage the trip is well repaid by a visit to
this unique island so far out of the beaten
track. The passengers disembark or "go
aboard," as the Sabans say, upon a steep slope
of rock and shingle on the southern shore of
the island. Here, close to the water, stands





























THE GREAT CONE OF SABA RISING FROM THE SEA


SALT PONDS. ST. MARTINS





OUT OF THE BEATEN TRACK

a little wooden building, above which floats the
flag of Holland, for Saba is Dutch and the
tiny hut serves as the customs house and the
office of the harbor master of this harborless
:island.
Above the landing place a rough flight of
stone steps--eight hundred in number-leads
,up the precipitous side of the mountain. Up
and down this "ladder," as it's called, or over
an even more difficult path on the other side
of the island, all goods that go to or from the
town are carried on peoples' heads. It is bad
enough to toil up the stairway empty handed,
yet the Sabans think nothing of the trip even
with a half barrel of flour or a tierce of pork
for a load.
Inland from the top of the "ladder" is a
broad, green plain enclosed on every hand by
towering peaks, and in the center the little vil-
lage of white, red-roofed houses surrounded
by well-tilled fields and carefully tended gar-
dens. Across the cultivated lands run high
stone walls with cation-like lanes and by-
17





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

paths between, for rocks are the most abun-
dant things in Saba and those removed from
fields and gardens are piled up into walls
higher than one's head.
Here in the crater the people dwell in a
temperate climate of perpetual June and the
gardens are filled with potatoes, strawberries
and corn growing side by side with yams,
bananas and oranges, while over walls and
porches clamber tropical vines gorgeous with
flowers. Of the fifteen hundred people dwell-
ing here many are black, but mulattos are
seldom seen, for the Dutch pride themselves
on the purity of their blood, and the rosy-
cheeked, bright-eyed children, the pleasant-
faced, fair-haired women, and the elderly pink-
skinned men are such as one might see in Hol-
land itself. As most of the able-bodied men
are sailors, comparatively few young men are
seen, and some one has remarked that it's well
that most of the Saban men die at sea, as
otherwise there would be no soil at home in
which to bury them. As a matter of fact, most





OUT OF THE BEATEN TRACK

of Saba's men come back to their tiny island
home to spend their old age, and in their
lofty aerie pass their time by watching the
many ships that ply the neighboring seas but
never stop at this out-of-the-world spot. But
while seldom visited, the Sabans make frequent
trips to the other islands where they find a
ready market for their fruits and vegetables,
as well as for the delicate drawn work for
which the Saban women are famed through-
out the islands.
Of all Saba's industries, perhaps the most
important and strangest is boat building.
Think of it! Here in a volcanic crater, 1,000
feet above the sea, where every plank and tim-
ber must be carried on men's heads, are built
boats which for staunchness and seaworthiness
are famous in all the West Indies. Truly it's
"hard to beat the Dutch."

ST. EUSTATIUS
Twenty miles east. of Saba, and about the
same distance from St. Kitts, lies St. Eusta-






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

tius, more commonly called 'Statia, and also
a colony of Holland. Like Saba, Statia is
merely the summit of an extinct volcano ris-
ing from the sea, but whereas Saba is steep
and precipitous on every side, Statia extends
in a long, fairly level stretch to the northward.
While far less interesting than Saba, yet
Statia should be dear to the heart of every
patriotic citizen of the United States, for here
the American flag was first saluted by the
guns of a foreign power. It happened back
in November, 1776, when the Andrew Doria,
a saucy privateer of Baltimore, sailed into
port with a thirteen-striped, red, white and
blue banner floating from her masthead, and
from the guns of old Fort Orange a salute
boomed out in honor to the new flag. It was
an unfortunate act on the part of good old
Governor De Graaff, however, for it brought
the British down upon poor Statia and Lord
Rodney captured stores and plunder to the
value of fifteen million dollars. Today one
could scarcely find so many cents in Statia, for





OUT OF THE BEATEN TRACK

it is merely the shadow of a once glorious and
prosperous past. In olden times the island
was a vast garden, rich with cane, tobacco,
indigo and cotton fields and coffee groves and
with a population of some 20,000 people.
During +~e eighteenth century it was one of
the most important of Caribbean ports, and
during our revolution the roadstead of Port.
Orange was the resort of countless ships and
privateers, drawn thither by the great stores
of naval and military supplies brought front
Holland and which proved of immeasurable
value to the Continentals. Today ruined
warehouses line the beach, abandoned planta-
tions and estates are scattered over the island,
and the inhabitants number scarce two thou-
sand souls. But Statia's soil is as fertile as
ever; sea-island cotton, limes and other crops
are being cultivated, and at no distant date.
Statia may again take her place among the
prosperous islands of the Caribbean.
To visit Statia one must travel by sailing
vessel or mail packet from St. Kitts, but the





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

trip is hardly worth the trouble, for the only
sights of interest to be seen are the ancient
church wherein Mynheer De Graaff and other
sturdy Dutchmen worshiped, the old cemetery
with its great carved headstones, and hoary
old Fort Orange with its quaint cannon point-
ing their mute muzzles seaward above the
same parapets from which they saluted the
ancestor of Old Glory so many years ago.
Interesting as are these islands out of the
beaten track, far more attractive and alluring
are the islands beyond, of which St. Kitts is
the first-a vast expanse of sunlit green,
scarce twenty miles beyond Eustatia of his-
toric memories.












CHAPTER III


THE BRITISH ISLES
BEAUTIFUL, luxuriant and smiling
is fair St. Kitts. Beside it St. Thomas
becomes a barren, desolate spot, and
Santa Cruz seems but commonplace. From
the cloud-wreathed summit of Mount Misery,
4,000 feet above the sea, to the palm-fringed
beaches all is green. Forests clothe the moun-
tain slopes, great cane fields stretch across hill
and dale, and sweep downward to the very
edge of the blue sea, and palms are everywhere.
They stand like great, plumed sentinels upon
the ridges sharply outlined against the azure
sky; they stretch in endless rows along the
perfect roads and wave in countless thousands
along the beaches. Gleaming like gold where
9S





THE BRITISH ISLES


covered plain. This is Monkey Hill, and al-
most at its foot and stretching along the curv-
ing beach lies Basseterre, the capital and port
of the island.
With its many-colored buildings, waving
palms and beautiful setting, the little town is
wonderfully pretty, while the bright-hued
boats, the sloops riding at anchor and the
throngs of chattering negroes give an air of
life and animation to the scene.
At the head of the long landing pier stands
the customs house, a large roomy building and
the most prominent structure on the water-
front. Just beyond, the streets converge in a
circular open space, surrounded by towering
royal palms and with an ornamental drinking-
fountain in the center. This is known as the
"Circus," and about it and in the immediate
neighborhood are the principal stores, business
houses and shops of Basseterre. The streets
are smooth, broad and well kept, there are
many two- and three-story buildings, and the
town as a whole is far neater and more pre-





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

sentable than in many other British islands.
There is a very pretty open park or plaza in
the town, with smooth lawns, avenues of great
trees, lofty palms and gorgeous flowering
shrubs, and with a fountain in the center.
Here one finds true tropical vegetation and
everywhere about the town strange trees, bril-
liant flowers and teeming plant life is seen.
Above the houses palms sway in the breeze,
about the porches clamber purple bougainvillea,
sweet-scented jasmine and orange trumpet
vines. In the gardens and yards crotons grow
in rank profusion, roses bloom the year
through and gardenias laden the air with
their heavy odor. Above stone walls and
fences frangipani and poinciana stretch
branches ablaze with color and-uncared for
and unnoticed-night-blooming cereus plants
display their wondrous flowers.
It is all wonderful and fascinating to the
visitor from the north, and a walk through the
botanic station close to the town will reveal
still more remarkable and interesting forms of





THE BRITISH ISLES


tropical plant life. If one does not care to
walk, there are plenty of carriages and motor
cars to hire, and for a very moderate sum the
visitor may drive everywhere about the town
and far out into the country. The roads of
St. Kitts are excellent and one highway com-
pletely encircles the island. A visit to one of
the sugar estates will prove interesting, and
while the bulk of the island is cultivated, yet
there are many natural scenic attractions. On
the Wingfield Estate there is a beautiful cata-
ract, nearly one hundred feet in height. Law-
yer Steven's Cave is well worth a visit, and
from the summit of Monkey Hill one may ob-
tain a magnificent view of the surrounding
country, with Basseterre in the foreground,
the low conical hills beyond, and still further
to the southward the towering, symmetrical
cone of Nevis with its crown of clouds.
If the visitor is fond of mountain climbing
or is ambitious to see all that may be seen, the
ascent of Mount Misery may be made. The
climb should preferably be made from Sandy





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

Point, and from here one may ride toward the
summit for about eight miles to the "Sir Gillis
Estate," where, accompanied by a guide se-
cured at Sandy Point, the real climb is begun.
The trail is easy to follow and the steep ascent
is robbed of half its toil by the wonderful
sights of the "high bush" which greet the
stranger on every hand. Everywhere the
great forest trees tower upward; their dense
tops often more than one hundred feet above
the earth, their bases spreading in great but-
tresses for a score of feet, and trunks, branches
and limbs draped with a network of vines and
lianas and bedecked with strange air plants
and brilliant orchids. Here, where the sun-
light seldom penetrates the dense canopy of
leaves, it is damp and cool, and a vast silence
reigns, broken only by the plaintive notes of
shy forest birds, the rustle of lizards among
the leaves, or perhaps the distant chattering
of a troop of frightened monkeys. A little
higher and mountain palms and giant tree
ferns replace the forest trees, and finally, amid





THE BRITISH ISLES


the stunted vegetation of the wind-swept sum-
mit, one reaches the rim of the crater and looks
down into the pit. From rim to bottom is
nearly a thousand feet, and down the almost
perpendicular walls the trail leads. Here and
there immense trees and luxuriant vegetation
cover the sides of the crater, at other places
bare precipices rise sheer from the bottom,
their faces stained red and yellow by sul-
phur fumes which fill the air and rise con-
tinually from innumerable boiling springs
below.
Often a small pond or lake fills the center
of the crater, but at other times it is dry, and
though steam hisses upward from the fissures
and crevices, one may walk about in safety
within the crater. History records no erup-
tion of Mount Misery, and at the time of the
eruption of Mt. Pelee in Martinique there was
no noticeable increase in the activity of the
crater at St. Kitts, but the volcano is not dead
-even though it slumbers-and no man shall
foresee when it will again break forth and over-





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM)

whelm the island in part or whole. But it is
not necessary to descend into the crater in
order to be rewarded for the stiff climb, for
the view from the summit of Mount Misery
is transcendingly grand and beyond the power
of mere words to adequately picture. Spread
like a map at one's feet lies the island, its cane
fields seemingly as flat as boards, the roads
stretching like slender ribbons here and there,
tiny dots marking villages and plantation
buildings, the forest-covered mountain slopes
like soft green moss and all encircled by a sea
of marvelous hue and outlined by a slender
line of snowy surf.
Far to the north St. Martins and St. Barts
break the perfect circle of the sea; to the west,
Statia and Saba stand mere dots against the
gleaming sapphire waves; to the south looms
Nevis, with Montserrat a blur beyond; to the
east, low-lying Antigua rises above the ocean's
rim, and, if the day is clear, one may even
catch a glimpse of a shimmering, opalescent,
phantasmal form against the horizon to the






























MENDING NETS ALONG THE BEACH. ST. KITTS


NIGHr-BLo MUING CEREUS ON A GAHDzN WALL. ST. KITTS






THE BRITISH ISLES


south-the lofty mountains of distant Guade-
loupe.
But despite its natural beauties, its wonder-
ful fertility and its varied surface, St. Kitts is
almost poverty stricken, though once among
the richest and most prosperous of the West
Indies, for with the decline of sugar the island's
fortunes waned and no other crop has yet been
found to take the place of cane. Strangely
enough the great war in which Great Britain is
involved has proved a benefit rather than a det-
riment to England's colonies in the West In-
dies, and with the increased price of sugar St.
Kitts is regaining a little of her lost pros-
perity.
The Kittifonians, in common with the na-
tives of many of the islands, have a curious
form of celebration known as "Running
mask," which takes place at Christmas time
and just before Lent.
It is a sort of Mardi Gras, but far wilder,
more primitive, and more picturesque than the
carnival merry-making of New Orleans and






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

other places of French antecedents. Clad in
the weirdest and most striking of costumes, the
natives swarm through the streets and high-
ways, in groups, crowds, pairs and singly.
Many are clad in garments which they imag-
ine imitate the aborigines-gaudy tunics, high
feather crowns and fluttering ribbons-the
whole ornamented by tiny mirrors and with
gauze masks over black faces. Others, clad
only in breech cloths, hideously painted and
bedaubed with tar, simulate bands of wild Af-
ricans. Others with bull's horns tied on their
heads, clad in cowhides, diabolical masks over
their faces and with clanking chains dangling
from their shoulders, represent "jumbies" and
evil spirits, while still others don gaudy cos-
tumes, bright rags, old misfit clothing and
homemade masks of every conceivable size,
pattern and design.
Dancing, cavorting, yelling and singing,
they overwhelm the towns which are complete-
ly given over to the occasion. Into dooryards
and shops they swarm, begging drinks which






THE BRITISH ISLES


are never refused, chanting strange songs, per-
forming savage dances and accompanied by
so-called musicians playing weird strains on
triangles, pipes and "sand boxes"-strange
instruments like gigantic nut-meg graters
which are rubbed with a piece of steel um-
brella rib. Houses, huts and stores are gay
with bright-colored cloth, bandanas and flags.
Masses of palm leaves and scarlet poinciana
flowers cover walls and doorways, and strings
of bunting are stretched across the streets.
Here and there athletes give free exhibitions
of their skill in the roadway; groups of tum-
blers perform marvelous feats for the benefit
of the crowd; stilt walkers, towering above
their fellows, go through mad gyrations, and
gangs dragging chains and ropes seize un-
wary pedestrians and hold them captive until
their freedom is bought by drinks for their
captors. For several days at a time the ca-
rousal continues, while at night fires blaze in
the country and the suburbs and the dull boom
of tom-toms breaks the silence of the tropic





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

night. In the lurid glare of the flames the
negroes dance about, chanting monotonously,
tossing their arms aloft, rolling their eyes,
twisting, writhing, contorting their bodies, un-
til the onlooker can scarce believe he is not
gazing at a cannibal feast in the wilds of the
dark continent.
But despite their temporary lapse into sav-
agery, they are all good-natured, happy and
law-abiding, and disorder, quarrels or disturb-
ances seldom take place while the masque-
raders hold sway.

NEVIS
Barely five miles distant from St. Kitts and
across a narrow strait to the south is Nevis, a
lovely isle whose present state is even sadder
than that of her sister colony.
A small island, scarce fifty miles in area,
Nevis sweeps upward from the level coastal
plains into a huge, majestic cone, clear-cut,
symmetrical and beautiful in its perfection.
Once famous throughout the world as a
34





THE BRITISH ISLES


health resort and gay with the wealth, society
and fashion of Europe and the Indies, Nevis
today is poverty-stricken and dead. The great
hotels where ruffled gallants in knee breeches
danced the stately minuet with bepowdered
London beauties are now in ruins. The walls
of stately mansions that once echoed to the
revelry and laughter of princely banquets
now shelter squalid negro huts. The streets
through which link-bearers lit the way for no-
bility's sedan chairs are now rough, weed-
grown and swarm with pickaninnies, and the
broad green fields of cane that once brought
lordly riches and vast fortunes to the planters
now scarce serve to provide a means of liveli-
hood to their present owners.
With a glorious climate, fertile soil, medici-
nal waters and wondrous beauties, Nature has
been bountiful indeed with Nevis, but with
the abolishment of slavery, the difficulty in
securing adequate labor and the decline in
sugar, the island has gone steadily backward,
until today the once "Gorgeous Isle" is almost





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

unknown and forgotten and is seldom visited.
Other causes, too, have contributed to the
island's downfall. A severe earthquake visited
Nevis in 1680 and destroyed the capital,
Jamestown, which slipped bodily into the sea
with all its riches and its people, and on clear
days the visitor may still see the ancient walls
of the submerged city standing, coral-en-
crusted, upon the ocean's bed. Hardly had
the island recovered when the French invaders
swept down upon it, and after them came
drought and blight. Starvation threatened,
and all those who could do so emigrated to
newer and more promising lands in the North
American colonies. But despite its decadence
and forlorn condition there is much of interest
in Nevis. Here Alexander Hamilton was
born and here he dwelt until eleven years of
age, and his home, although in ruins, may still
be seen on a hill near Charlestown, the capital.
It was in Nevis also that Lord Nelson was
married, and in the ancient "Fig Tree Church"
one may view the marriage register recording





THE BRITISH ISLES


the ceremony as follows: "1787, Mar. 11.
Horatio Nelson Esq., Captain of H.M.S.
Boreas, to Frances Herbert Nisbet, widow."
The thermal springs near town are still in ex-
istence, although the famous "Bath House"
is in ruins, the submerged city may still be seen
and lovely drives may be taken about the
island. Attempts are being made to replace
the cane with cotton and other crops, and it is
to be hoped that some day lovely Nevis will
once more regain the place which it occupied
for so many years and which it so justly
deserves.
The lack of prosperity, the retrogression.
and the lamentable apathy so evident in Nevis
and St. Kitts are common, to greater or less
extent, to the other British islands, and this
is somewhat strange, as they are as fertile, as
diversified and as well adapted to man's needs
as the neighboring French colonies which pos-
sess an air of life and animation, of prosperity
and of progress, in marked contrast to their
British neighbors. The only explanation lies





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

in the character of the people. The colored
folk of the French islands are far superior to
those of the British isles; they possess the
vivacity and energy of the French; they are
ambitious, they take pride in their personal
appearance, and while independent and at
times overbearing in their belief that they are
the equals, if not the superiors, of the whites,
yet they have an inborn courtesy, a natural
gaiety and an intelligence absolutely lacking
in the negroes of the strictly English islands.
That the character of the colored people has
a direct bearing upon the conditions of the
islands is well illustrated in the case of Do-
minica, a British island lying between two
French possessions and with a population of
French ancestry, French language and French
traditions.

MONTSERRAT
Compare Dominica-prosperous, self-sup-
porting and progressive-with Montserrat-
an island of almost identical possibilities--or





THE BRITISH ISLES


with St. Kitts or Antigua, all of which have
been British for centuries.
Montserrat lies southeast of St. Kitts,
some fifty miles distant, and is as fair a
spot to look upon as one might wish to
see. From the line of breaking surf along
its beaches, broad, green fields sweep back
to the central mountain slopes, with their
orchards of limes, groves of cocoa and neat,
terraced gardens. In the center a great,
square-topped, pyramidal cone rises from the
plain, at right and left are two huge, bowl-
shaped craters-their scarred and riven sides
clothed in perpetual green-and hidden amid
countless palms the little town of Plymouth
nestles by the sea, its walls washed by the
waves, and behind it a white ribbon of road
leading upward through the fertile valley.
No wonder that Montserrat was originally
settled by the Irish, for its lovely valleys,
velvet-green mountains and rippling streams
must have reminded them of old Erin, and
truly there is no spot more worthy of being






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

called the "Emerald Isle" than this, green gem
in the Caribbean Sea.
But, with all its beauty and attractiveness,
there is little enough to see in Montse7Tat. On
either side of the dock great stone walls, ex-
tensive buildings and substantial houses tell of
the former prosperity, but all look very dilap-
idated now, and from ruined, broken-down
courtyards palms wave above roofless walls
and once beautiful courtyards are filled with
miserable huts. Some of the streets are well
kept and smoothly paved, but everywhere pov-
erty and apathy are conspicuous. Gardens,
riotous with gorgeous flowers and tropic ver-
dure, are surrounded by tumble-down walls,
tiny hovels squat where there should be man-
sions, and everywhere swarm ragged, unkempt
negroes basking in the sun, happy in doing
nothing and continually begging. The one
redeeming feature of the town and the most
interesting thing about the island is the broad
brogue upon the peoples' tongues and their
true Irish blarney. Good-natured, quick at




























A BIT OF WATERFRONT. PLYMOUTH


A STREET IN PLYMOTTH





THE BRITISH ISLES


repartee and care-free, the Montserratans
have inherited many of the traits of their
"wild Irish" forbears. Red-headed, freckle-
faced negroes are not rare, and Celtic names
are everywhere in evidence. Above the shop
doors one may read such names as Patrick
Donahue, Michael O'Brien and Edward Har-
rigan, but no son of Erin would recognize the
black proprietors as fellow countrymen. A
drive through the island will reveal many
beautiful spots, some fine estates and numer-
ous signs of returning prosperity, for limes
and lime juice are superseding sugar and cane
and Montserrat lime juice is known the world
over. One of the craters is still somewhat
active and contains hot springs, bare, steam-
ing hot deposits of sand and sulphur and
streams of boiling water, and as it is easy of
access, a visit to the "Soufriere," as it is called,
is a pleasant diversion. Eastward from Mont-
serrat is Antigua, the seat of government of
the Leeward Islands, and between the two is
lonely, desolate Redonda, a mere rocky pin-
41




ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

nacle rising for one thousand feet above the
sea, surrounded by tossing waves, barren of
vegetation, and yet with a population of more
than one hundred souls, for Redonda, isolated,
forbidding and bare, is rich in phosphate rock
and some seven thousand tons of the material
are annually mined and exported.

ANTIGUA
Very different from all the other islands of
the chain is Antigua. No lofty volcanic cones
pierce the clouds, no towering, green-clad
mountains rear their summits against the sky,
for Antigua is a limestone island, and com-
pared to Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts or even
St. Thomas, it seems low and flat indeed. It
is far from level, however, and some of the
hills are nearly one thousand feet in height.
Viewed from the sea Antigua appears dry
and somewhat barren, and while it often suf-
fers from drought, yet much of its soil is rich
and some of its inland plains and valleys are
capable of growing almost anything.


------ I ~-~ .---~----r II--,.





THE BRITISH ISLES


St. Johns, the capital, lies at the head of a
deep bay, and as the steamer drops anchor
nearly five miles from town and passengers are
carried back and forth by launch or sailboat,
many visitors to the islands never step ashore
at Antigua. At the entrance to the harbor an
ancient picturesque fort stands upon a head-
land and lends a medieval air to the place,
while a little farther on is Rat Island, crowned
with the white buildings of the leper hos-
pital.
In former times natives afflicted with loath-
some diseases were allowed at large on the
various islands and were the most repellant
features of these lovely isles. Today, with few
exceptions, they are confined in modern hos-
pitals, are given the best of care and attention,
and as a result leprosy and similar diseases are
on the wane. But the visitor to the islands
need have no fear of leprosy or any other
malady. Cases among the better class of na-
tives are extremely rare; white people are sel-
dom affected, even when long resident, and





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

there is really less'likelihood of contracting
contagious diseases on the islands than in our
great cities of the north.
St. Johns is prettily situated at the head of
the harbor, with the rolling hills about it, the
streets are straight and well laid out, but the
town is a blot upon the island. There are a
few good buildings, such as the Court House
and Government buildings, and an excellent
market, but between and about the better
structures, crowding the side streets and lining
the main streets, are countless frail wooden
houses, mere shacks, unpainted, askew and
out of repair. Through shortsighted policy
the government taxes improvements, and to
save taxes the people keep their homes and
stores unpainted, unkempt and neglected. A
good fire, that would sweep the town, would
be of vast benefit to St. Johns, as well as to
many of the other islands. Such a blessing in
disguise rejuvenated Port of Spain, but alas!
St. Johns has a fire department, and as much
energy is used in quelling the fire in a miser-






THE BRITISH ISLES


able hut as if the burning structure was a
priceless mansion.
Above St. Johns the great Anglican church
dominates the scene, and from its towers a
splendid view of the town, harbor and sur-
rounding country may be obtained. The
church itself is of interest also, for it is unique
in its construction, being veritably one church
within another. Although not volcanic, yet
Antigua is subject to earthquakes, and once,
during an unusually severe tremor, the old
church tumbled to pieces in a few moments.
Noticing that the stones fell inward, instead
of out, the Antiguans ingeniously built a
wooden church and surrounded it with a struc-
ture of masonry, so that in case of a second
disaster the congregation may be safe from
falling stones, and even if the outer shell falls
they will still possess a wooden church in which
to worship. In the churchyard are many an-
cient tombs and graves and much time may be
spent in deciphering the quaint inscriptions
on the age-gray, weathered tombstones, while





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

above one gateway to the churchyard are
statues said to have been captured from a
French ship by the British during the wars for
supremacy in the islands.
A broad, smooth savanna lies beyond the
church; there are tennis courts and cricket
grounds; smooth avenues shaded by rows of
mahogany trees, and a very beautiful garden
about the attractive Government House. But
of all places about the town of St. Johns the
public garden or Botanic Station is the most
interesting and attractive. It occupies a shady
dell a short distance from Government House
and is filled with magnificent palms, flowering
trees and shrubs, great shade trees, giant
bamboos and strange tropical plants. Though
very small, as compared to the gardens in
some of the other islands, it is so crowded with
vegetation, so cool and shady, and so nearly
in a state of nature that it possesses an attrac-
tion all its own.
Close to the entrance to the gardens a large
lighthouse stands boldly on a little hill, and at





THE BRITISH ISLES


its foot lies a tiny pond. At first sight it
seems as if the lighthouse was intended to
throw its guiding beams across this miniature
lake, for no other water is visible, but in reality
the beacon serves to guide vessels entering the
harbor and may be seen from the sea, al-
though quite out of sight when one is in the
town.
Although there is little of real interest in
the city, the island is covered with roads and
highways and a carriage or motor car may be
hired for a drive through the outlying districts.
There is little in the way of scenic attractions,
it is true, but numerous secluded beaches pro-
vide splendid bathing, and English Harbor,
formerly a great dockyard and famous as the
spot where Nelson's fleet refitted, is an inter-
esting and pretty spot. The valley of petrifi-
cations, where specimens of fossil wood and
trees may be gathered, and the great sugar
mills are also worthy of a visit. Antigua has
always been essentially a sugar island and
years ago the natural timber growth was de-






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

stroyed. Even fruit trees have been sacrificed
for fuel, and today the island owes much of
its barren aspect and its terrific droughts to
the lack of trees. Vast cane fields stretch
everywhere, rows of palms line roads and
fields, but the scenery is monotonous and like
a great well-tilled, featureless farmland. So
long has Antigua produced nothing but cane,
so lacking in water and so thin the soil that
its fertility is well-nigh exhausted and many
crops that will yield a good profit will not
grow. While at the present time sugar pays,
the island will never regain its one-time pros-
perity and has far from a bright future. Un-
less something is found to replace the cane,
unless some new industry is developed, or un-
less the war continues indefinitely and the high
price of sugar is maintained, Antigua will find
it hard indeed to make both ends meet, and
slowly but surely this once rich and pros-
perous island will become bankrupt and for-
saken.
















S-C~- -sq


ST. JOHNS AND ITS HARBOR


STREET SCENE IN ST. JOHNS






THE BRITISH ISLES


BARBUDA
If the visitor to the islands is fond of the
chase he should not fail to visit Barbuda, a
low, flat islet some thirty miles north of An-
tigua and formerly owned by the Codringtons,
who lived like feudal lords upon this tiny bit
of land, literally monarchs of all they sur-
veyed. Here from Africa they brought slaves
to till the fields; from England they brought
cattle, hogs, sheep, goats and fallow deer, and
to afford sport with which to while away their
spare time they introduced Guinea fowl,
pheasants and other game to add their quota
to the pigeons, doves, ducks and plover that
already teemed upon the spot.
Today Codrington Village is merely a col-
lection of wattled and thatched negro huts
wherein the blacks dwell as simply and almost
as primitively as did their ancestors in Africa.
The "Great House," wherein the former own-
ers dwelt and entertained in princely style, is
now delapidated and neglected, but the fields
and forests teem with game and one may ob-






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

tain a permit from the agent in Antigua to
hunt upon this island game preserve.
There are no springs nor streams in Bar-
buda, the people depending upon cisterns and
the animals upon pools and crevices of the
rocks for their water supply. The soil, though
once productive of luxuriant crops, is thin and
covered with dense jungles of chapparel and
thorny scrub, and the hunter, wandering
through the overgrown fields, with their great
rock walls, scrambling over the vine-entangled
ledges and stalking the wild cattle, deer and
Guinea fowl, might well imagine himself in
the wilds of Africa.
Here and there among the tangled bush
are ancient ruins, and near the landing place
are the remains of a once strong fort with a
quaint Martello tower still standing, for Bar-
buda, now the haunt of wild birds and beasts
and semiwild people, was once the lurking
place and stronghold of even wilder and more
savage men-the pirates and buccaneers of the
Spanish Main.













CHAPTER IV


UNDER THE TRICOLOR

VAST as a continent seems Guade-
loupe as one steams along its shores
in the lee of its mighty mountains.
One of the most surprising features of these
islands is their size, and the stranger is in-
variably overwhelmed with wonder to find
places which are mere specks upon the maps,
extending as far as eye can see from horizon
to horizon and towering in massive mountain
ranges for a mile and more into the blue vault
of heaven.
Even more inadequate do mere figures
prove when one undertakes to travel across
and through the islands. We may learn that
an island is but thirty miles long and fifteen






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

wide, but we don't realize that a large portion
of the area is "set on end," nor do we dream
how much land, what stupendous mountains,
broad plains, great swamps, roaring torrents,
enormous waterfalls, great lakes, deep valleys
and vast forests can be crowded into 450
square miles until we tramp, ride or drive over
such an island as Guadeloupe.
St. Thomas may have seemed lofty after
five days of endless sea and sky. Santa Cruz
appeared the freshest and greenest of lands.
As you gazed at St. Kitts it seemed impossible
that anything could be more varied or lux-
uriant or that mountains could be higher near
the sea, but all are rolled into one and multi-
plied a hundredfold in the bulk and majesty
of this island over which floats the tricolor of
France. Guadeloupe really consists of two
islands; one Guadeloupe proper, mountainous,
lofty and magnificent; the other, Grande-
terre, low, fairly level and commonplace, and
the two separated by a narrow creek known as
Salt River.





UNDER THE TRICOLOR


Aside from' the two main islands, Guade-
loupe embraces the three small, lofty islands
known as the "Saintes"; great, terraced Marie
Galante and flat-topped Desirade-in all an
area of nearly 700 square miles. Guadeloupe
proper forms the northern and western por-
tion of the island and rises in forest-covered
headlands, abrupt cliffs, steep, hog-backed
ridges, and superb mountains sweeping inland
and ever upward to the great bulk of Sou-
friere, with its summit 5,000 feet above the
breaking surf. Now bathed in the mist of
drifting clouds, anon brilliant in the glorious
sunshine, marvelous in its luxuriant verdure,
wonderful in its coloring and grandeur, the
northern half of Guadeloupe presents a sub-
lime panorama of mountains, valleys and
shore. Upon this mountainous portion of the
island is Basseterre, the capital, but steamers
seldom touch there, for the commercial and
industrial center and chief port is at Point-a-
Pitre, at the leeward mouth of Salt River, on
low-lying Grandeterre.





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

After the mountainous magnificence of the
northern part of the island, this low, level,
southern portion seems dull and monotonous
indeed, but its soil is marvelously rich, and
nearly every inch of its surface is cultivated,
the chief crop being cane, a large portion of
which goes to the great Central or "Usine" of
Arbousier close to the docks of the town, and
which is one of the largest sugar mills in the
world.
The harbor is almost landlocked and is
entered through a narrow, tortuous channel
between numerous reefs, and in comparison to
the more northern islands the port presents a
busy, bustling scene. Before the sugar mill,
moored to the docks and swinging at their
moorings, lie steamers, square-riggers and sail-
ing craft of every size and nation. Puffing
tugs, coasting steamers and launches ply here
and there; bright-hued fishing boats come and
go and strings of great, clumsy lighters move
slowly back and forth between the anchored
ships and the busy quays.
54






UNDER THE TRICOLOR


The city itself is well and regularly laid out,
the streets are fairly wide, smooth and straight,
and those eyesores of the British islands-the
miserable shanty-like huts-are entirely lack-
ing, save in the poorer quarters and the sub-
urbs. With their French love of bright colors
the natives of Point-a-Pitre keep their build-
ings covered with a coat of paint, and while
the brilliant blues, pinks, reds, yellows and
greens might appear garish and gaudy in the
north, they seem quite in harmony with the
brilliant sun, gaily attired women and daz-
zling sky of this tropic city, and give an air
of brightness, life and gaiety to the place
which is very pleasing.
There are comparatively few imposing
buildings at Point-A-Pitre, for fires, earth-
quakes and hurricanes have played havoc in
the past and the natives have wisely decided
that it is cheaper and easier to rebuild frail
wooden structures than buildings of concrete
and stone. The massive cathedral near the
center of the city is the largest building and






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

faces a little open square surrounded by the
law courts, municipal buildings and several
handsome residences set in the midst, of gar-
dens glorious with flowers, shrubs and flaming
poinciana trees. A larger open plaza is just
beyond, with a broad promenade, shaded by
huge sandbox trees, leading to the inner har-
bor, and there is also an attractive public gar-
den, a theater, a museum and a chamber of
agriculture in the town.
But the center of attraction and the busiest
spot of Point-a-Pitre is the market, where, on
Saturday, come the country people from far
and near to sell their produce and their wares.
At such times the square occupied by the mar-
ket fairly swarms with men, women and chil-
dren; the din of the French patois is deafen-
ing and the place is ablaze with color. Here,
for the first time, the visitor sees the pic-
turesque, attractive native costumes of the
French islands; the dress that lends comeliness
and distinction to the colored women; that is
wonderfully becoming and which makes the































A GUADELOUPE BELLE


: qw-


STREET SCENE IN POINT-A-PITRE. GUADELOUPE






UNDER THE TRICOLOR

French West Indian women appear as of a
different race from the ragged, unkempt, slov-
enly negresses of Antigua, Montserrat and
St. Kitts.
Although differing in details in the various
islands, the French West Indian dress is very
similar whether in Guadeloupe, Martinique or
Dominica-for Dominica is more French than
English, though under Britain's flag, and
sandwiched as it is between two colonies of
France, it has retained its French characteris-
tics to large extent.
The dominating feature of the costume is
the turban-not a cheap, cotton bandana as in
our southern states, nor yet the carelessly tied
square of gaudy cloth of the British isles, but
a gorgeous striped and checked affair made
and sold for this special purpose and known
as a "Madras."
In each of the islands the Madras is tied in
a distinct manner, and by the form of their
turbans the natives of Guadeloupe, Dominica
or Martinique may be distinguished. In






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

Guadeloupe the Madras is tied in close folds
about the head and is knotted over the right
temple, with the two covers spread open like
fans to form a jaunty, plume-like bow. On
either side the hair is coiled into conical masses
which serve to hold the turban in position, and
as many of the women have hair far too short
or too kinky to braid and coil, artificial cones
of hair are often pinned upon the head.
Across the shoulders a bright silk foulard
is neatly folded and strings of gold and coral
beads encircle the neck. The dress itself is a
short-waisted affair, with enormous, flowing
skirt of large pattern and flaming colors, and
great dangling earrings of gold complete the
costume. Thus attired the Guadeloupe women
are marvelous to behold, and no lily of the
field-much less Solomon-was ever attired
like unto one of them. To see them at their
best one should visit the city on a holiday or
Sunday, but there are plenty about on week-
days and even the working women wear cos-
tumes very similar, although to provide





UNDER THE TRICOLOR


greater freedom for their movements, the trail-
ing skirt is tucked in a great roll about their
waists and a battered hat is often perched
rakishly on the gay-hued Madras.
The brilliant costumes, the throngs of peo-
ple, the busy shops, creaking drays, hurrying
motor mail-trucks, tooting motor cars and in-
cessant chatter of Guadeloupe's metropolis
are in wonderful contrast to the lazy, indiffer-
ent, half-dead appearance of the British isles,
and while the streets are far from as clean as
one could wish, the sun's heat is great and the
white streets scintillate with a blinding glare,
yet there is an attractive "Frenchy" air, a
strange foreign atmosphere and an impression
of prosperity and business about Point-a-Pitre
which is really fascinating.
Unlike the British, the French colonists
never "put all their eggs in one basket," so to
speak, but placed their seat of government
and capital at one spot and their port and com-
mercial center elsewhere. This led to an even
distribution of population and wealth, it en-






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

courage cultivation of the soil throughout
the islands, and, most important of all, it re-
sulted in building and maintaining excellent
roads from one point to another. In Guade-
loupe the roads run everywhere; hard as con-
crete, smooth as asphalt and winding around
mountain sides, through valleys, over hill and
dale, across streams and along the coast, and
affording magnificent drives and wonderful
glimpses of the superb scenery of the island.
An automobile line makes regular daily
trips from Point-A-Pitre to Basseterre, and one
cannot do better than to take this trip if one
wishes to get a good idea of Guadeloupe's re-
sources, beauties and scenery. Many small
towns and villages are passed en route; over a
score of rivers are crossed, and near Bay
Sainte Marie there is a mighty waterfall, drop-
ping, as if from the sky itself, in a silver thread
amid the deep green foliage of the mountains
back from the coast. Basseterre itself is far
less interesting than Point-a-Pitre and is not
much more than half the latter's size. The





UNDER THE TRICOLOR


town contains an old cathedral, the Basi-
lique, dating from 1694, a market shaded
with great tamarinds and with a fountain in
the center, and a few good government build-
ings. Back of the town proper and at a higher
elevation stands an old stone fortress, and be-
hind this is the garrison and Government
House. It is a charming location, with an
extensive view and enclosed on three sides by
two beautiful rivers, with verdured, palm-
shaded banks. Between the streams lies a
large attractive plaza, shaded and bordered by
towering royal palms and with an ornamental
fountain, fed by the clear mountain streams,
in its center.
From the capital one may make numerous
excursions to points of interest in the island,
such as Camp Jacob, the summer residence of
the government, and Sainte Claude, a delight-
ful spot amid the hills; but if one wishes to
experience a trip worth while, by all means
ascend the Soufribre. Loftiest of Guade-
loupe's mountains and an active volcano, Sou-
61





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

friere is well worthy of a visit for' those inter-
ested in natural wonders and magnificent
scenery. The ascent, though steep and in
spots trying to those unaccustomed to moun-
tain climbing, is not fraught with hardship,
and the altitude at which the actual climb
commences is sufficient to temper the heat of
the tropical sun and make the temperature
cool and agreeable.
It is best to start from Camp Jacob, a
charming spot over two thousand feet above
the sea and in the heart of the coffee growing
district of the island, for this is within easy
reach of the trail to the summit, and an early
start may be made before the sun peeps from
above the eastern hills. For a time the trail
leads through groves of pommerose with their
delicate, scented fruits; beneath great clumps
of giant bamboos with their feathery foliage
and byglades overhung with tree ferns, wild
plantains, dangling vines and all the rank
vegetation of the tropical wilderness.
Soon the great "high woods" are reached,





UNDER THE TRICOLOR


with their giant trees, mazes of hanging lianas
and cool, moisture-laden air. Onward and
ever upward the way leads; crossing streams
of hot and cold water, plunging into dark ra-
vines, skirting the verges of precipices and
climbing up steep, rock-strewn, slippery
slopes. Gradually the trees give way to
thorny palmettos, gigantic ferns and matted
grass, through which the guide is forced to
hew a path with his machete, until the last
stunted vegetation is passed, and emerging
upon the wind-swept summit one comes sud-
denly in view of the crater.
Like a great bowl it lies in the hollow of the
mountain top, a vast, desolate area of glaring
sand and red, burnt rocks, half veiled in clouds
of steam. Patches of sulphur gleam yellow in
the sun, evil-smelling vapors drift upward on
the wind, and the silence of the mountain
heights is broken by the subterranean rum-
blings, incessant detonations and hissing steam
jets of this bit of the Inferno. Standing upon
the crater's rim one cannot but speculate as





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

to when the volcano will break forth and pour
its stream of red-hot mud, its scalding floods
and bursting lava bombs over the peaceful
island. But no man can say; it is mere guess-
work, for the last eruption was in 1815, and
during the Martinique eruption in 1902 the
Soufriere merely grumbled louder than usual
-like some terrible ogre disturbed, but not
aroused, from peaceful slumber.
Interesting, awe-inspiring and weird as is
this scene, the trip would still be well repaid
even without the crater, for the view from the
summit is grand beyond description. From
here one looks forth upon a wondrous pano-
rama of forest-covered mountains, lofty peaks,
cafion-like ravines, smiling valleys and cul-
tivated lands. Salt River winds like a gleam-
ing serpent between its mangrove-covered
banks; toy-like Point-a-Pitre squats by the
side of its silvery harbor, with a vast green sea
of cane beyond, and on every side stretch far-
reaching waters dotted with the tiny Saints,
Desirade and Marie Galante and with Domin-





UNDER THE TRICOLOR


ica, soft as a cloud form, elusive as a wraith,
pearl-like and opalescent upon the shimmering
southern rim of the sea. Among these peace-
ful and beautiful islands it is hard to realize
that the mother countries are struggling in
murderous conflict, but the war is brought
very close indeed to the people of the French
islands. Thousands of the happy-go-lucky,
care-free natives are being drafted, and white,
black and brown together--often in chains--
are herded like cattle upon transports and
shipped to the battlefields of Europe.
It is unutterably sad and pitiful to think
of these childlike people filling the trenches
to form targets for shot and shell; fighting
and dying for a country they have never seen
and hoping and praying that by some miracle
they may live to once more see the cool, green
mountain heights, the waving palm trees and
the surf-washed beaches of their far-off island
home.












CHAPTER V


THE LOFTIEST OF THE CARIBBEES
AS the mountains become higher and
more majestic as one sails south-
ward from St. Thomas, so also do the
beauties and luxuriance of the islands increase,
until altitude, scenery, vegetation and gran-
deur culminate in Dominica-loftiest and most
beautiful of the Caribbees and largest of the
Leeward Islands.
From sea to clouds Dominica is one stupen-
dous mass of towering, forest-clad mountains,
mile-deep gorges, broad plateaus and fertile
valleys. At the very edge of the surf rise
frowning precipices and titanic peaks. From
the dense verdure of the vast forests roaring
cataracts plunge down for hundreds of feet to





LOFTIEST OF THE CARIBBEES

foaming rivers tumbling through purple-
shaded cafions. On shelf-like tablelands, in
emerald amphitheaters among the hills, in in-
finitely colored valleys, nestle tiny villages and
wattled huts. Coppery cacao groves, deep-
green lime orchards and golden patches of
cane and bananas break the solid mass of ver-
dure. Palm trees wave and sway above the
beach-rimmed coves, and over all, sublime,
grand and majestic, towers Morne Diablotin,
its mighty summit draped in clinging clouds
a mile and more above the sea-the highest
peak in the Lesser Antilles.
For mile after mile, as one sails along the
coast, mountains and peaks follow in endless
succession; some close above the shores and
seemingly overhanging the passing ship;
others farther inland and separated by gigan-
tic forest-filled clefts, and still others-hazy
and blue in the distance-peeping between the
summits of their nearer fellows. At the head
of a broad bay, enclosed between jutting lofty
headlands, the little town of Portsmouth





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

gleams amid its palms, and Layou stretches
along its river banks a little farther on. Val-
ley after valley opens to view, each with its
miniature town, and at last the ship drops
anchor off the port of Roseau. Flanked by
great mountains, with the broad and fertile
valley stretching inland to the distant peaks,
its sea-wall fringed with breaking surf and its
red-roofed buildings clear-cut against the
tropic foliage and marvelous greenery, the
town appears most beautiful from the sea and
gives the finishing touch to the lovely land.
As in many another case, "distance lends
enchantment to the view," for Roseau is
scarcely more than a town of hovels, and is an
eyesore and a blot upon this wondrously per-
fect isle.
But whatever shortcomings one may find
in the architecture of Roseau, there can be no
criticism of its cleanliness or its picturesque-
ness. Every street within the town, whether
roughly cobbled narrow lane, or broad, smooth,
well-kept thoroughfare, is provided with open





LOFTIEST OF THE CARIBBEES

gutters filled with rushing mountain water,
and daily the pavements are swept and
scoured. There are a few good buildings in
Roseau, and remnants of great stone walls,
elaborate gateways and massive steps testify
to the former architecture of the town, but as
in Montserrat, Antigua and St. Kitts, ram-
shackle hovels and diminutive huts have been
built on and within the ruins of better days,
and the aspect of the decent stores and resi-
dences is ruined by the miserable shacks which
crowd between and about them. It is not
poverty that keeps Roseau in its present state,
for Dominica is the most prosperous and rich-
est of the islands, nor is it lack of energy and
progress on the part of the people, for the
Dominicans are industrious, intelligent and
progressive compared to their neighbors; but
as long as the powers that be tax improve-
ments and discourage betterment, just so long
will the natives adhere to their unpainted
shanties and just so long will Roseau remain
an architectural ulcer on the land.





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

Bad as it is, Roseau is not so hopeless as
one might expect from its appearance. There
are numerous well-stocked stores, several ex-
cellent boarding houses, a good hotel, an ice
factory, a Carnegie library, a museum and
two clubs in the town, besides the historic Cath-
olic cathedral, the Anglican and Methodist
churches, the Government house and offices,
the Bishop's residence and the convent. In
addition there is the jail, an excellent hospital,
a number of fine residences and an interesting
old fort. Moreover, Dominica is one of the
healthiest spots in the world. Stomach and
intestinal diseases are very rare, typhoid is un-
known, malaria and similar maladies are not
common, and there is not a case of leprosy on
the island. The climate is very equable and
is rarely oppressively hot, save in the town
itself, but the rainfall is excessive, and while
less rainy from December until April than
during the rest of the year, yet there are
no "dry" and "wet" seasons, but rather a
"wet and a wetter," as one Dominican ex-



































CARiB TYPES


A Bri oF COAsT. DommuIcA





LOFTIEST OF THE CARIBBEES

pressed it. In the hills almost any tempera-
ture may be found, except freezing, and a half
hour's walk will take one from the tropical
climate of sea level to the spring-like air of a
nearby mountain top. It must be borne in
mind, however, that the higher one goes the
greater the rainfall, and while this may be a
disagreeable feature, yet the very luxuriance
and beauty of the island depend upon the
drenching showers that fall at any and all
times and often without warning from a
cloudless sky. Everywhere in Roseau, and
for that matter throughout the island, black
and colored people predominate, for of its
thirty odd thousand inhabitants scarce one
hundred are white; but color is only skin deep
in Dominica, and the people are uniformly
courteous, good-natured and hospitable, and
are the happiest and most contented people
in the world. Among the better class there
are many wealthy men; many have been edu-
cated in the great universities of Europe;
others have traveled throughout the world, and






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

as a rule they are as intelligent, well read and
conversant with the topics of the day as their
white neighbors.
English is spoken quite generally by the
townspeople, but in the outlying districts and
among themselves the natives adhere to their
strange local dialect known as "patois," an
uncouth jargon of French, African and Carib
words-with a smattering of English-and
which with slight variations is also the favorite
tongue of the negroes in St. Lucia, Grenada
and Trinidad.
As already mentioned, Dominica and the
Dominicans, although nominally British, are
far more French than English. French names
predominate among the people; towns, rivers,
mountains and other places are called by
French names; the basis of patois is French
and the natives cling to French customs in life,
habits, costumes, holidays and manners.
Although so thoroughly French in many
ways, yet the Dominicans are intensely patri-
otic and contributed nearly thirty thousand





LOFTIEST OF THE CARIBBEES

dollars to the relief and war funds of Eng-
land. Think of itl nearly one dollar apiece
for every man, woman and child upon the
island-more per capital than contributed by
any other British colony. No wonder the Do-
minicans are proud of the two military aero-
planes provided with their money and have
perpetuated their patriotic gift by adopting
the aeroplane as an emblem of the island.
Here in Dominica dwell the last of the
Caribs-the original aborigines of the Antilles
and once fierce cannibals, but now the mildest-
mannered and most peaceful of people. Few
of the pure bloods are left, for to save their
race from extinction they have been compelled
to marry among the negroes, and the majority
of the tribe are of mixed blood, although many
of them are markedly Carib in features. Far
over on the windward side of the island they
dwell, on their reservation at Salybia, where
they earn a livelihood raising garden truck,
fishing, working for the neighboring planters
or weaving their beautiful waterproof baskets






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

which are used as trunks and traveling bags
by the people throughout the islands. It is a
long, hard journey overland to the Caribs'
home, but the visitor need not take the trip in
order to see the remnants of this once power-
ful and warlike race. On market days, and
especially on Saturdays, the Caribs fare forth
in their narrow dugout canoes, and braving
surf, wind and waves-for no finer boatmen
exist-sail around the island to Roseau. Sev-
eral may usually be seen in the market at such
times or one may find them gathered in little
groups about their laden canoes at the land-
ing place by the sea wall.
They are short, stocky, yellow-skinned peo-
ple, broad of countenance, almond-eyed and
more Mongolian than Indian in appearance.
While stoical, quiet and retiring before
strangers, they are as talkative, gay and fun-
loving as one could wish once their friendship
and confidence is won. Unfortunately they
are inveterate drinkers, and, as with our own
Indians, liquor will prove more fatal than bul-





LOFTIEST OF THE CARIBBEES

lets, and in a few years the last of this race,
which Spanish, French and British failed to
conquer and subdue, will be conquered and
destroyed by this far more merciless and
treacherous foe.
One can scarcely step ashore in Dominica
without finding something of interest, while
natural beauties are so numerous that one
scarce knows which way to turn first. On a
low hill to the right of the town stands the old
fort, but now used only as a police barracks.
Oddly enough, the embrasures of the fort
point toward the town, but this is not so
strange as it may seem when we stop to re-
member that in olden times the danger of a
slave uprising was quite as great as that of in-
vasion by an enemy. Moreover, it was quite
out of the question to prevent a foe from land-
ing, whereas, after he had taken possession of
the town, it was quite easy to knock the build-
ings about his ears and drive him forth, even
if the town was sacrificed by so doing. Such
things happened more than once in Dominica's





ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

past, for the island was a bone of contention
between France and England for over a cen-
tury and its ultimate ownership was only
established when Admiral Rodney fought his
memorable battle with the fleet of De Grasse
off Dominica's shores in 1782.
A right good part did the old fort play
during that great sea fight while the inhabi-
tants looked on the bloody struggle from the
heights, and today one may frequently pick
up ancient, rusty cannon balls amid the shrub-
bery and weeds of Roseau's gardens or may
stumble on long-forgotten mortars and how-
itzers, overgrown with vines and brush, upon
the nearby hillsides.
Opposite the fort is the Government House,
with its tennis courts, lawns, stately palms and
gorgeous flower beds, and just beyond the fort
are the library and museum, in a beautiful,
shaded little park. Sheer from the sea the
cliffs rise for a hundred feet and more to the
smooth walks and shaded benches of this park,
and here one may gaze forth from the library






LOFTIEST OF THE CARIBBEES

or museum across the blue waters to the great,
sweeping curve of shore, with Pointe Michel
beneath the slopes of towering mountains and
Scott's Head standing like a sentinel to mark
the southern extremity of the island.
But of all points about Roseau the Botanic
Station is the most fascinating and beautiful.
It lies but a few moments' walk up the main
street from the waterfront at the foot of
Morne Bruce and occupies some fifty acres
of rolling land and stretches far up the side
of the precipitous more. Through broad,
velvety-green lawns wind smooth gravel roads
and everywhere are rows and groups of stately
and magnificent palms, strange and marvel-
ous trees, and great masses of gorgeous plants
and flowering shrubs. At one side is a
large cricket pitch surrounded with enormous,
spreading saman trees arching above the
path. Royal palms line the drives, gigantic
fan-palms and plume-leaved raphias border
secluded walks, great talipot palms tower
above graceful betel-nut and wax palms,






ISLES OF SPICE AND PALM

for here there are palms from every quar-
ter of the globe and of every imaginable
form and size. Flaming poinciana trees
spread their scarlet flowered branches above
the lawns; great banyans and rubber trees,
cannon-ball trees, bead trees, ylang-ylang,
mahogany, eucalyptus, teak, ebony and a
myriad of other trees attract by their curious
growth or odd forms, and glorious hibiscus,
purple bougainvillea, brilliant cannas, flower-
ing cacti and odorous gardenias add color to
the grounds.
Stretching from the lawns to the foot of
the morne are the fruit trees and experimental
plots, and here one may see limes, lemons,
oranges, grape fruits, duriens, nutmegs,
cloves, cinnamon, coffee, cacao, vanilla and
every other tropical fruit and spice tree bloom-
ing and bearing under the most favorable con-
ditions and with the best of care. It is a lib-
eral education merely to wander through these
model gardens, for here all the most useful
and remarkable vegetation of the tropics is



















Bra,


RosEAu AND BOTAmUC STATION FROM THE MoRNz. DOMINiCA


ENTRANCE TO THE BOTANIC STATION. DOMINICA





LOFTIEST OF THE CARIBBEES

gathered together, labeled and catalogued, and
if the visitor saw nothing else in Dominica his
trip would be well worth while.
A few yards beyond the gardens the road
crosses the tumbling Roseau River over an
iron bridge, and stretching up the valley be-
yond, as far as eye can see, are vast lime
orchards. This is the famous Bath Estate,
the largest single lime estate in the world and
belonging to Rose and Company of London.
To the left are the buildings, mills and plan-
tation house of the estate, and anyone inter-
ested in the resources and industries of the
islands should turn aside here and see how
lime juice and lime oil are made. Dominica
may well be called the Land of Limes, for
upon this fruit the island's prosperity depends
and without exception it is the greatest lime-
producing country on the globe.
Here and there beneath the lime trees sit
little groups of negro girls and women with
huge piles of limes beside them and deftly
rubbing and pressing the fruit upon funnel-




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