• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Official list
 Geography
 Communication
 Hotels and lodging houses
 Agriculture
 Fisheries
 Articled pupils in farming and...
 Manufactures
 Hygiene
 Post office and telegrams
 Fiscal
 Law and police
 Education
 Religion
 History
 Constitution
 Military and naval
 Institutions
 Newspapers, periodicals, prist...
 Sports and pastimes
 Dependences of Jamaica
 Works of reference on Jamaica
 The institute of Jamaica -...














Group Title: Jamaica in 1896 : a handbook of information for intending settlers and others
Title: Jamaica in 1896
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075376/00001
 Material Information
Title: Jamaica in 1896 a handbook of information for intending settlers and others
Physical Description: viii, 85 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Jamaica
Publisher: The Institute
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: 1896
 Subjects
Subject: Natural history -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 53-85.
Statement of Responsibility: Institute of Jamaica.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075376
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000589348
oclc - 22852543
notis - ADB8127

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    Official list
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Geography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Communication
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Hotels and lodging houses
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Agriculture
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Fisheries
        Page 36
    Articled pupils in farming and planting
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Manufactures
        Page 50
    Hygiene
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Post office and telegrams
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Fiscal
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Law and police
        Page 69
    Education
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Religion
        Page 73
    History
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Constitution
        Page 77
    Military and naval
        Page 78
    Institutions
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Newspapers, periodicals, prist lists, etc.
        Page 80
    Sports and pastimes
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Dependences of Jamaica
        Page 83
    Works of reference on Jamaica
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    The institute of Jamaica - publications
        Page 86
        Page 87
Full Text
3- ,


._, 77 T'T7 OF .Ll..1/ICA..






JAMAICA IN 1896.

A HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION FOR INTENDIN.i
SFTTLERS AND OTHERS.


KINGSTO : JAMAICA.
INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA, DATE TREE HALL.
AGENTS IN LONDON-H. SOTHERAN & CO.W 140 STRAND, W.C., AND 28 PICCADILLY, W.
AGENTS IN NEW YORK-G. P. PUTMAN'S SONS, 27 & 29 WEST 23RD STREET.
ALSO OF ASTON W. GARDNER & Co.. HARBorR STREET, KINGSTON, JAMAICA.
1896.













PREFACE.

The present issue is a new edition of a work which appeared
last year. under the title Jamaica in 1895, a brief Handbook of
Information about Jamaica." It was compiled with a view to
giving, in a handy form, such particulars concerning the island as
might prove of interest to intending settlers and others.

It is. for the most part, an epitome of the information contained
in the Handbook of Jamaica."

As it is mainly intended to impart information to those who are
thinking of entering on an agricultural career, short notices have
been included on the various articles of cultivation in the island :
and thanks are due to those planters and penkeepers who have
kindly supplied this information.

The attention of intending settlers is especially drawn to the
Articled Pupil Scheme, particulars of which will be found at
page 36.

Any corrections or suggestions for a future edition will be
thankfully received by the Secretary of the Institute of Jamaica.

F. C.
Institute of Jamaica,
Kingston, Jamaica,
May, 1896.














('ONTEN'TS.


MAP


. Frontispiece.

Page. '


I. OFFICIAL LIST

II. GEOGRAPHY-Position : Population: Natural Fea-
tures: Principal Elevations

III. COMMUNICATION-EXTERNAL, Passenger and
Freight Steam-ship Lines: Coastwise :
Light Houses: Ports of Clearance: IN-
TERNAL COMMUNICATION: Main Roads:
Livery Stables: Cabs: Mail-coaches:
Railway .

IV. HOTELS AND LODGING HOUSES

V. AGRICULTURE-(a) Agriculture Life in Jamaica.
(I) Pen-keeping, (Cattle-breeding, Indian
cattle, Dairying,) (II.) Planting, Bananas,
Cacao, Cocoanuts. Coffee-planting, Coffee-
planting in the Blue Mountains, Ginger,
Limes, Logwood, Nutmegs, Oranges, Pimento,
Ramie, Sisal Hemp, Sugar, Tea, Tobacco,
Vine Culture.) (b) Cultivation. Acreage
under cultivation. (c) Agricultural Hold-
ings. (d) Crown Lands. (e) Department
of Public Gardens and Plantations. (f)
Markets. (g) Price of Provisions. (h)
Cost of Labour .

VI. FISHERIES..
VII. ARTICLED PUPILS IN FARMING AND PLANTING ..

VIII. MANUFACTURES .

IX. HYGIENE-(a) Boards of Health. (b) Medical Ser-
vice. (c) Hospitals. (d) Mineral Springs.
(e) Water Supply. (f) Drainage. (g) Vital
Statistics. (h) Meteorology. (i) Climate of
Jamaica. (j) Clothing


I

1


4

12











14

36

36

50




50


V








CONTENTS.

X. Pos OFFICE AND ELEGRAMS. POST AND MONET
OkDERS-(a) FOREIGN-(I.) Postal Union-
(Ii.) Mails. (II.) Book-Post-(rv.) Parcel-
Post-(v.) Money Orders-(vi) Registration.
(b) INLAND-(I) Mails-(II.) Postal Orders.
TELEGRAPH-(a) Ocean. (b) Inland. 57

XI. FISCAL.-(a) Internal Revenue-(I.) Land Tax-
(II.) Poor Rate--(II.) Education Rate--(iv.)
Licenses-(v.) Light House Dues-(vI.)
Wharfage. (b) Imports-(I.) Duties-(ll.)
Exemptions from Duty -(III.) Value of Im-
ports (Iv.) Value entered for consumption.
(c) Exports --I.) Value--(II.) Distribution.
(e.) Currency in Jamaica. (f) Banking. 60

XII. LAW kND POLICE-(I.) Courts of Judicature,
Chancery, Incumbered Estates, Divorce,
Bankruptcy and Circuit. (I.) Consta-
bulary. (iii.) Prisons .. 69

XIII. EDUCATION-(a) Elementary Schools. (b.)
Training Colleges. (c ) Higher Grade
Schools. (c) Government Scholarships (d)
Cambridge Local Examination. (e) Col-
lege of Preceptors Examination. .. 70
XIV. RELIGION .. .. 73

XV. HISTORY .. 74

XVL CONSTITUTION .. .. 77
XVII, MILITARY AND NAVAL-(a) Military (b) Naval.
(c) Jamaica Militia .... 78
XVIII. INSTITUTIONS .. 78

XIX. NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS, &c. .. 80

XX. SPORTS AND PAsTIMS-Cricket, Lawn-Tennis,
Football,P olo, Rowing, Shooting, Fishing,
Rase Meetings, Natural History .. 81

XXI. DEPENDENCE OF JAMAICA-(a) The Turks and
Caicos Islands. (b) The Cayman Islands.
(c) The Morant and Pedro Cays .. 83

XXII. WORKS OF REFERENCE ON JAMAICA-General
Information, Descriptive Account, Guide,
Mineral Springs, Climate, Agriculture,
History, Natural History .. 83















OFFICIAL LIST.


THE GOVERNOR


The Governor's Private Secretary ..
The Governor's Aide de-Camp
The Officer Commanding the Forces
The Commodore
Colonial Secretary
Assistant Colonial Secretary
Chief Justice
Puisne Judga

Attorney General .
Assistant Attorney General .

Crown Solicitor
Registrar General
Administrator General and Trustee
in Bankruptcy
Registrar of the Supreme Court
Deputy Keeper of Records
Registrar of Titles
Inspector General of Police
Inspector General of Prisons and
Reformatories
Protector of Immigrants
Collector General
Auditor General
Treasurer
Superintending Medical Officer .
Director of Public Works
Surveyor General
Government Inspector of Railways
Postmaster
Stamp Commissioner
Superintending Inspector of Schools
Director of Public Gardens and
Plantations
Island Chemist
fGovernment Meteorologist
Superintendent Government k.. t-
ing Office
Collector of Customs, Kingston ..
Barbour Master, Kingston
Health Officer, Port Royal


HIs EXCELLENCE SIR HENRY AR-
THUR BLAKE, K.C.M,G.,
F.R.G.S.
Lord George FitzGerald, B.A.
Captain George Pomeroy Colley.
Major-General, H. J. Hallowes,
Captain Herbert W. Dowding, R.N.
Hon F. Evans, C.M.G.
James Allwood.
Sir Fielding Clarke, Knt., LL.B.
Hon. E. A. Northcote, B.A.
Hon, C. F. Lumb, LL.D.
H. R. P. Schools.
S. D. Lindo.
T. B. Oughton, LL.B.
A. W. Farquharson.
S. P. Smeeton.

P. E. Chapman.
O'Connor DeCordova.
F. B. Lyneji.
Henry F. l'ouyat.

Colonel Morris J. Fawcett.

Hon. P. C. Cork.
Hon:. Robert Batten.
J. C. Malcglashan.
H. W. Livinston.
Hon. C. B. Mosse, C.B.
Hon. V. G. Bell, C.E.
W. C. Liddell.
H. Blomfield Smith, A.M.I C.E.
G. H. Pearee.
P. E. Chapman.
Hon. T. Capper, B.A.
Hon. Wm Faweett, B.Sc., F.L.S.

J. J. Bowrey, F.C.S., F.I.C.
Maxwell Hall, M.A., F.R.A.S.
J. C. Ford.

C Goldie.
Charlton Thompson.
J. Neish, M D.








(VII )

OFFICIAL LIST, continued.

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.


Ex-oficio Members.
H. E. The Governor, President.
Senior Military Officer.
Colonial Secretary.
Attorney-General.

Director of Public Works.
Collector-General.


Manchester
Trelawny
St. Thomas

St, James
Portland
St. Elizabeth
Clarendon
St. Catherine
Westmoreland
St. Ann
Kingston
St. Andrew
Hanover
St Mary


Exc-oficio Members.
Senior Military Officer.
('olonial Secretary.
Attorney-General.


Nominated Members.
Hon. John Pringle, M.B.
Hon. Lt.-Col. C. J. Ward, C. M.G.
Hon. T. Capper, B.A.
Hon. Deputy Surgeon-General
C. B. Mosse, C.B.
Hon. William Fawcett, B. Sc., F.L.S.
Hon. P. C. Cork.

cted Members.


.. Hon. J. Thompson Palache.
Hon. Conway Whiting.
.Hon. S. Constantine Burke,
F.R.G.S.
.. Hon. D. A Corinaldi.
.. Hon. David Sampson Gideon.
.. Hon. T. P. Leyden.
.. Hon. Robert B. Braham.
.. Hen. Dugald Campbell.
SHon. and Rev. H. Clarke.
SHon. Alfred Norris Dixon.
Hon. Philip Stern.
.. Hon. and Rev. Carey B. Berry.
SHon. DeB Spencer Heaven.
SHon. Amos DaCosta Levy.







PRivY COUNCIL.


Nominated Members.
Hon. V. G. Bell.
Hon. Dr. Pringle.
Hon. Lt.-Col. C. J.Ward, C.M.G.








(VIn.)

OFFICIAL LIST, continued

CuSTODES. CHAIRMAN OF PAROCHIAL BOARDS di RESIDENT MAGISTRATES OF PARISH.

Chairman of Pare-
Parish. Custos. chial Board. Resident Magistrate.
Kingston .. Hon. C.J. Ward. C.M.G. Hon. Philip Stern, E. L. Vickers.
(Mayor.)
St. Andrew ... Hon.[G. Stiebel, C.M.G. Hon. G.Stiebel. C.M.G. A. L. Vendryes.
St. Thomas ... W. A. Henderson. R. Egerton.
Portland ... P. A Moodie. J. T. Musson.
St. Mary ... Hon. John Pringle, M.B. Hon J. Pringle. R. A. Walcott.
St. Ann ... J. H. Levy. L R. Reece.
Trelawny ... Hon. J. Wauchope L. C. Shirley. A. B. Dignum.
Fisher.
St James ... Hon. William Kerr. Samuel Hart. Maxwell Hall.


Hanover ... Rev. J. MacNee.
Westmoreland ... Hon. Wm. Ewen. J. S. Segree.
St. Elizabeth ... Hon. W. H. Coke.
Manchester ... J. P. Clark Hon. R. B. Br iham.
St. Catherine ... Hon. George Mcirath. D. H. Mende,.
Clarendon ... Quintin Logan


W. P. Clark.
H. A. Perry.
W. W. Fisher.
J. V. Leach.
J. Allwood


FOREIGN CONSULS IN KINGSTON.


Country.

Austria-Hungary
Belgium
Chili
Columbia
Costo Rica
Denmark
Ecuador
France
German Empire
Greece
Guatemala
Hayti
Netherlands
Peru
St. Domingo
Salvador
Spain
Sweeden and Norway
United States of America
Venezuela

ron,, A ntsin Lo~ndon


Consul.

William Schiller.
S. E. Pietersz.
J. Gall.
W. P. Forwood.
W. P. Forwood.
S. Soutar.
J. Gall
C. A. Malabre, C.A.
William Schiller.
Arthur George.
G. C. H. Lewis.
J. R. Chenet, C.G.
S. E. Pietersz.
A. DeCordova.
J. B. Soropure.
J J. G. Lewis.
J. M. Torroja.
S. Soutar.
. O. Eckford.
J. Duff.


0 ti..4 S M U, n


Crown A.. ap* in r- .y mmanne- u
K.C.fM.G. and E. E. Blake.
Representative of Jamaica on the
Governing Body of the Imperial Washington Eves, C.M.G.
Institute, and Honorary Curator hington Eves, C.M.
of the Jamaica Court.


.. .








II. GEOGRAPHY.
PosITION-Jamaica is an island in the Caribbean Sea, situated
between 170 43', and 180 32' N. latitude, and between 760
11' and 780 20' 50" W. longitude. It is 4,193 square miles
in extent, having an extreme length of 144 miles, and an
extreme width of 49 miles. The latitude of Kingston is 170
57' 41"0 N., and the longitude is 5 hrs. 7 m. 10.65 sec. West
of Greenwich.
The island nearest to Jamaica is Cuba, which is about 90 miles
distant to the north, San Domingo is 100 miles to the east; and
Cape Gracios a Dios in the Mosquito Territory, 400 miles southwest
of the west end of the island, is the nearest part of the continent of
America.
POPULATION-The population according to the census of 1891 is as
follows:-
Males 305,948, Females 333,543, Total 639,491, made up as follows:-
White 14,692
Coloured 121,955
Black 488,624
East Indians 10,116
Chinese 481
Colour not stated 3,623

639,491
The total estimated population on the 31st March, 1895, was
683,739.
The island is decided into three counties, namely, Surrey in the
east, Middlesex in the centre, and Cornwall in the west (which divi-
sions are however of little practical importance), which are again
subdivided into 14 parishes as follows:-
COUNTY. PARISH POPULATION. CHIEF TOWN. POPULATION.
Portland 31,998 Port Antonio 1,784
Sure St. Thomas 32,176 Morant Bay 656
Surrey St. Andrew 37,855 Halfway-Tree
Kingston* 48,504 Kingston 46,542
St. Mary 42,915 Port Maria 1,492
St. Ann 54,127 St. Ann's Bay 1,615
Middlesex St. Catherine 65,509 Spanish Town 5.019
Clarendon 57,105 May Pen
Manchester 55,462 Mandeville 1,171
(Hanover 32,088 Lucea 1,595
St. James 35,050 Montego Bay 4,803
Cornwall Trelawny 30,996 Falmouth 2,517
| St. Elizabeth 62,256 Black River 1,154
SWestmoreland 53,450 Savanna-la-Mar 2,952
639,491
Every parish has a fair share of sea-board, on which, with few
exceptions (Halfway-Tree, Spanish Town, May Pen and Mandeville),
its chief town is situated.
Includes Port Royal.








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


NATURAL FEATURS t--The eastern part of Jamaica is much more
elevaled than the other portions and has a different formation ; coral
and yellow limestones blending with the coast limestone. The
southern slopes of the hills in this part are generally easy, but on
the north they descend abruptly. The north-east coast range which
divides the Rio Grande from the sea, usually known as the John
Crow Mountains, reaches an elevation of 3,000 ft These moun-
tains are an offshoot from the central range which, from the depres-
sion known as the Cuna Cuna Gap, turns suddenly northward and
forms itself into this plateau.
The finest and wildest scenery in the island is to be seen on the northern
slope of the Blue Mountains, where the Stony River and the Back River,
with numerous cataracts in their course, join the Rio Grande the finest
river in Jamaica. Up one of its tributaries, the Guava River. there is a
hot spring the temperature of which is 1320 F. This district is unsettled.
and inhabited only by wild hogs, though it embraces some of the finest
coffee land in Jamaica Many of the subordinate ridges of the Blue
Mountains vie with the main ridge in elevation, especially the great ridge
starting from Catherine's Pe ik and culminating at great elevations at
Newton and Bellevue. Queensbury Ridge, which starts from Blue Moun-
tain Peak, is another important one, passing by Arntully and Belle
Clair, and terminating as Yallahs Hill.
On the northern side of the island, three great ridges may he men-
tioned. One extending through Portland from Blue Mountain Peak,
another starting from Silver Hill dividing the Buff Bay and Spanish
rivers, and the third extending from Fox's Gap in a north-easterly
direction through Hay Cock Hill to Dover. The only volcanic remains
in the island are found on a spur from the ridge running towards the
sea at Retreat.
The Hope River almost certainly caused the tract of alluvial forma-
tion now called the Plain of Liguanea, which tract continues west to
Old Harbour, traversed by the Rio Cobre. This river evidently at
different times traversed the plain of St. Catherine in every direction.
One of its most ancient courses is down a line now called Compeechy
Gully, entering the sea at the Great Salt Pond, south of Port Hender-
son Hill. Another very ancient course can now be traced from St. Jago
Pen, near Spanish Town (and is quite visible where the railway crosses
it) southerly to the Salt Island creek, which is doubtless the old course
of the Rio Cobre, debouching at Galleon Harbour, near Old Harbour
Bay. A third course which is shown on some old plans, went through
the Caymanas Estates and entered the Ferry Swamp, joining the Fresh
and Salt Rivers and entering the sea at Hunt's Bay. The last of which
we have record is that which was changed when the new course" was
cut in the year 1838 to discharge the River at Passage Fort. Here the
Rio Cobre is making land at its delta as rapidly as it formerly did at
Hunt's Bay. Already the sea is three quarters of a mile further off than
it was in 1838, and there is no doubt that in course of time the whole of
Hunt's Bay will be filled up.
St. Mary is well supplied with rivers and is consequently cut up by
ridges; the highest part of this parish is the district of Guy's Hill,
elevation 2,000 ft.
St. Ann is nearly all white limestone; there is a curious basin near
t Abstracted from a paper read before the Institute of Jamaica by the late Mr-
Thomas Harrison, Surveyor General.








GEOGRAPHY.


Moneague where the Walton Lake has appeared and disappeared spas-
modically. In this parish there are many caves and sink holes notably
the light holes at Tingley's and the caves at Mount Plenty and Dry
Harbour. The Cave and Yankee Rivers sink at Greenock Estate, and
are supposed to run underground over 13 miles, and rise near Stewart
Town as the Rio Bueno.
The Clarendon Mountains consist chiefly of trap formation. This
parish furnishes the largest continuous flat in the island, measuring 132
square miles-traversed by the Rio Minho and Milk River. The most
prominent mountain of Clarendon is Bull Head, generally considered the
centre of the island.
The formation of Manchester is almost identical with that of St. Ann-
white limestone. It rises gradually from east to west, where it attains
an elevation of 2,900 ft. In this parish where yellow limestone is seen,
water may be found at no great depth; notably at Mile Gully and
Epping Forest.
Trelawny has a good stretch of white limestone. The Martha Brae
River in Trelawny is probably the water drained from the Cockpit
district; it rises in great volume at Windsor. In the south-east of this
parish is a rich black mould in the trap formation.
The Cockpits extend from the southwest of Trelawny through parts
of St. James and bt. Elizabeth.
The distinctive feature of St. Elizabeth is the extensive swamps:
probably the valley from Lacovia to the boundary of Manchester was
once a lake.
The Santa Cruz Mountains are parallel with the Mountains of Man-
chester, but not so high. In both cases the steep slope is on the western
side. The Santa Cruz Mountains form steep cliffs, running nearer the
coast than any other mountains in the island. [The climate is very
suitable for invalids.]
The Black River is navigable for 25 miles and conveys the produce of
a large district to the sea,
The Dolphin's Head is a useful landmark for vessels entering the
harbours of Savanna-la-Mar and Lucea
The following are the principal elevations in the island commencing
from the east end :-

Blue Mountains, average 2,100ft. Silver Hill Gap 3,513ft.
Cuna Cuna Pass 2,698 Catherine's Peak 5,036
Blue Mountain Western 7,42 Cold Spring Gap 4,523
Peak S Hardware Gap 4,079
Portland Gap 5,549 Fox's Gap 3,967
Sir John's Peak (highest ) Stony Hill (where main 1,360
point of Cinchona Plan- 6,100 road crosses it)
station) ) Guy's Hill 2,100
Belle Vue, Cinchona Plan- 4.907 Mount Diablo, highest 2,300
station 4 point 2,300
Arntully Gap ., 2,754 Mount Diablo, where
Hagley Gap 2,959 road crosses 1,800
Morce's Gap 4,945 Bull Heau 2,885
Content Gap -3,251 Mandevilie 2,131
Newcastle Hospital 3,800 Accompong Town 1,409
Flamstead 3,663 j Dolphin Head .11,-16








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


III. COMMUNICATION.
EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION-The following line of steamships
supply communication between Jamaica, and Europe and America:-
PASSENGER.
ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKFT COMPANY, (London, 18 Moorgate St. E.C.
Superintendent in Jamaica, J. Lockwood Wingate.i
Steamers leave Southampton every alternate Wednesday, getting
to Jamaica, (via Barbados) on the Friday fortnight. They leave
Jamaica for Southampton every alternate Tuesday. Fares 35, 25,
and servants l17 10s. Return (available for twelve months) 56,
40. Servants 26 10s Special Rates for family parties, for
children, and for schoolboys and girls. Second Class 20. Return
30. Steerage 15, for men only.
For Tours in the West Indies, varying from five weeks to four
months, to visit the principal islands and other places of interest, see
the guide obtainable at the Company's Office.
ATLAS STEAMSHIP COMPANY, LIMITED, (Liverpool, Managers. Leech,
Harrison and Forwood; London, Forwood Brothers and Co.; New
York, General Agents, Pim, Forwood and Kellock; Jamaica, Gene-
ral Agent. W. Peploe Forwood).
(a ) Kingston and New York Service.-A steamer leaves New York
every Saturday, getting to Jamaica on the following Friday. A
steamer leaves Kingston for New York every alternate Tuesday,
taking mails, cargo and passengers. The ship touches at Port-au-
P.ince for mails only. A steamer leaves Kingston for New York on
alternate Thursdays at 6 a.m., taking mails and passengers only.
Fares to New York -single 10. 8. 4. Return 18. 0. 0. Through
tickets issued to London, Glasgow, Liverpool, Southampton and
Hamburg, in connection with various Atlantic Lines.
(b.) Jamaica and Hayti Service. -- A steamer leaves Kingston every
alternate Saturday for Jeremie, Aux Cays and Jacmel, returning to
Kingston on llth day after.
(c.) Jamaica and Central America.-A steamer leaves Kingston
every alternate Saturday for Carthagena, Savanilla and Port Limon.
THE WEST INDIA AND PACIFIC STEAMSHIP COMPANY LIMITED; (London,
St. George's House, Eastcheap; Agent in Jamaica. Arnold L. Malabre.)
Steamers leave Liverpool on Thursdays, about once a month, getting
to Jamaica, via Colon, in about 20 days. They leave Kingston about
every month getting to Liverpool via Mexican ports and New Orleans.
Fares 25. Tourists' Tickets round voyage 40 (from Liverpool
only.)
HAMBURG AMERICAN STEAM PACKET COMPANY. (Agents in Jamaica,
Finke & Co). Steamers from Hamburg to Kingston, and thence
to Port Limon and Colon.
FaEIGHT.
In addition to the above, passengers are carried by the vessels of
the following freight lines: -
THE CARIBBEAN COMPANY,. (London, Anderson, Anderson & Co., Fen-
church Avenue, E. C.; Agent in Kingston, Jamaica, E. G. Orrett;
in Montego Bay, Kerr & Co ) Steamers to and from London every
month-21 days passage. Fare 20.
THE CLYDE LINE, (Glasgow. Agent in Kingston, Jamaica, E. A. H.
Haggart). A steamer leaves Glasgow about once a month for








COMMUNICATION. 5

Jamaica, via Antigua and St. Kitts, and after discharging the cargo
proceeds to the outports to load with Island produce, coming back
to Kingston; sailing, as a rule from thence for London and Glasgow.
The voyage occupies about 24 days, and the fare is 17 17s.
KNOTT's PRINCE LINE. (Agent in Kingston, Jamaica. E. A. H. Haggart.)
Steamers leave Antwerp and Glasgow via Barbados, Trinidad,
Venezuela, and Spanish Main every four weeks (about 30 days to
Jamaica). FromNew York to Kingston every fortnight (0 days
passage.) From Kingston to New Orleans, via Progresso, Vera
Cruz and Tampico, every four weeks. From Kingston to Havre
and London via Spanish Main every four weeks. From Kingston
to London direct every four weeks From Kingston to New York
every four weeks.
PICKFORD AND BLACK's WEST INDIA STEAMSHIP LINE, (Halifax, Canada.
Agent in Jamaica, E. G. Orrett.) A steamer trades monthly be-
tween Halifax, Bermuda, Turks Island and Kingston, leaving Hali-
fax on the 15th of each month. Fares. First Class $60.00. Return
$100.00. Second Class $40.00. Return $70.00.
CENTRAL AMERICAN STEAMSHIP LINE. Agents in New York, Bowring
& Archibald. Agent in Jamaica, P. W. Martin). From New York
every fortnight to Kingston and thence to Belize, Livingston, Porto
Cortez and Port Barrios and back to New York. Occasional steamers
from Jamaica direct to New York
In addition to tue regular lines, there are a large number of swift
and powerful steamers engaged in the fruit trade with America and
Canada, such as those of the BUlsTx FRIUT COMPANY and KERR &
Co., most of which carry passengters, at rates varying from $30 to
$45 In the winter months, various companies, English, American
and Canadian run tourist steamers to Jamaica.
COASTWISE. Two lines of steamers go round the island every week,
calling at all the principal ports. The steamer of the ATLAS COM-
PANY leaves Kingston every Tuesday morning at 7 a.m., getting back
on the Saturday. One week she goes from east to west, and the
other from west to east.
The following are the ports called at, with the passenger Fares: -
PASSENGERS FARES FROM
EASTWARD ROUTE OR TO KINGSTON WESTWARD ROUTE.

Cabin. Deck. Ports. Cabin Deck.
- --- - -- - -- ------ _
s. d. s. d. s d. s. d.
4 10 I 0 It; 0 Alligator Pond 1I0 I 0 4 0
4 0 0 15 0I Black River .o 17 1; 0 5 0
S10 o 14 0 Savanna la-Mar 1 5 0 I ; 0
:1 0 o : 11 Lucea 110 0 0 70
210 0 120 Montego Bay 1 15 0 1 8 0
2 5 0 0 11 Falmouth .2 0 1 0 9 0
2 0 0 0 10 0 Dry Harbour 2 0) .110 0
1 15 O 0 9 0 St. Ann's Bay 2 10 I 0 11 0
1 10 o) o 0 Port Maria .2 15 | 0 12 0
1 5 0 1 7 0 Annotto Bay 0 0 0 1: 0
1 2 1; 1 ; 0 Port Antonio : 10 0 14 0
S15 0 o 5 0 Port Morant : 15 0 0 15 0
0 10 0 1 4 0 Morant Bay 4 0 0 0 1t 0

Round Trip-4. The above rates include everything except








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


liquors. Cabin rates from port to port, 6s. not including food or
berth. Deck rates from port to port: 4s. for the first port, and Is.
additional for every port after.
The steamer of the ROYAL MAIL COMPANY leaves Kingston at 7 a.m. on
every Monday returning on the Friday following, going alternately
on the eastward and the westward route. The Westward service
starts on the Monday following the arrival of the Mail Steamer form
England.
LIGHT HousE.-There are light houses at Morant Point, visible at 21
miles in clear weather; at Plumb Point, on the Palisadoes, visible
at about 20 miles; at Folly Point, Port Antonio, visible at 13 miles,
and at South Negril Point at the extreme west end of the island.
PORTS OF CLEARANCE.


Ports of Entry.


Kingston
Morant Bay
Port Morant
Manchioneal
Port Antonio

Annotto Bay
Port Maria
St. Ann's Bay
Dry Harbour
Falmouth
Montego Bay
Lucea
Savanna-la-Mar
Black River
Alligator Pond
Milk River
Salt River
Old Harbour


Principal Out-Bays at which Island Produce
is shipped.

Port Royal. Cow Bay.
Yallahs.
SHolland Bay.

. Hope Bay. Buff Bay. St. Margaret's Bay.
Orange Bay.

Oracabessa. Rio Nuevo.
Och,, iios. Unity Wharf. Runaway Bay.

1 Rio Buen,.


Green Island. Mosquito Cove. Davis Cove.
Negril. Bluefields.
Whitehouse. Parker's Bay. Pedro Bay.

! Carlisle Bay.

Cockpit.


INTERNAL COMMUNICATION in Jamaica is obtained by road or rail.
The main roads, which are about 1,860 miles in extent and are
under the control of the Public Works Department, encircle the
island, with several connections from north to south i, as shown in
the accompanying map.
The parochial roads are maintained by the Parochial Boards,
and measure about 1,800 miles.
Commencing at Kingston and going easterly, the main road passes
through Yallahs, Morant Bay, Bath. Manchioneal, Port Antonio,
Hope Bay and Buff Bay to Annotto Bay, where the main road, called
theAnnotto Bay Junction Road, connectsthe northside with Kingston.
A new maiL road branches off from this coast road at the 11th
Mile from Kingston and passes by Cambridge Hill, Llandewy,
Ramble, Cedar Valley, Trinityville and Serge Island to Morant Bay,
through the fertile and picturesque district, of St. Davids. A con-








COMMUNICATION.


tinuation of this interior road, from Serge Island down the Plantain
Garden River Valley to Bath, is now under construction.
From Annotto Bay the road passes through Port Maria, Oraca-
bessa and Rio Neuvo to Oeho Ri.s. where a branch of the great
road from Spanish Town, through Linstead and Moneague to St.
Ann's Bay again connects the north and south sides of the island.
From Ocho Rios the road skirts the sea, passing through St. Ann's
Bay, Dry Harbour, Rio Bueno, Duncans and Falmonth to Montego
Bay.
From Moneague the Great Interior Road commences, and passing
through Claremont, Brown's Town, Stewart Town, Clark's Town,
Falmouth and Adelphi, terminates at Montego Bay. From Clark's
Town, a branch road connects the Great Interior Road with Falmouth.
From Dry Harbour a main road. through Brown's Town, Cave
Valley and Chapelton to May Pen, again connects the north and
south side of the Island
From the Great Interior Road near Stwart's Town, a branch main
road goes southward to Ulster Spring where it connects with main
roads from the south side of the Island.
From Montego Bay another road crosses the island running past
Montpelier to the Great River at Shettlewood, whence one branch,
passing by Chester Castle and New Market, terminates at Black
River on the south side, and another branch goes to Savanna-la.Mar.
The coast road from Montego Bay extends to Lucea and Green
Island. From Lucea the road crosses the island to Savanna la-Mar,
:and a branch connects with Green Island.
From Savanna-la-Mar the road follows the coast to Black River
and thence, striking inland, goes to Lacovia, whence there are two
branch roads; one, passing over Bogue Hill and through Mile Gully,
unites at Williamsfield with the orlher passing over Spur Tree Hill
and through Mandeville. The road then continues to Porus, Four
Paths, May Pen, Old Harbour and Spanish Town. terminating at
Kingston.
A main road goes southward from Old Harbour through Vere to
Alley, and thence through The Rest (Milk River) to join the last
mentioned main road at the Old Tloll (Gate in Clarendon, between
Four Paths and Porus.
There is a main road from Kingston paying the Hope Old Toll
Gate and the Hope Gardens to Gordon Town. whence it continues
as a bridle read to Newcastle, and also over Hardware Gap to Buff
Bay. A marriagee road is being constructed from the Cooperage,
near Gordon Town, through Irish Town anld Newcastle to Hard-
ware Gap, whence it will continue down the Buff Bay River Valley
to Buff Bay. From the Hope 01Ol Toll Gate, a branch main road
goes past King's House to Halfway Tree.
In addition to th- above there are numerous branch main roads
giving communication to all parts of the interior of the Island.
LIVERY STABLES-There are livery stables in all towns of any importance
A list of the principal is given in the table on pp. 13 & 14.
The general practice for long distances, and where the hirer has
the use of the buggy and horses for a period of twenty days, is to
charge at the rate of 1 a day. The hirer can arrange, before








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


starting on his journey, either that the Livery Stable Keeper shall in-
elude the cost of feeding the driver and horses in the charge for hire
or that he himself shall pay for it as he goes along. The rate paid
for the driver's food is usually 1/6 a day, and the cost of feeding the
horses varies according to the current price of corn and grass in the
district visited.
CABS (called omnibusses) are to be had in Kingston, Spanish Town, Old
Harbour, Porus, Linstead, Ewarton, Maudeville and Montego Bay.
The fare is Gd. within the limits of each town. Special arrange-
ments are made for distances beyond. Omnibusses can he hired in
Kingston at 3/ per hour.
The Omnibusses Stands in Kingston are: -
In the Day -King Street, near Harbour Street; Harbour Street
near East Street; Duke Street, near Harbour and Port Royal
Streets; Duke Street, near Reeston Street; and East Street, near
North Street.
At Night-King Street, near Tower Street; Harbour Street near
East Street; Church Street, near Tower Street; North Street, near
East Street.
A tram line traverses the town of Kingston and the suburbs, pay-
ment for which is made per stage by tickets, to be purchased at
the various Car Offices, and at the tobacconists, and other places, at
a charge of 2d. each.
MAIL COACHES which carry passengers run-
(i) From Ewarton to Montego Hay on Mondays, Wednesdays and
Friday, and from Montego Bay to Ewarton on the same
days. and return on Tuesdays. Thursday and Satur.tays.
(ii) Between Montego Bay and Falmouth in connection with the
Tri-weekly Post, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays:
"onnecting with the regular Coach which leaves Falmouth
at 5 a.m, on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays.
(iii) Between Montego Bay and Lucea; leaving respectively every
alternate Monday, Wednesday and Friday.
(ir) From Williamsfield to Savanna-la-Mar on Mondays, Wednes-
days and Fridays, through Mandeville, Spur Tree. Santa
I'ruz, Lacovia, Middle Quarters, Black River, Whitehouse,
Bluefields to Savanna-la-Mar; and from the latter place to
Williamsfield Railway Station on Tuesdays, Thursdays
and Saturdays
(r) From Kingston, through Bull Bay. Yallahs, Mrant Hay, Port
Morant, Bath, Plantain Garden River, Manchioneal. Priest-
man's River, to Port Antonio, on Tuesdays, Thursdays and
Saturdiys ; returning on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fri-
days
(vi.) From Kingston through H:alfway Tree, Stony Hill, Castleton,
to Annotto Bay on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays,
returning from Annotto Bay on the mornings of Tuesdays
Thursday and saturday at 3 o'clock.
The following Table gives the rates of passengers' fares between
the several Stations ;-










COMMUNICATION.

(i.) & (ii.) EWARTON AND MONTEGO BAY.


From


0



Ewarton 5/
Moneague 5/
Clarement 10, 5/
Lime Hall 12/6 7/6
St. Ann's Bay 15/ 10/
Laughlands 17/6 12/6
Dry Harbour 22/6 17/6
Rio Bueno 25, 20/
Duncana -30/ I 25;
Ealmouth 35' 30/
Little River 40/ :35/
Montego Bay -, 45 40/


From
Montego Bay
Flint River
Lucea


0




10/ 12/6 i5/
5/ 7/6 10/
2/6 5,
2/6 2,6
5' 2,6 -
7,6 5/ 2/6
12/6 10/ 7/6
15/ 12/6 10,'
20/ 17/6 15/
25/ 22/1; 20
30, 27/6 25,
35/ 32,6 :101


I 0
s
-a H



17/6 22/6
12/6 17/6
7/6 12/6
a/ 10/
2/6 7'6
a,
a ;
7/6 2/,;
12/6 7i6
17/6 12/6
226 17 /6
27 6 22;6


25/ 30,
20/ 25/
15/ 201
12/6 17i6
10/ 15
7,6 12 6
2/6 7 I;

5/
5/ -
10/ 6/
15, 10
20, 15i


(iii.) MONTEGO BAY AND LUCEA.


To i Montego Bay Flint River.
-i 4/
-I 4/
/ 4


0 -



3, 140 45
30/ 35 40/
250 30, 35,

20o 25, 30/
17j6( 226 27/6
12,G 176 22 6
10, 15/ 20
3 10,' 15,
- ,5/ 8/
5 5,
8 5,
17 1 2,1)-7 1


Lucea.
8
4


(ir.) WILLIAMSFIELD AND AVANNA-LA-MAR.




FromS


0 -0 0 u [0--


Williamsfield 10/ 17/6 22 6 25 0 5 40 40
Mandeville 5/ 5/ 12/6 17 /6 20 25 0 35 40
Spur Tree 10' 5/ 10i 12/16 15, 20/ 2 30 35
Santa Cruz 17/6 12,6 10/ 5/ 7; 12/ 17,6 22l 27/6
Lacovia -22/6 17/6 12/6 5 5 7/6 12, 17 22/6
Middle Quarters 25/ 20' 15 7,6 5/ 10 15 20
Black River 30/ 25/ 20/ 12/( 7 / 10 10
Whitebouse 35/ 30/ 25/ 17/6 12/6 10 a' 5 10
Bluefields -40/ 35, 30/ 22/6 17/6 15 lo, 5. 51
Savanna.la-Mar 40/ 40/ 35' 27/6 22/6 20 10/ 10 5/


I I








10 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

(v) KINGSTON AND PORT ANTONIO.



*From 9 .a 9
o c -
7; 0 0

Kingston 5/ 10/ 15/ 20 20/ 25 30/ 35/ 40/
Bull Bay 5/ 5/ 10/ 1/ 15 20/ 26/ 30/ 35/
Yallahs 10/ 5/ 5/ 10/ 10 15/ 20/ 25/ 80/
Morant Bay 15/ 10/ 5/ 5/ 10/ 15/ 20/ 25/
Port Morant 20/ 15/ 10/ / 5/ 10/ 15/ 20/
Bath 20/ 15/ 10/ 5 / 5/ 10/ 15/ 20/
Plantain Garden
River 25/ 20/ 15/ 10/ 5/ 5/ / 10/ 15!
Manchioneal 30/ 25/ 20/ 15; 10/ 10/ 5/ i 10/
Priestman's
River 35/ 30/ 25/ 20/ 15/ 15/ 10/ 5/ 5/
Port Antonio 40/ 35/ 30/ 25/ 20/ 20/ 15/ 10/ 51 .

Return tickets available for four days to and from Kingston, as
under :
Port Antonio, 64/; Priestman's River, 56/; Manchioneal, 48/.
Plantain Garden River, 40/; Port Morant, 32/; Morant Bay, 24.


(vi.)IKINGSTON AND ANNOTTO BAY.

From To Kingston. Stony Hill. Castleton. Annotto Bay:
Kingston 5 / 10/ 156
Stony Hill 5/ b/ 10/
Castieton 10/ 5/ 5/
Annotto Bay 15/ 10/ 5/

Return tickets available for four days to and from Kingston to
Annotto Bay, 24/.

The following regulations exist with regard to all the Mail
Coaches:-
Seats can be engaged at the General Post Office, Kingston, or at
either of the terminal stations at any time on payment of the full
amount of fare. At any intermediate station, the proper fare as per
table of charges must (in the event of there being a vacant seat)
be paid to the local postmaster at the time of starting. Each
passenger is allowed to carry 201bs. weight or 2,000 cubic inches in
size, of personal luggage. Any excess must be paid for as freight,
and suet excess may not exceed 10lbs. in weight or 1,000 cubic
inches in size.







COMMUNIOATION. 11

RAILwr--The Railway Line runs across the island from Kingston to
Montego Bay, a distance of 120 miles. There is a branch line,
17 miles in length, between Spanish Town and Ewarton ; and another
branch from Bog-walk to Port Antonio, 54 miles in length, is in
course of construction.
A time-table of trains is issued by the company from time to
time. At present there is but one train each way, every week-day, be-
tween Kingston and Montego Bay. The journey takes 63 hours.
There are three trains daily to and from Kingston, over part of the
line.
The fare from Kingston to Montego Bay is 15s. first class; and 8s.
third class. Intermediate fares in proportion. Children under
three years of age, free: over three and under twelve, half the
ordinary fares.










IV. HOTELS AND LODGTNG HOUSES.
A LIST of the HOTELS and lodging houses, in the several parishes of
the island, is given below, with a list of livery-stable keepers
attached :-


Parish. Town.

PORTLAND-
Port Antonio i
Buff Bay
ST. THOMAS-
Bath
ST. ANDREW-
Constant Spring*
Gordon Town
KINGSTON-

Kingston*

ST. MARY-
Castleton Gardens
Annotto Bay
Port Maria
Highgate
ST. ANN-

St. Ann's Bay

Moneague

Ocho Bios
Brown's Town
Claremont
ST. CATHERINE-

Spanish Town

Linstead
Bog-Walk
Ewarton
Old Harbour
Old Harbour Bay


Hotel or Lodging House. Livery-Stable Keeper.

Ho~r~uu L~sgStalsgaps.


J. McConney; George
Chevannes; Mrs. Jones;
Mrs. Sampson

Miss Duffy

CONSTANT SPRING HOTEL


MYRTLE BANK HOTEL
PARK LODGE
QUEEN'S HOTEL

The Cottages
C. S. Depass
Mrs. H.Feurtado
H. P. Jones


Mary J. Watson

MONEAGUE HOTEL
Mary A, Hutchinson
Mrs. Mesquitta
Mrs. Delisser

HOTEL RIO COBRE.
Mrs. Lopez; Mrs. Mag-
nus
Rosa A. Minot
Mrs. M. Gibson
Mary Somerville
Mrs. Harrison; S. Silver
C. Llado; C. M. Silver


SBoston Fruit Com-
pany.
J. J. McConney.



SH. Bolton & Son.
Duval & Co.

H. Bolton & Son.
A. Clough.
E. Y. McKenzie & Son.
DeCordova.




F. N. Prendergast
Felix A. Morris.
L. L. Fraser.
Mrs. L. J. Hamilton.
SA. N. Sutherland.
Lofthouse:A. C.Green
C. E. Llewellyn.

Alfred Mesquitta.
J. A. Thompson & Co.
G. Helwig.

Hotel Rio Cobre.


E. DePass

E. E. Francis.
Melhado, Bro.


Furnished Cottages, of from four rooms to eight rooms each, can be hired at
Streadwick's Marine Gardens, Kingston; and at Streadwick's Hill Gardens, near Con-
stant Spring.








HOTELS AND LODGING HOUSES.


Parish. Town. Hotel or Lodging House.


CLARENDON-
Chapelton*

May Pen

MANCHESTER-

Mandeville j



Porus

HANOVER-
Lucea

WESTMORELAND-


Savanna-la-Mar


ST. JAMES-


Montego Bay

Montpelier

TRELAWNT-

Falmouth


Duncans


Livery-Stable Keepers.


Miss G. Smith I c nald.
SG H. Abraham.
A. Butler.

BROOKS' HOTEL G. H. Munton.
Mrs. Halliday; Mrs. Se- A. S. Lindo.
nior; Miss Roy; Mrs. F. A. Hall.
A. A. Alexander F. Delephenha.
SGeorge Finlay.
I D. W. Brooks.
Mrs. Mary McPherson; T. S. Manley.
Mrs Maria Eastwood.

MargaretCampbell; Mrs. P. Corinaldi.
Vosper; Mrs. Rogers. Talbot.


Miss A. Vaz: Miss I.
Shearer; Mrs. Vaz.



Miss Payne; Mrs. David
Payne; Miss A. Harri-
son; Miss Manson;
Miss M. Price; Miss
Mowatt; Mrs. Jervis;
John Reid
MONTPELIER HOTEL.

Mrs. Robey; Mrs. E. C.
McDonald; Miss De-
Souza; Mrs. Jacobs.


J. McCreath; A. J.
Munroe;John Spence
Robert Nathan
Evans & Co.; G. i.
Pearson.

C. B. Wilson; G. L.
P Corinaldi; A.
Patterson; R. D. G.
Howard; Jacobs.




S Delisser- D. L.
Harris; i Lindo.


E. Ferraira: Wm. John-
son.


S Basees rn between Chapelton and May Pen.








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


Parish. Town. Hotel or Lodging Hotel. Livery-Stable Keeper.


ST. ELIZABETH-
SMrs. Cath. Allen; Mr. A. G. Levy.
I Thos. Gooden; J. F. Strachan
Black River 4 J. F. Strachan; G. F. Alberga.
I Mrs. Eustace Franklin
[ Mrs.F. G. Myers.
Santa Cruz Mrs. E. M. Bowra; James Saams.
Miss Saams. C. R. Gregory.
Mrs. M. Temple
Malvern Mrs. Lawrence f R. Crawford.
1C. J. Nation.
Newport H. A. Forde
Bayberry O. Saams.
Mountain Side J. Blake.
Lacovia J S. Roden.
W. J. Tomlinson.
Siloah E. S. Falden
Balalva i Mrs. O'Sullivan
Balaclava I Mrs. Gooden.

V. AGRICULTURE.
(a.) AGRICULTURAL LiFE IN JAMAICA
Of recent years much attention has been paid and considerable
impetus has been given to Agricultural life in Jamaica, which until
recently had been suffering from the effects of the decrease in the
production of sugar of more than half a century ago. A Jamaica
Society of Agriculture was formed tn 1895; and attempts are being
made to bring to the aid of the practical agriculturist the results of
modern scientific investigation and experiment. The recent failure
of the orange crops in Florida has also given an impetus to orange
growing in Jamaica.
The following extracts, from the series of Lectures on Agriculture
delivered under the auspices of the Institute of Jamaica ; from Dr.
Nicholls' Text Book of Tropical Agriculture," which obtained the
premium offered by the Government of Jamaica for the best work
on the subject; and from information kindly contributed by various
planters and others, may give some idea of the condition of agri-
cultural life in Jamaica:-
I. PEN-KEEPING includes horse, and mule breeding, cattle-breeding
and dairying, and sheep-farming.
CATTLE-BREEDING-" The importance of this branch of Agriculture in
Jamaica may be gathered from the following approximate figures.
Out of a total of 657,923 acres under cultivation in this island we
find that no less than 496,909 acres are entered as being under guinea
grass and common pasture. We may I think, safely estimate that
%th of this is used for the feeding and rearing of live stock. At
the first glance we might be led to conclude that the whole 496,000








AGRICULTURE.


acres must be used for that purpose, but we know that there are
properties under cultivation which, though covered with rich common
or pimento grass, carry very few cattle, and are only kept up by the
pimento which grows upon them. Deducting therefore (th from
the acreage under cultivation we have 372,681 acres which we may
safely say are used for grazing purposes, and, allowing four acres
per head, we conclude that there are about 93,170 head of cattle
scattered throughout the country. The Collector General's Report
for 1891-92 gives in as belonging to pens, 77,42. head over one year
old. This leaves us 16,927 to account for. We may, I think, class
10,000 of them as yearlings, and the balance, say 7,000, as being of
that age which penkeepers could not call two year old, but which
were perhaps more than yearlings. Valuing these 93,170 head of
cattle at 5 per head all round, we find that 465,850 is invested in
cattle on pens alone, to say nothing of the value of the land they are
raised on, which I am sure I am well within the mark in placing at
1,000,000 sterling; so that putting the two together, we have a
total of nearly a million and a half invested in cattle and the land
they live upon***. In Jamaica we have two very different and dis-
tincts markets for which we raise cattle-viz., the planter and the
butcher. The planter, requiring cattle for working purposes, must
look for an animal calculated to endure the hardships of labour. The
beast of his choice therefore will be a hardy muscular animal***
Turning now to the breeding of cattle for butchers' purposes, we
find a wide field of different breeds to traverse. All the English
breeds of cattle, are more or less good beef-producers, and a good
many of these breeds have been imported into Jamaica from time to
time-[Shorthorns, Hereford, Devon, Aberdeen Angus and Suffolk.]
***No country in the world could be better suited for the raising
and fattening of cattle than Jamaica. No one could fail to be struck
by this, after a day or two's trip through the parishes, for all through
the country you will find hills covered with rich feeding, admirably
suited for the feeding of young steers and heifers, the exercise of
climbing the hills being beneficial to their health and growth Then
there are plenty of rich shady glades where breeding cows and their
young calves thrive so well, and on the more level lands especially,
is the luxuriant guinea grass, than which no finer natural feed
for fattening cattle has ever been found. I say natural feed as
opposed to the artificial food, such as oil-cake, etc., which is so
largely used in the fattening of cattle in England. Of course these
artificial food-stuffs fatten cattle at a much earlier age than any grass
can do, but I question very much if any feeding can surpass our
guinea grass in making delicate, juicy beef.
Then, look at the general plan of our grazing properties. No huge
open ranches covering thousands of acres where cattle range at will
never seeing the face of man, and therefore being wild and unmana-
gable; but we find the pens ranging from say 600 to 2,000 acres,
sub-divided by stone-walls or wire fences into pastures, the guinea
grass from 20 to 60 acres, and the commons" from 60 to 150 acres
pending on the size of the property and the number of cattle feed-
on it. Of course there are large open properties to be found, but
these are not fattening pens, and it is the good fattening properties
to which I am referring. The climate also is conducive to the profit-








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


able raising and fattening of cattle. No sudden chills to cheek
growth and fattening; no need for b housing or folding of the stock;
night and day they are out in the fresh pure air, eating and drinking
to their heart's contents.-Adam Boxburgh."
INDIAN CATTL.X-" Of the four different breeds of humpedor Zebu cattle
that have been introduced into this island, the Hissar will, for general
utility purposes, probably prove the most useful breed, as these
combine good working qualities for slow work, with the best milk-
ing qualities, in which our island cattle are as a rule deficient.
Indian cattle are noted for their hardiness of constitution: they
can subsist and keep in good condition on the lowest bite on which
creole and English bred stock would starve and die; they eat many
of the coarser grasses and shrubs that other cattle refuse, and are
very free from disease.
In times of drought they can be driven considerable distances to
water, which often is the cause of such heavy losses on pens in dry
seasons in some districts. They are able to do without shade, and
thrive in the most exposed situations under a tropical sun which
causes the hair of cattle with English blood in them to stare and
become tender to the touch, and in fact to become sunburnt; under
these conditions the hair grows in yellowish patches giving a pecu-
liarly unnatural and rough appearance to the coat. The constitution
:n such cases is weakened and the usefulness of the animals impaired
through its inability to meet the exigencies of the climate.
The Mysore cattle are doubtless poor milkers, and I should doubt
the Gugerat cattle being much better; the very qualities which
place them at the head of the working breeds of cattle are against
their giving much milk. On the other hand, the Gir cattle are
famous as milkers and rival the Nellore and Hissar which are repu-
ted to be the best milkers in India. I can find no exact records of
the yield of milk from Gir cattle, and they have not been introduced
into the island sufficiently long to have their half-bred stock tried.
The Hissar cattle however have the reputationof being fine milkers;
cows of that breed when well fed giving from ten to sixteen quarts
of milk in twenty-four hours, which though not equal to the yield of
well fed English dairy cows, surpasses the yield of any cattle in this
country.
Buffaloes give from six to twelve quarts of milk in 24 hours.
This is much richer in cream than cow's milk and better for butter
making.
A half-bred Indian cow has beed recorded as giving an average
yield of over 7 quarts of milk daily for the first six months, a suffi-
ciency of milk being left for the wants of the calf. The yield for
the first month being 9 quarts daily, gradually deminishing to 5
quarts daily in the six months.
I have no doubt that half-bred fissar and Gir cows when well fed
will produce as much and raise their calves at the same time**.
Indian cattle have never been valued for those flesh producing
capabihties which form such an important feature in most of our
local breeds of cattle.
It is not to be expected that Zebu cattle will produce as good beef
as Shorthorns, Herefords, Devons and other British breeds, but
they will at any rate be as good if not better than the Spanish








AGRICULTURE.


American cattle that are now being so largely used to supply the
Kingston market.
Judicious cross-breeding of Indian cattle with the existing English
breeds that are well established throughout the Island, will doubtless
improve the fattening qualities of the Indian stock, at the same
time the cross-breds will be harder and less liable to sickn. ss and
disease than cattle of English descent.-B. S. Gosset."
])AIRYING-" The supply of milk being so small the price remains at 4%
and 6d., an almost prohibitory price; it has even been said that it
does not pay to sell at 3d; why. I have never been able to find out.
Then it has been publicly stated that butter cannot be made to
pay under 3s. a lb; but at the time I wrote to say that it could be
done at much less; some butter being sold on the Northside at
Is. 9d. In England. wholesale contracts are taken at as low a figure
as lid. a lb. all the year round. What is it then that makes our
butter so costly Of course, if the ,rilkis sold at 4% or 6d. it would
not pay to make it into butter. But with butter at 2s a lb. the
milk will nett 2!4d. a quart, and if the separated milk can be sold
at 1 %d it will bring it to 4d a very good price. As I have already
stated it is only a matter of transport with due regard to the climate
From the great lack of skilled labour in th, island, I hope no one
will attempt starting a dairy farm who is not prepared to give it a
most constant personal attention; but with that I see no reas3u
why this industry should not play as large a part in the prosperity
of this island as it does in that or ot her countries. -C. A. T Fursdon
I1. PLANTING-BANANAS The banana is exported from the West Indies
in great quantities to the United States- Jamaica is now the centre
ef the banana trade of the West Indies. In 1881 the exports were
217,562 bunches valued by the Customs authorities. 22,665 16s. 8d.,
and in 1893 94. they had increased to 5,162, 808 bunches valued at
473,257 8s. Od.
The banana will grow in nearly every soil, except those com-
posed almost wholly of sand or of calcareous matters. The
best soil for the cultivation of the plant is a warm, well-drained;
but rather moist, deep loam, with a good proportion of humus In
such a soil, and with a favourable climate, bananas will yield enor-
mous crops
With proper cultivation, a good soil, and a suitable climate, the
first crop may be gathered in about a year from the time of plant
ing; and, as some plants may be backward whilst others are for-
ward in growth, bunches will be gathered at all times there-
after."-Dr. Nicholls.
The following are a few particulars with respect to banana
cultivation upon a property in Portland.
Stalks per acre, 339.
Gross sales per acre ... 27 1 3
Cost of cultivation and delivery per acre 6 18 6
Net profit ...... 20 2 9
s. d.
Selling price per stalk ... 1 7n
Cost per stalk cultivation and delivery 0 4(
Net profit per stalk ..- 1 2








18 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

Cultivation per acre.
Each acre was weeded, ploughed, and harrowed seven times dur-
ing the year ; forked around the roots once in the year; suckered
regularly whenever the suckers shewed.
Forty acres of the cultivation have been bearing since 1886 and
are still in cultivation.
The crop in 1887-88. averaged ten six-hands to one nine-hand.
The crop for 1892-93 averaged fifteen whole bunches to one six-
hand. This has been done without the aid of manure, and shows
the result obtained by improved methods of cultivation.
The figures include cost of keeping up herd of cattle, cleaning
and fencing pastures, watchmen, headmen, salaries, general supplies
and all minor improvements.
The distance from shipping place is 1 mile on a 13-el road Rain-
fall about 150 inches evenly distributed. The climate is moist and
humid. The -oil aliuvial deposit from conglomerate and prophyry
formations. These figures represent about the very best results
obtained on about the best cultivated lands on the northside under
most favourable circumstances.
Have been unsuccessful with all attempts at resuscitating with
artificial manures.
Replant every five years-catch crops retard growth of bananas,
viz: peas, beans, corn. &c., &c.
Cocoa, kola and coffee grow well under banana shade and not
injurious.
Prices ruling lower, but demand for good fruit, very good and in-
creasing every year.'--Henry Cork
THE CULTIVATION OF BANANAS UNDER IRRIGATION -It is only recently
that the cultivation of Bananas under irrigation on the plains of St.
Catherine has been carried on to any extent.
There are now over 600 acres of bearing and established plants
and between 4 and 5 acres being planted.
The plantations have given exceptional good results and compare
most favourably with districts where no irrigation is used.
The soil is of an alluvial nature and well adopted for irrigation
purposes. The top or surface oil is principally composed of loam
rich in vegetable matter and extends to the depth of a foot, the
2nd layer is a mixture of sand and loam, the 3rd layer, or subsoil,
is chiefly sand with a slight proportion of clay.
The oldest plantation has been in cultivation for over five years
and up to now it, has not beeL found necessary to either plough or
manure.
The land chosen for planting is usually virgin forest. The wood
is cut down and burned, the suckers planted 15 feet square and main
trenches are dug with small trenches leading down each row of
plants.
The lands being nearly all level with a slight fall towards the sea,
the manipulation of the water is very easy.
The amount of water required per acre is 1% cubic yards per hour
averaging a cost of 20s. per acre per annum."-Robert Hay.
UTILIZATION OF WASTE BANANAS-Machinery has recently been invented
for the conversion of bananas into various products. The prospects
of this new industry are now more hopeful, and it seems probable








AGRICULTURE.


that factories will be started in Jamaica for the utilization of bananas
that now are wasted.
CocAo-"The cacao or cocoa tree must be planted in deep soil. The
best soil of all is that occurring in valleys and uudulating lands,
along the banks of rivers or streams, and made by the decomposition
of volcanic rocks. It will also grow well in loams and the richer
marls, but it will not thrive in stiff heavy clays.
A warm, moist climate is necessary for the cultivation of cacao, if
large crops are expected; but when the soil is suitable, the tree will
grow and give fair returns in a moderate dry place. The ordi-
nary cacao plant will not do well in the mountains above two thousand
feet, and even at that height it becomes stunted and does not remain
fruitful for many years. The best elevation is from 300 to 500 feet;
and, in sheltered situations near the sea ,hore, good crops are to be
obtained, but the tree will not thrive if exposed to the direct in
fluence of the sea breeze. Sheltered lands and valleys with
a southern or western aspect are the best situations to form cacao
plantations. The cacao trees when young will not thrive
without shade, and when they are fully grown, it is found that they
give better crops if shade trees are planted at intervals. For the
young cultivation, the banana gives the best shade, and it
seems specially adapted for the purpose; besides which, its fruit is
valuable, and will give a return for the land whilst the young cacao
is growing. For permiment shade, the immortelle tree
(Erythrina umbrosa) or the cacao mother," as it is called, is used
in Trinidad; but breadfruit, breadnut, trumpet tree, and guango or
saman trees may be planted. Returns from a cacao plan-
tation cannot be expected until five years after planting, and it will
not be in full bearing before from seven to ten years. A few trees
may bear earlier than five years, but these are very favourably
situated and they are exceptions to the rule. The trees bear nearly
all the year round, but there are two principal crops -one from
April to June, and the other from November to January, the latter
crop being much the more abundant of the two The crops are
usually termed Easter and Christmas, after the season of the year
during which they are gathered.
The average yield of dry cacao from each tree, of course varies
very much. The limits may be said to be from a pound and a half
to eight pounds per tree. On the rich alluvial lands of Surinam,
from eight to nine pounds per tree are said to be obtained; but, in
the bad cultivation of the West Indian peasant proprietors, it is
doubtful whether a pound per tree is got."-Dr. Nicholls.
COCOA-NUTS-" The low alluvial flats, near to the mouths of rivers,
more especially lands subject to occasional inundations, are the best
situations for the cultivation of the cocoa-nut, for in these places, the
alluvial loam is usually rich and deep The yield of nuts
depends on soil, climate and cultivation, and, as may be imagined,
the crops of different trees vary wildly. In Ceylon it is said that
the general average return of cocoa-nut estates is not over thirty
nuts per tree; but individual trees have been known to give over
300 nuts every year for a period of ten years. This enormous yield,
however, is most exceptional; but, with a good climate, a fair
average soil, and judicious cultivation, the return ought to be at







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


least fifty nuts a tree, and at twenty-five feet distance, this would
give a yield of 3,500 nuts per acre. By the application of suitable
manure the returns may be increased to eighty nuts a tree, or over
5.000 per acree, but such a yield cannot be expected from the light
sandy soils of the coastline."-Dr. Nicholls.
COFFPE PLANTING-" In Manchester the land is not so precipitous as in
the Blue Mountains: the elevation for coffee does not range in any
part much over 3,000. Planting is done at distances of from 5 to 6
feet square; deep red virgin soil in this parish is the best whenever
obtainable, but this description of land is scarce. The bulk of
uncultivated woodland remaining is due to marl or other conditions
of soil unsuited to coffee cultivation; there is also a dark gravelly
soil which comes next and is also good for coffee. Heavy cold clay
is unsuitable; if below the surface it will cause coffee to die out
when the tap root gets to it.
Pasture land can be used on which cattle have been grazing for
the last 50 years (of which there is a good deal in this parish) if the
grass is well dug into the soil (nofire used), but subject to high class
cultivation with manure, chiefly vegetable; no weeds allowed to grow
and kept covered with dry grass or rubbish as a protection in keep-
ing off the direct rays of the sun from drying up the ground and
exh busting the property of the manure. With the above treatment,
the yield of coffee will equal that of woodland Shade can be ob-
tained by planting plantains and bananas and fig-trees. Cut and
plant large branches, the larger the better (they grow readily),
and plant in like manner as in planting plum-tree branches
at distances of about 25 or 30 feet apart. It will be found that
coffee does not die out when growing under and protected by the
shade of a fig-tree, which latter is deciduous dropping its leaves
when not required during the cool season at the fall of the year,
renewing them when most required in the dry and hot season. The
leaves also form good vegetable manure I would recommend a
nursery of plants grown from seed to be kept for planting out and not
to depend on coffee plants uprooted anywhere, which is the general
system: the nursery plants will be found in every way superior and
will more than repay the little extra trouble Covering the land
with grass, leaves. &c., will not only intercept the sun's rays and
avoid waste of manure but will help to form manure of the descrip-
tion required, and keep down the growth of weeds and so avoid
weeding which destroys the fine fibrous roots which will be found
on all healthy trees between the surface soil and the manure-
looking for plant food. The absence of this description of root is
an indication that the tree is in poor health. The top and other
lateral roots serve chiefly to steady the plant
Liberian Cofee, which when full grown is a large tree, thrives best
on low, rich and well sheltered land; especially when young, suffers
severely from breeze. It is rarely, if ever pruned. It is picked by
climbing the tree. It should be planted at not less than 25 feet
square. A pulper must be made expressly. Pulp thick, fibrous and
tough, berries much larger, parchment very tough, even when dry,
hard and horny. When prepared for use, Liberian coffee is by no
equal to the Arabian aroma, and is of a coarse flavour. Quotations
for best quality are lower than for Arabian. I think the experience








AGRICULTURE.


of growers here would result in a verdict unfavourable to the
Liberian.
Arabian Coffee -A plant between a tree and a shrub, will grow
over 15 ft. in its native state from 1% to, say, 6 inches diameter full
grown; if pruned and allowed afterwards to grow into a long top,
it will average up to 10 ft. in height: it is picked when long by
bending down. If topped about 3%, 4, to 4% ft. it is easy to pick
standing on the ground. It is pruned as often as is necessary: it
thrives from almost sea level in some localities, if the soil is suitable
to 5,000 ft. It stands more breeze but requires shelter in exposed
positions. It is planted at from 5 to 6 feet square.
It pulps easily when ripe with an ordinary pulper; when properly
dry the parchment comes of easily. When prepared for use, the
aroma is good and the flavour delicate and delicious.
From the introduction of the hulling process in London, I have
have constantly shipped in husk. From date of shipment as per
bill of lading on Royal Mail Steamer in Kingstou up to date of
report sale in London the average is 28 days. I have to take my
turn at hulling : the coffee is hulled in bond under Government super-
vision. What I get done in London in seven days would take me
about the same number of weeks here to hand-pick in the old style.
Although I have all the machinery necessary for perfecting the process
of curing, my experience is that it is best to ship in husk, i.e. parch-
ment."-Geo. Nash.
The yield of coffee varies, of course, according to soil, climate
and cultivation but it may be said to be from four to twelve ewts.
to the acre. A pound per tree, on an average, would be a very good
return, but in favourable situations ard under proper cultivation
some trees will yield much more The Liberian coffee trees are
much more prolific than the Arabian kind, and each tree yields from
one to eight pounds of clean coffee About three bushels of berries
may be picked by a -ood worker in a day, and this will yield about
301bs. of dry coffee, or about lOlbs. to the bushel in the case of the
Arabian coffee, but the pulp of Liberian coffee is much thicker,
and the berries of this kind will not give so much clean coffee to the
bushel; but the trees, by bearing larger crops, compensate for the
greater loss in pulp."--Dr. H. NichoUs.
COFFEE PLANTING IN THE BLUE MOUNTAINS-" It was on the 13th Sep-
tember, 1884, that I commenced felling and clearing the first 50
acres, and it was on the 4th April, 1885, that I started planting.
The first return from this cultivation was obtained in 1890.
The establishing and up-keep until 1890 of the first 100 acres,
togerter with the building of house, works, and the erection of
machinery, cost 14,000. It will thus be seen that a young Blue
Mountain Coffee Planter must have, not only the necessary capital
for establishing an estate, but enough besides to enable him to live
during the years the coffee takes to come into full bearing.
The second 100 acres cost 9,000 and the 3rd 100 acres up to date
7,000. The return to be expected from the 300 acres, judged by
the light of previous experience, can be taken to be 20 per cent. on
capital outlay.








22 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

There are immense tracks of splendidly rich land in Portland and
St. Thomas that have been given to the Railway Syndicate. This land
will grow coffee to perfection, but there two obstacles at present to
cultivating largely, and they are want of labour, and driving roads.
To overcome the first difficulty the Government will have to facili-
tate the introduction of coolie labour, if any good is to be done, and
with regard to the second, the Government, under His Excellency
Sir Henry Blake, have embarked on a scheme of Mountain Roads
which when complete will make these lands accessible; and the
roads will contribute enormouslyto the future prosperity of .Tamaica.
In all my previous remarks it must be clearly understood that I
am speaking entirely and solely of high Blue Mountain Coffee
planting ; they do not apply to the plains, or to the prospects of
coffee growing there
In conclusion I may state that for any one possessed of ample
means and energy, there is no more healthy, profitable, or pleasant
life, than coffee planting in the beautiful climate of the Blue Moun-
tains of Jamaica."-G. G. Taylor.
GINGER-" There is no extensive acreage under cultivation at the present
time. In 1822-3 the acreage was returned at 246. The season
supposed to be the most suitable for planting operations is in the
month of March or April. Should seasonable weather have
prevailed, and proper attention have been bestowed on the cultiva-
tion, the cultivator might reasonably anticipate that under such
favourable conditions 2,000 pounds will be the average yield per
acre. The cultivation of ginger on a large scale would hardly
be regarded as a remunerative industry, the employment of labour
being costly; its growth is therefore undertaken almost exclusively
by the peasantry who, as owners or tenants of small areas of land in
in the mountainous district, expend their own labour on its cultiva-
tion One of the essential conditions to the growth of the plant is
in the elevation of the land selected for cultivation, which, to secure
the best results, should be at least 2,000 feet above sea-level.
It is generally recognized by cultivators that the soil best adapted
to its growth is clayey-loam, or the virgin soil of the forest land, the
crops usually attaining the highest market value. Manchester,
Trelawny and St. Ann, must be regarded as the principal ginger
producing parishes in the island. The cost of establishing one
acre in plants would depend on the site chosen; but I am of opinion
that if for each acre the cultivator calculated on an outlay of from
L8o 10 he would not fallfor shortin his estimate *." G.A.Douet.
LIMEs'-" Limes grew best near the sea up to an elevation of 500 feet,
where the atmosphere is moist. If the spot is liable to droughts,
irrigation is necessary.
The soil should be light. It need not be as rich as for cocoa, so
that those portions of a cocoa estates where the soil is too poor for
cocoa, might be suitable for limes. The trees begin to yield when
about 3 years old, and are in full bearing at 7 years. The yield
varies, but under favourable circumstances may be as much as from
three quarters to a whole barrel from each tree."-Bulletin of the
Botanical Department.
LoGwooD.-" It was introduced into Jamaica from Honduras by Dr.
Barham, in 1715, and later on it was carried to other parts of the








AGRICULTURE.


West Indies *. Logwood is used in medicine as an astringent,
but its principal use is as a dye *
Logwood will grow well on moist soils, except loose sands and
heavy clays. It grows best. however, and produces finer heart-
wood on moist rich soils where there is an abundance of vegetable
matter. The climate must be hot, but not arid: although the plant,
when it has become firmly rooted in the ground, stands a drought
very well *. Logwood can scarcely be said to be cultivated, for
most of the blocks are cut from self-sown trees. But waste lands
unsuitable for other cultivations, nm y with advantage be planted with
logwood, and properly tended trees will always give a finer product
than those growing wild *. In Jamaica quite a large business has
been established in digging and exporting logwood roots left in the
ground when the trees were felled during the last twenty or thirty
years. Some idea may be formed of the importance of logwo d as
a dye when it is remembered that the imports into England alone
are valued at more than a quarter of a million sterling for a single
year."-Dr. Nicholls.
NUTMEGS. -" Nutmeg trees require a deep, rich, loamy soil, moist but
not swampy, with a humid atmosphere. They thrive best in shady
river valleys from sea-level up to 300 or 400 feet, but they will grow
in favourable situations up to an elevation of 2,000 feet *. The
trees are a long time coming_ to maturity not producing a crop, as a
rule. till they are nine years old; and only when they first flower,
at 6 or 7 years of age, is it possible to determine whether they are
male or female. A very small proportion of male tress is left for
fertilisation by insects; the rest are cut down and fresh plants are
substituted The fertile trees continue to produce fruit for 70 or 80
years. On an average each tree will yield 10 pounds of nutmegs,
and about one pound of mace every year; and when highly manured
it is said that they will produced ten ;i.nes that amount 4 *
Mr. I. Reece, Resident Magistrate of St. Ann, writes as follows:-
'I can not tell you how very glad I am to know that you are en-
deavouring to get people here to go in for nutmegs. Ever since I
came to this colony, I have been trying to impress on those with
whom I have come in contact, and who possessed lands adapted for
the growth of that valuable article, the great fortunes to be made
thereby. I know Grenada well having been there on several occa-
sions. There are lands here as suitable in every respect for the
cultivation of cocoa and nutmegs as there are in that island. As
regards the value of nutmeg trees, I know an old man living about
five miles out of St. George, who, when I was there last (1884), told
me that. from two trees in the preceding year, he had got 30'."
Bulletin of the Botanical Department.
ORANGES.-" The climate of Jamaica is so well adapted for it that the
orange grows in nearly every part of the island,and its soil is so fertile
that it grows without any kind of cultivation or care of any kind:
anywhere the seeds are thrown they crow readily and produce good
fruit. For a great many years there was no trade done in this fruit;
the birds seemed to enjoy them and no one disputed their rights to
do so. Many people are under a false idea that the orange is a very
perishable fruit; this is not really so, for, if the fruit is carefully
gathered and has received no damage, it can be kept for twelve








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


months easily. If the fruit is properly handled it can be shipped to
any part of the world in good condition. Not very many years ago
the trade began with the New York market, and, although the rot
was very severe, the high prices shippers got for the fruit still gave
such large profits, that it paid them to run the risk; the demand was
so greatin America for the fruit that shippers only sought to put in
large lots without any attempt to improve the quality of the fruit or
the mode of handling and packing &c. The very large prices
obtained in New York for the very inferior kind of fruit shipped
there, induced large capitalists to go into the cultivation of oranges
in Florida, neither thd soil nor the climate of which place is suitable
for its cultivation; yet hrom good cultivation and careful handling
they have succeeded so well that they are able to put into the market
at the present time nearly five million boxes of oranges per annum.
The Florida crops begin early in November and last till the end of
February, so that our only market for Jamaica fruit is August,
September, March and April In Florida they are working their
cultivations so as to bring in the fruit in the early and late months.
If we are to continue the orange trade we must look for other
markets for our fruit; to ship to other markets we must have the
oranges put up in a proper way and have steamers suitable for the
trade-steamers that will carry the fruit well at even temperature
Now I shall deal with the best mode of handling and shipping
oranges:-
Picking-This is the first and to my mind the most important part
of the work. The orange should not be picked when there is any
moisture on the fruit. The picker should climb the tree with a
basket slung by a cord ; he should then gather the fruit with a piece
of the stem on the orange which he must cut off close to the orange
with a very sharp knife and put in the basket: when full the basket
is then let down carefully to the ground, carried to the packing
house, and the orange- carefully put away on shelves to cure; in no
ease should they be stored deeper than one foat; the fruit should
remain on the shelf two days.
Sizing. When the curing is done, the fruit can stand more hand-
ling, it can now be passed throughthe sizer, which will separate the
different sizes. The very large and very small oranges are not worth
shipping; these should be rejected, also any coarse skin, or dis-
coloured fruit; only the fine skin orange is worth shipping: any that
are known as cross-grained oranges must be thrown out. After the
sizing is done, they are now again stored on the shelves about six
inches deep for at least one day, then the culling is done by careful
hands overhaulingthe fruit and throwing out any that are not good.
as this work should not be entirely left to the wrappers, as is the
general practice. After the culling is done, the wrapping begins; the
best paper is the fine tissue paper used in Florida. The wrappers
are also to examine the fruit as they wrap, so as to throw out any
bad fruit overlooked by the cullers; each orange is wrapped with
the stem in the twist of the paper; fancy paper can be used for
fancy oranges.
Packages. The best package is the regular Florida box which mea-
sures 2 feet long by 1 foot square with a division in the centre of
box; these boxes carry the fruit much better than barrels as the








AGRICULTURE.


bulk is smaller and the fruit keep on a mote even temperature ; the
fruit are also always kept in one position, they are also a neater
package, and being a smaller package and the fruit sized, are ready
for the consumer, and more easily sold than barrels of mixed oranges.
If fruit is being sent on a very long voyage, the best kind of package
is that which is quite air tight, the fruit packed being in fine saw-
dust-care being taken that the fruits do not touch each other; also
that the dust used is not of wood of a strong scent as it will impart a
foreign flavour to the fruit
Packing in barrels The oranges are packed in rings firmly, begin-
ning with the outer ring and -o on until the whole layer is done;
care should be taken not to press too hard with the thuilmb or the
oranges will be damaged: this is repeated on each layer till the
barrel is full, the fruit should come abontt one inch above the line-
hoop, the head when put on will press down the fruit to the level of
the hoop.
Boxes. In packing in boxes, the fruit beitn sized, each is packed
exactly alike and holds the samenumber ot fruit: the size measure-
ments are:-
For fruit packing 226 oranges to the box 2 in.
." 200 2 {i in.
176 2 in.
150 3 ; in
126 3
S" 112 3
Packing Houses. The present system of putting up oranges is to
hire any shop or room that can be got for the purpose: the con-
sequence is that the fruit is thrown on the floor or ground as the
case may be, and piled up to the height of 4 feet and sometimes
even more than this, the very weight of the fruit damaging the
lower ones; the fruit being wrapped and packed as soon as they
come in: the consequence is that the fruits are not tested and bad
fruit are sent away To put up fruit properly. one requires a good
deal of room to sort and handle well. In putting up a large order
of oranges, it is impossible to do so without a large and well venti-
lated packing house; the building should be specially built for the
purpose, it should be lofty and shelved all through with shelves
about 3 feet wide so as to store the fruit as already explained. It is
also advisable to have the picking house at the Railway, so that
there will be no fear of getting fruit wet after it is packed."-H. S.
Braham.
PIMENTO-" This is a very pungent spice, and is known as 'Jamaica
Pepper' and Allspice.' The tree. which is of moderate size, grow-
ing to a height of some thirty or forty feet, with a circumference at
the base of the trunk of about three feet, is a species of myrtle. The
wood is covered with a greenish grey bark, which is smooth and
shining in appearance; the leaves are a dark and very glossy green,
and when crushed in the hand emit a strong aromatic odour. The
general appearance of the tree is very striking, owing to the colour
of the bark, which causes every tree to show up through the dark
green of the leaves, with a peculiarly beautiful effect. It has been
thought that Jamaica is the only place where this spice is to be
found, but this is not so. It has been found in parts of South








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


America. but. owing to the expense of the gathering in those places,
it would prove a very unprofitable article of export. In Jamaica,
however, where labour of a kind is comparatively cheap, we can
gather in the spice at a price which allows of considerable profit to
the grower; and yet give the labourer a very fair wage for his time.
Another erroneous idea respecting pimento is that it will not grow
if planted by hand, but must be dropped by birds on the ground.
The birds certainly are very fond of the ripe berries, and it is a fact
that nearly all our pimento trees are planted in this way, but it is a
great mistake to suppose that it is necessary for the seed first to pass
through the bird; for if a ripe seed is washed and cleared of the
external pulp, and then planted, it grows readily. The pulp how-
ever mast be removed, for if not, it dries and forms a hard leathery
skin, which will be in the ground for an indefinite time, and prevent
the seed from springing. There are two kinds of pimento tree; the
fruitful or bearing tree, and the unfruitful or, as it is commonly
termed, the male tree. They are very much alike in appearance,
and can only be distinguished by experienced eyes. It is held by
botanists that the so called male" trees are not necessary to the
fructifying of the bloom on the bearing trees, and that they are
simply barren trees of no use to the grower, and, excepting when
they are useful as shade trees, are better out of the way. Many
growers however find it difficult to reconcile this theory with actual
experience, holding that when all the male" trees are cut out, the
yield of the other trees is not equal to what it had been before the
axe was put work. A pimento tree under favourable circumstances
begins to bear when about eight or ten years old, but it is not in full
bearing till about eighteen or twenty years. It will go on bearing
if properly treated for a very great number of years -longer than
the average life of a man. The berry, which is the marketable pro-
duct of thetree, andis the'Allspice'of commerce, isasmall round fruit
about the size of an ordinary black currant. They grow in clusters
on the tree, and are in the best condition for picking when full. but
not ripe. When ripe they are of a glossy black colour, sweet and very
spicy in flavour, in fact very pleasant to the taste. The full, but
unripe. berry is more spicy and somewhat peppery, and astringent.
The process of gathering is carried out by sending a lad up the tree
with a long stick with a crook at the end; with this he catches the
long outer branches, and bending them back till within his reach he
snaps off the smaller ends where they are about the thickness of an
ordinary walking cane, and throws them down to ground. In this
manner, he breaks off all the small branches upon which he finds
the pimento berries hanging, and at the same time effectively prunes
the tree, without which pruning the tree will not bear regularly. The
tree thoroughly 'broken,' women and children gather up the
branches, and sitting down they pick off the berries into baskets,
taking care to winnow out all the stems and leaves, and leave only
the berries. At the close of the day the baskets, full with pimento,
are all brought to the barbecues, and then measured; the quantity
picked by each person being entered up in the barbecue book, and
paid for at the end of the week.
The barbecue is the place where the berries are dried and prepared
for market. It is a large paved court; the size depending on the








AGRICULTURE. 27

average quantity of pimento picked on the property. It is sub-
divided into beds' by a low banking, so that the pimento picked on
one day and which has begun to dry, does not mix with the green
fresh spice of another day's picking. When a sufficient quantity has
been thrown upon a bed,' it is spread out and exposed to t ie sun,
a man with a wooden rake being employed to keep turning it over
so that all sides of the berry may have the benefit of the heat.
Pimento takes from six to ten days to cure in this manner, the
length of time being effected by the heat of the sun's rays A good
dry breeze is a great help in the curing, and quickens the process
materially. Tarpaulins should be provided for e.ery ra ige of bar-
becues, for the pimento should not be allowed to get wet while the
drying process is going on. The damp spoils the quality of the spice
and effects the bright brown colour, which is the chief point looked
to by purchasers. Tha berries are known to be thoroughly dry when,
upon taking up a handful, and holding it firmly in the hand, a sharp,
dry, crisp, rattling sound will be heard, if shaken near to the
ear. When this is noticed, it can then be gathered up and stored,
till the time comes when, the crop being over, it is passed through a
a machine for fanning out all dust and leaves, and then bagged
ready for shipment.
The average production of pimento is about 50,0010 to 60,000 bags
of about 1501bs. weight per annum foi the whole island. It is always
sold in the island by the 1001bs., and the average price for the past
five years has been about 15' per 1001bs. Whe have known pimento
during the last twenty" years as high as 40s. per 1001bs.. and for a
good many years 25 to 28/ ruled as the value. Plantation pimento
will of course always fetch a higher price than settlers produce, owing
to the quality being superior-not from any fault on the part of the
spice itself, but from the careless manner of curing on the part of the
settlers as a rule St. Ann is the principal pimento growing parish
in the island, but St. Elizabeth, St Mary, Trelawny and Manchester
produce large quantities also "-Adam Roxburgh.
RAMIE -" Ramie is the Malay name for the variety native in the Malay
..rchipeligo, which is greenish on both sides of the leaf. It has been
cultivated in Assim for long periods, and is there known as Rhea.
This variety is distinguished by the name tenaci6ima. The variety
with the whitish underside of the leaves Inivea) is a native' of China,
and has been conveniently designated the Chinese White Nettle.
The fibre prepared from it, and imported into England, is known
under the inappropriate name. of China Grass
China grass fible generally obtains double the price in London of
Rhea. Some writers state that the variety tenacissima produces the
strongest fibre *. Ramie in virtue of its quality has a wide
range of affinity with other fibres, though it is not perfectly similar
to any -f them. This explains why its experimental applications
cover such a wide field. It has been actually tried as a substitute
for cotton, hemp, flax, wool and silk *. All the information
obtainable tends to prove that not only will Ramie grow freely in a
great part of Jamaica, but that it is a plant which is well suited for
cultivation by planters and small settlers alike, especially by the
latter, as it requires but little original outlay, yields a quick return,
and the only process which has to be carried out on the spot, retting,








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


is very simple. With good soil, and moderate rainfall, or irrigation,
Ramie will in Jamaica produce four or five cuttings a year It is a
plant, that if grown thickly, needs little or no weeding; and if the
waste liquid from the retting process and the leaves are returned to
the ground, but little manuring will be necessary on fairly good
land. Hitherto, the only obstacle in the way of its successful culti-
vation on a commercial basis has been the lack of a machine able to
treat its fibre expedlitiously."-Bulletin :f the Botanical Department.
SISAL FHEMP. -The Sisal Hemp is admirably suited for growing in hot,
dry places, it requires little cultivation and seems to thrive in any
poor, rocky soil.
SUGAR -" Estates in Jamaica have been gradually decreasing for a
number of years and at the present moment the whole industry is
threatened with total extinction, although considerable advances
have been made of late years in the way of improved cultivation
and manufacture, still they are far behind in the march of progress.
There are few estates that can turn out a cask of produce, that is
one hhd. of 2,2401bs Muscovado sugar and a puncheon of 100 gallons
Rum, under 10 sterling per cask. Some run as high as 12 or
even :15 per cask, but can only pay their way by having such
auxilliaries as logwood, pimento, cocoanuts. etc., or by making a rum
of high quality netting 20 to 30 per puncheon. Since the passing
of the 1894 Tariff Law in tle U.S.A., sugar of 89 polariseope test is
only worth about 8 l0s. per ton, while commonrums in London are
at present netting 8 per puncheon. The great question of establish-
ing central factories has been long talked of, but as yet nothing
has been done It is now high time that steps were taken in this
matter. Nearly all estates as they now stand are too small to pay
the cost of new buildings and heavy expensive plant such as a cen-
tral factory would have."- A Sugar Planter.
TEA.-" The plant grows very well in the West Indies, but as yet it has
not become an article of export from these countries, nor has it been
produced in sufficient quantity to supply local wants. Mr.
Morris says, in regard to Jamaica. 'for the hills, the tea plants
already established here, being the Chinese kind. are admirably
suited ; but for the parish of Portland, with its warm, moist climate,
and splendid rich valleys, the Assam kind appears to be more suit-
able.' There are about twenty to thirty acres of tea established for
some years in Jamaica, and small quantities of produce have been
prepared of excellent quality."-Dr. Nicholls.
TOBAcco. -The cultivation of tobacco is practically confined to the
parishes of St Andrew and St. Catherine where it is in the hands of
Cubans.
A prize of fifty guineas, recently offered by the London Chamber
of Commerce for the best sample of tobacco grown in the British
Empire of 4001bs. weight, was divided between Jamaica and North
Borneo.
VINE CULTURE. -"The climate and most of the 'soil of the lowlands of
Jamaica are all that can be desired for the production of the finest
quality of table-grapes. If the vine is planted in a deep well-drained
loamy soil, trenched from two to three feet deep, well supplied with
manure and water at the proper time, proper attention with regard







AGRICULTURE. 29

to pruning, disbudding and thinning is all that is needed to produce
good fruit Too much light and sun cannot be given to vines in
any stage; the least shade is most injurious to them.
Cuttings of all the best English varieties of vines can be obtained
from the Department of Public Gardens and Plantations in the
spring of the year. By planting the proper varieties of vines, grapes
can he had most of the year through. Vines will not stand early
cropping any more in Jamaica, than they will in other countries.
Care must be taken not to crop the vine before it is from four to five
years old.
Arbours must be used to grow the vines on, as they make such
vigorous growth: for the first three years the vines can be run on
good strong poles.
There are some very fine vines about the island and some big
crops are produced."- Win. J. Thompson.

(b.) CULTIVATION.
Returns published by the Revenue Department for the year ending
31st July. 1894, and compiled from in-givings made by taxpayers
under the provisions of Laws 26 of 1868 and 17 of 1890, show the
acreage alienated from the Crown and vestcd in individuals or Trusts
as 1,976,546 acres. Of these 1,284-477 acres or 65 per cent. are re-
turned as being in wood and ruinate, [i.e. land thrown up, out of
cultivation], And 692,069 acres as under care and cultivation. This
latter acreage may in its turn be divided into land appropriated into
pastoral purposes and that devoted to agriculture in the more limited
application of the term, 510,774 acres or just under 74 per cent. of
the whole being grazing lands and 181,295 acres of lands which have
been subjected to tillage. Of the tilled lands 31,284 acres or 17 per
cent. are under cultivation of sugar cane, and, besides providing
for home consumption, the products of this crop exported during the
year ended 31st March, 1895, were:-Sugar, 398.683 cwt., valued
at 239,210. Rum, 1,956,291 gals valued at 187,477.
The area in cultivation of coffee is given as 23.523 acres or 12 per
cent of the crop lands, and the exports of the berry amounted to
95,129 cwt., valued at 356,734. Next in extent is the area in
bananas which is shown at 18,528 acres, the output of this frui
reaching the considerable total of 4,678,761 bunches, valued at
428,886. Cocoanut palms are shown to cover an area of 10,39
acres, the Export Table giving the shipments at 10,143,500 nuts5
valued at 36,770. The only other specific cultivation covering any,
appreciable area, with the exception of Ground Provisions which
cover an area of 95,177 acres, is that of cacao which is returned as
1,554 acres, the exports being 9,333 cwt., valued at 20,534.










ACUIIAtUK UNDER CULTIVATION, 1893-94.



Parish. "6 6
AI Z u. .


Kingston lii ...
St. Andrew II I.0ti1 1,'59 3.:76 .. 271 1 il 88
St. Thomas 2 C54 2.2241 2,087 2, ... ... ... 235
Portland 2.2 3,229 211 ... ... 2 ... ... 71
St. Mary ,018 91,274 111 1.252 8 1 91
St. Ann 381 6i34 1,6i7 1,888 i ... ... 20
Trelaway 165 l4 5.289 28t3 7 I 2 ... 1 2
St. Jame 27 25 3,594 111 20 ... I ... 1
Hanover 30"5 1 2,0 ... ... ... ...
Westmoreland 7 2 .5,0 e IB 1 ... 1 ...
St. Elizabeth 4 1 552 1,274 2 ... 248 ... 4
Manchester 5 ... 71: 6,287 25 ... ...
Clarendon 2fl 522 5,65i8 ,425 2 .. 14 ...
St. Catherine 14 i14 3,l16 2,6 4 .. 71 ... 71 140
Total (10,3951 18.,28 '1,284 128 2:1 128 7 421 I 241 1,554


I 1



2 ... 12, 866 1,1637
9 ; 664 '3 5 12,068 26.80l

7.045 1,.115 17,8S8 Iio..is

2 6,:10 !-4 17,47.5 31,250

4 8,185 4,620 5.(iB50 li:l,571
3 10,208 -25,8!l9 162,980 103:1,758
I 8,686 16,106 26i,2i9 51)"i,50
:.13,11 7,82N .0,132 lf.291;

5,848 7,596. 26.926 42.805
6.177 9,911 44,295 14,852




2 10,249 61,;71 24.3881 50.9b7

1 13,21i8 14 83i 83.007 698.072
86 45.177 125.:172 4.8i4 (ill oi








AGRICULTURE. 31

(c) AottCULTrURAa HOLDINGS.
The summary of the Agricultural Holdings brought under collec-
tion in the year ended 31st July. 1894, shows that there were 73,606
Holdings not exceeding 5 acres in extent:
9,380 between 5 and 10 acres
4,973 10 and 20 "
2,788 20 and 50
929 50 and 100
61. 100 and 200 "
619!l 200 and 500
302 500 and 800
144 800 and 1,000 '
216 1,00 and 1,500
258 excehding 1.500
(d.) CROWN LANDS.
The lands belonging ty the Government in the island are in the
hands and under the control of the Surveyor General. Freeholds
and leases of lands are put up to public auction from time to time.
Small quantities of land, from 5 to 50 acres in extent, are offered for
sale and at from 5; per acre, upwards, to small settlers; the payment
being spread over ten years. During recent years 26.504 acres have
been reclaimed from squatters. .nler the Railway Law, at present
30 % square miles have been assigned to the Railway Company.
The following table shows the Government lands that are under
lease; those that are unoccupied, and the parishes in which they
are situated:-

Governmeni Government
Parsh. land land under Unpatented Totals.
unoccupied. lease to vari- Land.
oun- ersons.
Acres. Ac'e-. Acres. Acres.
Kingston I 1.200 1,2161
St. Andrew 1,639 44 1.6831
S T'li'om:s -I 15.787 943 16.7301
Portland 22,1 lb 3.5 71 2.170 28559
St. Mary -i 1,32 14 220 1,616
St. Ann 600 157 4.660 5,417
Trelawny i 17,710 17,200 34,910
St. James 917 40o 1 700 2,197
Westmoreland b I 300
St. Elizabeth 49 10 Io.I00o 10.659
Manchester -
Clarendon 217 IS 7.300 8.598
St C1atherine 6,153 i.86a 6.764 14,780
Grand Totals -I 66,7651 9,286, 50.114 126,666

The Survey Branch has prepared cadastral plans, on a scale of
four inches to one mile, for the use of the collectors of taxes of all
the parishes of the island. I'hese plans represent every property
and parcel of land from ten acres and upwards, and show correctly
their extent, area, boundaries and names, as well as the names of the
owners ; also the roads, rivers and other topographical details.








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

(e.) DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC GARDENS AND PLANTATIONS.
This Department has charge of the following establishments:-
I The Botanic Garden, Custleton, in the parish of St. Mary on the
road connecting Kingston with Annotto Bay, nineteen miles from
Kingston and eleven from Annotto Bay, contains a large collection
of tropical plants. The chief features are the palmetum and a col-
lection of economic, spice and fruit trees. Elevation 580 feet. An-
nual mean temperature 76.2Q Fah. Average annual rainfall 114.96
inch.
2. The Hill Gardens, in the parish of St. Andrew on the slopes of
the Blue Mountains, about 20 miles from Kingston, by way of Gor-
don Town, lie in the centre of an immense district shortly to be
opened up by means of driving roads.
The Garden was first established by Sir J. P. Grant for experiments
with Cinchona, which was so successfully grown that the Govern-
ment realized about 17,000 by the sale of bark, until the price fell
in consequence of the extensive plantations in India, Ceylon and
Java.
Vegetables have also been grown, and instruction given in their
cultivation, so that hley are now produced in large quantities by all
the settlers round.
There is a nursery for timber trees, and an experimental Orange
Garden has lately been established at about 3,700 feet.
Olives, Fruit trees and Tea have been planted: Fodder plants
grown; experiments made with the variety of Ramie known as
China Grass, and other plants of economic interest, all of which will
probably be largely cultivated when the driving roads are completed.
Elevation, 3,500 to 6,300 feet Annual mean temperature at 4,907
feet, 62.70 Fah. Average rainfall 105.31 inch.
3. The Hope Garden, near the foot of the hills in the Liguanea
Plains, 5 miles from Kingston, consists of about 220 acres. The
inner portion is being laid out as a Geographical Botanical Garden.
There are large nurseries containing about 70,000 plants, such as
cacao, rubber plants, nutmeg, clove, orange, mango, vanilla, carda-
mom, sarsaparilla, cinnamon, Liberian coffee, etc. Elevation 600 feet.
Annual n.ean temperature 7704 Fah. Average rainfall 52.55 inch
4. Kingston Parade Garden, the'public pleasure garden of Kingston,
is kept up with shade and ornamental trees, flowering plants, tanks
and fountains. Elevation 60 feet. Annual mean temperature 79;
Fah. Average rainfall 36.39 inch.
5 Botanic Garden at Bath, is the old Botanic Garden of the Colony,
established in 1774; it is still maintained for the sake of its valuable
trees and palms, though much reduced in size. Elevation 170 feet.
Temperature 78' Fah-
6. King's House Garden and Grounds, 4 miles from Kingston, con-
tain about 177 acres, of which about 20 acres are kept up as an
ornamental garden attached to the official residence of the Governor.
Many valuable economic plants and fruit trees are also under culti-
vation, as well as the rarer tropical palms and orchids. Elevation
400 feet. Annual mean temperature 78.7 Fah. Average rainfall
48.51 inch.









AGRICULTURE.


(f. MARKETS.
There are markets in the following towns in Jamaica. T ey are
according to parishes:-
Portland-Port Antonio and Buff Bay ; St Thomas- Morant Ha. ;
St. Andrew-Halfway Tree ; Kingston-Kingston iVictoia Market
and Jubilee Market), and Port Royal: St .ary -Port Maria and
Annotto Bay; St. Ann-St. Ann's Bay, Claremnt, Moneague,
Brown's Town and Oeho Rios: St. Catherine--Spanish Town, Lin-
stead and Old Harbour: Clarendon-Chapelton, May Pen, Four
Paths, The Rest, The Alley and Hayes; Manchester-Mandeville and
Porus (two), Newport and Devon; Trelawny--Falmouth; Hanover-
Lucea, Green Island and Sandy Bay: St. James-Montego Bay;
St. Elizabeth--Black River, Malvern, Lacovia, Santa Cruz, Shaws
and Mountain Side; Westmoreland-Savannah-la-Mar.
(g.) PRICE OF PROVISIONS, &C.
The following are the average prices at which articles of food. &c.
are sold in the island:-
I. MEAT AND FISH, PER LB.
Beef (fresh or salt), 6d. Mutton, Is. Goats' Flesh, 6d. Pork
(fresh), 9d. Pork (salt), 74d. Turtle. 6d Ham, Is. Gd. Salmon,
7d. Fish (fresh). 6d. Fish (salt), 3d. and 6d. Shads, 4d. Herring.
3d. Mackerel, 4'd.
I1. POULTRY.
Chickens and fowls. 6d to 9d. per lb. Duck. 5s. to 7s. per pair.
Game according to size, Is. to 2s a brace. Pigeons, Is. 6d. a pair.
Turkeys, Is. per lh.
III. VEGETABLES, &C.
Ackee, 1 to 3d. per dozen.
Artichokes, according to size, from 9d. to 1 / a piece.
Bananar. 6d to 1/ per bnnch. according to size.
Cabbage, 31 to G/ a dozen.
Cassava, 6/ to 8/ per cwt.
Chocho, 3d. to 6d. per dozen.
Cacao, 81 to 10/ per cwt.
Garden Eggs, 9d. or 1/ per dozen.
Onions, 3d. to 6d. per lb.
Plantains, 4'6 to 6; per hundred.
Potatoes (American), 2d. to 4d. per lb,
Pumpkins, 3/ to 4/ per cwt.
Sweet Potatoes, 3d. per Ib.
Yam (Guinea), 7! to 15/ per cwt.
(Indian), 8/ to 10/ "
(Negro), 5/ to 12 "
(White), 7! to 15/ "
(Yellow), 6/ to 13/ "
Turnip, Beet Root. Carrot, Cdlery, Indian Kale. Leeks, Lettuce,
Parsley, Radish, Sage, Scallion, Sweet Marjoram, Thyme
and Water Cress, are sold in small bundles from 1% to 3d.
each.
Cucumbers, Jerusalem Artichokes, Tomatoes, Ochroes and
Peppers are sold in bundles or by heaps.








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


iv. FRUITS.
Avocado Pears I/ :per dozen. Mammee 9d. a dozen
Banana (ripe) 3d. Mammee Sapota 9d.
Bilberry 9d. per quart Mangoes 3d.
Blackberry 9d. Melon (Musk and
Breadfruit /! per dozen. Water) 3 to 6/ a doz.
Cashew roasted 1; per quart. Naseberry -6d. per doz.
Cherrimoyer Oranges (China and
Citron | Tangerine) 3d. to 6d. "
Cocoanuts I! per dozen. Papaw 3d. each
(water and I Pine Apple, accord-
dry) J ing to size 3tofi/perdox.
Creole or Sour Plums, (Spanish) 1h d. per heap
Apples 6d. Pomegranates 1/ per dozer
Custard Apple 1/ Prickly Pears -3d.
Forbidden Fruit 6d. "' Rose Apples 1 "
Ginep, (a bunch of Shaddok 2/
about 100) 1 Star Apple 6d. "
Ginger 1 per lb. Strawberry 1/6 per quart
Grandidilla, Sugar Canes 1/ er bundle
according to of 16 or 20, A feet long
size 3d.to6d.each Sweet Cup 1 a heap
Grapes. black l1 per lb. Sweet Gourd or
white 1/3 Squash -3d. each
S sea side 14d. a heap Sweet Lemon 3d. per doz.
Guava Id. a dozen Sweet Sop 6d.
Jackfruit 6d. to / each Tamarinds -3d. a heap
Limes 1 per doz. Wanglow in full season 6d. a qt ; out
Locust 1%d. a heap of season 1/3 per quart


v. GROCERIES,


Arrowroot 6d. per qt.
Bread 3d. per lb.
Butter 2/ 1/6 and 1/3
per lb.
Candles 9d. per lb.
Cheese (Ameri-
can) I/ per lb
Cheese (En-
glish) 1/6 per lb.
Rice, (brown) 3d. per qt.
'" (white) 4d. per qt.
Sago 3d. per lb.
Sugar, (brown) 2d.
S(white) 4d. "
Salt 1 d. perqt.
Tea 3/& 4/ per lb.
Vermicelli 9d.
Vinegar 6d per qt.
Anotta 43d. per qt
Black Betty 6d.


Coffee 1/ per lb.
Flour (white) 2d. per qt.
Lard 6d. per lb.
Matches 4d. per doz.
Oatmeal 4d. per lb.
Oil (Cocoanut) 1/ per qt.
" (Kerosine 4Xd. per qt.
Beans, (broad) 6d. per qt.
"(French) in pods.
(Sugar) 6d. per qt.
Corn at 4/ per
bushel, 2d. per qt.
Ground-nuts 3d. per qt.
Peas, Black Eye 4%d. per qt.
" Gongo 6d.
" Quick Increase 7% d. "
" Red 6d.
" Rounceval 6d.
" Split 3d.








AGRICULTURE.


(h.) COST OF LABOUR.
The working hours in the neighbourhood of Kingston and Spanish
Town are from 6 a.m. to 5 p m., with one hour for breakfast, be-
tween LL and 12 o'clock. On Saturdays from 6a im. to 11 a.m.
In the country the hours vary considerably. but as a rule they are
from 7 a.m. to 4 p.m. with one hour for breakfast; and the people
seldom turn out to work on Saturdays.
The average rate of wazes paid about Kingston and Spanish
Town under ordinary circumstances is given below.
DAY-WORK.
Fitters (scarce but not in much demand) 5s. to 6. per day
Masons and Bricklayers 3s. to 4s. per day
Carpenters and Joiners 2s 9d. to :s per day
Painters 2s. 3d. to :s. per day
Blacksmiths 2s. 6d. to 4s. per day
Labourers Is. 6d. to 2s. per day
Women 9d. to Is. per day
Hire of mule and cart (or dray) with driver 4s. 6d. to 5s. per day
Ditto ditto, with two mules 7s. per day
TASK WORK LABOUR ONLY.
Ordinary Brickwork 5s. 3d. to 7s. 9d. per cubic
yard
Rubble Walling in Mortar 5s to 7s. per cubic yard
Dry Stone Walling Is. to Is. 3d. per cubic
yard
Shingling 3s 6d. per square of 100
feet
Painting per coa I. d. to 1%d. per sup. yard
Whitewashing Walls, per coat d1. to kd. per sup. yard
Cartage (hired) including all charges Is. to is 6d. per ton per
mile
Cartage when done by owner of stock 6(. to 9d. per ton per mile
Mixing Cement concrete and putting
in position 2s. to 2s. 6d. per cubic yd.
Cutting Cord-wood Is. 6d. to 2s. per cord
Cutting Grass 2s. 6d. to 3s. per 100
bundles of 281bs. each
Fencing Stake and Rail 3s ld. to 5s. per chain
Wire fencing 2s. 6d. to 4s. per chain
Penguin Fencing 2s. 6d. to 4s. per chain
Digging Stumps 2s. to 3s. per 100
Cleaning Ruinate Land 10s. to 20s per acre
Cleaning Commons and Grass Pieces Is. 6d. to 4s. per acre
Excavating and throwing out earth 4d to 9d. per cubic yard
Ditto d.tto and removing to a distance
not exceeding 80 yards 9d.to Is. 6d per ubic
Excavating Rock, including Blasting
Material 3 s. to s. per cubic yard
Drilling, Blasting and Quarrying Rock 2d. to 4d. per lineal foot
Breaking Road Metal Is. 3d to Is. 9d. per
cubic yards
Making and Burning Bricks including
cost of Wood 22s. 6d. to 30s. per I,000







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

Water tanks constructed of stone and rendered or the inside with
cement, cost from I% d. to 3d. per gallon-including cost of labour
and of all materials.
Shoeing horses and mules 2s. to 2s. 6d. per month, each, including
shoes and nails.
Day-labour rates are lower in the country districts, but after
making allowance for shorter hours the rates remain practically the
same for town and country. I:i some parts, artizaus are very scarce
and are getting scarcer every year, and inferior men have to be em-
ployed at town prices.
On a rough average, lalbur costs from 50 to 100 ler cent. more in
in Jamaica than in England To mention one instance, good brick-
work costs 8/ per cubic yard in Jamaica and only 3,6 for similar
work in England.
Labourers make good navvies after a little practice, and the wo-
men work well by task.
The Government, so far, have experienced no difficulty in getting
all the labour required for public works; but in some districts there
is great scarcity of labour for sugar estates and for banana culti-
vation.
Wages have an upward tendency, especially in the fruit growing
parishes.
The foregoing prices are only approximate and do not refer to
work on estates where the prices paid are somewhat lower.
Domestic service is cheaper in the country than in town. It varies
as follows: -Cook 5' to 8/ a week; cleaner (housemaid) 4/ to 6/;
butler (parloul maid) 4; to 7/; nurse 4/ to 6/; coachman or groom
5/ to 12/. With the exception of nurses, servants provide their own
food.


VI. FISHERIES.
There is a large supply of wholesome food-fishes around the shores
of Jamaica. Although the industry has up till now never been
developed -the boats and gear used being very primative in charac-
ter-good livelihoods are gained by numerous fishermen along the
coast. The fish caught finds a ready sale at the various markets in
the coastal towns, and it is also carried inland for sale
The rivers of Jamaica also supply good food-fishes.


VII. ARTICLED PUPILS IN FARMING AND PLANTING.
Jamaia offers numerous favourable openings for young men
from Great Britain and other European countries with small capitals
(say from 2,000 to 3,000) and some experience in farming, who
wish to adopt an agricultural career. But many are deterred by
the knowledge that to start farming or planting without some pre-
liminary experience of the country and of the conditions under
which agricultural pursuits are carried on, is to couit disaster.







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

Water tanks constructed of stone and rendered or the inside with
cement, cost from I% d. to 3d. per gallon-including cost of labour
and of all materials.
Shoeing horses and mules 2s. to 2s. 6d. per month, each, including
shoes and nails.
Day-labour rates are lower in the country districts, but after
making allowance for shorter hours the rates remain practically the
same for town and country. I:i some parts, artizaus are very scarce
and are getting scarcer every year, and inferior men have to be em-
ployed at town prices.
On a rough average, lalbur costs from 50 to 100 ler cent. more in
in Jamaica than in England To mention one instance, good brick-
work costs 8/ per cubic yard in Jamaica and only 3,6 for similar
work in England.
Labourers make good navvies after a little practice, and the wo-
men work well by task.
The Government, so far, have experienced no difficulty in getting
all the labour required for public works; but in some districts there
is great scarcity of labour for sugar estates and for banana culti-
vation.
Wages have an upward tendency, especially in the fruit growing
parishes.
The foregoing prices are only approximate and do not refer to
work on estates where the prices paid are somewhat lower.
Domestic service is cheaper in the country than in town. It varies
as follows: -Cook 5' to 8/ a week; cleaner (housemaid) 4/ to 6/;
butler (parloul maid) 4; to 7/; nurse 4/ to 6/; coachman or groom
5/ to 12/. With the exception of nurses, servants provide their own
food.


VI. FISHERIES.
There is a large supply of wholesome food-fishes around the shores
of Jamaica. Although the industry has up till now never been
developed -the boats and gear used being very primative in charac-
ter-good livelihoods are gained by numerous fishermen along the
coast. The fish caught finds a ready sale at the various markets in
the coastal towns, and it is also carried inland for sale
The rivers of Jamaica also supply good food-fishes.


VII. ARTICLED PUPILS IN FARMING AND PLANTING.
Jamaia offers numerous favourable openings for young men
from Great Britain and other European countries with small capitals
(say from 2,000 to 3,000) and some experience in farming, who
wish to adopt an agricultural career. But many are deterred by
the knowledge that to start farming or planting without some pre-
liminary experience of the country and of the conditions under
which agricultural pursuits are carried on, is to couit disaster.








ARTICLE PUPILS.


The Governcrs of the Institute of Jamaica, having come to the
conclusion from representations made to them that it is desirable
to take some steps to bring about a means of communication between
those planters and penkeepers who are willing to receive yonng men
as articled pupils, and intending emigrants from Great Britain and
elsewhere, have prepared a register of such planters and penkeepers
as are willing to take pupils; but it must be distinctly understood
that they can accept no responsibility at all in the matter, and can
only circulate copies of the precis of the replies received from
planters, from which enquirers must draw their own deductions.
A form of agreement which it is thought might prove of service has
been prepared, but the use of it is of course optional
Pupils must also communicate direct with the planters and pen-
keepers with respect to terms, etc., and it is suggested that some
friend should if possible be asked to visit the property on behalf of
the pupils.
The following schedule, which has been compiled from the replies,
alludedto above, hitherto received from the planters and penkeepers,
shows (i.) the nature of the properties (ii.) the districts in which
they are situated, (iii.) the premium required, fiv.) some indication
of the kind of home and surroundings the pupils might expect, and
(v ) the work they would have to perform, and the instruction they
would receive. Copies of this schedule can be obtained on applica-
tion to the Institute. The Secretary will also be pleased to hear
from any planters or penkeepers who wish to have their names added
to the register.



DRAFT AGREEMENT.
This agreement made this day of between
A of in the parish of Jamaica,
and B of in
WITNESSETH
That in consideration of the sum of to be paid quarterly
by the said B to the said A the latter agrees
to receive, instruct and take care of the former for the period of
years; and to do all in his power to enable B
to acquire a full and thorough knowledge of the business of
The said B undertakes to serve the said A
diligently and to behave himself properly for the period named and
to use his best endeavours to acquire instruction and to assist fairly
the said A in the working of his industry.
The Schedule hereto attached is to be regarded as part of this
agreement.
Any difference that may occur between the parties hereto to be
settled by arbitration in the usual way.
This agreement to come into effect on the day on which the said
B takes up his residence with the said A.
Signed by the parties hereto in the presence of









HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA-

Precis of Replies received jrom


Name. Property and
Parish.




I Charles Low Ballards Valley,
Walker Hampstead,
P.O., St. Mary


II. Hon. John Prin-
gle. M.D.





















III. Arthur Town-
end fof Devon-
shire, England)


Eleva
tion
above
sealevel.



41 0 ft.


Agualta Vale. An-: 90 to
notto Ray P.O.. 1000
St. Mary
[Twelve different
Properties ]


Pantrepant. Fal-
mouth P.O.
Trelawny [and
Blenheim and
Devonside in
St. Ann]


General Penkeep-
ing, Cattle. Log.
wood & Banana
cultivation.









Fr u i t growing,
Cane growing,
Cattle, Horse,
Mule and Sheep
rearing. Log-
wood and Pimen-
to growing,
Cocoa, Nutmegs,
&c.


50 Banana. Coco a.
Cocanuts. &c.,
SPenkeeping i n
all branches.


38


1


2 sober
and well
educated
Gentlemen
about 21
years.

















1


-~---------


Cultivation. I oo
pupil..









ARTICLED PUPILS 39

ARTICLED PUPILS SCHEME.

Planters and Penkeepers.



Premium re- Work Pupil would General Remarks as to
quired and Term he required to Instruction Pupil I accommodation.*
,f Engagement. perform. would receive Sports, Clothing to be
brought, ac.


No premium re-
quired if pupil
energetic and
indu-t r i o s
and willing to
- learn business.


No premium re
qu red. Would
afler a month
-tart them. if
intelligent a t
w25 to :i ;i
week.


Looking after'
C a tt I e, Mules,
Sheep, pigs chip-
ping and delivery
of Logwood and
Banana cultiva-
tion.


Must purchase his own
Pupil will he in- horse-stabling and
-tructed by own- forage free-Boy on
Cr. Pen will attend to
him gene rally-
Shooting-no linen
and plate. &c., re-
quired-light, cool
outfit-t h i c k soled
Bo o t s-Waterproof
Cloak-Saddle and
Bridle-P i t h Hat.
large brim.


The various works Furnished residence on
connected with Daily a- much as each Property-
the above indus- one cold take in. would be in his own
tries. nearly all Have two already home-must have his
of which are car- ,, above footing- horse, but there are
ried on in each \Vould have to be riding mules on the
itac,, gentlemen whm estates-must supply
owner could in his own servant, for
viteto hi- house whom plenty of ac-
Son Saturdays and commod'atio n.
Stndays. Tennis. Must supply
a limited amount of
line n. Top-boots,
stout Waterproof
Cloak-Tweed an d
Wio o .1 en Suits-
Saddle and Bridle.
One educated in
Agricultural College,
and with a know-
ledge of Veterinary
Surgery or Survey-
ing required.


100 perannum To help owner to How to plant and Must supply his own
for 3 years. supervise work cultivate B a n a horse-fodder a n d
done, and count nas, Cocoa, Cof- stabling found, but
Cattle, S h e p, f e e, Cocoanuts, not corn-Boy will
Ac. &c., and Penkeep- be supplied-Shoot-
ing in all its bran- ing, Fishing, Boat-
ches; also rudi- ing-no linen, &c ,
mentary agricul- required-light
tural chemistry. need Suits-Flan-

Suitable pupils will be treated as members of the family in all cases; but
medical attendance must be paid for, if needed, unless otherwise stated.









HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

INSTITUTE PF JAMAICA.-

Precis of Replies received from


N:nie.


Property and
Parish.


III. Arthur Townend ...
(of Devonshire.
England), contd'






IV- Alexander Scott The spring Dun-.
nan P. O. Tre-;
lawn I







V. Jame' Francis Cedar H .; rs t,
Portland. Gor-
don Town P.O.,


Eleva-
tion
above
sea level.


Cultivation.


No. of
Pupils.


100 Banana. Canecul- 1
tivarion and Pen-
keeping combined

\V


2 IO


VI. J. O. Masou Lennox .Buff Bay 15ol
P. 0., Portland


Coffee, Cocoa, I or
Orange. Banana,
and Kola in the
near future












Banana. Cocoa
and Nutmeg


I-------


_____~_~_ ___
...









ARTICLED PUPILS.


ARTICLE PUPILS SCHEME.

Planters ani Penkeepers, continued.


Premium re
quired and Term
of Engagement.


Work Pupil would General Remarks as to
be required to Instruction Pupil accommodation,*
n~r~nwn wlid frgiv ,ports. Clothing to be


50. Half year Supervising the
or 7 months. I above mentioned
cultivation.







60 per annum Supervision of
Work-but to be
willing to learn
a 1 1 branches of
work-not to be
above showing a
man how to plant
a tree.


100 per annum
for two year


Superintend la-
bourers, write up
Estate Books, &c.


r------


Instruction in cul-
tivation of Ba-
nanas, Cocoas and
Nutmegs.


Must supply his own
horse and boy-sta-
bl i n g, forage and
room for boy found-
fishing and shoot-
ing-Linen, &c. will
be provided-Light
Woollen Clothing-
thick Boots- Saddle
and Bridle.


*Suitable pupils would be treated as members of 'the family in all cases, but
medical attendance must be paid for, if needed, unless otherwise stated.


brought, &c.



nels, good thick soled
Boots. If Pupil is
apt and steady
would put him in
ch large of Pantre-
pant, o ver 2,300
acres,and pay salary
before his term is
up,
Daily instruction Must supply his own
horse-fodder and
stabling found-Boy
must be found by
Pupil, but would be
accommodated-
Cricket-must bring
linen, &c.-c o ol
clot hin g-thick
boots.

General instruc- Pupil must supply his
tion in all the own horse-stabling
branches of work and pasture free-
upon a Coffee attendance of Boy
Plantation, from would be supplied-
the.nursery beds no sports near ex-
to the curing and cept fishing-could
shipping of pro- collect Ferns and
duce-same with other Botanical spe-
other industries. mens-l i n e n, &c.,
would be supplied-
Woollen clothing-
thick Boots, Water
proof Cloak. A
Christian youth pre-
ferred.









HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


INSTITUTE OP JAMAICA.-

Precis of eplies received from


Name.


Eleva-
Property and tion
Parish. above
sealeveL


Cultivation.


VII. J. Taylor Dom Running G u t, 100 Sugar Plantation 1
ville Little River P.O.,
St. James











VIII. Beresford S. Farm Hill, Hagley 4000 Coffee Planting 1
Gosset G a p P.O., St.
Thomas; [also
Halberstadt i n
St. David's ard
Ayton and Port-
land Gap in Port-
land.]









IX. John R. Scarlett Worthy P a r k, 1150 Cane growing and 1
Ewarton P.O.. manufacture of
St. Catherine i Sugar and Rum,
[also Swansea C co a, Coffee,
St. Catherine.] Breeding of Cat-
tle


No. of
Pupils.








ARTICLED PUPILS 43

ARTICLED PUPILS SCHEME.

Planters and Penkeers, continued.



Premium re- Work Pupil would General remarks as to
quired and Term be required to Instruction Pupil accommodation,*
of Engagement. perform, would receive Sports, Clothing to be
brought, &c.


150 per annum Necessary duties How to carry on Must supply his own
in carrying on a a Sugar Planta- horse and boy,should
Sugar Plantatiou. tion, he require one-sta-
bling, fo r a g e and
quarters for boy
found-next to no
sports-Linen, &c,,
would be supplied-
good stock of cloth-
ing. Saddle and Bri-
dle. Pupil should
be steady and indus-
trious.


100 per annum Assist in manage- Instruction i n Must supply his own
for 2 years, men of Coff ee Coffee plantingin corn and boy-pas-
payable quar- Fields, Works and i a 1 I its branches turage found, als o
t e r y in ad- Stock-keep Plan-' preparing Coffee quartersfortheboy-
vance. station Books and for Market. keep- i no sport-no linen,
Accounts, Survey- i n g Plantation I &c., required-good
ing and laying Books and Ac outfit-Saddle and
out ro a d s for counts. &c. Bridle- Waterproof
Plantation pur- Cloak.
poses, c a r e of
Stock, Pastures.
&c.





70 per anuum To ride around As in the forego- Must supply his own
for 3 years with myself or ing paragraph. horse and boy-sta-
my book-keepers bling and forage
to see the gene f o u n d-Cricket or
ral management Tennis-Music with
and mode of cul- my family when nat
tivation; to assist at work-must sup-
in m a k i n g up ply his own bed linen
books and paying -good o u fi t of
money. woollen clothing-
Waterproof Cloak--
thick soled Boots.


Suitable pupils would be treated ac members of the family in all cases; but
medical attendance must be paid for, if needed, unless otherwise stated.









HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


Name.


Property and
Parish.


--~I-- --'I I ~


K. Thomas
Sharpe


Hicks


XI. Edward Pratt


Eltham Park,
Spanish Town
P.O.. St. Cather-
ine; [also Dove
Hall and S a I
Island in St. Ca-
therine ; May
P e n, Roden's,
Longvill e,
Sheckles Pen
and several oth-
ersin Clarendon]


Malvern Park, St


Malvern Park, St.
Ann's Bay P.O.,
[a n d Mammee
Bay, St. Ann.]


INSTITUTE OF JAMAIOA.-

Precis of Replies received from


Eleva-
tion Cultivation. No. of
above Pupils.
sealevel.


500 ft.


On Sea
Coast.


-Banana, S u gar
Cane, Orange
business, Fruit
and Vegetables,
Produce Dealers,
Wharfi n g e r s,
Dye Wood Deal-
ers. Stock Cat-
tle Dealers.


Breeding and rear-
ing of Cattle,
Horses and
Mules. Cultiva.
tion of Cocoa-
nuts, Bananas
and smaller pre-
ducts for the
American Mar-
ket.


2









ARTICLED PUPILS. 45

ARTICLE PUPILS SCHEME.

Planters and Penkeepers, continued.


Premium re- Work Pupil would
quire d a 'leerm -be required to Instruction Pupil
of Engagement. perform. would receive.
of EnggemenI


1st 3 mths. 20
2nd nil
3rd will
pay 10 and
board.
4th 3 months
will pay 15
and board.


General Assistant Generalknowledge
in eightdifferent in agriculture
lines of business. and dealing, fruit
gr o wi n g, &c.
Practical lessons
will be given.


50 per annum General Supervi-
for 2 years. sion.


Would vary ac-
cording to the
work.


SSuitable Pupils would be treated as members of the family in all cases; but
medical attendance must be paid for ,if needed, unless otherwise stated.


General remarks as to
accommodation,*
Sports, Clothing to be
brought, &c.


Pupil would be furnish-
ed with horse and for-
age at 5 perquarter
extra-would be al-
lowed to keep aboy-
Shooting and Fish-
ing-should b r i n g
good outfit, strong
Boots, Saddle an d
Bridle, Gun. Owner
has now about 15
responsible Agents
in his employment.
Pupil must be sober,
honest, understand
Book-keeping, write
a fair hand, not
older than 22or
younger than 18
years. After 3
months would be al-
lowed to select which
branch of the busi-
ness he preferred.
Must be single.
Special advantages
to apt pupils.



Must supply his own
horse and boy-For-
age (corn and oats
excepted) and ac-
commodation for boy
supplied. Fishing
shooting, boating,
cricket. Linen, &c.,
will be found. Good
outfit for working
and other clothes.
Strong Boots-Rid-
ing Breeches-Leg-
gin s-Waterproof
Cloak.


--









HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


INSTITUTE FO JAMAICA.-

Precis of Beplies received from



Eleva-
Name. Property and tion Cultivation. No. of
Parish. above Pupils.
sea level.


XII. Thomas H. Ingle Darlaston House, 1400 ft. Penkeeping. 1
Darlaston P.O.,
Westmoreland.


XIIL Wm. Donald
Hill (from Aber-
deenshire, Scot-
land)






XIV. Henry Cork


Windso r, Fal-
mouth P.O.,
Trelawny.


Burlington, St. On Sea
Margaret's Ba Coast.
P.O., Portland,
[also Bonneville .1600 ft.
in St. Ann.]


XV. James Brough- Water Valley An-
ton notto Bay P.O.


Penkeeping, Co-
coa, Coffee, IBa-
nanas, &c.







Cattle Breeding.
Banana planting.
Sugar
Cocoa
Cocoanut
Dairy Business.









Banana planting.
&c.


I or2













I or2









ARTICLE PUPILS.


ARTICLE PIUILS SCHEME.

Planters and Penkeepers.


Premium rA- Work Pupil would General Remarks as to
quired and Term be required to Instruction Pupil accommodation,*
of Engagement. perform. would receive Sports, Clothing to be
brought, &c.

80 per annumi All work connec- Good instructions Must supply his own
for 2 years ted with horse- from owner, horse and boy-Fod-
kind and horned der, stabling, a n d
stock, cleaning accommodation for
of pastures, &c. boy found. Linen.
&c., will be supplied.
Shooting and home
pastimes. Moderate
stock of useful cloth-
ing-not too heavy.

100 for 2 years General superin- Instruction in be Would be provided
25 per quarter tendence of Pen for e-mentioned with horse and sup-
for board, work along with cultivation plied w i t h boy.
owner. Shooting and river
fishing. Linen, &c.,
would be supplied.
Moderate outfit-
strong Boots and
Waterproof Cloak.

100 for 3 years Supervising gangs Practical educa- Must supply his own
2nd year in foregoing tion inforpgoing horse-grassand sta-
would receive work. subjects. Pupils bling found-3/ per
30. 3rd year would d have week allowed for a
40. choice of which boy. Splendid fish-
branch he pre- ing-fair shooting.
ferred to learn. Must supply his own
Linen, Plate, and
Cutlery. Flannel,
and light Woollen
Tweeds-good rough
Serges-Water-tight
Boot s-Waterproof
Cloak.

Would be furnished
I0 or 60 per General assistance Practical iustruc with horse and boy-
annum for 2 and supervision, tion in the busi- boarded-when suffi-
or 3 years. ness. c i en t1 y advanced
would receive some
acres of land to work
on halves-w o u 1 d
have separate accom-
modation--M ns t
have a good outft.

Suitable pupils will be treated as members of the family in all cases; but
medical attendance must be paid for, if needed, unless otherwise stated.








48 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA-

Precis of Replies received from


Eleva-
Name. Property and tion Cultivation. No. of
Parish. above Pupils.
sea level.Pupils.


XVI. R. Henry El. 1 Rose Garden 400 Small sugar works.
worthy, Associ- 2 Hatfield, riest- Cultivation of
ate of the Onta- man's River P. cocoanuts,bana
rio Agricultural O nas, cocaos, nut-
College meg, Kola, &c.
Breedingof
horses and cat-
tie and treat-
ment of their di-
seases. Chipping
and shipping
of logwood.
General im-
provement of
properties.





XVII. Edward C. Alolus Valleyand 400 Coffee, Bananas, 1
Prichard, C.E.. Wharf Land at and Plantains, at first.
late Executive Yallah Bay, St. Piggery and
Engineer,P.W.D. Davi d, in St. Bees commente
India Thomas-ye-East, ing) dealing in
Yallahs Bay logwood a n d
P.O. other agricultu-
ral products.









ARTICLE PUPILS.


ARTICLED PUPILS SCHEME.

Planters and Penkeepers, continued.



Premium re- Work Pupil would General Remark& as toi
quired and Term be required to Instruction Pupil accommodation,*
of Engagement. perform. would receive. Sports. Clothing to be
brought. &c


100 fir I vear. Would be my com- Would have also Must furnish his own
tt; per annum panion in super the advantage of horse and corn-pas-
if t lie pupil intending labour. well equipped turage free-would
wi.heo to atay Work would be and ge n e r a besuppliedwithboy-
on for a time optional. handicraft shop poor shooting-some
afterward. fishing-tennis and
cricket. Linen and i
cutlery provided-
not medical atten-
dance-good water-
tight boots and cloak.
Must be a thorough
gentleman.






i--J --l-- --j --
100 for 1 year To a-iist owner Learning cultiva- Must -upply his own
with a view to generally in the tion-the waves horse, corn and boy,
becoming a cultivation. uy of the country. for whom accommo-
partner b y ing and shipping people. &-c, &c. nation w o u d be
putting in the of log eod. Lc.. found. Fodder and
concern a sum c. stabling supplied.
equal to i t Good shooting. So-
then total city scar ce-but
(possib ly only 3 hours drive
900) from Kingston and
5 a mouth re- the same to the Port
q u i r e d for Royal Mountains.
maintenance Linen. plate and cut-
lery optional. Good
strong boots, flannel
and overcot ; but
not necessary to
hamper himself with
a large outfit as
Kingston canfurniah
it. Medical assis-
tance found, if the
Pupil comeshealthy.
Must be a gentleman.



Suitable pupils. would be treated as members of the family in all cases; but
medical attendance must be paid for, if needed, unless otherwise stated.








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


V1II. MANUFACTURES.
The Factories of the Island include Dye Works, (at Spanish Town);
Electric Light Works, (at Kingston and Black River); Gas Works,
(at Kingston); Ice Factories, (at Kingston Itwo), Savanna-la Mar,
and Montego Bay); Iron Foundries, (at Kingston and Old Harbour);
Matches, (Kingston); Mineral Water Factories, (Kingston and Mon-
tego Bay); Pottery, (Kingston) ; Printing Offices, (Kingston, Montego
Bay, Falmouth, Brown's Town, St. Ann's Bay, and Sav,-la-Mar);
Railway Works, (Kingston and Montego Bay); Sugar Estates,
(throughout the Island); Tanneries, (Kingston); Water Works,
(Kingston, Spanish Town, Montego Bay, Linstead, Falmouth, St.
Ann's Bay, Morant Bay, Port Antonio, Port Maria, Old Harbour
and Black River).


IX. HYGIENE.
(a) BOARDS OF HEALTH.-There is a Central Board of Health in King-
Kingston (E. A. Foster, Secretary), appointed by the Governor;
and the Parochial Boards of the various parishes are constituted
Local Boards of Health, subordinate to the Central Board, with
power to adopt all necessary measures for suppressing nuisances
and promoting the public health.
(b) MEDICAL SERVICE.-The Island is divided into forty nine medical
districts to each of which is appointed by the Government a medical
officer, who is held responsible for the due discharge of all medical
duties within his district. There are few places in the island
more than eight or ten miles from the residence of a medical officer:
and, as there are good driving and riding roads, tle distance is not
really great.
The district medical officers are required to undertake the medi-
cal charge of the paupers, and of any hospital, alms-houses or
prison within their districts; and to exercise a general control and
superintendence over the Government Dispensaries of their dis-
tricts; to vaccinate; and to advise the Government and Parochial
authorities on questions affecting the public health. They are at
liberty to take private practice.
(c) HosPTrrAs. -There are 23 Hospitals in the Island as follows:-
Kingston Hospital 200 beds Montego Bay Hospital 45 beds
'" Victoria (Lying-in)* 12 "' Lucea 25
Lunatic Asylum 509 Sav.-la-Mar 100
Morant Bay Hospital 60 Black River 55
Hordley 150 Mandeville 30 "
Port Antonio 70 Chapelton 40
Buff Bay 50 Dry River 82
Annotto Bay 100 Lionel Town 100
Port Maria 50 Spanish Town 77
St. Ann's Bay 30 Lnstead 54
Falmouth 47 Lepers' Home 165
The Lazerretto at Green Bay, opposite Port Royal, has accommo-
dation for 32 first class and 36 second class passengers.
Here 14 pupil nurses are trained in midwifery.








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


V1II. MANUFACTURES.
The Factories of the Island include Dye Works, (at Spanish Town);
Electric Light Works, (at Kingston and Black River); Gas Works,
(at Kingston); Ice Factories, (at Kingston Itwo), Savanna-la Mar,
and Montego Bay); Iron Foundries, (at Kingston and Old Harbour);
Matches, (Kingston); Mineral Water Factories, (Kingston and Mon-
tego Bay); Pottery, (Kingston) ; Printing Offices, (Kingston, Montego
Bay, Falmouth, Brown's Town, St. Ann's Bay, and Sav,-la-Mar);
Railway Works, (Kingston and Montego Bay); Sugar Estates,
(throughout the Island); Tanneries, (Kingston); Water Works,
(Kingston, Spanish Town, Montego Bay, Linstead, Falmouth, St.
Ann's Bay, Morant Bay, Port Antonio, Port Maria, Old Harbour
and Black River).


IX. HYGIENE.
(a) BOARDS OF HEALTH.-There is a Central Board of Health in King-
Kingston (E. A. Foster, Secretary), appointed by the Governor;
and the Parochial Boards of the various parishes are constituted
Local Boards of Health, subordinate to the Central Board, with
power to adopt all necessary measures for suppressing nuisances
and promoting the public health.
(b) MEDICAL SERVICE.-The Island is divided into forty nine medical
districts to each of which is appointed by the Government a medical
officer, who is held responsible for the due discharge of all medical
duties within his district. There are few places in the island
more than eight or ten miles from the residence of a medical officer:
and, as there are good driving and riding roads, tle distance is not
really great.
The district medical officers are required to undertake the medi-
cal charge of the paupers, and of any hospital, alms-houses or
prison within their districts; and to exercise a general control and
superintendence over the Government Dispensaries of their dis-
tricts; to vaccinate; and to advise the Government and Parochial
authorities on questions affecting the public health. They are at
liberty to take private practice.
(c) HosPTrrAs. -There are 23 Hospitals in the Island as follows:-
Kingston Hospital 200 beds Montego Bay Hospital 45 beds
'" Victoria (Lying-in)* 12 "' Lucea 25
Lunatic Asylum 509 Sav.-la-Mar 100
Morant Bay Hospital 60 Black River 55
Hordley 150 Mandeville 30 "
Port Antonio 70 Chapelton 40
Buff Bay 50 Dry River 82
Annotto Bay 100 Lionel Town 100
Port Maria 50 Spanish Town 77
St. Ann's Bay 30 Lnstead 54
Falmouth 47 Lepers' Home 165
The Lazerretto at Green Bay, opposite Port Royal, has accommo-
dation for 32 first class and 36 second class passengers.
Here 14 pupil nurses are trained in midwifery.








HYGIENE. 51

(d) MINERAL SPRINGS.-There are many mineral springs in Jamaica,
most of tbem possessing valuable qualities for the cure of various
diseases aud infirmities of the body. Two of these are particularly
famed, namely, the hot sulphurous spring at Bath and the warm
salt spring at Milk River. There are public institutions maintained
at both these springs for the benefit of those requiring relief.
The spring at BATH in the Parish of St. Thomas is believed to be
the hottest in the island; the temperature at the fountain head is
1260 to 128 F., but the water loses about nine degrees of heat in
its transit to the baths. These waters are sulphuric and contain a
large proportion of hydro-sulphate of lime; they are not purgative
and are beneficial in gout, rheumatism, gravelly complaints, cuta-
neous affections and fevers. Some new buildings have lately been
erected for the accommodation of visitors, and the management is
creditable. It is remarkable that a cold spring flows from the same
hill-side, near the hot spring, so that cold and hot water are de-
livered alongside of each other at the bath
The bath at MILK RIVER in the district of Vere is one of the most
remarkable in the world. It is a warm, saline purgative bath; the
temperature is 92 F. It is particularly efficacious in the cure of
gout, rheumatism, paralysis and neuralgia; also in cases of disor-
dered liver and spleen. Some wonderful results are on record, and
it is believed that if the beneficial effects of these;waters were more
generally known in Europe and America a large number of suffer-
ers would be attracted to them. The buildings are extensive; they
have lately been repaired and improved, and comfortable accom
modation at a moderate charge can now be obtained by visitors,
The Spa Spring, or Jamaica Spa, as it is called, at Silver Hill in
St. Andrew, was formerly maintained as a Government Institution
and extensive buildings once existed there, but they have long gone
to decay and the spring is neglected. These waters are chalybeate,
berated, cold, tonic; beneficial in most cases of debility, particularly
after fever, in dropsy and stomach complaints.
Another similar spring, but not so strong a chalybeate, exists at
St. Faith in the district of St. John.
There is also a remarkable spring at M affot, on the White River,
a tributary of the Negro River in the Blue Mountain Valley. These
waters are sulphuric, cold and purgative, useful in itch and all cuta-
neous diseases. A similar spring exists near the source of the Caba-
ritta River in Hanover.
The spring at Windsor near St. Ann's Bay, was once brought
into considerable prominence in consequence of some remarkable
cures effected by its use. People from all parts of the island visited
it and the water was carried away to great distances. It is still a
favourite among the peasantry, and it is said to possess wonderful
powers in healing ulcers, &c.
There are warm springs at Garbrand Hall on the east branch of
the Morant River, and on the Adam's River, near the Blue Moun-
tain Ridge in the Parish of St. Thomas.
The well known spring at New Brighton, in St. Catherine, is the
favourite bath of the inhabitants of Spanish Town.








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


Mineral springs also occur on the sea edge at Manatee Bay ; in
St. Catherine, and at Rock Fort near Kingston, where there is a
swimming bath.
A Spring possessing some qualities of importance is to be found at
Golden Vale in Portland; and there are salt springs near the Ferry
on the Kingston and Spanish Town Road, and at Salt River in
Vere; and in many other localities salt-water springs are found,
and some impregnated with soda or other alkalise.
The following are the analysis of the principal Mineral Springs ;-
i.-MnLK RIVER.


One Pint contains:
Chloride of Potassium ..
Chloride of Magnesium ..
Chloride of Sodium
Chloride of Calcium
Sulphate of Soda
Silica
Chloride of Lithium
Iodide of Sodium
Bromide of Potassium ..
Bromide of Sodium
Bromide of Magnesium ..
Silicia
Organic Matter


92 deg. F. Savory & Moore.
1-44
37-08
.. 186-93
.. .. 13 50
.. 2793
.. ..
I
Traces.


-. U
-- Undet'd.
-.. .. Undet'd.


One Pint contains:

Carbonate of Lime
Chloride of Sodium
Sulphate of Soda
Sulphate of Magnesia
Sulphate of Lime
Sulphate of Iron
Sulphate of Alumina
Phosphoric Acid
Silica
Organic Matter


II. -JAMAICA SPA. III.--SILVER HILL.
Jamaica Spa 63 deg. Silver Hill
Ed. Turner. Bowrey.
0866
.. ... *125
S .. 341
2831 1-745
.. .1-234
.. 21 8-33
4-168 1-360
.. Free
.. .883
Undt'd.


rv,-ST. THOMAS.
One pint contains: St. Thos. 130 F.
Bowrey.
Carbonate of Soda .. .. .. -21
Chloride of Sodium .. .. 148
Chloride of Potassium .. .. .. 0-04
Sulphate of Soda .. .. .. 0-79
Sulphate of Lime .. .. .. 062
Silicate of Soda .. -45
Sulphuretted Hydrogen .. .. Undt'd.


~~_









HYGIENE. 53

v.-MANATEE BAY.
One Pint contains:
Carbonate of Iron Traces
Carbonate of Lime 2"71
Chloride of Potassium
Chloride of Sodium .. -.- 525
Chloride of Magnesium -. .. 4-34
Chloride of Calcium .. 1-31
Phosphate of Alumina .. .. .. Traces
(e) WA'I ER SUPPLY.-There are many parts of the island of Jamaica
where there is a deficient supply of water from natural sources,
arising not from too small an annual rainfall but from the porous
nature of the soil and the geological formation of the underlying
rock. A very large proportion of the water that falls from the
clouds upon the high lands passes in deep underground channels
along the greater part of its course to the sea. Hence in some ex-
tensive tracts of country, artificial tanks, generally of small size,
and constructed of masonry, are in necessary use; these are in
nearly all cases private property. In other parts of the island,
though small ponds are not rare, droughts are frequent: and when
they occur, in the absence of all artificial provision for storing water,
the results are sometimes extremely distressing. It may be said
that whilst persons of means sufficient to provide some sort of water-
works for their own domestic wants and for their own cattle or
sugar or coffee works are seldom in any part of the island in distress
for want of water, the masses have often suffered the greatest dis-
tress from this want.
The names of the towns which have water-works are given on
p. 50.
The assistance of the Government in making advances from gene-
ral revenue for providing water-works has, under recent law, been
invoked for the districts of Savanna-la-Mar. Morant Bay, St. Ann's
Bay, Port Antonio, Port Maria, Old Harbour, Montego Bay, Black
River, Chapelton, Lucea and May Pen. Thus, the distress hitherto
felt by reason of periodical droughts is being ameliorated.
In addition to the foregoing, wells had previously been sunk at
the following places for the purpose of affording a supply of water
to the public: -Four Paths and Hayes. in the parish of Clarendon,
and Porus, in the parish of Manchester In the last named parish
a large supply of water is stored in a basin excavated in the grounds
of the Parochial Hospital of Mandeville, the water being conducted
to the basin by a catchment area constructed of cement concrete.
Kingston, Spanish Town, Old Harbour and Falmouth, have regular
house supplies of water.
(f) DRAINAGE -The drainage of the town of Kingston has hitherto,
like all the other towns in Jamaica, been confined to open gutters,
but it is at present being supplied wilh a drainage system, construc-
ted on the Waring principle.
(g) VITAL STATISTICs. -The population of Jamaica, according to the
Census of 1891, was 639,491, or 56.681 in excess of the population of
1881: and 133,337 in excess of the population of 1871. The total
estimated population on the 31st March, 1894, was 672,762.








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


The births registered in the year 1894-95, numbered 25,295 giving
a rate of 37.2 on the estimated mean population. The deaths regis.
tered in the year ended 31st March, 1895, numbered 14,321 being in
the proportion of 22.2 to each 1,000 of mean population.
The following shows the annual birth and death rates for "ight
years:-


Births annual rate
per 1,000


Deaths annual rate
per 1,000


estimated mea:l population. estimated mean population.
1887-88 39.1 .. 22.3
188S-69 353 .. 22.2
1889-90 35.6 .. 28.0
1890-91 38.4 .. 25.0
1891-92 38.3 .. 22.7
1892-93 37.3 .. 20.9
1893-94 40.9 .. 22.2
1894-95 37.2 .. 21.0
The population of the various parishes is given on page 1.


--' --








(h.) METEOROLOGY,
By Malxwell Hall, M.A.. F.R.A.S.. F.R. lMe. 8.
KINGOTON : MlETOROLOGICAL RESULT. ETC.. FOR THR TEN VEAlS PItnM U.INE


Month,





January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Means

Totals


in.





~D---
30.064

80.049

80.084

80.008

29.979

80.000

80.024

29.983

29.966

29.987

29.962


Mean.


Temperature.



Max. Min.


0 o
86.4 66.8

86.8 66.8

86.7 67.8

86.6 69.8

87.2 72.4

88.6 73.8

89.7 73.6

89.4 73.2

89.7 73.3

88.9 72.1

88.9 70.7

87.0 68.4

87.8 70.7


18.6

17.1


-~`--~~~~ ~~-~-~~~-


80.006 76.7

29.999 78.1
...


Vapour. Rainfall. i
r I
Si l |S- Total.
Dew a g
Po- int 0 a


0 in. in.
i 68 66i.7 78 2 0.96i 3.87 21 19 111 9 5 117

I 72 ;i.1 7 78 27 i 0.82 2.62 241 14 x 12 hil 111

S 77 : 7.1 77 29 1.59, 2.88 32 17 7 1 68 189

I 8 169.1 7i5 :9 1.02 4.18 27 16t 9 15 5i 122

I 74 71.1 78 5B 6.0(10 8 41 22 1 8 14 6o 119

S 115 72.8 78 67 5.61 7.88 14 14 9 11 54 104

S 101 72.5, 71 5A t 2.15 1.82 18 Is 11 7 67 111

801 7:10 79 56 4.0!9 6.83 12 15 4 50 90o

70 73.1 80 62 i 3.59 .861 11 12 7 2 47 79

56 72,2 81 68 4.169 7.84 18 14 7 4 54 92

.3 70.1 78 44 1.22 .o7 17 15 10 4 67 108

57 68.0 78 88 1.50 i .60 16 16 10 4i 69 107

89 70.8 78 ... ... 19 IS 9 9 61 108

I ... .. ... | ... 82.64 i66.80 ... ... ... ...








56 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

fi) THE CLIMATE OF JAMAICA.- Dr. Thomas I. Stedman, of New York
City, writing on the Cl.mate of Jamaica, in Buck's Reference
H;ind-book of the Medical Sciences," says: The most striking
peculiarity of the climate of Jamaica is its variety combined with
equability. A ride of a few miles into the hills will bring one from
the torrid zone to the temperate-from an average temperature of
nearly S0 to one of 659 or 70. But whatever district one may
select, whether a warm or a cool one, he will find the tempera-
ture very nearly constant, the extreme range for any one month
being seldom over 25Q Fahrenheit, while that for the entire year
at Kingston, is but 350; and in some parts of the Island the
excursions of the mercury are even more restricted than this.
As regards humidity, also, there is the same choice of climate open
to the invalid or the pleasure seeker, who may select a place of resi-
dence with a humid or a dry atmosphere as suits best his inclinations
or the necessities of the affection from which he suffers. Jamaica
indeed enjoys all the advantages in respect to uniformity of tem-
perature of island climates in general, while the differences in ele-
vation ind in exposure to. or protection from the prevailing trade
winds give to it the pleasing diversity, as regards temperature,
humidity and rainfall, of the most temperate of continental cli-
mates.***
There is, as a rule, less rain in Kingston than in most of t'le other
parts of the island, th- trade winds being drained of their moisture
by the mountains to the north and east of the city. The heaviest
precipitation occurs in the parish of Portland, which forms the
north-eastern extremity of the island.
There are two principal rainy seasons, namely'in May and Octo-
ber, but there is usually more or less rain all through the summer
months. In the winter months in the neighbourhood of Kingston the
precipitation is very light. The rain usually comes in heavy showers
of only a few hours' duration, and the days during which the sun does
not shine at all are very rare. It is almost always possible to pre-
dict when the rain is coming as it can be seen quite a while before
the downpour begins. This is fortunate for visitors, as a wetting is
one of the three things that an unacclimated person in the tropics
must avoid, the other two beinu exposure to the direct rays of the
noonday sun and to the cool night air."
(i.) CLOTHING.-The clothing suitable to Jamaica, is that usually worn
in a warm summer in England, except that a hat suitable to the
tropics is requisite. Clothing of all kinds can be purchased in
Jamaica, at prices slightly higher than in England.








POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAPMS.


X. POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAMS,
POST AND MONEY ORDER.
(a.) FOREIGN.
(I.) POSTAL UNION.--Jamaica is included in the Postal Union.
The rates of of postage to places in the Universal Postal Union are
as under:-
For News-
For Post papers or
For a Letter Cards. other For Commer For Patterni egistra-
per 1 ounce. Printed Pa- vcial Papers per per 2 ounces. tion Fe
Single epl pers per 2 2 ounces.
m paid. ounces.
*2d. Id. d. id d. 6d. 2d.
l lowest charge. lowest charge.
I _'I d. Id.
(II.) MAILS. -Royal Mail Steamers convey mails fortnightly, between
Jamaica and the United Kingdom, viA Jacmel and Barbados:-
To Jamaica.-Leave Southampton every alternate Wednesday at
6 p.m. Arriving in Jamaica on the following Friday fortnight at
8 a.m.
From Jamaicu.-Leave Kingston every alternate Tuesday at 2 p.m.
Arriving at Southampton on the following Wednesday fortnight at
9. p.m.
The Return Packet Express Mails leave the Terminal Post Offices
for Kingston every alternate Monday and are due in Kingston on
the morning of Tuesday, the day of the departure of the Steamer.
The mails for Great Britain by the Royal Mail Steam Packet
Company's steamers are made up at the General Post Office, King-
ston, at the following hours:-
Registered letters, 9 a.m.; newspapers, 10 a in.: ordinary letters,
11.30 a.m. Late letters may be posted at the General Post Office on
payment of a fee of threepence up to 12 30 p.m. : on board the
steamer until she leaves the wharf on payment of a fee of sixpence
in stamps.
There is not any Contract Mail Service between Jamaica and the
United States of America, although there are frequent opportunities
for the exchange of mails in Kingston and at the outports. The
most frequent and regular opportunities in Kingston are by the
steamers of the Atlas Company. The opportunities at the outports
are by the steamers of Messrs J. E. Kerr & Co. of Montego Bay
and of the Boston Fruit Company at Port Antonio.
There is a monthly mail service between Jamaica, Halifax, Ber-
muda and Turks Island, by means of the Steamers of Messrs.
Pickford and Black which arrive here about the 25th of each month
and leave three days after. The steamers are subsidized by the Go-
vernment ot the Dominion of Canada.
(III.) BOOK POST.-Printed papers and commercial papers may be sent
to any country of the Postal Union under the Book Post regulation.







58 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

It is forbidden to send through the post to any country of the
Postal Union-
1st. Any letter or packet containing gold or silver bullion, pieces
of money, jewellery or precious a.ticles.
2nd. Any packet whatever containing articles liable to customs
duty.
3rd. Any article of a nature likely to stain or injure the corres-
pondence.
(Iv.) PARCEL POST.--A Parcel Post Exchange -between Jamaica and the
United Kingdom; certain places via the United Kingdom; British
Colonies in the West Indies; and the United States of America-
is now in operation.
Parcel mails for the United Kingdom and British Colonies in the
West Indies are made up in Kingston on every alternate Monday
for despatch by the Royal Mail Contract Line of Steamers-par-
cels being received up to 4 o'clock on that day.
Parcel mails for the United States are closed for despatch by each
direct opportunity from the Port of Kingston.
Rate to Great Britain, 9d. per lb. Limit of weight to Great Bri-
tain and United States, &c. 11 lbs. Limit of size, greatest length
3 feet 6 in.: length and girth combined, 6 feet.
Rate to the United States and British West ndia Colonies 6d. per lb.
(v.) MONEY ORDERs.-Money Orders are issued at the head office, King-
ston, and at the several parochial treasuries. Applications for
money orders addressed either to the Postmaster for Jamaica or to
a Parochial Treasurer are free of postage and registration fee.
The commission on money orders drawn on the United Kingdom,
Canada and the United States are as under:-
For any sum not exceeding I Above 5 and not exceeding 7-
2- Os. 9d. 2s. 3d.
Above 2 and not exceeding | Above 7 and notexceeding 10 -
5-1s. 6d. ] 3s. Od.
The rate of exchange of money orders between the United States,
Canada and Jamaica is $4.87c. to the L.
The commission on money orders drawn on Barbados and British
Guiana and the Leeward Islands are as under:-
For any sum not exceeding | Above 5 and not exceeding 7-
2 --s. 6d. I s. 6d.
Above 2 and not exceeding I Above 7 and notexceeding 10-
5-1s. Od. | 2s. Od.
No single order can be granted for more than ten pounds.
(vi.) REGISTRATION.-The poster of a registered article can obtain an
acknowledgment of receipt from the addressee on payment in ad-
vance of a fee of 2d. in addition to postage and registration fee.
(b.) INLAND.
(I.) MAILS.--There are 127 Post Offices in the Island. There is a daily
post between Kingston, Halfway Tree, Gordon Town, and Cold
Spring, and between Kingston and Port Royal and between all
places on the railway, and a tri-weekly to all other parts of the
country. In Kingston there are ten street letter boxes which are
cleared four times daily, and there is a delivery of letters four times
a day on post days, and three times on other days.









POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAPMS.

The following are the existing Regulations with respect to Inland
Postage : -
B ,ll oK PARCELS.
LETTEllS. POlT-CARItO. PACKETS.
For each Newapa. Prices For each For each Registra-
Half-ounce ers Current two olne two one- tion Fee.
or frac I Aingle. Reply each each. es or frac e- or frac
tional Paid. tional tional
part there part part
of. thereof. thereof.
..1--- --- ---- --- --
One- Half One- al Half H Half One Two
penny. penny. penny, penny j penny. penlny penny pence.
Letters, newspapers, &c., which are wholly unpaid are liable to a
surcharge equal to double the deficiency.
A book packet may not exceed 3 pounds in weight, nor two feet
in length, nor 1 foot in depth or width, except it be intended for
transmission by mail coach.
Parcels by mail coach will be carried, not exceeding 10lbs in
weight or 1,000 cubic inches in size, at the rate of threepence
per lb., or per 100 cubic inches, or fractional part thereof, it being
at the option of the Post Office to elect under which scale the par-
cel is to be paid for. A parcel may not exceed two feet in length,
or 1 foot in width or depth, nor may it contain anything likely to
damage other parcels. The charge on parcels must be paid in
advance, in cash, at the respective Local Post Offices or at the
General Post Office.
(n.) POSTAL ORDERS -Postal Orders, payable in Kingston, or at any of
the parochial treasuries, are issued for the following amounts:-

Amount Commission Amount. Commission.
Sixpence ... Half-penny Two Shillings & Sixpence Half-penny
One Shilling Half penny Five Shillings .. O.e penny
One Shilling & Six- Half penny Ten Shillings Two pence
pence
TELEGRAPH.
(a.) OCEAN. -Jamaica is connected with America and Great Britain by
means of the West India and Panama Telegraph Company (London,
9 New Broad St E.C.)
Tariffs from Jamaica to North America, Europe, &c., via Havanna.
Per Word. Per Word.

s. d. s. d.
United States, East i Canada 5 0%
of Missippi I 4 93 Key West 3 9
United States, West Newfoundland 510
of Missippi i 5 2M Prince Edward's Island 5 6%
Nova Scotia 5 0% Great Britain, France 510
New Brunswick and Germany
Cape Breton 5 2% Italy .6 1s
Vancouver Island 5 7z Spain, via Fance & 7 4
British Columbia Marseilles
Allother Offices, via Eastern 7 5%








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


For Messages addressed to stations in the East Indies and South
America, via England, and for all stations on the continent of
Europe, the London rates are charged, plus the tariff from London
to the place of destination.
Telegrams for stations in South America, via Panama, are for-
warded by telegraph to Panama, from thence by the Central and
South American Company's Cables to destination
(b.) INLAND.-There are 67 telegraph stations in the island. The charge
for telegrams throughout Jamaica is one shilling (Is ) for the first
twenty words and threepence (3d.) for every additional five words.
i.e., for every additional group of not more than five words, the
names and addresses of the sender and receiver not being counted.
If the addressee reside within one mile of the terminal office the
telegram is delivered by messenger without any additional charge ;
but if beyond that limit the following porterage fee must be pre-
paid:-
a. If the whole distance be under three miles at a charge of six-
pence (6d.) per mile, counting from boundary of the free de-
livery.
b. If the distance be over three miles at a charge of one shilling
(Is.) per mile, counting from the office.
Persons resident at a place to which the Island Telegraph Line
has not yet been extended can benefit by its use on the following
conditions :-
1. If the words By Post" with the name of a telegraph station
be written on a message it will be wired to such station and for-
warded trom thence to its postal address by first post.
2. If a letter marked "On Post Office Telegraph Business" be
sent by post to the Telegraph Clerk at any station the message en-
closed will be promptly forwarded by wire from such station. In
this case the letter by post must be registered and the cost of the
message enclosed in telegraph stamps or coin.
8. No charge willbe made in either case for postage or registration.



XI. FISCAL,
(a.) INTERNAL REVENUE.
Tan Revenue of the Island-parochial as well as general -is collected
and accounted for by a Department under the control and direction
of the Collector General of Customs, Excise and Internal Revenue.
At Kingston separate establishments are maintained for the collec-
tion of Customs Revenue and the collection of the Excise and In
ternal Revenues; but in the other parishes the whole of the duties
are performed by the collectors of taxes or by subordinate officers
acting under their supervision. Each collector of taxes is stationed
at the prinpeipal town of the parish and (except in Kingston and St.
Andrew) besides the duties devolving on him in connection with
the collection of revenue, he has to discharge the duties of parochial
treasurer. The collector is ex-oficio manager of the government
savings bank, and he issues and pays money orders drawn on and
by the Treasurer in Kingston or any other collector of taxes.








FISCAL.

(I) LAND TAX.-Taxes are levied on land as follows:-


Upon every acre or frac-
tion of an acre of land
in cane, coffee, ginger,
arrowroot, corn, ground-
n u t s, cotton, tobacco,
cocoa, vegetables, bana-
nas, cocoanuts or ground
provisions 3d.
Upon dittoin Guinea Grass 1%d. i
Upon ditto in common
pasture, or in pimento,
or in common pasture
and pimento Upon do. in ruinate or wood Yd.,
On horsekind and carriages :-
Each head of horse- E
kind used on roads 0 11 0
Each head of horse- I
kind used solely for
hire and livery sta
ble purposes 0 7 0
Each ass 0 3 61
Each wheel of a car-
riage 0 15 0'
Ditto solely for hire
and livery stable E
purposes 0 10 0
Each wheel ofa cart 0 6 0!


Quit rent an acre Id.
On Holdings not exceeding
5 acres 0 2 0
10 0 3 4
20 0 4 8
S 50 0 5 4
100 0 6 8
2000 10 0
500 1 0 0
S800 110 0
S1,000 1 16 8
S1,500 2 13 4
S exceeding 1,500 3 0 0


Cach wheel of a hackney
carriage 1 0 0
iach firearm to be used
on the premises of the
owner 0 2 0
)itto to be u-ed otherwise 0 8 0
Every horsekind, ass or
horned stock of and
above one year old not
used on any road 0 1 0
iacl head of horned stock
used for the purposes of
draft 0 1 0
)n dogs in town each 0 4 0


(II.) POOR RATE:-
On every house of the annual spect of which poor rate is pay.
value of four pounds or up- able, a tax or duty of 2s.
wards, a tax or duty after the On every other house a tax or duty
rate of one shilling and six- of 4s.
pence in the pound of such Or such rate as may be fixed by the
value, i Revenue Commissioner after con-
On every hut in a provision sideration of Estimates prepared
ground used as place of ternm- and furnish d to him by the seve-
porary shelter,theowner hav- ral Parochial Boards.
ing another residence in re-
(III.) EDUCATION RATE :-
On every house under 6 annual value 0 4 0
the value of 4 0 2 0 On every house exceeding
On every house of the 6 but not exceeding
annual value of 4 0 3 0 12 annual value 0 5 0
On every house ex- On every house exceeding
ceeding 4 and not 12 annual value 0 6 0
and not exceeding
(Iv.) LICENSEs have to be taken out by Hawkers and Pedlars, for sale of
Gunpowder and Spirits, wholesale and retail, for Taverns, Hotels,
I









HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


Stills; by Merchants, Storekeepers, Auctioneers, Wharfingers,
Masters of Vessels or Supercargoes and Proprietors of Newspapers.
(v.) LauHr-HousE Dues.--Island Light Dues are paid as follows:-Id.
per ton of the registered tonnage of steamers, and 3d. per ton of the
registered tonnageof sailing vessels which enterat any port of the is-
land. Dues in respect of droghers and other ships, sloops, and vessels
engaged in the coasting trade of the island or trading within the
tropics are not demandable oftener than once within any period of
twelve calendar months, and in respect of all other ships, not oftener
than nace within any period of three calendar months.
Harbour Light Dues are paid as follows: -'olly Point Light
House-A uniform rate of %d. per ton on every vessel on the occa-
sion of each entry or call at the port of Port Antonio. Ships of
war and the contract coastal steamers are exempt.
I\ V.) WHARFAGE DUES.--There is a Schedule [for Wharfage at .the va-
rious public wharves in Jamaica. But the legal rates are not always
,. rired. At a good many of the wharves special arrangements
are made and concessions granted.

(b.) IMPORTS.
(i.) DUTIES.
s.d.d s.d.


Alk, BHeraud Porter, per gallon
Bacon per pound
Barley (not Pearl Barley) per
bushel
Beef, wet, salted or cured- per
brl. or 200lbs.
Beans, per bushel
Bread or BiscuitA. per 1001bs.
Butter, Oleomargarine
Butterine orothernbhat to '
for butter, per lb.
Calavances, per bushel
Candles, composition, per
pound -
-- -wax or -permacetti,
per lb.
Cheese, per pound
Cider and Perry. per gallon
Cocoa, per 100lbi.
Coffee, British Colonial, per
l001bs
Corn, Indian, per bushel
Fish, dried or salted, per l001bs.
- smoked n o t otherwise
enumerated or described.
per pound
--Alewives. picked per bar-
rel of 2001bs
--Herrings. pickled, per bar-
rel of 2nolb-.
--Herrings. smoked, per
pound
-Mackerel, pickled, per bar-
rel of 2001bs.
--pickled, n o t otherwise
enumerated or described,
per barrel of 2001b.


0 4 6


--Salmon, smoked, per
pound
--Salmon, wet, or salted,
per barrel of 20ulbs.
Flour, Rye. per barrel of
196lbs.
- Wheat, per barrel of
196ilbs.
Gunpowder, per pound
Hams, per pound
Indigo, per pound
Lard and its compounds, per
21bs.
Matches, Lucifers and others
per gross of 12 doz. boxes,
each box to contain 100
sticks, and boxes containing
any greater or lesser quantity
to be charged in proportion
Meat, salted or cured, per bar-
rel of 2001bs.
Meal, not wheat meal. per bar-
rel of 2001bs.
Oats, per bushel -
Oil, other than petroleum and
cotton seed oil, per gallon
Peas (not being split pease )
per bushel
Pork, wet, salted or cured, per
barrel of 2001bs.
Petroleum and its products,
crude, or refined, per gallon
Rice, per l00bs.
--undressed, per bushel -
Salt, per 100lbs. -
Sausages, dry or pickled, per
pound









FISCAL.


s.d. s.d.
,oap, per 1001bs 0 or prepared for buildings by
Spirits, Brandy, per gallon 0 10 0 superficial measurement of
- Gin. per gallon 0 10 0 1 inch thick 0 9 i
-- Rum, the produce of and --per every 1,000 ft. of white
imported from British pine lumber, or other lum-
possessions, per gallon 0 10 0 her, by superficial mea-
- Whisky, per gallon 0 10 0 surement of 1 inch thick 0 9 0
Spirits of Wine, Alcohol and --Shingles, Cypress, more
all other spirits, cordials or than 12 inches in length
spiritous compounds, per per thousand 1 t; 0
gallon 10 o Shingles, Wallaba shingles per
Sugar, unrefined, per loolbs. 0 10 0 thousand 0 6 0
Tea, per pound 0 1 0 Boston Chips, a n d all
Tobacco, manufactured, in- shingles n o t otherwise
eluding Cavendish, per lb. 0 1 0 enumerated or described,
- Unmanufactured, per per thousand 0 4 0
pound 0 0 6 On all other Goods. Wares,
- Cigars, per pound 0 5 0 Merchandize, and effects of
Tongues, salted or cured, per I every description not other-
barrel of 2001bs. 0 15 0 wise enumerated, for every
Wheat, per bushel 0 0 61 100 value 12 10 0
Wines in bulk and in bottle. And after these rates for any
per gallon 0 2 6 greater or less quantity of
Woood, per every 1,000 ft. of such goods respectively.
pitch pine lumber, in rough
(II.) EXEMPTIONS FROM DUTY.
Animals. alive, and poultry Drugs. medicines ind medicinal piepara-
Apparatus and appliances used for gene- tions of all kinds including patent or
rating, storing or conducting electric proprietary medicines
city. Dyewoods
Asbestos and tar paper for roofing Eggs
Beef, smoked and dried Fertilizers of all kinds. natural and arti-
Beef and pork preserved in can-. not ficial
being wet, salted or cured Fish. fresh or on ice
Belting for machinery, of leather. canvas Fishing apparatus of all kinds
or India rubber Flax
Birds Fruits and vegetables, fresh or dried,
Boats and lighters when not canned, tinned or bottled
Books bound or unbound. pat. letst. Gas fixtures including pipes and stoves
newspapers and printed matter in all and all apparatus for generating, mea-
languages spring or storing ga-
Bones and horns Gold and silver coin and bullion
Bottles of glass or stoneware Hand machine for preparing fibre or for
Bran. middlings and shorts spinning cotton or wool
Bricks (not bath bricks) Hay and straw for forage
Bridges of iron or wood or of both corn- Hemp
bined Hides, raw
Brooms, brushes and whisks of broom Houses of wood complete
straw Hydraulic Presses
Candles of tallow l ce
Carts. waggons, cars and barrows. withlImplements. utensils and tools for agri-
or without springs. of all descriptions culture, including axes, billhooks. cut-
not being such as are ordinarily used! lasses, diggers, forks. grass-knives.
as vehicles of pleasure hatchets, hoes, picks. shovels and
Clocks and parts thereof spades
Coals and Coke India-rubber and gutta-percha goods.
Cotton-seed and its products, to includei including water-proof clothing made
meal, mealcake. oil and cottolene wholly or in part thereof
Cotton-wool Iron, galvanized
Crucibles and pots of all kinds for melt- Iron for roofing, doors and shutters-and
ing metals every kind of iron doors and shutters
Diamon Is Lamps and lanterns not exceeding ten
Drawings, paintings, engravings, litho shillings each in value as defined in
graphs and photographs Section 24 of Law 18 of 1877









HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


EXEMPTIONS FROM DUTY, cold.

Leeches Soda, ash or sub-soda
Lime of all kinds Specimens illustrative of natural history.
Locomotives, railway rolling-stock,rails. mineralogy and geology
railway ties and all material; and ap- Steam and power engines and machines.
pliances for railways and tramwa.s machinery and apparatus, whether sta-
Malt dust tionery or portable, worked by power
Marble or alabaster, in the rough or or by hand, for any agriculture, irriga-
squared, worked or carved, for building tion. mining, the arts and industries of
purposes or monuments all kinds and all necessary parts and
Meat, fresh appliances for the erection or repair
Mess plate and fur.iiture, band instru- thereof, or for the communication of
ments for the use of the Army and motive power thereto
Navy, on the certificate of the Military Steam boilers and steam pipes
or Naval Commanding Officer Stills or any part of a still
Mills, whether they be for grinding canes, Sugar, refined
paint, coffee, corn or grain of any kind, Sulphur
or for sawing boards, raising water, or Tallow and animal grease
such as are set in motion by steam, Tan bark of all kinds, whole or ground
horse, wind or water power and all Telegraph wire, telegraphic. telephonic
parts of the said mills and electrical apparatus and appliances
Molasses and all kinds of communication or illu
Oil cakes, whole or in powder, and other mination
prepared food for cattle and animals Tiles, marble and earthen, as well a,
Oysters, preserved in cans paving stones
Paper of all kinds, whether for printing. Tongues, smoked and dried
writing, wrapping or packing or other Tortoiseshell
purpose, to include envelopes and bags Tow
of paper Trees, plants, vines and seeds and grains
Patent fuel of all kinds for propagation or cultiva-
Pans for boiling sugar, whethe- of copl tion
per or iron Turtle
Photographic apparatus and ch:iici Il Varnish not containing spirits
Pipes for conveying fluids Wall-paper
Printers' ink, all colours Watches and parts thereof
Printing presses, types, rules. spaces and Water-pipes of all classes. materials and
all ac-e-sories for printing dimensions and water-meters
Pumps for raising water Wax, bees'
Quicksilver Wire fencing, iron standard and al'o tomb
Resin, tar, pitch and turpentine railings
Salt, rock Wire for fences, with the hooks. staples,
Sarsaparilla nails and the like appliances for fast-
Sewing machines and as and ll and ac- ening the same
cessories thereof Wood hoops
Shocks, tierces, puncheon and hogshead, Wood staves and headings, red or white
and all descriptions of shook-, also[ oak or ash
tierces, hogsheads and casks ;Yeast, cake and baking powder
Slates Zinc. tin and lead, in sheets


(III.) VALUE OF IMPORTS.

THE value of the Imports into the Colony in each of the last ten years

was as follows:-

1884-85 1,487,833 1890-91 2,188,937
1885-86 1,325,603 1891-92 1,759,890
L886-87 1,351,394 1892-93 1,941,481
1887-88 1,695,605 1893-94 2,157,794
1888-89 1,597,600 j 1894-95 2,191,745








FISCAL.


The Imports for the last three years were drawn from the several
countries in the following proportion. viz:-
1894-95. 1893-94. 1892-93.

United Kingdom 50.5 55.1 31.9
Dominion of Canada 8.5 8.8 9.6
United States 36.6 33.2 34.8
Other Countries 4.4 2.9 3.7
(IV.) VALUE OF IMPORTS ENTERED FOR CONSUMPTION IN 1894-95.
FOOD STUFFS. CLOTHING IN- OTHER MACHI-
CLUDING BOOTS. NERY & TOOLS.
From United Kingdom 100,642 14 0 529,512 4 2 21,320 17 2
British Possessions 185,836 10 3 1,041 16 0 16 15 0
U. S of America 414,844 10 1 66,804 1 3 17,553 4 11
SOther Countries 4,141 9 6 5,687 16 1 2,899 0 6

Total 705,465 9 10 603,045 17 6 41.789 17 7*

LIQUORS. HARDWARE AND COALS AND
IRONMONGERY. COKE.
From United Kingdom 70,241 10 7 68,709 16 5 50,618 13 6
"British Possessions 4,492 6 11 83 2 7 478 0 0
U. S. of America 4,353 7 1 24,097 9 6 6,953 15 6
SOther Countries 2,874 1 9 750 8 4

Total 81,961 6 4 93,640 16 10 58,050 9 0


From United Kingdom
"British Possessions
U. S. America
SOther Countries

Total




From United Kingdom
"British Possessions
U. S. of America
SOther Countries

Total

Grand Total


TOBACCO INCLU-
DING CIGARS.

1,349 3 3
649 4
16,278 13 9
324 10 1

17,959 6 5


BUILDING MA- BOOKS AND
TRIALS. OTHER PRIN-
TED MATTER.
36,099 17 3 15,278 19 4
7,441 10 7 161 8 2
80,981 7 0 3,954 3 10
2,981 11 6 192 18 11

127,504 6 4 19,587 10 3


HOUSEHOLD ESTATES' MA- MISCELLANE-
FURNITURE. CHINERY AND OUS.
SUPPLIES.
27,362 19 6 31,420 15 11 131,696 11 11
49 1 5 2.168 9 3 25,970 3 5
10,284 1 11 8,081 13 10 152,039 1 1
3,240 2 2 162 9 0 29,232 1 8

40,936 5 0 41,833 8 0 358,937 18 1

2,190,712 11 2


* Including Railroad Plant and Bridges.








66 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

(S.) EXPORTS.
(I.) VALUE.-The value of -the exports of produce and manufac-
tures in each of the last ten years is shown below:-

Of British, For-
Year. Of the Colony eign and other I Total.
Colonies.

1884-85 1,181,203 227,645 1,408,848
1885-86 1,078,315 201,803 1,280,118
1886-87 1,334,465 174,542 1,509,010
1887-88 1,t61,601 166,989 1,828,590
1888-89 1,501,660 113,164 1,614,824
1890-91 1,807,084 95,730 1,902,814
1891-92 1,628,777 93,319 1,628,777
1892-93 1,690,637 69,169 1,759,806
1893-94 1 ,92,596 93,093 2,075,689
1894-95 1,848,877 72,544 1,921,421
(II.) DISTRIBUTION. -The total amount of the island's Exports was dis
tribute in each of the last three years as under, viz:-
1894-95, 1893-94, 1892-93.

United Kingdom 26.7 26.7 29.1
United States 58.7 57.3 54.2
Dominion of Canada 1.6 1.7 2.6
Other Countries 13.0 14.3 14.1
The following is a comparative statement of the proportion of ex-
ports during the the last three years:
1894-95. 1893-94. 1892-93.

Fruit 27-9 26-6 23-1
Sugar 12"J? 23- 14-2 1. 25-6
Rum 10l-1 7-4 113
Coffee 19-3 17-3 20-1
Dyewoods 19.0 24-3 21-1
Pimento 45 38 3-5
Minor products 6-3 6-4 6-6

100-0 100-0 100-0

As will be seen from the above table, in 1893-94, the products of
the fruit plantations (principally bananas) for the first time deposed
the products of the sugar estates (sugar and rum) from the premier
position which they had ever held in the exports of the island. Of
sugar less than 6 per cent. of the whole export goes to England
and nearly 90 per cent. goes to America while of rum, the States
receive but 1'6 per cent., and the United Kingdom over 90 per cent.








FISCAL.


QUANTITY AND VALUE OF EXPORTS. 1894-95.


To United Kingnom
" British Possessions
" U. S. of America
" Other Countries

Total



To United Kingdom
" British Possessions
" U. S. of America
" Other Countries

Total



To United Kingdom
" British Possessions
" U. S. of America
" Other Countries

Total



To United Kingdom
" British Possessions
" U. S. of America
" Other Countries

Total




To United Kingdom
" British Possessions
" U. S of America
" Ot'er Countries

Total


SUGAR.
Hhds.
1,208 12,323
1,161 11,845
20,951 213,697
132 1,345

23,452 239,210

RUM.

Puns.
16,119 154,480
433 4,153
309 2,963
2,701 25,882

19,562 187.478

COFFEE.

Cwts.
19,053 71,449
3,006 11,275
56,666 212,499
16,403 61,511

95,128 356.734

PIMENTO.
'wts.
25.336 25,336
509 509
41,661 41,661
16,449 16,449

83,955 83,955

DYEwooD.


FRUIT.

1,284
3,218
511.716
24

516,242

TOBACCO (including
Cigars.)
Lbs.
2,732 1,366
10,292 5,165
191 96
5,411 2.378

18,626 9,005

MINOR PRODUCTS (in-
eluding Ginger.)

61,683
3,462
37,143
S 4.197

106,485

HORSEKIND
Head.
3 85
14 585

2 75

19 745

MISCELLANEOUS, VIz.:


Foreign Produce re-
exported.
Tons-
36,064 160,341 .. 24,422
9,405
17,224 77,150 .. 31,387
24,884 111,533 .. 7,330

7S,172 349 024 .. 72,544

1,921,422


* At a Standard of 100 liquid gallons.








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


(e.) CURRENCY IN JAMAICA.
COINS IN CIRCULATION.
British coins, gold and silver, of all denominations (but not bronze)
Doubloons Mexican and Spanish at 3 4 0
Colombian 0 0
Aliquot parts in proportion.
American (United States) Gold
Double Eagle -- 4 2 0
Single 2 1 0
Half I 0
Quarter 0 10 3
Dollar 0 4 1
Jamaica-Nickle Coins: Penny, Half-penny, Farthing.
The rates for the selling of Bills of Exchange at the Colonial Bank
and at the Bank of Nova Scotia are as follows :-
RATES FOR SELLING ON LONDON.
90 Days % per cent. premium.
60 Days K "
30 Days -
Sight l "
Drafts on Messrs. Lloyd's Bank, Limited, drawn to order on de-
mand, are sold at the following rates:-
Not exceeding 10 at 2/6 Not exceeding 635 at 8 9
15 3/9 40 10/
20 5/ 45 11/3
25 6/3 50 12/6
30 '" 7/6 Issuedup to 1,000 at same ratio.
RATES FOR SELLING ON NEW YORK.
Demand Diafts only issued; price varies according to Exchange
quotation at New York.
(f.) BANKING.
In Kingston, there are branches of the COLONIAL BANK of London
(Oscar Marescaux, Manager). and the BANK OF NOVA SCOTIA (W.
P. Hunt, Manager).
In the GOVERNMENT SAVINGS BANK in Kingston there were on the
31st March, 1895, 27,045 depositors including charities, societies,
clubs, &c., with an amount 453,875 on deposit.
There are branches of the Government Savings Bank at the fol-
lowing places:-Kingston, Morant Bay, Port Antonio, Port Maria,
St. Ann's Bay, Falmouth, Montego Bay, Lucea, Savanna-la-Mar,
Black River. Mandeville, May Pen, Spanish Town-open daily.
Sub-branches of the Government Savings Bank are established at
the following places:-- Buff Bay, Annotto Bay, Brown's Town, Santa
Cruz, Porus, (open every day), Alley, Chapelton, Linstead, Old
Harbour-all of which are open at least once a week.
Penny Banks have also been established in nearly all the districts
of the island by ministers of religion, and other influential gentle-
men. There are now 129 in the island, with 21,007 depositors.








LAW AND POLICE.


XII. LAW AND POLICE.
(I.) LAW COURTS.-With the Supreme Court of Judicature of the island
are consolidated the High Court of Chancery. the Incumbered Estates
Court, the Court of Ordinary, the Court of Divorce and Matrimonial
Causes, the Chief Court of Bankruptcy and the Circuit Courts.
The Court consists of a Chief Justice and two Puisne Judges, the
Chief Justice being President. All the Judges must be members of
the Bar of England, Ireland or Scotland ,f at least five years
standing.
The full Court holds a session in Kingston on the first Monday in
February, April, June, August, October and December in each
year. A special sitting of the full Court may at any time beap-
pointed by the Chief Justice.
The times and places for the holding of the (ircuit Courts are fixed
by the Governor in Privy Council. The following are the arrange-
ments for 1896:-
EASTERN CIRCUIT.
Kingston -January 6th; April 20th : August 24th.
Spanish Town -January 13th May 4th ; September 7th.
Morant Bay-March 3rd; July 7th; November 3rd.
Port Antonio The sittings of these Courts will follow after the
Port Maria preceding, and will be fixed a month before
they are held.
WESTERN CIRCtIT.
May Pen February 3rd: June Ist ; October 5th.
Mandeville
Black River
Savanna-la-Mar The sittiL.gs of these Courts will follow
Lucea ) after the preceding and will be fixed a
Montego Boy month before they are held.
Falmouth
St. Ann's Bay
There are 9 Barristers at Law admitted to practice in Jamaica, 7
Advocates and 88 Solicitors.
There are also Resident Magistrates for the parishes of the island,
one for each. They preside at the Courts ot Pe~ty Sessions, and also
hold Courts of their own where they sit alone They are Coroners
for their parishes. (For List see p. iii).
The Custos of each (parish is the chiefoff the \lMagistracy in it.
There are a number of Justices of the Peace in each parish, ap-
pointed by the Governor on the nomination of the Custos.
(It.) CONSTABULARY. -The police in each parish are under the charge of
an Inspector. There are [02 Constabulary stations throughout the
island. The Constabulary Force is made up as follows : -
Inspector General 1
First Class Inspectors 4
Second Class Inspectors 5
Third Class Inspectors 5
Sub-Inspeetors 5








HANDBOOK 01' INFORMATION.


Sergeants-Major 15
Sergeants 38
(C'rporals 80
First Class Constables 100
Second Class Constables 565--818
The Detectives and mounted orderlies are
included in this strength.
WATER POLICE.
Coxswains, 1 Sergeant, 5 Corporals 6
Acting Coxswains (First Class Constables) 2
Water Policemen 26---34
RURAL POLICE.
Headmen 218
Policemen 1,308-1,526

Total 2,378
(il ;'hioNs.-Besides the General Penitentiary in Kingston, there
are prisons at Spanish Town. Falmouth, Lucea and Port An-
tonio : a Boys' Reformatory at htonv Hill, St. Andrew, and a Girls'
Relormatory in Kingston.


XIII. EDUCATION.
(a.) ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
There are in the island, under the supervision of the Chief In-
spector of Schools, with whom is associated an advisory Board of
Education, a large number of elementary schools, which are sup-
ported by grants. and at which no fees are paid. In 1895 there
were 962 schools, (161i fir-t class, 345 second class and457thirdclass).
with 104,149 scholars on the books, and 62,587 in average attendance.
The schools are inspected annually by Inspectors of Schools of
whom there are eight in the island. Teachers for these schools are
supplied from the various Training Colleges.
(b.) TRAINING COLLEGES.
Bethlehem, St Elizabeth. MORAVIAN FEMALE TRAINING COLLEGE.
(Principal, H E. Seller) 30 students.
Fairfield, Manchester MORAVIAN MALE TRAINING COLLEGE,
,Principal, Rev. P. A Herman-Smilh), 30 students.
Kmngston CALABAR INSTITUTION, or Jamaica Baptist College.
(President, Rev. A. James, B.A.) There are 6 theo-
logical and 25 normal students, and 5CO pupils in the
model school.
MIco TRAINING COLLEGE, (Co-Principals, Rev. Wm.
Gillies and L G. Grichy). Has60 students supported
by Government. and 20 students on the original founda-
tion, in training as schoolmasters. There is a prac-
tising school in connection.
Shortwood, St Andrew. GOVERNMENT TRAINING COLLEGE FOR
FEMALE TEACHERS, (Lady Principal, Miss A. C. Johnson). Has
30 students, and a practising school in connection. Entrance
fee 5. Board and lodging free.








EDUCATION. 71

(c.) HIGHER GRADE SCHOOLS.
The following is a list of some of the principal educational estab-
lishments in the island.*
Barbican, St. Andrew. WESLEYAN SCHOOL FOR GIRLs, ILady
Principal, Miss Bond.)
Camperdown, St. Andrew. CAMPERDOWN SCHOOL, 'Masters-C(. F.
Poole. M.A., and E. A. Poole, B.A.) (Private).
Halfway Tree, St. Andrew. LADIES' COLLEGE. (Mistress -Miss
Ashby.) (Private.)
Hope, St. Andrew, JAMAICA HIGH SCHOOL, (Headmaster, Rev,
Wm. Simms, M. A.) has 22 Foundationers, 7
Endowed School Scholars. 11 terminal board
ers, 2 weekly boarders and 3 day boys. Total
45.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, (Principal, Rev. Wm.
Simms, M.A.). Founded in 1889, in order to
extend University Teaching in the island. Has
4 students.
Kingston. THE BOARD SCHOOL, (for Manual Instruction).
CHURCH OF ENGLAND GRAMMAR .SCHOOL. (Headmaster.
Rev, M. C. Clare). Fees (i to 10 per annum
(Private.)
'"OLLEGIATE SCHOOL, (Principal, Win. Morrison, M.A )
Fees 1 10s. to 2 10s. per term. Board 8 per
term. (Private).
'ANCISCAN CONVENT, (Roman Catholic) Boarding
School and Elementary Schools in connection.
IEBREW NATIONAL INSTITUTION (Day School).
.' JAMAICA CHURCH THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE. (Warden,
Rev. C. H. Coles, M.A : Tutor, Rev. J. H. Ellis,
M.A )
HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLs, with Kindergarten, (Mis-
tress-Mrs. M. C. Clare). (Private).
KINGSToN ACADEMY, (Mistress-Mrs Lewis) (Private)
ST. GEORGE'S COLLEGE, (Roman Catholic), Fees, Day
Scholars 10 Boarders 3(ito 40 per annum.
WOLMER'S FREE SCHOOL, (Headmaster, H. Dews, B.A :
Headmistress of the Girls' School. Miss C. Murray ;.
Lucea, Hanover. RUSEA'S FREE SCHOOL, (Headmaster. A. E.
Tomlinson, B.A.), has 15 Free Foundationers, and paying pupils
at 8 per annum.
Manderille, Manchester. HIGH SCHOOL, BOYS MIDDLE GRADE
SCHOOL (Headmaster, M. F. Johns.)
GIRLs MIDDLE GRADE SCHOOL. (Mistress-Miss L.
Cartier.)
Montego Bag, St. James. SECONDARY SCHOOL FOR Boys. Head-
master, E. V. Lockett. B.A.)
Old Harbour, St, Catherine. LUDFORD'S BEQUEST.
Port Antonio, Portland. TITCHFIELD FREE SCHOOL (Headmaster,
Boys' School, W. H Plant; Mistress, Girls School, Miss Doran.)
Port Maria, St. Mary's RECTORY SCHOOL, (Principal, Rev. J. H.
H. Graham), Fees 2 to 3 per term. (Private.)
All schools, except tho-e marked Private, are endowed or uInlirled i Iy the
Government,







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


Potsdam, St. Elizabeth. MUNROE AND DICKENSON'S FREE SCHOOL.
(Headmaster, Rev. W. D. Pearman. M.A.) Has 10 Free
Foundationers, 10 20 Foundationers and 11 term boarders.
Ropley, St Andrew. ROPLEY SCHOOL, (Principal, Rev. M. F.
McDermot.) (Private.)
Savanna-la-Mar, Westmoreland. MANNING'S FREE SCHOOL,
(Headmaster. W. A. Milne).
Spanish Torwn, St. Catherine. GRADED MIDDLE CLASS SCHOOL (in
connection with Beckford and Smith's Trust.) (Principal, Rev.
W. Kemp lBissell.) Fee 2 per term
York Castle, St. Ann. YORK CASTLE HIGH SCHOOL, (Wesleyan)
(Governor, Kev. W. C. Murray, D.D. Headmaster, W H
Mitchell, M.A.) There is a theological training institution in
connection.
(c.) GOVERNMENT SCHOLARSHIPS
1.) The. amaica Scholarship --Once a year a scholarship of 200 per
annum, tenable for three years at any one of the Universities of
Great Britain and Ireland is awarded. It is given to the boy (who
must be Jamaica born, or a son of parents domiciled in the island)
who passes best in the Cambridge Senior Local Examination. pro-
vided that he obtains either a first or second class in honours, or a
third class in honours together with distinction in one subject
(II.) 60 Scholarships. -Two Scholarships of 60 per annum, tenable
for three years, are granted each year to the two candidates in the
Cambridge Senior Local Examination who -born in Jamaica or of
parents domiciled in Jamn ica. no: less than seventeen or more than
nineteen years before the 15th of December in the year of examina-
tion (after excluding the winner of the Jamaica Scholarship and any
others who cannot or do not take up ore of these Scholarships)-
stand highest amongst those who pass the Cambridge Senior Local
Examination, provided they obtain Honours or a mark of distinction
in one subject, and declare their intention of proceeding with I three
years to the examinations for some degree of the University of Lon-
don.
(III.) 15 Scholarships. Four Scholarships of 15 tenable for one year
are awarded annually to the four boys, and one to the girl, who
stand highest on the list of successful candidates under 19 years in
the Cambridge Local Examination for Senior Students; the winners
of the Jamaica Scholarship and the 60 Scholarships being excluded.
(rv.) 10 Scholarships.-Eight Scholarships of 10 tenable for one year
are annually granted to the eight boys under the age of sixteen years
who stand highest on the list of the successful candidates in the
Cambridge Junior Local Examinatton, provided in each case that
the scholar be placed in one of the honour classes or obtains mark of
distinction in some subject.
Two such Scholarships are annually granted to the two girls under
the age of sixteen years who stand highest amongst the girls in the
same examination, without the requirement of any further proviso.
(v.) 5 Scholarships.--Twenty-eight Scholarships of the annual value of
5 each, tenable for two years, are annually granted to twenty
eight pupils from the Elementary Schools of the island, who, after
examination held by the Superintending Inspector of Schools, de-










REL.ION.


clare their intention of continuing their education at any school
created or assisted under the Secondary Education Law. or approved
by the Board of Education.
(vi ) Trade Scholarships -Five Scholarships of the maximum value of
25 per annum each, and lasting for a maximum period of 5 years
each, are annually granted to five pupils from the Elementary
Schools, who must be not less than fourteen years of age and who
shall be willing to enter into articles of apprenticeship with trades-
men to be selected in rotation from the following list: -
Tradesmen. Period of Training
Carpenter .. years
Blacksmith
Plummer and Coppersmith
Cooper .3 years
Mason 5 years
Wheelwright .. 3 years
House Painter .. 2 years
Saddler 3 years
Shoemaker .
Tailor .. 2 years
(d.) CAMBRIDGE LOCAL EXAMIIATIONS. These examinations are held
every Decemder in Kingston, at the Jamaica High School at Hope,
and at such other centres as the Local Committee may appoint.
(The Rev. Win. Pratt, M.A., i; the Local Secretary.) In 1S95 the
following was the result: -
Examined. Passed.
Seniors. Boys 19 18
Girls 4 3
Juniors. Boys 74 46
Girls 23 13
Preliminary Boys 08 33
Girls 26 8

Total 214 121

(e.) COLLEGE OF PRECEPTORS EXAMINATIONS. These Examinations are
now held in Kingston yearly.


XIV. RELIGION.
The following is a list of the various religious denominations in
the island.
I. THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN JAMAICA. (disestablished in 1870). There
are 105 churches and 97 mission-stations. There are a Bishop, an
Assistant Bishop, upwards of 100 clergymen, and about 250 catechists
and lay readers; and a membership of nearly 44,000. The Church
maintainsaTheological College, and over 320 elementary day schools
are managed by its clergy. Bishop of Jamaica-Most Rev. Enos
Nuttall, D.D.. Primate of theWest Indies.
II. THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND IN JAMAICA, has 8 churches, 4 clergymen
1 lay missionary, and 1,500 to 1,600 communicants; 12 day schools.
and 10 Sunday schools.









HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


In. THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. Besides the principal church,
that of Holy Trinity, Kingston, there are about 200 chapels in
various parts of the island, which are periodically visited. In ad-
dition to several elementary schools in town and country, there are
two industrial schools and an orphanage Bishop of Thyatira and
Vicar Apostolic of Jamaica-Right Rev. Charles Gordon.
Iv. THE JAMAICA BAPTIST MISSION has 186 churches, 64 ministers, a
membership of 36,308, about 5,000 candidates for membership and
over 250 day schools.
v. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF JAMAICA has 57 congregations, 28
ordained ministers, 19 catechists and 364 ruling elders, over 11,317
members, and 86 day schools. Clerk to Synod-Rev W. Y.
Turner, M.D.
vI. THE CONGREGATIONAL UNION OF JAMAICA has 10 ordained Pastors,
9 Catechists, 3,580 church members, and 33 day schools.
vII. THE WESLEYAN METHODIST CHURCH has 140 chapels, a membership
of over 24,000 persons, 53 ministers, and 134 day schools, 143 Sun-
day schools and two high schools, one for boys the other for girls.
President elect -Rev. Thomas M. Geddes.
viii. THE L'NITED METHODIST FREE CHURCH consists of 9 ministers,
3,527 communicants and 34 day schools.
IX. THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, or the Church of the Disciples of Christ,
numbers 6 ministers, 19 churches, 1,900 members and 10 day schools.
It is chiefly supported by the Christian Woman's Board of Missions
of Indianapolis, U S.A.
x. THE MORAVAIN CHURCH has 20 principal stations, a total membership
of over 17,000, with 19 ministers, and 77 day schools. This Church
maintains two voluntary Training Colleges Bishop-Right Rev.
G. H. Hanna.
XI. JEWISH CONGREGATIONS. There arein Kingston, the Amalgamated
Congregation of Israelites (Rev. S. Jacobs, Minister of the Syna-
gogue in Duke street), and a Synagogue in East Street (with a Lay
Reader.)
xIi. CHINESE. There is a Chinese Temple in Kingston.


XV. HISTORY-
Jamaica was discovered by Columbus on the 3rd May, [494,
during his second voyage, when, landing on the 14th of May at
Dry Harbour, he found it thickly populated by ArawAk Indians.
During the Spanish occupation, which lasted 161 years, the towns
of Sevilla and Mellila (which have long since perished) and Saint
Jago de la Vega (the present Spanish Town) were built. Almost
the whole of the natives were destroyed; but a large number of
horses and cattle were reared.
On the 11th May 1655, the island was given up by the Spaniards
to an expedition under Penn and Venables which had failed in its
attempt to capture St. Domingo After a short period of military
command, General D'Oyley in 1661 received a commission as Gover-
nor of Jamaica, since which date there have been 41 Governors;
besides a number of Lieutenant Governors, and latterly Administra-
tors, during the temporary absence of Governors. The first general
representative Assembly of the people met at St. Jago de la Vega







I: STORY.


ill January, 1664. and that body continued in existence until 1865
when Crown Government was established, with Sir John Peter
Grant as Governor, in the form of a simple chamber called the
Legislative Council of Jamaica, con listing of public officers and
other persons appointed by the Queen This arrangement continued
till 1884, when, under Sir Henry Norman, a new Legislative Counsil
was constituted and the inhabitants thereby received a form of
Representative Government for which they had been for a long time
agitating. The following is a brief list of a few of the more import-
events in the history of the island during the British possession.
1655 In May the Island was given up to the English.
1661 General D'Oyley first Governor
1664 Sir Thomas Modyford arrived from Barbados as Governor, bring.
ing with him 1000 settlers. He transferred the residence of the
Governor from Cagua (Port Royal) to St. Jago de la Vega (Spanish
Town).
'* A census was taken of the population, which amounted to 4,205.
1670 Jamaica formally ceded to England by the Treaty of Madrid.
1675 Under Lord Vaughan, 1,200 persons arrived from Surinam, and
settled in the island, principally at a place called Surinam in the
parish of Westmoreland.
1678 During the Governorship of the Earl of Carlisle. the Assembly
successfully resisted the proposed change in the political constitution
of the island.
1687 Sir Hans Sloane, the naturalist, visited the island in the suite of
the Duks of Albemarle.
1692 On the 7th June, Port Royal, then the finest town of the West
Indies and one of the richest places in the world, was destroyed by
an earthquake; which event led to the development of the town of
Kingston.
1694 The island was visited by a French fleet under Admiral Du Casse,
but the invaders were driven back.
1702 Fight off Santa Martha between Du Jasse and Benbow, who died
from the effects of a wound; and lies buried iu Kingston church.
1711 Severe storm in the western part of the island, the parish of West-
moreland alone sustaining damage to the extent of 700,000.
1718 Introduction of Coffee into the island.
1722 Much damage done at Port Royal by a hurricane.
1730, 1732 and 1734. Difficulties with the Maroons; and in 1738, a
treaty of peace was entered into with them by which 2,500 acres of
land were assigned to them in different parts of the island.
1739 [War declared by England against Spain.]
1744 A dreadful storm aud earthquake. Port Royal, Kingston, Old
Harbour, and Passage Fort suffered, and Savanna-la-Mar was totally
destroyed
1758 Three Counties-Cornwall, Middlesex and Surrey--formed.
1760 A formidable rebellion among the slaves in the parish of St. Mary:
about 600 were transported to the Bay of Honduras.
1778 An expedition was sent against San Juan de Nicaragua by Gover-
nor Dalling. Nelson, who was then Governor of Fort Charles, left
his post and accepted a subordinate command The Castle of San
Juan was captured, but the besiegerssuffered fearfully from malarial
fever. Nelson only escaped with his life.






HANDBOOK OFl INFORMATION.


1782 Rodney achieved his great victory over Count de Grasse, and t'lus
saved Jamaica from possible capture
1784, 1785 and 1786. The island was visited by very severe storms, and
a large number of negroes perislhel from famine.
1789 [Revolution in San Domingo ]
1795, 1796. Further troubles with the Maroons: 500 ,o them were sent
to Nova Scotia, whence they were afterwards trait-'erred to Sierra
Leone.
1807 Africa i Slave Trade a'. dlished.
1824 See of Jamaica constituted : Dr Lipscomb was made the tirst Bishop
of Jamaica
During the Duke j .l1 M chesltr's administration began the con-
troversy between the Imperial Gvernment and the House of Assem-
bly in connection with the measures proposed by the former for
improving the condition of the slave population.
1831 Outbreak of the Negro popuhition in Cornwall.
1833 In May a law was passed by the Imperial Parliament which de-
clayed that from an .after August, 1834, allslaves in the colonial pos-
sessions of Gr-at Britain should be free for ever, subject to an inter-
mediate stateor six years'apprentice-ship. Theamountof 5,853,975
was granted to Jamaica in compensation of the freedom of upwards
of 300.000 slaves.
1831 On the first of August the total abolition of slavery took place.
1841 The Jamaica Silk Company incorporated by a local act.
1842 In May arrived the first batch of immigrants from India as agri-
cultural labourers.
1845 The Jamaica Railway was opened
1850 Asiatic Cholera visited the island. The deaths were estimated at
32,000
1865 During the Governorship of Mr. Eyre, occurred the outbreak at
Morant Bay in October, when Baron Von Ketelholdt, the Custos of
St. Thomas in the Ea-t. and eighteen other gentlemen were killed.
George William Gordoi member of the House of Assembly, was tried
by Court Martial and hanged. As a result of the Royal Commission
which enquired into the circumstances of the case, Governor Eyre
was recalled.
1S 6 New Constitution under Sir John Peter Grant. The twenty-two
parishes reduced to fourteen A .emi-military police, a medical
service, and a department of public works were organized.
186S Fruit trade with America started at Port Antonio.
1869 By the opening of telegraphic communication between Jamaica
and Havanna it first became possible to send telegrams from the
island to Europe.
1870 The Episcopal Church was disestablished.
Removal of the seat of Government from Spanish Town to King-
ston.
1872 First introduction of the Mongoose direct from India.
1877 Jamaica admitted to the Postal Union.
1882 llth December. Great Fire in Kingston.
1883 1st December, publication of a new form of Government.
1889 Sale of the Jamaica Railway to an American Syndicate.
1891 27th January. Jamaica International Exhibition opened by
Prince George of Wales.






CONSfITUTION. 77

1894 Jamaica Railway extended to Montego Bay.
1896( First Legislative Council under Extended I -presentation. A
member for each parish.
Governors. Amongst the most prominent Governors of Jamaica
have been Sir William Trelawny, in whose honour a parish was
created and named after him : the Duke of Manchester who was
here for no less than nineteen years : the Earl of Mulgrave whose
administration of the iovernmuent during a critical time in the
history of the island was marked by much firmness and discretion;
Sir Charles Metcalfe who did much to reconcile the colony with the
mother country, and who also had a parish named after him which
is now merged into St Mary; Lord Elgin. who made many endea-
vours to improve the methods of agriculture practised in the island;
Sir John Peter Grant, upon whom devolved the duty of organizing
the new form of government; Sir Anthony Musgrave, during whose
term of office, many improvement in the island took place, and Sir
Henry Norman, under whom a new Legislative Council was consti-
tuted, which gave the inhabitants a form of Representative Go-
vernment.




XVI. CONSTITUTION.
(I.) LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.-The present Legislative Council consists
of the Governor, (President) : five ex-officio members (the Senior
Military Officer for the ti ne being .in command of Her Majesty's
Regular Troops in Jamaica. the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney
General, the Director of Public Works, and the Collector-General);
no more than ten members o be nominated by the Crown, [of which
at present only five are : o nominated]: and fourteen members
elected by the people. one for each parish. [For names of members
of Legislative Council, see Official List p vii.]
Those qualified as voters are British male subjects of twenty-one
years of age being occupiers, as tenants or owners, of house property
paying taxes to the extent of ten shillings, or owning property and
paying taxes to the extent of thirty shillings: or being in receipt of
an annual salary of J50 and upwards.
The Legislative Council lasts for five yeais, and sits when sum-
moned by the Governor, usually for two or three months in the
early months of the year.
No laws involving questions of finance are passed if opposed by
nine or more elected members. The President has only a casting
vote. Bills passed by the Council and assented to by the Governor,
become law; but Her Majesty may disallow any law within two
years of its passing.
(1I.) PRIVY COUNCIL.-There is also a Privy Council, consisting of the
Senior Military Officer in the Island, the Colonial Secretary, the
Attorney General, and other persons not to exceed eight in number.
nominated by tne Crown. [At present there are only three nomi-
nated members]. [For names see p. vii.]







78 HANDBOOK oF INFORMATION.

XVII. MILITARY AND NAVAL.
The troops in Jamaica are under the command of a Colonel with
local rank of Major-General. There are a detachment of British
regiment stationed nt Newcastle; a company of Artillery and Royal
Engineers at Port Royal and at Apostles Battery; and companies
of either the first or second West India Regiment at Up-Park Camp,
Kingston the remainder of these regiments being at St. Lucia,
Barbados, or the West Coast of Africa. The Depot of the West
India Regiment is at Up-Park Camp, Kingston.
(a.) MILI TARY. -The strength of the Military stationed in Jamaica on
December 1st, 1895, was as follows : -
Brigade Staff Officers 4
Regimental Field Officers 8
Regimental Captains 7
Regimental Subalterns 23
Regimental Staff Officers 3
Royal Engineer Officers 6
Army Service Corps (Officers) 2
Army Medical Staff (Officers) 7
Army Pay Department (Officers) 2
Ordnance Store Department Officers 2
Warrant Officers 5
Staff Sergeants and Sergeants 105
Trumpeters and Drummers 20
Rank and File 1,373

Total 1,567
(b.) NAVAL. At Port Royal tiere ire a Depot Ship, the Urgent, (2,801
tons); the Royal Navy Yard with a naval officer in charge, Secretary,
Master Attendant. Naval and Victualling Store-keeper and Account-
ant, Assistant Naval Store-keeper, Engineer, Chief Carpenter,
Boatswain and Foreman of Works ; and the Royal Naval Hlospital.
The North American and Wst Indian Squadron visits the port once
a year, in the Spring.
(c.) THE JAMAICA MILITIA. Formed in 1885.- In Kington there are a
corps of Infantry. and a Company of Garrison Artillery; in Tre-
lawny a Company of mounted Infantry; in St. Elizabeth a Company
of Infantry; in St. Catherine, a Company of Artillery and a Com-
pany of Infantry. The total Volunteer Force at present in lamaica
consists of 32 Officers, 500 Non-Commissioned Officers and Men,
total 532. Adjutant of Jamaica Volunteer Militia, Captain E S C.
Kennedy, W.I.R.



XVIII. INSTITUTIONS.
Black River, St. Elizabeth Benefit Building Society, (Secretary,
C. G. Farquharson).
Brown's Town. Brown's Town Benefit Building Society, (Secre-
tary, J. A. Dickenson).
Falmouth, Trelawny Benefit Building Society, (Secretary, Henry
Levy).







78 HANDBOOK oF INFORMATION.

XVII. MILITARY AND NAVAL.
The troops in Jamaica are under the command of a Colonel with
local rank of Major-General. There are a detachment of British
regiment stationed nt Newcastle; a company of Artillery and Royal
Engineers at Port Royal and at Apostles Battery; and companies
of either the first or second West India Regiment at Up-Park Camp,
Kingston the remainder of these regiments being at St. Lucia,
Barbados, or the West Coast of Africa. The Depot of the West
India Regiment is at Up-Park Camp, Kingston.
(a.) MILI TARY. -The strength of the Military stationed in Jamaica on
December 1st, 1895, was as follows : -
Brigade Staff Officers 4
Regimental Field Officers 8
Regimental Captains 7
Regimental Subalterns 23
Regimental Staff Officers 3
Royal Engineer Officers 6
Army Service Corps (Officers) 2
Army Medical Staff (Officers) 7
Army Pay Department (Officers) 2
Ordnance Store Department Officers 2
Warrant Officers 5
Staff Sergeants and Sergeants 105
Trumpeters and Drummers 20
Rank and File 1,373

Total 1,567
(b.) NAVAL. At Port Royal tiere ire a Depot Ship, the Urgent, (2,801
tons); the Royal Navy Yard with a naval officer in charge, Secretary,
Master Attendant. Naval and Victualling Store-keeper and Account-
ant, Assistant Naval Store-keeper, Engineer, Chief Carpenter,
Boatswain and Foreman of Works ; and the Royal Naval Hlospital.
The North American and Wst Indian Squadron visits the port once
a year, in the Spring.
(c.) THE JAMAICA MILITIA. Formed in 1885.- In Kington there are a
corps of Infantry. and a Company of Garrison Artillery; in Tre-
lawny a Company of mounted Infantry; in St. Elizabeth a Company
of Infantry; in St. Catherine, a Company of Artillery and a Com-
pany of Infantry. The total Volunteer Force at present in lamaica
consists of 32 Officers, 500 Non-Commissioned Officers and Men,
total 532. Adjutant of Jamaica Volunteer Militia, Captain E S C.
Kennedy, W.I.R.



XVIII. INSTITUTIONS.
Black River, St. Elizabeth Benefit Building Society, (Secretary,
C. G. Farquharson).
Brown's Town. Brown's Town Benefit Building Society, (Secre-
tary, J. A. Dickenson).
Falmouth, Trelawny Benefit Building Society, (Secretary, Henry
Levy).








INSTITI TIONS.


Kingston, Board of Supervision (for Port Relief), (Secretary,
Robert Johnstone).
Central Board of Education, (Secretary, J. D. Kerrich,
B.A.)
ivil Service Widows and Orphans' Fund, (Secretary,
A. H. Miles).
Floral and Horticultural Society, (Secretary, G. A.
Mould, A.M.I C.E )
Hebrew Benevolent Society. (President, Herman Stern.)
Home Marine Insurance Company, (Mana.:er and Se-
cretary, D. B. Callaghan).
Institute of Jamaica : for the encouragement of Litera-
ture, Science and Art. (Founded 1879) Library,
and Art Gallery open free daily, from It a.m. to
9 p.m. Museum from 10 a.m, till dusk.
Jamaica Agricultural Society, (Secretary. G. A. Douet).
Jamaica Branch of the British A.edical Association,
(Honorary Secretary, G V. Lockett, M.B.)
Jamaica Civil Service lMutual Guarantee Association.
(Secretary, A H Miles-.
Jamaica Club (Social), (Secretary. F A. Steel).
Jamaica Co-operative Fire Insurance Company,
(Secretary, Henry Ford).
Jamaica Marine Insurance C'ompany, (Acting Mana-
ger, J F Squire ;
Jamaica Masonic Benevolence, (Secretary, F. G. Sale.)
Jamaica Mutual Life assurance e Society, (Secretary,
A. H. Jones).
Jamaica Permanent Building Society, (Secretary, T.
A. Hogg).
S Jamaica Schools Comniis-i,i, (Secretary. Robert
Johnstone).
Kingston and St. Andrew Rifle Asociation.
Kingston Benefit Building Society. (Secretary, J. M.
Poison).
Kingston Yacht Club, (Honorary Secretary, L. C. B.
Yoeman).
Lady Musgrave's Women Self Help Society, (Secretary,
Miss Burke).
Medical Council of Jamnica, (Seceiltary. M. Grabham,
M.B.)
People's Discount and Depoit. (-.e.rtary. G C. H.
Lewis).
Royal Jamaica Society of Agriculture and Commerce,
(Secretary, G. Levy).
Royal Jamaica Yacht C'lub
Sailors' Home. (Secretary, 1). M. Leon)
Victoria Mutual Buil ling Society (Secretary. W A.
Paine).
Lucea. Hanover Benefit Building Society
Mandeville, Literary Institute.










80 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

Montego Bay. St. James Benefit Building Society, (Secretary,
J. S. Coridaldi).
Port Antonio. Portland Benefit Building Society, (Secretary, R.
W Clark).
St. Ann's Bay, St Ann's Benefit Building Society, (Se-retarv. Miss
P. Cork).
Savanna-la-Mar, Self Help Institute.
Westmoreland Building Society. (Manager. Hlon
and Rev. H Clarke).
Many of the British Insurance Companies have agencies in the
Island.





XIX. NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS, PRIEST LISTS, &c.

N;i me of Proprietor Where Is- Price per
Title of Paper. or Editor. sued. No.


Daily
The Daily News Letter James Gall Kingston 1%d.
i;leaner .DeCordova & Co. 1 d.
Jamaica Post .J. W. Kerr & Co.. )4d.
Tri-weekly.
Budget .C. L. Campbell d.
Tri-weekly Gleaner DeCordova & Co.. 3d.
S Semi-weekly.
Falmouth Gazette J. W. Henry Falmouth I d.
Nineteenth Century D. A. Corinaldi MontegoBey 1dd.
Cornwall Times Brown & Brown "
Weekly. "
The Weekly 1-ews Letter James Gall .I Kingston 3d.
Jamaica Gazette Government 3d.
Police Gazette 1 Government .
Fortnightly
Jamaica Prices Current DeCordova & Co.
Methodist Messenger Rev. John Duff 3d.
Monthly.
Baptist Reporter ev. W. M. Webb StewartTown 1,d.
Buletin of the Botanical Director of Public
Department ., Gardens and Plan-
tations Kingston Free
Bulletin uo the Education Superintending In- I
Department spector of Sch ,ols
Catholic Opinion .1 A Committee 3d.
Christian Helper Rev. G E. Hender- Brown's
Sson, B.A. Town
Gardner's Monthly Aston W. Gardner Kingston








SPORTS AND PASTIMES.


NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS, PRICE LIST, &C.. continued.


Title of Paper.


Gospeler
Jamaica Churchman
Jamaica Congregational
Magazine
Journal of Commerce

Moravian

The Presbyterian

St. Michael's Magazine
Winkler's Musical Month-
ly -'


Name of Proprietor
or Editor.


Monthly.
Rev. G. W. Downer
A Committee

Rev. C. A. Wookey
Charles E. D'Mer-
cado
Rev. Jonathan
Reinke
Rev. James Coch-
rane
Rev. R. G. Ambrose'

L. Winkler & Co. .


Quarterly.
Journal of the Institute The Institute of Ja-
of Jamaica maica


XX. SPORTS AND PASTIMES,
CRICKET -There are Cricket Clubs in Kingston. Mandeville, Spanish
Town and other towns.
LAwN TENNIS is much played in Kingston and elsewhere.
FOOTBALL is played in Kingston and Spanish Town.
POLO is played at the Camp near Kingston, and in St. Ann.
ROWING can be had in Kingston Harbour, in Lucea Harbour. (which is
land locked), and in some of the rivers, but most of them are too
rocky.
SHOOTING.-Of Game birds, the principal are the blue pigeon. the bald
pate. the white-wing, the pea-dove, the white-belly, the partridge,
and the ring tail pigeon Close time for white-belly, partridge and
ringtail, from April 1st to August 31st, for the others, April 1st,
to 25th July. The blue pigeon and baldpate are strong-winged
sp-orting birds that take a good deal of shooting when in a hurry.
The whitewing is a smaller pigeon and flies more in flocks than the
others The pea-dove is generally to be found singly or in pairs
along the roads or on commons, or in dry river courses, and he will
carry away more shot for his size than any other bird. The white-
belly and partridge never fly in the open. They haunt thickets in the
woodland where the underwood is not too dense. The ringtail is
a denizen of the high mountains, and shooting him is very toilsome
work.
In addition to these, we are visited every winter by large flocks
of duck and teal, escaping from the rigours of the North American
climate.


Where Is- Price per
sued. i No.



Free
3d.

3d.

Free

134d.
2s per
annum


6d.


1'.








82 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

The best time for shooting is in the grey dawn of the morning,
and for a couple of hours af:er sunrise, for then the birds leave the
roost and fly off to the feeding grounds in the case of pigeons, and
and the ducks and teal come out ,f I he sedges and disport themselves
in the open spaces on the ponds anli marshes."
FISHING.-The rivers of Jamaica offer athactions to the fisherman.
Chief of those tound near the mnui hs are the callipever, the snook
and the mullet, which is taken with a cast net Higher up in the
rapids are found the far-famed mountain mullet Eels, mud-fish,
crayfish and prawns. caught in bamboo basket-work pots, also
abound in all the rivers.
The sea is full of fish of all kinds of which the chief are the king-
fish. junefish, snappers, yellowtails, grunts, mullets, grouper, hind,
jack, parrotfish, turbot, whiting and cutlass
RACE MEETINGS are held in Kingston. at Cumberland Pen (near King-
ston), at Black River, at Mlaudeville, at St. Ann's Bay and elsewhere,
A Queen's Purse (eiven by the Government) is raced for once a
year in Kingston.
NATURAL HISrORY.-" To the tourist interested in animal or vegetable
life a visit to Jamaica will yield a wide field for investigation. The
absence of all dangerous quadrupeds and snakes such as may be
found in lands further south, relieves one of all fear; while the very
few unpleasant insects met with but add zest to what otherwise
might be considered too tame an experience for a tropical tour.
The island is exceptionally rich in land shells; and insects of
varied and beautiful form and colour, attract attention both in
the day and night Some of the rarest forms of moths and butter-
flies are to be founu here.
Of even greater interest is the vegetable life; the stately palms
and bamboos, the delicate lilies and orchids, the enormous silk
cotton tree with its buttress roots and far spreading branches, the
ficus whose seed, dropped by some bird high up on the branch of a
great cotton tree, germinates there, sending rope like roots down
and around the massive trunk until their tight embrace kills the
giant, and in its place stands, as grand, a wild fig tree; the many
coloured convolvuli which appear on every hand during the morning
hours or shine like great white stars in the dusk of eve and early
morn,-and a variety of other plants are to be seen growing wild ;
the Black Eyed Susan,' from purest white to deepest orange, festoon
the hedges in the lowlands; begonias, tradescantias and other
lovely plants which are cared for with great solicitude in the hot
houses of colder climes, are but weeds in the mountain districts of
Jamaica. The massive mango, the breadfruit with its handsome
large deeply cut leaves and great green fruit; the star-apple called
two faced," because while the upper surface of its leaf is a dark
green, the lower is a velvety brown; the cacao-pods, and jack-fruit
hanging, not from the twigs, but upon the main branches and even
on the trunks of the trees; and the coffee with its masses of snow
white blossoms, are all objects of great interest to the traveller.
But the feins! What shall be said of them Who does not
admire the delicate tracery of their waving fronds I The island
boasts of some 500 species, ranging from noble tree ferns-matching
many palms in size and second to none in beauty-to tiny filmies








WORKS OF REFERENCE ON JAMAICA.


which cling to tree trunks in the moist quiet inouutain valleys and
other sheltered nooks. No district in Jamaica is without its ferns,
from the cliffs dewed by the salt sea spray to the highest mountain
peaks. these exquisite plants are found. And usually they are in
such abundance, that the tourist can gather in the cool of the morn-
ing and late afternoon, specimens sufficient to interestingly occupy
the hotter parts of the day in drying, preserving and setting tneln
There will thus be secured a memento which will for many yt.;rs
prove an object of delight
To the geologist, also, Jamaica has attractions to offer."


XXI. DEPENDENCE OF JAMAICA.
(a.) THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS.
The Turks and Caicos Islands, the most southern of the Bahama
Group of Islands, constitute a Dependency of Jamaica These are
noted as salt-pro ticinu islands. 1,651,000 bushels were exported in
1893. Grand Turk and Salt Cay in the Turks Island Group and
Cockburn Harbour on the south aios the aiosre the principal ports The
population of Grand Turk is 2,709: of Salt Cay, 251. and Cockburn
Harbour, 355. The seat of Government is at Grand l'urk The
value of imports for 1893 was 24,888 4s id and of exports
23,224 4s. 7d.
The pita hemp fibre industry is as yet in its infancy, but it is
hoped it m;y develop. There are two fibre companies in operation.
There are seven schools and several chapels in the islands.
(b.) THE CAYMAN ISLANDS.
The Cayman Isiands are attached to the Government of Jamaica.
They con ist of Grand Cayman, Little Cayman and Cayman Brae.
Grand Cayman, which is the largest of the group, is distant abont
130 miles in a north westerly direction from Point Negril in the
parish of Westmoreland. The population of these Islands is about
4,000. The inhabitants support themselves by catching uirtle, by
acting as pilots amongst the Cuban Cays. by ship building and by
cultivating provision grounds and cocoanuts walks Tile principal
towns are George Town and Hodde:. Town in the island of Grand
Cayman.
(C.) THE IMORANT CAYS AND PEDRO CAYS.
The Morant Cays and Pedro Cays are annexed to the Island of
Jamaica. The Morant Cays are situated about 36 miles to the south-
east of Morant Point in the Parish of St Thomas in Jam:ica, and
consist of three small Islets. The Pedro Cays are situated suoie 40
to 50 miles to the southwest of Portland Point in the parish of
Clarendon, and consist of four cays or isle-s. Guano and Boobies'
eggs are collected on all these cays.


XXII. WORKS OF REFERENCE ON JAMAICA.
I GENERAL INFORMATION.
The Handbook of Ja naica published by Authority, comprising
Historical, Statistical and General Information concerning
the Island. Published yearly. Edward Stanford, London;
and Government Printing Office, Jamaica--Price i/,








WORKS OF REFERENCE ON JAMAICA.


which cling to tree trunks in the moist quiet inouutain valleys and
other sheltered nooks. No district in Jamaica is without its ferns,
from the cliffs dewed by the salt sea spray to the highest mountain
peaks. these exquisite plants are found. And usually they are in
such abundance, that the tourist can gather in the cool of the morn-
ing and late afternoon, specimens sufficient to interestingly occupy
the hotter parts of the day in drying, preserving and setting tneln
There will thus be secured a memento which will for many yt.;rs
prove an object of delight
To the geologist, also, Jamaica has attractions to offer."


XXI. DEPENDENCE OF JAMAICA.
(a.) THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS.
The Turks and Caicos Islands, the most southern of the Bahama
Group of Islands, constitute a Dependency of Jamaica These are
noted as salt-pro ticinu islands. 1,651,000 bushels were exported in
1893. Grand Turk and Salt Cay in the Turks Island Group and
Cockburn Harbour on the south aios the aiosre the principal ports The
population of Grand Turk is 2,709: of Salt Cay, 251. and Cockburn
Harbour, 355. The seat of Government is at Grand l'urk The
value of imports for 1893 was 24,888 4s id and of exports
23,224 4s. 7d.
The pita hemp fibre industry is as yet in its infancy, but it is
hoped it m;y develop. There are two fibre companies in operation.
There are seven schools and several chapels in the islands.
(b.) THE CAYMAN ISLANDS.
The Cayman Isiands are attached to the Government of Jamaica.
They con ist of Grand Cayman, Little Cayman and Cayman Brae.
Grand Cayman, which is the largest of the group, is distant abont
130 miles in a north westerly direction from Point Negril in the
parish of Westmoreland. The population of these Islands is about
4,000. The inhabitants support themselves by catching uirtle, by
acting as pilots amongst the Cuban Cays. by ship building and by
cultivating provision grounds and cocoanuts walks Tile principal
towns are George Town and Hodde:. Town in the island of Grand
Cayman.
(C.) THE IMORANT CAYS AND PEDRO CAYS.
The Morant Cays and Pedro Cays are annexed to the Island of
Jamaica. The Morant Cays are situated about 36 miles to the south-
east of Morant Point in the Parish of St Thomas in Jam:ica, and
consist of three small Islets. The Pedro Cays are situated suoie 40
to 50 miles to the southwest of Portland Point in the parish of
Clarendon, and consist of four cays or isle-s. Guano and Boobies'
eggs are collected on all these cays.


XXII. WORKS OF REFERENCE ON JAMAICA.
I GENERAL INFORMATION.
The Handbook of Ja naica published by Authority, comprising
Historical, Statistical and General Information concerning
the Island. Published yearly. Edward Stanford, London;
and Government Printing Office, Jamaica--Price i/,







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


II. DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT.
The New Jamaica. Describing the Island, explaining its con-
ditions of life and growth, and discussing its mercantile rela-
tions and potential importance: adding somewhat in relation
to those matters which directly interest the tourist and the
health-seeker. By Edgar Mahew Bacon and Eugene Murray
Aaron, Ph.D., Illustrated. 1890. Walbridge and C'o., New
York, and Aston W. Gardner & Co., Jamaica. -Price 2/6
UI GUIDE.
Gardner's Handy Guide to Jamaica, S89, containing informa-
tion useful to tourists and residents, a short sketch of some
incidents in the History of the colony, a collection ol Local
Proverbs, and other interesting matter. 1889. -Aston W.
Gardner & Co., Jamaica.-Price 1/6.
iy. MINERAL SPRINGS.
The Mineral Springs of Jamaica. By the Hon. J. C. Phillippo.
M D. 1891. Institute of Jamaica.--Price 6d.
v. CLIMATE.
The Climate of Jamaica, by James Cecil Phillippo, M.D., &c.
1876. J. and A. Churchill, London.
VI. AGRICULTURE.
Institute of Jamaica Lectures. Agriculture By William
Fawcett, B.Sc., J. J. Bowrey, F.C.S M. Grabham, M.B.,
J. T. Palache, B. S Gosset, Adam Roxburgh, C. A. T.
Fursdon, T. D. A. Cockerell, F.Z.S, and the Rev Wm.
Gillies. Treating of the Soil; Tillage and Manuring; Plant
Life; Physiology of Farm Animals: The Horse; Indian Cal-
tie; Cattle in Jamaica; Dairying; and Agricultural Pests:
together with a classified list of Books on Agriculture in the
Library of the Institute. 1893. Institute of Jamaica. -
Price 2/6. By post 2/10.
A Text-Book of Tropical Agriculture. By H. A. Alford
Nicholls, M.D., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., with Illustrations. 1892.
Memillan & Co., London and New York. -Price 6/.
VII. HISTORY.
A History of Jamaica from its Discovery by Christopher Colum-
bus to the present time; including an account of its Trade
and Agriculture; Sketches of the Manners, Habits and Cus-
toms of all classes of its inhabitants; and a narrative of the
Progress of Religion and Education in the Island. By W. J.
Gardner. 1873. Elliott Stock, London.
The Annals of Jamaica. By the Rev. George Wilson Bridges,
A.M. 2 vols. 1820. London, John Murray.
The History, Civil and Commercial of the British Colonies in
West Indies. By Bryan Edwards, F.R.S.A. 5 vols. 1819.
John Stockdale, London.
The History of Jamaica, or General Survey of the ancient an'd
modern state of that Island : with reflections on its situation,
settlements, Inhabitants, Climate, Products, Commerce, Laws,
and Government. 3 vols. fBy Edward Long] 1774. T.
Lowndes, London.






_iba








WORKS OF REFERENCE ON JAMAICA. 85

III. NATURAL HISTORY.
Economic Plants. An index to the Economic Products of the
Vegetable Kingdom in Jamaica. Compiled by William
Fawcett, B.Sc., F.L.S Director of Public Gardens and Plan-
tations, Jamaica 1891. Kingston.
A Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica. By Philip Henry Gosse,
F.R.S, assisted by Richard Hill, Cor. M.Z S. 1851. Long-
man, Brown, Green and Longmans. London.
The Birds of Jamaica By Philip Henry Gosse Assisted by
Richard Hill, of Spanish Town. 1847. London. Gurney
& Jackson, (Successors to Van Vorst). Price 10 .
The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica, containing an ae-
curate description of that Island, its situation and soil: with
a brief account of its former and present state, governmentt
Revenues, Produce and Trade. By Patrick Browne, M.D.
1789. B. White & Son, London.
A Voyage to the Islands, Madera. Bardadoes, Nieves. St. Chris-
tophers and Jamaica, with the Natural History ef the last of
those Islands. Illustrated. By Hans Sloane, M.). 1707.
London.
On the Geology of Jamaica and on Mining in Jamaica. By the
Rev. H. Scotland. Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, 1889.
Reports on the Geology of Jam ica ; Pt. II of the West Indian
Survey by James G. Sawkins, F.G.S ,with contributions from
G. P. Wall, F.G.S., Lucas Barrett. Arthur Lennox, F G.S.,
and C. E. Brown. and an appendix by Robert Etheridge,
F.G S., F.K.S.E. 1869. Longmans. Green & Co., i.ondon.
Remarks on the Geology of Jamaica. By H. T. De la Beehe,
F.R.S., F.L.S. Transaction of the Geological Society of
London. Second Series, Vol. 2 part 2nd. 1827.









THE INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA.

FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF LITERATURE SCIENCE AND ART




PUBLICATIONS OF THE INST7SUTIE.

ITO lE OBTAINED AT THE INSTITUTEE,
Objects of the Institute of Jamaica .. 18S1 Rev .J RADCLIFFE. 6d.
Root Food Growth in Jamaica .. REV. .. CRKK. 6id
The Timbers of Jamaica .. How. W. B ESPEUT. 6d
Sto,-k and Stook-raising in Jamaica .. ARCHIBALD RoXBUH'H. out
of print.


Cacao: How to Grow and How to C
It ..
Some Objects of Productive Industr
Native and other Fibre Plants
Outline of a Lecture on Vegetable
Chemistry
The Cultivation of the Orange in
Jamaica
The Vine and its I:ulture
The Cultivation of the Ramie
On a New Beverage Substance : Thi
Kola Nut
The Advantages to result from Rail-
way Extension ..
On the Geology of Jamaica
On Mining in Jamaica
The Mineral Springs of Jamaica
A Brief Guide to the Court of the I
stitute of Jamaica in the Jamait
International Exhibition of 1891


S1882 D. MORRIS.
y:
S1884 D. MORRIS.

.. J. J. BOWREY.

.. Di. JAMES NKISH.
.. REV WMt. GRIFFITH.
.. HON. J. C. PHILLIPPO

.. 1887 DR. JAMES NEISH.

.. HON. W. ESPEUT.
.. 1889 REV. H. SCOTLAND

.. 1891 HON. J. C. PHILLIPPO.


S Gratis.


The Journal of the Institute of Jamaica- Vol I. Pts. i. iv. & vi.. viii.
per part lid.
Vol. I. bound 7s. 6d.
Vol II. Pt. i. (Special Co-
lumbus Celebration
Double Number) 2s.
Vol. II. Pt. ii. ls,





q I 14a


Guide to the Museum, 1893. T. D. A. COCKE ELL, F,Z.S. ld.*
Classified Book-List: Agriculture, 1893. Id.
List of Books on Jamaica in the Library of the Institute. Excerpted
the Catalogue, 1894 3d.
j Bibliotheca Jamaicensis: Some account of the principal works on
Jamaica in the Library of the Institute. 1895 6d.
Catalogue of Books in the Library of the Institute. 1895. 6s.
Jamaica in 1896 : A Handbook of Information for intending settlers
and others 6d


SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS.
1. The Rainfall Atlas of Jamaica By MAXWELL HALL, M.A. 1892 5s.t
2. Bulletin No. 1 A Provisional List of the Fishes of Jamaica, By
T. D. A. COCKERELL, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 1892 Gratis.
3. Institute of Jamaica Lectures: Agriculture, 1893 2s. 6d.t
Gratis to Members of ube Institute. + To Members of the Institute. Is. To Members
of the Institute is. 3d.


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