• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 The bath of St. Thomas the...
 The Jamaica spa
 The milk river bath
 Port henderson
 Thermal springs not sulphurous
 Chalybeate waters
 Sulphurous springs
 Saline springs
 Advertising














Title: The mineral springs of Jamaica
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075371/00001
 Material Information
Title: The mineral springs of Jamaica
Physical Description: 37 p. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Phillippo, James Cecil
Institute of Jamaica
Publisher: Printed for the Governors of the Institute, by M.S. De Souza
Place of Publication: Kingston Jamaica
Publication Date: 1891
 Subjects
Subject: Mineral waters -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by the Hon. J.C. Phillippo.
General Note: At head of title: The Institute of Jamaica.
General Note: Read at the Jamaica Exhibition, on the 17th March, 1891.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075371
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10870302
lccn - 07041182

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The bath of St. Thomas the apostle
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    The Jamaica spa
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    The milk river bath
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Port henderson
        Page 33
    Thermal springs not sulphurous
        Page 34
    Chalybeate waters
        Page 35
    Sulphurous springs
        Page 36
    Saline springs
        Page 37
    Advertising
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text



-(



STHE INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA.


S.. ;_:



THE MINERAL SPRINGS


OF JAMAICA


BY THE HoN. J. C. PHILLIPPO, M.D.


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LATIN
AMERICA



CONTENTS.


I,


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3





... 34



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... 35
34

35

... 36


38


ITRODCTIO .. ... ...

I.-THE BATH OF ST. THOMrAS THE APOSTLE

JI.--THE JAM3ATCA SPA... ...

III.--Tn MILK RIVER BATH ...

IV.-PORT ITENDERSON... ...

APPENDIX--ANALYSES :

THERMAL SPRINGS NOT SULPHUROUS

CHALYBEATE WATERS ... ...

SULPHUROUS SPRINGS


SALINE SPRINGS ...


i












THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.

" AMONGST the neglected resources of Jamaica," wrote
Dr. Bowerbank, some years ago, in one of the Journals of
the late Society of Arts and Agriculture, we may safely
include her mineral springs. With the exception of the
Milk River Bath, the roads to which are bad and at times
almost impassable, none of the others afford accommodation
to visitors. In any other country such springs would
yield a handsome revenue to the proprietor, and prove an
inestimable boon to suffering humanity."
Jamaica owes its name to its springs, and these are to
be found in numbers in all parts of our beautiful island.
From the Blue Mountain Peak, at an elevation of 7,335
feet to the level of the sea, among our hills and valleys,
dashing down our mountain sides in the full view of day,
and flowing beneath its surface, yet within ear-shot, these
springs seek the sea into which too often they are dis-
charged without any attempt being made to utilize them.
I have been told, by our late Government Geologist
Mr. Sawkins, of several districts thickly inhabited in the
neighbourhood of which were underground rivulets which
he could hear rushing beneath the surface of the soil, and
which needed but a few feet of excavation in order to
satisfv the thirst of those who in dry weather were almost
perishing for lack of water.
Our mineral springs have been known for many years
and have from time to time been patronized extensively by
the Government and the people, but have through various
causes fallen into disuse; not because they have not been
valued, but principally, I think, because the population
being scanty, there has not been that demand for them,
and consequently not those grand hotels and the many lit-
tle luxuries that most modern travellers require. It is
true that people in quest of health will put up with many
inconveniences, but easy access and good accommodation
are as necessary to invalids as are the health-giving waters
which they seek.








THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


Now, however, we have coasting steamers, and we are
shortly to have an extension of our railway, and access will
be rendered more easy; and the fine fleets of steamers which
bring us to within five or six days' sail of New York and
Canada, will place us in direct and easy communication with
some sixty or seventy millions of the wealthiest and most
intelligent people in the world. These send their tens of
thousands to the Southern States during the winter in
search of health and their hundreds to other islands of the
the West Indian Group, which have not the advantage
that we possess in lofty mountains and beautiful scenery-
ample materials for the botanist and naturalist--and mineral
springs.
To invalids shut up during the long winter of the
North by gout, rheumatism, bronchitis and consumption,
we can not only give a mild and equable temperature,
cloudless skies and abundant occupation, but we can also offer
them our healing waters.
In other countries the mineral springs are in them-
selves a source of wealth. There are states and principali-
ties in Europe that have been kept in a state of solvency
by revenues derived from their springs, and there are
cities now that have had their population doubled, and
their residents enriched by those who flock to them for
their healing waters. Large buildings, spacious hotels.
and lovely pleasure grounds have been created for the recep-
tion and amusement of the health and pleasure-seekers
that resort to them, and enormous fortunes have been
made by private individuals and companies, that have devel-
oped their resources and advertised their merits.
A handsome pile of buildings for Law Courts in
this city would no doubt improve its appearance and ac-
commodate our judges and lawyers, but they could hardly be
esteemed reproductive works, whilst the same amount ex-
pended in kursaals and bath rooms at our springs would
increase immensely the value of property in their neigh-
bourhood, induce the visits of the wealthy from other
countries, and in a very short time not only pay their
expenses, but add largely to the resources of the island.
We have, as far as I can gather from various autho-
rities, mineral springs scattered about in different parts of







INTRODUCTION.


the country. There are some, however, that have been
favoured by past Governments, and to those I wish parti-
cularly to call your attention :-
1. The Bath of St. Thomas the Apostle, in St.
Thomas.
2. The Jamaica Spa, in St. Andrew's Mountains, in
the neighbourhood of Newcastle.
3. The Milk River Bath in Vere
The first is a sulphurous sodic calcic thermal, the
second an acidulous ferro-aluminous spring, and the third
a saline calcic thermal.
The others have not received much attention being
somewhat out of the way of the large centres of our popu-
lation, but they are of considerable value, and are superior
to very many springs in other parts of the world, which
are well known and well esteemed.
Near a rocky hill," says Long, an historian of the last
century, on the northern side of Old Woman's Savannah,
in Clarendon, is a chalybeate spring, which has performed
some cures, but is not much attended to, and near it a ca-
vern which descends to a great depth in which has been
found a great number of human bones." Mr. Sawkins-the
Geologist who speaks of this chalybeate spring, of the red
and yellow clays adapted to painting purposes, of quartz
pebbles as large as a man's head covered with white opaque
chalcedony with -large yellow or amethyst crystals inside,
and of the agate, chalcedony and jasper pebbles of the same
district, and its highly fossiliferous sands and large fossil
oysters-could not find this cave.
Long also states that two mineral springs were dis-
covered at Rickett's Savannah, in the Western district of
Westmoreland, which were said to be not inferior to tha
celebrated Gerolstein Spa; but these seemed to have es-
caped later observation. Sawkins, however, mentioned a
hot chalybeate at the head of the Cabaritta River, in Hano-
ver, which was also mentioned by Long, as lying between
this parish and Westmoreland, the heat of which he con-
sidered to be the result of the decomposition of the pyrites
which he found in its immediate neighbourhood.







THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


A hot sulphur spring similar in the character of its
chemical constituents to that of the Bath of St. Thomas the
Apostle, is situated on the northern slope of the same moun-
tain range in the parish of Portland, on an estate called
Golden Vale, now escheated to the Crown, about five miles
from the sea, by a driving road. It is well known to Mr.
Parry, late Government Engineer, and Mr. W. M. Anderson,
late Immigration Agent, who have both bathed in it. The
latter gentleman is also acquainted with a hot spring in a
river at Quebec Estate, in the parish of St. Mary, which
was discovered by some sailors, who, while bathing in the
river-mouth whilst seeking for fresh water, suddenly tum-
bled into what appeared to them to be boiling water.
There is another spring near Priestman's River, almost
in the sea, said to be identical in character with those of St.
Thomas. Numerous fissures in small veins of hydro-sesqui-
oxide of manganese, which cross the bed of the Guava
River, in Portland, send out jets of hot water having a tem-
perature of 130 deg. Faht., yielding on analysis, binoxide of
manganese, iron, sulphuric acid and a great deal of lime.
There are two cold sulphur springs in St. Thomas, one
on the White River, near Moffat, with a temperature of 74
deg. and another on the Cold Ridge, near the head of the
right branch of the Morant River.
There is a saline spring in St. Ann, at Windsor, which
is said to be largely impregnated with chloride of calcium
and is said to have proved useful in strumous and glandular
disorders, and another at the head of the Salt River, Claren-
don.
There is another saline spring near Harbour Head, the
water of which, however, did not appear to me to have any
unusual amount of saline ingredients; one at Manatee Bay,
St. Catherine, containing a very large amount of chloride of
lime and soda; two at Port Henderson, opposite Port Royal,
one of which, in the rock, has been very highly esteemed for
its-tonic effects for several generations, and several forming
the salt river to the east of the Ferry Lagoon, about six
miles from this city (Kingston).
St. Elizabeth possesses a cold sulphur spring, about
half a mile from Black River, on the edge of a small morass,







BATH OF ST. THOMAS THE APOSTLE.
and within a few yards of the sea beach, the water of which,
says Sawkins, seems to be thoroughly saturated with sul-
phuretted hydrogen gas. Professor Edward Turner, of Lon-
don University, having examined the water of this spring
at the request of Dr. Ferguson, of this city, stated that it
contained a small quantity of muriate of lime and soda.
Most of these springs are near good roads, and only require
a little extra outlay to make them easily accessible. It is
to be hoped that on no distant day, as the means of travelling
improve, they will be brought into that requisition for which
the Almighty Creator has formed them.
We must now, however, turn our attention to the three
mineral springs first mentioned, the virtues of which are
best known and esteemed, and which have received the aid
and solicitude of this and former Governments. Of these, in
the first rank we must place

I.-THE BATH OF ST. THOMAS THE APOSTLE.

The springs of which the bath is supplied are situated
about a mile and a-half from the town of Bath, in the parish
of St. Thomas.
The tradition at the Bath is that some two hundred
years ago the springs were discovered by a runaway slave,
who was covered with ulcers: having bathed in them, he
was cured and returned to his master who gave him his
freedom. That master may have been Colonel Stanton,
who, we find in the old records of the House of Assembly
of the island, sold to the government in the year 1699, the
springs and 1,130 acres of the land surrounding it for the
sum of 400.
Certain it is that the springs rapidly sprung into favour.
Sir Hans Sloane, the founder of the British Museum, in his
introduction to the History of Jamaica, published in 1707,
speaks of "a hot bath or spring near Morant, situated in a
wood, in the eastern part of the island, which has been bathed
in and drunk of late years for the belly-ache with great suc-
cess. An act of the Legislature granted the sum of 1,250
old currency for the purchase of the springs and the lands,
and for making a good road to the said springs, and for erect-







THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


ing such buildings as should be convenient for poor sick and
infirm people, and other necessaries." The Governor and the
Commander-in-Chief for the time being, the Members of the
Privy Council, and the Justices of the Peace for the parish
of St. Thomas in the East and St. David were incorporated
under the name of The Directors of the Bath of St. Thomas
the Apostle," with powers to rent lands, to sue and be sued,
etc. They were also empowered to establish a market for
meat and provisions.
In 1733, there being no house or proper convenience for
the accommodation of sick persons provided by the rents of
the lessees of the lands as was intended, the Government
granted a further sum of 500 for building such houses as
were necessary near the springs. A road was to be laid out
to Port Morant from the springs, and the Directors were em-
powered to grant an allotment of acres not exceeding thirty
to any soldier or other person who should settle and cultivate
the same. In the thirtieth year of George III., the Botanic
Garden at Bath was placed under' the direction and
inspection of the Directors of the bath, who were em-
pewered to appoint a white gardener under the Island
Botanist, and to hire negroes to work in the garden; and for
this the sum of 200 per annum, was voted. Large sums
were annually voted for the maintenance of the bath and
gardens. Negroes were bought to work. The village was
laid out in lots and nice little houses were built, but the trust
was mismanaged. The people who settled on these lots
never paid their rents, and the charity became almost entirely
dependent on annual grants from the Legislature.
The old books containing the records of the bath in its
earlier years, were destroyed by wood ants, but we have
enough information to show us that the trust was grossly
abused. The mismanagement of some Directors was, how-
ever, at times tempered by the carefulness and generosity
of others. We find that the large building in Bath was
erected in the year 1747, as is shown by the inscription on
a marble tablet hung over the rails in front of it:-" This
building for the benefit of the sick and infirm was erected
under the inspection of the honorable Charles Price, Peter
Vallette, and William Forbes, Esquires, appointed Com-
missioners for carrying out the same, the foundation of which
was begun on the 19th day of March, 1747."








BATH OF ST. THOM \S THE APOSTLE.


On the 25th of August, 1767, we find the following en-
try made in the records:--
Resolved-" That John French, alias Cuffy, the negro
who obtained his freedom for discovering the conspiracy in
the year 1760, have leave to possess two acres of land, about
and adjoining the house he has built," thus giving us a little
insight into the troubles and customs of the times.
On March 14th, 1770, Peter Vallette, bequeathed the
sum of 100 per annum for the term of ten years, to be ex-
pended in the support of the poor and sick people resorting
to the baths. Each person was to receive 7/6d. a week while
under treatment, houses were to be built for the accommoda-
tion of the sick, and nurses were to be employed to take care
of them. This was really carried into effect, and at the end
of ten years the trustees had 96 in hand.
Acts of this kind," says the historian Long, in a par-
agraph which I quote not only for its information but also
for its JohnFonian eloquence. "are really monuments of
honour which outlive the costliest sculpture, attract panegy-
rics without flattery, and veneration without envy."
So many extraordinary cures were performed that the
Legislature of the island took the place under their sanction.
They gave the town a corporation and a public seal, directed
a plan of laying it out, and gave the physician a house and
a liberal salary to reside there and attend the poor gratis.
They also purchased thirty negroes to grow provisions and
attend on the poor whites, and they built a hospital on the
square.
S" Many persons of fortune," says Long, "took up lots
and erected houses. The square was seen adorned with a
hospital, a public lodging-house and a billiard room. It
became a fashionable resort for people from all parts of
the island. The powers of music were exerted, the card
tables were not idle, and in short, from a dreary desert it
grew into a scene of polite and social amusement." This
was not of long continuance. Political squabbles upset all.
The place was abandoned and in 1768 there were not more
than half a dozen people in the place, and the green baize of
the billiard table became a resting place for goats.
The hospital was turned into a barrack for soldiers. The
soldiers became sickly, they subsisted on salt fish and meal,







THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


not of the best quality, when abundance of fresh meat and
fish could have been obtained in the neighbourhood, and paid
71d. for five or six biscuits, when fifty plantains could have
been obtained for the same money."
Notwithstanding, however, this decadence, these springs
still retained the favour of the Government. Grants were
continually made to keep the buildings and gardens in order,
and in the year 1830 no less a sum than 2,000, old currency,
was granted towards erecting a public building to be used as
kursaal, club and bath house; and besides this another sum
of 450 was raised by private subscriptions. The bath house
cost 2,900. At the same time contracts were taken to bring
the hot water from the springs for the sum of 1,466 old
currency; and it was brought down by iron pipes into the
building in which baths were constructed, but when it was
found that the temperature was diminished to 86 deg. or
90 deg., the contractors were allowed to take up the pipes
and the scheme was abandoned. Diminished as was the tem-
perature, there is no doubt that it would have been sufficient-
ly hot for most invalids, and attempts might have been made
to cover the pipes and thus retain more of the heat. This
scheme has recently been revived, and His Excellency Sir
Anthony Musgrave in 1880, submitted the matter to Mr.
Bowrey, Island Chemist, and General Mann, the Director of
Roads and Public Works, who both reported favourably
on it. In Mr. Bowrey's report I find that as the result of
several carefully made experiments in earthenware pipes, as
suggested by General Mann, and carried on for several days
the loss of temperature of water at 140 deg. in glazed tubes,
packed in sand amounted to but 75 deg. Fahrenheit." He
further states that from the results I obtained, and supposing
that not more than 40 minutes be occupied by the water in its
course to the town, I think it may be concluded that it would
be delivered in Bath at a temperature of from 116 deg. to
118 deg. If the pipes were rather deeply laid and surrounded
with four to six inches of water-tight mortar, or fine con-
crete, the loss of temperature would hardly exceed eight
degrees." The report was received and read at the quarterly
meeting of the directors of the Bath, in April, 1880, when
they passed a resolution stating that the Board was not in a
position to have it done, "but that it would be grateful to
the governor if he would have it done at the expense of the








BATH OF ST. THOMAS THE APOSTLE 11
Government as it would be a great boon to the afflicted and
suffering, not only of this island, but of all parts of the
world."
During the last century and the early part of this, the
Botanic Gardens were under the special care of the Directors
of the Bath, and numerous records are made of the introduc-
tion of new plants. Amongst the names of the curators is
found in 1795 that of I)r. Thomas Dancer, who wrote
a book on the Simples of Jamaica, still held in great regard
by many of our country folk.
In 1767, Captain Warren of the 56th Regiment then at
Bath, applied for a garden and ground for his soldiers.
Lewis Cuthbert was chairman in 1796, and Kean Os-
born, a contractor. Dancer gives amongst a list of plants
in a garden, the names cinchona officinalis. The gardens
have possessed also specimens of black pepper, catechu and
tolu. In 1796, we find it ordered in the records, that the
overseer of the bath take care of the bread-fruit trees be-
longing to the overseer's house."
Of late years the Government grants have been discon-
tinued and the sole revenue of the Directors is derived from
the lease to Government of the old bath rooms in the town,
as a Court House for 70 a year, and about 20 forrent lands,
of which about 170 acres still remain out of the 1,250 ori-
ginally bought.
Having gone so fully into the history of this Institution,
I must now try to give you some idea of the mode of access
and the situation of the town, and of the springs and their
analysis and properties.
The Bath of St. Thomas the Apostle is situated in the
parish of St. Thomas in the East, some 45 miles from the
city of Kingston.
The road from Kingston as far as Morant Bay presents
but few features of interest, passing as it does through a
wilderness of bush and cactus, sea-side grapes, pinguins
(bromelia), cashaw (anacardium), and horribly stinking
lagoons, the sole redeeming feature in the whole journey
being the sugar estate of Albion which is kept in splendid
order by its spirited proprietor.
The town of Morant Bay is really the first of any
importance along the route. At this port the sick and weary








THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA


traveller may disembark from the coasting steamer should
he choose that mode of conveyance and thus save a hot and
dreary drive of some miles, or he may go on still further to
Port Morant, the road to which place is good and more
pleasant, lying as it does by the sea on the one side, and
sugar estates on the other.
From Morant Bay the nearest road goes through the
hills, entering Bath from the west at a distance of fourteen
miles. It is in capital order and for the first few miles
ascends rapidly, passing through villages with thousands
of cocoanut and breadfruit trees, plantains and bananas and
coffee shrubs bearing their delicate white and highly scented
flowers in their season. The houses are generally small and
thatched, but occasionally there are some of a superior class
roofed with shingles, enclosed by fences of hibiscus of various
colours and of dracaeneas, such as adorn, when small, the
dinner tables of Europe. Deep ravines run through the
mountains and along the side of the road, and the hills
dotted with trees, with foliage of every hue, enchant the
eye; with here and there banks covered with ferns and
mosses, until Potosi is reached, where the road passes through
a beautiful green sward, most refreshing to the eye after
the arid plains of Yallahs.
After crossing Plantain Garden River the town of Bath
comes into view. Built as we have been informed, by white
settlers many years ago, it presents a different appearance
from that of most of our inland villages. The houses
are mostly of stone of two storeys and are placed regularly
along one side of the road on both sides of which are moun-
tain cabbage trees (oreodoxa oleracea) beautiful otaheite apple
trees jambosaa malaccensis) the last with large green leaves
and beautiful scarlet flowers, which falling, cover the ground
beneath them with a feathery down.
On the occasion of my visit in March 1881, accompanied
by our esteemed friend the Rev. Mr. Radcliffe, than whom
a more genial or better fellow-traveller is nowhere to be
found, the sea-breeze which regularly and daily blows
through the valley of the Plantain Garden had gone down, and
the thermometer stood at 80 deg. Fahrenheit. According to
Sawkins the altitude is but 170 feet, but the atmosphere was
by no means oppressive, and we enjoyed a stroll along the
clean and open street at nightfall even after our long day's








BATH OF ST. THOMAS THE APOSTLE.


journey. A beautiful spathodea and an india-rubber tree
stood opposite the lodgings, both of immense size, the latter
covered with orchids, whilst cocoanut trees, breadfruits and
araucarias from Australia were here and there to be seen.
Opposite, too, is the Police Station, and near to it the build-
ing intended for a kursaal and bath rooms but now used as
a Court House, whilst at the further end of the village stand
the Episcopal Church, and Methodist Chapel with its school-
house.
The Sulphur River crossed by a bridge, runs across the
road to the east of the town beyond which there still re-
mains a portion of the bath lands, still unimproved, and
which might be obtained at a nominal rent, should any en-
terprising individuals wish to build a hotel there.
The springs are situated in a deep gorge, and the road
to them passes close to the Methodist Chapel and its little
cemetery. The road is in very good order and passes up
the ravine with the hills on one side, and the Sulphur River
in the valley below. The gradient is not at all severe and
carriages run easily to the springs and bath house, which are
about a mile and a half from the town. Bamboos and bananas,
ferns, lycopodia, and bigonia lend their charms to this green,
gorge, whilst a fence of crotons adorn a little.negro compound.
The buildings are in capital order having lately been
put up at the cost of all the money in the hands of the Di-
rectors. There are two large rooms upstairs for the accom-
modation of ladies and genltlemen, and beneath are five bath
rooms, each containing a plunge bath, two of marble for
ladies, and three of cement for men. On the occasion of my
wisit the hot water had been run into a bath the night before
at a temperature of about 120 deg. and had cooled down to
95 deg. The addition of a little more warm water brought
Sit up to 98 deg., and a most agreeable bath it was.
All the weariness of travel was banished from the limbs,
and two glasses of hot water from the kettle" as the hot
spring is called, caused a comfortable glow of perspiration
to burst out from all the pores.
A walk of a few minutes brought us to the kettle which
is covered in with stonework something like an oven with ;i
hole in the top, which is covered by an iron tile. The cover
removed, exit was given to a volume of steam; and the ther-
mometer being let down shewed a temperature of 130 deg.







THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


Some red deposits around the interior of the kettle and
along the course of the waste water showed the existence of
sulphur; some scum at the top showed the presence of or-
ganic matter, and the fumes and taste of sulphuretted hy-
drogen gave unmistakable evidence that the spring is of the
sulphurous class of no mean order. It has been said that
sulphuretted hydrogen of mineral springs is the result of
decomposed organic matter from the surface soil; but Pidoux,
the eminent French physician, and collaborateur with Trous-
seau, of a treatise on therapeutics says that though many
cold sulphurous calcine waters are thus formed, thermal
sulphurous waters are formed on the contrary in the depths
of the earth, and generally at points where the primitive
rocks come in contact with the secondary.
A mason-work gutter carries the water from the kettle
to the tank near the bath house; but there are several other
springs higher up which are not at present used. Springs,
cold and hot, cross the pathway to the old hospital; several
of the hot springs are covered with mason-work, and in one
in which we could see the water pouring from the rock we
found a temperature of 132 deg. Fahrenheit. On Mr.
Bowrey's visit he found the kettle with a temperature of
126 deg. but this was after a continuance of extremely wet
weather, whilst our visit was made after a long drought.
In his report to the Governor, he states that in his
opinion the water from the various springs united might
amount to about 50 gallons a minute and at a temperature
of about 125 deg. Fahrenheit.
The sulphuretted hydrogen on his visit was apprecia-
ble, but not in so large a quantity, the bath keeper told him,
as after long continued dry weather. The kettle, he says,
gave about 17 gallons a minute. The waste hot water is
seen steaming as it runs down by different rills into the .
river below.
The sides of the hills, between the bath-house and the
springs are covered with ferns in great variety and bigonias,
and rose apples jambosaa vulgaris), cedars, mangoes, bam-
boos, and lace-bark trees (lagetta lintearia) grow plentifully
near the road. Two nutmeg trees, a male and female,
planted near the bath-house many years age, still keep each
other company like the two elms described by Allan Ramsay
in his Gentle Shepherd."








BATH OF ST. THOMAS THE APOSTLE. 15
There is no doubt, whatever as to the value of these
waters, for numbers of people suffering from gout, rheuma-
tism, disorder of the stomach and bowels, have derived bene-
fit from them.
Long describes the waters "unusually light; sparkling
when received into a glass, ferments slightly with acids,
turns silver black, and seems specially changed with vola-
tile products."
After describing some of the diseases it cured he says
it was used "in all lentors and viscidites, proceeding from
inaction, and nervous spasms, it restores the appetite, invigo-
rates the circulation, strengthens the nerves and seldom fails
to give one an easy sleep at nights. At first drinking it dif-
fuses a thrilling glow over the whole body and the continued
use enlivens the spirits and produces almost the same joy-
ous effects as inebriation.
On this account he says some notorious topers have
quitted their claret for a while, and come here merely
for the sake of a little variety in their practice of
debauch, and enjoy the singular felicity of getting
drunk with water." Dr. Sibley, who was for several
years physician to the Bath, says in his report of September
30th, 1861 : These waters are decidedly sulphurous,
and evolve abundance of sulphuretted hydrogen. They
also contain chloride of calcium, a valuable medicinal
agent, and are greatly superior to all the sulphurous
waters so highly prized in England, for whereas the English
waters of this kind are cold, these have a temperature of
from 128 deg. to 130 deg. Waters of this class are by
the highest medical authorities esteemed to be stimulant
and highly beneficial in many chronic complaints, and
a great variety of skin diseases, chronic rheumatism, and
gout, amenorrhea and chlorosis, syphilitic diseases of all
kinds, and disorders of the spleen and liver caused by
malaria."
"The beneficial effects of the bath water," he says, "are
almost magical, many patients of the poorer classes being in
a short time relieved from serious complaints. Nor is the
benefit derived from this water confined to the humble
classes, as many gentlemen and ladies can testify. The visits
to the Bath average 50 per month or 600 per annum ; this








THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


number being exclusive of paupers and others who attend
the hospital bath. The grant for the paupers was discon-
tinued in 1866."
Hamilton, the keeper of the Bath, says that Dr. Sibley
used to turn the patients out of the hospital in September, as
the rains then caused considerable humidity in the valley
and rendered nugatory the effects of the waters. There
should certainly be fixed seasons for the visits of invalids.
The dry months should be chosen, and although it has been
very dry during the earlier months of this year, the months
of March and April, June and August are generally the best
and driest at the springs.
These springs may be ranked among what are called
the hot thermal sodic calcio waters, and although the mineral
constituents are not large, in this as in other thermal waters,
there is no question as to their value. Some investigators
attribute this value to the thermo-electric properties they
possess as making the difference between a natural and an
artificial hot bath. Professor Tyndall states that he cannot
discover any such properties, but the fact remains, that these
natural hot springs do exert a medicinal influence which no
artificial chemical compounds can claim.
The celebrated Trousseau addressing his clinical class
thus remarks: Say what the chemists may, mineral waters
do not operate alone by means of their predominant mineral
constituents. It is by means of their association with many
others, which the chemists have demonstrated, and probably
with others still that have escaped their research, and nature
has done for this element what we attempt every day to do
in pharmacy, when we seek to enhance or mitigate the power
of a medicine by associating it with others."
Maisch and Still6 in the National Dispensary of
America," also say: It is notorious that the medical use of
individual elements of mineral waters, isolated from their
natural associations, no longer produce the effects of the
original mineral waters." And Sir Henry Thompson, in
recommending mineral waters for the diseases, for the treat-
ment of which he is specially distinguished, says: "I wish
you to look with me at the composition of these waters,"
(Carlsbad, Pullna, and Friedhricshall) "and at the same time
to dismiss from your mind entirely those views of medicinal







BATH OF ST. THOMAS THE APOSTLE.


doses which you have acquired in the dispensary, and which
necessarily belong to it, since small quantities of drugs, as
they exist in mineral waters will act more freely than with
those quantities combined after the pharmaceutical method."
The waters of these mineral springs closely resemble
those of Bath in England, the Salt Lake hot springs in
Utah, and the warm springs of Bath in Virginia, of which
the two latter are said to be superior to Schlangenbad in
Nassau. The hot springs of St. Thomas contain besides
their mineral constituents, as I have before said, organic
matters which are probably identical with those found in
Barges and other European and American waters, viz.,
Baregine and Glairine. They possess the same mineral
constituents in larger quantities than the waters of Aix-la-
Chapelle, Bareges and BagnBres de Luchon, and are su-
perior to those at Harrogate, which are cold whilst those
are hot. They are very similar to the Eaux Bonnes, and
Eaux Chaudes in the Pyrenees. And it is to their similarity
with these last in their thermal character and mineral
constituents that I most particularly wish to enlarge, for a
comparison with them leads me to predict a future for the
waters of the Bath of St. Thomas the Apostle, which has
never yet been thought of.
There are but few sulphur thermal waters in Europe,
hardly any in the United States, with the exception of Sit-
ka in Alaska, a few in California and Colorado, one in
Madison County, North Carolina, and others called the
warm springs of Virginia. Pidoux, from whose treatise
on phthisis I now quote, a treatise for which he gained the
prize of 10,000 francs, awarded to him by the Faculty of
Medicine of Paris, thus writes :-" Sulphurous mineral
waters are sodic or calcic, that is to say, that the sulphur
mineralises them, and is found combined with soda or the
lime under the form of sulphuret of sodium or sulphuret of
calcium. Almost all are exclusively either sodic or calcic.
I know of only two that possess the double sulphuration.
These are the waters of Eaux Bonnes, and Eaux Chaudes.
All the other waters of this region are sodic and thermal,
with the exception of Bagneres de Bigorre which is cold
though sodic." He then explains the difference between
hot and cold sulphur springs to the advantage of the hot, as
I have already mentioned. "The action of the Eaux Bonnes








THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


to those who drink the waters, who suffer from bronchial
catarrh and pulmonary phthisis, who are cured even in the
third stage of the latter disease are simply marvellous, but
precautions are needed, and patients must be placed under
medical surveillance The Eaux Bonnes," he says, are not
to be considered as a certain cure. Their legitimate part in
the cure of phthisis is so beautiful, so superior to all that the
therapeutics of this disease can compare with them, that
one can, without injury to them, recognize and point out
the inconveniences and the dangers to which the sick ex-
pose themselves when they administer these waters as a
panacea or a specific against phthisis." He considers that
"these waters are contra-indicated when the disease or the
invalid is intolerant of all stimulants, tonics, and generous
living. If these means excite irritative cough, pulmonary
congestion, fever, diarrhea, etc.; if in spite of their me-
thodical administration, the disease marches on, one can
almost, in advance, renounce for them the waters of Eaux
Bonnes. If the hectic fever has but a feeble remission in the
morning, above all, if the heat of the skin at this time of
the day remains febrile above 37 deg. or 38 deg. C., 98 deg.
to 100 deg. Faht.; if it rise in spite of the partial sweats of
the morning to about 39 deg. 0., 102 deg. 2 min. Faht.; if
at the same time there is no appetite; if there are vomitings
provoked by cough and an expectoration thick not aerated
and very loose, they must not confide in the waters of
Eaux Bonnes.
"The treatment of the waters of Eaux Bonnes impe-
riously exacts a constitution in which the appetite and a
good assimilation are preserved. There should at all events
be one lung healthy. There must be no dyspncea. A
moderate pulse, a clear voice, the absence of all tubercular
laryngitis give the hope that they will act usefully. This
water is injurious in true laryngeal phthisis. Asthma or
a pulmonary emphysema are amongst the best conditions
for curability."
Whatever it may be," says he, "the waters of Eaux
Bonnes, a powerful remedy in general, the most powerful
remedy that I know against phthisis, has, like all remedies,
its indications and its counter-indications."
Eaux Bonnes has profited by its springs, for in 1806
there were but two small wooden houses, and in 1855, some








BATH OF ST. THOMAS THE APOSTLE.


years before Pidoux went there as medical officer, I find
that it contained no less than 20 large hotels and boarding
houses crowded with visitors from June to October; and
since that time it has annually increased in size. Its springs,
some five in number, had a temperature not exceeding 91
deg., whilst those at Eaux Chaudes were from 93 deg. to 95
deg. and of Cauterets from 102 deg. to 120 deg. Fahr.
The analysis of these springs I shall place in tables at
the end of this lecture by which it will be seen that they all
yield, with the exception of Cauterets, as Pidoux observes,
a mixture of. sulphur, soda and lime, which, although
in different combinations, are yet so similar as regards their
bases to the waters of St. Thomas, as to make them almost
identical; and whilst the organic matter and silica improve
the latter as a bath, they do not in any way affect its inter-
nal administration.
All that is now wanted is for the waters to be brought
into the village of Bath, then to be distributed at the old pump-
room and into any lodging houses or hotels that may require
them. A small charge should be made to those who desire
to drink them at the pump-room, or to use them as baths, as
is done in Bath, England, where, the waters are under the
care of the corporation.
We must ask the G >verrment once more to extend a
helping hand to our bath in this matter, and give up the
Court House to its old uses. Some enterprising individu-
als will surely be found who will gladly rent it. There
should be regular hours fixed for poor patients, and baths
made for them which can be used gratuitously. The rest should
beleft to the public spirit of the Directors and the public. The
house and baths can still remain at the springs, for they will
always prove a nice excursion for visitors. A small room
for vapour baths could be constructed near the kettle, through
the flooring of which the vapour might be passed for those
suffering from cutaneous diseases: and in course of time with
due advertisement of its virtues, strangers will flock to the
place, and hotels and boarding houses will spring up in all
directions. As it is, there are numerous houses about the
hills in the neighbourhood to which people could resort,
who only require to drink the waters. It is for the gouty
and rheumatic particularly that the waters will be required
in the village.








THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


And now I must leave the bath of St. Thomas the Apos-
tle, though very reluctantly; but before doing so I must give
a glance at'the old Botanic Gardens, for here are to be seen
the deadly Upas tree of Java, quite civilized and inocuous,
the Barringtonia with its large leaves, the Amherstia nobilis,
a large tree with magnificent flowers, the Swartzia grandi-
flora with fine, large yellow flowers, the Napoleona with
grey petals, on brown sepals, in shape like the button of the
Legion of Honour, feathery palm trees, gigantic palm trees,
Jamaica walnuts, and numerous other interesting trees and
shrubs.
Bath is famous for its varieties of ferns and its butter-
flies, and its geology discloses splendid marbles of various
colours, and rocks of all formations. A road goes off to the
mystic district of the Cuna Cuna and Moore Town, near
by the forests of tree-fern and the head-quarters of the
Maroons, and thence on to the northside of the island. In
the neighbourhood of this road is to be had excellent shoot-
ing, and fishing in good seasons, of ringtail pigeons and
mountain mullets. The road home by way of Port Morant
too, has also its scenery, at times interesting, as it passes
through the sugar-cane fields of Plantain Garden, with their
trim logwood hedges, like the hawthorn hedges of Old
England, and beautiful as it passes among the hills near
Stokes Hall and Airy Castle, until- once more the sea is
reached at Port Morant, not more than six miles from Bath.
A buggy and horses can now be hired to convey passengers
from Bowden's, near Port Morant, to Bath, for twelve shil-
lings, ($3).
There is a future for the Bath of St. Thomas the Apos-
tle, if our own people will do their duty by it, and if our
nearest neighbours to the North, South, East and West,
will but learn that our mild skies and healing waters are
open to receive them.

II.--THE JAMAICA SPA.
The chalybeate springs at Silver Hill in Saint Andrew,
called the Jamaica Spa, were next patronized by the Govern-
ment of this island. These waters having, so says the Act 16
of George III., chapter 20, effected many cures on divers
persons, arrangements were entered into with William Smith







THE JAMAICA SPA.


for the purchase of the springs, and of 250 acres of
land adjoining, for which he was paid the sum of 3,000,
old currency. These lands were conveyed in 1776 to
Sir Basil Keith, then Governor, and the members of Coun-
cil and Assembly, who were formed into a corporation to hold
them for ever for the use and benefit of all persons resorting
to them, and they were invested with all the usual rights and
privileges. Unfortunately, the corporation did not look pro-
perly after its trust. The lands were to be surveyed and
divided into lots, which being sold, the profits were to be
applied to the erection of buildings; but, as in Bath, people
settled in these lots and laid claim to portions of land to
which they were not entitled. Particularly was this the
case with a man named Pownall, who actually took possession
of and kept for several years the twenty acres of land re-
served by Government near the springs. Strange to say,
the commissioners allowed some years to pass by, even after
this possession was discovered before they took steps to re-
claim these lands, and at last they compromised the matter
with him by taking in exchange a piece of land more suita-
ble, as they said, for the erection of buildings for the accom-
modation of those who resorted to the Spa. This piece of
land consisted of about thirteen acres on the road to New-
castle, and a small portion was reserved, not exceeding more
than a few chains near the spring, lying close under the
barbecues of the Silver Hill Coffee Plantation, to which
there is a right of access by a foot path from the road lead-
ing to Kingston, by Content Gap.
The land thus taken in exchange is about half-a-mile
above the spring, on a good road, and tkwo and a-half miles
from the other side of the military camp at Newcastle, by
a beautiful, safe and easy riding road through Woodcutter's
Gap, and the lower fern walk. As is the case amongst some
of our lofty mountains, there is here an absence of precipices,
and the road is comparatively level. Tnere is no doubt but
that this would be the pleasantest means of access, for the
riding road from Gordon Town to Newcastle is compara-
tively broad for a road in the Blue Mountains. The reserv-
ation is somewhere about 3,500 feet above the level of the
sea, and has a splendid view overlooking a brilliant panorama
of the hills and valleys of the lovely Blue Mountain district.
I am informed on good authority that from this situation







THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


the sea both on the north and south of the island can be
seen. The temperature is delightful, the air being light
with the barometer at 26.90 deg., though the thermometer
at mid-day was b0 deg. when I visited the spring.
The road from Kingston to, Gordon Town, or the Gar-
dens, as it is called, is very good and beautiful. It passes
up at first directly north from Kingston into a deep gorge
just beyond the entrance to which are the dam and water-
works on the Hope River, by means of which the water
for the supply of our city is collected, and further on is a
romantic bridge spanning it. There are several very good
houses near the bridge. The lower part of Gordon Town is
about 950 feet above the sea level. At the further end of
this long struggling village the carriage road stops, and
ponies must be taken for Newcastle, Guava Ridge, or Con-
tent Gap. On my visit to the hills I went with our friend,
the Revd. Mr. Radcliffe, to his hospitable abode, Galloway
Lodge, and thence in his company the next day to Silver
Hill, by way of Content Gap. At Galloway Lodge, which is a
little higher than Guava Ridge, at an elevation of about 2,900
feet, the thermometer stood at 70 deg. at 11 a.m., and at the
Spa, between two and three p.m at 80 deg. The view from
the road between Content Gap at an elevation of 3,251 feet,
is splendid. Far away across the immense valleys of the
Yallahs, lie the Blue Mountains, a lovely blue, shaded off
with green in places under the shadow of the clouds, and in
the distance on its lofty side could be seen the coffee planta-
tions and houses of Mount Hybla, Mount Pleasant, which
is much higher, and higher still, the white walls, terraces
and buildings of the Cinchona Plantations, the fields of
which seem to run up to the very top of the mountains,
and to be almost inaccessible. The guinea grass grows upon
all the hills near to the road to the very summits, whilst
bamboos, and cedars and mangoes are everywhere to be seen.
Nothing can be more beautiful than the view along the
ride, and the light, barometric pressure and cool moun-
tain air tempered so much the solar heat that it was hardly
felt, and a good breakfast and a glass of beer at the hospita-
ble coffee property of Mount Lebanon were not only eagerly
looked forward to but enjoyed with a zest that only jaded
medical practitioners in a tropical dusty city can feel. A
ride of about three miles over a good road, passing en route






THE JAMAICA SPA.


the lower works of Pleasant Hill and a beautiful waterfall,
and Silver Hill was reached. This is a coffee property be-
longing to the estate of the late honourable Dr. Hamilton,
iand its house and barbecues lie close to the spring, too close
indeed for the comfort of the overseer, were the springs to
become a popular resort, unless he took advantage of the
proximity by taking in boarders. The spring lies just below
the barbecues on the banks of the Yallahs River here,
now a small stream, to be swollen during floods into a
powerful river. So powerful was it on one occasion that it
swept away a solid and substantial building that had been
erected over the spring, and 200 was granted by the Legis-
lature to clear away the rocks, sand and earth that had
covered the spring and baths for many feet. To put it in
good condition this grant was 'followed the next year by
another of 50, and with an additional 50 for a person to
superintend it. For many years after this there was an an-
nual grant of 100 for the purpose of keeping the Spa in
repair, afterwards diminished to 50, until 1849 when it
ceased altogether. Some two chains of land yet remain near
the springs of which there are two, one of which is built
over, and the other is left open, running into the river. The
latter, doubtless, in former times supplied the baths, and
might again be used for that purpose. Whilst the tempera-
ture of the air was 80 deg. Fahr. it was 66 deg. in the spring.
The water appeared clear and colourless, but there was con-
siderable red deposit in the spring and along its course, as it
runs to the river. It was not at all disagreeable, being rather
sharp, giving an a stringent feel to the gums. The ironand
saline constituents were distinguished, after taking the glass
"from the lips, rather than during the process of drinking.
My friend having a prejudice against medicines was with
difficulty persuaded to taste it, but even he could not com-
plain very much of its taste; It certainly could not be con-
sidered cold or nauseous, .as many iron springs not a6rated
are said to be, doubtless, owing to the presence of some
acids.
The springs are on the side of the river, thirty feet be-
low the barbecues, and are surrounded by trees and bushes
of all kinds. The ubiquitous bamboo and guinea grass, rose
apples and wild ginger are of course present, and besides
these are to be seen pimento trees, which are rare in these







Z- THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.
districts. Vegetation is abundant, giving evidence as to the
ease with which shaded walks through plantations might be
formed should these springs be aga in brought into favour,
and baths, and a pump-room be built.
And they deserve attention. At an altitude of some
2,000 feet above that of Spa in Belgium, these waters pos-
sess almost the same qualities, but Spa is in Europe and is
blessed with a municipality that has erected there a bath-
house which cost 80,000. The Belgian authorities have
also granted 5,000 towards building an English Church,
a handsome gift, says Cutler, but a small outlay when it is
considered that the inhabitants of that town derive enormous
profits from English and American visitors and the Gov-
ernment Treasury receives directly or indirectly an annual
sum of more than 20,000 from the town.
This spring contains, according to an analysis of Pro-
fessor Edward Turner, in a pint of water four times as
much iron as Saint Moritz in the Engadine and Schwal-
bach; more than twice as much as any springs of Spain or
Belgium; as much Epsom salts as Pyrmont, neither of the
others having any; and three hundred times as much alum
as Pyrmont or Saint Moritz can boast of, Spa and Schwal-
bach having none. And though by an analysis lately made
by Mr. Bowrey, our Island Chemist, the amount of mineral
products is not more than one-fourth of this, it is accounted for
by the fact that it has been made, after a prolonged drought
which caused the spring to be much smaller in quantity,
rising probably much nearer the surface. Changes in the
quality of solid ingredients have been known and noted in
other springs such as in one at Harrogate.
The Jamaica Spa contains far more iron too than either
of the chalybeate waters of Harrogate, with the exception
of the chloride of iron spring which is stronger. It has seven
times as much as the Montpellier and three times as much as
the Tevitt Well, whilst the St. John Well does not contain
one-twentieth part. Yet the Harrogate waters have, ac-
cording to Muspratt, done an immense amouut of good to
numbers of people; cases that have for years resisted the
influence of ordinary chalybeate remedies having yielded to
the influence of the chloride of iron spring.
It does not appear that there are many springs in
Europe- containing the same amount of alum as the Ja-








THE JAMAICA SPA. 20
maica Spa, and but few are found in the United States.
But one of the chalybeate springs of our Western Conti-
nent contains a greater amount of iron than these, and and
there is but one other that nearly comes up to them. Most of
them, however, like the European Spas possess a far larger
quantity of salient ingredients than our own chalybeates.
"Of all the mineral waters," says Dr. Walton of Cin-
cinatti, in his most elaborate works on the mineral springs
of the United States and Canada, "the alum waters of Vir-
ginia are among the most decided in their effects." The
peculiarity of these waters consists in the large proportion
of alum and the presence of sulphuric acid: of these
some seven in number are situated in Virginia, but one,
the Church Hill Alum Springs which contain an enor-
mous amount of iron, is richer than our Spa, in sulphate of
magnesia, sulphate of iron and sulphate of alum.
When it is considered that our chalybeate springs are
fifteen miles from Kingston and can be reached in three
hours, the wonder is that they have been allowed to remain
so long unnoticed and uncared for.
Other countries know the value of these natural medi-
cines and profit by them, and situated as these are in the
midst of rarified mountain air and splendid scenery, it but
requires but the hand of man and a comparatively small
expenditure to make the mountains of Port Royal the goal
of the sick, debilitated and consumptive from all parts of
the Western Hemisphere.
S Let a small building-not so large as some of the new
hotels erected within the last year, and not more expen-
sive than many of our new markets-be placed on the land
belonging to the Spa and a good pump-house and baths be
placed near the spring, and the Government will soon find a
good tenant as hotel-keeper, who will act as a bath-manager
without salary. Numbers of boarding houses will soon
be brought into existence in the neighbourhood, which will
tend to increase the value of the Government property, and
ultimately add to the revenue of the colony, and last, but
not least, be the means of adding to the health of the peo-
ple and to the reputation of the island as a health resort.
Not the least of the advantages of this district lies in
its proximity to the Cinchona Plantation. The road to thi









THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


plantation from Silver Hill winds up to Chester Vale Plan-
tation after a forty-minutes' ride, passing by houses on the
hill-side with fences of hibiscus and dog roses, enormous and
precipitous rocks of blue and black limestone up in the dis-
tance across the valley. Passing the Clyde, a beautiful
waterfall vies in interest with a peach tree which has
'been severely battered by the cyclone of last year, but now
bears evidence of rejuvenescence. Higher up near Industry
are acres of wild thyme, cuphea, strawberries and brooms,
the delicious strawberries bearing in profusion on both sides
of the road.
A ride of about two hours on the occasion of our visit
brought us up to the Cinchona Plantation at Bellevue
which is 5,000 feet above the sea and over 1,600 feet above
the Spa. Here the thermometer stood at 65 deg. at
half-past three. The mist came on early, obscuring the
view, but notwithstanding the long ride, we had but little
sense of fatigue, and could walk about the garden which is
beautifully laid out on terraces with fine walks. Violets grew
wild about the lawn, geraniums, and pelargoniums, English
plantain, planta go) daisies, and dandelions and other common
English plants were to be seen in all directions, white aupe
jasmines, azaleas, camelias, and the classic acanthus grew
in the beds as though they were in their old world habitats.
A ride round a portion of the plantation in the morning
was most enjoyable, though a kind of dizzy feeling came
over me on looking down upon the far off plains below.
Whilst riding on, my host and friend could turn round in
his saddle and talk, apparently unmindful of the deep preci-
pices below, down which a slip of the horse's foot, or a little
crumbling away of the loose shale of which the road is
formed, would precipitate him. Here were to be seen all
the varieties of the cinchona in different stages of growth,
so well already described by Mr. Morris our late able
and scientific botanist and Director of Government plan-
tations, whilst close by was a field of jalap, a species of
convolvulus used in medicine, climbing upon bamboo twigs
like peas, whilst between them wild pansies thrust their
pretty petals.
Had proper care and attention been paid to the lands
and funds of the Jamaica Spa at its first establishment, it
would have been a boon to the enervated, fever-stricken and








THE MILK RIVER BATH.


debilitated sufferers of the lowlands, but the men of the past
had no love of the country of their adoption; their sole idea
having been to make money and get away as soon as possi-
ble, not even leaving decent streets behind them.
It is in the hope that our Governor and the Legislative
Council, all of whom we know are anxious to develop the
resources of the country committed to their charge, will see
their way clear to aid us now by their fostering and prudent
care for these our healing springs that I have brought this
matter before you, trusting that you will do all in your
power to encourage any efforts that they may put forth in
this direction.

III.-THE MILK RIVER BATH.
These baths are situated on the banks of the Milk River
in Vere, and can be reached by rail to Clarendon Park, and
about thirteen miles of good road by carriage.
This bath with half an acre of land adjoining, had been
conveyed in 1791 by Jonathan Ludford to the members of
Council and Assembly, with the Custos of the parish and
certain other persons in trust, for the benefit of the public,
and an act was passed making these parties a body corpo-
rate with the usual powers. Some money was raised by
public subscription for the erection of buildings and baths
for the reception of sick and infirm people; but as more
money was required, the sum of 1,000 was granted by the
second section of the same act, for erecting and preserving
such buildings.
In the next year it being found that the land was in-
sufficient for the purposes required, a further 'sum of 200
was granted for the purchase of such a quantity of land as
the directors might judge necessary; and in the year after,
it being found that the neighboring proprietors would not
sell their lands, another act was passed to compel them to
do so after due appraisement by a jury.
A further sum of 100 per annum had been granted by
the 33rd Act of George III. to keep up the establishment;
but as it was not considered sufficient the 34th George III.
granted 300 per annum. This grant was continued for
many years, but no land was bought nor was the compul-
sory act brought into requisition, until 1825, when another








THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


parcel of land, containing rather more than three acres was
purchased. 200 per annum had been allowed a physician
who was to attend three days a week at the Bath, and advise
those who might require it. In 1828, the directors applied
for and got a sum of 2,000, in 1829, and a further sum of
2,000 in 1830, to extend the accommodation, the number
of visitors having greatly increased so as to cause overcrowd-
ing. In this year Dr. Murchison, then physician to the
bath, reported that one hundred and fifty patients (among
them were thirty-five labouring under rheumatism, and
other painful disorders of that nature) had been under his
care during the last eighteen months, besides those who had
resorted annually to the baths, and several hundred negroes.
With a very few exceptions, the diseases were entirely cured.
In 1838 there was another grant of 1,000, and another in
1840, for erections and repairs. In the latter year Dr.
Trutch reports amongst other cures, that of two gentlemen
who arrived at the bath paralyzed on one side and were car-
ried from their beds to the water. Both were hardly able
to articulate, and in three weeks they were not only able to
articulate distinctly, but to walk out without help. The
Commissioners from whose reports I have so largely quoted
being appointed to enquire into the charities of the
island, visited the baths in 1845, and found there, three stone
buildings, each with a hall, two of them containing three bed-
rooms each, and the other four. There was also a matron's
house, a wash-house, stable, negro hospital, negro bath, two
rooms for warm baths, and one for a cold bath. One of the
houses stood on the side of a hill rising perpendicularly be-
hind it, and so near as to prevent egress through the doors at
the back. They also found that the approaches to all the
houses were very difficult of ascent, and therefore very in-
convenient to those suffering from gout or rheumatism.
They recommended that a portion of the objectionable rock
should be cut away, and that some means be adopted to
render the access of invalids to the bath more easy ; also
that persons seeking change of air should pay something for
their board and lodging. The annual expenditure, they
said '- exceeds the income for the benefit of persons who
do not in reality wish or require it at the expense or
to the exclusion of those for whom the baths were equally
intended and originally made a charitable Institution."







THE MTLK RIVER BATH.


With a view of finding some means of remedying this
evil and restoring the charity, upon which during the last
ten years upwards of 10,000 had been spent, to its former
usefulness they entered into a correspondence with the clerk,
asking for an analysis of the water, requesting his opinion as
the possibility of renting out the Institution and devoting
the proceeds to its maintenance and improvement, and re-
quiring a statement of particular cases of cure, so as to give
publicity to its usefulness. To this the clerk gave a rather
unsatisfactory reply. There was, he said, no analysis. He
did not think it could be rented. It would cease to be a
charitable Institution.
The establishment had not been so much resorted to,
during the last few months, as in former years, the weather
having been very dry, and but few cases of rheumatism and
gout are about. There had, however, been a few cases, and
they had been benefited or cured by the waters.
The institution, as I have already said, has been
largely aided by our Government even up to the present
day, but much requires to be done to make it a first class
health resort. The houses and bedrooms are clean and tidy,
though the beds are hard, the matron anxious to please, and
the servants are or used to be, civil and attentive. The
houses are built of stone on the side of a hill which neces-
sarily makes them hot when the sea breeze falls, and are
entered by flights of high stone steps. Indeed, one of them
looks more like a tower perched up above the others, built, I
suppose, for the occupation of the old time proprietors and
attorneys, and is totally unfit as a residence for gouty and
- rheumatic people. About halfway down the hill and not
more than a few paces from the south lodging and two or
three above the matron's house, immediately over the baths
now in use, is a room which has a bath that was at one time
filled with water, by a force pump, from the spring below.
This might be made into a reservoir from which pipes
might be laid to convey the water into the house. The
baths, two in number, are large, and partly covered by
platforms which render the greater portion of one of them
at least, useless, and tend to lessen the heat of the whole,
while the large hole which connects the two baths in the two
rooms and by which the water enters them from the spring,
causes a chilling draught when the door of the unoccupied







30 THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.
room happens to be open, cooling the water, and chilling the
bather if he gets near it. The whole institution, in fact,
requires to be remodelled. There is no necessity to provide
nearly gratuitous lodging and service. During heavy rains
the matron's house and south lodgings are almost sub-
merged by the swollen river which runs near by, so that it
would be useless to put up any hotel there. But one could
be built not far off in which most of the patients not crip-
pled by rheumatism or paralysis could reside. All the
old houses should be pulled down and a large kursaal
and a dozen or more small baths could be built with the
material, above the high river level. These could be served
by a force pump and a wind-mill. To each bath-room should
be attached a dressing room with suitable furniture, and
each bath should be served with proper apparatus for
douches of all kinds.
Skilled attendants should be ready to apply the douches,
to massage and to apply hot towels to envelop the bather,
after he comes out of his bath. He could then without fear
of taking cold rest in the kursaal, read the daily papers and
monthly magazines, write his letters, and otherwise amuse
himself until he is sufficiently cool to go out into the open
air.
A hotel for the accommodation of two or three dozen
people might be quickly built on the same lines as those of
Spanish Town and Moneague and with far greater likeli-
hood of success if the Government will, as in those instances
guarantee a small rate of interest. They might also capit-
alize their annual grant, which at present pays for the
matron and management and build the new bath and kur-
saal, leaving them under the present Board of Directors who
being in the neighbourhood would have an interest in their
success. Attention should also be bestowed on the rather
desolate grounds about the Institution which should be ele-
vated above the river and planted with eucalyptus, poincianas,
spathodeas, crotons and acalyphas, thus helping to drain the
place and destroy malaria.
It would be ivell to close the Institution during the
months of May, June and July, which are rainy and un-
healthy; for although the bath is just as warm and as
good during these months, as in any other, unfavourable sur-
roundings lead to unfavourable results and reports,







THE MILK RIVER BATH. U1
which often militate against the reputation of this most
valuable institution. Decidedly the locality is dull, the
only set off to the dulness being the river, which runs
slowly along in front of the lodging, and the bright green
meadows on the opposite side, which we may hope will some
day prove a profitable speculation for some enterprising
builder. The river is slow and broad and three or even four
boats may in some places be rowed abreast for four or five
miles. Abundance of good fish inhabit it, and some shoot-
ing, including crocodiles, may be had along its banks. At
some future period we may hear of boat races on the Milk
River, which at all events will help to enliven the place.
There is a want, too, of indoor amusements for those
who cannot indulge in drives or boating.
An analysis of the waters that was made some years
ago by Savory and Moore of London gives the quantities of
mineral constituents in 1,000 parts of water, but there can
be no doubt that had they a larger quantity to operate on,
what are put down as traces would have borne definite deci-
mal position. It also shows the following constituents:-
Chloride of sodium, sulphate of soda, chloride of mag-
nesium, chloride of potassium and chloride of calcium, be-
sides traces of lithia, iodine, bromine and silica. These con-
stituents with its temperature of 92 deg. place this spring
among the thermal saline calcic waters of Hamburg, Wies-
baden, Kissingen, Bourbonne, Schlangenbad, Gastein and
Kreuznach. It has the soapy unctuous feel that charac-
terizes the Schlangenbad and the warm springs of Virginia
imparting to the skin a velvet smoothness to the touch
which continues after leaving the bath.
Though strongly saline, much more so than even that of
Salins in the Jura, it does not leave the feeling of stickiness
that sea-water does, and the taste though saline is not bit-
ter. Taken in small quantities it acts as a diuretic, and to
extent of three or four glasses is slightly purgative, and
with a little milk it is not at all diseagreeable. Brine
baths as at Kreuznach could easily be made by artifi-
cial condensation. The water is not only far superior to
those of Kreuznach in saline ingredients but is superior to
the Elisenquelle in calcic salts and contains sulphate of soda,
which neither of the Kreuznach springs has, whilst this is
a warm or thermic water which they are not. It contains







THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA.


as much calcium or lime as any of the calcium springs of
Europe such as Contrexeville, BagnBres-de-Bigorre and
Leuk, and more than is contained in those of Wildungen.
More also than is contained in any of the American waters
of the same class such as the warm springs of Madison
County, North Carolina; better than the Lebanon springs
of New York, the only thermal spring in that State and
stronger than those of Bath County, Virginia, all of which
are highly esteemed, the Alleghany Springs in Virginia alone
being equal to it. These calcic waters are reputed to be even
more useful in dyspepsia, diabetes and all urinary complaints
than even the sodic and aerated waters of Gastein, the favourite
resort of emperors, of Vichy and Saratoga- for it is well
understood that though these ingredients improve the taste
they do not influence the medicinal value to any appreciable
extent. Even this additional value can be obtained by artifi-
cial means as has been proved by Mr. Payne who has rated
the water and kept it for over twelve months without its being
spoilt, and by Mr. MacNish who has now in the Exhibition
a large number of bottles of this water which might be
profitably exported as are the waters of Vichy and Saratoga.
Testimonials to the value of this spring are too nu-
merous to mention here, but I cannot but refer to the case
of an old surveyor of my acquaintance. His joints were
bent and distorted with rheumatism, and when the pains
were too bad for him to bear he would go off to this spring
and return home in the course of two or three weeks riding
gaily on horseback aud ready to attend to his arduous la-
bours. I have also seen people who have been for weeks in
bed with acute rheumatism sent down in carriages, taken
into the bath in a chair (given to the institution by a gen-
tleman whose visit to the place had rendered it of no use to
him) who have been able, after three or four baths, to walk
up and down those steep stone-steps leading to the houses
with ease and comfort and so thoroughly recovered as never
to require the baths again. A well-known physician too, a
sufferer from gout, who was carried in his carriage on a
railway truck to Old Harbour and thence to the bath along
the road, was, after three days, so well as to be able to
go out to see a friend at some distance from it.
I may say that milk, fish, poultry and eggs are cheaper
and the beef is as fat and tender, and the mutton as good,
if not better, than can be obtained in Kingston.








PORT HENDERSON.


IV.-PORT HENDERSON.
In addition to the Springs already mentioned as hav-
ing for a long time been subsidized by the Government,
there is one at Port Henderson, nearly opposite Port Royal, at
the entrance of Kingston harbour. Here there are several
buildings formerly the resort of all the convalescents of St.
Catherine and the neighboring parishes who have for
several generations enjoyed the tonic properties of the bath in
the rock. The bath is a saline calcic of no mean order, and
is properly enclosed and clean. Three or four persons can
bathe in it at a time. The buildings are in good order, but
more accommodation is required to attract a larger number of
visitors so as to make the place lively. There is a splendid
sandy beach a short distance from the bath, well adapted for
sea bathing, on which bathing machines could be run. Num-
bers who know not where to go for a change would here
find a delightful health-resort, and it can be easily reached,
for it is within forty-five minutes by steam launch from
Kingston, the same by rail and carriage by Gregory Park,
and not much more by carriage from Spanish Town.
Unfortunately, no analysis has been made of the water;
but Mr. Hotchkin, the proprietor can, I have no doubt,
show ample testimony to its value sent to him by those
who bave profited by it.
In conclusion, let me urge on all here to do what they
can to aid me in trying to get our fellow-citizens to awaken
to a proper sense of their responsibilities and of the advan-
tages to be gained from these springs. The springs are
of enormous value as curative agents: it is for us and our
friends to make them more widely known and to make use
of all the means we can, to induce others to come and try
them. To this end we must never rest until we can provide
ample accommodation and amusements of all kinds for the
healthy as well as the sick.








THIMEIIAL SPIING-S TNOT SULPjHURIOUS
Austria. Germany. England. Jamaica. United States.



Cabo PIWT CoONTAINS: .... ... 0133 ... 0009 ...



Carbonate of Soda 0*04 2*635 0079 ... .. 0301
Carbonate of Magnesia .. 0'02 0'008 0*047 0*041 ... 0'166
Carbonate of Iron 0105 0019 ... 0133 0009
Carbonate of Manganese .. ... 0'02 0-021 .
Carbonate of Lime ... 0'36 0'330 0250 1-102 .. ... 0506
Carbonate of Strontia .. .. 0027 ....
Chloride of Potassium ... ... 0-004 .. 144 2-238 .
Chloride of Magnesium ... ... ... 1822 37*08 ...
Chloride of Sodium ... 0.36 0'433 1*825 1-580 186.93 0*034 0"120
Chloride of Calcium ...... ... ... ... 1350 ...
Sulphate of Potassa .. ... 0'01 0"098 1'091 0"580 ... 0'276 06130
Sulphuret of Soda ... ... ... ... ..... 0002
Sulphate of Soda ... 1.51 0-290 ... 2*403 27'90
Sulphate of Magnesia ... ... ... ...... 906 0:132
Sulphate of Lime ... ... ... 10006 ... ... Oxide
Sulphate of Iron ... .. ... ... 0022 L0-117
Phosphate of Soda ... 004 ... .........
Phosphate of Alumina ... 004 ... ... ......
Fluoride of Silicium ... ... Traces 0391 ... .........
Alumina ... ... .. .. .. 0'056
Silicic Acid ... ... ... 372 ... 0*237 0*406
Silica ... 0-24 0-230 0(258 ... Traces .
Iodine and Bromine ...... ... ... ... Traces
Organic Matter, Glairine and Baregine ...... ... 0"107 1"183
GAsBs. Cub. In. Cub. I. Cub. In. Cub. In.
Carbonic Acid ... ... ... 474 067 ... ... ... 006
Oxygen .. 3089 0*66 ... ... ... ... 025
Nitrogen ... 6911 9459 ... ... ... ... 1 44





Germany. Belgium. Switzer-
... .... .. land-

ONE PINT CONTAINS: i So



Carbonate of Soda ... 0-110 0;700. 1'364
Carbonate of Magnesia ... 0'966 0"241 0'827
Carbonate of Alumina ... 0024
Carbonate of Iron ... 0467 0677 0"173
Carbonate of Lime ... .. 0.580 5'303
Carbonate of Manganese ... 0103 ...
Chloride of Sodium ... 0052 0-157 0-282
Carbonate of Magnesium ... ...
Chloride of Iron ...
Chloride of Potassium ... ... ...
Chloride of Calcium.. ... ...
Chloride of Magnesium .. ...
Sulphate of Potassa ... 0*029 ... 0119
Sulphate of Soda ... 0-061 ... 1*867
Sulphate of Magnesia ... ... ... ...
Sulphate of Lime ...
Sulphate of Iron
Bi-sulphate of Iron
Persulphate of Sequioxid of Iron ...
Sulphate of Alumina ...... .
Phosphate of Soda ... Traces ...
Silicate of Soda ...
Borate of Soda ... Traces ... 0O006
Phosphoric Acid ...
Sulphuric Acid ... ... ...
Bromine, Iodine, Fluorine ... ... Traces
Alumina ... ... 0.002
Silica ... 0246 0'217 0"278
Organic Matter .. Traces ...
... Cb. In. Cub. Cub. In.
Carbonic Acid ... 50'27 71*6 30"29
Nitrogen ...
Sulphuretted Hydrogen ... O 006 .


Jamaica.


--- -"
01





0-866 .

... *125





S *341
2*831 1'745
1234
221 8*33


4.168 1'360



Free .


... "883
Uudt'd ...


Monitpe-
pellier.
Hoffman.




0-348
0-17ti

82*067
4-454
Piii
1 422
19-909




0-87








Traces

.118


,,,


Englani


United States-Virginia.


Harrogat
Tevet-
well.
Hoffman




0'169

0'035
0"035,
0'333

0166
















O'30


d. ; :

Chloride
of Iron,
. Muspratt.




1-445


26 057
2'026


17-303
10"589








Cb In..








*328
1010
...


I


---- ---------


Bath
ALlnNo
Hayes.


Protoxide
2722







0032
0"160
0"317



0-394


04985


1.5311



'ub. In.
1..000


Stubling
Alum, Church
No. 4. Hill.
Tottle. Boon.


0067

01066
1.832
1P192.


2*086



1Oti1-


0244
0-409
2,08










0"()6


0'370




030>
0 243:1
10-758 "
11"104
3'023
10-419
6-048
9"116



Traces




,,,'








SUTJLl'JIH-URC10US S:PRINGSS.
France. Jamaica. U. S. America. England
0 0C
ONE PINT CoNTAINs: CD


Carbonate of Soda ... ... ... Traces ... "21 ... 0-350 0"664 Traces ...
Carbonate of Magnesia ...... 0-168 ... .. ... ... 0-350 0"057 0-724 1'288
Carbonate of Protoxide of Iron ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0'037
Carbonate of Iron ... .. ... ... .. ... 0008 ... ... Traces
Carbonate of Lime .... 1084 ... 0-014 ... ... 2-055 ... 3-199 2.470
Chloride of Sodium ...... 0057 0-492 2-284 1-48 0114 0*017 2"830 46-126 27*828
Chloride of Magnesium ... ... 0"125 ... ... ... 0*027 ... ... 1*461 0.042
Chloride of Potassium ... ... ... 0-185 0-04 0-039 0-021 ... 1.343 3*008
Chloride of Calcium ... ... ... 1-263
Sulphate of Potassa ... ... .. 0-063 Traces ... 0-045 0'228 0'092 ... ...
Sulphate of Soda ... ... 0:701 0'162 0-410 0*79 1128 0"126 0-818 ...
Sulphate of Magnesia ...... 0*257 ... Traces ... 0168 0*638
Sulphate of Alumina ..... 400 .
Sulphate of Lime ... .. 0117 0-236 1-200 0'62 5*110 0-263 0"334 06644 0-151
Phosphates of Alumina, Lime and Flu- O0
oride of Calcium .. ... ...
Sulphate of Iron ... ... Traces ... ... ... ... ... ... Sulphide of Sodium
Sulphuret of Sodium ... ... ... 0401 1502 ... ... ... .. 0'894 0'037
Sulphuret of Magnesia ...... 002 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Iodide of Potassium ... ...Traces ... ... ... ... ... Traces
Iodide of Sodium ... ... ... Traces Traces ... ... ... Traces
Silicate of Soda .. .. ... Traces ... 45 ... ... ....
Silicate of Magnesia ... ... ... 0"062 ... .. 1121
Silicate of Lime .. .. 0-086 ... ... I1121 .. .
Silica ... ... .. 0'06 Traces 5267 ... ... 0*171 0'046 0-066 01018
Oxide of Sodium ... ... ... ... ... ... .......
Alumina ... .. .. ... Traces ... ... ... ... 023 ... Traces
Phosphates ... ... Traces ... ... T. ...
Bituminous Matter and Glairine ... Undtrd. 237 ... ... ... 0.071 0165 Traces
Cub. In. Cub. In.
Carbonic Acid. ... .... 0-39 .. ... ... 137 ... 2*31
Sulphuretted Hydrogen ... .. 082 .Traces ... Undtrd. 022 ... Saturatd ...
nitrogen ... ... ... 1904 ... ... ... ... ..




SAL~IN EJ SEP I l~G-S.________


ONE PINT CONTAINS :




Carbonate of Soda ...
Carbonate of Magnesia ...
Carbonate of Iron ... ...
Carbonate of Lime ...
Chloride of Potassium
Chloride of Sodium ...
Chloride of Magnesium ..
Chloride of Calcium ...
Chloride of Ammonium
Chloride of Lithium
Sulphate of Soda ...
Sulphate of Magnesia .
Sulphate of Lime
Phosphate of Alumina
Posphate of Lime ...
Iodide of Sodium ...
Iodide of Magnesium ...
Bromide of Potassium ...
Bromide of Sodium ...
Bromide of Maguesium ...
Nitrite of Soda ..
Arseniate of Lime ...
Silicate of Alumina ...
Silica..

Carbonic Acid
Ammonia
Organic Matter


2*01 ..
0-46 0-24
10-99 8-14
2'20
79-15 44.71
7*79 2"33
7-77
15
0-38
... 450
S 299
*. 0'04
... Traces

06

0... 07
... 0"07


0-32 :609
Cub. In. Cub. In
48-46 41"77
0 07


Geimany.


8
0'04
3-21
1-12
52*50
157
3'62
0'18


0'69

0 008
0008



0.03
0 001
0004
0'46
ub. In.
16'7

... .


France.


0 106

1.693
0 624
72-888
4*671
13-08

0'613


0-025


0.055


0-278


0*129


0130 ...
0356
0o255 2'264
0 460 .
108-705 46-110

22:749 5"683


... i": 9.

0005 ...


0 "012
... .0384
1780 ...


0999 ...
.. ,..


Jamaica. u. Statea.I Canadla.


1-44
186'93
37'08
13*50

Traces
27"93



Traces

Traces
Traces
Traces


Traces


a




Traces
2'71

52'52
4-34
1 31




Traces






...


0 "05 ...
4 .




Trace
0'092 ...
0-012
0-536 2-587
50*691 217'234
4-524 24-760
14-177 108271 C
0... 056 -"

5'837 .

15"981


0930


0-271 10'045


Traces
0*063


0002 ..
2-286


I I ::: I
un,'imdj ... I









PUBLICATIONS OF THE INSTITUTE

TO BE OBTAINED AT THE INSTITUrE.

TITLE. AUTHOR. PRICE.
1881.
OBJECTS OF THE INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA ... Rev. J. Radcliffe. 1s.

ROOT FOOD GROWTH IN JAMAICA ... Rev. J. Cork. Is.
THE TIMBERS OF JAMAICA ... Hon. W. B. Espeut. Is.

STOCK AND STOCK-RAISING IN JAMAICA ... Archibald Roxburgh. bs.
1882.
CACAO: How TO .GROW AND How TO CIRE IT D. Morris. Is.

1884.
SOME OBJECTS OF PRODUCTIVE INDUSTRY:
NATIVE AND OTHER FIBRE PLANTS ..D. Morris. Is.

OUTLINE OF A LECTURE ON VEGETABLE
CHEMISTRY ... J. J. Bowrey. Is.

THE CULTIVATION OF THE ORANGE IN JAMAICA .. Dr. James Neish. Is.

THE VINE AND ITS CULTURE ... Rev. Wm. Griffith. is.

THE CULTIVATION OF THE RAMIE ... Hon. J. C. Phillippo Is.

JAMAICA AT THR WORLD'S EXPOSITION AT NEW
ORLEANs-An official introduction to the
Jamaica Court, containing a short des-
cription of the island, its productions and
its climate ... Gratis.
1887.
ON A NEW BEVERAGE SUBSTANCE : THE KOLA
NUT ... Dr. James Neish. is.

THE ADVANTAGES TO RESULT FROM RAILWAY '
EXTENSION ... Hon. W. B. Espeut. is.
1889.
ON THE GEOLOGY OF JAMAICA
SRev. H. Scotland. Is. :
ON MINING IN JAMAICA ".
1891.
THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA ... lion J.C. Phillippo 6d.

A BRIEF GUIDE TO THE COURT OF THE IN-
STITUTE OF JAMAICA IN THE JAMAICA
INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1891-
Containing an account of the history and -
objects of the Institute ... Gratis.






i6A




?5 1 ^ : *-.




PUBLICATIONS OF THE INSTITUTE .

TO BE OBTAINED AT THE INSTITUTE.

TITLE. AUTHOR. PRICF.
1881.
OBJECTS OF THE INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA ... Rev. J. Radcliffe. Ia.

ROOT FOOD GROWTH IN JAMAICA ... Rev. J. Cork. Is.

THE TIMBERS OF JAMAICA ... Hon. W. B. Espeut. Is.

STOCK AND STOCK-RAISING IN JAMAICA ... Archibald Roxburgb. is.

1882.
ACAO : HOW TO GROW AND HOW TO CObE IT D. Morris. Is.

1884.
SOME OBJECTS OF PRODUCTIVE INDUSTRY:
NATIVE AND OTHER FIBRE PLANTS ... D. Morris. Is.

OUTLINE OF A LECTURE ON VEGETABLE
CHEMISTRY ... J. J. Bowrey. Is.

THE CULTIVATION OF THE ORANGE IN JAMAICA .. Dr. James Neish. Is.

THE VINE AND ITS CULTURE ... Rev. Wm. Griffith. Is.

THE CULTIVATION OF THE RAMIE ... Hon. J. C. Phillippo Is.

JAMAICA AT THR WORLD'S EXPOSITION AT NEW
ORLEANs-An official introduction to the
Jamaica Court, containing a short des-
cription of the island, its productions and
its climate 1." Gratis.
1887.
ON A NEW BEVERAGE SUBSTANCE : THE KOLA
NUT ... Dr. James Neish. Is.

THE ADVANTAGES TO RESULT FROM RAILWAY
EXTENSION ... Hon. W. B. Espeut. Is.

1889.
ON THE GEOLOGY OF JAMAICA
Rev. H. Scotland. Is.
ON MINING IN JAMAICA

1891.
THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF JAMAICA ... lion J.C. Phillippo Gd. '

A BRIEF GUIDE TO THE COURT OF THE IN-
STITUTE OF JAMAICA IN THE JAMAICA
INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1891-
Containing an account of the history and
objects of the Institute ... Gratis.







VV











' AMllCA ARATEDWATER COMPJtY;
JAMES HUNTER MAcNISH, MANAGER.
S 64, PORT ROYAL STREET, KINGSTON.

SILVER MEDAL ... ... FOR RATED WATERS.
GOLD MEDAL ... ... FOR MILK RIVER BATH WA


GOLD MEDAL


... FOR FINEST PUREST SYRUPS.


Syrups:
Pine Apple Ginger
Orange Strawberry
Red Currant Cherry
Rose Apricot
Peppermint Clove


Raspberry
Almond
Vanilla
Apple
Anisette


Waters:
Ginger Ale Lemonade Club Soda
Hop Ale Quinine Tonic Cider
Sarsaparilla Orange Milk Soda
Seltzer Potass Lithia
Nerve Tonic Milk River Bath Water


Johnston's Fluid Beef--MAcNisH & SON, Sole Agents.

GOLD MEDAL AT EXHIBITION.


ALWAYS USE JOHNSTON'S FLUID BEEF

FOR IMPROVING SOUPS, SAUCES, AND GRAVIES.


MAcNISH & SON,

Commission Agents and Ware-
housemen,
64, PORT ROYAL ST., KINGSTON.

Furniture and Goods Stored at
Reasonable Rates.


Agents for Johnston's Fluid Beef
Walker & Sqns, Lim.
Delhi Canning Co.
Guillume & Co Bordeaux
Rosenheim, New York.


MAcNISH & SON,

.Only Gold Medallists for Syrups
at Exhibition.

ROSENHEIM'S FINEST
ESSENCES.
15 SORTs-Retail and Wholesale.

CARBOY'S SULPHURIG ACID:
Best Crystals Acetic Aeid.
-AND-
Gum Accacia.
MARBLE DUST,. WHITING,
BOTTLERS' SUPPLIES.L


. .. .. ..


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