Title: Facts about Cuba
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075408/00001
 Material Information
Title: Facts about Cuba To the Congress of the United States of America now assembled. January, 1875
Physical Description: 36 p. : ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Aldama, Miguel de
Echeverría, José Antonio, 1815-1885
Publisher: N. Ponce de León
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1875
 Subjects
Subject: History -- Cuba -- Insurrection, 1868-1878   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Signed by Miguel de Aldama and José Antonio Echeverría, who were diplomatic agents for the Cuban insurrectionary goverment.
General Note: Based on the pamphlet "Facts about Cuba" pub. in 1870 by the Junta Cubana de Nueva York.
General Note: "Constitution of the Republic of Cuba ... 1869": p. 33-36.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075408
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000590078
oclc - 23453151
notis - ADB8880

Full Text

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FACTS ABOUT CUBA.





TO THE CONGRESS

OF THE


Uitd States of America


NOW ASSEMBLED,



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JANUARY,


1875.


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FACTS ABOUT CUBA.




POPULATION.-According to the two last Spanish official
censi :


WHITES. 1i

Spaniards.................... 115,114
Cubans ......................... 603,141
South Americans ............... 4,203
Foreigners of different countries.. 4,999
North Americans ................ 2,496


Chinamen ................. ...
COLORED.
Free .................. .......
Slaves. ............. .. .......

Totals .... ........


225,938
368,550


682.








792,953
34,973



594,488

1,422,414


1887.








764,750



225,938
379,523 605,461

1,370,211


AREA.-The island, in a straight line from east to west, is
about 600 geographical miles long, and in width, from north
to south, varies from 21 to 135 miles.
TERRITORIAL DIVISION.-The Spanish Government has di-
vided the island in three departments : the Western, Central,
and Eastern.
According to the constitution of the Cuban Republic, it
has been divided in four States: Oriente (Eastern), Camaguey,
Las Villas, and Occidente (Western).











The published epitome of the census of 1866 does not give
any details about the elements of the total white population,
which shows a decrease of 28,203 in comparison with that of
1862. The number of the free colored population is the same
in both censi; leaving the inference either that the account
was not really taken in 1866, or that the free colored people
had so much increased between the two epochs, that the
Spanish Government, having adopted as a rule of policy the
balance of the races, was afraid of publishing the true amount
of that class of the population.
The total of this must be actually less than in 1867, owing
to different causes; such as diminution of the immigration
from Spain; the emigration of thousands of Cubans; the
large number of slaves dead by overwork and misrule of the
Spanish agents in the. confiscated sugar states; and the im-
mense loss of lives on account of the revolutionary war.
WEALTH.-In 1862.
Total value of producing land.............. $380,554,523
Total value of urban real estate............. 170,400,833
Total amount of commercial and industrial pur-
suits ............. ..................... 773,846,496

Total.................. .... .... $1,324,801,852
The value of agricultural productions for the same year
(1862) amounted to $129,510,518.
To give an idea of the wealth of Cuba, the Minister of the
Colonies said to the Spanish Congress in October, 1871 :
From 1858 to 1868 (the year of the revolution) the revenues
collected in Cuba have amounted to $405,025,576; the sur-
plus over the expenditures to $9,698,701; the remittances of
money to Spain $34,172,693; the expenses of the expedition
to Mexico and the war on San Domingo to $18,000,000, and
up to this date the civil war has absorbed $62,900,000."











The importation of sugar and molasses into the United
SStates, in the year 1873, amounted to :
From Cuba and Porto Rico. From all the rest of the world.
Raw sugar........ $59,795,728 $18,157,742
Molasses......... 9,139,709 761,342
Melado........... 4,568,329 153,836

Total......... $73,503,776 $19,072,920
The sugar and molasses imported into the United States
from Cuba and Porto Rico represent 1,590,000,000 pounds
weight, or in tons of 2,000 pounds, something like 750,000
Stones of freight, nearly all carried by American tonnage. In
1873 American ships made from and to Cuba the following.
trips: 2,196 vessels entered from Cuba, and 1,772 cleared for
Cuba. At the rate of only $5 per ton, the American shipping
earned nearly $4,000,000 in this freight.
PUBLIC REVENUES.-In the general budget for the fiscal
year 1871-72, presented to the Cortes by the Minister of
the Colonies, the public revenues of Cuba were estimated
at $40,091,834 and the expenditures at $27,481,570.
Revenues ................. .... $40,091,834
Expenditures .................. 27,481,570

Surplus.............. $12,610,264
Notwithstanding this surplus, the Minister declared to
the Cortes that it would not suffice to cover the extraordi-
nary expenses of the war; on which account he requested
the Cortes to authorize him "to establish discretionallyy
and without consulting the Cuban people) such duties and
taxes as the necessities of the war might require, and to use
credit for raising money for the treasury of Cuba."
To use the credit the Government has authorized the
Havana Spanish Bank, a privileged corporation with'











$8,000,000 capital, to issue an unlimited amount of notes,
which exceeds to day $90,000,000 over what is granted
by its charter. The consequence of this system has been
to depreciate the notes, as everybody knows that they can-
not be redeemed; to raise the value of gold to 240 per cent.,
and that the debt of the treasury of Cuba exceeds to day the
sum of $100,000,000.
ARmr.--General Prim, Minister of War, stated to the Cortes
in 1870, that since the outbreak of the revolution Spain had
sent to Cuba 40,000 men. One year *afterwards, in De-
cember, 1871, that number had increased to 60,000, according
to the Havana official newspaper "Diario de la Marina."
This proves that each year Spain is compelled to send
20,000 soldiers, say 120,030 in 6 years, without succeeding
in crushing, nor even in weakening the rebellion. Besides
that, several battalions have been raised on the island, to be
sent to the seat of the war. The volunteers have never
been less than 30,000. Lately, Captain General Jovellar or-
dered a general draft of 10 per cent. to be made among all
the able-bodied men between the ages of 20 and 45 years,
and 1 per cent. of the total slave population. At the same
time he asked that 12,000 men be sent immediately from
Spain; and as it was not possible for the Madrid Govern-
ment to satisfy this petition, he tendered his resignation,
which was accepted, and General Concha appointed to suc-
ceed him. The same thing is repeating itself now. Captain
General Concha is asking for more troops, which it is out of
the power of the Madrid Government to send him; the
volunteers are dissatisfied with the Home Government and
with General Concha also; and in consequence, he has like-
wise sent his resignation.
No less than seven Captains General, invested with unlim-
ited powers, have ruled in Cuba since the commencement










of the war. Every one of them has vied with the other in
cruelty; but no one has succeeded in pleasing the ferocious
mob of the volunteers, and all of them have gone back to
Spain gorged with money, but scorned by their own coun-
trymen. The actual Governor General, Jose de la Concha,
has recently arrived for the third time in Cuba in that capa-
city. The first time he shot as pirates Mr. Crittenden and
49 others, American citizens, captured in a boat on the
coast of Cuba. They had gone in an expedition under
General Narciso Lopez, to promote the annexation of Cuba
to the U. S. Lopez was also taken prisoner, and garroted
in Havana [1851]. The second time, a plan to co-operate
with the expedition prepared in the U. S. by General Quit-
man, was discovered: the chief, Mr. Pint6, a gentleman born
in Spain, an intimate friend of General Concha, was impris-
oned, and subsequently garroted [1855]. The only measures
hitherto taken by General Concha have been an extraordi-
nary contribution of 10 per cent. on all incomes; a draft
among the able-bodied men from 20 to 35 years of age, and
another similar one among the slaves, the last to serve as
soldiers five years, at the end of which they will be free.
LossEs.-It was stated in the Madrid papers of 26th of
October, 1871, and the Government has not denied it, that
from the commencement of the war up to February 1st,
1871, that is, in less than two years and a half, 29,700 men
and 1784 officers of the regular army had died, or nearly 50
per cent. of the whole number which arrived from the Penin-
sula during that period-a fact which explains the necessity
Spain is under of sending 20,000 men to Cuba every year,
simply to make good the losses of her army.
NAVY.-The Spanish navy in Cuban waters has about fifty
vessels of all sizes, with about 400 guns, besides the 30 gun-
boats, built in New York in 1870.











ARMAMENT.-From the first of November, 1868, to the mid-
dle of December, 1871, the Spaniards imported into Cuba
from New York, 83,766 Remington and Peabody rifles and
carbines; and from the United States and Spain 8,500 fire-
arms of other patterns. The importation of arms and am-
munition has continued without interruption; and lately, it
has transpired that a contract was made with Messrs. Rem-
ington & Co. for 60,000 of their improved guns.

CONDITION OF THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT IN CUBA.
The proclamations and decrees of the late Captain-General
Jovellar, published in the official Gazette of Havana, under
the date of February 7, 1874, give the best picture that could
be drawn of the utter demoralization of the Spanish Govern-
ment in Cuba, and of its impotence to'conquer the insurrec-
tion. They are not less than ten, and, being too long to be
inserted here, we will only mention their object.
The first orders a draft of 10 per cent. of the whole number
of volunteers to be sent to the field as regular troops.
The second, on the movilization of the militia, prescribes
that all the men, from 20 to 45 years of age, are obliged to
serve in the regular militia, subject to be drafted and sent to
do campaign duties, in the same way as the volunteers.
The third applies the same rules to the free colored people.
The fourth compels the slave owners to lend to the Govern-
ment, until the end of the war, one slave out of every hun-
dred, to be employed in the campaign; this per centage to
be taken of the actually existing number of slaves in the
cities and in the country, whatever their sex or age may be.
The fifth adds two companies to each battalion of the
army.
The sixth establishes a special Service of Vigilance in the'
Eastern and Central Departments of the Island, having under










its charge all the persons employed as informers, detectives,
guides, explorers and couriers. The most essential duty of
this police will be the ascertaining of all the movements and
plans of the enemy, and, specially, the most strict vigilance
in the centres of population, to prevent these to communicate
with, or lend any aid to the rebels.
The seventh creates a board of inspectors of the extraor-
dinary expenses for the war.
In compliance with the eighth, the army is to be paid in
gold, or its equivalent in bank notes.
The ninth increases the pay and ration of the troops.
The tenth gives rules for the erection, preservation and de-
fence of new centres of population, and for the destruction
of some of the existing ones.
Some, at least, of the considerations to justify the issue of
these decrees are, we think, worth repeating :
Our troops (so says General Jovellar) continue overcom-
ing the natural difficulties of a traitorous war with the same
unremitting courage and unrelaxed patience of which every
day bears new testimonials; but all their endeavors and pri-
vations will be useless, as long as the insurrectionary bands
are able to obtain with impunity, through their abettors and
accomplices, fresh reinforcements of men and their requisites.
.Hence arises the extreme necessity of impressing with awe
those treacherous and cunning sympathizers with our armed
enemies, inflicting upon them severe punishment; in accord-
ance with the summary procedure of the war code."
Auxiliaries less direct, but for that not the least effectual
and useful to the rebels, are those who, through perverse
motives, or protected under the mask of a spurious patriotism,
disturb not infrequently with crimes the tranquility of the
country ; those who, bending their pen, their talents, or their au-
dacity, to serve the passion or a bastard interest at the least dis-











turbance of the public order, keep the spirits in a cruel anxiety;
*further, those who, under cover of an official position, impoverish
the State-defrauding it of its legitimate income; finally and like-
wise those who, working their own discredit in the public offices they
hold, aid to the contempt of our national institutions."

There is nothing so important to the ultimate success of
military operations (especially if the enemy to be combated,
as in Cuba), places the success of its aggressions upon the
secrecy of its movements, and upon the sagacity and
cunning of its chiefs as to have a well organized service of
explorers, practical guides and spies, who, scattered in the
towns and country, would disclose the position and plans of
the enemy, and lead the troops through the most rapid and
practical routes."
Unfortunately, owing to' excess of confidence, based on
the insignificancy of the enemy, that service has been con-
stantly neglected, thus depriving the troops, on many occa-
sions, of glorious victories, and compelling them to undergo
fruitless marches and countermarches with great and pitiful loss of
men by fatigue and disease."
"The contrast is marked between the means possessed by
the Cubans for obtaining a thorough knowledge of the num-
ber and quality of troops opposing them; the status of their
chiefs, as well as of our plans, devices, and in fact all the re-
sources upon which our armies depend, and the almost im-
possibility of acquiring similar information on our part."
If the enemy, without money or means to compensate favors re-
ceived, and without other elements than vengeance and punishment,
obtains such astonishing results, it is to be wondered that our

General Jovellar alludes evidently to the volunteers, and to editors Of the
Spanish newspapers on the Island, who constantly are inflaming their savage
instincts with their writings.










chiefs of operations having at their disposal all kinds of resources
to remunerate important services, we should, after five years, remain
yet destitute of practical guides to lead our troops, and of spies to
give them information as to the position and plans of the enemy."
But this is not all. Experience has demonstrated that seldom
an attack on any town has taken place, without the enemy being in
communication and accord with some of its neighbors, who, thor-
oughly knowing the locality, lead and protect them in their incen-
diary, sacking and devastating work."
The foregoing statements of General Jovellar leave not a
shadow of doubt of the corruption of the Spanish rule in
Cuba; of the false patriotism of its. agents and supporters;
of the crimes of its adherents; and finally, of its dreadful
isolation in the midst of the oppressed country, forced, as its
highest authority confesses, to grope its way.across the ob-
stacles of a hostile or unsympathizing population. Should
more proofs of these facts be yet wanting, the actual Captain-
General, Concha, will furnish us with a more recent and not
less convincing one, among many others, in his extra taxes of
five and ten per cent. on income and capital, to meet the re-
quirements of the war. His absolute powers, notwithstanding,
and in spite of his manifold decrees, either coaxing-or threat-
ening and punishing the reluctant people, he has not yet suc-
ceeded in collecting the fifth part of the amount expected to
be derived from those sources.
Alarmed by the severity of the decrees of General Jovellar,
great numbers of persons left the Island, among them many
of the boasting volunteers, who, deserting their colors, some-
times by tens, came to this country or went to Mexico; thus
showing that even those most fervid Spanish patriots have
lost confidence in the ultimate success of their Government.











THE REVOLUTION.
Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, an able lawyer and wealthy
planter of Bayamo, in the Eastern Department, raised the
standard of independence in his State, Demajagua, in the
district of Manzanillo, at a short distance from the town of
Yara, of which he immediately took possession on the tenth
of October, 1868.
During the first month of the war a provisional govern-
ment was organized at Bayamo, with Cespedes at its head,
who, on the thirtieth of October, 1868, published a manifesto
declaring that he would not impose his government on the
people of the Island, and that he was ready to submit to
whatever the majority of its inhabitants decided on, as soon as
they could freely assemble to make use of their right of self
government.
On the 10th of April, 1869, a convention met at Guaimaro,
presided over by Cespedes, composed of the delegates of the
different sections of the Island. A draft of a constitution
was laid before this body, which, after being discussed and
amended, was finally adopted.
This constitution, and the laws successively passed by the
House of Representatives (notwithstanding all the contrary
statements made by the enemies of the Cuba Libre), con-
tinues to rule as regularly as can be expected from an infant
republic laboring under the two-fold difficulties of con-
stituting itself and of fighting its opponents, who commit
everything to fire and sword. The Cubans hold their own
from Santiago de Cuba to the district of Five Cities
(Cinco Villas), embracing more than half of the territory of
the island.
Their army is now stronger, better disciplined, better
armed and equipped than ever; and if it is not more numer-
ous, it is only for want of arms and ammunition.











It is composed of the following corps :
CAMAGUEY.-Commander-in-Chief, Gen. M6ximo Gomez;
Second Chief, Gen. J. Sanguili.
Infantry .. ................ 3,700
Cavalry..................... .. 900
4,600
LAS VILAs.-General Jose Gozalez.
Infantry...................... 1,200
Cavalry................ ...... 340
-- 1,540
LAs TuNAs.-General Francisco Varona.
Infantry ..................... 1,300
Cavalry ...................... 200
-- 1,500
BAYA O.--General Modesto Diaz.
Infantry .... ............. ... 2,400
Cavalry ...... ... ............ 450
2,850
HOLGUIN.-Brigadier, Miguel Barreto.
Infantry ........................1,690
Cavalry.......... ............. 370
--- 2,060
SANTIAGO DE CUBA.-General Manuel Calvar.
Infantry.......... .. ......... 4,300
Cavalry ....................... 400
-- 4,700

Total ........................ 17,250

The liberating army increases every day in number and
strength, not only with the Cubans always ready to be en-
listed as fast as they can be furnished with arms, but also










with the deserters of the Spanish lines, who pass over to it
with their equipment. The patriots are supplied with arms
and ammunition from abroad when possible; but more
frequently they capture them from neighboring towns occu-
pied by Spanish troops, not a few of the sellers being them-
selves Spaniards. For so doing, a wealthy one of the latter
was not long ago convicted and shot by order of General
Portillo, then Spanish Governor of Puerto Principe.
The Cubans are now asking for artillery, the only thing
they want to take possession of, and hold important towns
and ports. In spite of this deficiency, they attack and pene-
trate into the towns whenever they like, to provide themselves
with provisions, clothes or arms. In this manner they have
entered at different times large places, such as Manzanillo,
Holguin, Nuevitas, San Miguel and Sancti Spiritu, remaining
there some hours, and retiring afterwards abundantly pro-
vided with all kind of supplies.
The fighting during the last twelve months has been very
active, and as acknowledged by the Spaniards themselves,
almost always favorable to the Cubans. The most impor-
tant feat in the campaign, and the most threatening to the
Spanish power, has been the invasion of Cinco Villas. This
is an extensive territory in the Western Department, where
the populous towns, or Villas, of Cienfuegos, Trinidad, Sancti
Spirit, San Juan de los Remedios and Villa Clara are lo-
cated, studded all over with the finest sugar plantations of the
Island and teeming with slaves. The Spanish authorities,
ever since the breaking put of the insurrection, have devoted
their most strenuous efforts to keep the patriots far off
this territory, confining them to the cattle growing portion of
the island. With this object they have cut open a wide
zone across the island, building extensive fortifications
along it from one coast to the other. The patriots have










lalely succeeded in crossing this line : they have already en-
tered some of the towns; burned several plantations; and
the destruction of the rest is imminent, as they hope, by
destroying the material rescources of the country, that it
will be impossible for Spain to carry on the war.
We will now refer to some of the most prominent engage-
ments during the last ten months, as described by official
documents, either Spanish or Cuban:

1873, Nov. 10.-Attack on Manzanillo, an important sea-
town, of above 5,500 inhabitants, exclusively of the garrison,
always strong, as the place is one of the Spanish head-quar-
ters. The city was defended on the land side by two castles
and eight fortified towers; and on the sea side, by a steamer
and two gunboats, which took part in the action. The gar-
rison consisted of 500 regulars, 800 volunteers, and a com-
pany of firemen. General Calixto Garcia, at the head of
1,400 men, took possession of the town; burned some build-
ings, and after killing 200 Spaniards, and making prisoners
of 100 more, retired with a rich booty of 250 rifles, 8,000
cartridges, horses, money, and a variety of other articles.
The Cubans had 18 killed and 70 wounded, rank and file.
December 2.-Battle of Palo Seco, in Camagiiey. The
Cubans, numbering 300 infantry and 250 cavalry, commanded
by General Miximo Gomez, surprised a stronger column
of Spaniards, under Colonel Vilches, and routed them com-
pletely. The first and second commander, several officers
and 200 soldiers were killed. Sixteen officers and 35 men
were made prisoners. Besides, the Cubans captured 257
Remingtons, 16,000 cartridges, 12 revolvers, 100 sabres, 80
horses, with their equipment, and 30 baggage mules loaded
with ammunition, medicine, clothing, and some money. The
loss to the Cubans was trifling-3 killed and 15 wounded.








16

1874, January 6.-General Julio Sanguily, heading a
force of cavalry and infantry, entered the military zone of
Puerto Principe, and finding a party of 90 foragers, near
fort Garrido," put them to flight, killing 49 and capturing
33 Remingtons and 1,200 cartridges. The Cubans approached
so near the city of Puerto Principe, that they could see the
movements of the garrison, and hear the bells ring the alarm
under fear of a general assault.
January 9.-Colonel Esponda, with 650 Spanish soldiers,
attacked the Cubans at Los M1elones," (district of Las Tu-
nas) and after a severe fight, was compelled to retire, leaving
behind 4 officers and 16 soldiers dead, besides 14 officers
and 50 soldiers wounded. The losses of the Cubans are not
known.
January 12.-Colonel Gabriel Gonzalez, in command of
two brigades, penetrated by different points at the same
time, into the village of Sibanici, (Puerto Principe) with-
out being molested by a single shot from the adjoining
advanced forts. The object of this operation was to protect
the exodus of those of the inhabitants sympathizing with the
patriots. This was accomplished, about 500 persons of every
sex and age leaving the village, amongst them. 100 able-
bodied men fit for field service. Besides, the Cubans took
10 Remingtons, 14 horses, and plenty of goods of every des-
cription, and then burned the village, under the fire of the
Spanish intrenchment, without receiving any harm.
January 13.-Brigadier Jose Gonzalez, with 460 infantry
and 80 horses, scouring the zone between Santa Cruz and
El Rio, burned a sugar estate, captured some rifles and cart-
ridges, 10 horses, clothing, provisions and 40 prisoners; only
one of these was executed as a highway robber, the rest
were set at liberty. Forty able-bodied men joined voluntarily
the column. The Spanish Brigadier, Bascones, was encamp-









17

ing at that time near "El Rio" with 1,500 men; but, al-
though the Cubans took position and provoked him with
some shots, he did not dare to move out.
February 10.-Brigadier Bsscones and Colonel Armifan,
with 2000 men, attacked the Cuban General MAximo Gomez,
with about the same number, at a place called Naranjo,"
in Camaguey. The Spaniards say that the fight lasted seven
hours; they lost 140 killed and 120 wounded. The Cubans
had 91 killed and wounded, and captured 39 Remingtons,
3,000 cartridges, 12 horses, and sundries. Both parties claim
the victory. The probabilities are in favor of the Cubans,
because the Spaniards have officially confessed that, next
day, as they were retiring, they were attacked by the Cubans
at Mojacasabe," losing 2 officers and 22 soldiers, and hav-
ing 8 of the first class and 103 of the second wounded; proba-
bly these numbers were larger. The Cuban report does not
mention this second engagement.
February 28.-According to Spanish reports, Colonel Es-
ponda, with the Fourth Brigade, attacked at El Ciego," the
insurgent general, Calixto Garcia, who commanded from 450
to 500 men, and after a fight of an hour and a half compelled
them to disperse, leaving behind 13 dead.
March 3.-The Spaniards report also an encounter at Ji-
maguay-i between a strong column of 1500 infantry, cavalry
and artillery, under Brigadier Armifian, and a Cuban force
of 1,000 infantry and 600 cavalry. They had only 2 officers
and 10 soldiers wounded; but as they do not state the losses
of the Cubans, neither do they claim the victory, it is to be
inferred that they were badly beaten. The Cuban return says
that their infantry did not take part in the engagement, their
cavalry having been sufficient to repel the enemy.
April 15-18.-Battle of "Las GuAsumas," between the
Spanish troops, commanded by Brigadier Armiian, and the









18

Cubans, under General Miximo Gomez. The Spanish re-
turn, being so unusually laconic, the inference is that they
were severely repulsed, as it merely mentions the fact
that after a bloody fight, in which both parties suf-
fered severely, the rebels were forced back. On the con-
trary, the Cubans claim a decided victory. They state that
when the battle began on the 15th, they were 1,500 infantry
and 500 cavalry, and the Spaniards had 3,000 men of both
arms, besides four pieces of artillery. The engagement con-
tinued the two following days: the Spaniards burned great
heaps of their dead, and were reduced to the last extremity
when they were reinforced by Brigadier Bascones, arriving
from Puerto Principe with 2,000 men and one cannon. The
fighting was then renewed at Jimaguayii," on the morning
of the 18th; but the Spaniards finding the patriots too strong
for them, notwithstanding their fresh help, decided finally to
retreat, harassed by the Cubans as far as Jimaguayd. The
losses of the enemy are estimated at least 1,000 men, the field
remaining strewed with corpses of men and horses that they
could not burn or bury. The patriots had 29 dead and 113
wounded, all classes counted; and they got a good amount of
horses, arms, ammunition, clothing, &c.
April 8th.-On the morning of this day-if the Spanish re-
ports be true-a strong Cuban force of 2,000 infantry and
300 cavalry, failed in an assault on "Fort Caridad de Ar-
teaga," in the vicinity of Puerto Principe. In the night of
that day they were also repulsed from the hamlet of Cascor-
ro, leaving 12 dead soldiers, and carrying away many more
wounded.
April 12.-General Maximo Gomez, at the head of a strong
body of troops, threatened to invest the important city of
Nuevitas; and while the Spaniards were concentrating all
their forces to protect the town, he sent a detachment of 600











men to enter San Miguel de Baga, a village nine miles dis-
tant, which they did that night, sacking the stores of the
Spaniards, and retiring with a rich booty. To carry away
this booty the Cubans employed litters, causing the Span-
iards to report that instead of spoils, they were removing
their dead and wounded.
April 14.-Colonel Jimenez, with a strong column, crossed
"La Trocha," or the fortified line of the Spaniards, to rein-
force the patriots who are operating in "Cinco Villas" terri-
tory.
April 17.-In the Eastern Department, near a place called
Yaya, General Calixto:Garcia attacked a corps of 1,100 Span-
iards; killed 130.
April 29.-The renowned Spanish Colonel Hilario San-
doval assailed the Cubans under Col. Jimenez at Las De-
licias," in Sancti Spiritus district. He was killed, as also 50
of his followers.
April 29.-The Cubans, commanded by General Calvar,
assaulted Mayari (Eastern Department), but after a fight,
in which the forts of Camara and Montana took part, retired,
leaving 12 dead; they succeeded, notwithstanding, in burning
some houses. [Spanish report.]
April 30.-From the same source we know that General
Calixto Garcia, leading 400 infantry and 200 cavalry, invested
the village El Horno," in the Eastern Department, defended
by 200 infantry, one squadron, and the volunteers of the
place. The Cubans retired after a very sharp fight. No
casualties are reported.
May 9.-Colonel Benitez protected the departure of 150
Cubans who remained in the village of Sibanici, which had
been destroyed on a former occasion.
June 27.-Lieutenant-Colonel La Rosa, with 600 men, at-
tacked the Cubans at Baire, in the district of Jiguani. He











affirms, in his report, that the patriots, numbering 500, with
40 horses, had 32 dead and many wounded; but he does not
mention his own casualties.
* July 20.-Commandant J. Carrillo crossed the Trocha with
a convoy of men and ammunition, dispatched from head-
quarters at Camaguey, to reinforce Colonel Jimenez, operat-
ing at Las Villas. Being overtaken on the 22d at "Los
Buniatos" by a Spanish column, he checked its pursuit, with
some loss on both sides. He was again attacked on the 26th
at Corojo; but on the 27th he reached safely his destination
with the convoy.
August 12.-Colonel Jimenez, while encamped at Los
Charcos," heard that the enemy was advancing towards him
with 300 men. Althoughhe had but 63 horses and 82 infantry,
he decided to fight, relying upon the advantages of his posi-
tion. A brisk and deadly engagement followed, in which the
Spaniards took to flight, leaving 90 accoutred horses, 33
Remingtons, 2,500 cartridges, and a medicine chest on the
battle field. Night put an end to the persecution of the
stragglers. The casualties of the Cubans were 2 killed and
13 wounded.
August 14.-To sum up the results of this victory, Colonel
Jimenez started with a force of cavalry; and at midnight
entered into the city of Sancti Spiritu, an important place,
with not less than 15,000 inhabitants. His first step was to
order Captain Barrera to go directly to the residence of the
General Commandant Don Francisco Acosta y Alvear, one
of the bloodiest Spanish officers, although a native of Cuba;
but, fortunately for him, he was absent. The Cubans pos-
sessed themselves of the streets and squares of the city,
made prisoners of a detachment, took away their arms, and
then released them; captured 410 rifles, and after remaining
for some hours in the city, they retired without doing any











harm, nor being molested by the volunteers nor regulars
stationed in the place.
On the next morning the garrison of the fort Micaguabo"
passed over to the patriots, with arms and ammunition. The
fort was destroyed.
A similar result was effected on the 18th with the garrison
of Fort "La Herradura."
September 4.-General Calixto Garcia Ihiguez, one of the
ablest and most popular of the Cubans, was taken prisoner
by the Spaniards at San Antonio, in Oriente (Eastern State),
of which he was in command. His captor, Lieutenant Ariza,
pretends that the deed took place in a battle against 800
Cubans ; but it is an established fact that General Garcia fell
victim to a surprise.
September 12.-From Spanish quarters it is reported that
the Cubans assailed the village of Jumento," in the district
of Trinidad; but that the garrison made an heroic defense,
and repelled the patriots.
October 28.-To compensate this failure, we have the sur-
render of the village "San Geronimo," in Camaguey, to
Brigadier Jose Gonzalez. The place was defended by in-
trenchments and several block houses, manned by 115 men
armed with Remingtons. After two days fight, the Com-
mandant, Captain Agustin Brafias, dangerously wounded,
capitulated with the garrison, on condition that their lives
should be spared. They numbered 61, and were escorted to
the nearest Spanish encampment at Las Yeguas."
The casualties were to the Spaniards 60 killed, 25 wounded;
to the Cubans 2 killed, 15 wounded. One sergeant and
several soldiers went over to the Cubans. 450 persons were
rescued. And besides that, the Cubans captured 130 Re-
mingtons, 25,000 metallic cartridges, horses, clothing, pro-
visions, and 50 head of cattle.











We cannot give a more reliable, although incomplete,
picture of the internal condition of the revolution, than
translating the following extracts from a pamphlet, entitled
"Los Mambises." Memoirs of a prisoner, by the Spanish
Captain of Infantry, Don Antonio De Rosal. (Madrid, 1874.)
I spent fifty-six days among the insurgents: this pro-
longed visit, which, much against my will, I made them,
began on the 26th of September last, on which day, while
attached to the column of Colonel Dieguez, I shared in the
unfortunately celebrated battle of Santa Maria, and un-
luckily was taken prisoner. *
"Blacks and whites, officers and soldiers, all possess consti-
tutions to be envied. One occasionally meets people appa-
rently weak, but really able to support an immense amount
of fatigue. Sick are seldom seen, and, of these, as of the
wounded, although they lack almost all resources, few die;
almost all have been wounded, and some can count their
wounds by the dozen. They carry loads like beasts of bur-
den, and will travel ten, twelve, and even fourteen leagues,
at more than an ordinary pace, without being fatigued or
giving out, notwithstanding their scarcity of nourishment,
of which I will speak further on. *
They are so simple minded, that the chiefs make them
believe whatever they choose, and rule them at their plea-
sure, for they are plunged in the grossest ignorance; but
this does not mean that men thoroughly instructed, such as
are the deputies, and some others who fill the offices of mili-
tary judges and other like positions, are not to be found, nor
that there are not among them a great many, who, being sons
of good families, have been carefully educated, and who
possess the general, although perhaps superficial, know-
ledge usually given to young men.of this class. Others, a
lesser number, although of good families, have received no











instruction whatever, on account of having joined the insur-
rection while still children. *
"Let it be understood that whenever our troops have the
ill luck to show their backs, they are always disastrously
routed, for then they are terrible; they fall like wild
beasts on their enemies, without regard to their number, and
with no weapon but their machete and this each one does
individually and in disorder. *
They admire and greatly respect courage in their ene-
mies; in fact, to such a degree, that I recommend to those
who at any future time may have the misfortune to fall into
their hands, to show themselves haughty and worthy,
although they know they are going to die; in the certainty
that, if they can inspire their captors with any sympathy, it
will not be by humbling themselves, for they hate cowards
and timid people. *
Colonel Dieguez, fighting like a brave man, was wounded
by three bullets in one foot; he was taken prisoner by the
enemy, carried to the rear and transferred to the camp
where he was presented to the chief, Calisto Garcia. *
He died as a martyr, after having fought like a brave Spaniard;
and almost all the chiefs of the enemy, admiring his courage,
assisted at his funeral, which was presided over by my com-
panion in misfortune, Don Andres Gallurt, and was con-
ducted with the greatest solemnity possible under the
circumstances.* *
They know how to appreciate the conduct of those of
their enemies who prove themselves great in the supreme
moments of life.
"They possess also the noble characteristic of extreme
generosity, although their resources are so few that they are
generally hungry and in want of everything. One often sees
three or four of them smoking the same cigar, or dividing up











with each other a plantain or a tomato. I was entirely naked
from my middle up, and the so-called Major Ruiz, who, by a
strange coincidence, possessed both a jacket and a shirt,
ceded the latter to me, notwithstanding my strong endeavor
to decline the present. *
I have heard from everybody that the Mambises are cruel
and bloodthirsty. Being new in the campaign, I never had
an opportunity of witnessing any horrors committed by them,
and can only state that, alike to myself and to my other copn-
panions who shared my fate, they conducted themselves gen-
erously, attentively and respectfully; treating us even with
affection. The fact of restoring us to liberty, without exact-
ing from us any conditions, I can explain solely by attribu-
ting it to political views.
"They are, as a general thing, good marksmen ; but this
is not their chief characteristic, which is their intimate
knowledge of the forests. This is such that, although they
may find themselves on a spot which they occupy for the first
time, and although they may be so taken by surprise as to be
obliged to scatter before their chief has had time to indicate
to them a spot in which to re-unite, it is truly surprising to
see how these men, guided by a never failing instinct, will
come in, few at a time, to the place where their chief has
halted. I cannot'understand this, but it is true.
"They obey their officers blindly, although everybody is
treated as an equal, and although quarrels and altercations
may occur: they complain loudly when they are detailed for
any service the performance of which they may think can-
not properly be required of them, but they never fail to fulfil
their orders. They perform certain services with a ridiculous
gravity; but all such work as outposts, and others of like im-
portance, are performed with the greatest exactitude, vigi-
lance and care, on which account it is very difficult to









25.

surprise them. For their arms they entertain a real affec-
tion, cleaning them and preserving them with the greatest
care; and they go into ecstacies on the subject of ammunition,
always endeavoring to increase their number of cartridges, and
priding themselves in economizing them. The gravest charge
which can be made against an officer is that of having aban-
doned any arm to us, or of leaving any of their killed or
wounded in our hands. The wounded, on receiving their
wounds, run off as far as they can from the field, and very
few of them ever require any help from their companions in
their retreat. *
The Government of the Mambises is a Republic, and its
fundamental code is a charter or constitution, very broad in
rights and liberties, and more democratic than any I know
of. *
"There are two powers-one is the House of Representa-
tives, the other is composed of the President and his Minis-
ters, or Secretaries. The House consists of sixteen deputies,
elected by universal suffrage. It has the right to make laws.
to declare wars and make peace. The House nominates the
President. *
For the election of deputies everybody, not belonging to
the force and having a vote, must go to the camps. *
The House has the power to remove from office any func-
tionary whom it is authorized to appoint. *
"There are two classes of authorities-the Judicial and the
Civil. Justice is administered by a person called preboste
(provost), and the chief civil authority is the Prefect, who has
under him a Sub-Prefect and Constable. *
"The force is divided into various army corps; each of them
commanded by a chief called major-general. Each army
corps is composed of a certain number of brigades; each
brigade of two battalions, whose regulation strength is 125
4











rank and file, although they often do not number over 60 or 80 ;
the brigades are commanded by brigadiers, who are general
officers, and the battalions by colonels, who have under them
a lieutenant-colonel, two majors, a captain-aide-de-camp, a
lieutenant, and an ensign. Each one of the six companies
which compose a battalion is commanded by a captain, two
lieutenants, and two sub-lieutenants, and has besides a
regular complement of sergeants and corporals. *
Carlos Manuel de Cespedes had issued a decree of pardon
granting liberty to all officers, prisoners of war, on the
shameful condition of not fighting any more against the
Mambises during the present strife; by another law, passed
on the 27th of October last, unconditional liberty was granted
to all persons.
This is all I have been able to find out with respect
to spies, but it is certain that I have read papers of
as recent a date as they could have in Holguin; that the
insurgents know every step that any of our columns take,
and that, when they attack a town, the commander receives
information every half-hour before they reach the place of
any new circumstance that may have occurred. *
"The mail service is pretty well organized: the nearest
prefect takes charge of the correspondence which is frb-
quently arriving from abroad in canoes, and is remitted
from prefecture to prefecture to its address, for which service
there are special employees. *
"All communications are received quite punctually, and
letters or official documents are rarely lost. *
Almost all their fire-arms are rifled, mostly Remingtons,
with some Peabodys, and a few Berdans. They are well
provided with arms and ammunition landed recently from
abroad, and not the least quantity of them from ourselves;










The service of outposts is performed with great diligence
and caution. They are placed half a league from the camp,
and one is posted on each road which leads to it; its force is
relative to that of the main body, but it is always sufficiently
strong to check any attack for a time necessary for the main
body to prepare. Each outpost places a sentry on the road,
at a distance of thirty or more yards from it, and when they
suspect the presence of our troops, they likewise post other
sentries, in different directions, inside the wood. When the
order is sounded for silence in camp, each battalion names a
sort of patrol guard, composed of four or six men, of whom
one alone remains awake, and who is entrusted with seeing
that no noise is made, which is scrupulously observed.
Although they have at this headquarters nothing more than
a corporal's guard, it is not easy to surprise them, as they
sleep very lightly. *
Another of the important services is that of commissions
and detachments. The officer to whom a commission is
entrusted receives his instructions; and without enquiring;
perhaps, if he will be able to find provisions on his road,
and sometimes even without a guide, sets out for the locality
of the nearest prefecture. On arriving there he will be fur-
nished with a guide, who conducts him to the vicinity of the
next, and so on. *
"We all know that the war waged in Cuba is one of
factions or guerillas, because such is most suited to the
country; but it is not a war of factions such as we have been
accustomed to in Spain from the time of Viriato up to to-day.
This does not mean that they do not
know how to wage war; quite the reverse, for I think the
system. which they employ is the very best one they could
possibly have adopted. * Thoroughly acquainted
with the forests, they avoid battle whenever they please;











they hide in thick underbrush, and, unless they choose to let
us do so, we very seldom can come up with them. *
* As a general thing, the Mambises soldiers return,
immediately on our retreat, to the camps from which we may
have dislodged them. *
"The acting president, Salvador Cisneros, is of an ad-
vanced age, tall and thin ; he has one arm broken by a bullet
which struck him when he was commanding the attack on
the tower of Colon, which was heroically defended by the
thenceforth celebrated Captain Don Cesareo Sanchez. The
insurgent deputies say that Cisneros is a well-educated man,
and that he is a deep and thorough mathematician; but I
can only assert that, if he is scientific, he certainly is not elo-
quent. His manners are agreeable, and he is highly appre-
ciated by the insurgents."

ORGANIC IAWS.

THE CONSTITUTION.-A copy is annexed. Its principal pro-
visions are :
ART. 1.-The legislative power is vested in a House of Re-
presentatives.
ART. 7.-The House elect the President of the Republic,
the General-in-Chief of the army, the President of the House,
and other executive officers. The General-in-Chief is sub-
ordinated to the Executive.
ART. 8.-The President of the Republic, &c., are amenable
to charges which may be made by any citizen to the House
of Representatives, who shall proceed to examine into the
charges preferred.
ART. 9.-The House has full power to dismiss from office
any functionary whold they have appointed.
ARTICLES 10, 11, 12 and 13.-Prescribe the form of passing
laws. -










ART. 16.-The executive power is vested in the President
of the Republic.
ART. 22.-The judiciary forms an independent, co-ordinate
department of the government, under the organization of a
special law.
ART. 24.-All the inhabitants of the Republic of Cuba are
absolutely free.
ART. 28.-The House of Representatives shall not abridge
the freedom of religion, of the press, of public meeting, of
education, of petition, or any inalienable right of the people.
JUDICIARY.-By the law enacted on the 6th August, 1869,
the administration of justice is vested: first, in a Supreme
Court; second, in criminal judges; third, in civil judges;
fourth, in prefects and sub-prefects; and fifth, in courts
martial.
The tribunals are acting as regularly as the conditions of
the war can allow it.
The House of Representatives has passed laws regulating
the administrative and civil organization, prescribing the re-
quisites of civil marriages, organizing the army, and on several
other matters.
Two facts are sufficient to demonstrate the power exer-
cised by the House of Representatives, and of the obedience
paid to its decision: first, the dismissal of the General-in-
Chief, Manuel Quesada, in 1870; and second, the deposition
of the President of the Republic, Cirlos Manuel Cespedes,
who, after near five years service, was impeached for viola-
tions of the Constitution. In both cases the sentenced parties
submitted to their sentence, and these were approved by the
people. The deposition of President Cespedes took effect on
the 27th of October last; and the same day Mr. Salvador
Cisneros, formerly Marquis of Santa Lucia and President of
the House, according to law was appointed President of the










Republic ad interim during the absence of the Vice-Presi-
dent, General Francisco V. Aguilera, who was on a mission
abroad.
An official Boletin de la Revolution is printed regularly
at the headquarters of the executive, and a constant com-
munication maintained with the agents of the Republic
abroad.

CONCLUSION.
The cane fields of Cuba are the real treasury and arsenal
from which the Spaniards draw all their resources for their
savage war against the Cubans. Lay waste those fields, and
Spanish rule in the island were virtually at an end. Hitherto
a strongly garrisoned line of posts has served as breakwater
between the sugar and the insurrectionary districts. But
those garrisons, for lack of reinforcements which the ex-
igencies of civil war in Spain have made impossible to send
out to Cuba, are now reduced to so low an ebb, as to be nearly
impotent, or not able to withstand much longer the irruption
of the patriots across the border, which is sure to be so de-
structive of the cane fields in its westward sweep. There-
fore, let us see to what extent the American people would be
affected by so possible a contingency.
In the sugar season, ending 31st December, 1873, Cuba ex-
ported some 690,000 tons of sugar, of which 64 per cent.
(441,000 tons) were exported to the United States, supplying
to the American people fully 30 out of the 40 pounds which
they consumed that year per capital. For the year just ended
it is known that, while the aggregate amount exported has
fallen short of that of 1873 by some 70,000, there has been
an increased exportation to the United States of more than
50,000 tons, or a falling off in the exportation to Europe
120,000 tons. These are startling figures for the people of











the United States to ponder, showing, as they do, their de-
pendence on the casualties of this war for 80 odd per cent. of
the sugar consumed in this country.
The value of the sugar exported to the United States in
1873 was fully $77,500,000, or some $43,000,000 in excess of
the exports from France to this country for the same- year,
and only $11,000,000 less than the exports for all the German
States united.
But not alone in this sugar interest are the people of the
United States thus deeply concerned in the present and
future condition of Cuba. Under proper commercial rela-
tions and conditions, there would be an immediate market in
the island for more than 1,000,000 barrels of Western flour,
instead of the few thousand barrels which are now sold them,
in consequence of the heavy or prohibitory duties imposed in
behalf of Spanish grown flour. So heavy, indeed, are those
duties that relatively few Cubans use flour. Throw off these
duties, however, and American flour would at once find a
large, ready market there-a market more cheaply reached
from the mills of the West, than either Boston, New York or
Baltimore.
Nor is this all. The duties imposed on cotton goods in
Cuba, are directly calculated to, and do exclude the products
of the mills of Massachusets and Rhode Island; when natu-
rally there should be a large consumption of American cotton
in the island.
It remains to be noted that the sugars and molasses ex-
ported from Cuba to the United States in 1873 afforded an
exceptional employment to American shipping to the am-
ount of $4,000,000; while the other foreign sugars used were
brought in foreign ships for the most part. Further, wPre the
Cuban market opened to American flour andpotton goods, as
assuredly should be the legitimate consequence of the near-











ness of the island to the United States, whose people, in
turn, are the chief consumers of Cuban products, there would
be opened a further large field of employment for American
shipping.
Hence, the fact should be apparent, that there is not one
State in the American Union in whose industrial develop-
ment and prosperity the whole people of the Union have so
heavy a stake involved, as that of the Island of Cuba.



The above statements are respectfully submitted to the
consideration of the members of the Congress of the United
States.

MIGUEL DE ALDAMA, JOSE ANTONIO ECHEVERRIA.














^^ cnfifution of tie elpdbltc of u



Adopted by the CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, and unanimously
approved by the CUBAN CONGRESS assembled at GUAIMARO,
on the tenth day of April, in the year of our Lord 1869, and the
FIRST of the INDEPENDENCE of CUBA.


ART. I.-The Legislative power shall be vested in a House
of Representatives.
ART. II.-To this body shall be delegated an equal repre-
sentation from each of the four States into which the Is-
land of Cuba shall be divided.
ART. III.-These States are Oriente, Camaguey, Las Villas,
and Occidente.
ART. IV.-No one shall be eligible as Representative of
any of these States except a citizen of the Republic who is
upwards of twenty years of age.
ART. V.-No Representative of any State shall hold any
other official position during his representative term.
ART. VI.-Whenever a vacancy occurs in the representa-
tion of any State, the Executive thereof shall have power to
fill such vacancy until the ensuing election.
ART. VII.-The House of Representatives shall elect a
President of the Republic, a General-in-Chief of its Armies,
a President of the Congress, and other executive officers.
The General-in-Chief shall be subordinate to the Executive,
and shall render him an account of the performance of his
duties.











ART. VIII.-The President of the Republic, the General-
in-Chief and the Members of the House of Representatives
are amenable to charges which may be made by any citizen
to the House of Representatives, who shall proceed to exam-
ine into the charges preferred; and if, in their judgment,
it be necessary, the case of the accused shall be submitted to
the Judiciary.
ART. IX.-The House of Representatives shall have full
power to dismiss from office any functionary whom they
have appointed.
ART. X.-The Legislative acts and decisions of the House
of Representatives, in order to be valid and binding, must
have the sanction of the President of the Republic.
ART. XI.-If the President fail to approve the Acts and
decisions of the House, he shall, without delay, return the
same with his objections thereto, for the reconsideration of
that body.
ART. XII.-Within ten days after their reception, the
President shall return all Bills, Resolutions and Enact-
ments which may be sent to him by the House for his
approval, with his sanction thereof, or with his objections
thereto.
ART. XIII.-Upon the passage of any Act, Bill, or Resolu-
tion, after a reconsideration thereof by the House, it shall
be sanctioned- by the President.
ART. XIV.-The House of Representatives shall legislate
upon Taxation, Public Loans, and Ratification of Treaties;
and shall have power to declare and conclude War, to
authorize the President to issue Letters of Marque, to raise
Troops and provide for their support, to organize and main-
tain a Navy, and to regulate reprisals as to the public
enemy.








35 / ?96

ART. XV.-The House of Representatives shall remain
in permanent session from the time of the ratification of this
fundamental law by the People, until the termination of the
war with Spain.
ART. XVI.-The Executive Power shall be vested in the
President of the Republic.
ART. XVII.-No one shall be eligible to the.Presidency r
who is not a native of the Republic, and over thirty years
of age.
ART. XVIII.-All Treaties made by the President may be
ratified by the House of Representatives.
ART. XIX.-The President shall have power to appoint
Ambassadors, Ministers-plenipotentiary, and Consuls of the
Republic to foreign countries.
ART. XX.-The President shall treat with Ambassadors,
and shall see that the laws are faithfully executed. He
shall also issue official commissions to all the functionaries
of the Republic.
ART. XXI.-The President shall propose the names for
the members of his Cabinet to the House of Representatives
for its approval.
ART. XXII.--The Judiciary shall form an independent, co-
ordinate department of the Government, under the organiza-
tion of a special law.
ART. XXIII.-Voters are required to possess the same
qualifications as to age and citizenship as the Members of
the House of Representatives.
AnT. XXIV.-All the inhabitants of the Republic of Cuba
are absolutely free.
ART. XXV.-All the citizens are considered as soldiers of
the Liberating Army.
ART. XXVI.-The Republic shall not bestow dignities,
titles, nor special privileges.










ART. XXVII.-The citizens of the Republic shall notL
accept honors nor titles from foreign countries.
ART. XXVIII.-The House of Representatives shall not
.abridge the Freedom of Religion, nor of the Press, nor of
Public Meetings, nor of Education, nor of Petition, nor any
inalienable Right of the People.
ART. XXIX.-This Constitution can be amended only
by the unanimous concurrence of the House of Repre-
sentatives.












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