• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Dedication
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Frontispiece
 Prelude
 Introduction
 Havana inns and hostelries - low...
 The press of Cuba - its genesis...
 Social and industrial conditions...
 Literary activity in Cuba - public...
 Cuban literature - its beginnings...
 Political conditions - the opposing...
 Cuba, its poltical, ecclesiastical...
 The public offices - chaotic conditions...
 The judicial system - its demoralization...
 Local government in Cuba - its...
 National Cuban representation,...
 Insecurity of person and property...
 Industrial and economic data -...
 Resume - the yearning for freedom...
 Conclusion
 Appendix I
 Appendix II
 Editor's supplement - general descriptive...
 Index














Title: Cuba and the Cubans
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075369/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cuba and the Cubans
Uniform Title: Cuba y sus jueces
Physical Description: xvi, 442 p. : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cabrera, Raimundo, 1852-1923
Levy, Louis Edward, 1846-1919
Guiterás, Laura
Publisher: Levytype
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1896
 Subjects
Subject: Cuba   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Cuba   ( lcsh )
Biography -- Cuba   ( lcsh )
Genre: collective biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Raimundo Cabrera ; translated from the eighth Spanish edition of "Cuba y sus jueces" by Laura Guitéras ; revised and edited by Louis Edward Levy and completed with a supplementary appendix by the editor.
General Note: Prologue to R. Montoro.
General Note: First Spanish edition, Havana, 1887.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075369
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000589885
oclc - 21159610
notis - ADB8681

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Table of Contents
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Frontispiece
        Page xvi-a
        Page xvi-b
    Prelude
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Introduction
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 32b
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Havana inns and hostelries - low cost of living - the royal lottery - the country monopolized and exploited - Cuban sacrifices during the separatist wars
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    The press of Cuba - its genesis - the two classes of the community - their respective aims and ideals - the two classes of journals - history of Cuban journalism - its pains, penalties and rewards - the press laws - scientific and other periodicals
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 48b
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Social and industrial conditions - sugar and cattle raising - consequences of misgovernment - the criminal classes - penal statistics
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 64b
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Literary activity in Cuba - public and private libraries - spread of intelligence - Cuban as distinguished from Spanish literature - Cuban authors and their works
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 80b
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Cuban literature - its beginnings and development - Cuban poets and historians - activity in the fields of science, art and general literature - Cuban painters and composers
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 96a
        Page 96b
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 112a
        Page 112b
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Political conditions - the opposing parties and their history - period of conspiracies - futile hopes of reform - the ten years struggle - the compromise at Zanjon - the autonomist party - its platform - the conservative or Spanish party - broken promises of the government
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 128a
        Page 128b
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Cuba, its poltical, ecclesiastical and juridical divisions - the moral status of the people - the social evil - its exploitation by the government - purity of the Cuban people - the status of education - historical review of the system of instruction - government neglect of education - free schools, seminaries and colleges privately instituted and conducted
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 144a
        Page 144b
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 160a
        Page 160b
    The public offices - chaotic conditions of the administrative system - evil effects of centralization - dishonest officials - official salaries in Cuba
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    The judicial system - its demoralization - exclusion of Cubans from the judiciary - the various judicial offices - their general corruption - the administration of justice a source of income to the state
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 176a
        Page 176b
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Local government in Cuba - its past and present - the municipalities and their organization - autocratic administration - the local government law of 1859 - the restricted franchise - restricted powers of the local councils - the law of 1879 - a semblance of reform - a reality of centralization
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 192a
        Page 192b
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    National Cuban representation, etc.
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 208a
        Page 208b
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 224a
        Page 224b
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    Insecurity of person and property - prisoners slaughtered under pretext of preventing their escape - costly and inefficient police service
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 240a
        Page 240b
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    Industrial and economic data - the resources of the country drained by extortionate taxation
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
    Resume - the yearning for freedom - the leaders of the autonomist movement - the religious sentiment of the people - mercenary spirit of the clergy - social conditions reviewed - the women of Cuba
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 256a
        Page 256b
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
    Conclusion
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
    Appendix I
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Extraordinary powers
            Page 277
            Page 278
        Investitures
            Page 279
        Circular issued by brigadier-general Denis, chief of police
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
        Public instruction
            Page 283
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
            Page 297
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
        Circular from the civil government of Havana concerning the suppression of highway robbery
            Page 305
            Page 306
    Appendix II
        Page 307
        Page 308
        References concerning the illustrations included in the text
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 315
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
            Page 320
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
            Page 330
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 339
            Page 340
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
            Page 345
            Page 346
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
            Page 350
            Page 351
            Page 352
            Page 353
            Page 354
            Page 355
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
            Page 367
            Page 368
            Page 369
            Page 370
            Page 371
            Page 372
    Editor's supplement - general descriptive and historical review of the island of Cuba
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
    Index
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
Full Text








CUBA AND THE CUBANS



BY
RAIMUNDO CABRERA
'AUTHOR OF "MIS BUENOS TEMPOSS" "LOS ESTAOS UNIDOS,"
"IMPRESIONES DE VIAJE," ETC., ETC. MEMBER OF THE BAR
OF CUBA. PROVINCIAL Ex-DEPUTY. MEMBER OF THE
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE CUBAN AUTONO-
MIST PARTY. ETC.


TRANSLATED FROM THE EIGHTH SPANISH EDITION OF
"CUBA-Y SUS.JUECES"
BY L.AUIRA GUITERAS



.REVISED AND EDITED BY
LOUIS EDWARD LEVY
AND COMPLETED WITH
A SUPPLEMENTARY APPENDIX BY THE EDITOR


ILLUSTRATED WITH 524 ENGRAVINGS AND A MAP



PHILADELPHIA
THE LEVYTYPE COMPANY
1896












AMICA
















COPYRIGHT 1896
THE LEVYTYPE COMPANY
PHILADELPHIA






















TO



THE MEMORY OF HER BELOVED UNCLE



EUSEBIO GUITERAS



THIS TRANSLATION IS DEDICATED
BY HIS NIECE



LAURA GUITERAS











EDITOR'S PREFACE.


At a tithe when the conditioit'of Cuba and its
people has been forced upon the attentionn of the
civilized world by another saigulifary contest
between Spain and its Great Antillan colony, there
is io, peed of an apology for the appearance of the
preaent-4wor4;
TheAmejin pel, especially, ave an abiding
igbtetet ii Crba; 'teir as a matter of sentiment,
bd b 4myp if merdil relations with
. the iffd d i. it rnt economic facts
.rultmng' from ,. s elaioris tlie. condition of
SCabia .a ,ta~1ie si lrgely con6iis us, and a
S dist ubance- to &co0iditidn ffe&ts our material
interests iifi t v iy& Since the beginning of
1895 the prj4nge'l contention :b1ween 'the Cuban
colonists and" the mother country,'whieh in theppast
has resulted in numerous instirectifiis and in a
devastating, civil war of ten yedrsi'.duration, has
again been taken out of the domaiA-of parliamentary
discussion by a resort to force. The political agita-
tion for administrative reforms aind a due measure
of self government which has constantly and per-
sistently been maintained by the' pIopressive par-
ties among the Cuban people, especially since the









vi EDITOR'S PREFACE.
failure of the Spanish government to develop the
reforms agreed upon by the Compromise of 1878,
has again been replaced by an insurrectionary
movement that has spread over the greater part of
the island of Cuba. Again the Cuban question,
turgid with the wrongs of centuries, distorted by
social misconceptions and by political chicanery, an
anachronism at the close of the 19th century, is
illuminated by the torch of war.
But the gleam of battle fire illuminates an historic
subject in but a garish and imperfect light. Its
various phases are brought out in gross relief against
a sombre background and such presentations are
necessarily misleading in their nature. In the midst
of the confusion and turmoil incident to a clash of
arms, statements of fact, discussions of opinion and
contentions of argument inevitably partake of the
heat of the conflict and are apt to be over-colored by
passion or prejudice. Affected by these conditions,
the press and the tribune are alike prone to give ex-
pression to the rancors of the conflict, rather than
the calmly ascertained causes which underlie and
have produced it; the real import of those causes is
apt to be obscured by the bitterness of partisanship
and the far-reaching significance of their effects
hidden in the smoke of battle.
To afford a true light under such circumstances
there is need of a competent and acknowledged









EDITOR'S PREFACE.


authority, whose position is conceded and whose
standpoint is fully recognized; an authority un-
affected by the rancors of the moment, actuated by
logical and well-determined motives and influenced
by considerations apart from present exigencies.
Such a light is afforded by the volume before us.
It renders accessible to English readers Raimundo
Cabrera's Cuba y sus jueces. That work, as will be
found noted in its admirable prologue by Rafael
Montoro, attracted universal attention throughout
the Spanish-speaking world at the time of its first
Publication in 1887. Since then it has gone through
eight editions in the Spanish, and has been accepted
as a faithful reflex of public opinion among the
liberal thinkers not only of Cuba, but of the mother
country as well. The work affords the most compre-
hensive and thorough statement of the Cuban ques-
tion that has thus far emanated from the press; it
has stood the test of criticism and review by all
parties in Cuba and in Spain, and remains an un-
questioned and unimpeached authority on the sub-
ject of Cuba and the Cubans.
The idea of presenting this work to the English
speaking public had been conceived by the present
editor some years ago, when, as publisher of the
seventh Spanish edition, he became minutely con-
versant with its contents. The author's permission
to translate the work was then obtained with that









EDITOR'S PREFACE.


end in view, and now, with the growing interest
of the American people in the struggle between
Spain and its rebellious colonists, an English
translation of this standard work will especially
commend itself. In view of the existing situation
of affairs, the editor has deemed it proper to confine
the translation to the text as it was published in the
Spanish edition of 1891, which was the seventh of
the series and the last which received the revision
of the author, he having then augmented his pre-
vious work with numerous notes and supplemented
it with appendices and illustrations. A brief sum-
mary of descriptive and historical data, which the
author, writing for a Spanish and particularly a
Cuban public, naturally regarded as unnecessary,
has been added to this translation by the editor, and
the illustrations of the original work have been in-
creased by a number of photographic views and a
map of the island and its surroundings.
Sefior Cabrera has dealt with his subject-matter
from the vantage ground of an acknowledged leader-
ship of the Autonomist party of Cuba. His state-
ments may therefore be regarded as an expression
of that element of the Cuban people whose hopes
of the future of their country have been based on
the belief that their aspirations could be realized
through an effective system of Autonomy, and who
looked forward to achieving their political aims by









orITro'S PREFACR.


constitutional agitation, rather than by the possibly
shorter but immeasurably more costly method of a
resort to arms. The earnest and thoughtful leaders
of the Autonomists based their contention for a
peaceful propaganda of the reform movement upon
the fact that socio-political problems which, a gene-
ration ago, seemed impossible of determination ex-
cept by force, were now open for solution by appeals
to justice and to reason; that the intelligence and
education upon which they relied were:being rapidly
disseminated by thesBedl of commerce and of in-
dustry; that the spirit of the times was making
strongly for their cause and that the progress of
modern thought and enlightenment, slow though it
was in making an impress on Spanish policy, might
still with confidence be left to work its way in Cuba,
as it had worked and was yet working throughout
Sthe civilized world. Cabrera's book indeed, as voic-
ing the demands of the Cuban people for reforms
which Spain has constantly postponed or absolutely
refused, has commanded the recognition and respect
of the advanced rank of Spanish statesmen.
The original publication of this work in the
Spanish, as already noted, marked an tra in the agi-
tation for Cuban Home Rule. It was put forth,
as is indicated by Montoro in his Prologue, and by
the author in his introductory chapter, as a refuta-
tion of statements by a Peninsular writer, published









EDITOR'S PREFACE.


in a book entitled Cuba y sz gente" (Cuba and its
People), and hence proceeds upon a plan of disserta-
tion which Cabrera found forced upon him. But the
latter's work is much more than a polemic; it takes a
wider sweep and presents a broad and philosophic
statement of its subject. With scholarly insight and
thorough analysis, Cabrera traces the existing social,
political, and economic condition of Cuba and the Cu-
bans with a facile pen, in brief but comprehensive
outlines and in a lucid and trenchant style. He
elucidates the needs and aspirations of the Cuban
people as evinced by that portion of the community
of which Cabrera himself is a typical representative,
the thoughtful, conservative and substantial ele-
ments of society, which form the true basis of, the
social structure. It was these elements that com-
posed the Autonomist party of Cuba, which sought,
through every possible peaceful effort, to move the
Home Government to a recognition of the needs of
the times, of the demands of justice, and of the dic-
tates of an enlightened self-interest, and it is these
elements which must form in Cuba, as in all civilized
societies, the foundation whereon the lasting recon-
struction of the community must eventually be
based.
Louis EDWARD LEVY.


Philadelphia, February, 1896.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS.



EDITOR'S PREFACE
PROLOGUE .17

I.
EXPLANATORY INTRODUCTION THE PORT OF HA-
VANA-THE HARBOR OFFICIAL---CusTOM HousE
EXAMINATIONS-STREETS OF THE CITY ARCHI-
TECTURAL PECULIARITIES CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE CITY CROWDS THE NEGROES AND THE
CHINESE-THE "SECTION OF HYGIENE"-OTHER
FEATURES 29

II.
HAVANA INNS AND HOSTELRIES-LOW COST OF LIV-
ING THE ROYAL LOTTERY THE COUNTRY
MONOPOLIZED AND EXPLOITED CUBAN SACRI-
FICES DURING THE SEPARATIST WARS 37

III.
THE PRESS OF CUBA ITS GENESIS THE TWO /
CLASSES OF THE COMMUNITY- THEIR RESPECTIVE
AIMS AND IDEALS THE TWO CLASSES OF JOUR-










TABLE OF CONTENTS.


NALS HISTORY OF CUBAN JOURNALISM ITS
PAINS, PENALTIES AND REWARDS THE PRESS
LAWS-SCIENTIFIC AND OTHER PERIODICALS 48

IV.
SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS SUGAR AND
CATTLE RAISING-CONSEQUENCES OF MISGOVERN-
MENT THE CRIMINAL CLASSES PENAL STA-
TISTICS 69

V.
LITERARY ACTIVITY IN CUBA-PUBLIC AND PRIVATE
LIBRARIES- SPREAD OF INTELLIGENCE CUBAN
AS DISTINGUISHED FROM SPANISH LITERATURE -
CUBAN AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS 75

VI.
CUBAN LITERATURE-ITS BEGINNINGS AND DEVEL-
OPMENT-CUBAN POETS AND HISTORIANS-ACTIV-
ITY IN THE FIELbS OF SCIENCE, ART AND GENERAL
LITERATURE-CUBAN PAINTERS AND COMPOSERS. 85

VII.
POLITICAL CONDITIONS-- THE OPPOSING PARTIES
AND THEIR HISTORY PERIOD OF CONSPIRACIES
S -FUTILE HOPES OF REFORM-THE TEN YEARS'
STRUGGLE-THE COMPROMISE OF ZANJON THE
AUTONOMIST PARTY ITs PLATFORM-THE CON-
SERVATIVE OR SPANISH PARTY BROKEN PROM-
ISES OF THE GOVERNMENT 119










TABLE OF CONTiNTS. xi

VIII.
CUBA, ITS POLITICAL, ECCLESIASTICAL AND JURIDICAL
DIVISIONS-THE MORAL STATUS OF THE PEOPLE-
THE SOCIAL EVIL ITS EXPLOITATION BY THE
GOVERNMENT- PURITY OF THE CUBAN PEOPLE-
THE STATUS OF EDUCATION-HISTORICAL REVIEW
OF THE SYSTEM OF INSTRUCTION GOVERNMENT
NEGLECT OF EDUCATION FREE SCHOOLS, SEMI-
NARIES AND COLLEGES. PRIVATELY INSTITUTED
AND CONDUCTED .. .137

IX.
THE PUBLIC OFFICES-CHAOTIC CONDITION OF THE
ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM-EVIL EFFECTS OF CEN-
TRALIZATION DISHONEST OFFICIALS- OFFICIAL
SALARIES IN CUBA 161

X.
THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM-ITs DEMORALIZATION-EX- v
CLUSION OF CUBANS FROM THE JUDICIARY THE
VARIOUS JUDICIAL OFFICES THEIR GENERAL
CORRUPTION THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
A SOURCE OF INCOME TO THE STATE 169

XI.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CUBA ITS PAST AND
PRESENT THE MUNICIPALITIES AND THEIR
ORGANIZATION- AUTOCRATIC ADMINISTRATION-
THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAW OF 1869 THE
RESTRICTED FRANCHISE-RESTRICTED POWERS OF










TABLE OF CONTENTS.


THE LOCAL COUNCILS THE LAW OF 1879 A
SEMBLANCE OF REFOhS. A REALITY OF CEN-
TRALIZATION 179

XII.

NATIONAL CUBAN REPRESENTATION HISTORICAL
SKETCH OF THE INSTITUTION ANTAGONISM OF
THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT-MILITARY DESPOT-
ISM INTENSIFIED MOVEMENT FOR REFORM -
COMMISSION OF INQUIRY APPOINTED FAILURE
/ OF THE COMMISSION-THE INSURRECTION OF 1868
-THE COMPROMISE OF ZANJON IN 1878-CONCES-
SIONS BY THE GOVERNMENT-NEW BASIS OF REP-
RESENTATION- THE ELECTIONS --GERRYMANDER-
ING BY THE GOVERNMENT MISREPRESENTATION
AND REPRESSION OF THE CUBAN ELEMENT THE
NECESSITY OF AUTONOMY 197

XIII.

INSECURITY OF PERSON AND PROPERTY-PRISONERS
SLAUGHTERED UNDER PRETEXT OF PREVENTING
THEIR ESCAPE-COSTLY AND INEFFICIENT POLICE
SERVICE 235

XIV.

INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC DATA-THE RESOURCES
OF THE COUNTRY DRAINED BY EXTORTIONATE
TAXATION 247










TABLE OF CONTENT. XV

XV.
RsUMt THE YEARNING FOR FREEDOM THE
LEADERS OF THE AUTONOMIST MOVEMENT THE X
RELIGIOUS SENTIMENT OF THE PEOPLE MERCE-
NARY SPIRIT OF THE CLERGY-SOCIAL CONDITIONS
REVIEWED--THE WOMEN OF CUBA 253

CONCLUSION 271





APPENDIX I.

EXTRAORDINARY POWERS TO BE USED IN UNUSUAL
EMERGENCIES AND IN CASES WHICH I)D NOT ADMIT
OF DELAY FOR CONSULTATION, CONCEDED TO THE
CAPTAIN-GENERAL OF HAVANA, MAY 28TH, 1825,
AND AGAIN PROMULGATED IN THE ROYAL DECREES
OF MARCH 21ST AND 26TH, 1834 277

INVESTITURES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF PUBLIC
WORKS, SANITATION, CHARITY, PUBLIC INSTRUC-
TION AND JUSTICE 279

CIRCULAR ISSUED BY BRIGADIER-GENERAL DENIS,
CHIEF OF POLICE 280


PUBLIC INSTRUCTION


~Z"iiu--'i~" ""IT`" '"


. 283










xvi TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CIRCULAR FROM THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF HA-
VANA CONCERNING THE SUPPRESSION OF HIGH-
WAY ROBBERY 305

APPENDIX II.

REFERENCES CONCERNING THE ILLUSTRATIONS IN-
CLUDED IN THE TEXT 309



EDITOR'S SUPPLEMENT.

GENERAL DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL REVIEW
OF THE ISLAND OF CUBA 373








































GENERAL VIEW OF HAVANA, FROM THE CABANAS FORTRESS.























#4



I..'
-r
r
-. '

v t ^^


NO. 1. RAIMUNDO CABRERA.














PROLOGUE.


The extraordinary success attained by the first
edition of "Cuba y Sus Jueces" (Cuba and its
Critics) has afforded ample proof of the great merit
of the work and of its eminent opportuneness. As
regards the former, it is fully attested by the warm
eulogies accorded the work by the entire liberal
Press of Cuba, by the evident alarm manifested in
the reactionary organs and by the unusual gladness
with which the good people of Cuba, laying aside
for the time their various concerns, have sought,
almost unanimously, a grateful solace in the pages
of this fascinating and patriotic book. On the
other hand, no more thorough demonstration of
its fitness for the occasion could be possible than
the fact that this book, for some days after its
appearance, completely monopolized the attention
of the public, the discussion of its contents replac-
ing all other topics of current interest, not only in
newspaper polemics but also in the conversation
and spontaneous comments of the people.
The present prologue cannot, therefore, be like
ordinary compositions of this class. Its object
17









PROLOGUE.


cannot be the presentation to the public of a work
already celebrated, nor the introduction of an au-
thor already so distinguished; but it appears to me
desirable, for various reasons, to record with reference
to the latter a few circumstances which enhance
our estimate of the originality as well of the noble
purpose of his work.
It will be well- however, that we speak with re-
serve, inasmuch as it is in the nature of things
political that the generous plaudits of a fair and
impartial public are counteracted, or more properly
speaking, are sought to be counteracted, by the
coarse attacks of disappointed adversaries. These
attacks attest. the merits of the book, and afford
sufficient proof even were there no other evidence.
No one attains to moral or intellectual authority,
least of all, certainly, in the domain of politics,
without incurring many a secret hate -and lasting
antipathy, errors which are gradually corrected or
chimerical ambitions which are finally overcome in
the path of the victor.
Looking forward, then, as one may, to this inevit-
able fate of all who are worthy and more especially of
all who struggle, I would remark that Sefior Cabrera
affords in the story of his own life the best commen-
tary on his work. A son of the soil, he owes to his
own efforts, notwithstanding his youth, all that he
has acquired, position, wealth and fame. To those









PROLOGUE.


who persist in accusing the Cuban of being indolent
or apathetic, of lacking enterprise, activity or per-
severance, Cabrera's life affords an answer more elo-
quent even than his interesting book. Well may so
creditable a production receive the testimony of the
author of this prologue, united as he is'with Cabrera
by the ties of an old friendship, dating back to the
sweet years of childhood and the ineffaceable mem-
ories of school. Cabrera is one of the class of self-
made men, the true warrant of the culture and the
progress of all new countries, where the individual
has all the task of accomplishing results, and has
the impulse to their accomplishment. The first,
because a new social organism precludes the exist-
ence of classes privileged by law or custom, and of
traditional institutions which, in communities of
an extended history, appear as an expression of
that history, and partake with the individual, in
priority even to the latter, in the work of social
development. The second, the impulse to action,
inasmuch as it is the characteristic of immigrants
and their immediate descendants in new communi-
ties, to which they are drawn by a spirit of adven-
ture and by a yearning for liberty and an eagerness
for fortune, to repel all social ingredients and all
constraints of government which remind them of
their circumstances in the old country, where the
feeling of restraint and ill-condition had finally









PROLOGUE.


brought them to dare all the risks of a new life, in
a distant land and under unknown circumstances.
The true cause of the relative backwardness of
Spanish America and of the enormous difficulties
with which it had to contend in establishing on a
solid basis its political and economic organization,
cannot, in the opinion of the highest authorities,
be other than the error committed by our ancestors
in disregarding the supreme necessity, felt by every
colony and by every colonist, of individual and
social expansion, a principle which, on the contrary
has been fully recognized in Anglo-Saxon America,
where such admirable progress has been attained.
Gervinus has compared in the classic pages of his
famous introduction to the History of the Nineteenth
Century, the different spirit to which the policies of
the British and Spanish colonizations have respect-
ively responded, proving how far superior in this
respect was always the former over the latter. The
English colonist, upon his departure for new terri-
tories, leaves behind him the the historic institu-
tions, social complications and the rigid prescrip-
tions and limitations which are the product of for-
mer centuries. The Spaniard, on the other hand,
enamoured of an impossible uniformity, has striven
to reproduce in newly discovered territories, with all
its characteristic elements, the same organization as
that which the stormy march of events had created in









PROLOGUE. 21

the mother country. He has tried to establish, as
Leroy Beaulieu points out, "old societies in new
countries," without spontaneity or life of their own;
an evil which Merivale found to be the root of all
the misfortunes that afflict Spanish America, as also
of the turbulent uprisings that finally culminated
in its separation from the common nationality.
This erroneous idea of assimilation still holds
sway and one of its most natural and lamentable
results is the deplorable antagonism that never
ceases in Spanish colonies to divide into hostile camps
the Europeans and the Americans. Under the shadow
of a suspicious and jealous tutelage which condemns
as calamitious and criminal every idea of expan-
sion, always so necessary in new societies, the proud
and dominating spirit of those who. assert them-
selves as the true representatives of the national in-
terest, violently bursts forth, stirring up among the
settlers of metropolitan origin the most cruel enmity
against the natives of the country in which. they
live.
Thus becomes developed that psychological con-
dition, described in so masterly a manner by John
Stuart Mill in the suggestive lines which serve as
fitting epigram to this work, and which if ever,
in a restricted sense, applicable to English coloniza-
tion, could, unfortunately, always be applied with
more or less positiveness to the Spanish colonial


-P i E--l-_'









PROLOGUE.


system. It was logical that such a disposition in the
dominant element should give rise to corresponding
protests and reproaches from the humiliated and
oppressed colonists. Hence the antagonism of which
I speak, with all its odious and deadly fierceness,
followed by a procession of horrors, violence and
public calamities which constitute one of the saddest
episodes of modern history! .. In con-
tinental America these are now passing, with the
sad memory of their origin. An eloquent lesson,
indeed, and one that is not appreciated.
In Cuba and Porto Rico, with the continuance of
its causes, that antagonism still persists, engendering
nearly all the dangers and difficulties which those
countries encounter in the rough pathway of their
civilizing evolution. And if this antagonism be the
greatest evil which they suffer it is well that all
true lovers of the public weal should battle to correct
the errors which false prejudices or absurd animosi-
ties are constantly fomenting.
A free-lance pamphlet into which the insolent
pen of an unjust foreigner packed all kinds of errors
and insults against this unfortunate country, serv-
ing thus as the mouthpiece of those who to-day
symbolize the spirit of domination among us, has
afforded the motive for this judicious and striking
reply of Mr. Cabrera. We wish it were read by
both elements of the community with absolute cool-




7- r-Zr'w rrw-1 we .


PROLOGUE. 23

ness of judgment. The dominating classes might
comprehend their injustice and thoughtlessness; the
others would see that right upholds them, and
that good discipline, union and perseverance con-
stitute the most efficacious remedy for the evils they
suffer.
The mature reflection to which these pages in-
vite will indicate primarily that there exists in Cuba
a people endowed with all the qualities and elements
necessary to attain a high degree of civilization and
prosperity, if it can only overcome the fearful crisis
which now agitates it.
In a profound and notably just criticism of this
book, Mr. Enrique Jos6 Varona has pointed out,
with his usual mastery, this principal factor of the
Cuban problem.
"The culminating subject of this book," says this
distinguished thinker, "because it is developed from
the reality of things, is that the old European race
which conquered and repeopled Cuba, has here pro-
duced an ethnological variety well adapted for its
new physical conditions, and capable of a well
ordered and progressive social life; for it has been
fruitful and has demonstrated a high degree of
mental aptitude, exceptional activity and a persist-
ent spirit of enterprise. But as though living under
the weight of the inexorable fatality conceived by
the ancients, whatever has been due to its historical










PROLOGUE.


antecedents, whatever of political ties and institu-
tions it brought from the old European soil, seems
to have arisen in its pathway as an insurmountable
obstacle, or bound up its limbs with unyielding
bonds. Favored by nature on .every side, it has
gathered only a harvest of evils from its social and
political organization."-Revista Cubana, Septem-
ber, 1887.
The first part of Mr. Verona's observation is
exceedingly important, as it establishes, in our
judgment, the just title of the Cuban people to con-
sider themselves as a people, with perfect right to
colonial autonomy. It furthermore solves one of
the most interesting of the problems which press
upon the colonists to-day, viz.: that of the adapta-
bility and capacity for indefinite reproduction of the
white race in the torrid zone, which, up to the
present time, have been considered negatively by
most writers, with discouraging and pessimistic
conclusions, forgetting possibly that races may
change according to their environment. The iso-
thermic lines so precisely traced by I. Guyot in the
map which accompanies his remarkable Lettres sur
la Politique Coloniale, appeared to be definitive only
a short time ago. It is true that in the works of
Rochard, Bordier and of Guyot himself, an excep-
tion is noted in favor of the Spaniards and Portu-
.guese, as more apt in establishing themselves and










PROLOGUE.


multiplying in our zone. True it is also that the
physical conditions of oir beautiful island, and its
topographical peculiarities, render it manifestly
better adapted than any other tropical country for
the acclimatization of the South-European. The
observation of Verona is above all decisive as
regards the complete tracing out of the problem,
indicating as it does the possibility of ethnological
varieties, whose adaptability will in Cuba exceed all
our hopes, if not disturbed in their development by
monstrous political conditions, for whose reform
we must resolutely struggle.
We need not deprecate these hopes as being
exaggerated, if we consider how vast is the field
which presents itself, even .in our uninhabited
domain, not alone for the development of the exist-
ing population, but to increasing numbers of new
immigrants and their descendants. According to
the highest estimates there are in Cuba but 12.84 in-
habitants to the square kilometre. Calculate now the
time and the effort necessary for our community to
reach even a medium density of population, such as
is considered in other countries as but a partial
occupancy of the soil. Development, it is main-
tained, can follow only upon our regeneration, and
this is impossible so long as the conditions to which
we are subjected are not essentially reformed.
But, can these conditions possibly be reformed?









PROLOGUE.


Is it permissible to hope for better days when,
to quote the phrase of a Spanish statesman,
"the reign of justice in Cuba shall begin ?" This
is the crucial point of the question. It is certainly
not necessary for the author of this prologue to state
that he does not figure among the pessimists. He may
permit himself to believe, without being accused of
lack of modesty, that this fact is well known by all
who are acquainted with the political affairs of the
country. It is not to be denied, however, that the
difficulties are most grave. But whatever solution
the course of time may afford this fateful problem,
we may feel sure of this, that we cannot obtain
peace of mind nor lasting tranquillity, neither pros-
perity nor true civilization, so long as we do not
put an end to the enmity between the two elements
of our white population. On harmony depends our
welfare as surely as that discord breeds all our evils
and dangers. Certain it is that this happy union will
not be accomplished until the day when a full meas-
ure of self-government, founded on liberty and justice,
render impossible at once the daring imposition of
the powers that be and the just resentment of the
oppressed victims. Then, and then only, will Cuba
be saved for herself and for Spain.
RAFAEL MONTORO.


September 10, 1887.











If there be a fact to which all experience testi-
fies, it is that when a country holds another in
subjection, the individuals of the ruling people
who resort to the foreign country to make their
fortunes, are of all others those who most need
to be held under powerful restraint. They are
always one of the chief difficulties of the govern-
ment. Armed with the prestige and filled with the
scornful overbearingness of the conquering nation,
they have the feelings inspired by absolute power,
without its sense of responsibility * The
utmost efforts of the public authorities are not
enough for the efectual protection of the weak
against the strong, and of all the strong, the Euro-
pean settlers are the strongest. * They
think the people of the country mere dirt under
their feet; it seems to them monstrous that any
rights of the natives should stand in the way of
their smallest pretensions ; the simplest act of
protection to the inhabitants against any act of
power on their part which they may consider
useful to their commercial objects, they denounce,
and sincerely regard as an injury. *
The Government, itself free from this spirit, is
never able sufficiently to keep it down in the young
and raw even of its own civil and military offi-
cers, over whom it has so much more control than
over the independent residents."
JOHN STUART MILL.

(On "Bwresentative Government," Chapter XVIII.)













CUBA AND THE CUBANS.

T.









NO. 3. MORRO CASTLE. ENTRANCE TO THE PORT OF HAVANA.

EXPLANATORY INTRODUCTION-THE PORT OF HAVANA-THE HARBOR
OFFICIALS-CUsToM HOUSE EXAMINATIONS-STREETS OF THE CITY
-ARCHITECTURAL PECULIARITIES-('HARACTERISTICS OF THE CITY
CROWDS-THE NEGROES AND THE CHINESE-THE SECTION OF
HYGIENE "-OTHER FEATURES.
An easy-going writer, signing himself F. Moreno,
who was born in the neighborhood, probably, of
the Sierra Morena or of Albarracin, and who
came to Cuba evidently in search of gold coins,
found, in their stead, alas! only torn and filthy
banknotes, difficult, at best, to get hold of or to cash
in the Banco de Espafia. He escaped the dreaded
" Yellow Jack," and quite likely landed in Havana at
the wharf of San Francisco; he doubtless sauntered
through the streets of La Muralla, O'Reilly, and
San Miguel; met in the evenings some congenial
29









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


spirits, his countrymen, at the Louvre "; frequented
the Cervantes Theatre; lived on the public revenue;
visited a few odd families of the few stray natives
of his Province, and so obtained from the Island
which bore the burden of his personality only such
impressions as can be derived from such centres and
such places. He discussed public affairs only in the
company of small office clerks and their boon com-
panions, and at last, becoming weary of his surround-
ings, or, perchance, disappointed at not reaping a
harvest of gold pieces or banknotes in the unhappy
land of the sugar-cane, he thought it best to return
whence he came-to Madrid, centre of culture,
focus of office-seekers, metropolis where art, litera-
ture, talent and the court ministers are gathered to-
gether. This writer, who according to the an-
nouncement of the publishers appears to have
written of other things, has dedicated to you, Paco,
a work entitled "Cuba and its People," which I
have read with interest, which has made me laugh
at times and incensed me at others, and which,
altogether, has but served to strengthen my long
established opinion of the little love which our
Peninsular brothers bear us, and of that ungracious
spirit of our race, which, while very proud and
haughty, is constantly boasting a capacity for doing
great things-an ever certain sign of the small results
it actually accomplishes-for example, the Colonies.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


And it is for the purpose of informing you, friend
Paco, not only of the doings of Sefior Moreno and
his congeners, but also of the true causes which
make the "most beautiful land which human eyes
ever saw" a theatre of all the "horrors of the
moral world;" it is for this purpose I take the
liberty of writing you the present and succeeding
letters.
Follow then, my narrative and my comments,
and if you have the ardent blood of the good Cas-
tilians in your veins, and wholesome ideas of patri-
otism in your brain, prepare to agree with me that
all the evil it possesses-which is no small matter,
this much calumniated .Cuban people-is the result
of its Spanish colonization; and that the little or
almost nothing which it has of good, is what it assimi-
lates spontaneously from the American atmosphere.
Let us enter Paco, Cuba, by the same route that
F. Moreno took-whether by steamer or sailing
vessel-through the mouth of the Morro; on either
side are the ancient castles and fortresses which
have cost and still cost much hard earned cash, to
maintain, and which guard in their moats the bloody
memories of political convulsions to which we will
not refer,. but which would make the least sensitive
reluctant to recall. Pray do not scrutinize -too
closely the waters of the port. The filth which is
deposited in thick crusts at the bottom makes the









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


waves muddy, and its emanations, if we are to believe
the doctors of the country-reputed for their know-
ledge and scientific attainments-constitute the
principal cause of yellow fever. It is quite true that
while there is an abundance of filth, there is also a
yearly collection of large sums by a Board of Port
Wardens, whose numerous members are composed of
Spaniards that came to Cuba by the same route as
Sefior Moreno, and who will surely busy themselves
in perceiving defects and in criticising the country,
but not in cleaning the port.
Do not investigate, either, the other services con-
nected with the port; that of the police for example.
Be very careful of your baggage and of your person
among the boatmen, who are all old tars of the
Spanish Navy, and proceed to make your landing on
terra firma. You must quickly open your baggage
and show your belongings, but do not alarm your-
self. If you have it about you, give a dollar to the
officer-who is, indeed, not a Cuban-and you will
find this ordeal not at all a trying one. If you
have occasion to deal with the Custom House you
will discover that this matter of having your bag-
gage searched or left unmolested is insignificant in
comparison with examining the manifest of a valu-
able cargo.
We are now in the city; the streets are in truth
narrow and dirty; they reveal at once the fact that












4 1. -4[


ENTRANCE TO PORT OF HAVANA, FROM CAHANAS FORTRESS. MORRO CASTLE ATiRIIIT.'

































































NO. 2. JOSE DE LA LUZ CABALLERO.










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


the city was planned by the first settlers-natives of
an European country. Some streets are indeed paved
with Belgian blocks; this novelty dates from 1862
and its introduction was celebrated with great
festivities, but most of them are not so paved, for
the Belgian blocks are imported from abroad and the
City Fathers have not been able to afford the heavy
duty imposed by the tariff.
There is a drainage system, but so bad is it that
it serves only as a receptacle for filth, and there is
not enough water for cleaning purposes, here, where
springs abound. Public improvements have cer-
tainly not pre-occupied the Colonial Government,
which, while appropriating eight millions one
hundred and sixty-five thousand dollars for the
maintenance of the army, allows one million two
hundred and thirty-eight thousand for public works,
and this almost entirely expended on the personnel.
The buildings are for the most part low, like
those in the towns of Andalusia. The first archi-
tects were the Spanish settlers, and their plans and
models have been preserved, thus giving to our cities
a peculiar and characteristic stamp. Even the
famous convents of San Juan de Dios, of Santo
Domingo and others, built by the monks who flocked
to Cuba from the earliest times, and which have
been regarded as model edifices, were, and are yet,
in the worst possible taste.
2









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


In the streets you will come upon what is cer-
tainly a motley crowd. The negroes, by their num-
bers and their depth of color, will attract your
attention; slavery will be recalled to your mind,
transplanted by Europe to American soil. The
historian will no doubt remember that Spain re-
ceived from England in 1817 four hundred thou-
sand pounds sterling to abolish the slave trade,
and that Emancipation, first gradual (Moret law of
1870), afterwards absolute (Cortes of 1886), and
never indemnified, is owing to the generous efforts
of the Reformists, to the Revolutionists, and finally
to the Cuban Autonomists.
You will also see the Chinamen; a type which
brings to memory another importation, that of the
the coolie contract laborer, not to say slave; a system
against which the civilized world has at last cried
out, while Spanish statesmen are cherishing the
philanthropic idea of contracting for 400,000 more
Chinamen, notwithstanding the treaty of Pekin, for
employment in the agricultural work of Cuba. And
it must not surprise you, Paco, that this degraded
race has brought along its vices to Cuba; but what
may truly astonish you is that this is but a new
means of exploitation at the expense of public
morals, and that through the gambling dens, etc.,
of the Chinese, many functionaries of the police, and
other public employes, become enriched.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


You will also see in the heart of the city, in
the most thickly populated streets, a spectacle of
never ceasing scandal and demoralization, but if
you should mention this to one of those discontented
members of society who abound in this country, or
to some conscientious paterfamilias who is anxious
for the moral education of his children, and who,
by the way, Senor Moreho did not meet, he will tell
you that there is in the Civil Government, never by
chance entrusted to a Cuban,* a department called
Section of Hygiene, whose duty is supposed to be
the punishment and prevention of immorality, but
which, disgraceful as it may seem, makes this but
another source of revenue to the officers. And like
this Section of Hygiene which, by the way, is not a
small detail of the administration of our Spanish
Colony, you will see many other things which
Moreno has not pointed out to you, and which I
will proceed to indicate in other letters.

Since the first publication of this book, Don Carlos
Rodriguez Batista, a Cuban by birth, has held the office of
Civil Governor of Havana. Although educated in Spain
and identified with its policy his origin must have greatly
contributed to forming his good intentions for the improve-
ment of the moral condition of affairs, but the many dif-
ficulties and obstacles inherent in the general system of
government of the island are such that he was unable to
execute them. Sefior Batista is, however, one of those rare
governors who have left a pleasant memory in Cuba.









36 CUBA AND THE CUBANS.

P. S.- You will likewise find in the heart of
Havana (just as Moreno tells you) that the laundries,
and particularly the undertakers' establishments,
instead of transacting their business quietly with pen,
ink and paper, make a great sidewalk show of palls,
candelabra and other trappings which are commonly
used on funeral occasions. But you must not ignore
the fact that there are municipal laws which forbid
all this, yet ward officials who consent to it, City
Councilors who are blind because they will not see,
Governors whom this state of affairs does not con-
cern, and a country that suffers it with patience.










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


II.














No. 5.-CALLE DEL PRADO, HAVANA.
HAVANA INNS AND HOSTELRIES-LOW COST OF LIVING-THE ROYAL
LOTTERY-THE COUNTRY MONOPOLIZED AND EXPLOITED-CUBAN
SACRIFICES DURING THE SEPARATIST WARS.

Permit me to tell you, Paco (whom I have not
the distinguished honor of knowing), that your
friend Don F. Moreno has not given you, as he pre-
tends, a good or even an indifferent idea of the
capital of the Great Antilles.
Of what he has given abundant proof is his utter
ignorance concerning it; and that he knows as
little of Havana as all the genteel employes and
bureaucrats that travel to and fro between Cuba
and Madrid, by the National Steamship Line, and










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


who study in the island only the most expedi-
tious manner of accumulating money in order to
spend it in Fornos and other like centres of Madrid.
He pomposely entitles his book Cuba y su gene"
"Cuba and its People," but far from describing
Cuba, its political, social and economic conditions,
he entertains you chatting about the streets of
Havana and the manner of paving them, of a dozen
or so of individuals, of some third rate hotels and
lodging houses and of all sorts of low places and
their habitues.
If these were the only resorts and social circles
which he frequented it is not to be wondered that
so select a writer speaks evil and calumny of
woman, of the family life and of the youth of Cuba
to whose homes he was never admitted, and contact
with which was repugnant to him, as is the
atmosphere of virtue to the vicious man.
As Moreno did not show you our hostelries,
permit me to do so. It would not be strange if in
Havana there were no comfortable hotels. The
proprietors of these, like those in nearly all the
other industries, hail from those famous Spanish
provinces where Alexander Dumas and his travel-
ing companions sought in vain for a place where
they might find relief from hunger and fatigue, and
found in their extremity only a thimbleful of choc-
olate for each person.










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


I should inform you, and can prove to you, my
dearest Paco, that in Havana you can find innu-
merable restaurants and inns where all, whether
rich or poor, can satisfy their appetite with much or
little money. Fortunately the land is naturally
fertile, and offers in abundance many edible
products.
For fifty cents in paper, equivalent to twenty-five
in silver, you can get an excellent breakfast at
which bread, fresh meat and vegetables will not be
wanting. For correspondingly more money you
will find tables served with a luxury and good taste
unsurpassed in Paris. Modest and cheap inns are
everywhere to be found, and are a source of never
ending comfort to the laboring classes. Do not
doubt this, though Moreno assures you to the con-
trary. The Cuban table is one of the most abund-
ant, cheap and varied in existence; that is precisely
why the Cuban does not emigrate (and God knows
he might well do so) and it is precisely on this
account that Sefor Moreno came to Cuba and will
return only when expedient; and for this same
reason his countrymen have followed and will con-
tinue to follow in his wake.
The hotels, some of them yet conducted in primi-
tive Spanish style, are improving, especially since
the facilities of communication with the United
States and the low rates of fare permit Americans









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


to come and winter among us and teach us how to
install and direct these undertakings. Some of the
hotels are now sumptuous establishments, where
electric lights, reading rooms, elevators, and other
comforts of American origin have been introduced,















No. 6.--GRAND HOTEL. INGLATERRA.

and where, quietly and without ado-admiring
and praising the natural beauty of this unhappy
land-have resided such noted travellers as Froude,
Plant, Archbishop Corrigan, United States Senator
John Sherman, and others of equal station.
Inquire of these eminent persons, Paco, and not
of the bull fighter Mazzantini, as your friend ad-
vises, if it is not true that they have published in
their respective countries, criticisms and impres-









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


sions of this island much more favorable and grati-
fying to our national pride than those which appear
in the book of a Spaniard so ultra-Spanish as Sefior
Moreno.
It matters but little to foreigners whether our
ports are open to admit immigrants. It is true that
if foreigners did emigrate to Cuba, they would not
find employment in the selling of Royal Lottery
tickets. That industry is reserved for the Canary
Islanders, retired army officers, and for others who
are not Cubans, nor even negroes; for all these,
or the greater part of them, devote themselves to
mechanical or agricultural pursuits, and not even
in these occupations enjoy the comforts or privileges
which the government in its various departments
offers in all shapes, combinations and sinecures to
our peninsular brethren.
What? Is this indeed a Spanish province without a
domestic tariff and without contributing of its blood?
By no means; this is a country monopolized and
exploited; the domestic tariff is the aspiration to-
wards supreme monopoly. And as for contribu-
tions of blood, these are made when required.
During the Separatist Wars the Cubans were en-
listed, recruited and transported to the field without
distinction of classes; the only exceptions were
those who paid to General Concha or his successor
a thousand dollars as redemption fee.









42 CUBA AND THE CUBANS.

More than thirty thousand Cubans died defend-
ing the national flag. The companies of discip-
lined militia, composed of Cubans organized for the
defense of rural districts, were marshaled and com-
pelled to go from one department to another. They
suffered hard campaigns; most of them perished;
and the survivors at the end of the war returned
to their homes without recompense, without dis-
charge, without pay, without honor; without other
honor than seeing themselves insulted by Sefor
Moreno and his kind.
A contribution of blood? The people pay it now,
but with the sweat of their brows and the fruit
of their labors, for the Cuban people are the miser-
able tenants of a heartless landlord called the De-
partment of Public Works.











CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


III.




















THE PRESS OF CUBA-ITS GENESIS-THE TWO CLASSES OF THE COM-
M UNITY-THEIR RESPECTIVE AIMS AND IDEALS-THE TWO CLASSES
OF JOURNALS-HISTORY OF CUBAN JOURNALISM-ITS PAINS, PENAL-
TIES AND REWARDS-THE PRESS LAWS-SCIENTIFIC AND OTHER
PERIODICALS.
In considering the newspaper press of the Island
of Cuba, as also all other manifestations of this
peculiar social organism, you have always to distin-
guish not only the political factions, but also their
various antecedents.
In order that you may well understand what I
mean, unknown Paco, and that you may be able to
refute the assertions of your cicerone, Sefior Moreno,
you must know once for all, that in Cuba, as in









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


ancient Rome, there exist two distinct social
classes, the patricians and the plebeians. One of
them is the dominating or governing class, com-
posed of all the Spaniards who have come and are
still coming to reap the fortune not in prospect in
their own country, and some of whom engage in com-
merce and the trades; of the officials who live at the
expense of the government a certain length of time,
then either return or remain in the colony accord-
ing to which way the wind is blowing; of the ex-
army officers who live at ease as civil government
employes; of the army officers themselves, and
finally, of all the adventurers of the home country
who form the personnel of the colonial organization,
but who, in general, are not conspicuous for their
culture. This class has one all-absorbing interest
in common, namely, bleeding the country; and this
interest is veiled behind a pretense of sentiment-
love for the nation which gives them her unlimited
protection. And both these impulses, sentiment and
interest, combine to assert themselves with over-
whelming force.
The other class is composed (and in this I in-
clude the negroes now free) of the Cubans, natives
of the country, those dominated over, the permanent
element of this social body, who till the land, prac-
tice the arts, the trades and the professions; but
who are, nevertheless, systematically excluded from









CUBA AND THE CUBANS. 45

all government positions, and who do not enjoy
privileges of any description; who pay, suffer and
endure the injustice of their exploiters.
These are also closely united by one sentiment,
one aspiration, the love of a liberty which they do
not enjoy, and the yearning for the justice of which
they stand in such sad need; but, unfortunately,
they are not protected nor shielded by a supreme
authority that enforces equity and justice and
which gives to every man his due, or at least en-
deavors to do so; on the contrary, they are con-
stantly cast off, persecuted and treated with suspicion
and mistrust.
Between these two classes one may formulate
logical subdivisions which I shall not stop to point
out. It is requisite only that 'I advert to the fact
that in the former class there are but few men of good
faith, sound judgment and conscientious spirit, who
look upon this, their adopted home, as part of their
common country, and on its people as their verit-
able brothers; who ask and wish for Cuba and the
Cubans the same guarantees and privileges which
the Spaniard enjoys in the home country, and who
reprobate and condemn the rule maintained here
for so many years, and which produces only the
sad result of a class division, unending discord,
impoverishment and misery.
The classification thus made, for the exactness of









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


which I can vouch, and in proof of which I can
cite reputed writers, will enable you to clearly un-
derstand what I stated at the beginning of this let-
ter: In considering the newspaper press of Cuba you
must distinguish not only the political factions, but also
their various antecedents.
Two primary types predominate among our period-
icals; one class legitimately represents the interests
of the dominant order, its supremacy, its aspirations,
its prejudices; and inasmuch as the only eagerness
of this class of journals is to drain the country of all
that it has to offer, it naturally follows that the
distinctive characteristic of these periodicals is mer-
cantile and reactionary.
The second type represents the earnest longings
and generous purposes of a cultured but oppressed
people, who, conscious of their rights, maintain, in
the narrow channel left them, their struggle for the
franchises and prerogatives of citizens of civilized
nations. Their character is such as naturally results
from the necessity of combating with self-denial
and tenacity against arbitrariness and injustice; it is
virile and enlightened. While the first class angrily
upholds and supports the impositions and exactions
of the power secured to the favored class, the second,
with ardent patriotism, discusses and defends the
principles of government which affect the present
and future of the Cuban community.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


It is easy to infer from this, esteemed Paco, that
it'is not the journalists of the second class who are
ahead in the arduous campaign against adversaries
so formidable, and for whom journalism is a means
of enrichment. Certainly not; for the former there
have been reserved its persecutions, its pains and pen-
alties; for the latter, its favors, recompenses, honors,
and wealth.
The history of Cuban journalism is short; notice
the following dates which your correspondent
Moreno, in his eagerness to tell of Cuba and her
people, has overlooked, and you will find what I
say confirmed.
In 1790, that is, three centuries after the discovery
of America-at the same period when the spirit of
humanity was marking its progress in the French
Revolution-this European colony had its doors still
closed to the commerce of the world, and had not
yet given that sign of culture which the publication
of a newspaper reveals.
In 1792, under the government of Las Casas, a
weekly newspaper first saw the light, and was pub-
lished gratuitously by Don Jose Agustin Caballero,
Tomes Romay, Manuel Zequeira and other distin-
guished Cubans, who devoted its profits to the main-
tenance of a public school.
In 1793 the Sociedad Patri6tica took charge of
the enterprise and made it a semi-weekly. In 1805









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


it became a tri-weekly, and it was not until Sep-
tember 1, 1810 (in this nineteenth century!) that it
became a daily paper, devoting its profits to the
founding of a library. The dimensions of this
miniature newspaper were those of a sheet of fools-
cap, folded in two leaves. The printer tried in vain
to improve the edition, but could find no new types
in the Havana market. And this was the state of
affairs in the fairest gem of the Castilian crown,
which already had over 400,000 inhabitants. Later
on, this paper flourished under the titles of "Papel
Periodico," and "Aviso y Diario de la Habana," and
subsequently was converted into the Gaceta Oficial,"
which still exists under the immediate supervision
of the Government, with unheard-of privileges and
monopolies, and which serves to enrich its managers
and augment their influence.
Thus, the first newspaper published in the history
of Cuba, the result of the patriotic and disinterested
efforts of some of her children, became a money-
making concern for the favored class; and if I were
to penetrate into historic annals, how many sad
pages would not this official newspaper reveal,
founded and supported gratuitously, as it was, by
generous Cubans who have lived to see it devoted
to the printing of the laws and the decrees intended
to stifle the intellectual movement of the country.
In 1818, through the initiative of an illustrious





































THE CABANAS FORTRESS, FROM OPPOSITE SIDE OF HARBOR ENTRANCE.


'1"


jl:





G1.,. 1.
*U~, r 42~L


















.7rl
4ni .i


No. 4.-FRANCISCO ARANGO Y PARRENO.


I










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


and deserving Cuban (Don Francisco Arango y
Parrefio) the ports of Cuba were opened to free com-
merce, the currents of civilization penetrated with
vigorous impulse from North America and other
countries, and it can be said that intellectual life
among us dates from that time. Thenceforward we
had a press and books. The Press,
which is a stronger power, more efficient and more
certain- in its effects than any that despotism can
ever hope to exercise.
But since the time of the Papcl Periodico" Cuban
journalism, properly so called, has always retained
the noble characteristics with which it was marked
by its generous founders. It has always been a labor
of love and patriotism; and
accordingly, it has been the
faithful, although stifled or-
f gain of the liberal aspira-
tions of an oppressed people.
Such were the "Faro nIn-
dus rial," "El Siglo," and
.,1^ "El Pais," which, constantly
battling in defense of their
NO. 9.-D. GASPAR BETANCOURT cherished ideals, gave ex-
CISNEROS. pression from 1847 to 1868
(the period of the Revolution) to the sentiments
of the Cuban people. They contended for social









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


and political reforms, and an administration
supported and maintained through patriotic enter-
prises by men of experience and of wealth; they
sought in their publications neither enrichment
nor glory, but willingly sacrificed their means,
their leisure, their individual safety and that of
their families, for the welfare of their unhappy
country. To this galaxy of illus-
trious worthies belong Jos6 de
J. Quintiliano Garcia, Crist6bal
Madan, Jose Quintin Suzarte,
Eduardo Machado, the memor-
able Gaspar Betancourt Cisneros,
Juan B. Sagarra, Francisco Javier
Balmaseda, Jose Maria de CAr-
.denas, Jose Frias, and above all
No. 10.-D. Jost QUINTiN
SUlo. ZARSTE. the venerable Count de Pozos
Dulces, a patrician whose name,
since it is not wrought in bronze, should be engraved
with inextinguishable gratitude in the hearts of the
Cubans.
All these were either men of fortune or were liv-
ing at ease in the practice of the learned professions;
they belonged either to the aristocracy of blood or
to that of letters, and they were all capable of with-
standing with dignity and uprightness the allure-
ments of power and of resisting the perils of perse-
cution, practising journalism gratuitously without










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


other hope of recompense than the benefit which the
country might receive.
Side by side with these distinguished men, there
arose the beginning of the first of the social classes
which I have described, with all the patronage and
all the privileges which the Government and its
branches could offer. Their organs were "El
Noticioso y Lucero," La Prensa," and El Diario
de la Marina." Founded and carried on as com-
mercial enterprises, they have had the satisfaction
of seeing their stocks quoted as marketable securities,
and their standard of politics has always been
determined by the Government which sustains
them, and by the stockholders who pocket the
dividends. For the journalists of this class, who,
against all reason and without scruple, have upheld
the mismanagement of the Colonial Government,
,and who have assumed to dignify themselves as
"Ministers of all the Ministries," there have been
plenty of crosses of honor, titles, pensions and other
rewards which a country prodigal in riches,
governed and administered for the benefit of the
minority, naturally has to offer.
We have scarcely to refer to the journalism of
Cuba during the period of the Revolution. From
1869, whence dated a liberty of the press conceded
off-hand and which served only to give vent to re-
pressed animosities, until 1878, there was in Cuba no










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


other than the official press. The political situation
conspired during this decade more than at any
other time to serve as a foothold for Spanish
journalists, convinced as they were that their own
advancement depended on an exaggerated defense
of Government interests, and on flattering the
political sentiments and fanning the animosities of
their countrymen. The voice of the Cuban was not
heard during this period.
When peace was established and it appeared that
new horizons were presenting themselves to the
Cubans, our press reappeared in a paper called El
Triunfo," founded by a deserving and generous
Spaniard, Perez de Molina, but edited gratuitously
and with patriotic disinterestedness by Cuban
writers, who from the beginning gave it their sup-
port in the defense of liberal
l '-. movements and reforms, ideals
always cherished and never real-
z ized.
To-day, unknown Paco, our
newspaper press boasts the same
characteristics as those to which
_'] I have drawn your attention in
S this extended letter. The two
No. 11. typical journals are the "Diario
D. RICARDO DELMONTE.
de la Marina," long the organ of
the bureaucracy, of restriction, of abuses of power









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


and of monopolies, and El Pais," defender of the
aspirations of a cultured, liberal, but oppressed and
badly governed people. The former continues to
enjoy all the favors and privileges which have
afforded it sustenance from the beginning, and the
latter continues to battle against all the opposition
which have assailed it from the first.
Yonder are the rich and the rewarded, here the
poor in power and influence; there, those who barter
in journalism, here, those who, though busily
employed in the professions, gladly devote what
time they can spare to the cause of their country.
Among these writers is An-
tonio Govin, a lawyer who is
an honor to our literature ;: .
and to our forum; who at an
early age had gathered bril-
liant laurels, more because
of his great talent and pro- -
found erudition than even
his well known uprightness
of character and acknowl-
edged patriotism; Rafael
Sp NO.12. -D. FRANCISCO A. CONTE.
Montoro, landed proprietor,
jurist, philosopher and deputy to the Cortez at thirty-
four years of age, attaining in parliament a place
among the foremost orators; Francisco A. Conte, a
Spanish publicist who devotes his pen to the advo-









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


cacy of our reforms; Ricardo Delmonte (editor of El
Pais), a cultured literateur whose reputation as an
honorable and discreet journalist was gained in the
columns of El Siglo; Federico Garcia Ramis, a lawyer,
whose early journalistic efforts already indicate him
as a conscientious writer; Leopoldo Cancio, attorney
and landed proprietor; Bernab6 Maidagin, Fabio
Freire, Eduardo Dolz, Pablo Desvernine, and An-
tonio Zambrana, members of the bar; Francisco de
Zayas, M. D.; Le6n Broch, lawyer, and many
more who with infinite self-denial have indefatiga-
bly labored in the defense of Cuban interests,
without other reward than the hope, not yet realized,
of one day seeing the unfortunate land of their
birth free, prosperous and happy.
In this slight historical review, unknown Paco, I
have made no mention of the other newspapers
which your correspondent Moreno quotes, nor of the
press and censorship laws which have weighed so
heavily upon our journalism in various ways.
Of the former there is but little to say: the two
periodicals described are types of the rest.
Cuban journalism in Havana, as in the other
cities of the Island, is an-undertaking that requires
perseverance, disinterestedness, and patriotism.
"Conservative (Spanish) journalism is an indus-
trial enterprise thriving on the barter of patriotism.
And as regards the press laws? aye, Sefor don









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


Francisco! If in Spain you have heard in its time
of the red pencil," please remember that in Cuba
until 1879 it was dipped in blood, to drown Cuban
thought and to give strength to their adversa-
ries !*
Later on .. a law which permitted Gen-
eral Fajardo to carry to the Tribunal of the Press
through the medium of his satraps, all autonomistic
newspapers, so as to cause their suspension and
ruin .....
And to-day there exists a law which kindly per-
mits the editor to discuss all subjects which are not
prohibited, which exiles or imprisons him for in-
fringing it, and which upholds the immunity that
government abuses possess by converting a censure
of administrative actions into a crime against the
authorities.
Of course all these restrictions concern Cuban
journalism alone .. but as for the
other .... !
But this letter waxes long and it behooves us to
study other matters besides the Press laws of this
blessed Spanish colony.
*A Royal order of November 19th, 1853, prohibited the
circulation in the Island of Cuba of Spanish newspapers and
books which had been printed in foreign countries, confirm-
ing a previous order of 1837.
Another Royal order of April 25th, 1851, prohibited the
circulation of even the "Revista de Espafia in Cuba.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


P. S.-Before closing I wish to say that your
friend F. Moreno, in his eagerness to acquaint you
in his book with "Cuba and her People," and with
many people who are not of Cuba, has also enumer-
ated various newspapers which are published in
Havana, and likewise their editorial personnel, most
of them, however, more or less obscure.
But I do not know whether it is with the best in-
tentions that he omits mentioning the many liter-
ary and scientific publications sustained and edited
by Cuban associations and by intelligent Cubans
throughout the country, who thus show the degree
of culture this people has attained, notwithstanding
the obstacles by which it has been surrounded,
thanks alone to its geographical position, its territo-
rial extension, its daily contact with other commu-
nities, and to the vivid tropical imagination that
easily assimilates modern knowl-
edge and ideas.
Among these publications I
f recommend to you:
"La Revista de Cuba," re-
warded at the Amsterdam Ex-
position; founded by the late
Jos6 A. Cortina, a man of fortune
who employed his wealth in
works of this kind.
No. 13.-D. Josi ANTOnIO "La Revista Cubana," man-
CORTINA.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


aged by Enrique J. Varona, a talented philologist
and profound thinker.
Memorias de la Real Sociedad Econ6mica."
"Los Anales de la Academia de Ciencia."
La Revista de Derecho y Administraci6n."
"Memorias del Circulo de Abogados."
"Revista de Agricultura."
El Eco de Cuba-Revista Enciclopedica."
"La Revista de Derecho."
Anales de la Sociedad Odontol6gica."
"La Cr6nica Medico-Quirirgica."
La Enciclopedia-Boletin Fotogrifico."
Boletin de la Sociedad Protectora de Animales y
Plantas," and many other publications which I
assure you are worth more-much more-than the
obscure papers which your not-too-veracious corres-
pondent has offered to you as samples of Cuban
journalism.


57










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


IV.
SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS-SUGAR AND CATTLE RAISING
-CONSEQUENCES OF MISGOVERNMENT-THE CRIMINAL CLASSES-
PENAL STATISTICS.
It is manifest that Don F. Moreno was at a loss
how to begin his fourth letter, and yet there being
no lack of material, it was
not an embarras de richesse
that deterred him.
It may be proper, how-
ever, to mention that this
same superabundance of
poor material, for which L
Moreno so strongly cen-
sures us, is Spanish and
wholly Spanish.
It is true that Cuba has
c. No. 15.-JUNTA DE FOMENTO.
changed considerably since Estaci6n del Ferrocarril de la
SHalana.
Columbus discovered it.
My last letter demonstrates that with regard to
journalism, during a period of ninety years, the peo-
ple of this country have not been outstripped, not-
withstanding the fact that in 1774 the National
Government opposed the establishment of printing
presses in its colonies, and that in 1790 only that of
the Captain-General existed in Havana.
We had the great good fortune to have the Ameri-
cans export to us the railway in 1836, long before









60 CUBA AND THE CUBANS.

its introduction in Spain, and later on to teach
us to make use of the telegraph; these advances
directed us on the paths of civilization, and
helped us to overcome the obstacles which beset our
progress; worthy of record is the fact that these
notable improvements were the results of the private
enterprise of these same Cubans who are accused of
indolence, and who, at the memorable Council of
Fomento showed themselves most active in this and
other undertakings not less progressive. And by the
way, this work was greatly retarded and interrupted,
to its no small detriment, by the authorities, who ob-
jected to the tracks infringing upon the military
confines of the castles Principe and Atra6s (!).
It is true that money seems to be a thing of the
past. But pray, why has this financial crisis come
to pass, which causes Spanish statesmen to appre-
hend a national catastrophe? Is it, perchance, the
imputed indolence and prodigality of the people of
this soil, or is it that in Cuba has been graphically
enacted the story of the goose that laid the golden
eggs? It is because that emporium of riches to
which the scions of Peninsular families ran in
shoals, dreaming a repetition of the Golden Fleece,
which they sometimes realized, has been converted
into a sterile land, where misery has fastened her
iron clutches and where no ray of hope can be dis-
cerned.










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


On these points, Paco, I do not intend to speak;
I withdraw in favor of a young Cuban writer and
lawyer, as remarkable for his modesty as for his
vast erudition and talent; he is a distinguished
journalist who edits one of the many newspapers
published in Cuba out of sheer patriotism and
love of science without a thought or hope of
gain, and which treat with discretion and sound
sense local questions of far more interest than those
of which Moreno and his confreres-because of
total ignorance-have not even given approximate
ideas in those mockeries of journalism and mercen-
ary sheets known under the names of La Verdad,
El Le6n EspaAol, La Polcmica, El Rayo, and other
like concoctions of impossible non-
sense.
The talented writer to whom I
refer is Don Leopoldo Cancio, ex-
member of the Cortes; the paper
to which he contributes is "La
Uni6n de Giines," and the article
which comes most 'i propos is the
following:
No. 16.
"It has always been a favorite LEOPOLDO CANCIO.
pretext of those interested in the
slavery of the Negro and the servitude of the
Chinese that the Caucasian race is not adapted
for agricultural work in the heat of the tropics,









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


and to justify their claim they have insisted with
extraordinary tenacity on the theory that the Cre-
oles (natives of the white race) have degenerated
from their progenitors, whom they do not equal
in either persistence or activity at work. With
this assertion and a similar one to the effect
that the negro does not work in the field except
under the constraint of slavery, they have had at
hand a host of arguments with which to defend
African slavery and the Asiatic contract law.
The idea of the indolence of the native whites
has been propagated and maintained here with ex-
traordinary success, thanks to the political assump-
tions of the ruling Spaniards, who have found it an
easy and pleasing task to attribute and take to
themselves all the virtues, and to place the Cubans
on the level of an enervated and lazy people, slow
in agricultural work, and disturbers of the country's
peace and of its lords. In their polemics with the
Cuban press their most authoritative official organs
affirm with an unperturbable self-complacency that
it is they who represent the classes that work and
pay, in contrast to the others, who, it would appear,
by a special dispensation of Providence, are able to
live regardless of what we were under the impres-
sion was the common precept-that man must earn
his bread by the sweat of his brow.
Nevertheless, the observation and study of our
political economy in comparison with that of Spain
and of the Spanish American republics, proves that
no man of the Spanish race is more laborious than
the Cuban. In spite of the 'drawbacks attached to
the imnense accumulations of landed property, and









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


the debasing effects on labor due especially to
slavery, and notwithstanding that Cuba is an
exploited colony whose tariff laws and system of
taxation have not been calculated to encourage
production, but on the contrary, the special object of
which has been to fill the royal coffers, no matter to
what extent the island might be drained; in spite
of all this, the people of the country have worked
with a faith and perseverance perhaps excessive,
revealing a spirit of industry not excelled in Spain
nor in any of its former American' colonies.
It was owing to the superhuman efforts of Cuban
planters, such as Poey, Diago, and Arrieta, that the
great inventions of European engineers for the
manufacture of sugar were introduced, and almost
entirely owing to the Cuban planters is the develop-
ment and renown which this industry afterwards
attained. It was they who, foreseeing coming
events, established centralized plants of machinery
to cope with the effects of the abolition of slavery,
thus sowing the seed which was afterwards to
germinate and bear fruit.
Battling against the antiquated civil laws, and
subjected to the rigor of a monstrous military
regimen, a system of government altogether unique,
they promoted the establishment of the majority of
the sugar plantations which to-day give Cuba a
prominent place among countries producing that
article.
The mayorales (overseers), and the rest of the
inferior employes who are familiar to us under the
name of operarios (laborers), under whose immediate
management the cultivation and fabrication of the









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


sugar is effected, have, in spite of all that may be
said of our industrial developments, comparing it
with that of other nations standing in the front of
civilization, been the efficient agents of an industry
which has produced from eighty to ninety millions
of dollars a year.
Who has ploughed and cultivated the fields of
Vuelta Abajo, producing the best tobacco in the
world? There also the natives of the country have
been in the great majority among the vegueros
(tobacco workers), maintaining the production in
spite of all the obstacles set against it by the law
and by the usurers.
This district of more than 6000 square miles
has not a single port qualified for foreign com-
merce. The producer has been obliged to succumb
before the tavern keeper, the necessary middle man
between himself and a market located at a distance
of 150 miles over well-nigh impassable roads, thus
forcing him to maintain a continuous chain of
parasites until he reaches Havana, the first port
after Cape San Antonio. In this unfortunate
province there seem to have gathered with especial
rapacity the monopolies and privileges which have
flourished in Cuba to such an extent as even to allow
the Company of Fomento y Navegaci6n del Sur the
exclusive use of the sea coast for steam navigation
from Bataban6 to the extreme east of the island.
Here the Spaniards with very few exceptions, have
done nothing but carry on the retail trade and that
of usury, waiting in the pleasant shade of their
taverns until the veguero toilsomely gathers his
precious harvest, and then starts out, suffering for










































INNER HARBOR OF HAVANA, FROM CABANAS FORTRESS.




































































NO. 7. CONDE DE POZOS DULCES.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


some days the burning rays of the tropical sun, in
search of money with which to repay his advances to-
gether with all of the fabulous usury imposed on him.
The minor productions, and also the pork
industry, have always been in the hands of native
Cubans in the same proportion as in the other
agricultural pursuits, that is, almost entirely.
Worthy of mention is the considerable progress
made in Puerto Principe and Las Villas in cattle
raising through the efforts of Cuban landowners,
who by means of selection or crossing with the best
foreign breeds, have perfected the native cattle so
that in few years most excellent results have been
obtained. Mola, Betancourt, Cisneros, Monteverde,
Arteaga and Borrero in Puerto Principe; Castillo,
Luna, Leg6n, Castro and Garcia, in Sancti Spiritus
were the promoters of this progress, and they were
all native Cubans.
The magnificent farms of these districts were for
the most part the work of free labor. It was the
white peasantry that cleared the wilds and produced
the extensive Guinea-herb pasture lands, which are
still the finest in Cuba.
If we had the official statistics of approximately
all the agricultural products of the island, we would
have no difficulty in proving that at least half is
the work of white creoles, and if we include, as is
proper, the colored people, then only fifteen or
twenty per cent. at most would relate to inhabitants
of other origin, Canary Islanders, Spaniards and
Chinese. In the absence of statistical figures the
reader can easily prove within the range of his
own observation the exactness of our statements.
5









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


"But what more eloquent proof of their industry
than the astounding fact that the abolition of slav-
ery, effected without compensation or indemnity,
has in no way lessened agricultural production?
Contrary in fact to expectation and to the law
established by those who have studied the transi-
tion from slavery to liberty, and have marked as
consequent a diminution of products, we have seen
our sugar and tobacco crops increase during a finan-
cial depression and our pork industry rise again
after a nearly total extinction during the Ten Years'
War (1868-78). Our rural middle class came to the
rescue of the old sugar plantations with their for-
tunes and labor, and while giving them new life
saw buried forever, alas! the better part of their
resources, their faith, and their hopes.
"Eagerness to produce, without stopping to reflect
to what end and for what purpose, has dragged
many to irretrievable ruin, or to an existence full
of anxiety, uncertainty and privation.
"Nearly all the Spaniards here devote themselves
to the retail business, the wholesale trade having
always been in the hands of foreigners and of a few
Cubans. Although many economists have ques-
tioned whether this branch of activity is or is not
to be regarded as production, no one has ever
yet doubted that agricultural labor is the root and
foundation of all others. But in commerce also the
Cubans in our cities have occupied positions as
clerks, bookkeepers, brokers, etc., without counting
those who like Mariategui, Drake, Castillo, Illos
and others, have been bankers and merchants on a
large scale. It seems scarcely necessary to speak of









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


the professions and many of the trades. The phy-
sicians, lawyers, pharmacists, engineers, musicians,
tobacconists are Cubans in proportion of one hundred
to one, for though it be true that in Havana one sees
many Spanish tobacconists, the number of Cubans
is much greater; and besides, Santiago de las Vegas,
Bejucal, San Antonio, Guanajay and other towns of
the Island make good my assertions.
The offices of Government seem to be the exclu-
sive property and privilege of the Spaniards; their
aversion to labor is manifested in the recent regula-
tion issued by the Marquis of Mendez Nunez, Secre-
tary to the Governor General, to the effect that
business would be transacted in his offices from 6
A. M. to 12 M. only; and this in a city where
activity begins at 8 A. M. and where everybody
is breakfasting from ten to eleven. Furthermore is
the notorious fact that the business hours in the
Government offices are but too short at best, as the
unfortunate victim who has had occasion to visit
them can well testify. In return, the natives of the
,Island work from sunrise to sunset, and from New
Year's Day to Christmas Eve.
"It is obvious that the Cubans, being the more
cultured and wealthy class, and not living for gain
alone, both produce and consume more than the
Spaniards, .the majority of whom are poor, and who,
by dint only of much saving and scraping, are enabled
to raise the meagre sum which they came in search
of, in order to realize their cherished dream of pos-
sessing a bit of land in their native town, that is, if
they do not fail in the effort. Those among them
who succeed in making and consolidating a compe-









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


tence are, of course, very few, and their mode of life
is practically the same as that of the native Cubans,
whom they decried before having themselves as-
cended the social scale.
"In the United States, Santo Domingo and the
Antilles, more than thirty thousand Cubans have
gained an honorable livelihood by their personal
efforts during long years of exile, enriching Santo
Domingo with the sugar industry, and Key West
with that of tobacco. Nowhere have they offered
such a spectacle as the French nobles, for example,
afforded Europe at the end of the last century,
when they were driven from their castles by the
torrent of the Revolution.
"It seems incredible that it should be necessary to
discuss .so trivial a subject, but in Cuba every state-
ment of the facts is questioned, even the evidence of
one's own senses, thinking in this way to mitigate
to some extent the system of exploitation and
schemes of monopoly which have ruined tha
country. It is necessary to rectify these false
assertions if we would have the light of truth
penetrate everywhere and dissipate the darkness
which despotism requires in order to exist and
thrive.
Catalonia has for centuries enjoyed a legislation
calculated to assure to it the Peninsular and Colonial
markets; Cuba has never participated in these
favors of power. Nevertheless the Catalonian ii-
dustries have not made greater progress than those
of Cuba; and yet the industrial spirit of the Cata-
lonians is praised to exaggeration while the Cuban
character is belittled and maligned. No woman of










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


our race surpasses those of Cuba; they know how
to enjoy the fruits of prosperity as well as to battle
against adversity; and still there are not wanting
creatures to deny them virtues which only the blind
or evil-minded do not see.
Let these prejudices cease; let justice be done to
Cuba, and then the bands of social solidarity will
reappear, so that this country may continue to be
what it is in truth-one of the most vigorous and
healthy offshoots of the Spanish race."



In my undertaking to refute one by one the mis-
statements of which your correspondent has been
guilty in regard to this poor Island of Cuba-so
little known and so harshly judged-I find myself
compelled to submit to his incoherencies and want
of sequence and of unity, revealing an absolute lack
of critical ability (not wishing to employ a stronger
term), which denotes the imperfect writer, just as
his ideas denote the passionate, enraged enemy of
Cuban society, and at the same time the uncon-
scious defamer of his own country, which is respon-
sible before history and humanity at large for all
the horrors that are perpetrated in a-land colonized
and governed by Spain.
According to F. Moreno, the prostrated condition
of Cuba is owing first to the Spaniards who impro-
vise fortunes by perpetrating swindles and by rob-










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


bing the treasury; and second, to the Cubans who
squander in orgies the inheritance of their Spanish
fathers, acquired through privation and toil. It
therefore, follows that by confiscating the goods of
the spendthrift Cubans, and imprisoning those who
rob and swindle, the causes would be radically ex-
tirpated, and we could ever after live in peace and
glory.
But, do you understand these vaticinations, friend
Paco? Can you grasp what is meant by inheri-
tances obtained through privation and toil by means
of wretched swindling and defalcation? And that
this is what constitutes the ruin of a country so
richly gifted by nature? .
Oh no! Let Spaniards come to Cuba to till and
promote by means of honest labor this land of ex-
traordinary fertility; let them and the natives enjoy
the same rights and guarantees which the Spaniard
does in the metropolis; let division and class privi-
lege vanish; establish order and equity; let the
country take part in the administration of common
interests, or rather, let it govern its own interests;
let the Colony cease to be a great field of exploita-
tion where gather a multitude of office seekers that
like an ineradicable plague pollutes the corridors of
the ministry; let, in fine, the old regime of Spanish
colonization disappear; let the mother country fol-
low the example of England. .. and










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


Cuba will regenerate from her ashes and rise anew
from her ruins. A good system of government will
dispel demoralization by its natural and logical
consequences; Home Rule will make the existence
of defaulting officials all but impossible; and
there will be no prodigal sons when the industrious
fathers give the edifying example of ever-faithful
morality.
Under the influence of this new departure, which
will transform the diverse elements of this society
into a compactly solid body, there will surely not
arise a Moreno to assert that the robberies and em-
bezzlements perpetrated in the cities are committed
in the name of Cuba Libre, thus requiring a Cuban
like myself, jealous of his country's honor, to assure
you that the revolutionary cry of 1868 was never
dishonored by the depredations of brigandage; that
That generous impulse of a cultured people may have
been mistaken in its purpose, but it was not the work
of bandits and marauders, far rather was it an effort
of self-sacrifice and patriotism in which a whole
generation of valiant and heroic men sacrificed their
fortunes and shed their blood.
No; it is not true that the thefts and embezzle-
ments are the work of the "Separatist" islanders.
Separatism does not exist to-day, or at least has no
military power: highway robbery is not the occupa-
tion of the islanders. Pray look up, friend Paco, the










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


criminal statistics of these provinces, investigate the
nativity of the delinquents, and through the official
testimony of the Regents of our Courts find out
from whence the bandits hail. I fear it will cause
you sadness to learn that the lesser number, consid-
erably the fewest of those tried and convicted, were
born beneath this tropical sky, and that by far the
greater number are natives of Spain, and foreigners.
In case you should experience a feeling of bitterness
over this result, it may comfort you to hear that
in order to avoid giving rise to murmuring the
following expedient has been adopted:-that in
the publication of the criminal statistics the nativity
of those sentenced shall be omitted. Surely this is
an advantage!
Nevertheless, the statistics of 1884 remained
printed, and as it is opportune and may interest
you, I copy them from a paper at hand*.

*Subsequently, the statistics of 1886 were published, and
since the first edition of this work, have been reproduced in
the periodical "La Semana;" but its figures, with but
slight differences, show results identical with those noted
above.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


CRIMINAL POPULATION OF CUBA.


Statistics published by the distinguished editor of "Los
Sucesos," Jos& de J. Marques, Havana, November 18th,
1885.

"From the quarterly synopsis of the penal statis-
tics of the Island of Cuba during the year 1884,
published in the Gaceta of Madrid, it appears
that 1415 individuals are suffering terms of impris-
onment. Of these 508 are Negroes, 108 Chinese,
586 European Spaniards, 180 Cubans (White Na-
tives), 19 Canary Islanders, and 14 foreigners. The
colored race is represented by something more than
one-third, and adding the Chinese, these two ele-
ments compose something less than one-half of the
number of prisoners.
"The statistics of population are divided as fol-
fows : Negroes, 460,000; White Natives, 860,000;
White Europeans, including the Canary Islanders,
140,000; Chinese, 30,000; Foreigners, 10,000; a
total of 1,500,000. Taking this as a basis it fol-
lows that the convicts are in proportion of 1.06 for
every 1,000 inhabitants.
In relation to the several subdivisions the ratios
are respectively as follows :
NATIVE WHITES: Population, 860,000; Convicts,
180; 1 for every 4,777 inhabitants.
NEGROES: Population, 460,000. Convicts, 508.
Proportion, 1 for every 905 inhabitants.










74 CUBA AND THE CUBANS.

FOREIGNERS : Popoulation, 10,000. Convicts, 14.
Proportion, 1 for every 714 inhabitants.
CHINESE: Population, 30,000. Convicts, 108.
Proportion, 1 for every 277 inhabitants.
EUROPEAN SPANIARDS, including Canary Islanders:
Population, 140,000. Convicts, 605. Proportion,
1 for every 231 inhabitants.
"It follows that there are imprisoned: 1.10 for
every 1000 colored inhabitants, 1.40 foreigners, 3.61
Chinese, 4.32 Europeans, and only 0.20 of native
whites."

And now let me drop my badly cut pen to treat
later another subject. Comment on the above is
unnecessary.











CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


V.















No. 18.-SALA SORRIN.
Library of the Sociedad Economica.
LITERARY ACTIVITY IN CUBA-PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIBRARIES-
SPREAD OF INTELLIGENCE-CUBAN AS DISTINGUISHED FROM
SPANISH LITERATURE-CUBAN AUTHORS AND THEIR WORKS.
'I find on examining Moreno's fifth letter, in which
he makes known to you the principal Cuban writings
published in latter days, that I am enabled to save
much ink, much paper, and no little effort in the
preparation of these epistles, for he pretends to pic-
ture Cuba and its People, and I assure you he has
not met the people of Cuba, nor is he acquainted
with Cuba itself, his citation of the writings and
publications which he mentions serving but to con-
firm my statement.
All of these are the work of foreigners, under-









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


standing as such those who are not natives of the
country in which they reside, so that if his inten-
tion has been to have you think ill of Cubans who
cultivate the profession of letters, and in this way
belittle our literature, let me at once state that the
productions which he has brought to your notice
are not the work of Cubans.
But I will more fully present this subject to you,
Paco, so that you may realize what distorted accounts
your guide and instructor has submitted to you.
Before beginning the task allow me to make a
counter-statement. In Cuba there are many per-
sons who spend money in the purchase of literature,
but it does not transpire that cultured people buy
such pamphlets as Cuba and its People," nor do
they subscribe to papers like La Verdad (Moreno's) or
El Rayo (Rivero's), nor do they read the almanacs
and novels which are printed by shoals in Madrid
and Barcelona. Inasmuch as the Government here
has not founded nor does it support libraries, the
only public library being that of the Sociedad Econ-
omica, organized and enriched by donations from its
members, who are Cubans, it naturally follows that
the citizens have their private libraries where their
means permit.*

*To the commendable zeal, labor and enthusiasm of Don
Juan Bautista Armenteros, treasurer of the Sociedad Econ-
omica, are due many important reforms in the public library,










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


In any professional man's office you will find at
least a thousand volumes of scientific and literary
works by authors of universal repute. In Havana,
with a population of 250,000 souls (from which
deduct the negroes, the Chinese, the Europeans,
and native whites who do not know how to read),
there are more than fifty book-stores which aresurely
not maintained for mere pleasure or caprice on the
part of their proprietors. If they are not all regis-
tered, and if the printing offices and lithographic es-
tablishment do not appear in the census, where I
have sought them in vain,-for in this, as in all other
matters our statistics are incomplete-it is because
the means resorted to by the trades-people in order
to avoid paying the exorbitant taxes are regulated

which was almost wholly abandoned
from 1868 to 1878. Jorrin Hall and
Chfple Hall were added to the gal-
leries while he was in commission;
3775 volumes, 44 collections of newspa-
pers, 2691 brochures, 1042 pamphlets, ,.
and 322 loose sheets or prints were
added to the library; 1430 volumes of j.
works, 138 collections of newspapers,
and 5 of prints were bound.
At the close of his term the library NO. 19.
numbered 21,078 volumes, comprising D JUAN B. ARMENTEROS.
21,430 books, which go to form 10,551 works, in place of 17,303
volumes which it formerly counted ; 217 complete collections
of newspapers ii lieu of 184 ; also a number of incomplete
ones; 5 large portfolio cases, containing maps, designs, draw-










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


according to the much or little favor dispensed them
by the employs of the tax office. I can assure you
of the truth of my assertions. On Obispo street
alone there are ten bookstores and four subscription
centres. The knowledge of languages is no unusual
thing, and while these may not have been learned
in the official institutes, whose methods are founded
on the principle that everything should be studied
and nothing learned,nevertheless the cultured classes
of the country, which are numerous, study foreign
languages, and teach them to their children. Daily
communication with the United States, and above
all, the emigration to that country during the Revo-
lution, has taught us English and continues to do
so, and our litterateurs are familiar with Corneille,
Victor Hugo, Byron, and Shakespeare, as well as
with Moratin and Cervantes.
ings, etc. He and his friends made valu-
able donations, such as Frond's History
of the Ecumenical Council" (costing,
S unbound, 3000 francs), "Treasury of Eng-
lish Art," by Vernon, and Montaner's
edition of "Don Quixote."
Senor Armenteros also collected seven
volumes of manuscripts and autographs,
Sand the six numerical and alphabetical
catalogues relating respectively to the
No. E0.CARLOS NA Robredo, Jorrin and Chaple Halls. The
library has recently had an increase of
nearly 1000 volumes.
In the twelve months of 1886, according to the report of
the committee, more than 5600 persons visited the library.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


But let us return to our literary productions. In
perusing the passages quoted by Moreno from vari-
ous sources, we make another discovery, namely,
that the writers are not only foreigners, but are
furthermore members of that privileged class of
society which is full of prejudice and bitterness
against the country, and which I have described in
a previous letter.
Am I to concern myself with the vaticinations of
Don Fernando Casanova Gil, a
personage entirely unknown in
the political and literary circles
of Havana, and whose name I
here see for the first time in
print ? Who, according to
Moreno, has published a num-
ber of pamphlets in which he
designates the Cubans as parri-
cides, and exhorts the Catalo-
No.21.-ENRIQUEPIFEYRO.
nians to '"awaken" against
them; in which he wounds deeply the public senti-
ment of our country by defaming and desecrating
the ever-venerated memory of that learned Cuban,
Don Jos6 de la Luz Caballero? It would be descend-
ing too low to place myself on a level with those who,
like Sefior Moreno, regard as truth what appears in
such publications.
Neither shall we stop to consider the other writ-









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


ings and writers whom he quotes; there is not a
Cuban author among them. It is this that I would
insist upon.
If you desire, inquiring
Paco, to acquaint yourself
with our works in this do-
main, and to form a true
and correct judgment con-
Scerning the efforts of Cuban
publicists, whether in the
S sphere of politics, econo-
mics or sociology, through
which fruitful means of
No. 22. agitation and persuasion
Jo09 IGNACIO RODIGUEZ.
they have striven for im-
provement, for progress, and for the reform of old
and obstinate evils, pray read, consult, study, or
at least look over the numerous treatises which
I shall name for you, and whose authors, by their
learning, their talents, their reputation and their
works, suffice to prove the culture of the community
in the midst of which they have lived, oppressed,
but persevering in their ideals.
It is they, and those whom they represent, that
really constitute the people of Cuba, whose worth
and merit it is most important should be known in
Madrid, in order that it may there be realized that
it is not a semi-civilized country which is to be








.1


;I


THE PUNTA BATTERY AND MORRO CASTLE AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE PORT OF HAVANA.


- 1 I












































NO. 14. JOSE ANTONIO SAGO.


r
-;3
.i


-rP










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


governed, but a cultured, progressive, intelligent
community, fully capable of governing itself.
First of all, procure and read carefully the in-
numerable treaties and essays
which have gained for Don Jose
Antonio Saco, native of Bayamo,
a universal reputation as a pub-
licist. These essays, embracing n
the various subjects of Political
Economy, Statistics, Coloniza- ~ f
tion, Public Instruction, Hygiene, r
and Colonial History, together o. 23 -JuAN G. cG..
with many pertaining to local
interests, you will find compiled in several volumes,
published in New York, Paris and Havana.
Read the dissertations of the Count of Pozes
Dulces, which will enlighten you upon the most
important branches of agriculture and colonial ad-
ministration. Read Dos Banderas, a pamphlet for
which we are indebted to the pen of Don Jose Ramon
Betancourt, an illustrious Cuban who, for political
reasons, withheld his name. This essay will inform
you of the true causes of the revolutionary move-
ment of '68.
Read the two memoirs, Indicacion and Reforma
Political, by the venerable patriot, Don Calixto Ber-
nal, friend of Saco. He died in Madrid in 1868,










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


and, like the latter, was a republican of European
reputation. Read. the famous Folleto de Ginebra, a


R,' A




No. 2.--D. RAFAEL
SIM ERCH(N.


work, which of itself, justifies the
reputation of the author, whose
name (no longer a secret), is Don
Jose Silverio Jorrin.
Read the works of Enrique Pi-
fleyro, of Jos6 de Armas y Cespedes,
and of Antonio Zambrana, upon the
events of the revolution. The fine
historical studies of Don Jos6 Igna-
cio Rodriguez; the works upon


slavery by Francisco de Armas; La Cueston de
Cuba, by Juan Gualberto G6mez; the dissertations
upon La Cuestion Economica de Cuba, by Jos6
Quintin Suzarte; La Reforma Politica, a work by
the editors of El Triunfo; Las Leyes Especiales, due
to the masterly pen of Don Antonio Govin; Les
Oradores de Cuba, by the noted and elegant writer,
Dou Manuel Sanguili; El 27 de Noviembre de 1871,
by Fermin V. Dominguez; El Espinar Cubano, by
Don Rafael M. Merchkn, an eminent Cuban, who,
during his voluntary expatriation has devoted his
studies to the defence and honor of his country.
Read Cuba Auton6mica, by Don Alfredo Zayas.
But, pray read no more; for you might be ex-
hausted by such a gigantic effort. These selected
models are presented as sufficient to show you that









CUBA AND THE CUBANS. 83

in Cuba, notwithstanding its demoralization and
bad government, there are literary, scientific and
talented men, who study, learn, think, and work.
1 will yet have occasion to prove this to you, but
must proceed now on the path of rectification which
has been traced for me by the detractor of Cuba
and its People.











CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


VI.




La UNION










No. 26--PRINCIPAL PERIODICALS OF HAVANA.
CUBAN LITERATURE-ITS BEGINNINGS AND DEVELOPMENT-CUBAN
POETS AND HISTORIANS-ACTIVITY IN THE FIELDS OF SCIENCE,
ART AND GENERAL LITERATURE-CUBAN PAINTERS AND COM-
POSERS.

Let us now treat of Cuban literature which,
although still in its infancy, holds no small nor
unimportant place in our Parnassus.
Were you to judge it, however, by the report of
your officious informant and the models which he
brings to your notice, you would surely be con-
strained to believe that Spain has here founded and
governs such an incapable colony that the inhabi-
tants have not even preserved the language of their
progenitors.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


Fortunately this is not the case: the children of
this ardent soil have a superabundance of imagina-
tion and talent, and to these natural gifts, above all,
is due their intelligent progress.
How little flattering it were to the Spanish nation
if in the last quarter of the nineteenth century the
literature of her chief American colony offered as
morceaux choisis only the 'patched up, pedantic
program-advertisement of a negro ball, or some of
the sonnets and romantic effusions that appear in
the "Personal" columns of newspapers the world
over!
But perhaps Moreno was so engrossed with his
official duties that he found no opportunity to study
our literary movement, nor to examine our bibliog-
raphy, nor the occasion to meet and know our litter-
ateurs; or, if he had time-and being a Government
employee, that goes without saying-he lacked good
faith and a desire to interest himself in these
things; he did not lack, however, the evil intent of
describing in Madrid Cuba as he imagined it, or as
he found it in the narrow, noxious circle where he,
bird of passage, and confined to the lobbies of the
bureaucracy, alone breathed freely and felt at home.
The three young writers, Bobadilla, Valdivia and
Hermida, whom Moreno quotes, satirizes, and pre-
sents as a literary trinity, are not representatives of
Cuban literature, nor is Don Jos6 Fornaris the clas-










CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


sical poet of Cuba. The three first, considering
their youth-particularly Sefor Bobadilla, give
promise of a brilliant future if they will know how
to cultivate their faculties by observation and study.
Fornaris is not a classic, but he is an estimable
poet, and among the many things he has written
and published are some lyrical compositions of real
and distinguished merit.*
Nor are Don Francisco de Armas, Don Rafael
Villa, or Sefor Perez prominent as writers or poets.
Sefor Moreno critizes them and others with unpar-
donable levity, and as if the condition and char-
acter of our literature were to be estimated by their
works alone.
Undoubtedly these young men may some day

The true merit of Sefior Fornaris consists of his having
been, during a period of absolute oppression, one of the most
laborious and zealous men of letters. All his works may
not be of especial excellence, but in them he taught, as best he
could, love of Cuba, her liberty and her cherished ideals, con-
cealing his doctrines from the tyranny of the censor in alle-
gories and Indian tales. To those who write to-day under
the aegis of the liberty of the press, the songs of Siboney "
and others, have no meaning. But for those who lived in
that reign of terror, or who have studied it, these songs echo
the lamentations in which the people who memorized them
gave expression to their woes, and through which they be-
came kindled with the realization of their political misfor-
tunes. To Fornaris, Luaces, Napoles, Fajarda and others,
belongs the glory of having figured among the most popular
minstrells of an enslaved people.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


honor the country in which they begin with praise-
worthy enthusiasm the rough and thorny career of
the public writer, but at present they do not afford
a true reflex of the advance of Cuba in the matter
of letters.
I propose, patient Paco, to give you more exact
information, following always the plan which I
have formed of tracing these letters so that you and
all your Madrid people may have a correct, how-
ever scant idea of Cuba and its People.
You have already been informed that until 1790
the Cubans did not know the printing press at all.
Now let me tell you that until 1800 no private
printing press existed anywhere in Cuba!
Our first minstrels could reproduce their inspira-
tions only in manuscript, and but few of these have
been preserved. These few have been discovered
as historic relics by some of our
well-known bibliophiles (Saco,
Bachiller y Morales, Mendiver,
etc.), and reveal the state of a
Country where schools were
sparse in number and established
With difficulty.
Every nation has had this
No. 27-D. ANTONIO BA- dark epoch in its history. The
CHILER Y MORALES. first steps are as uncertain as
those of a child learning to walk. But what is truly









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


remarkable and strange is that it should be a Spanish
colony, founded in 1492, that should find itself in
darkness and in intellectual infancy at the beginning
of the nineteenth century.
Our Juan de Mena* was chronologically the poet
Rubalcaba. He and Don Manuel de Zequeira are
the pioneers of a literature which, in less than ninety
years, offers a long list of illustrious men, some of
whom already figure among the great Spanish poets
of the present century. Rubalcaba, who studied
the classics, especially Virgil, and who successfully
imitated the latter, had no opportunity to publish his
compositions. He consequently lacked (in a country-
where the printing press was a rarity when not en-
tirely prohibited), the incentive that publicity offers
to polish his productions.
Zequeira, who possessed solid learning, and who
excelled Rubalcaba in feeling and in correctness of
of style, was also unable to publish his works. The
first edition of his poems was printed by his friends
in New York (1828) five years after the intellectual
death of the poet. In his own country he did not
obtain this glory,-always so dear to those who
cultivate the muses.
Homers of a people without traditions, without a
history, almost without culture, what more could


*The Spanish Chaucer.









CUBA AND THE CUBANS.


these minstrels do than offer the first fruits of their
imagination in a limited number of lyrical compo-
sitions ?
But after these there sprang forth that extraordi-
nary genius-Jose Maria Heredia.
He appeared as the elaborated out-
come of the new schools estab-
lished in Havana, focussing the
modern philosophic -ideas, which
were studied and taught by '
talented men in the recently
established professional chairs,
and combined in his works all the NO. 28.-D. JOSE MARiA
progress made in but few years by HEREDIA.
the Cuban youth of that period. He was a poet at
ten years of age, linguist and litterateur at fifteen,
lawyer and journalist at twenty, judge in Mexico at
twenty-five, historian, professor, publicist and an
exile from his beloved country at thirty-five, the
time of his early death.
He, too, had to publish his works in a foreign
land. The first collection of his poems, printed in
New York (1825) and reprinted in Toluca, Mexico,
(1832), gained for him in both Europe and America
the merited title of a great poet.
He also published an Historia Universal (1832),
Sila de Jouy, Abufar de Ducis, Atreo Tiestes, a tragedy,
and various memoirs, translations, and other works.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs