• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 West Africa regional project
 East Africa regional project
 Latin America/Caribbean regional...
 InterCRSP report
 Midcourse 2000 meeting partici...
 Appendix A
 Appendix B
 Back Cover














Group Title: Proceedings, midcourse 2000 researchers meeting of the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program, April 9-14, 2000
Title: Proceedings, midcourse 2000 researchers meeting of the BeanCowpea Collaborative Research Support Program, April 9-14, 2000
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075314/00001
 Material Information
Title: Proceedings, midcourse 2000 researchers meeting of the BeanCowpea Collaborative Research Support Program, April 9-14, 2000
Series Title: Proceedings, midcourse 2000 researchers meeting of the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program, April 9-14, 2000
Alternate Title: Midcourse 2000 researchers meeting of the BeanCowpea Collaborative Research Support Program, April 9-14, 2000
Physical Description: viii, 102 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
United States -- Agency for International Development
Publisher: Bean/Cowpea CRSP
Place of Publication: East Lansing Mich
Publication Date: 2000
 Subjects
Subject: Beans -- Congresses -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Cowpea -- Congresses -- Africa   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program.
General Note: "Grant no. DAN-G-SS-86-00008-00, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075314
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 51521833

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    West Africa regional project
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    East Africa regional project
        Page 22a
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Latin America/Caribbean regional project
        Page 44a
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    InterCRSP report
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Midcourse 2000 meeting participants
        Page 74a
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Appendix A
        Page 82a
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Appendix B
        Page 94a
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Back Cover
        Page 103
        Page 104
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PROCEEDINGS:
MIDCOURSE 2000 RESEARCHERS MEETING
OF THE
BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM

April 9-14, 2000









































Grant No. DAN-G-SS-86-00008-00
Agency for International Development
Washington, DC







THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM (CRSP)


An international community of persons,
institutions, agencies and governments committed
to collectively strengthening health and nutrition in
developing countries by improving the availability
and utilization of beans and cowpeas










































For further information, contact:
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1035 U.S.A.
Phone: (517) 355-4693
Fax: (517) 432-1073
E-Mail: widders@msu.edu






These Proceedings are dedicated to
Dr. Patricia W. Barnes-McConnell
for distinguished service to the Bean/Cowpea CRSP




















All work is as seed sown; it grows and spreads, and sows itself anew.
Thomas Carlyle


Dr. Patricia Barnes-McConnell, Professor, Department of Resource Development, College of Agriculture and
Natural Resources, Michigan State University, has provided distinguished leadership to the Bean/Cowpea
Collaborative Research Support Program from its inception. She contributed to the formulation of the initial
vision of the program by serving as the Assistant Planning Coordinator for Development of the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP in 1979-80. As a social scientist with an interest in the impact of international development on women,
she participated in the Malawi project during the early years with Dr. M. Wayne Adams. In 1981, she was
appointed as Deputy Director of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP while at the same time providing leadership in the
capacity of Director (1981-83) to the expanding Women in International Development Program at MSU. Dr.
Barnes-McConnell assumed the CRSP Director role in 1983 and remained in that position fornearly 17 years.
On June 1, 2000, she began her consulting year at MSU, during which time she will be focusing on writing
about the successes and impacts of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP over the past 20 years.

Under Dr. Barnes-McConnell's leadership, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has not wavered from its mandate of
strengthening health and nutrition in developing countries by improving the availability and utilization of
beans and cowpeas. During the past 20 years, a total of 14 institutions in Latin America, the Caribbean, and
in West and East Africa, plus 16 U.S. institutions have participated in collaborative research and training
activities as part of the CRSP community. To date, approximately 475 students have participated in degree
training programs with full or partial support from the CRSP. When the Bean/Cowpea CRSP completes its
current extension in FY 2002, nearly $60 million will have been obligated to the Bean/Cowpea CRSP by the
U.S. Agency for International Development.

Dr. Barnes-McConnell's contributions to the success of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP were best summed up by
a CRSP trainee and current HC Principal Investigator. "Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell is an extremely wonderful
person who expertly led this CRSP to new heights each year of its existence. We all (HC CRSP scientists)
loved to work with her. As CRSP graduates, we regarded her as our mother too. We wish her a retirement
with many more years of joy to her family."


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


-iii-




























































































Bean/Cowpea CPSP






TABLE OF CONTENTS


FORW ARD .................................... ................................ vii


BEAN/COWPEA CRSP PRESENTATIONS

West Africa Regional Project

Managing Insect Pests of Cowpea in the Field; Farmer Field Schools
A. B. Salifu ............................................................ 1
Managing Insect Pests of Cowpea in Storage
Georges Ntoukam ................... ........... ................... ... 3
Future of Cowpea Biotechnology and "Sweet Cowpeas"
Larry M urdock ........................................ ....................... 5
Breeding Cowpeas for the Savannah Zone and Resistance to Insect Pests
K. 0. Marfo ..................................................... ............. 7
Breeding Cowpeas for the Sahelian Zone and Resistance to Striga and Diseases
Ndiaga Ciss6 ......................................................... ..... 9
Breeding Cowpeas for California and Africa, Resistance to Nematodes,
Heat and Drought, and Cowpea Mapping
Anthony Hall ............................................................. 11
Processing and Evaluation Strategies to Increase Cowpea Utilization
R. Dixon Phillips ...................................... ....................... 14
Cowpea Use in Improving Human Nutrition
Sam Sefa-Dedeh ................... ................................ .......... 17
Field School and Insect Pest Management Evaluations
Brenda Vander Mey ................................ ............... ......... 19
Regional Cowpea Trade and Marketing in West Africa
Jess Lowenberg-DeBoer ................................................ ....... 21

East Africa Regional Project
Diseases and Biotechnology in Africa
Robert Mabagala ............................................................. 23
Diseases and Biotechnology in the United States
Robert Gilbertson ............................................................ 25
Varietal Development
James Myers .............................................................. 28
Bruchid Studies and Breeding for Bruchid Resistance
Susan Nchimbi-Msolla ...................................................... 30
Nutritional Studies
Theobald Mosha ........................................................... 33
Baseline and Impact Studies and Training, Participatory Research
Anne Ferguson ............................................................3 35
Seed Multiplication, Dissemination, Quality and Acceptance
Alex Mkandawire .......................................................... 39
Extension Training, Publications and Workshops
Charles Masangano ....................................... .................... 41


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







Latin America/Caribbean Regional Project


Variety Release, Sustainable Seed Production, Improved Cropping Systems
and Disease Management for the Lowland Tropics
Central America-Juan Carlos Rosas ........................................... 45
Caribbean- Eladio Arnaud Santana .................................... ......... 49
Graciela Godoy ................................................... 50
Geminivirus Characterization, IPM and Bean Transformation
Douglas Maxwell ......................................................... 53
Variety Release, Improved Management Practices and Drought Tolerance for the Highlands
Jorge Acosta Gallegos ....................................... ............... 56
Improved BNF, Disease Resistance and Soil Conservation, Management and
Fertilization Practices for the Highlands
Peter Graham ............................................................... 59
Improved Nutrition and Product Development
Ana Bonilla Leiva and Maurice Bennink .............................. ........... 62
Socioeconomic Studies
Richard Bernsten .................................................. ........... 67
Impact of the LAC Regional Project on U.S. Bean Research and Production
James Kelly ................................................................ 69

InterCRSP Report
Johnson Olufowote .......................................................... 71


MIDCOURSE 2000 MEETING PARTICIPANTS ..................................... 75


APPENDIX A

Organizational Plan (Period 1997-2002) ............................................. 83
Anticipated Five Year Impacts (FY 1997-2002) .................. .......... ......... 84
Regional Project Profiles
West Africa Regional Project ................................................ 85
East Africa Regional Project .................................................. 88
Latin America/Caribbean Regional Project ...................................... 91


APPENDIX B-ROSTERS

External Evaluation Panel ....................................................... 95
Technical Committee ........................ ........... ....................... 96
U.S. Principal Investigators ...................................................... 97
U.S. Institutional Representatives .................................................. 98
HC Principal Investigators ..................................................... 99
HC Institutional Representatives ................................................... 100
Research Advisors ............................................................ 101


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






FORWARD


The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) convened a Midcourse 2000 Meeting
of its Principal Investigators and Regional Facilitators at the Kellogg Center on the Michigan State University
campus in East Lansing, Michigan, on April 9 to 14, 2000. Scientists involved in bean and cowpea research,
representing regional projects in West Africa, East Africa and Latin America/Caribbean, were in attendance.
This meeting was important because it represented the only opportunity for all the Principal Investigators
from the three continents to come together during the current FY 1997-2002 Extension period of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP. Primary objectives of the meeting included reporting and sharing of significant
research and training achievements and impacts involving bean and cowpea, and planning for the next phase
of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP (FY 2002-07).

At the onset of the current phase, it was recognized that efforts to find solutions to the problems associated with
the burgeoning world population, including insufficient food availability, malnutrition, poverty and
environmental degradation, were stymied by the lack of multi-disciplinary research. Research involving input
and collaboration by scientists with diverse expertise at both the planning and execution stages was necessary
to address effectively the complex problems confronting the developing countries of Africa and Latin America.

Recognizing this necessity, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP implemented a new regionalized structure for the
extension phase (1997). Teams of U.S. and Host Country (HC) scientists and partner institutions were
convened to integrate their resources and to work in a collaborative and comprehensive manner to overcome
major constraints identified within their respective regions. Three Regional Teams, each with a specific bean
or cowpea focus and with collaborating U.S. scientists were organized: West Africa (Cameroon, Ghana,
S6n6gal), cowpea; East Africa (Malawi, Tanzania), bean; Latin America/Caribbean (Costa Rica, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, M6xico), bean.

Constraints were identified for each Regional Project, with target impacts to be achieved as a result of the five-
year research and training activities. The seven constraint categories which were established and serve as a
framework for defining research needs include: (1) insufficient natural resource management and production
technologies, (2) limited storage options, (3) insufficient utilization research for improved nutrition,
(4) processing and value-added products, (5) socioeconomic research insufficiently integrated with production
and utilization research, (6) insufficient cadre of trained personnel, (7) insufficient extension services supporting
beans or cowpeas in the region, and (8) insufficient collaboration between research and extension. The Research
Profiles (FY 1997-2002) for each of the three regional projects are included in Appendix A of this Proceedings.
The expectation is that the new knowledge generated and innovative technologies developed will have impact
throughout the respective regions, beyond the borders of the CRSP HCs.

A second unique feature of the current five-year extension of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP was a commitment to
multi-disciplinary approaches to overcome regional constraints. Each year, the multi-disciplinary teams of
U.S. and HC scientists participating in individual Regional Projects come together to review research
progress, to strategize, and to plan integrative research activities that will effectively achieve the target
impacts. There is a strong conviction that multidisciplinary approaches to research result in greater
innovation; more rapid resolution of technological, social and environmental problems, the development of
more contextually appropriate technologies, and greater accountability for the achievement of the societal
objectives (i.e., reduction in poverty, malnutrition, and environmental degradation) in developing countries.
In addition, there are important over-arching issues that needed to be integrated into many of the research
activities with a biological or production focus. Issues such as improving income-generating opportunities
and access to resources for women, improving the nutrition of children and expectant mothers, and improving
the general quality of life in rural communities can most effectively be addressed in the context of
multidisciplinary research teams.


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






Since the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is in the third year of a five-year extension, and the twentieth year since its
inception, this Midcourse Meeting provided an opportunity for Principal Investigators and Regional
Facilitators to share with the community of CRSP scientists their major research achievements and
documented impacts. Each Regional Project Team was allotted one-half of a day for individual scientists to
present oral reports of their research and training achievements. This Proceedings contains the transcripts
of those oral reports.

Readers of these Proceedings are encouraged to review and assess for themselves the progress and success
of Bean/Cowpea CRSP scientists in addressing the constraints which are the focus of the current five-year
extension of the program. It is my hope that you will find these scientific achievements to be exciting,
thought provoking, and of benefit to your individual scientific research endeavors and/or efforts in
international agriculture development. I also hope you will be impressed with the overall commitment of
Bean/Cowpea scientists to making a positive difference not only to the U.S. bean and cowpea industries, but
also in the developing countries of Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean.

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP was honored by the presence of Dr. Charles Laughlin, Administrator of
USDA/CSREES, who presented the Keynote Speech during the Welcome and Opening Session of the
Meeting on Sunday evening, April 9, 2000. As a previous Institutional Representative from the University
of Georgia from 1984 to 1988, he has been a strong supporter of this program and of the other CRSPs.

This Proceedings is being dedicated to Dr. Patricia (Pat) W. Barnes-McConnell, who retired as Director of
the Bean/Cowpea CRSP on May 31, 2000, after nearly 17 years of dedicated service in that role. She had
been involved in the Bean/Cowpea CRSP from its inception, serving as Assistant Planning Coordinator for
Development of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP in 1979-80. Her vision, leadership, management of the program,
advocacy, and tireless effort have contributed to the innumerable research achievements and extensive
training of approximately 380 Host Country students receiving B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP over the years. The current Bean/Cowpea CRSP Principal Investigators from Africa
and Latin America/Caribbean expressed their thanks to Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell during the final session
of the meeting, Friday morning, April 14, 2000, and presented her with numerous gifts from their respective
countries. A dedication to Dr. Barnes-McConnell is included in these Proceedings.

Ms. Sue Bengry, the Administrative Officer of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, was also recognized by the Principal
Investigators for her dedicated service in the Management Office. She will be retiring from Michigan State
University on December 31,2000. Gifts were presented by Dr. Dick Phillips and Dr. Sam Sefa-Dedeh to Sue
on behalf of the PIs during the final session of the meeting as an expression of their sincere gratitude for her
competent fiscal management of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP grant and the many years of providing friendly
supportive services to CRSP scientists.

As current Director, I want to acknowledge the contributions of the following individuals in making the
Midcourse 2000 Meeting a success: Milissa Moryc, preparation of the Program, conference notebook, and the
current Proceedings; Sue Bengry, arrangement of travel and hotel accommodations for all attendees, scheduling
of meeting facilities and coordination of activities; Diane Ruonavaara, advice and assistance in the organization
of the planning activities during the meeting; and Pat Barnes-McConnell, confidence and support.

Irvin E. Widders
Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Director


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


-viii-














WEST AFRICA REGIONAL PROJECT






MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF COWPEA IN THE FIELD; FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS

A. B. Salifu, Savannah Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), Tamale, Ghana; B. Merle Shepard,
Clemson University, Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.; M. Owusu-Akyaw, Crops Research Institute (CRI),
Kumasi, Ghana, J V. K Afun, CRI, Ghana; M. Abudulai, SARI/Clemson University

Presented by A. B. Salifu

In West Africa, a significant proportion of cowpeas produced by farmers is lost to insect and disease pests,
particularly the former. Sustainable pest management strategies are required to minimize pre-harvest loss,
enhance sustainable production, and improve the nutrition of millions of West Africans whose diets are
predominately cereals. Integrated pest management (IPM) is one such strategy for solving cowpea field pests
problems. For the field IPM component of the CRSP West Africa Regional Project, IPM is a flexible
approach that deploys a variety of sustainable pest control methods. The result is increased value for the
farmers and practices supportive of the environment. The techniques used for crop protection in IPM may
integrate traditional crop management practices with practices improved or newly generated by formal
research-such as resistant crop varieties, biopesticides and, in some instances, chemical pesticides.

The following report provides highlights from the HC/U.S. field IPM team's achievements in providing this
kind of IPM product. For this flexible approach, the farmer has been center stage with considerable attention
given to the local context-agroecological needs, availability and affordability of the various alternatives.
The Cowpea Action Research Sites (CARS) and Training of Trainers/Farmer Field School (TOT/FFS)
activities provide an opportunity to work with the farmers to analyze the whole farm environment and make
informed decisions regarding an array of management options.

There have been a number of achievements and impacts. One such achievement is the reassessment of
cowpea insect pests with studies to determine the location-specific economic importance of components of
the complex including the pest-natural enemy dynamics.

Cowpea insect pest hot spots and areas of predominance have been identified and mapped out to aid in the
development of location-specific management recommendations. In North Ghana for example, Maruca
vitrata damage is most significant in areas where maize is a major component of the farming system. In areas
where sorghum and millet are cropped extensively, pod sucking bugs occur much earlier in cowpea pod
development. In Charleston, South Carolina, cowpea studies to assess the impact ofinsecticides on parasitism
and predation on eggs of the pest Leptoglossusphyllopus showed that parasitism was generally low early in
the season, increasing over the season in the pod filling stage.

A second achievement involved the screening for sources of resistance in both indigenous and exotic
germplasm. Resistant cultivars play a valuable role in the evolution of farmer-friendly pest management options
for smallholder farms. Screening cowpea germplasm, especially indigenous landraces, is one way of identifying
insect-resistance for agronomically desirable cultivars and subsequently diversifying the genetic base. Much
effort has been devoted to looking for sources of resistance in cowpea germplasm assembled from South
Carolina and West Africa. The focus of the resistance screening studies has been on sources ofthrips resistance
and of late, resistance to pod sucking bugs. The following have been identified in our resistance screening
program: Two thrips-resistant cowpea accessions, all indigenous accessions-Sanzi sanbili, BUN22 at SARI
and Sanzi sanbili, IND91-08 at CRI. Also at CRI Ex-Adidome was identified as resistant to aphids. Materials
from South Carolina that consistently supported significantly fewer thrips in comparison with susceptible checks
included V-701 PI227829, V-666 Kiawah and Bettergro. The identified indigenous accessions are now widely
used in our various programs as sources for resistance breeding.

A third achievement was the determination of minimum insecticide regimes required for producing an
economic crop of cowpea. Farmers generally conceded that cowpeas cannot be produced economically
without recourse to insecticides. Indeed, some farmers now equate cowpea production with pesticide use.


West Africa Region, Page I


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






Hence, initial efforts at developing component technology in support of an IPM strategy were geared at
minimizing the number of sprays. The studies revealed that two sprays, timed at pre-flowering and podding
stages respectively, gave the highest returns on investment. The results varied, depending on location. One
spray was intended. However, in some areas, one spray applied at full flowering gave the highest yield, but
there were problems of seed quality; in other areas, one spray applied at podding gave the least yield, but with
better quality of seed.

A fourth achievement evolved from the evaluation of botanical insecticides with special reference to
neem-Azadirachta indica-and development of a farmer/participatory neem-based management strategy
for managing cowpea pests. Farm-level methods for extracting and applying neem against all of the major
insect pests of cowpeas have been developed by the field IPM team. Studies at CRI showed that aqueous
neem leaf extract was effective against thrips and pod sucking bugs. At SARI, a neem-based insect
management strategy was developed and widely tested with farmers. Neem treatments were as good as a
commonly used insecticide in all test plots. Neem is now a major component of the overall IPM strategy.

Critical to this team's IPM perspective was the adaptation or development as well as the dissemination of
strategies for participatory IPM especially Cowpea Action Research Sites (CARS) and Farmer Field Schools
(FFS). In the context of providing real solutions to farmers' real problems, a pragmatic IPM should involve
a process that enables farmers to develop solutions to their own cowpea pest problems and make appropriate
decisions through "learning by doing." CARS is a field-based activity that involves a variety of
stakeholders-farmers, researchers, extension workers-coming together to discuss constraints and needs
among themselves as they pertain to economic and ecological cowpea production. Information derived from
the CARS feed into TOT/FFS activities. As a result of CARS and TOT/FFS activities, 321 farmers and 165
extension workers have been trained with outcomes including:

* Optimal use of natural enemies as a means of reducing pesticide use on cowpeas, improved skills of
extension workers and farmers in crop production andfield observation

Increased knowledge of extension workers and farmers in production and protection

Induced ecological thinking as basis for sustainable production and protection of cowpeas

Increased and sustained farmer crop yields and income

Here is an example of an IPM strategy employed in TOT/FFS (Crop Management Trials): Select good
variety-Bengpla; Choose good seed-Conduct seed viability test; Prepare land properly-Use bullock traction;
Manage water-Rain-fed; Adopt good sowing method-2 seeds/hill in line; Ensure good plant density-0. 6m
spacing; Ensure fertility of soil-Zero input (instead use manure for compoundfarms) ; Weed on time-Weed
twice; Apply suitable biopesticide-Neem leaf/seed extract; Apply suitable pyrethroid-None or once at peak
flowering; Spray plots on time-Two times at preflowering, podding; Choose good spray dose-Neem leaf
extract @ 40percent w/v or neem seed extract @ 30percent w/v ; Harvest on time-At 50 percent pod drying.

Publications
None reported


West Africa Region, Page 2


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF COWPEA IN STORAGE


G. Ntoukam, Institut de la Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (IRAD), Maroua, Cameroon;
L. L. Murdock and R. E. Shade, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.; L. W. Kitch, Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), Zimbabwe; C. Endondo, B. Ousmane, andJ. Wolfson, IRAD, Cameroon

Presented by Georges Ntoukam

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP West Africa Regional Project activities in Cameroon focus on insect-caused losses
of cowpea grain in storage, a constraint to the availability of cowpea as food throughout the region and in
many other areas of the world. The strategy in Cameroon is to devise a variety of simple, affordable, and
practical technologies to reduce these losses. CRSP training to assist IRAD in building a Cameroon research
team has been important for addressing cowpea storage and production problems.

The primary insect pest causing losses to stored cowpeas in West Africa is the cowpea weevil,
Callosobruchus maculatus. Infestations begin in the field at low levels. After the crop is placed in storage,
the insect population continues to grow until there is an obvious, severe infestation. Another bruchid pest
of cowpea is Bruchidius atrolineatus. This insect causes losses primarily around harvest time, and does not
reproduce in storage.

A number of technologies have been generated from CRSP research and are in use. Exposing threshed
cowpeas to solar radiation on a simple solar heater developed at Purdue and tested/improved in Cameroon
can kill, within minutes, resident infestations of cowpea weevil in grain. This technique makes use of cheap
and widely available plastic sheeting and offers promise as a tool for use by low resource farmers and stores
of cowpea. It has already undergone testing and extension in Cameroon and in many countries, namely,
Burkina Faso, Mali, Nigeria, Chad, Benin, Ghana and Zimbabwe in West Africa region. Storage bulletins
written in English, French and Fulfulde as well as a training film have been developed.

Three 50 kg capacity plastic bags placed one inside the other can provide effective airtight conditions. This
storage method is widely used in Cameroon and many countries in West Africa. Another version of airtight
storage developed at ISRA in S6negal is the drum storage, which is spread to farmers all over West Africa.

Storage of cowpea grain in ash will arrest an initiated infestation, although it does not immediately kill insects
already living within the cowpeas. However, the insects do fail to reproduce and will eventually die. The
CRSP ash research lead to the development of practical protocols and recommendations for cowpea producers
and users about how best to make use of ash to prevent cowpeas (e.g., particle size, portion, mixing method).

Breeding to combine seed and pod resistance is another tool to reduce losses. Screening for pod resistance
to cowpea weevil has revealed several high-yielding IITA lines with high pod resistance; also, five local lines
appear to be highly resistant. We have recognized that a promising long-term goal for improving cowpea
preservation would be to produce cowpea types with combined seed and pod resistance. Two cowpea lines
of that order were developed and tested in our breeding program (LORI NIEBE and CRSP NIEBE). A sweet
cowpea variety has also been identified: 24-125 B (see paper by Larry Murdock). This sweet cowpea is
currently undergoing food technology testing at Purdue University and at the University of Ghana, and
germplasm carrying the sweet trait has been distributed to Ghana and S6n6gal for initial testing and
integration into their breeding program.

Insecticides, especially the dust form and the gas forms, are recommended for short-term storage. The
products such as Actellic 2 percent or Actellic Super and Phostoxin gas are very helpful to the farmer
punctually. However, insecticides are expensive and may not be available in all areas. Phostoxin is a
fumigant that can kill humans and animals. Farmers are encouraged to check with their extension agents for
information about the use of these and other insecticides and fumigants.


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Recommendations on these storage technologies are finding acceptance among cowpea farmers in Cameroon
and in the West Africa region; two lines ofcowpeas adapted to the region have been released by IRAD/CRSP
to farmers of the region and are finding acceptance. The project catalyzes the entry ofBean/Cowpea CRSP
technologies into southern and eastern Africa, including the extension of storage technologies, supports
preliminary studies of the economic potential of cowpeas in the region, and facilitates the widespread testing
of West Africa varieties. An new linkage with FAO has been forged.

Progress toward the goal of developing a strong IRAD cowpea team has resulted in:

1. Completion of M.S. degree in plant breeding at Purdue University by Boukar Ousmane and Chevalier
Endondo in agronomy.

2. On-going Ph.D. training of Boukar Ousmane in plant breeding at Purdue University.

3. Training of technicians, NGO personnel, missionaries and extension farmers in the West Africa region
by Dr. Ntoukam, a CRSP scientist in Cameroon.

Publications
None reported


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Bean/Cowpea CRSP







FUTURE OF COWPEA BIOTECHNOLOGY AND "SWEET COWPEAS"


L. L. Murdock and S. S. Nielsen, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.; G. Ntoukam,
Institute de la Recherche Agronomique et Developpement (IRAD), Maroua, Cameroon

Presented by Larry L. Murdock

Cowpea suffers heavily from insects, both in the field, as well as, when the grain is stored after harvest.
Conventional insecticides are not the answer to the insect problems. In Africa, where the need for insect
management is great, many cowpea growers can't obtain insecticides, can't afford them, don't have the
necessary equipment, or don't know how to apply them properly.

Traditional host plant resistance-the development and deployment ofcultivars carrying genes that condition
resistance to the insect pests-while effective in controlling some insects, has proven to be of little value
against certain other insect pests of cowpea. The traditional approach to developing resistant lines requires
that the genome of the crop plant include genes for resistance to the pests. To find these genes, teams of
entomologists and plant breeders screen accessions of the plant until sources of resistance are discovered.
The resistance traits are then transferred into desirable cultivars by a process of breeding and selection.
Unfortunately, the genome of cowpea seems to be devoid of the necessary resistance genes to several major
insect pests, blocking the use of this approach. IITA, among other organizations, has carried out extensive
screening of cowpea germplasm for resistance to cowpea pod borer, thrips, pod-sucking bugs, and weevil.
At best, weak sources of resistance have been found, if at all.

One promising avenue to introducing new sources of insect resistance into cowpea involves genetic
transformation, using resistance genes taken from other plants that may not be easy to cross with cowpea or that
may even come from bacteria or fungi. Three fundamental problems have to be solved to do this: (1) resistance
genes have to be discovered that would, if transferred into cowpea, impart insect resistance; (2) germ-line cells
of cowpea plants must have the resistance gene introduced into them and stably incorporated into the nuclear
DNA-this usually involves the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens or accelerated micro particles (the gene
"gun"); and (3) plants must be regenerated from the intact transformed cells.

The current state of the art is as follows: (1) genes are available that would impart a high degree of resistance
to at least two insect pests of cowpea-Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxin (Bt), effective against Maruca
testulalis (legume pod borer), and a-amylase inhibitor, effective against the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus
maculatus (Shade et al, 1994); (2) cowpea cells have been transformed with foreign genes, but thus far no one
has successfully transformed germ-line cells; and (3) methods have been developed that allow cowpea plants
to be regenerated from cowpea tissues or clusters of cowpea cells (Kononowicz et al., 1993).

There have been claims made at public meetings that success has been achieved in genetic transformation of
cowpea. But to our knowledge no one has published a report in the refereed scientific literature that has been
validated by another laboratory independently and thus is, so far, an unsubstantiated claim. Even so, the
technology of genetic transformation is rapidly evolving, and the successful genetic transformation ofcowpea
will undoubtedly be achieved soon. CRSP researchers recognized the importance of this work.

One recent outcome of the CRSP research in Cameroon is the discovery of a sweet-tasting cowpea line by
Cameroonian farmers. Since 1991, the IRAD/Purdue/CRSP cowpea breeding program in Cameroon has
sought to introduce cowpea weevil resistance into cultivars well adapted to the agro ecology and farmers'
preferences in northern Cameroon (see paper by Georges Ntoukam). In the course of this work, a total of 149
expert farmers, men and women, in two different areas of northern Cameroon, in two different years (1994
and 1995), evaluated 216 lines to assist the breeder in selecting highly desirable lines. They were asked to
identify the lines they liked the best, and tell us why they liked them. One particular line, 24-125B, was
highly preferred. They said it "tasted good" or "had a sweet taste." Similar responses to this line were


West Africa Region, Page 5


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obtained in subsequent years. It was real, it was repeated, it was consistent from year to year, and from place
to place. Cameroonian growers LIKED this cowpea because of its taste. Chemical analyses of the "sweet"
line at Purdue revealed that it contained at least twice as much sucrose as ordinary non-sweet lines.
Subsequently, a "triangular taste test" was carried out in the facilities of the Food Science Department at
Purdue to determine if American consumers also liked the taste of the sweet line. The results were clear and
significant: Most panelists correctly identified the sweet line and many of them voluntarily commented on
its pleasant or sweet flavor.

Given the objective evidence that line 24-125B is actually sweet because of its elevated level of sucrose and
that American and African consumers prefer it, plans to develop this trait further and make it widely available
to growers and consumers are now being implemented. These include: (1) surveys in the U.S.A. and Africa
to identify potential market niches; (2) studies of the processing characteristics of 24-125B; (3) further
characterization of the chemical and nutritional characteristics of the sweet line; (4) characterization of the
genetic basis and biochemical mechanism of high sucrose accumulation; (5) production of high-quality seed
for sharing with colleagues in the U.S.A. and Africa; (6) development of a simple, rapid, and cheap technique
for evaluating sucrose levels in individual seeds, for use by breeders; and (7) evaluating the performance of
the line in new sites in the U.S.A. and several African countries.

Since "24-125B" is a name only breeders could love, it has been decided to refer to this line in the future as
"Sweet Sue," a name that not only reflects the sweet taste of the seed, but also honors the manifold and lasting
contributions to the CRSP of its Administrative Officer at Michigan State University, Mrs. Sue Bengry.

Publications
Kitch, L. W., O. Boukar, C. Endondo and L. L. Murdock. 1998. Farmer Acceptability Criteria in Breeding
Cowpea. Exptl. Agriculture 34:475-486.

Kononowicz, A. K., et al. 1993. Developing a Transformation System for Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata [L.]
Walp). In B. B. Singh, D. R. Mohan Raj, K. E. Dashiell and L. E. N. Jackai (eds.) Advances in Cowpea
Research. IITA and JIRCAS, Ibadan, pp. 361-371.

Shade, R. E. et al. 1994. Transgenic Pea Seeds Expressing the a-Amylase Inhibitor of the Common Bean
Are Resistant to Bruchid Beetles. Bio/Technology 12:793-796.


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BREEDING COWPEAS FOR THE SAVANNAH ZONE AND RESISTANCE TO INSECT PESTS

K. O. Marfo, A. B. Salifu and F. Z. Kaleem, Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), Tamale, Ghana;
M. Owusu-Akyaw, Crops Research Institute (CRI), Kumasi, Ghana;
A. E. Hall, University of California, Riverside, California, U.S.A.

Presented by K. O. Marfo'

Cowpeas are among the most important food legumes in terms of the area under cultivation and contribution
to human and animal diets in the savanna ecology.

The savanna ecology stretches between latitudes 08 03'N and 11 0'N with annual rainfall ranging between
700 and 1200mm. Notwithstanding the importance of cowpeas in this ecology, the productivity of the crop
is beset with numerous biotic and non-biological stresses leading to very low yields at the farmers' level.

The non-biological stresses include poor fertility of the soils, erratic rainfall distributions and in some
instances high night temperatures, with the latter resulting in heavy floral abscission. Among the biological
stresses, insect pests are the most important. Because of the relatively high rainfall received in some parts
of the savanna, fungal, bacterial and viral diseases are prevalent. This paper addresses some of the efforts
being made to develop cowpea varieties buffered against these yield reducing factors, emphasizing resistance
to insect pests.

Based on problems identified at the farm level during research planning sessions held with stakeholders in
cowpea production, the following strategies are utilized in the breeding program by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
team in northern Ghana.

1. A breeding nursery is employed where germplasm from various sources, especially the University of
California, Riverside, IITA and RENACO are assembled for initial evaluations and subsequent
deployment of specific traits into the genetic background of existing cultivars.

2. Multilocational evaluations are carried out of breeding materials from the nursery, that have stabilized
performance, as well as other materials with proven high performance. High grain and haulm yields, N
fixing abilities, resistances to the various yield reducing factors are evaluated at multi-locations on-station
at four sites representing the constituents of agro ecologies in the savanna zone. The test sites are:
Damongo (woodland savanna), Nyankpala (Guinea savanna), Wa (an ecotone between Sudan and Guinea
savanna ecologies) and Manga (Sudan savanna).

On-farm tests are also carried out in collaboration with the extension staff of the Ministry of Food and
Agriculture (MoFA) and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) that work in agriculture. A few high
performing lines (usually not more than four), which are accompanied by the farmers' varieties as checks,
are extensively evaluated on farmers' fields.

Based on the agronomic desirability, yield stability, organoleptic and other proximate composition tests, the
desired materials are proposed for release to the National Varietal Release Committee in Ghana. The
committee visits the crop on the field during early podding and at the fully matured stages to enable them to
make a decision.





'Shortly after the presentation of this paper, Dr. K. O. Marfo was tragically killed in a plane crash
in Ghana. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP community joins the family in mourning the loss of this fine scientist
and wonderful human being.


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


West Africa Region, Page 7







Two heat tolerant cowpea lines have recently been approved for release by the National Varietal Release
Committee of Ghana.

Current status of the research of this team is as follows:

1. Insect hot spots have been identified and mapped out to assist in location specific recommendations for
cowpea insect control in the Southern Guinea Savanna areas of Ghana.

2. Aphid resistant (Ex-Adidome) thrip resistant (Sanzi-sanbili, and Bun 91-08), extra-earliness (<50 days
to maturity combined with resistance to thrips) which are all landraces have been identified and are being
extensively used as sources of resistance in the breeding programs.

3. Utilizing Bun-22 as a source of earliness and resistance to thrips, a number of promising lines developed
are now being tested on station and on farmers' fields in the northern Guinea and Sudan ecologies.

4. Two cowpea lines possessing acceptable seed qualities in addition to high grain and haulm yields with
a heat tolerance background, ITP-148-1 and Sul 518-2, have been released for cultivation in the northern
Guinea and Sudan Savanna ecologies.

5. Breeder and Foundation Seeds are being made available in sufficient quantities for Certified Seed
Production.

Publications
None reported


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


West Africa Region, Page 8







BREEDING COWPEA FOR THE SAHELIAN ZONE AND
RESISTANCE TO STRIGA AND DISEASES

N. Ciss, S. Thiaw, D. Seek, M. Bald, M. Ndiaye, A. Ndiaye, M. Wade,
Institute Senigalais de Recherchbs Agricoles (ISRA), Bambey, Senegal

Presented by Ndiaga Ciss6

The Sahelian zone has been characterized in the past two decades by erratic and low rainfall (200-400 mm).
Consequently, drought adaptation has been an important breeding objective for the Bean/Cowpea CRSP
S6n6gal/University of California, Riverside team. In this zone, the most important diseases are bacterial
blight and viruses. Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas vignicola) causes severe damage to cowpeas, while the
most frequent virus disease encountered is Aphid borne mosaic virus. Annual loss caused by these two
diseases in S6n6gal have been estimated at 40 percent and 20 percent respectively on susceptible varieties
(Gaikwad, 1988). The parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides, attacks cowpeas particularly in the semiarid
regions of West and Central Africa with a mean yield loss of 30 percent (Aggarwal et al., 1989).

Because of the difficulty in breeding cultivars for dry environments through physiological processes, progress
in drought adaptation in cowpeas has mainly been achieved by yield testing advanced lines over several years
and locations (Hall, 1997). Highly adapted local varieties such as; 58-57, TN88-63, Suvita 2, have been used
in breeding programs to generate new lines. Selection for early or medium maturity with semi-erect and
indeterminate plant type have been useful where terminal and/or intermittent drought occur during the
vegetative stages. Superior adaptation to drought has thus been evaluated as higher grain yield with low
variability in semiarid environments.

Bacterial blight is endemic to the semiarid environment of West Africa and local adapted varieties usually
have high resistance. The importance of the disease has appeared with the massive introduction of susceptible
varieties such as CB5 that have other characteristics which are considered important for improved production.
Artificial inoculation techniques have been developed to facilitate breeding for resistance.

Several virus diseases occur in the Sahelian zone. The most prevalent is the cowpea aphid borne virus
(CAbMV). The varieties B21and CB5 combine resistance to multiple viruses (CAbMV, SBMV, CYMV,
CMoV).

The most important source of resistance to Striga in semiarid West Africa are B301 and IT82D-849. These
two lines are resistant to 4 of the 5 races of the parasite found in these areas. The genotypes 58-57 and
IT81D-994 are resistant to the fifth race found in Zakpota, Benin (Singh et al., 1997). Complete resistance
to all five have been sought in recombinants of the race differential varieties.

Important achievements have been generated by the research from this team. The cowpea varieties Mouride
and Ml6akh, developed by the ISRA/CRSP research, are largely diffused in Sen6gal. In the production
season 1999/2000, these two varieties represented 79 percent and 60 percent respectively of the foundation
and certified seeds distributed. These varieties have been introduced in InterCRSP yield trials and extension
programs in West and Central Africa by World Vision International.

Mouride is a medium maturing cultivar adapted to the semiarid zones of the Sahel with resistance to CAbMV,
bacterial blight, Striga and bruchids. Striga resistance has been obtained from the line IT81D-I 137 identified
in Burkina Faso along with 58-57. However, the latter is sensitive to Striga in S6n6gal where it originates,
indicating that in the two countries different Striga races prevail.


West Africa Region, Page 9


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







M61akh is an indeterminate early variety, adapted to the short rainy season of the Sahel. It has resistance to
CAbMV, bacterial blight and aphids. It is largely consumed and commercialized as fresh beans because of
its long pods.

Combining drought adaptation with resistance to the different biotic constraints in individual varieties has
become the major breeding objective. Because of farmer and consumer preference, the focus also has been
on large-seeded varieties with white, red or black speckled color.

Publications
Aggarwal, V. D. and J. T. Ouedraogo. 1989. Estimation of Cowpea Yield Loss from Striga gesnerioides
Infestation. Tropical Agriculture 66:91-92.

Gaikwad, D. G. 1988. Annual Report on Cowpea Pathology. ISRA /CNRA Bambey, p. 40.

Hall, A. E., S. Thiaw, A. M. Ismail and J. D. Ehlers. 1997. Water-Use Efficiency and Drought Adaptation
of Cowpea. In B. B. Singh, D. R. Mohan Raj, K. E. Dashiell and L. E. N. Jackai (eds) Advances in Cowpea
Research, p. 87-98.

Singh, B. B. and A. M. Emechebe. 1997. Advances in Research on Cowpea Striga and Alectra. In B. B. Singh,
D. R. Mohan Raj, K. E. Dashiell and L. E. N. Jackai (eds.) Advances in Cowpea Research, pp. 215-224.


West Africa Region, Page 10


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







BREEDING COWPEA FOR CALIFORNIA AND AFRICA, RESISTANCE TO
NEMATODES, HEAT AND DROUGHT, AND COWPEA MAPPING

A. E. Hall, J. D. Ehlers, A. M. Ismail and P. A. Roberts, University of California (UCR), Riverside, California, U.S.A.;
S. Thiaw and N. Ciss6, Institut Senigalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Bambey, Senegal;
K. 0. Marfo, Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), Tamale, Ghana

Presented by Anthony Hall

Progress has been made in developing a genetic-linkage map for cowpea to enhance the efficiency of
breeding. UCR bred a set of F, recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross that combines many traits of
importance to both Africa and California, IT84S-2049 x 524B (CB3 x CB5). In collaboration with Paul
Gepts at UC Davis and others, these lines have been screened for DNA polymorphisms and a DNA linkage
map has been developed (Men6ndez et al. 1997). Since then, in collaboration with several scientists, the
parents and RILs have been screened for many useful traits, some of which have been mapped including:
resistance to root-knot nematode (Rk gene), Fusarium wilt (race 3), several virus diseases (B1CMV, SBMV,
CPSMV and CPMV), Striga (races 1 and 3 using a linked marker) and chilling at emergence (a dehydrin
protein). DNA markers are being sought for specific resistance traits so that marker-assisted selection can
be conducted which would enhance the efficiency of breeding.

A new cowpea variety, California Blackeye No.27 (CB27), has been developed (Ehlers et al. 2000a).
Certified Seed of CB27 should be available in California in 2001. CB27 has resistance to a broader range
of root-knot nematodes than current California varieties, enhancing yield and increasing sustainability by
improving soil conditions for subsequent crops. CB27 has resistance to races 3 and 4 of Fusarium wilt,
whereas current California varieties only have resistance to race 3 (CB46 and CB88) or have no resistance
(CB5). CB27 is the first cowpea variety with heat tolerance and has produced greater yields than current
varieties in California environments where hot weather occurs at flowering. CB27 has high harvest index
and is compact requiring narrower row spacing (51 to 76cm) than CB5 (76 to 102cm). CB27 has excellent
canning quality, a moderate sucrose content and bright white seed that may make it attractive for the dry
blackeye bean package trade. Marketing tests are being conducted with California growers to determine the
relative prices and ease of sale of CB27 compared with CB46.

The broader nematode resistance of CB27 is due to its having both the Rk gene and a recessive helper gene,
rk3 from TVu4552 (Ehlers et al. 2000b). Stronger resistance is available as the Rk2 gene from IT84S-2049
and maybe IT84S-2246 (Roberts et al. 1997). UCR is breeding dry grain and cover crop varieties with the
Rk2 gene and also has found strong resistance to root-knot nematode in IT92KD-370, IT89KD-288 and some
other lines. UCR is conducting genetic studies combined with pouch test and field screening for nematode
resistance to see if even stronger resistance than is provided by the Rk2 gene can be obtained by combining
Rk' and rk3 and possibly other resistance genes.

Six genetically similar pairs of lines were evaluated that either have or do not have heat-tolerance genes.
Studies were conducted in eight California environments with contrasting temperatures, but similar high
levels of solar radiation and optimal management (Ismail and Hall 1998). In the cooler environments, the
heat-tolerant and heat-susceptible lines had similar high grain yields. In the hotter environments, grain yields
of the heat-susceptible lines decreased substantially; whereas the heat-tolerant lines exhibited less decrease
and produced about 400 kg/ha greater grain yields than the heat-susceptible lines by maintaining higher pod
set. In contrast, in six field trials conducted by SARI in Ghana and ISRA in S6n6gal, the heat-tolerant and
heat-susceptible lines had similar grain yields; even though the Sahelian environments were very hot.
Glasshouse studies indicate that differences in day length may explain the contrasting results obtained in
California and Africa (Ehlers and Hall 1998). The heat-tolerant lines developed by the UCR breeding
program were effective in both long and short days. However, the heat-susceptible lines from UCR only
exhibited reductions in grain yield under long-day conditions and not under the short days that can be
encountered in Africa. UCR also discovered that a few lines bred by selecting for grain yield in hot parts


West Africa Region, Page 11


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






of Africa (e.g., Mouride selected in the Sahelian zone of S6negal and some IITA lines selected in the Savanna
zone of northern Nigeria) have heat tolerance that was effective under short-day but not long-day conditions.
The low elevation desert of California provides an extremely hot field environment where very effective
screening for heat tolerance can be done in irrigated nurseries. Breeding programs in most other parts of the
world, however, do not have field nurseries that are effective for heat-tolerance screening. UCR and ISRA
are evaluating a laboratory screening method for heat tolerance based upon electrolyte leakage from leaf disks
that may be more effective in Africa than selecting based solely on grain yield (Ismail and Hall 2000).

Different types of drought adaptation are needed in West Africa. ISRA developed Mouride (see paper by
Ndiaga Ciss6), a medium cycle (about 70 days) variety that consistently produced greater grain yields than
other varieties in many trials in S6negal with mid-season and late-season droughts. Mouride was bred by
selecting for grain yield over many locations and years. ISRA also developed Ml6akh, a shorter cycle variety
(about 65 days to maturity) that has been very effective in S6n6gal when the rainy season was short but
distinct (Ciss6 et al. 1997). However, early cowpea varieties usually are sensitive to droughts occurring at
flowering. UCR has shown that this problem can be reduced by combining earliness with a delayed-leaf-
senescence (DLS) gene that enables the plants to survive the flowering-stage drought and then produce
another set of flowers and pods. The yield penalty that the DLS trait imposes on first flush yield under well-
watered conditions has been evaluated, using four sets of genetic lines that were selected to either have or not
have the DLS and heat-tolerance traits (Ismail et al. 2000). The DLS trait reduced first flush yield by only
9 percent (about 300 kg/ha). This indicates the DLS trait is useful because it has the potential to enhance the
second flush yield by up to 2000 kg/ha. A shuttle breeding program conducted by UCR and ISRA is
developing an early DLS cowpea for adaptation to dry zones. The objective is to breed a variety for Africa
with the ability to produce 2000 kg/ha in 60 days and an additional 1000 kg/ha in a second flush by 100 days
after sowing. UCR crossed Mouride with 8517, which has earliness and DLS, and selected the lines with
these traits. ISRA made selections between and within these lines for expression of earliness and DLS in
S6n6gal (Hall et al. 1997b) and resistance to bacterial blight and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. UCR
crossed the ISRA selections with Ml6akh and selected for earliness and DLS in California. The selected lines
now should be evaluated in the Savanna zone and the parts of the Sahelian zone that have a growing season
of at least 100 days.

Cowpea breeding in California is giving major emphasis to breeding dry grain cowpea varieties with
sufficient resistance to lygus bug and cowpea aphid that they can be grown without using insecticides (Hall
et al. 1997a, Ehlers and Hall 1997). UCR has discovered sources of moderate resistance to lygus and the
California biotype of cowpea aphid and is breeding to incorporate these resistances. In addition, these
varieties will have broad-based resistance to root-knot nematodes and Fusarium wilt, and in some cases
chilling tolerance at emergence, heat tolerance at flowering and DLS for double-flush production. In
California, the double-flush production system pioneered by UCR has produced grain yields as high as 8000
kg/ha in a 150 day growing season.

In addition, UCR is breeding a spreading, photo period-sensitive cowpea variety with strong resistance to root
knot nematodes. This type of cowpea variety would replace an erect medium cycle variety (Iron Clay) that
is being used as a rotation green-manure crop by some U.S. organic vegetable producers. The new variety
should be more effective than Iron Clay in enhancing soil fertility, controlling weeds and suppressing
nematode pests. UCR is collaborating with the University of the Yucatan to develop a similar spreading,
photo period-sensitive cowpea variety for use as an intercrop in tropical maize/squash systems to enhance
soil fertility, control weeds and provide fresh southern peas for food. A similar type of cowpea variety is
needed in S6n6gal to provide hay and dry grain and enhance soil fertility.

UCR has a minor program developing cowpea varieties with dry grain that is all-white or green or sweet.
Consumer demands for these special varieties have not yet been established. UCR has bred cowpea lines with
all-white grain for potential use in flour products. Following the pioneering work of R. L. Fery, USDA, UCR
is developing cowpea lines with both the green cotyledon and the green testa genes. These lines would


West Africa Region, Page 12


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







be grown as a dry grain crop but the dry grains would be rehydrated for use in frozen vegetable products.
UCR has made populations from crosses between the sweet line from Cameroon, 24-125B, and CB27,
M6lakh and Sul 518-2. These populations will be used to determine the potential for increasing sweetness
by breeding. Tests are needed to determine whether consumers detect differences in taste in food dishes made
from sweet and normal cowpeas that could influence varietal acceptance.

Publications
Ciss6, N., M. Ndiaye, S. Thiaw and A. E. Hall. 1997. Registration of "Ml6akh" Cowpea. Crop Science
37:1978.

Ehlers, J. D. and A. E. Hall. 1998. Heat Tolerance of Contrasting Cowpea Lines in Short and Long Days.
Field Crops Research 55:11-21.

Ehlers, J. D. and A. E. Hall. 1997. Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Field Crops Research 53:187-204.

Ehlers, J. D., A. E. Hall, P. N. Patel, P. A. Roberts and W. C. Matthews. 2000a. Registration of "California
Blackeye 27" Cowpea. Crop Science 40:854-855.

Ehlers, J. D., W. C. Matthews, Jr., A. E. Hall and P. A. Roberts. 2000b. Inheritance of a Broad-Based Form
of Root-Knot Nematode Resistance in Cowpea. Crop Science 40:611-618.

Hall, A. E., B. B. Singh and J. D. Ehlers. 1997a. Cowpea Breeding. Plant Breeding Reviews, Volume 15,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, p. 215-274.

Hall, A. E., S. Thiaw, A. M. Ismail and J. D. Ehlers. 1997b. Water-Use Efficiency and Drought Adaptation
of Cowpea. In B. B. Singh, D. R. Mohan Raj, K. E. Dashiell and L. E. N. Jackai (eds.) Advances in Cowpea
Research. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, p. 87-98.

Ismail, A. M. and A. E. Hall. 1999. Reproductive-Stage Heat Tolerance, Leaf Membrane Thermostability
and Plant Morphology in Cowpea. Crop Science 39:1762-1768.

Ismail, A. M. and A. E. Hall. 1998. Positive and Potential Negative Effects of Heat-Tolerance Genes in
Cowpea Lines. Crop Science 39:381-390.

Ismail, A. M., A. E. Hall and J. D. Ehlers. In press. Delayed-Leaf-Senescence and Heat-Tolerance Traits
Mainly are Independently Expressed in Cowpea. Crop Science.

Men6ndez, C. M., A. E. Hall and P. Gepts. 1997. A Genetic Linkage Map of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
Developed from a Cross Between Two Inbred, Domesticated Lines. Theoretical and Applied Genetics
95:1210-1217.

Roberts, P. A., J. D. Ehlers, A. E. Hall and W. C. Matthews. 1997. Characterization of New Resistance to
Root-Knot Nematodes in Cowpea In B. B. Singh, D. R. Mohan Raj, K. E. Dashiell and L. E. N. Jackai (eds.)
Advances in Cowpea Research, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, p. 207-214.


West Africa Region, Page 13


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PROCESSING AND EVALUATION STRATEGIES TO INCREASE COWPEA UTILIZATION

R. D. Phillips, K. H. McWatters, L. R. Beuchat, M. S. Chinnan, Y. C. Hung, R. R. Eitenmiller,
University of Georgia (UGA), Griffin, Georgia, U.S.A.; S. Sefa-Dedeh, E. O. Sakyi-Dawson,
M. Stainer-Asiedu, A. Lartey, University of Ghana-Legon, Accra, Ghana

Presented by R. Dixon Phillips

There are three major components in increasing cowpea utilization. These components are basically the same
in West Africa and the U.S. and are:

1. To discover and transfer to consumers information on the health and nutrition promoting qualities of
cowpeas,

2. To develop specific cowpea-based foods and ingredients,

3. To develop mechanisms for incorporating cowpeas and cowpea-based ingredients into foods and the diet.

Much of the cowpea crop is consumed as traditional whole-seed-based dishes. However, by processing
cowpeas there can be a major increase in their utilization. It is the individual-to-small cooperative range of
processing on which the Ghana/University of Georgia team has concentrated its efforts. In preserving seeds
against loss to pests, care must be taken with grain to be stored for food being especially careful to exclude
the use of toxic pesticides. It was discovered that steaming cowpea seeds followed by solar drying destroys
all stages of cowpea weevil and prevented re-infestation for extended periods. Steaming may be practiced
on any scale from a kilogram in Ghanaian steaming baskets to continuous, industrial-scale steaming boxes.
The central part of our processing strategy has been to convert cowpeas into useful intermediates. Traditional
cowpea processing begins with soaking the seeds, after which they can be further treated in a variety of ways.
Although not commonly used with legumes, germination or malting of the seeds produces interesting changes
in chemical composition. Soaked seeds can be immediately decorticated by plate milling and floating off the
seed coats or they may be lightly wetted, re-dried and then the seed coats and eyes removed decorticatedd)
by abrasive or plate milling and aspirating the seed coats. The cleaned cotyledons are then hammer milled
into flours or meals at various particle sizes. In the U.S., unpigmented seeds can be milled whole, saving
effort and expense, and resulting in a desirable higher fiber product for food ingredient use (see paper by
Anthony Hall). At this stage, either wet cowpea dough or dry flour can be combined with a variety of other
commodities, cereals, oilseeds, starchy roots and tubers, plantain, which have been suitably preprocessed to
form a very wide range of composite foods.

Many of the traditional Ghanaian foods that have been fortified with cowpea are customarily made of cereals
or other starchy products, and most are fermented with naturally occurring lactobacteria and other
microorganisms. The focus has been on where in the process, cowpea may be introduced, how much can be
used, and whether it can also undergo fermentation all without undue modification of expected flavor, aroma,
texture, and keeping properties. Both these products and the processes for making them have been extended,
as appropriate, to individuals, village cooperatives, and at the small-scale manufacturing level by a number
of vectors (see paper by Sam Sefa-Dedeh). Cowpea flakes have been provided for use in treating acutely
malnourished children in studies at the Princess Marie Louise Children's Hospital in Accra, and have been
shown to be enthusiastically received and effective in reversing malnutrition. Fortified fermented corn dough
has been both provided to malnourished children in study-villages and the process for making it and other
fortified products taught to villagers after the construction of processing plants in a cooperative venture
between the CRSP, the Hunger Project-Ghana, and the villagers themselves. Consultation on weaning food
design and manufacturing has been provided to existing village cooperatives. Cowpea flours have been
combined with wheat for studies on the appearance, texture and flavor of yeast-raised breads, and chemically
leavened muffins and cookies as well as unleavened tortillas.


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Bean/Cowpea CRSP







Extrusion cooking is an extremely versatile process that, by subjecting raw cereal and legume flours to a
unique combination of high temperature, shear, and pressure for a few seconds is capable of completely
cooking and sterilizing the resulting product. Products range from precooked weaning foods to expanded
snacks and beyond. Extruders range from simple models costing about the same as a pickup truck to very
sophisticated ones costing in the neighborhood of a million dollars. We have extensively studied the use of
extrusion cooking along with computer optimization/least costing to design a number of weaning foods
containing significant levels ofcowpea flour combined with wheat, sorghum, maize, millet, peanut, soybean
and sesame. Low-cost extrusion has been used to make some of these products and a more sophisticated
machine used to study processing parameters. Research is now beginning to look at extrusion technology
for making nutritious convenience/snack foods for older children and adults.

These processing schemes have been developed with constant evaluation of the products and processes. The
food industry wants to know how the new ingredients and products may be incorporated into its operation
, and consumers must feel that the food will meet their expectations for convenience, flavor, nutrition, and
safety at an affordable price. These attributes generate perceived value which control products' success in
the market place. The cooking rate of cowpea seeds is being measured in response to cultivar and growth
conditions as well as storage conditions, and pre-processing treatments like steaming/drying and germination.
The viscosity of hydrated foods is important both to sensory quality and, in the case of weaning foods, to the
nutrient density potential. The team's research has shown that extrusion of weaning food mixtures in the
presence of a-amylase reduces its viscosity during cooking and at serving temperature, meaning that more
nutrient can be packed into every spoonful. Electron microscopy has been useful in investigating the cellular
mechanisms of both the hard-to-cook defect following storage and insect resistance following hydrothermal
treatment. Texture is one of the most important attributes of foods, and we use the Instron to measure the
amount of force and energy necessary to compress and shear foods-similar to chewing it-in response to
storage and processing. Chemical and nutritional properties ofcowpea-based foods determine both sensory
quality and efficacy in meeting nutritional needs. Routinely, the gross composition of cowpea varieties and
the foods made from them is determined. Protein quality is measured by amino acid profile and a novel
approach to predicting protein quality has been developed from what the team calls Amino Acid Availability
Corrected Amino Acid Score. Processing may also affect the content and bioavailability of cowpea
carbohydrates. While extrusion has been shown to greatly increase the digestibility of starch as well as
protein, germination has less effect. On the other hand, the research has shown that germination reduces both
the oligosaccharide content and the flatulence that is produced by these undigestible sugars. Cowpeas are
a significant source of some vitamins, although fortification with others is necessary in products like weaning
foods. The same is true of minerals. Germination actually results in modest increases in some of the B
vitamins. The availability of amino acids, starch and micronutrients depends on the content ofantinutritional
compounds, of which cowpeas contain several.

Research on cowpea food safety includes studies into the microbiological safety of cowpeas and foods made
from them. Although not a particularly good host for Aspergillus in nature, very high levels ofaflatoxin can
be produced on cowpea under laboratory conditions. Of more concern are the pathogenic bacteria that are
common to foods and water in developing countries. Surveys of cowpea pastes in markets have shown an
appreciable level of coliforms, although these would presumably be destroyed during the frying process. The
lactic fermentation process that is popular in Ghana may offer real protection against pathogens both by
lowering the pH below optimal growth levels and by producing bacterosins.

Publications
Huse, H. L., P. Mallikarjunan, M. S. Chinnan, Y.-C. Hung and R. D. Phillips. 1998. Edible Coatings for
Reducing Oil Uptake in Production of Akara (Deep-Fat Frying) of Cowpea Paste. Journal ofFood Process
22:155-165.

Phillips, R. D. 1997. Nutritional Quality of Cereal and Legume Storage Proteins. Food Technology
51(5):62-66.


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Prinyawiwatkul, W. K. H. McWatters, L. R. Beuchat and R. D. Phillips. 1997. Optimizing Acceptability of
Chicken Nuggets Containing Fermented Cowpea and Peanut Flours. Journal ofFood Science 62:889-893,905.

Sefa-Dedeh, S. and F. K. Saalia. 1997. Extrusion of Maize-Cowpea Blends in a Modified Oil Expeller.
Journal of Science Food Agriculture 73:160-168.

Tuan, Y.-H., R. D. Phillips and C. R. Dove. 1999. Predicting Integrated Protein Nutritional Quality. Part 1:
Amino Acid Availability Corrected Amino Acid Score and Nitrogen Balance Data Fitted to Linear and Non-
Linear Models for Test Proteins. Nutritional Resources 19(12):1791-1805.

Tuan, Y.-H., R. D. Phillips and C. R. Dove. 1999. Predicting Integrated Protein Nutritional Quality. Part 2:
Integrated Protein Nutritional Quality Predicted from Amino Acid Availability Corrected Amino Acid Score
(AACAAS). Nutritional Resources 19(12):1807-1816.


West Africa Region, Page 16


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COWPEA USE IN IMPROVING HUMAN NUTRITION


S. Sefa-Dedeh, E. O. Sakyi-Dawson, M. Steiner-Aseidu, M. Owusu-Amoako, W. Amegatse,
T. Ador, A. Lartey, A. I. Sanni, University of Ghana-Legon, Accra, Ghana;
R. D. Phillips and Y. Mensah-Wilmot, University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia, U.S.A.

Presented by Sam Sefa-Dedeh

Protein energy malnutrition, deficiencies of micro-nutrients such as vitamin A, iron, iodine and zinc are of
concern in Africa. Grain legumes such as cowpeas Vigna unguiculata Walp have been identified as important
in addressing protein energy malnutrition. They are a major source of protein and vitamin B in the diet (see
paper by R. D. Phillips) but their use for infant feeding is not widely practiced. This paper reports on research
on cowpea conducted by the Ghana/University of Georgia team to improve human nutrition, with special
reference to children.

A three-pronged approach has been taken to promote the use of cowpea to improve human nutrition. The
three activities are:

* Product/process development and evaluation

* Introduction of target groups to cowpea products

* The involvement of micro-small-and-medium-scale enterprises.

Product/process development and evaluation is the first activity emphasized. Mothers and women from rural
communities were interviewed and their perceptions regarding infant feeding practices, weaning foods and
the use of cowpeas recorded and analyzed.

The majority of mothers (78 percent) indicated that the most important weaning food for children is a
porridge based on fermented maize dough. The mothers further indicated that the problems associated with
cowpea consumption include diarrhea, indigestion and flatulence. To increase cowpea consumption as a
weaning food, the removal of hulls is an important operation to address these problems. A simple method
was developed which involved tempering of the seeds, drying (500C), dehulling, hull separation and milling.

Due to the poor protein content of maize, the traditional maize-based weaning food cannot address protein
malnutrition unless it is fortified. A cowpea-fortified fermented maize dough was developed taking into
account energy density, convenience, consumer acceptability, cost, shelf stability and safety. The product
was found to be highly acceptable and the fortification improved the protein content and nutritional quality.

Microbiological evaluation of the cowpea-fortified fermented maize dough showed that addition of20 percent
cowpea did not affect the performance of the fermenting microorganisms of the maize dough.

Cowpea flakes were developed from dehulled, steamed cowpea flour. The flour was made into a dough and
drum-dried into flakes. This 100 percent cowpea product was found to be acceptable by the mothers, children
and hospital staff at the Princess Marie Louise Hospital in Accra. The majority of mothers (56 percent) added
the cowpea flakes into porridge, others (36 percent) presented it as a snack. The ease, convenience and high
nutritive value and acceptability drew the attention of the nurses and physicians. Large quantities packaged
as 20g samples were prepared which were used as a feeding supplement for the hospital's malnourished
children.

The second activity emphasized was the introduction of cowpea products to target groups. Training
workshops were held in rural communities to introduce the product concept and technology in the context
of previously identified need. In three communities, nutritional intervention studies were conducted using


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the cowpea-fortified fermented maize product. Through the Hunger Project-Ghana, the community ofAwutu
Kwaman was assisted in constructing a food-processing facility. Training focused on:

* Sensitization to health and nutrition

* Processing of cowpea-fortified maize dough

* A six-month intervention and monitoring

Intervention involved feeding of the 106 preschool children in the community with cowpea-fortified fermented
maize dough porridge. Anthropometric measurement such as weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference
were monitored. Marked improvements in the nutritional status of the children were demonstrated.

The efficacy of the cowpea-fortified product was recognized by all the people in the community as evidenced
in the improved health of the children. Following the intervention, three women agreed to provide, on a
commercial basis, the product for the community. In addition, the women extended the product and
technology to nearby communities including an orphanage.

Another intervention involved the determination of the efficacy of iron-fortified, cowpea-based weaning
foods in improving iron nutrition of children. The intervention study involved two peri-urban communities,
Otinibi and Danfa, in the Ga District of the Greater Accra Region. Fermented maize-cowpea flour (80 percent
maize, 20 percent cowpea) was prepared, dried in the oven and fortified with 10.7mg Fe/100 flour using
ferrous fumarate. It was observed that the children fed iron-fortified maize-cowpea flour showed decreased
anemia at the end of the intervention period. The cowpea-fortified fermented maize flour was found to be
a good vehicle for improving the iron nutrition of children.

Encouragement ofcowpea-related micro-small-and-medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs) was the third activity
emphasized. In Ghana, the micro-small-and-medium-scale enterprises convert the bulk of agricultural
commodities into intermediate and final products. One company, Ermack Foods, has been trained by CRSP
researchers in the process for making dehydrated cowpea-fortified fermented maize flour. Preliminary
consumer testing of the product has shown a very high interest. The company is planning to invest in the
production of this product for the Ghanaian and foreign markets.

From this overall approach, it is apparent that cowpea is an important legume for improving the nutrition of
the population. Targeting the nutrition of the child through the development and production of foods based
on, or fortified by cowpea is an achievable option for resource-poor rural populations.

Publications
Sefa-Dedeh, S. and F. K. Saalia. 1997. Extrusion of Maize-Cowpea Blends in a Modified Oil Expeller.
Journal of the Science ofFood and Agriculture 73:160-168.


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


West Africa Region, Page 18







FIELD SCHOOL AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT EVALUATIONS


B. J. Vander Mey, Clemson University, Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.; L. Abatania, Savanna Agricultural
Research Institute (SARI), Tamale, Ghana; M. Owusu-Akyaw andJ. Haleegoah, Crops Research Institute (CRI),
Kumasi, Ghana; A. B. Salifu, SARI, Ghana; M. Shepard, Clemson University, Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.

Presented by Brenda Vander Mey

Farmer Field Schools (FFS), and Training of Trainers (TOT) are modalities used to facilitate active,
participatory non-formal education in real-world settings. Both situate all actors-farmers, extensionists,
researchers, or volunteers-as both learners and teachers. The Schools involve hands-on learning which is
experiential and discovery-based. Undergirding this non-formal learning is a systems approach to farms and
farming. It is well documented that FFS, in contrast to traditional extension methods, is the most successful
modality for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) learning, adaption and adoption (Stoetzer, 1997).
Participants learn, for instance, plant growth requirements, soil preparation, pest-predator relationships, which
insects are pests versus which are beneficial, timely weeding and timely planting. FFSs are focused on
farmers as the primary clientele and TOTs are designed to equip extensionists, crop protection personnel, and
others with the knowledge and skills needed to work with farmers within FFSs and facilitate farmer feedback
to researchers.

FFS and TOT are the methods used to implement Integrated Pest Management on cowpea by the
Ghana/Clemson team. These methods were modeled after the very successful FFSs established in Indonesia
(Wiradmadya and Kusmayadi, 1996). Upwards of 1.5 million Southeast Asian farmers have been empowered
through FFSs since the mid-1980s.

FFS and TOT in Ghana focus on small-scale farmers based on the assumption that sustainable development
at the macro level is predicated upon sustainable development at the micro level. Participatory, sustainable
development is being advocated by Ghana's government. IPM is being promoted as economically and
environmentally sound throughout the world. Participatory IPM, such as that which is achieved through field
schools, is "central to sustainability" (Vander Mey, 1999, p. 41). In addition, field school principles and
practices are consistent with the key tenets of participatory development (see Atwood, 1993).

Longitudinal evaluation studies are important to confidently declare the impacts of field schools. With this
in mind, the Clemson/Ghana team developed an instrument to tap qualitative and quantitative indicators of
impact. The outcomes of field schools are supposed to include changes in knowledge, farming practices, and
chemical use and handling practices. Other outcomes include higher yields, decreased inputs, increased
profits, more healthful farming ecosystems, and improved family health through consumption of cowpea.
Indicators of positive impact include safer handling of chemicals, decreased chemical use, bodily protection
when using chemicals, the ability to differentiate beneficial and pest insects, and increased use of cowpea as
a table food and as a weaning food. Over time, field schools also are supposed to broaden decision making
ability, empower farmers, and have spillover effects into other aspects of participants' lives.

An initial follow up of one TOT and two FFSs occurred in Ghana during February and March, 1999. The TOT
had been held at Wa, August-October, 1997. The FFSs had occurred May-July, 1998, at Damongo and Tampei-
Kukuo, respectively. The schools had a total of 69 participants, 28 of whom participated in this initial
evaluation. This field school involved using neem as an alternative to calendar methods of chemical application.
On site, participants tested neem plots against farmer practices (using chemicals), and control plots.

For all practices measured, farmer participants showed greater changes than did the Trainers. In the area of
farming practices, significant changes (p.05) included more use of cover crops, composting, weeding,
scouting, and using resistant varieties. Field school participants typically reduced their use of chemicals, and
in one case ceased using chemicals altogether. Prior to the field schools, participants generally had heard of
neem, but did not know how to make use of it. After the field schools, participants judged neem to be


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Bean/Cowpea CRSP







valuable in terms of the money saved, but saw the time investments of preparation to be costly. On balance,
however, participants said they would still rely on neem, though they would like it if they could get it from
someone else who was trained in preparing it. When chemicals were used, there were significant changes
in using only recommended chemicals at only recommended times. In addition, there were significant
changes in bodily protection while applying chemicals. These changes included greater frequency of using
gloves, masks, and covering the body.

Significant changes in knowledge included being able to calculate yield losses, understanding pest-predator
relationships, understanding crop-weed associations, knowing the best planting times, recognizing disease
symptoms, and being able to differentiate natural enemies from insect pests.

There were no significant changes in average frequency of cowpea consumption among participants in
relation to using cowpea as a weaning food or as a table food. After training, however, fewer participants
were only rarely eating cowpea, and more participants were consuming cowpea on a daily basis.

While the difference was not significant, average yield per acre was slightly higher after the field school (3.36
bags) than before (2.62 bags). Participants attributed this higher yield to the use of neem, more timely pest
control, more timely weeding, timely planting and scouting. These assumptions would be consistent with
findings from field schools in other parts of the world (see, van Huis and Meerman, 1997). In addition, this
indicates that participants are understanding farming as a system.

On average, participants had trained 11 others. However, oversight and quality control are needed. The
participants also suggested that refreshers be provided. In addition, participants believe that more field
schools are needed in Ghana.

Publications
Atwood, The Honorable J. Brian. 1993. "Statement of Principles on Participatory Development." Speech
delivered on November 16, 1993. United States Agency for International Development. Washington, DC.
http://www.info.usaid.gov/about/part_develop/docs/pdiover.htm

Stoetzer, H. A. I. 1997. The Philosophy of IPM Learning. ILEIA Newsletter 13:26-27.

Vander Mey, B. J. 1999. Establishing Gender Sensitive IPM: A Cowpea Programme in Ghana. In E. van
de Fliert and J. Proost (eds.) Women and IPM: Crop Protection Practices and Strategies. Amsterdam:
Royal Tropical Institute, KIT Press and London: Intermediate Technologies Publications, pp. 39-50.

Van Huis, A. and F. Meerman. 1997. Can We Make IPM Work for Resource-Poor Farmers in Sub-Saharan
Africa? International Journal ofPest Management 43:313-319.

Wiradmadya, R. and A. Kusmayadi. 1996. "Indonesia: National IPM Programme." Program Advisory
Committee Meeting. FAO Intercountry Programme for IPM in Asia, Hyderabad, India, February.


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


West Africa Region, Page 20







REGIONAL COWPEA TRADE AND MARKETING IN WEST AFRICA


M. Faye, Institut is de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Bambey, Senegal; G. Ibro, Institut National de Recherches
Agronomiques du Niger (INRAN), Niamey, Niger; A. Kergne, Institut d'Economie Rural (IER), Bamako, Mali;
S. Kushwaha, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (A TBU), Bauchi, Nigeria; A. Langyintuo, Savanna Agricultural
Research Institute (SARI), Tamale, Ghana, J. Lowenberg-DeBoer, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.;
K. A. Marfo, Crops Research Institute (CRI), Kumasi, Ghana; G. Ntoukam, Institut de la Recherche Agronomique pour
le Developpement (IRAD), Maroua, Cameroon

Presented by Jess Lowenberg-DeBoer

In the last twenty years, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP has made important contributions to cowpea production
technology. CRSP scientists have bred new varieties. They have developed improved methods for
controlling pests in the field and in storage. CRSP technologies could dramatically increase the supply of
cowpeas in West Africa. The question now is who would buy those cowpeas? At what price? And what
kind of cowpeas would consumers prefer? Until the current phase of the CRSP, there had been no regional
perspective on cowpea markets and no systematic analysis of consumer preferences for cowpea
characteristics. This presentation summarized the preliminary results of the CRSP cowpea marketing study
in two parts: (1) structure of cowpea markets in West Africa, and (2) consumer preferences as measured in
hedonic pricing studies. In addition, this summary will include the results of impact assessments done for
varietal development and storage technology in S6n6gal and Cameroon.

What is the structure of cowpea markets in West Africa? Cowpea markets in West Africa are part of an
ancient trade that links the humid coastal zones with the semiarid interior. This ancient trade is built on
comparative advantage in food production of each zone. In the humid coastal areas, it is relatively easy to
produce carbohydrates (e.g., cassava, maize, rice), but because of pests and diseases it is difficult to produce
animal or vegetable protein. Lack of rainfall limits grain production in the interior, but it also creates good
conditions for livestock, cowpeas and groundnuts. In the traditional cowpea growing countries of the
Sudano-Sahelian zone, there is a well developed network of village buyers who assemble small quantities
from individual farmers into 100 kg bags and merchants who transport and store the bags.

The largest producer and consumer of cowpeas in West Africa (and in the world) is Nigeria. A dense
population and oil revenue create an enormous effective demand for cowpeas. Niger is the largest cowpea
exporter is West Africa (and in the world) with an estimated 215,000 MT exported annually, mainly to
Nigeria. Substantial amounts of cowpea also come in to Nigeria from other neighboring countries, especially
Cameroon and Tchad. A large portion of cowpeas from Burkina Faso and Mali are sold into Cote d'Ivoire,
though some are said to be trucked along coastal roads as far as Nigeria.

Ghana is a major producer of cowpeas, but in addition it imports about 10,000 MT annually. About 30
percent of the Ghanaian imports comes from Burkina Faso and the rest from Niger. Langyintuo found that
in Accra, the large, rough coated Nigerien cowpeas sell for a premium, but they need to be marketed quickly
because they do not store well in the humid coastal climate.

The initial hypothesis at the beginning of the cowpea marketing research was that most cowpeas from
northern Cameroon were marketed in Nigeria. Work by Jean-Paul Oumarou, a University of N'gaound6r6
student, showed that in fact most of the northern Cameroon production went to southern Cameroon, and some
was exported from there to Gabon and Congo.

In northern S6n6gal as the climate grew drier and the groundnut parastatal declined, cowpeas have
increasingly replaced groundnuts as the legume of choice. Some cowpeas are exported to Mauritania and
Gambia, but the transportation cost and lack of market links limit access of Senegalese cowpeas to the large
markets in Ghana, Nigeria and elsewhere along the African coast.


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S6n6gal is the only country in the region with a substantial cowpea processing industry. Faye identified five
companies producing cowpea-based weaning food, cowpea flour and cowpea- based crackers. All products
are made from recipes developed by ISRA's Food Technology Institute (ITA). In addition, there is a cracker
manufacturer in Nouakchott, Mauritania, that uses primarily cowpeas from S6n6gal.

What have we learned about consumer preferences? Knowledge of consumer preferences is essential to
developing cowpea markets. Breeders need to know what characteristics consumers want. Integrated pest
management specialists need an estimate of the consumer-level cost of grain damage. The CRSP cowpea
price and quality study was launched in Maroua, Cameroon in September, 1996, and later extended to four
markets in northern Cameroon, three markets in Nigeria, two markets in Niger, three markets in northern
Ghana, three markets in Mali and six markets in S6n6gal using a common data collection protocol. Every
month CRSP researchers and technicians buy five samples per market from randomly selected sellers. They
note the gender and other seller characteristics. In the laboratory, they record the 100 grain weight, average
length and width of grains, number of bruchid holes per 100 grains, color and texture of the testa, and eye
color. The data are analyzed using a hedonic pricing regression model.

Initial results from the hedonic pricing analysis indicate that consumers in all areas prefer larger grain size.
Consumers are more sensitive to bruchid damage than hypothesized. It was thought that West African
consumers would tolerate a certain level of damage, but the data indicate that cowpea prices are discounted
from the first appearance of damage. Women in Cameroon appear to sell for a higher price than male
vendors, probably because women sell in small quantities for immediate consumption. In S6n6gal, consumers
appear to pay a premium of 20 FCFA/kg for the traditional black speckled varieties.

What has been the impact of CRSP research? Impact assessments in S6n6gal and Cameroon show that CRSP
production research has reached large numbers of people and is generating a substantial economic benefit.
In S6n6gal, over 80 percent of stored cowpea are stored with the CRSP drum storage technology. In northern
Cameroon, about 23 percent of cowpea area is planted to Vya, BRI and BR2, varieties that the CRSP helped
develop and popularize. About 10 percent of cowpea in northern Cameroon is stored with storage
technologies developed by the IRAD/Purdue CRSP team. The CRSP storage technologies developed in
Cameroon are now being extended in Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, S6n6gal, Tchad, Zimbabwe and
Mozambique. The annual rate of return on CRSP investment in the ISRA/University of California Riverside
team in S6n6gal for the varietal development and storage after 1985 is about 16 percent. The rate of return
to CRSP breeding and storage research in Cameroon alone is about 5 percent. In both cases, the benefits are
much higher when taking into account the use of CRSP technology outside of the country of origin.

Publications
Diaz-Hermelo, F. and J. Lowenberg-DeBoer. 1999. Estimating Research Benefits with Both Production and
Post-Harvest Technology: The Case of Cowpea in Cameroon. Bean/Cowpea CRSP West Africa Regional
Report #2.

Faye, M. and J. Lowenberg-DeBoer. 1999. Adoption of Cowpea Improved Varieties and Storage
Technology in the North Central Peanut Basin of S6n6gal and Economic Impact Implications. Bean/Cowpea
CRSP West Africa Regional Report #3.

Langyintuo, A., J. Lowenberg-DeBoer, L. Murdock and G. Ntoukam. 1999. Hedonic Price Analysis as a
Multidisciplinary Activity: The Case of Cowpeas in Cameroon. Bean/Cowpea CRSP West Africa Regional
Report #1.

Murdock, L. L., R. E. Shade, L. W. Kitch, G. Ntoukam, J. Lowenberg-DeBoer, J. E. Huesing, W. Moar,
O. L. Chambliss, C. Endondo and J. L. Wolfson. 1997. Post-Harvest Storage of Cowpea in Sub-Saharan
Africa. In B. B. Singh, D. R. Mohan Raj, K. E. Dashiell and L. E. N. Jackai (eds) Advances in Cowpea
Research. Sayce Publishing, Devon, UK, pp. 302-312.


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EAST


AFRICA


REGIONAL


PROJECT






DISEASES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY IN AFRICA


R. B. Mabagala, Sokoine University ofAgriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; R. L. Gilbertson, University of California,
Davis, California, U.S.A.; J. R. Myers, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.; W. Msuku,
A. B. C. Mkandawire, J Bokosi, and S. Nchimbi-Msolla, Bunda College ofAgriculture, Lilongwe, Mala wi

Presented by Robert Mabagala

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important source of dietary protein in Eastern and
Southern Africa. Although yield potentials of over 2000 kg/ha exist, yield averages are still low due to losses
caused by diseases, among other constraints. Such diseases include angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsisgriseola),
common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli), rust (Uromyces phaseoli), bean common
mosaic virus (BCMV), bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV), halo blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv.
phaseolicola), anthracnose (Colletotrichum appendiculatus) as well as nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).

These diseases can be extremely devastating on the bean crop and cause high losses. Management of these
diseases using chemicals is not practical because many small holder farmers in the region can not afford them.
Breeding for disease resistance remains the most fitting and reliable option for managing bean diseases.
Therefore, research activities in this region focus on the development of improved varieties, emphasizing high
and stable yields, multiple disease and insect resistance, drought tolerance and fast cooking.

In Tanzania, two bean varieties, SUA 90 (khaki) and ROJO (red) have been released by the Bean/Cowpea
CRSP program. These varieties are high yielding, resistant to rust, BCMV, BCMNV and ALS. In addition,
they stand up well to bacterial diseases, drought and are resistant to lodging. Furthermore, several new
breeding lines with diseases and insect resistance are under development for release in the years 2000 and
2001. In Malawi, the variety Kalima has been released by the programme. Kalima has an intermediate level
of resistance to angular leaf spot.

Ecologically, team members have confirmed that the disease X.c. pv. phaseoli can survive on wild legumes
such as Dolichos spp. and Desmodium spp. even in areas far from agricultural land. Taxonomically BCMV
and BCMNV which were originally classified as one virus, have been distinguished as two distinct viruses,
through collaborative work between the U.S. and East Africa Regional scientists. Such research efforts have
resulted in the re-naming of the necrotic strains as BCMNV. In addition, a range of wild legume hosts for
these viruses has been established in East Africa. However, more information on the ecology, epidemiology
and host-pathogen genetics is needed.

The East Africa Bean/Cowpea CRSP has also established biotechnology laboratories, in Malai and
Tanzania. However, biotechnology in agriculture is still in its infancy in Eastern Africa and Africa in general,
although its potential for improving agriculture there is obvious. Biotechnology can make life better for
developing countries by allowing better characterization of pathogens and germplasms for more rapid
development of bacterial, fungal and viral disease resistance. Thus, farmers in a wide range of environments
would produce higher than usual yields with less inputs. In addition, biotechnology can contribute to
improved natural resource conservation, insect resistance, tolerance to salt and toxic heavy metals, more
nutritious food products with improved keeping quality and increased seed trade and germplasm exchange
across borders through reliable new techniques to detect seed-borne pathogens.

Using the two PCR laboratories in Malawi and Tanzania, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP in the East Africa region
has characterized the pathogen X.c. pv. phaseoli while characterization of the bean gene pools in the centers
of origin (Andean or Mesoamerican regions) continues (see paper by Robert Gilbertson). One short-course
on PCR has been conducted in each country (Malawi and Tanzania). These courses were attended by 11 and
9 scientists representing universities and the Ministries of Agriculture in Malawi and Tanzania, respectively.


East Africa Region, Page 23


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






Using non-CRSP funds, Dr. S. Nchimbi-Msolla was trained at Oregon State University to characterize bean
genotypes for purity using PCR and other techniques. Her training allowed the detection of SUA 90 in
variety mixtures collected from Kenya. A graduate program (M.S. level) in plant biotechnology including
PCR has been developed in Malawi. Links with potential customers producing beans for export and who can
use PCR services in Tanzania have been established and continue to be strengthened. Testing of on-farm
produced seed using PCR for certification is underway.

The following impacts are expected to be realized: Reliable and sustainable disease management (resistant
varieties) by small-holder farmers, reduced use of chemicals lowering production costs and resulting in a safer
environment, increased yields, and increased food security with a better financial position for small-holder
bean producers. In addition, through emphasis on training, the East Africa Regional Project continues to
support professional sustainability in the region, increase research and teaching efficiency, provide better
leadership, student supervision and strengthened extension to address small-holder bean producers needs.
However, degree and non-degree training in biotechnology is urgently needed to backup and increase the
utilization of the two PCR laboratories in East Africa.

Publications
Ijani, A. S. M., R. B. Mabagala and S. Nchimbi-Msolla. 2000. Efficacy of Different Control Methods
Applied Separately and in Combination in Managing Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in Common
Beans. European Journal of Plant Pathology 106:1-10.

Mabagala, R. B. 1997. The Effect of Populations of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli in Bean
Reproductive Tissues on Seed Infection of Resistant and Susceptible Bean Genotypes. European Journal
ofPlant Pathology 103:175-181.


East Africa Region, Page 24


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






DISEASES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES


R. L. Gilbertson, P. Guzmdn, W. C. Johnson, S. R. Temple, P. Gepts, University of California, Davis,
California, U.S.A.; A. B. C. Mkandawire, Bunda College ofAgriculture, Lilongwe, Mala ui

Presented by Robert Gilbertson

Common beans play a central role in the diets of both rural and urban dwellers in East Africa. They are
increasingly being produced for cash. However, their production is limited by both biotic and abiotic
constraints. The most important biotic constraints are diseases, particularly angular leafspot, bean common
mosaic virus, common bacterial blight, halo blight, rust and others (see paper by Robert Mabagala).
Development of resistant bean varieties has been difficult, in part, because of the extensive genetic diversity
within many of these pathogens. Because relatively little is known of the selection pressure driving pathogen
diversity, attempts were made to understand the genetic diversity of the causal agents of some of these
diseases in order to assist breeders develop genotypes that have better resistance to them. Based on several
lines of evidence, including seed protein analysis, allozyme marker studies, restriction fragment length
polymorphism (RFLP) and random polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses, morpho-agronomic characters, and
evidence of genes for hybrid lethality, cultivated common beans have been separated into two distinct groups
called "Andean" and "Mesoamerican" gene pools. The former appears to have arisen in the Andes Mountains
of South America and the latter in southern or western M6xico and/or Central America. It was hypothesized
that existence of the two host gene pools might be paralleled by the existence of two gene pools in organisms
associated with common bean, such as pathogens or symbionts.

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to characterize 62 Phaeoisariopsis griseola
isolates from three countries (Malawi, United States and Brazil). The gene pool of the bean plants from
which the isolates were obtained was determined by isozyme and Phaesolin analysis. Eleven primers
generated reproducible and distinct RAPD patterns that divided the P. griseola isolates into two major groups.
Group 1 (Andean) isolates were generally recovered from Andean gene pool materials, whereas group 2
(Mesoamerican) isolates were recovered from Mesoamerican materials. Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates
representing groups 1 and 2 were inoculated onto selected Andean and Mesoamerican beans. Group 1
isolates were more pathogenic on Andean beans whereas group 2 isolates were more pathogenic on
Mesoamerican beans. RAPD and pathogenicity data suggest that groups 1 and 2 may have originated in the
Andes and Mesoamerica, respectively, and that coevolution of the P. griseola fungus and its common bean
host has resulted in increased levels of disease in this host-pathogen interaction. In addition to RAPD,
specific detection of the two major groups of Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Andean and Mesoamerican) from
infected common bean leaves has been achieved by amplification of different-sized DNA fragments by PCR
with group-specific primer pairs. These primer pairs were designed based on DNA sequences of cloned
RAPD fragments. Using this faster method, P. griseola isolates from diverse geographical regions were
differentiated into the two previously established groups. A simple and rapid sonication method has been
developed that allows for PCR detection of P. griseola from mycelia or synnemata and conidia collected from
angular leafspot lesions on bean leaves.

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) causes one of the most widespread diseases affecting common bean
production. This potyvirus is spread non-persistently by aphids and is also seed-borne. The disease is
distributed worldwide but necrosis-inducing strains, not considered to be a distinct virus species (i.e., bean
common mosaic necrosis virus), which induce systemic necrosis in genotypes carrying the dominant I-gene,
are widespread in Africa, Europe and have been detected in some parts of North America. Genetic resistance
to the virus is the most effective means of controlling its spread. BCMV resistance is conditioned by a series
of strain-specific genes but bc-3 gene conditions resistance to all known strains of BCMV. We sought to
alleviate the problems associated with the introduction of the recessive bc-3 gene by developing an efficient
marker-assisted selection system based on markers that tag the bc-3, a simplified DNA extraction method,
and more reliable PCR amplification protocols through the development of sequence characterized amplified


East Africa Region, Page 25


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







regions (SCARs). We have developed a relatively easy-to-use procedure to introgress the bc-3 gene into elite
bean cultivars. First, we employed bulked segregant analysis to identify RAPD markers linked to bc-3 locus.
The ROC 11/350/420 marker was codominant with the bc-3 gene and the ROC20/460 marker was dominant
and linked in trans. A survey of cultivated materials allowed us to identify the likely evolutionary origin of
the bc-3 resistance allele as a member of the Mesoamerican gene pool. Polymorphism of the RAPD markers
in a Davis common bean mapping population (BAT93xJalo EE558) allowed us to map the markers and, by
inference, the bc-3 gene to linkage group D6. Second, we used sequence information from the cloned RAPD
fragments to design longer, more reliable PCR primers that differentiate individuals homozygous for the
resistance allele from susceptible genotypes in segregating populations of Andean origin. Third, we
developed a marker tagging system that used a simplified DNA extraction technique and a PCR-based assay
to identify the genotype of common bean plants at the bc-3 disease resistance locus. This simplified marker
assisted selection system is expected to eliminate the need for costly quarantines and progeny tests in
breeding programs for common beans of Andean origin. A survey of common bean germplasm reveals that
the marker tags identified appear to be useful for introduction of the bc-3 gene from its Mesoamerican
background into the Andean gene pool. It was against this background that crosses were planned for Malawi.
These crosses were of the most prominent Malawian elite and preferred genotypes and A- and MCM lines,
with bc-3 gene, from CIAT with resistance to ALS and BCMV, respectively. These materials were evaluated
at UCD for resistance to BCMV and in Malawi for resistance to ALS. They are in advanced stages of
evaluation and should soon be released for production in Malawi and for other programs in the region.

Common bacteria blight (CBB) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli is another important disease
in East Africa. This bacteria exists in two forms Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) and
Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var.fuscans (Xcpf), which produces a characteristic brown pigment
on general agar media, such as 523. The question of there being coevolution between this pathogen and the
host gene pool has again been examined. Leaves with CBB have been collected from Malawi and Tanzania
and the pathogen was isolated. These isolates have been divided into two groups depending on pigment
production (Xcp produces no pigment; Xcpfproduces a brown pigment). A primer pair has been developed
for PCR detection of Xcp and Xcpf. This pair was designed from the sequence of a repetitive element in the
bacterial genome and directs the amplification of an -800bp fragment. All the Malaw ian and Tanzanian CBB
strains were detected with these primers. The PCR detection of CBB allows for: (a) rapid detection of Xcp
andXcpf(<24h), (b) differentiation ofXcp/Xcpffrom nonpathogenic xanthomonads, and (c) detection of CBB
in seeds. After Xcp/Xcpf identification with specific primers, fingerprints of the pathogenic bacteria are
generated by repetitive sequence (rep)-PCR. This method is based on PCR amplification of repetitive
sequences interspersed in the bacterial genome. Three types of elements are used, viz. repetitive extra genic
palindromic (REP), enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC), and BOX elements. Results show
different fingerprints generated in the nonfuscous Xcp pathogenic isolates and little variability for Xcpf
strains. From the host plants leaves/pods or seeds are collected from which the gene pool is determined using
Andean/Mesoamerican PCR primers. These data are then correlated with gene pool of beans from which
isolates were collected. Isolates representing pathogen diversity are then selected and used for inoculation
on representative materials from the two gene pools. From all pathogenic isolates obtained from Mala wi and
Tanzania most of the Xcpf had been collected from Mesoamerican beans whereas most Xcp were from
Andean beans, providing a first evidence of a coevolution-like phenomenon for these bacteria. Inoculation
of Malawi Xcp/Xcpf isolates onto beans of Andean and Mesoamerican backgrounds revealed a striking
interaction. The Malawi Xcp caused severe symptoms on Andean gene pool beans but significantly less
severe symptoms on Mesoamerican. The fuscous Xcpfcaused severe CBB on both gene pools. In contrast
Brazilian Xcp (where mostly Mesoamerican beans are grown) caused severe CBB on beans of both gene
pools. These results suggest that the Mesoamerican genotypes may be good sources of CBB resistance for
the Andean Malawian or Tanzanian cultivars. Some of the Mesoamerican breeding lines with pyramided
CBB resistance genes from P. acutifolius and other P. vulgaris sources (VAX lines) have been evaluated and
they show high levels of resistance to Malawi Xcp/Xcpf isolates. These materials will be used in future
breeding for CBB resistance in the ALS/BCMV resistant lines already developed by the East Africa Project.


East Africa Region, Page 26


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







Publications
Guzmin, P., P. Gepts, S. Temple, A. B. C. Mkandawire and R. L. Gilbertson. 1999. Detection and
Differentiation ofPhaeoisariopsis griseola Isolates with the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Group-Specific
Primers. Plant Disease 83:37-42.

Guzmin, P., R. L. Gilbertson, R. Nodari, W. C. Johnson, S. R. Temple, D. Mandala, A. B. C. Mkandawire
and P. Gepts. 1995. Characterization of Variability in the Fungus Phaeoisariopsis griseola Suggests Co-
evolution with the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Phytopathology 85:600-607.

Johnson, W. C., P. Guzmin, D. Mandala, A. B. C. Mkandawire, S. Temple, R. L. Gilbertson and P. Gepts.
1997. Molecular Tagging of the bc-3 Gene for Introgression into Andean Common Bean. Crop Science
37:248-254.


East Africa Region, Page 27


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






VARIETAL DEVELOPMENT


J. R. Myers, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.; S. Nchimbi-Msolla and R. Misangu,
Sokoine University ofAgriculture; Morogoro, Tanzania; J. Bokosi, Bunda College ofAgriculture,
Lilongwe, Mala i; S. Temple, University of California, Davis, California, U.S.A.

Presented by James R. Myers

Breeding programs are important to every regional effort the East African Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project. Dry
beans have been bred at Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) in Tanzania since the project's inception
in 1980. Early on, Matt Silbernagel (USDA-ARS, Prosser, WA) made crosses with advancing generations
screened at SUA, but now most CRSP breeding efforts are carried out by SUA breeders (see paper by Robert
Mabagala). In Malawi, Ph.D.s who returned to Bunda College are making important contributions to efforts
of that team. At the University of California-Davis, breeding is ongoing for kidney, pink and a few minor
market classes of dry beans for Californian environments. CRSP dry bean breeding at the University of
Idaho, has now moved to Oregon State University where the CRSP scientist, a vegetable breeder, is
responsible for developing improved green bean cultivars.

In contrast to the U.S., dry bean market classes are not clearly defined in East Africa, and seed types found
in Africa are considerably more diverse, including types unknown in the U.S. Beans are no longer strictly a
subsistence crop but have become an important cash crop in East Africa, with the result of the formation of
fledgling market classes. For example, Rozi Koko, Canadian Wonder, and Kablanketi types have more than
one cultivar. Production systems and environments are more variable in Africa than the U.S. Not only do
latitudinal differences play a role in Africa, but so do altitude, season, and cultural systems. While beans in
East Africa have great genetic variability, additional variability is needed to provide resistance to abiotic and
biotic stresses. Generally, large-seeded Andean bush types predominate in East Africa, but climbers represent
as much as 75 percent of the bean production in the Malawi.

Malawi and Tanzania share many of the same constraints, but being at a lower latitude than Tanzania, Malawi
has changes in daylength that may interact with photo period genes. Further, Tanzania has a bimodal rainfall
distribution, while Malawi's precipitation is unimodal. Farmers in both countries are dependent on rain for
bean production, but some farmers also take advantage of residual moisture found in low areas (e.g., Dimba
gardens in Malawi), or have access to irrigation.

In Tanzania, bean research is divided such that SUA breeds for low altitude environments, whereas the
National Program at Uyole in the south breeds for high altitudes, and the National Program at Selian in the
north breeds for mid-altitudes. In low altitude zones, heat and drought are the major abiotic stresses. Major
biotic factors include: bruchids, nematodes, and bean stem maggot as invertebrate pests, bean common
mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) as the major virus pathogens, and
common bacterial blight (CBB), halo blight (HB), angular leafspot (ALS), and rust as the most important
fungal pathogens. Constraints for Malawi include: heat and drought, bruchids, BSM, BCMV and BCMNV,
CBB, HB, ALS, and rust. In addition, web blight and root rot pathogens are often of importance.

In the Western U.S., the major market classes are: pinto, pink, small red, great northern, black, light and dark
red kidney, and cranberry. The major abiotic constraints include length of season (ID) and heat (CA).
BCMV and BCMNV, and beet curly top viruses are important. Fungal and bacterial diseases are usually not
a problem because water is supplied by irrigation. Idaho bean dealers sell seed into the Midwest bean
production areas, so rust and CBB resistance is needed.

In Tanzania, "SUA-90" and "Rojo," have been released. Both have resistance to rust, BCMV and BCMNV,
HB, ALS, and moderate resistance to CBB. SUA-90 is drought tolerant and high yielding whereas Rojo has
lower levels of drought tolerance and slightly lower yields. Both, however, will yield three to four times local
landraces. Both cultivars are quick cooking and highly palatable. Rojo has large red seed-a preferred type


East Africa Region, Page 28


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







by consumers-while SUA-90's small brown seed is not recognized as a preferred type. Seed dissemination
studies have not yet revealed the extent to which these cultivars have spread, but seed has been distributed to
many farmers in two of the four mandated regions that are the focus of SUA's breeding program. Also, in a
recent study using PCR to fingerprint landraces and advanced lines, the team discovered SUA-90 in a mixed
sample of seed purchased from the Bungema village market in Kenya during the 1998 virus survey trip.

In Malawi, six cultivars were released in 1980 and three in 1993. The 1980 releases were: Nasaka (beige
large kidney, bush), Sapelekedwa (red large kidney, bush), Bwenzilawana (medium gold, climber), Kamtsilo
(small black, climber), Namajengo (small red, climber),and Kanzama (medium round red, climber). All these
were selections from the Bunda landrace collection and are representative of popular contemporary market
classes. Of the later releases, "Bunda 93" is a high yielding climber selection from a landrace with pink
mottle seed. "Chimbamba" is large red kidney bush type bred at Bunda. "Kalima," a line originally from
South America, has received the greatest emphasis in terms of dissemination. It is a red mottle bush type with
high yield and resistance to ALS, and good palatability. It has been distributed in about half of the eight
Agricultural Development Districts and has been included in the Ministry of Agriculture's Startup Seed
Package program that has gone to thousands of farmers.

In the U.S., the most recently released lines from the Idaho program include "UI 320" pinto, "UI 465" great
northern, "UI 259" small red, and "Black Knight" black bean. The pinto and great northern possess I gene
resistance to BCMV and rust resistance to the races found in the high-plains states of the U.S. "Nichols" and
"Vallejo" dark red kidneys are recent releases from UC-Davis. They were bred for adaptation to California
and for enhanced processing characteristics from crosses between U.S. and CIAT germplasm.

Preliminary and advanced lines in Tanzania include arcelin-I backcrosses to SUA elite lines, crosses to
improve the Kablanketi type, and crosses to incorporate nematode resistance into SUA lines. Materials in
Malawi include the advanced lines shown in Table 1, as well as the incorporation of CBB, ALS, and BCMV
resistance into six to eight of the Mala*ian Market types. Nasaka, Sapalekedwa and Namajengo have
received priority for improvement in ALS/BCMV resistance. Nyauzembe (an olive green type found in
northern Malari) and Kaulesi (cream with small purple specks), Kablanketi (found in southern and northern
Malawi) have also been included.

Table 1. Advanced Dry Bean Lines Suitable for Production in Malawi
Name Source Characteristics
Lyamungu 90 Tanz. Rozi Koko type, high yield, anthracnose res.
ZPV906 S. Afr. White Kidney, bush, high yield
Enseleni S. Afr. Sugar bean, bush, high yield, anthracnose res.
IZ266-1 Rwanda Small red climber, high yield, HB & anthracnose res.
15P/8 Bunda ditto

The general direction of research in East Africa is to develop materials with greater stability over a range of
environments. This will be done by incorporating multiple disease, insect and environmental stress
tolerances. The needs of farmer and consumer markets should drive the research. To that end, the research
is broadening the resistance to bruchids and investigating ways to both reduce cooking time and reduce anti-
nutritional factors-such as phytic acid. These efforts will reduce the environmental impacts of preparing
beans and improve nutrition from their consumption.

Publications
Myers, J. R. and J. R. Baggett. 1999. Improvement of Snap Beans. In S. Singh (ed.) Common Bean
Improvementfor the 21st Century. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Boston, pp. 289-329.


East Africa Region, Page 29


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






BRUCHID STUDIES AND BREEDING FOR BRUCHID RESISTANCE


S. Nchimbi-Msolla and R. Misangu, Sokoine University ofAgriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; J. Myers, Oregon State
University, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.; G. Nyirenda, Bunda College ofAgriculture, Lilongwe, Malavi

Presented by Susan Nchimbi-Msolla

Bruchids are a major problem in storage of seed for propagation and consumption. There are two species of
bruchids which are known to be the major pests of stored common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). These include
the common bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus (say)) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus
(Boh.)). Acanthoscelides obtectus starts to attack beans while they are still in the field and continues the attack
in storage. On the other hand, Z. subfasciatus attacks beans only in storage (Howe and Currie, 1964).

Bruchid damage reduces the weight, quality and viability of bean seed. The degree of loss due to bruchid
attack is very variable. The degree of loss depends on the storage period and the storage conditions. In
Tanzania, for example, bean losses by bean bruchids of up to 40 percent have been reported (Kiula and Karel,
1985). Beans, once attacked by bruchids are undesirable on the market causing economic loss to the producer
and quality loss to the consumer. This is mainly because damaged seeds are usually covered with eggs and
are perforated (Schoonhoven and Cardona, 1986).

The risk of bean attacks by bruchids in East African traditional small-farm storage facilities is possibly the
major reason why farmers do not wish to grow large quantities of beans. They fear that the extra grain will
be attacked by bruchids while in storage. For this reason, they sell most of their grain quickly (and cheaply)
soon after harvest to avoid large storage losses.

Various control methods against bruchids have been utilized, which include cultural and chemical control and
breeding for resistance. High levels of resistance against Z. subfasciatus have been identified from wild beans
in M6xico (Gallepo, 1988). This form of resistance is known to be caused by the presence of arcelin, which
is a protein found in the wild beans.

Therefore, the East African bean bruchid studies have the following objectives:

1. Determine bruchid prevalence and variation in bean growing areas of Tanzania and Mala wi.

2. Incorporate Zabrotes subfasciatus resistance in bean lines adapted to Tanzanian conditions and evaluate
those lines (arcelin-containing) for bruchid resistance, yield performance and disease resistance and their
suitability for release as improved varieties.

3. Look for sources of Acanthoscelides obtectus resistance, which includes assessing the resistance of
Phaseolus acutifolus against A. obtectus and the possibility of using P. acutifolius to transfer resistance
to P. vulgaris.

There have been important achievements in addressing these objectives:

1. Bean bruchid prevalence and variation have been assessed during the period of August 1997 to 1999.
Bruchid samples were collected in different bean growing areas in Tanzania (Bukoba, Mwanza, Morogoro,
Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Mbeya and Ruvuma regions). Collections were conducted at four-month
intervals. This gave three periods (seasons) for collection of samples. The first season was from January-
April, the second from May- August and the third season was from September-December. Mwanza/Bukoba,
Mbeya and Ruvuma regions usually receive rain from November to April. From May to mid-August, it is
normally dry and cool in those areas and from mid-August to November, it is dry and warm. The results
show that in Mbeya and Morogoro regions there is no seasonal variation of the two bruchid species.


East Africa Region, Page 30


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






A. obtectus was the most prevalent bruchid in all three seasons. In Tanga and Ruvuma regions, seasonal
variation has been observed. In Ruvuma region, Z subfasciatus was more prevalent in the January-April
season, while during the other two seasons, A. obtectus was more prevalent than Z. subfasciatus. The higher
prevalence ofA. obtectus in the two seasons may be because A. obtectus starts to infest beans when they are
still in the field. Therefore, after harvesting in May they are present in large populations until December.
Thereafter, Z subfasciatus populations begin to increase (Z. subfasciatus infest bean in storage only). In
the Tanga region, the same pattern may be present. On the average, A. obtectus was more prevalent in May-
August and September-December seasons than Z. subfasciatus, and in January-April season, Z. subfasciatus
was more prevalent than A. obtectus. This seasonal pattern implies that arc 1 may be effective for long-term
storage of bean in Tanzania, but will not prevent field infestation with A. obtectus. Therefore, there is still
a need to look for sources of resistance to A. obtectus.

In Malawii, short-courses on identification of bean bruchids and their damage to beans were conducted
in several ADD's. Courses were regarded as useful by participants which included Extension staff and
a limited number of research field assistants. The survey conducted in 1998, showed that bruchid damage
increased from 1.7 to 18 percent from August to October. The result of the survey also showed that
farmers sell their beans early to avoid damage and only limited amounts may be kept for seed.

A questionnaire study to gather storage information was conducted in Kisanga, Msolwa, Maharaka,
Msongozi and Nyandira villages. Twenty different varieties were found to be grown by farmers in these
villages including SUA 90 and ROJO (The SUA released varieties). The results indicated that about
80 percent of farmers prefer red beans (Canadian wonder type) in almost all villages, except Msolwa and
Kisanga where they showed equal preference for soya (Kablanketi) and red beans. Insect pest and
diseases were said to be a major problem for bean production. Among insects, bruchids were considered
a major pest in storage. About 95 percent of farmers store seed in bags, while the rest of the farmers store
beans in pots or baskets. Most farmers do not clean their beans after threshing, leaving the job until they
want to sell. They said that leaving beans with trash prevents infestation.

2. Performance of Zabrotes resistant (arcelin-containing) lines has been assessed. The arcelin-containing
lines had low numbers of adults which emerged and also low numbers of bruchid-damaged seed.

Yields of the bruchid resistant (arcelin-containing) lines ranged from 848.5 kg/ha to 1092.6 kg/ha in low
altitude areas (500 1000 m.a.s.l.). In medium altitude areas (1500 2500 m.a.s.1.), seed yields were
at the range of 755.0 to 841 kg/ha.

The on-farm trials of the arcelin-containing lines are continuing in three villages in Tanzania to determine
their suitability to be released as improved varieties.

3. Acanthoscelides resistance was also assessed. Germplasm collected from different parts of Tanzania were
not shown to have any resistance to A. obtectus. Accessions identified previously as possibly having
resistance did not give repeatable results. A Phaseolus acutifolius line (G40199) originally obtained from
CIAT was evaluated for A. obtectus resistance and was highly resistance. Six arcl containing lines have
been sent to Oregon State University for further hybridization with tepary lines resistant to A. obtectus.
OSU obtained four SMARC-lines from Tom Osborne at the University of Wisconsin. These lines are
SMARC1-NN (contains arc 1 and Phaesolin), SMARC 1-PN (arc1, Phaesolin null), SMARC2-PN (arc2,
Phaesolin null), and SMARC4-PN (arc4, Phaesolin null). These were increased in the summer of 1999
for verification of seed storage protein status. The seeds have been sent to SUA for bruchid tests.

Interspecific hybridization between P. acutifolius and suitable P. vulgaris lines have been initiated at OSU.


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4. Impact is expected to be considerable. Seasonal variation, with Z. subfasciatus becoming more prevalent
with greater length of storage, suggests that lines with arcl may increase storage capabilities of farmers.
Bean prices show seasonal variation with prices lowest just after harvest and highest during the growing
season and before harvest when stored beans are scarce. A farmer would profit from being able to store
beans until prices are high. The Rojo arcl line to be released in 2000, should allow us to determine the
value and impact ofarcelin on farmers livelihood. The survey of farmers indicates that farmers do perceive
bruchids as a serious storage problem suggesting that resistant varieties and perhaps effective cultural
practices will make a difference. Efforts to find effective resistance to A. obtectus are just beginning, and
are expected to require long-term efforts for interspecific hybridization with P. acutifolius. Arcelin4 may
provide a quicker means of control of A. obtectus because it is already in a Phaseolus vulgaris background.
However, this source of resistance has not been reported to be as effective as arcl against Z. subfasciatus,
and because arc and arc4 are allelic, cannot be incorporated into the same varieties.

Publications
Misangu, R. N., S. Nchimbi-Msolla and S. O. W. M. Reuben. In press. The Distribution and Relative
Importance of Bean Bruchid Species (Acanthoscelides obtectus say and Zabrotes subfasciatus boh).
Tanzania Journal ofAgriculture.

References
Gallopo, G. 1988. Novel Seed Protein in Beans Kills Weevil Enemies. Science Report. Research Division
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. University of Wisconsin-Madison, p. 1-3.

Howe, R. W. and J. E. Currie. 1964. Some Laboratory Observations on Rates of Development and
Oviposition of Several Species of Bruchidae Breeding in Stored Pulses. Bulletin ofEntomologicalResearch
55:437-477.

Kiula, B. A. and A. K. Karel. 1985. Effectiveness of Vegetable Oils in Protecting Beans Against Bean
Weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus) Boh. Bean Improvement Cooperative Annual Report, No. 28, p. 3-5.


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NUTRITIONAL STUDIES


E. E. Maeda, T. C. E. Mosha and S. Nchimbi-Msolla, Sokoine University ofAgriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania;
M. Ngwira and A. Mwangwela, Bunda College ofAgriculture, Lilongwe, Mala ii

Presented by Theobald Mosha

Beans in the East Africa region are produced for both cash income and consumption. They are consumed
by the farming community (about 84 percent of the population) and by urban dwellers. Beans are consumed
as a protein supplement to the starchy staples such as maize, sorghum, cassava and millets because protein
from animal sources is scarce and expensive for many poor families. Beans provide 30-40 percent of the total
protein intake in East Africa and account for 65 percent of the legume protein consumed in the region. In the
year 2000, per capital consumption is expected to reach 12 kg, up from 9.6 kg (Tanzania) and 9.5 kg
(Malawi) in 1994. The frequency of bean consumption per week is also high ranging between 3-4 times in
Tanzania and 3-5 times in Malawi. In addition to providing protein, beans are also a good source of calories
and micronutrients. The nutritional value of beans as a source of protein, energy and micronutrients is,
however, reduced by the presence of some compounds which bind them reducing their digestibility and the
bioavailability of their nutrients when consumed. Such compounds include: phytates, tannins, trypsin,
chymotrypsin and amylase inhibitors.

Cookability and organoleptic qualities of beans are important attributes for customer preference, selection
and acceptance, particularly for the new bean varieties developed by breeders. Cooking time is an important
characteristic of beans as it determines the amount of fuel and time spent on food preparation, both of which
are of much concern to women in East Africa. Wood, which is the most common type of fuel used, is often
scarce. Women must walk long distances to search for wood and transport it to their homes. Fast cooking
bean varieties are thus preferred to the hard-to-cook varieties since they reduce women's drudgery and
conserve natural resources. On the other hand, bean varieties that are more tasty and palatable with a long
shelf-life after cooking would be better accepted by consumers.

One of the objectives of the East Africa Regional Project is to improve the nutritional and culinary quality
of beans through: (a) screening of selected, released and advanced breeding lines for cooking characteristics,
nutritional value (chemical composition) and nutritional quality, e.g., digestibility, bioavailability ofnutrients,
and content of anti-nutritional factors; (b) relating chemical components to culinary and bean quality
attributes, e.g., texture and shelf life of beans after cooking and; (c) evaluate consumer preference and
acceptability of the released bean lines.

There have been a number of achievements and impacts from this work.

1. Validated methodologies for both cooking trials and estimation of cooking times have been well
established and are now in use. These include: (a) the Mattson cooker-for laboratory trials; (b) on-farm
cooking methods using charcoal and firewood in collaboration with farmers and; (c) prediction of cooking
times from water absorption capacity curves.

2. Cooking times for more than 60 bean varieties comprising released varieties, advanced lines and early
generation materials have been established. Rapid cooking bean varieties have been identified. SUA-90,
Rojo, Kalima and Bunda-93 have been observed to be fast cooking varieties with average cooking times
ranging between 22-44 minutes. Kamtsilo and Nyauzembe have been observed to be medium cooking
varieties with average cooking times ranging between 50-84 minutes.

3. Several released and advanced bean lines were evaluated for consumer preference and acceptability.
Varieties receiving high/low preference and acceptance by consumers were identified. Studies of
consumer acceptability of selected bean lines both in the laboratory and in on-farm sensory tests


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indicated that Rojo, Kalima and Kablanketi were very highly acceptable while SUA-90, Bunda-93 and
Nyauzembe were highly acceptable. Kamtsilo received low consumer acceptance due to its black color.

4. More than 50 bean varieties were evaluated for nutritional quality, i.e., the content of anti-nutritional
factors, particularly, phytates, tannins and trypsin inhibitors. A strong relationship was established
between seed coat color and the levels of tannins. Red beans had the highest concentrations of tannins
(163.3-934.6 mg/100g beans dry weight basis) followed by beans with a brown seed coat (86.4 -591.5
mg/1 OOg dry weight basis). Other bean colors-white, orange, purple, black and yellow had lower levels
of tannins. Red colored beans have been observed to be the most preferred by customers. This called for
the need to breed bean lines which are red but low in tannins. Tannin levels in beans can be reduced by
germination or soaking the beans for at least four hours prior to cooking. SUA-90, Rojo, Kalima,
Kablanketi, Bunda-93 and Nyauzembe had high levels of tannins compared to Kamtsilo.

Sixteen bean varieties were also evaluated for trypsin inhibitor activities. Beans with high inhibitor
activities were identified. All bean varieties evaluated contained significant amounts oftrypsin inhibitors,
however, cooking the beans for at least one hour reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity by 90 percent.
Germination and soaking had no significant effect on the trypsin inhibitor activities.

Phytic acid content as well as phytic acid:Calcium concentration ratios were determined in several
released and advanced lines in on-farm trials. Bean lines with high levels of phytic acid were identified.
A significant positive association between phytic acid concentration and the cooking times of beans was
observed. Cooking times for beans decreased as the Phytic acid:Calcium concentration ratio decreased.
Storage time for the dry seeds increased the concentration of phytic acid thus increasing the cooking time.
SUA-90, Rojo, Kalima and Nyauzembe were observed to contain low levels ofphytic acid compared to
Bunda-93, Kablanketi and other advanced lines.

Several released and advanced bean lines were also evaluated for in vitro protein digestibility. In these
studies: (a) an inverse association was established between protein digestibility and tannin concentrations
as well as trypsin inhibitor activities; (b) germination increased in vitro protein digestibility and crude
protein content and; (c) prolonged cooking of beans (beyond 80 minutes) resulted in reduced protein
digestibility. Fast-cooking beans could therefore be more digestible than the medium and slow cooking
lines.

5. Released bean lines and advanced bean materials in on-farm trials have been tested for brothing
characteristics. Several bean lines with superior brothing characteristics have been identified, e.g., Rojo and
Kablanketi. Strong broth thickness has been observed to enhance customer preference of bean varieties.

Studies of the shelf-life of cooked beans using selected bean varieties have shown varied shelf-life across
the bean lines. More studies are being conducted to clarify the early findings. The influence of bean
components, e.g., reducing sugars on the shelf-life of cooked beans is still being investigated.

As a result of these studies, new bean varieties with detailed nutrition information have been released and
breeders are taking this information into consideration as they work with advanced lines. The number of
consumers/households using the identified fast cooking and acceptable bean lines has increased, especially
in the areas where the bean varieties have been distributed. More people in both rural and urban areas
consume these preferable new bean varieties with high nutrition quality. Knowledge of the levels of anti-
nutrients in the bean lines and their influence on the cookability and nutritional quality has increased.

Publications
Mwangwela, A. 1999. Effect of[Phytic acid]:[Calcium] Ratio on the Cookability of Bean Lines. M.Sc.
Thesis, Bunda College of Agriculture, Malawi.


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BASELINE AND IMPACT STUDIES AND TRAINING, PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH

H. Mloza Banda, C. Masangano and W. Msuku, Bunda College ofAgriculture, Lilongwe, Mala di;
F. Magayane, A. Kashuliza, S. Silumba, K. Mtenga, Sokoine University ofAgriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania;
L. Butler, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, U.S.A.; A. Ferguson, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan,
U.S.A.; and G. Gemigani, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, U.S.A.

Presented by Anne Ferguson

This is a brief review of social science research and training progress in the East Africa Regional Project
focusing on the countries of Tanzania and Malawi.

In Tanzania and Malawi over the last decade, there have been significant changes that have affected farmers,
consumers and the research context. The implications of these changes for bean production and use are
major.

1. One change is increased privatization and market liberalization. As Rick Bernsten pointed out in his
presentation, one of the biggest changes in many developing countries is in the policy environment,
particularly relative to privatization and market liberalization. In both Malawi and Tanzania, there is a
growing role by private traders, the downsizing ofparastatal marketing boards and the removal of crop (and
many other) subsidies. Today, there are more channels for smallholders to market their produce and more
farmers are selling beans. In much of Tanzania and Malawi, beans now are as much a smallholder cash crop
as they are a household food crop. However, increased marketing does not necessarily mean that
smallholders have satisfied their food or nutritional needs and are selling a surplus-rather it can be an
indication of a growing need for cash and in some cases even increased poverty.

2. A second change is the diminished role of the State and growth ofNGOs. This second trend involves the
downsizing of state bureaucracies and the transfer of many functions which used to be the state's
responsibility to other levels of government and especially to non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
In Malavwi, these organizations, and not the government, now receive the majority of donor support.
Organizations with which the CRSP has traditionally collaborated in bean research, seed multiplication,
and extension now lack sufficient funds and personnel to carry out their functions. In their place are a
growing number ofNGOs whose mandates generally are not national but rather local in scope and whose
programs and goals are diverse. Today, to extend CRSP varieties and technologies, it is necessary to
make contacts with many more organizations than in the past. There is no reason to believe that these
organizations are necessarily more transparent, equitable or competent than the central government.
Indeed, many of those employed in these NGOs previously worked for the government (see paper by
Charles Masangano).

3. A third change is the rise of participatory research strategies and stakeholder participation. This notable
trend involves replacement of top-down initiatives in agricultural research and development with
participatory strategies, stakeholder decision-making and self-help initiatives. It's not an exaggeration
to say that older styles of research and action have gone out with one-party governments and been
replaced by more democratic and participatory ways of carrying out agricultural research and extension.

4. Emphasis on sustainability is the fourth change. This trend emphasizes environmental sustainability in
agricultural production as seen in the focus on soil fertility programs in Malari, and increased awareness
of the importance ofbiodiversity throughout the region. Sustainability concerns are increasing as climate
change progresses, with much of the region prone to extreme shifts between droughts and floods.

5. Finally, there is a decline in standards of living. While the first four trends have positive dimensions, the
final point is not so encouraging. Along side of these initial changes, and in some cases related to them,
are significant increases in poverty and growing epidemics of disease -AIDS and TB in particular.


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Most people in Malawi and to a lesser extend in Tanzania have seen their living conditions decline over
the last decade. The number of those living below the poverty line has increased and their poverty has
deepened as the removal of subsidies has progressed, e.g., on fertilizers, basic foods, health care and
education. Particularly worrisome is AIDS and the associated epidemics of other infectious diseases like
TB. AIDS is often thought of as a health crisis-but it is much more than that. AIDS is an agricultural
and social crisis of monumental proportions. In Malawi, it's estimated that somewhere around half of the
people currently in middle and upper management positions in government, the universities and the
private sector will have passed away in the next decade. These are among the country's "best and
brightest." Further, the number of orphan-headed households in Mala'i and Tanzania-something
essentially unheard of 10 years ago-is growing rapidly. It's no surprise that the President of Malawi
recently appointed the very able Minister of Agriculture to a new post as Minister of Health. Agricultural
production is the mainstay of Malawi's economy and it depends on people healthy enough to farm, raise
and support families, and carry out other agricultural-related work.

How is the East Africa Regional Project responding to these changing circumstances?

1. The new research paradigm continues to be emphasized. There is greater farmer participation in research
although Malawi and Tanzania have followed different strategies. In Malawi in the early 1990s, CRSP
researchers carried out focus groups and key informant interviews with farmers in major bean growing
areas to identify preferred landraces. While yield was important to farmers, many other traits were
identified of equal concern to them-early maturity, leaf quality and fast cooking time being examples.
Based on this information, the breeding and improvement programs aimed at introducing disease
resistance into farmer-selected landrace classes that have these desired characteristics. This material is
reaching the advanced trial stage in Mala i.

In Tanzania, the strategy was to bring farmers on to the research station to evaluate early generation
materials in the CRSP breeding program. In this way, researchers learned more about farmer preferences
and unacceptable materials could be eliminated from the breeding program at an early stage. One of the
materials-ROJO has been released in Tanzania and others are nearing release. In both Malawi and
Tanzania, we anticipate that the results will be new varieties that go beyond yield to respond to a full
range of farmer priorities-those of women as well as men farmers.

2. The focus on sustainability is seen as very important. The East Africa Project continues to promote intra-
varietal diversity as a means for farmers to reduce risk and to provide for a range of household and market
needs. No one improved variety can incorporate all desired characteristics and not all farmers share the
same preferences in the first place. These diverse needs can best be met by CRSP breeding and
improvement strategies that focus on improving a number of seed classes with diverse characteristics.

3. Adoption and impact assessments will follow baseline studies and subsequent varietal release. With the
exception of SUA 90 and ROJO in Tanzania, most materials in the participatory research programs have
not yet been released-they are in advanced trials-so it is not possible to evaluate their adoption or
impacts at the farm level. Baseline studies have been carried out in areas where these varieties will be
promoted. For example, during 1998-99 an intensive baseline study involving 250 farmers was conducted
in villages in Morogoro Rural and Kilosa District in Tanzania to prepare the ground for an adoption and
impact study of ROJO in 2000-01.

To date, two varieties have been released in Tanzania-SUA 90 and ROJO. An impact assessment of
SUA 90 was carried out in 1998-99 in rural Morogoro and Kilosa Districts. It revealed that the adoption
rate of SUA 90 had been low due to poor access to the new seed, low shelf-life, and small size and color
of the seed. Traits that farmers liked about the variety included: resistance to drought, high yield, good
taste, shorter cooking time and good thick broth. SUA 90 was a product of the CRSP breeding program


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Bean/Cowpea CRSP







prior to its focus on participatory strategies. Lessons learned from this experience resulted in the
development and release of ROJO with considerably more input from farmers.

In Malawi, six landrace varieties were released in the early-mid 1980s and four new varieties were
released in the mid-1990s. Of these, two have been in high demand in NGO seed programs: Kalima
(released in 1995) and Naska (released in the mid-1980s). During 1999, an Adoption Study of Kalima
was carried out in two Agricultural Development Districts (Kasungu and Lilongwe) where Action AID
and Self-Help Universal had disseminated it to smallholders in their seed multiplication program.
Questionnaires were administered to 478 households and thirteen focus groups were held. The results
of the survey are not yet available. The focus groups revealed that Kalima was well liked by growers for
its high yield, early maturity, good seed color and size. Farmers also identified problems with the variety
including its susceptibility to web blight, its poor performance in intercropping systems and the fact that
its leaves do not taste good when prepared as a vegetable.

In both Malawi and Tanzania, there have been significant problems in seed multiplication and
dissemination which have reduced the impact of the released varieties (see paper by Alex Mkandawire).
The National Seed Company in Malawi was purchased by CARGIL in the early 1990s and stopped
production of dry bean seed. The Ministry of Agriculture's smallholder seed multiplications program
collapsed due to lack of funding. In Tanzania, the government seed producing agency, TOSCA, has
proved unresponsive to the needs of bean growers. All this has posed significant challenges in making
new varieties widely available to farmers in both countries. In Malawi, a number of donor organizations
and NGOs recently have established seed multiplication programs, but in Tanzania, this has not occurred
and few viable channels for bean seed multiplication and dissemination exist. Recent CRSP studies in
Tanzania (Gemignani) indicate that relatively little seed sharing takes place among farmers, so farmer-to-
farmer transmission of improved varieties is slow to occur.

4. Market studies have been initiated. CRSP research has examined the impact of market liberalization on
the bean market sector. In Tanzania, studies were undertaken in 1997-99 by Kashuliza and Silumba in
Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Mwanza, Kagera, Kigoma and Mbeya involving 400 traders, 200 consumers and
110 farmers. The study revealed that beans are playing a more important role in the cash economy than
they did prior to liberalization. Market liberalization had promoted the following changes:

a. An increase in the number of bean varieties traded. Different varieties cater to varying demands
including those of local consumers, distant markets, cross border trade and export markets.

b. Price differences between local and distant markets-Farm gate and general market prices are
increasingly differentiated by bean variety, size, quality and distance for place of production. Beans
traded across borders appear to generate higher prices than those traded locally or at distant markets
within the country.

c. Growing consumption of beans-results of the study of consumers indicate that in recent years bean
consumption has increased. This is especially true as real income has declined making it difficult for
many families to buy meat, chicken or fish. The study suggests that the volume of beans traded within
the country and across borders has grown considerably in recent years.

d. Rise in bean trading among women. While men dominate in secondary, wholesale and interregional
trade, more women appear to have entered local markets as traders. As a consequence of economic
changes, more women have taken up jobs as fast food vendors on streets selling beans with rice or
maize meal.


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Ph.D. research by Gemignani from 1997-99 focused on the impact of economic liberalization policies
on women farmers. The study, which currently is being written up, examined opportunities and
barriers faced by women in accessing resources related to bean production and trading.

In Malavi, research has also focused on bean markets. The surveys have indicated that bean markets are
the second most important source of seed for small-scale farmers. In 1996-97, 240 bean vendors in 40
markets in Southern, Central and Northern Regions of the country were interviewed. Information was
gathered on socioeconomic characteristics of the vendors, characteristics of the markets, and vendor bean
purchasing, selling and storing practices. In addition, 400 bean samples were collected from these
markets. The study revealed that most bean seed bought in local markets is heavily infected by two or
more of the seed bourne pathogens. At the national level, halo blight ranked first, followed by BCMV,
common bacterial blight and angular leaf spot in that order.

This study was followed by a survey of on-farm seed handling practices in which 192 farmers from all
major bean growing Agricultural Development Districts participated. Reflecting the importance of beans
in the local economy, 33 percent reported that beans provided the major source of cash for their family.
Fifty-five percent sold half or more of the beans they grew and retained the reminder for household
consumption and seed. The most commonly used market outlet for sale of beans was local markets (31
percent of those interviewed), although private traders were reported to offer the highest prices.

The study revealed women farmers' centrality in seed handling and selection. Forty-seven percent of
those interviewed reported that women were solely responsible for bean seed selection and held the sole
responsibility for sorting. Fifty-one percent said that women were solely responsible for storing seeds
while seventy-nine percent stated that the major source of their planting stock came from beans they had
grown on their farm. This indicated that measures to improve seed quality should focus on-farm. Forty-
one percent indicated that they produced most of their seed during the rainy season, the time when disease
pressure is often high in fields. Thirty-one percent produced the majority of their planting stock in the
relay season and nineteen percent in the dimba season, two seasons when disease pressure is reduced.
The second most important source of bean seed was local markets.

5. Institutional and human capacity building through training has been a major activity of the CRSP.
However, to date, there are very few agricultural researchers who are thinking through the implications
of AIDS for agricultural production. This is one of the pressing challenges for the future. At this point,
it is clear that the epidemic has direct implications for CRSP research in at least three ways:

a. It is changing labor supply availability and patterns on farms and in households and may result in
changes in crops planted.

b. It affects the transmission of agricultural knowledge of all sorts (both scientific and indigenous).

c. It is increasing the need to train more researchers and to work more collaboratively with farmers and
consumers.

Since its inception, the East Africa Regional Project has had a significant impact on Bunda College and Sokoine
University. The impact is both in terms of number of professionals trained and in providing sustained research
funds which help support the two largest and best trained bean research teams in the region.

Publications
None reported


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SEED MULTIPLICATION, DISSEMINATION, QUALITY AND ACCEPTANCE

A. B. C. Mkandawire, C. Masangano, Bunda College ofAgriculture, Lilongwe, Mala ki;
A. E. Ferguson, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A.;
F. Magayane, S. Nchimbi-Msolla and R. Mabagala, Sokoine University ofAgriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania

Presented by Alex Mkandawire

Governments in the region noted some 30 years ago that the disparity between food production and population
increases in Africa south of the Sahara was ever-widening with a resultant decrease in per capital food
consumption. Due to population increase, land availability was declining. The best approach to increasing food
production was, therefore, to increase crop yields rather than acreage. But farmers were growing mostly their
own traditional varieties, which are low yielding. Some high yielding varieties had been released but were not
available to farmers. As a result quasi-government seed companies were established in Malawi (National Seed
Company of Malawi, NSCM) and Tanzania (TANSEED). After a few years of operation, these companies
abandoned their self-pollinating crop seed enterprises citing poor profitability. As a result, low adoption of
recommended technologies for beans still remains a major problem in the region despite the development of new
high yielding varieties. Such barriers to seed dissemination are a major constraint to impact from CRSP
programs. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP East Africa Regional Project, therefore, embarked on development of
locations and means to multiply and disseminate basic and foundation seed of improved varieties.

Earlier studies at Bunda indicated that growing beans in MalaWi during the hot dry season acts as a filtration
process of seedbome diseases except viruses. As a result, the program embarked on increasing breeders' seed
under irrigation on campus. In each of the past five years, breeders' seed has been increased to supply basic
seed. At SUA, basic seed is also produced similarly. During the past five years, the Malawi/Bunda team
multiplied basic seed of Kalima (released 1993) on about 5 ha in each year to produce foundation seed. This
seed was sold to NGOs, e.g., ActionAid and Self-Help Development International, and to the Ministry of
Agriculture for demonstrations. In Tanzania, the bean seed distribution system is significantly different from
that in Malawi. Until recently, bean seed was produced exclusively on government farms with little seed
being produced or reaching the farmer. As the shortcomings of the official Ministry of Agriculture
multiplication and dissemination stations become apparent and as market liberalization has progressed, more
decentralized seed production systems are developing.

Barriers to seed dissemination result because of a number of socioeconomic constraints. Poor distribution of
inputs and produce in the region results from the poor infrastructure that exists. The road/bridge network is so
vulnerable that vast areas are inaccessible, particularly during the rainy season. Markets are not adequately
established. The quasi-government marketing organizations have better networks of markets but are poorly
organized. They offer the farmers the lowest prices and generally do not have ready cash to offer the farmer
when the crop is ready for sale. Entrepreneurs are coming into the system due to market liberalization. They
may have ready cash and transport but lack necessary knowledge to handle seeds differently from other inputs
and produce. In many instances, farmers are not organized into groups or cooperative societies, which are
powerful bodies that would assist them do combined efforts to break through the barriers of the marketing
systems. In Mala i, the credits system broke down as the country changed from dictatorship to a plural society.

It has been realized that small-scale bean farmers: (a) will buy bean seed and not just rely on their own stocks,
(b) can afford to buy seed of new varieties, and (c) do not function efficiently as the major agent of varietal
diffusion. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are increasingly filling a niche in seed dissemination
activities and thereby providing temporary solutions to the barriers expressed previously and to facilitate
farmers' capabilities for seed production. Their usual goals are food security and poverty alleviation. Malawi
has a greater profusion of NGOs because of its burden of Mozambican refugees in the 80s and 90s. These
NGOs have stayed even after most refugees were repatriated. In general, these NGOs operate two types of seed
schemes; viz.: commercially-oriented schemes where a few farmers purchase more seed to produce seed for sale
and; the food security-oriented schemes where more farmers are given less seed on credit to produce seed or


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Bean/Cowpea CRSP






grain for the market or food. The former crop is certified whereas the latter is hardly inspected but the seed is
"approved." Approved seed is that seed which is produced either from certified or known stocks of uncertified
seed. Seeds of this category do not necessarily carry a government seal but have to pass seed standards for
purity and germination. This has facilitated the operations of many NGOs in seed multiplication and
dissemination in Malawi (see papers by Anne Ferguson and Charles Masangano).

For Malawi, two organizations involved in seed distribution are the focus. The first is an NGO (ActionAid) that
has a food security-oriented seed scheme. ActionAid developed a "Malawi Smallholder Seed Development
Project, MSSDP" after a flood disaster in 1992 when 1.1 million households benefitted from 3,000 tons ofrelief
seed issues. The objectives of this project are to: (a) develop low cost mechanisms, which would improve and
sustain availability and accessibility of appropriate, improved seed for resource poor farmers in participating
communities, (b) establish sustainable self-motivating community based groups, which will manage seed multi-
plication and distribution in the communities, and (c) train selected extension staff and participating community
groups in seed production, seed quality control, on-farm seed selection and storage, group dynamics and
community participatory methodologies. In 1998, a total of 3.6 tons of certified bean seed was supplied and
made available to 76 groups with a total membership of 1500, who in turn multiplied more than 12 tons of first
generation approved bean seed. About 75 percent ofthis seed was improved Kalima and Nasaka from the CRSP.

An example of the commercially-oriented seed scheme is that operated by the Maize Productivity Task Force,
formed in Malaw.i in 1995, with the aim of increasing agricultural productivity. Its Action Group Two, one
of four groups, was set up to increase availability of seeds of self-pollinating and open pollinated crop
varieties, which are neglected by the large multilateral seed companies. Funded by the European Union, this
group embarked on seed production and marketing as a business. The major activities of this group are: (a)
technology promotion through demonstrations, radio programs and field days; (b) training of extension staff
and seed growers in seed production techniques; (c) organization of farmers through establishment of farmer
associations; and (d) seed production. In 1998/99 season, there were 109 farmers growing seed beans on 28ha
producing 24 tons of seed.

The CRSP project in Tanzania released SUA90 and Rojo. These varieties have been introduced into some
selected farming communities in the country. The areas where they are currently grown and marketed include
Morogoro and Kilosa districts of Morogoro region, Kongwa district of Dodoma region and some areas of Tanga
and Arusha regions. Seed of Rojo was recently produced at SUA, Tanzania and was purposely disseminated
through two NGOs, viz.: LVIA (Lay Volunteers International Agency) and CCT (Christian Council of
Tanzania) and through the CRSP project. The CRSP project distributed the seed to Kongwa, Kisanga and
Msolwa villages in addition to farmers in Maharaka and Msongozi, Muhenda and Ulaya-Mbuyuni villages of
Morogoro and Kilosa districts. LVIA selected participating farmers based on their willingness to engage in seed
production and on financial ability to start seed production. For SUA, attention to gender issues and education
were major criteria. CCT selected progressive and innovative farmers in terms of knowledge on improved
agricultural production. Notable among the results is the fact that smallholder farmers are willing to purchase
foundation seed. However, seed demand and marketing issues are clearly not addressed. Farmers were unable
to sell their seed within their villages and thus had to sell it as cheap grain. Adequate extension is lacking. The
majority of farmers are still unaware of the new seed. LVIA provided its own extension staff and farmers under
their scheme were more knowledgeable. Seed promotion activities also worked better for farmers under their
scheme. A general recommendation was that successful seed producers are those more financially endowed and
that these are the farmers to be targeted in future.

Publications
Kambewa, P. 1999. An Institutional Analysis of the Smallholder Legume Seed Multiplication Schemes in
Mala wi. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Mtenga, K. 1999. Public and Private SectorModelsforEncouragingSmallholders 'Seed Productio n. M.Sc.
Thesis, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.


East Africa Region, Page 40


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EXTENSION TRAINING, PUBLICATIONS AND WORKSHOPS


C. Masangano, A. B. C. Mkandawire and F. Magayane, Bunda College ofAgriculture, Lilongwe, Mala wi;
R. Mabagala, Sokoine University ofAgriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania;
A. E. Ferguson, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A.

Presented by Charles Masangano

Extension training, publications and workshops are a necessity if the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is to show impact.
The research outputs of the program have to be communicated to its clients if they are to use them. Clients
of the program include farmers, extension people, researchers, governments and donors. To reach these
groups of clients, the Bean/Cowpea CRSP needs to use a number of approaches including extension training,
workshops and publications. This paper briefly outlines some of the means that the East Africa Regional
Project has used to communicate its research outputs to its clients.

Agricultural extension in both Malaxi and Tanzania is the responsibility of the Ministries of Agriculture.
Both countries use the training and visit system where emphasis is put on the following principles:

1. Extension workers should be regularly trained to enhance their professional capacity.

2. Extension system must be maintained under a single line of both technical as well as administrative
command. While support is required from other organizations such as teaching and research institutions,
credit and input supply as well as marketing organization, the extension staff must fully be responsible
technically as well as administratively to one department of the Ministry of Agriculture.

3. Extension staff must only concentrate on duties related to extension so that extension has impact on
agricultural productivity. Other activities such as credit and input distribution should be implemented by
other organizations.

4. Messages and skills must be taught to farmers in a regular and timely fashion so that farmers can make
best use of resources at their command. Extension workers are also supposed to maintain a regular and
time- fixed visitation schedule to farmers. This schedule should be well known to farmers so that they
make themselves available every time the extension worker visits them.

5. The whole extension system must have a farmer and field orientation. To serve farmers more effectively,
the extension service must be in contact with them on a regular basis. The extension workers must ensure
they contact a large number of farmers representing all major farming and socioeconomic types. Farmers
served by the extension worker must be divided into groups and each group must be visited on a fixed day
once every two weeks. Other extension workers including supervisors and subject matter specialists must
also spend a large part of their time in farmer's fields, on regularly scheduled visits. Researchers must visit
the field often and regularly to understand problems faced by farmers and village extension workers.

6. Demonstrations should be used as much as possible in transferring technologies to farmers.

7. A strong linkage must be maintained among research, extension and farmers.

The extension worker is supposed to sub-divide his/her working area into eight sub-sections which are called
blocks in the case of Malawi. Each sub-section is supposed to have a demonstration site where the crops grown
in the area are demonstrated. The extension worker is supposed to visit and meet farmers in each sub-section
at least once every two weeks. Farmer training in these visits should, as much as possible, be conducted through
demonstration. The recommended number of farmers per extension worker is a maximum of 850. However,
the actual average number of farmers per extension worker in both countries is in excess of 1500. It is therefore,
very difficult for the extension workers to adequately cover these farmers in their visits to the sub-sections.


East Africa Region, Page 41


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






Usually, the extension worker meets less than 30 farmers on each visit. This represents a coverage of less than
30 percent. To increase this coverage, extension workers are encouraged to have at least five contact farmers
per sub-section. The extension worker is required to conduct additional demonstrations on fields of these
contact farmers; and that other farmers from the close by fields should be invited to those demonstrations.

The extension workers are supposed to attend fortnightly training sessions conducted by their supervisors and
subject matter specialists. These training sessions equip the extension workers with the technologies which they
are expected to teach farmers in the next fortnight. These training sessions are supposed to, as much as possible,
be conducted through demonstrations. This means that the supervisors are also required to maintain a
demonstration centre at their offices. These demonstration facilities are supposed to demonstrate all the crops
and livestock enterprises in the area. The extension system is also supported by farmer training centres which
have facilities for farmer training on a residential basis. The residential training centers are also required to have
demonstration facilities where all the crops and livestock enterprises are demonstrated.

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP East African Regional Project will introduce its bean varieties in some of these
demonstrations especially at the extension planning area (EPA) level (the supervisory level) and residential
training centre (RTC) level. This will ensure that the program materials are introduced to the extension workers
and to some of the farmers who have opportunity to visit the centers. The farmer's field school is also being
introduced on a limited scale as an extension approach in Malawi and this provides another opportunity to
introduce the CRSP materials to farmers. Field days are going to be used to supplement the demonstrations.

One problem which the government extension programs have been suffering from is reduced funding.
Government departments in both countries have of late been experiencing reduced allocations and extension has
not been an exception. This has resulted in scaling down their activities. Instead, there has been increased
participation in extension activities by NGOs especially in Malawi. NGOs are getting more funding from
donors and therefore tend to be more financially viable than the government departments. The program has,
therefore, been using NGOs to introduce bean varieties from the CRSP. This has mostly involved multiplication
of the bean varieties through the NGOs smallholder seed multiplication programs. This has involved some level
of extension training to the farmers especially in seed multiplication techniques. In Tanzania, some farmers have
directly been trained by CRSP staff in seed multiplication and these farmers have been involved in multiplying
some of the varieties like Rojo and SUA 90 (see papers by Alex Mkandawire and Anne Ferguson).

A number of courses for extension staff and a limited number of research field assistants were also conducted
in Karonga, Lilongwe, Machinga, Blantyre and Shire Valley Agricultural Development Divisions (ADDs)
of Malawi. The main objective was to acquaint staff on identification of bean bruchids and their damage to
beans. A field guide on pests, diseases and nutritional disorders of common bean in Africa was distributed
to the participants of these courses. More courses are expected in the areas where these courses have not been
conducted. Two workshops have been conducted in the region. One workshop was aimed at mapping
strategies for implementation of the current extension scheme as well as sharing some of the achievements
made by the CRSP program. The second workshop was aimed at promoting bean entrepreneurship in the
region. This workshop drew people from the Extension Department including all the ADDs in MalaiKi, the
Agricultural Research Department in Malawi, parastatal organizations working in the small business
enterprise development sector and NGOs interested in promoting bean production. Both Malawi and
Tanzania CRSP teams attended and presented some of their research outputs at the workshops.

The region also plans to conduct two more workshops this year. One of the workshops is for selected non-
governmental organizations which are taking an active role in providing agricultural extension services to
farmers in the region. The two main objectives of this workshop will be to:

1. Encourage those non-governmental organizations to promote CRSP technologies to farmers in their
extension activities. They will be provided with information regarding the various bean varieties released
through the program and various bean technologies and recommendations.


East Africa Region, Page 42


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






2. The other objective of the workshop will be to promote an understanding among the NGOs of the
importance of maintaining bean genetic diversity at the farmer's level. Most of the NGOs tend to have
one specific objective in their extension activities and this objective is to increase agricultural production
for self-sufficiency in food and increased incomes. In order to achieve this objective, they have tended
to promote varieties which increase farmers' yields without due consideration of other objectives which
farmers tend to have. Generally, farmers in both Malawi and Tanzania tend to have multiple objectives
for their farming activities. These objectives include:

a. Adequate supply of food throughout the year. In this regard, beans have played a very important role
of providing for the lean months. Those varieties which mature early tend to be available at a time
when the farming households are running low in their food reserves. These beans become a major
source of food at such times and for such purposes, it doesn't matter whether the bean is low yielding
so long as it answers this important need.

b. The studies show that palatability is another very important objective which farmers use for choosing
their varieties. A good example of this is the popularity of Nasaka variety which is one of the early
releases of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP program in Malawi. This variety is not very high yielding and
tends to suffer from a lot of diseases. However, it is a very palatable variety and because of this, it is
very highly demanded among farmers.

c. Many farmers are also interested in a good leaf for making vegetables. Farmers, especially in Mala i,
eat bean leaves as a vegetable together with their traditional Nsima (a thick porridge made from maize
meal). Some of the bean varieties produce a better leaf for vegetable than others.

d. Cookability is another characteristic farmers use for selecting a variety. With the increasing shortage of
firewood which both Malawi and Tanzania are experiencing with the increasing problems of defores-
tation, farmers tend to choose varieties which cook faster and require less fuel wood when cooking.

e. Attractiveness to buyers at local markets is another major characteristic which influence farmers'
choices of bean varieties. It is therefore not possible to provide one bean variety which can satisfy all
these multiple objectives which farmers have, and farmers themselves know this very well.

The above points illustrate why farmers have traditionally maintained more than one bean variety on their farms.
Extension programs must take this into account and NGOs doing extension activities need to address this issue.

The second workshop will be for extension workers. Its main objective will be to acquaint them with the
most commonly encountered bean diseases and pests in Malawi. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP's activities over
the years has been able to identify most of the commonly encountered diseases and pests in Mala i. This
information needs to be provided to the extension staff so that they can appropriately advise farmers when
they experience such problems.

Publications
Some of the papers presented in the bean entrepreneurship workshop have been published in a Workshop
Proceedings Report while a few others were selected for publication in a special issue of the Mala ui Journal
of Science and Technology. Another publication of common diseases of beans in Malawi is being published.
This publication is intended to assist extension workers to easily identify bean diseases in the field and properly
advise farmers. This publication will be used to support the extension workers workshop planned later this year.

Both Bunda College in Malawi and Sokoine University of Agriculture inTanzania have been producing Annual
Reports of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP Research programs in their institutions. These reports provide the major
achievements as well as the recommended technologies coming out of those research works. These reports have
been widely circulated to Ministries of Agriculture, the research community as well as extension staff.


East Africa Region, Page 43


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East Africa Region, Page 44


Bean/Cowpea CRSP














LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN
REGIONAL PROJECT







VARIETY RELEASE, SUSTAINABLE SEED PRODUCTION, IMPROVED CROPPING
SYSTEMS AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT FOR THE LOWLAND TROPICS

J. C. Rosas, Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Zamorano, Honduras; J. S. Beaver, University of Puerto Rico,
Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, U.S.A.; J. R. Steadman, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A.; and
R. Bernsten, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A.

Presented by Juan Carlos Rosas

The Latin America/Caribbean (LAC) Regional Project emphasizes the small red and black (Mesoamerican)
types, which are two major bean market classes grown in this region. This report includes information on
the achievements and impacts obtained from the activities carried out in variety development and release,
sustainable seed production and improved cropping systems for the lowland tropics. Progress on management
of the geminivirus/white fly complex (collaboration with the University ofWisconsin), socioeconomic studies
from on-farm record keeping, seed production and distribution, and an assessment of the potential value of
heat tolerant beans in the lowland tropics (collaboration with MSU) are presented in reports submitted by Drs.
D. Maxwell and R. Bernsten.

Bean production in Central America is a small farm operation (i.e., more than 70 percent of the farms in
Honduras are in this category). Most are on hillsides, in marginal areas, and are limited by biotic and abiotic
constraints. The majority of bean producers utilize low inputs, very few are mechanized. Bean producers
experience limited access to markets and credit. Automobile consumption is rather high; however, 55 percent
of the beans are sold in markets primarily by intermediaries. Beans are the 7th most important crop in
economic value in Honduras, and have the highest economic return among basic grain crops such as corn,
rice and sorghum.

One of the most important accomplishments of the LAC Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project has been the integration
of project activities into the regional bean network which includes 11 countries in Central America and the
Caribbean. This achievement became possible when Zamorano and UPR became members of the PROFRIJOL
Network and their PIs were assigned the task of improvement of small reds and Andean bean types grown in
the region. Additionally, last year Zamorano assumed the responsibility of the improvement of black beans, one
of the other major seed types in the region. Collaborators in Central America include the National Bean
Programs (NBPs) from the member countries of PROFRIJOL, CIAT Bean Program, NGOs, the Mesoamerican
Participatory Plant Breeding Group, U.S. and regional universities, and farmers groups.

Varietal development and release of improved varieties have been emphasized. Disease resistance and tolerance
to abiotic stress germplasm from CIAT, USDA, U.S. universities and NBPs are continuously tested under local
agroecological conditions and pathogen diversity using greenhouse and field techniques. A "quick and dirty
approach" consisting of collecting infected material, preparing and spraying applications of it in water solutions
is used to screen for resistance to angular leaf spot, anthracnose and rust. Otherwise, sites with good levels of
infection of a specific disease (i.e., bean golden in Comayagua), or presence of an abiotic stress (i.e., low P), are
used for this purpose. Single, double and multiple crosses are used to recombine specific or multiple traits into
commercially accepted, agronomically adapted cultivars. Elite lines, improved varieties, landraces and specific
sources ofgermplasm are used as progenitors when necessary. Pedigree, backcross, single seed descent, gamete
and recurrent selection are used as breeding and selection methods for developing improved lines. Segregated
and advanced populations are selected for multiple traits under disease pressure and abiotic stresses that are
obtained by artificial inoculation or by utilizing several sites in Honduras and Central America. More than 60
small red breeding nurseries and trials are distributed every year to 10 member countries of the regional network.
In 1999, the Adaptation Nursery (VIDAC) included 102 advanced lines and the Yield and Adaptation Trial
(ECAR) 14 lines and two checks; Zamorano and the UPR programs contributed over 90 percent of the lines
included in both VIDAC and ECAR. Every year new advanced lines are incorporated to replace the 40-60
percent inferior lines.


Latin America/Caribbean Region, Page 45


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







Lines already released, or in process, include Tio Canela-75 (Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Panama)
and MD 23-24 (Costa Rica). Among those lines being validated in farmer fields prior to their release are:
SRC 1-12-1 (Costa Rica, El Salvador and Honduras), SRC1-3-5, UPR9609-22-2 (Nicaragua) and Tio Canela-75
(Haiti). Several sources of germplasm have been developed or selected in collaboration with researchers from
the LAC Project and CIAT. Improved lines that recombine heat tolerance and resistance to bean golden mosaic
with excellent agronomic and commercial small red seed types have been developed for production at lowland
regions and/or warmer tropical seasons. Small red lines are used as sources of bean golden mosaic resistant
genes (especially bgm-1) for improving Andean and other Mesoamerican types. Resistant germplasm for
bacterial blight, rust, angular leaf spot, and low fertility have been identified for improving small reds and blacks
for the region. Anthracnose resistant lines derived from Andean and Mesoamerican sources have been identified
and are used as additional resistant genes with the exception of the source of Co-6 gene (Catrachita), which has
shown susceptibility the last two years in Honduras. Web blight resistant lines, with excellent architectural traits
derived from crosses of elite lines x 2-4 resistant parents, have been identified for testing in the north coastal,
humid region of Honduras, Panama and Puerto Rico. Good N2-fixing small red varieties (Dorado, Tio Canela-
75 and Yeguare) were identified in low N soils, Rhizobium inoculated trials. Inoculant is being produced in the
region using Rhizobium strains selected across environments.

A second emphasis has been placed on improved cropping systems. The focus of this research is on the
utilization of management practices and improved varieties for higher and more stable yields and natural
resources conservation. Recent information on the performance of improved varieties under diverse cropping
systems include 32 percent yield increase using Tio Canela-75 over farmer varieties at 20 sites in El Salvador.
MD 23-24 has shown more than 20 percent yield superiority and a better response to management practices to
reduce web blight incidence in Costa Rica. The small red line SRC 1-12-1 has been the best for two consecutive
years at the ECAR trial conducted in more than 15 locations in Central America and the Caribbean. In
Nicaragua, TC-75 has been selected for best adaptation to dry, poor soil conditions; the line SRC1-5-3 as the
best material for humid regions; and the line UPR9609-22-2 for the "apante" (residual moisture) cropping
season. The use of Rhizobium inoculant resulted in an increase in yield of 20 percent in Nicaragua and El
Salvador. An adoption study is being conducted in Nicaragua to determine the potential of this technology to
increase productivity in beans. Inoculation studies indicate high rates of marginal return from this technology.

Integrated management of bean golden mosaic using an improved variety (Tio Canela-75), maize barriers,
and yellow sticky traps resulted in 52 percent yield increase over the local susceptible cultivar in El Salvador.
The estimated reduction on pesticide application for white fly control was 50 percent or higher. In Honduras,
weed control efficiency was increased using Tio Canela-75 vs. the local cultivar. The erect architecture of
Tio Canela-75 facilitates hoeing or herbicide application; the prostrate habit of the local variety obligates
farmers to avoid entrance to the field to control weeds at a very early stage of development. A more effective
control of pod weevil is obtained with Tio Canela-75, or other improved variety, due to better resistance and
more uniform, short flowering duration. The results are two applications of a specific insecticide on Tio
Canela-75 vs. 5-6 applications of a wide spectrum, highly toxic product parathionn) regularly used by farmers
to control this pest in their non-uniform, long flowering landraces. Extracts and baits from other local plants
(Gliricidia, Jatropha, neem and hot pepper) and soaps are being tested as alternative products to control pod
weevils and slugs.

The potential value of heat tolerant, bean golden mosaic resistant lines in non-traditional production areas
(Pacific and Atlantic coastal regions of Central America) and warmer seasons, is being studied in El Salvador
and Honduras. A socioeconomic study on the value of these materials for bean production in the north coast
of Honduras suggested a potential increase in production during the warm season, and a greater, more stable
bean supply during a more extended period throughout the year.

Seed production and distribution have received major attention as well. The project is assisting several NGOs
and farmer groups to produce artisan seed for local distribution. Foundation seed of improved varieties, and
training on crop management, post-harvest processing, and marketing of artisan seed are


Latin America/Caribbean Region, Page 46


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







provided to farmers and NGO extensionists. Collaborations with the Seeds of Hope/CGIAR Project in
Honduras and Nicaragua, PROMESA/USAID and UPANIC (national farmer association) from Nicaragua,
CENTA/MAG from El Salvador, and NGOs and CIALs (farmers agricultural research committees) in
Honduras, are part of these activities.

In 1999 in response to Hurricane Mitch, the project coordinated the distribution of seed of Tio Canela-75 and
Dorado 10 lb-bag units. The seed, produced by Zamorano Seed unit, was distributed to more than 21,000
farmers throughout Honduras and some regions in Nicaragua in collaboration with more than 40 NGOs.
Farmers utilized the seed in the primera planting to produce enough seed for their postrera (major season)
planting. USAID/Honduras, the DFID/Great Britain and Healing Hands International supported this
emergency relief project. Currently, the project is participating in a two year (2000-01) Post-Mitch Project
funded by USAID to revitalize the Honduran agricultural sector. The bean component of this project is
targeting 4,000 families from the East-central and Northeastern regions (together accounting for more than
50 percent bean production), based on training and technology transfer on field production, post-harvest,
added value and marketing. The project includes the distribution of seed of Tio Canela-75 and Dorado, and
on-farm testing of new materials such as SRC1-12-1. This Post-Mitch Project is carried out in collaboration
with 12 NGOs.

In upcoming years, the project will continue to work on varietal development of multiple disease resistant
small red and black bean lines, with special emphasis on resistance to angular leaf spot and web blight, the
incorporation of the bgm-1 bean golden resistant gene into a larger number of black breeding lines and
cultivars, and the development of breeding lines carrying the bc3 recessive, bean common resistant gene. A
greater effort to incorporate resistance to pod weevil and leafhoppers will be made. Efforts to identify
alternative sources of drought tolerance by a closer collaboration with other CIAT and LAC researchers will
be conducted. CIAT sources of tolerance to low fertility validated in the region will be used more frequently
in the hybridization program. A greater effort to improve black beans for the lowland tropics will be made;
for this purpose, collaboration with the NBPs from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti and the Mexican lowlands
will be emphasized.

Integrated approaches to manage biotic and abiotic constraints on predominant bean cropping systems, including
soil and water conservation, will be applied in collaboration with CIAT/Hillside program, NBPs, NGOs and
farmer groups. Collaboration with projects that specialized in designing equipment and transferring technology
based on the use of animal traction for steep hillside agriculture will be increased. Technology for Rhizobium
and mycorrhiza inoculation will be tested and validated. Artisan seed production initiatives will be reinforced
by providing foundation seed and training and technology assistance to improve farmer production, processing,
storage and marketing skills. Participatory research approaches, including participatory plant breeding, are
being applied to increase farmer groups and NGOs influence on research decisions.

Training activities will focus on various aspects of artisan production with NGOs and farmers. Training on
the management of breeding nurseries and trials, participatory research, socioeconomic (adoption and impact)
studies, and molecular applications for bean breeding will be offered to NGOs and NBPs personnel.
Institutional linkages and collaboration will support regional network activities; continue breeding nurseries
and trials, as well as supply seed stocks for validation and release trials. Strong interactions with the NBPs
and PROFRIJOL will be needed. Efforts will be made to maintain a network of NGOs collaborating with
Zamorano, and with CIALs and other farmer groups from Honduras; access to seed stocks and training and
technical assistance is necessary. Resources from the Post-Mitch USAID Project will be used for these
purposes. Collaboration within the Bean/Cowpea CRSP and with CIAT, USDA, universities and NGOs will
be strengthened.

Publications
Beaver, J. S., P. N. Miklas, J. D. Kelly, J. R. Steadman and J. C. Rosas. 1998. Registration of PR9357-107
Small Red Dry Bean Germplasm Resistant to BCMV, BCMNV and Rust. Crop Science 38:1408-1409.


Latin America/Caribbean Region, Page 47


Bean/Cowpea CRSP






Beaver, J. S. and J. C. Rosas. 1999. Current Situation of Bean Production in Central America and the
Caribbean. Proceedings of the National Bean Meeting (RENAFE).

Beaver, J. S. and J. C. Rosas. 1998. Heritability of Length of Reproductive Period and Rate of Seed Mass
Accumulation in Common Beans. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 123:407-411.

Castro, A., J. C. Rosas y E. Flores. 1999. Consideraciones para el disefio de esquemas de producci6n de
semilla artesanal de frijol en Centro Am6rica; experiencias y planteamientos para el future. In R. Lepiz (ed.)
Proceedings of the Workshop on Seed Production in Central America, Profrijol, Guatemala.

Goodman, R. M., S. B. Bintrim, J. Handelsman, B. F. Quirino, J. C. Rosas, H. M. Simon and K. P. Smith.
1998. A Dirty Look: Soil Microflora and Rhizosphere Microbiology. In H. E. Flores, J. P. Lynch, D.
Eissenstat (eds.) Advances and Perspectives on the Function of Plant Roots, American Society of Plant
Physiology, pp. 219-231.

Rosas, J. C. 1998. Mejoramiento de frijol rojo pequefio en Honduras. Proceedings of the Workshop on the
Improvement ofthe Mesoamerica BlackBean. PROFRIJOL/COSUDE/INIFAP, Veracruz, M6xico, January
27-31.

Rosas, J. and A. Castro. 1999. Experiencias en la producci6n artesanal de semilla de frijol en Centro
Am6rica. Proceedings of the Workshop on Bean Seed Production and Distribution in Central America ,
Zamorano, Honduras, August 3-6, 1998, p. 101.

Rosas, J. C., A. Castro, J. S. Beaver, C. A. Perez, A. Morales and R. L6piz. 2000. Mejoramiento gen6tico
para tolerancia a altas temperatures y resistencia a mosaico dorado en frijol comfin. Agronomy Mesoamerica
11(1):1-10.

Rosas, J. C., A. Castro and E. Flores. 2000. Mejoramiento gen6tico del frijol rojo y negro Mesoamericano
para Centro America y El Caribe. Agronomy Mesoamerica (Submitted).

Rosas, J. C., A. Castro and E. Flores. 1999. Recomendaciones para el manejo de variedades mejoradas de
frijol. Technical Bulletin, Zamorano, Honduras, p. 8 (illust.).

Rosas, J. C., A. Castro and E. Flores. 1999. Recomendaciones para el manejo de variedades mejoradas de
frijol. Training Manual, Zamorano, Honduras, p. 21 (illust.).

Rosas, J. A. Castro, J. Jimenez, J. Gonzales, F. Sierra and S. Humphries. In press. Metodologias
participativas para el mejoramiento in situ del frijol comin. Proceedings of the Internatnional Symposium
and Workshops on Participatory Plant Breeding in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Exchange of
Experiences, Quito, Ecuador, August 31-September 3, 1999, p. 11.

Rosas, J. C., J. A. Castro, E. A. Robleto and J. Handelsman. 1998. A Method for Screening Phaseolus vulgaris
Germplasm for Preferential Nodulation with Rhizobium etli Strain KIM5s. Plant and Soil 203:71-78.


Latin America/Caribbean Region, Page 48


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VARIETY RELEASE, SUSTAINABLE SEED PRODUCTION, IMPROVED CROPPING
SYSTEMS AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT FOR THE LOWLAND TROPICS

E. Arnaud-Santana and G. Godoy-Lutz, Centro de Investigaciones Agricola del Surocate (CIAS), San Juan de la
Maguana, Dominican Republic; D. P. Coyne andJ. R. Steadman, University ofNebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A.;
J. Beaver, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, U.S.A.

Presented by Eladio Arnaud-Santana

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP research in the Dominican Republic (DR) has enabled farmers to sustain bean
production in spite of severe pest and disease epidemics, unstable government policies and a changing global
economy. In addition, it has provided genetic materials, technological packages and professional expertise
to other bean programs in the LAC region. One goal of this component of the regional project has been to
integrate lowland cultural practices and improved varieties to manage diseases and pests of dry beans with
a minimum input of pesticides and the efficient use of land and water. During the past two years, we have
also identified farm practices (land preparation, seeding and harvest) that reduce costs of production and
maximize yield potential.

The DR presented a unique case in the region where CRSP researchers were given the leadership from 1992-
96 to effect changes in government policies related to planting dates and the introduction of a fallow period
to manage the whitefly-bean golden mosaic complex. The implementation of the combination of practices
by farmers in all of the bean growing areas in the DR contributed to the sustainability of bean production at
a time when bean golden mosaic was causing up to 100 percent losses elsewhere in the LAC region. The first
step consisted of establishing only one planting season in the different cropping areas. Second, the
enforcement of a three month quarantine period prior to the bean planting time, during which no crop or plant
host of the bean golden mosaic virus and its vector, the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), could be planted. Third,
a specific date of dry bean planting was established within the cropping season. This was determined on the
basis of the environmental conditions favoring crop development and negatively affecting the white fly vector
population. The fourth, and also an important step, was the continuous observation of bean fields where
infected plants were rogued and limited applications of insecticides were used to control whitefly.

The CRSP team in the DR has released nine bean varieties: PC-50, JB-178, CIAS-95, Saladin-97 (red
mottled beans), Anacaona, Arroyo Loro #1 (white beans), Arroyo Loro Negro, Negro Cibao and Negro
Sureiio (black beans). The first seven are being planted by farmers around the country, especially the
varieties PC-50, JB-178 and Arroyo Loro Negro. All of the released varieties have good seed quality, out
yield the commercial land races, and possess varying levels of resistance to common bacterial blight, web
blight, rust and other fungal diseases. These varieties perform well under drought stress and also respond well
to fertilization, making them attractive for both small and medium landholders. These bean varieties have
made a contribution not only to the DR bean program, but also to other bean programs in Haiti, Nicaragua
and Guatemala where varieties are used for commercial purposes or for parental crosses.

Phenotypic data were collected in the DR for reactions to the web blight fungus and common bacterial blight
(and the small pustule type of rust detected in Nebraska). Based on these data, QTLs ( nine genes) for
resistance to these pathogens were mapped using recombinant inbred lines of the cross BAC6 (Brazil) x
HT7719 (CIAT). This research has increased our knowledge about clustering genes for resistance and for
use in breeding.

The CRSP project began to utilize a participatory research program in 1992. Initially, a series of workshops
were conducted with bean growers to identify the major problems affecting bean production and how these
constraints could be solved. When new knowledge and technology were developed they were transferred for
use in the production system by means of: (a) field days organized by farmer associations, (b) workshops
organized by the CRSP scientists in conjunction with farmer groups, (c) 13 crop and disease management
brochures and six variety release pamphlets published and distributed by the CRSP technical staff,


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(d) Information delivered by radio, and (e) demonstration plots grown on farmers' land. Similar activities
were conducted with women's groups.

During the past two planting seasons, CRSP researchers have shown that by using appropriate technologies
and adequate resource management it was possible to reduce production costs by 30-35 percent, and to
improve total bean production and seed quality. Cost benefits include reducing planting density, using better
weed control, and controlling disease and insect attacks by integrated management (including reduction in
number of pesticide applications and use of proper pesticide and timing of application). These costs could
be reduced further if the planting and harvest operations were mechanized with equipment appropriate for
small landholders. In the past planting season (1999-2000), selected bean growers who used these
management strategies were able to increase production by about 40 percent compared to their neighbors.
Their cost ofproduction was approximately US $875 dollar/hectare (US $350/acre) which is competitive with
cost of bean production in irrigated areas of the U.S.A.


Presented by Graciela Godoy-Lutz

Studies on the epidemiology and genetics of the pathogens that cause web blight and rust have contributed
to the development of disease resistance and other disease management strategies. Web blight of dry bean
is a yield-limiting disease found throughout the LAC region. PROFRIJOL scientists reported losses due to
foliage and seed damage from web blight up to U.S. $7.1 million in El Salvador and on 19 percent of total
bean acreage in Honduras in 1993.

Research on web blight was initiated by CRSP research scientists in the early 1990s after CIAT scientists
reduced their research activities on this disease. A better understanding of the genetics of the WB pathogen
Thanatephorus cucumeris, (which is an aerial form of Rhizoctonia solani), have been obtained through
traditional and molecular methods. Isolates from Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Honduras, El Salvador,
Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba and Argentina were examined and characterized into five distinct
polymorphic groups which cause the same disease, but differ in virulence. Thus, screening for web blight
resistance will be more successful with appropriate selection of isolates.

Epidemiological studies on the web blight pathogen indicated that, similar to other diseases caused by aerial
isolates of Rhizoctonia, soil populations do not correlate with levels of incidence and severity of disease.
Fungus inoculum basidiosporess, micro- and macro sclerotia and mycelia) is located primarily in the aerial
portion ofplants. Therefore, management practices should concentrate on reducing aerial dissemination and
modifying canopy microclimate to promote disease escape. Before 1990, studies of the pathogen in Central
America were aimed at reducing the soil population, but little or no improvement in disease control was
found. Pathogen isolates also have been found to be independent populations (no clonal relationship)
distributed among the bean growing zones within each country. Virulence, fungicide resistance and optimal
growth temperature vary in these populations. This variation contributes to wide ecological adaptation of the
pathogen. The web blight pathogen causes seed coat blemish discoloration in all bean types. The fungus also
can be transmitted in both symptomatic and asymptomatic seed. If infection occurs at the pod maturation
stage, losses of 50-60 percent, due to seed blemish and reduced seed weight, can occur. Seed blemish or
discoloration accounts for more than 50 percent of marketable seed loss. The new information on the genetic
variability and epidemiology of the pathogen has led to improved disease screening techniques, breeding for
architectural traits that avoid aerial disease development, an increased awareness of the need for clean seed
and a search for new sources of resistance such as in P. coccineus.

In the DR, changes in planting dates have reduced web blight incidence in the South West. Arroyo Loro
Negro and red mottled varieties being developed with web blight resistance will contribute to a reduction of
the disease in other DR bean growing areas and other countries in the LAC region.


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Rust on dry beans is another yield-limiting disease that is widespread in the LAC region and throughout the
world. In the early 1990s, outbreaks of rust were found on PC-50 and red mottled land races that had been
resistant. This was caused by new emerging pathotypes highly virulent on bean genotypes of Andean origin.
These Andean-specific pathotypes caused large pustules at earlier dates than non-specific pathotypes. Yield
losses were estimated to have been in a range of 4 to 7 kg/ha per 1 percent disease severity increase on the
partially resistant PC-50 and Jos6 Beta/host/susceptible, respectively. Farmer training programs reduced the use
of systemic/contact fungicides entirely or to only one application after the rust outbreak. A mobile nursery was
developed to monitor pathogenic changes in the field. More than 400 pathotypes have been identified from
Africa and the Americas with over 140 in Honduras alone. Pathogen virulence patterns can be used to
recommend resistance gene deployment. Identification of the role of leaf pubescence and adult plant resistance
offers a horizontal resistance strategy to add durability to specific gene resistance deployment. A study of rust
pathotypes on wild beans may address host/pathogen co-evolution and help predict rust pathogen virulence
patterns. In the DR recently released red mottled varieties JB-178, CIAS 95 and Saladin 97 with partial rust
resistance have shown susceptibility in the last two growing seasons. Due to the proximity of the San Juan
Valley to bean regions in Haiti, we expect aggressive rust pathotypes to challenge beans in Haiti. Resistance
genes effective against the new pathotypes are being incorporated into advanced breeding lines.

Publications
Ariyarathne, H. M., D. P. Coyne, G. Jung, P. Skroch, A. K. Vidaver, J. R. Steadman, P. N. Miklas and M.
J. Bassett. 1999. Molecular Mapping of Disease Resistance Genes for Halo Blight, Common Bacterial Blight
and Bean Common Mosaic Virus in a Segregating Population of Common Bean. Journal of the American
Society ofHorticultural Science 124:654-662.

Ariyarathne, H. M., D. P. Coyne, A. K. Vidaver and K. M. Eskridge. 1998. Selecting for Common Bacterial
Blight Resistance in Common Bean: Effects of Multiple Leaf Inoculation and Detached Pod Inoculation Test.
Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 123:864-867.

Arnaud-Santana, E., J. C. Nin, F. Saladin, G. Godoy-Lutz, J. S. Beaver, D. P. Coyne and J. R. Steadman.
2000. Registration of "JB-178" Red Mottled Bean. Crop Science 40:857-858.

Arnaud-Santana, E., J. C. Nin, F. Saladin, G. Godoy-Lutz, D. P. Coyne, J. S. Beaver and J. R. Steadman.
2000. Registration of"CIAS-95" Red Mottled Bean. Crop Science 40:859.

Arnaud-Santana, E., J. C. Nin, F. Saladin, G. Godoy-Lutz, D. P. Coyne, J. S. Beaver and J. R. Steadman.
2000. Registration of"Arroyo Loro Negro" Black Bean. Crop Science 40:856-857.

Beaver, J. S., P. N. Miklas, J. D. Kelly, J. R. Steadman and J. C. Rosas. 1998. Registration ofPR9357-107
Small Red Dry Bean Germplasm Resistant to BCMV, BCMNV and Rust. Crop Science 38:1408-1409.

Coyne, D. P., D. S. Nuland, D. T. Lindgren, J. R. Steadman, D. W. Smith, J. Gonzales, J. Schild, J. Reiser,
L. Sutton and C. Carlson. In press. "Weihing" Great Northern Disease Resistant Dry Bean. HortScience.

Jung, G., D. P. Coyne, J. Bokosi, J. R. Steadman and J. Nienhuis. 1998. Mapping Genes from Specific and
Adult Plant Resistance to Rust and Abaxial Leaf Pubescence and their Genetic Relationships Using Randomly
Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers in Common Bean. Journal of the American Society of
Horticultural Science 123:859-863.

Jung, G., P. W. Skroch, D. P. Coyne, J. Nienhuis, E. Arnaud-Santana, H. M. Ariyarathne, S. M. Kaeppler and
M. J. Bassett. 1997. Molecular Marker-Based Genetic Analysis of Tepary Bean-Derived Common Bacterial
Blight Resistance in Different Developmental Stages of Common Bean. Journal of the American Society of
Horticultural Science 122:329-337.


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Jung, G., P. W. Skroch, J. Nienhuis, D. P. Coyne, E. Arnaud-Santana, H. M. Ariyarathne and J. M. Marita.
1999. Confirmation ofQTL Associated with Common Bacterial Blight Resistance in Four Different Genetic
Backgrounds in Common Bean. Crop Science 39:1448-1455.

Miklas, P. N., J. S. Beaver, J. R. Steadman, M. J. Silbernagel and G. F. Freytag. 1997. Registration of Three
Bean Common Mosaic Virus-Resistant Navy Bean Germplasms. Crop Science 37:1025.

Miklas, P. N., K. F. Grafton, J. D. Kelly, H. F. Schwartz and J. R. Steadman. 1998. Registration of Four
White Mold Resistant Dry Bean Germplasm Lines: 19365-3,19365-5, 19365-31 and 92BG-7. Crop Science
38:1728.

Montoya, C. A., J. Beaver, R. Rodriguez, P. N. Miklas and G. Godoy-Lutz. 1997. Heritability of Resistance
to Web Blight in Five Common Bean Populations. Crop Science 37:780-783.

Nin, J. C., E. Arnaud-Santana, F. Saladin, G. Godoy-Lutz, D. P. Coyne, J. S. Beaver and J. R. Steadman.
2000. Registration of "Anacaona" White Bean. Crop Science 40:856.

Nin, J. C., E. Arnaud-Santana, F. Saladin, G. Godoy-Lutz, D. P. Coyne, J. S. Beaver and J. R. Steadman.
2000. Registration of "Saladin-97" Red Mottled Bean. Crop Science 40:859.

Park, S. O., D. P. Coyne, J. M. Bokosi and J. R. Steadman. 1999. Molecular Markers Linked to Genes for
Specific Rust Resistance and Indeterminate Growth Habit in Common Bean. Euphytica 105:133-141.

Park, S. O., D. P. Coyne, A. Dursun and G. Jung. 1998. Identifying Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA
(RAPD) Markers Linked to Major Genes for Common Bacterial Blight Resistance in Tepary Bean. Journal
of the American Society ofHorticultural Science 123:278-282.

Park, S. O., D. P. Coyne, G. Jung, P. W. Skroch, E. Amaud-Santana, J. R. Steadman, H. M. Ariyarathne and
J. Nienhuis. In press. Mapping of QTL for Seed Size and Shape Traits in Common Bean. Journal of the
American Society ofHorticultural Science.

Park, S. O., D. P. Coyne, N. Mutlu, G. Jung and J. R. Steadman. 1999. Confirmation of Molecular Markers
and Flower Color Associated with QTL for Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Common Bean.
Journal of the American Society ofHorticultural Science 124:519-526.

Saladin, F., E. Amaud-Santana, J. C. Nin, G. Godoy-Lutz, J. S. Beaver, D. P. Coyne and J. R. Steadman.
2000. Registration of "PC-50" Red Mottled Bean. Crop Science 40:858.

Sandlin, C. M., J. R. Steadman, C. M. Araya and D. P. Coyne. 1999. Isolates of Uromyces appendiculatus
with Specific Virulence to Landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris of Andean Origin. Plant Disease 83:108-113.

Zhang, Z., D. P. Coyne and A. Mitra. 1997. Factors Affecting Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of
Common Bean. Journal of the American Society ofHorticultural Science 122:300-305.

Zhang, Z., D. P. Coyne, A. K. Vidaver and A. Mitra. 1998. Expression of Human Lactoferrin cDNA Confers
Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Transgenic Tobacco Plants. Phytopathology 88:730-734.


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GEMINIVIRUS CHARACTERIZATION, IPM, AND BEAN TRANSFORMATION

P. Ramirez andJ. Karkashian, University of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica; A. Hruska and M. M. Roca de Doyle,
Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Zamorano, Honduras; R. Allison, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan,
U.S.A.; M. Nakhla and D. P. Maxwell, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

Presented by Douglas P. Maxwell

Bean-infecting geminiviruses have caused major bean losses in South America, Central America, M6xico,
and the Caribbean Islands for nearly two decades, and more recently extensive losses have occurred in
Southern Florida. Geminiviruses are ssDNA viruses and the ones infecting beans are transmitted by the
whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Various molecular methods were used to isolate full-length clones of both DNA-A
and DNA-B for the geminiviruses from beans with golden mosaic symptoms collected in Brazil, Guatemala,
the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Infectivity of these clones was determined by particle gun inoculation
and all caused typical symptoms except the clones from beans collected in Mexico which were non-infectious
clones. Sequence analyses showed that three distinct geminiviruses were associated with these collections:
Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) from Brazil, Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV, previously
designated BGMV type II) from Central American, the Caribbean Islands, and Southern Mexico, and Bean
calico mosaic virus (BCMoV) from Northern M6xico. Bean dwarf mosaic virus, which does not cause golden
mosaic symptoms, was also cloned and sequenced, and the full-length clones were infectious. In Costa Rica,
Tomato yellow mosaic virus was associated with beans with golden mosaic symptoms. Recently, a new bean-
infecting geminivirus has been detected in the southwestern part of Costa Rica and it is being characterized.

The use of pseudo recombinants among the DNA-A and DNA-B components of geminiviruses was found
to be a useful means of helping to clarify the concept of a geminivirus species. In research with Dr.
Gilbertson at the University of California, the intermolecular recombination of DNA from one component
to the other was shown using pseudo recombinants between Bean dwarf mosaic virus and Tomato mottle
virus. Subsequent detailed sequence analysis by others has shown that recombination between distinct
geminivirus is an important mechanism for creating genetic diversity in geminiviruses.

Polymerase chain reaction and DNA hybridization methods were developed for the non-specific detection
ofwhitefly-transmitted geminiviruses. Currently, specific PCR primers and DNA probes are being developed
for six bean-infecting geminiviruses. Using these techniques, the genetic diversity of bean-infecting
geminiviruses has been studied in the Caribbean Basin, Central America, and Brazil (Faria and Maxwell,
1999). All bean-infecting geminiviruses causing golden symptoms on beans in Central America and the
Caribbean islands are BGYMV. In northern M6xico, the main bean-infecting geminivirus is BCaMV,
whereas in southwestern M6xico, the geminivirus infecting beans is very similar to BGYMV. In Brazil, the
main virus is BGMV (Faria and Maxwell, 1999).

Epidemiological studies have focused on evaluation of weeds with golden mosaic symptoms as possible
sources of inoculum for bean-infecting geminiviruses. Extensive efforts to detect BGYMV in weeds in the
Dominican Republic have failed, and we have concluded that beans are the primary source of inoculum.
Consequently, a bean-free period was mandated by the Government in the Dominican Republic and the result
has been greatly reduced losses from bean golden mosaic. Similar practices were implemented for
management of Tomato yellow leafcurl virus (TYLCV), a geminivirus introduced in the Dominican Republic
in the early 1990's from the Middle East, and tomato yields were returned to their original pre-TYLCV yields
in two years (70 percent increase). New geminiviruses were characterized from Leonurus sibiricus from
Brazil (Faria and Maxwell, 1999) Calopogonium sp. from Honduras and Costa Rica, Rhynchosia minima
from Honduras, pigeon pea from Puerto Rico, Sida spp. from Honduras and Jamaica, Macroptilium
lathryroides from Jamaica, and Wissadula amplissima from Jamaica (Roye et al., 1997). Additionally, efforts
were initiated in Honduras and Costa Rica to develop a cropping system approach for management of
geminiviruses in vegetables, which included beans. During this study, three tomato-infecting


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Bean/Cowpea CRSP







geminiviruses where characterized in Honduras and two in Costa Rica. Non-CRSP efforts have shown that
there are at least seven different tomato-infecting geminiviruses in Central America and this complicates the
development of vegetable cropping systems. Additionally, non-CRSP funding has allowed scientists in Costa
Rica to characterize the geminiviruses in squash and papaya as being a new virus, Squash yellow mottle virus.

Studies of the functions of various ORFs of BGYMV from Guatemala (GT) have provided evidence for the
role of the rep gene in replication, the trap gene in transactivation of the cp gene (Karkashian, 1998) and the
bcl gene on DNA-B in symptom development. Transcript mapping identified major transcription initiation
sites for the cp gene promoter, as well as for the trap and rep genes (Karkashian, 1998). A detailed analysis
of the cp gene promoter was completed and the most important promoter sequences for transactivation by the
Trap protein were identified (Karkashian, 1998). Transgenic beans with the cp gene of BGYMV-GT were
engineered with the particle gun at Agracetus, Inc., Middleton, WI, and these beans expressed both herbicide
resistance and GUS activity (the blue beans). Eight R2 lines were exposed to viruliferous whiteflies in Puerto
Rico and found to be susceptible. These lines expressed mRNA for the cp gene, but no coat protein was
detected. Antisense constructions for rep/trap/ac3 genes and bcl gene of BGMV from Brazil were
engineered into beans at EMBRAPA, Brazil, and R3 transgenic lines showed considerable resistance, when
challenged by inoculation with high numbers ofviruliferous whiteflies (Aragao et al., 1998). Transient assays
with NT-1 tobacco suspension cells have shown that lethal mutants (single or multiple codon changes) in
either the DNA-nicking motif or the NTP-binding motif of the rep gene of BGYMV-GT (Hanson and
Maxwell, 1999) or BGMV-BR effectively inhibit the replication of the homologous geminivirus. Additional
constructs with part of the trap and ac3 genes broaden the effectiveness of these rep gene mutants against
heterologous geminiviruses (Hanson and Maxwell, 1999). Most recently, collaborators at EMBRAPA, Brazil
have engineered beans with rep gene mutants in the NTP-binding motif from BGMV-BR and plants from one
R2 plant were highly resistant. Similar constructions have been tested in transgenic tomatoes and resistant
tomatoes obtained (Stout et al., 1997). Besides the particle gun, another method involving DNA
electroporation is being evaluated for bean transformation at Michigan State University by Dr. R. Allison.

Besides research on geminiviruses, the etiology of amachamiento disease of beans was studied in Costa Rica.
The main symptoms associated with this new disease are delayed and greatly reduced flowering and increased
vegetative plant growth. Additionally, deformation and roughness of the foliage is sometimes evident. The
symptoms increase over time in a field and it is thought that the pathogen is insect transmitted. Preliminary
evident indicated that geminiviruses may be the cause of this disease but this has not been proven. Subsequent
research has shown that several RNA viruses are associated with these diseased plants. These include Cowpea
chlorotic mottle virus, Cowpea mosaic virus, and Bean roguse mosaic virus. Dr. F. Morales from CIAT has also
reported that Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is associated with these diseased beans.

In collaborative studies with scientists from Argentina, Dr. Ramirez has molecularly characterized a
geminivirus associated with soybeans. A full-length DNA-A clone was obtained and partially sequenced.
From the sequence analysis, it was determined that this was a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus. Studies are
continuing on this new virus.

Training Activities: During the last three years, 3 Ph.D. students have received their degrees and over 15
scientists have received short-term training in geminivirus detection and characterization methods either at
University of Costa Rica or the University of Wisconsin. Additionally, six undergraduate students at University
of Wisconsin, two at EAP and two at the University of Costa Rica have completed research projects.

Publications
Aragio, F. J. L., S. G. Ribeiro, L. M. G. Barros, A. C. M. Brasileiro, D. P. Maxwell, E. L. Rech, and J. C.
Faria. 1998. Transgenic Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Engineered to Express Viral Antisense RNAs
Showed Delayed and Attenuated Symptoms to Bean Golden Mosaic Geminivirus. Molecular Breeding
4:491-499.


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Faria, J. C. and D. P. Maxwell. 1999. Variability in Geminivirus Isolates Associated with Phaseolus sp. in
Brazil. Phytopathology 89:262-268.

Hanson, S. F. and D. P. Maxwell. 1999. Trans-Dominant Inhibition of Geminiviral DNA Replication by
Bean Golden Mosaic Geminivirus Rep Gene Mutants. Phytopathology 89:480-486.

Karkashian, J. 199x. Molecular Analysis of the Coat Protein Gene Promoter of Bean Golden Mosaic
Geminivirus. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 121 p.

Padidam, M., D. P. Maxwell and C. M. Fauquet. 1997. A Proposal for Naming Geminiviruses. Archives
of Virology 142:2553-2561.

Roye, M. E., W. A. McLaughlin, M. K. Nakhla and D. P. Maxwell. 1997. Genetic Diversity among
Geminiviruses Associated with the Weed Species Sida spp., Macroptilium lathryroides, and Wissadula
amplissima from Jamaica. Plant Disease 81:1251-1258.

Stout, J. T., H. T. Liu, J. E. Polston, R. L. Gilbertson, M. K. Nakhla, S. F. Hanson and D. P. Maxwell. 1997.
Engineered Rep Gene-Mediated Resistance to Tomato Mottle Geminivirus in Tomato. Phytopathology 87:S94.


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VARIETY RELEASE, IMPROVED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND
DROUGHT TOLERANCE FOR THE HIGHLANDS

J. A. Acosta Gallegos, B. Cezares, I. Cuellar, P. Fernandez, F. Ibarra Perez, E. L6pez, R. Ochoa, S. Padilla, P. Perez,
R. Rosales and R. Salinas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecudrias (INIFAP), Chapingo,
Mexico; R. Navarrete-Maya, UNAM, MIxico; J. D. Kelly, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A.

Presented by Jorge Acosta Gallegos

In the semiarid highlands of the LAC region, drought is the main contributor to yield reduction in common
beans. In these highlands, intermittent drought is common, while in the tropical lowlands, terminal drought
is a problem since planting there is done towards the end of the rainy season. Other drought endemic regions
are the Great Lakes in Africa and northeastern Brazil. Since CRSP research was initiated in M6xico, the
focus has been on the development of drought resistant bean cultivars for the highland areas. Lately emphasis
has also been given to root-rot resistance and cooking time. Early efforts produced three improved cultivars,
two of the Durango race (Pinto Villa and Bayo Victoria) and one interracial cultivar (Negro Durango). Of
those, Pinto Villa has been very successful, mainly due to its drought resistance and high and stable yield.
In 1998, it was estimated that Pinto Villa was grown in 150,000 ha in the state of Chihuahua and 80,000 ha
in Durango. In the current grant period, new bean cultivars are being developed for regions other than the
semiarid highlands, i.e., for the lowlands in the tropical black bean class.

In the semiarid highlands of M6xico, the seed of Pinto Villa and other cultivars released by the CRSP are
being distributed through a conventional system involving the production of certified seed and the re-use of
seed for several generations. In this last category, the seed must be of good quality. A new system of
non-conventional seed distribution was observed in 1999 in the state ofZacatecas. Farmers re-distribute seed
of [for example] Pinto Villa in exchange for grain of Flor de Mayo, a higher prized bean. The popularity of
the cultivars released by the CRSP has been enhanced by the establishment of large demonstration plots in
farmer's fields in the main bean producing areas in the states of Chihuahua, Durango and Zacatecas. In those
plots, field days are conducted towards the end of the growing cycle.

In addition to the demonstration plots, short training courses are offered to farmers. In 1999, such courses
were given to more than 1,800 farmers in the state of Durango. In the state of Chihuahua, similar courses are
given yearly to extension agents. In return, the agents establish and conduct demonstration plots with the
cultivars released by the CRSP. A field day also takes place on those plots.

The strategy for developing new cultivars with drought resistance include the development of interracial
populations derived from genetically distinct parental stocks, all of them possessing drought resistance. The
hypothesis is that different genotypes may possess different traits/strategies to cope with drought. The traits
that characterize drought-resistant cultivars in the semiarid highlands are indeterminate growth habit,
earliness, high pod number and high harvest index under stress. Some of those drought resistant cultivars,
i.e., Pinto Villa, display some morphological attributes that may be important under stress, such as low
stomata number in the upper leaf surface, high stomata number in the lower surface, large number of
structures on the leaf surface, i.e., trichomes, and relative high photosynthetic rate under stress. The
opportunity to utilize secondary traits and molecular markers for selection after inheritance studies is going
to be explored in the near future.

Progress has been made in identifying a number of genotypes from different origins that have above average
yield under drought. In populations of Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from drought resistant
parents, we are looking for traits and mechanisms that confer superior adaptation to drought and then will
determine the inheritance of those traits. Progress was possible due to:

1. Extensive characterization of germplasm from different gene pools.


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Bean/Cowpea CRSP







2. Identification of drought resistant genotypes in different genetic backgrounds.


3. Identification of attributes that are related to yield under stress.

4. Collaborative research efforts with partners in the U.S.A., CIAT and advanced Mexican research
institutions (CINVESTAV and UNAM).

5. Leverage of funds from the National Council for Science and Technology of M6xico.

Resistance to root-rot pathogens is essential in drought stressed environments. Root-rot is a devastating
disease in the highlands of M6xico and in other areas of the world. This problem is due to a lack of crop
rotation, i.e., beans being planted in consecutive years in the same field, and to climatic conditions that are
favorable for the development of causal agents. In 1999, 15 root-rot resistant bean genotypes from different
origins, including a wild population, were challenged with local isolates of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium
solani under field and greenhouse conditions. In the field, R. solani caused larger damage in the V3 stage,
while F. solani did in the R5 stage, there seems to be a succession in the aggressiveness of those pathogens
in the field, probably related to changing climatic conditions and/or genotype susceptibility throughout the
season. In the field, Wisconsin RRR was resistant to R. solani in the V3, R7 and R8 growth stages, while
some other genotypes were resistant only in the R7 and R8 grown stages. In the case of F. solani, genotypes
Negro Cotaxtla 91 and P1203958 showed the least damage during the growing cycle.

The same 15 genotypes will be tested in the lowlands in a Macrophomina phaseolina (Mp) infested field and
in the greenhouse. Mp is the main root-rot causing agent in the lowlands.

In regard to quality, and in order to offer better bean products to consumers, cooking time and other quality
traits are being characterized in the parental stocks and advanced lines grown under stress and non-stress.
Genotype characterization is delayed to advanced generations due to intermediate heritability of cooking time
and to significant environmental effects on this trait. The quality of superior genotypes is reduced by
environmental stresses, while those with average and poor quality, is not. Since there is a significant negative
association between seed water uptake capacity and cooking time, this character is being utilized in
intermediate generations to screen for cooking time. Genotypes with low water uptake capacity are discarded.
Usually this is in the order of 50 percent of the populations being tested. The risk of discarding genotypes
with short cooking time has varied among different trials between 2 to 4 percent. For example, a trait that
has shown an important negative relationship with water uptake capacity is the structure and composition of
the seed coat.

Improved drought resistant germplasm has been shared with other collaborators in the CRSP LAC Regional
Project as well as with the East Africa Regional Project, and other institutions.

The technologies for bean production in drought stressed environments, developed so far, have been
extensively adopted in the drought prone areas of M6xico. CRSP scientists are now ready to transfer these
technologies to farmers in other countries and to collaborate in the development of even better technologies.

Publications
Acosta, J. A., E. Acosta, S. Padilla, M. A. Goytia, R. Rosales y E. L6pez. 1999. Mejoramiento de la
resistencia a la sequia del frijol comuin en M6xico. Agronomy Mesoamericana 10(1):83-90

Acosta-Gallegos, J. A., F. J. Ibarra-Perez, R. Rosales-Sera, A. Castillo-Rosales, B. Cezares-Enriquez, P.
Fernandez-Hernandez and J. D. Kelly. 2000. Registration of "Altiplano" Opaque Black Bean. Crop Science
(submitted).


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Acosta-Gallegos, J. A. F. J. Ibarra-Perez, R. Rosales-Serna, P. Ferandez-Hernandez, A. Castillo-Rosales and
J. D. Kelly. 2000. Registration of "Mestizo" Pinto Bean. Crop Science (submitted).

Aguirre, J. F., J. Kohashi-Shibata, C. L. Trejo y J. A. Acosta-Gallegos. 1999. Respuesta fisiologica del frijol
(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) a la sequia, en un sistema de raiz dividida. Agronomy Mesoamericana 10(1):31-36.

Navarrete-Maya, R. y J. A. Acosta-Gallegos. 1999. Reacci6n de variedades de frijol coming a Fusarium spp
y Rhizoctonia solani en el Altiplano de M6xico. Agronomy Mesoamericana 10(1):37-46.

Navarrete-Maya, R. y J. A. Acosta-Gallegos. In press. Resistencia de frijol al tiz6n de halo en el Valle de
M6xico y progress de la enfermedad. Fitotecnia Mexico.

Perez Herrera, P. y J. A. Acosta Gallegos. In press. Absorci6n de agua del grano de genotipos silvestres y
cultivados de frijol Phaseolus vulgaris L. Agricultural Technology Mexico.


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IMPROVED BNF, DISEASE RESISTANCE AND SOIL CONSERVATION,
MANAGEMENT AND FERTILIZATION PRACTICES FOR THE HIGHLANDS

E. Peralta, A. Murillo and M. Guala, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP) Quito, Ecuador;
P. Graham, I. Christiansen, C. Estevez and G. Bernal, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Presented by Peter Graham

This research activity in the LAC Regional Project seeks enhanced nitrogen (N2) fixation and crop production
ofPhaseolus vulgaris grown under low input conditions in the Andean highlands. Phaseolus vulgaris in the
Andean highland region is a crop often grown under small farmer conditions, on marginal lands, and with
minimum inputs. Nutrients including N, P, Zn and Mn are commonly limiting, and diseases such as rust,
anthracnose and root rots are common constraints.

A major focus has been the improvement of N2 fixation in Phaseolus beans, because it is a species
consistently shown to be weak in this trait. This focus initially emphasized Mesoamerican bean cultivars, and
sought bean lines exhibiting different reasons for above average N2 fixation. With Puebla 152, BAT 277 and
RHIZ21 identified as promising parents, a recurrent selection breeding program was developed with field
evaluations for high N2 fixation undertaken at the low N Becker Sandplain research station. Three breeding
lines with superior ability in N2 fixation have been identified and methods for the routine ongoing evaluation
of nitrogen fixation in this crop established. Under N-limited conditions the breeding lines have consistently
out yielded all other varieties with which they have been compared. This phase of the research is essentially
complete.

Breeding Andean bean cultivars with enhanced ability for N2 fixation has required two approaches. Initially,
and while INIAP lacked plant breeders, we emphasized CIAT-generated Andean grain type lines and their
evaluation under low N and inoculated conditions in the field. Three lines were identified as well-adapted
to Ecuadorian conditions and subsequently released by INIAP. The most recent release, Jema, is both highly
resistant to rust and showing some tolerance to anthracnose. A drawback to this line is its relatively late
maturity. Because of this problem, backcrossing and screening have been implemented to incorporate the
BNF ability and the resistance of Jema into local cultivars. The first F3 lines developed from this program
are currently in the field. Paralleling these studies are investigations to identify low P tolerant and good BNF
lines of Andean grain type. ANT22 and E295 have been identified as N2 fixing at low P and are currently
being characterized. Initial studies suggest acid rhizosphere modification, differences in P partitioning and
carbohydrate metabolism as factors in this difference.

A surprisingly consistent result, considering that Ecuador is considered to lie within a center of origin for
Phaseolus vulgaris, has been a striking response to rhizobial inoculation. This technology, now widely
disseminated in demonstration plots, is accepted by farmers and has now resulted in the development of an
inoculant laboratory at Santa Catalina. Over time, we envisage that this facility will become responsible for
a significantly wider array of inoculant and biocontrol products for the region. Though Phaseolus vulgaris
is somewhat promiscuous in its acceptance of Rhizobium strains, diversity differences have been shown
between strains associated with Mesoamerican and Andean bean varieties within Ecuador, using strains
recovered from the northern and southern bean-producing regions.

Finally in Ecuador, major progress has been achieved in response to micro nutrient deficiency. Soils in
Ecuador are all essentially somewhat alkaline and prone to zinc, manganese and iron deficiencies. Soil and
foliar-applied zinc chelates are effective in overcoming zinc deficiency, with yield increases up to 30 percent.
Until recently, extensive use of these chelates by flower growers has limited their availability to bean
growers; zinc chelate availability in Ecuador has improved dramatically in the last six months.


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Research accomplishments have also had significant impact in Minnesota. Root rot in Minnesota is a major
problem with losses estimated at $(U.S.) 4.6 million annually. Biocontrol using Kodiak as a seed treatment
can significantly reduce infestation and damage with improvement in nodulation and nitrogen fixation and
increase crop yield as much as 17 percent. In 1999, yield increases with biocontrol treatments in pivot area
demonstration plots had a major impact for farmers in the area. Almost 200 tons of bean seed were treated
for the 2000 planting. Success in this area has attracted commercial interest in undertaking additional trials
in 2000, comparing mixed root rot control and Rhizobium inoculants.

In Ecuador, INIAP has few staff with post-graduate qualifications. Because of this, training has been a major
thrust throughout the life of the CRSP there, with undergraduate egresado training and extension workshops
emphasized and one or two INIAP staff enrolled in graduate degree programs at all times in the United States.
A successful training program has been undermined to a significant degree by recent economic problems in
Ecuador. M.S. graduates at INIAP are now receiving only $(U.S.)120-150 a month in salary. A change in
the training model is needed, that considers long-distance education as a means to provide training to a wider
audience throughout the region.

Dissemination of information has also been a major focus. Technical bulletins, extension workshops and
farmer's meetings have been emphasized by INIAP, with Consuelo Estevez, while in Minnesota also actively
involved in extension meetings. More recently the HC-PI has moved aggressively to develop quality
germplasm and extension manuals, and to have these available on CDs. The Rhizobium Research Laboratory
website, now available in both English and Spanish, provides nitrogen fixation information to a wide
audience. In the last 12 months there have been almost 100,000 hits on this site, with 33,000 site visitors
from 71 different countries downloading more than 510 MB of information. More conventionally, the U.S.
group at Minnesota has published more than 20 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters in recent years, with
the U.S.-PI co-editing special issues of Field Crops Research dedicated to grain legumes (FCR [1997] 53, 1-
217) and applied aspects of nitrogen fixation (FCR [2000] 65, 91-270).

U.S. Publications
Ballen, K. G. et al. 1998. Acidity and Calcium Interaction Affecting Cell Envelope Stability in Rhizobium.
Canadian Journal ofMicrobiology 44:582-587.

Elisondo Barron, J., R. J. Pasini, D. W. Davis, D. D. Stuthmann and P. H. Graham. 1999. Recurrent
Selection for Improved Nitrogen Fixation in Beans. Field Crops Research 62:119-128.

Espinosa Victoria, D., C. P. Vance and P. H. Graham. 2000. Host Variation in Traits Associated with Crown
Nodule Senescence in Soybean. Crop Science 40:103-109.

Graham, P. H. 1999. Nitrogen Fixation. In M. J. Sumner et al., (eds.) Handbook ofSoil Science. CRC press,
C139-148.

Graham, P. H. 1998. Internationalization of the Coursework in Soil Science and Agronomy, with an
Emphasis Toward Latin America. In J. Mestenhauser and B. J. Ellingboe (eds.) American Council on
Education. Onyx Press, pp. 125-134.

Graham, P. H. 1997. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation. In D. M. Sylvia et al (eds.) Soil Microbiology:
Environmental and Agricultural Perspectives. Prentice Hall, pp. 322-345.

Graham, P. H., et al. 1999. Characterization of Rhizobia Associated with Dalea spp in Natural Prairies and
Revegetation Areas in Minnesota. In E. Martinez and G. Hernandez (eds) Highlights in Nitrogen Fixation
Research. Plenum Publishing, New York, pp. 69-75.
Graham, P. H. and P. Ranalli. 1997. Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). In P. Ranalli and P. H. Graham
(eds). Grain Legumes. Field Crops Research Special Volume 53:131-146.


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Graham, P. H. and J. Swenson. 1998. http://www.rhizobium.umn.edu


Graham, P. H. and C. P. Vance. 2000. Nitrogen Fixation in Perspective: An Overview of Research and
Extension Needs. Field Crops Research 65:93-106.

Montealegre, C. and P. H. Graham. 1996. Effect of Delayed Inoculation, and of Low Cell Proportions in
the Inoculant, on the Preference in Nodulation Between R. tropici UMRI 899 and Phaseolus vulgaris RAB39.
Canadian Journal ofMicrobiology 844-850.

Pazdernik, D. L., P. H. Graham and J. H. Orf. 1997. Variation in the Pattern of Dinitrogen Fixation and
Nitrogen Distribution of Soybean. Crop Science 37:1482-1486.

Pazdernik, D. L., P. H. Graham and J. H. Orf. 1997. Heritability in the Early Nodulation of F3 and F4
Soybean Lines. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 77:201-205.

Pazdernik, D. L., P. H. Graham, C. P. Vance and J. H. Orf. 1996. Host Variation in Traits Affecting the
Early Nodulation and Dinitrogen Fixation of Soybean. Crop Science 36:1102-1107.

Rannali, P. and P. H. Graham (eds.). 1997. Grain Legumes. Field Crops Research Special Volume 53:218

HC Publications
Andrade, J. and L. Ayala. 1996. Estudio de las enfermedades virales del frejol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en
la sierra Ecuatoriana y evaluacion de la resistencia varietal en genotipos de frejol voluble. INIAP 6:24-27.

Estevez de Jensen, C., R. Meronuck and J. A. Percich. 1999. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Two
Rhizobium Strains for the Management of Bean Root Rot in Minnesota. Bean Improvement Cooperative.

Estevez de Jensen, C., R. Meronuck and J. A. Percich. 1999. Winter Survival of Kidney Bean Root Rot
Pathogens in Various Crop Residues. Bean Improvement Cooperative.

INIAP. 1998. Simposio sobre el desarrollo Agricola sustentable. Quito, Ecuador, p. 159.

Jimenez, R. et al. 1996. El cultivo de frejol comun en los valles de la provincia de Loja. Agronomia y
manejo de plagas. INIAP Folleto divulgativo No 257, p. 24.

Peralta, E., A. Murillo, J. Pinzon and R. Lepiz. 1997. Manual Agricola de leguminosas. Cultivos y costs
de production. INIAP, p. 43.


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IMPROVED NUTRITION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT


G. L. Hosfield and M. R. Bennink, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A.;
A. Mason and S. Nielsen, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.;
A. R. Bonilla, R. Calder6n, L. Muinoz and L. Rodriguez, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica

Presented by Ana Bonilla Leiva and Maurice Bennink

Heat-induced cell wall crystallization during bean cooking is a primary barrier to starch digestibility and has
been the research focus at Michigan State University. Cryogenic milling (-195C) with a 6700 SPEC
freezer/mill was necessary to disrupt cell walls prior to cooking and achieve complete starch digestibility.
Research showed that both the genotype and processing method affected the digestibility of dry beans.
Significant differences in total dietary fiber, indigestible starch, and indigestible protein were found among
6 market classes and three preparation methods (stove-top cooking, autoclaved, and thermally processed in
tin cans). Navy bean was the market class with the most digestible starch (>90 percent). Black beans and
kidney bean had the least digestible-starch <85 percent. Manteca, a Latin American market class was
similar in digestibility to navy beans. Manteca beans are favored for their qualities of taste, texture, and good
digestibility. The current research on indigestible starch appears to confirm the high digestibility, low-
flatulence attributes of Manteca bean.

Thermally processed beans in tin cans (canned beans) have been found to contain significantly less total
dietary fiber and indigestible starch than those cooked by the autoclave or stove-top methods. Stove-top
cooked beans had the highest amount of indigestible protein among the preparation methods.

Two recombinant inbred populations of kidney beans were developed to ascertain canning quality and yield.
Both populations were evaluated in North Dakota in 1996 and Michigan in 1996-1998.

Genotypes and genotype x environment interactions were significant based on analyses of variance. In
Population 1, three lines, based on appearance of canned beans, consistently performed in the top 25 percent
in all environments. Four lines in Population 2 were consistently in the top 25 percent in all four
environments, also based on appearance. One line in particular, Line 1-90 had consistently better canning
quality than the better canning parent, Montcalm, although its yield was slightly lower than both parents.
RAPD primers were used to amplify DNA from these RILs. Polymorphisms were found to be of low
incidence in Population 1. This is probably due to the narrow genetic base of kidney beans in general.

At Purdue University the research focus has been on the:

* Effect of fermentation on nutritive value (proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins), quality, and
acceptability of dry beans.

Effect of germination on nutritive value (proteins, minerals) of dry beans.

Development and sensory acceptability of bean (black) and rice weaning food and bean (red) and corn
weaning food.

For fermentation, dry beans were coarse ground, soaked in water, cooked, cooled, then inoculated with
Rhizopus oligosporus to ferment for 15-35 hours. For germination, dry beans were soaked in water then
germinated for 27 hours before cooking. To create bean-rice or bean-corn weaning foods, control (i.e.,
unfermented, ungerminated), fermented, or germinated beans were homogenized, combined with rice or corn,
then drum dried.

Of interest was the effect of fermentation and germination of beans on bioavailability of minerals (iron and
zinc) and protein digestibility. Beans were grown under greenhouse conditions in a circulating hydroponic


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culture and radio-labeled with 65Zn or 59Fe. These beans were fermented or germinated, then incorporated
into experimental diets for feeding to rats. Both fermentation and germination improved zinc retention in the
animals. Germination alone positively influenced iron retention. Neither fermentation or germination
increased the PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score), but germination did increase the
true protein digestibility.

Also of interest was the effect of fermentation time on composition of beans. Beans fermented for various
time periods (0, 15, 20, 25 hours) were tested for proximate composition (i.e., moisture, protein, fat, ash, and
total carbohydrate), starch, total dietary fiber, protein digestibility, tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors, amino
acid composition, minerals, and oligosaccharides (i.e., raffinose, stachyose, verbascose; these are related to
flatulence problems). The most interesting finding was that the oligosaccharide content of beans fermented
for 25 hours was lower than in the other treatments. Further studies have shown that with extended
fermentation, stachyose levels decreased and raffinose levels increased.

A third set of activities involved the sensory evaluation of bean-based weaning foods. Bean-rice and bean-
corn weaning foods (-30 percent beans, -70 percent rice or corn; -53 percent bean protein, -47 percent rice
or corn protein) were made with and without fermentation of the beans, and products were tested by sensory
evaluation in rural villages in Costa Rica and Honduras, respectively. Panelists did not find products made
with fermented beans to be less acceptable than control samples.

At the Universidad de Costa Rica, research has focused on developing a bean-based weaning food product.
A dehydrated bean product has been developed. The product was fortified to supply 50 percent of the daily
iron requirement for 1-3 year old children and given to 124 children to determine product acceptability. The
product was judged acceptable by 68 percent of the children. The product was further evaluated through the
following studies:

* A nutritional intervention study with 164 children (anemic, malnourished and normal) was performed.
Anemic and malnourished children eating the fortified product showed significant improvements
(p<0.05) in hemoglobin and hematocrit status. Even healthy children significantly improved their iron
reserves (p< 0.05).

The shelf life of the product stored in BOPP bags at 21 oC 82 percent RH and exposed to light was
estimated to be 9 months, based on a 10 percent Vitamin C loss.

This study addressed such issues as Costa Rican agricultural bean activity, general diagnostic of a bean
production area, marketing studies, product acceptability, concept analysis for an iron-fortified product,
evaluation of the image of a ground bean product fortified with iron, technical-engineering study, and a
financial-economic study. Results: The marketing study showed that 74.8 percent of the interviewed
mothers would give the product to their children and 60 percent believed the product could be sold in the
supermarkets. A plant was designed to establish a processing industry. However, the financial study showed
that it was not economically feasible to establish a bean processing industry with the proposed conditions.
Strategies to minimize costs to enable establishment of an economical food industry are being evaluated. An
agricultural producers organization, PROUDESA, is interested in technological transfer. There are 350
producers from the highest bean production area in Costa Rica associated with this group. We are jointly
seeking financial resources to start a production unit.

In order to develop new products with higher digestibility, the following studies had to be performed and have
generated the following results:

Effect on starch digestibility (SD) of grinding beans before or after cooking: Grinding beans before
cooking significantly (p < 0.05) improved bean digestibility. Scanning electronic microscopy showed


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Bean/Cowpea CRSP







that improved digestibility was associated with increased starch gelatinization. However, acceptability
of the products ground before cooking was lower than products cooked before grinding (p<0.05).

* Effect of the enzymatic treatments on SD: Treating bean slurries with a-amylase did not improve SD
(p>0.05). Two other microbial sources of a-amylase are being tested. Addition of a pectinase increased
SD 12-13 percent in both black and red bean varieties. Addition of cellulase increased SD 12 percent in
red beans (p>0.05) and 5 percent in black beans (p>0.05). There was no difference in acceptability of
beans with or without cellulase treatment (p>0.05) and lower acceptability for the ones treated with
pectinase (p<0.05). These results will allow the food industry to produce bean products with different
digestibility characteristics.

* Educational Campaign Promoting Bean Consumption: Qualitative and quantitative studies have been
done in a middle class community with school children to identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of
the population with regard to beans. The results are being used to define messages that should be given
to the population during the bean consumption campaign.

Publications
Engleright, R. M., G. L. Hosfield, and M. R. Bennink. 1999. Determination of Total Dietary Fiber,
Indigestible starch and Indigestible Protein in Dry Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L, BICAnnual Report 42:123-4.

Hosfield, G. L., M. R. Bennink, C. W. Beninger, R. M. Engleright and M. T. Ospina. 1998. Variability for
Starch Digestibility in Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). HortScience 33(3):471.

Leakey, C. L. A., G. Hosfield and A. Dubois. 1998. Mantecas, A New Class of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)
of Enhanced Digestibility. Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Grain Legumes, Valladolid,
Spain, November 14-19, Paris.

Ospina, M. T., G. L. Hosfield and M. R. Bennink. 1997. Indigestible Starch in a Select Sample of Navy
Beans. BIC Annual Report 40:19-20.

Ospina, M. T., G. L. Hosfield and M. R. Bennink. 1998. Methodology to Determine Indigestible Starch in
Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). BIC Annual Report 41:86-7.

Rodriguez-Burger, A. P., A. Mason and S. S. Nielsen. 1998. Use of Fermented Black Beans Combined with
Rice to Develop a Nutritious Weaning Food. Journal ofAgricultural Food Chemistry 46:4806-4813.

Costa Rican Publications
Bonilla, A. R. and A. P. Rodriguez. 1997. Efecto de la adici6n de frijol germinado sobre la digestibilidad
in vitro del almid6n de frijol cocido (Phaseolus vulgaris). Proceedings of the XI Congreso de la Sociedad
Latinoamericana de Nutricion, Guatemala, November 9-15.

Bonilla, A. R., I. Sanchez and L. Mufioz. 1999. Weaning Bean-Based (Phaseolus vulgaris) Product Fortified
with Electrolytic Iron. Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL, July 24-28 (Abstract).

Calder6n C. R., A. Bonilla-L. and G. C. Ivankovich. 1999. Estudio de prefactibilidad para la instalaci6n de
una plant Estudio de prefactibilidad para la instalaci6n de una plant para el procesamiento del frijol
deshidratado fortificado con para el procesamiento del frijol deshidratado fortificado con hierro, en Costa
Rica. Proceedings ler Congreso Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos San Jos6, Costa Rica.

Ivankovich, G., C. and A. R. Bonilla. 1999. AnAlisis de la percepci6n del concept de un frijol Analisis de
la percepci6n del concept de un frijol molido, en polvo, fortificado con hierro mediante el uso de la tecnica


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de sesiones de grupo. Proceedings ler Congreso Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos San Jose
Costa Rica.

Mufioz, L. M., R. Monge and A. R. Bonilla. 1998. Consumo de un product a base de frijol fortificado con
hierro en nifios de edad pre-escolar. Evaluaci6n de sus efectos en sus status de hierro. Proceedings
Congress Internacionaly Congreso Nacional de Salud Publica San Jose, 13-14 Agosto.

Navarrete, K. and A. R. Bonilla. 1999. Efecto de la molienda y cocci6n en la digestibilidad in vitro Efecto
de la molienday coccidn en la digestibilidad in vitro del almid6n del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris). Proceedings
ler Congreso Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos San Jos6, Costa Rica.


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SOCIOECONOMIC STUDIES


R. Bernsten, D. Mather, D. Mainville, J. Estrada- Valle, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A.;
H. Gonzales and J. Acosta, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecudrias (INIFAP), Chapingo,
Mexico; E. Arnaud-Santana, F. Baez, A. Mateo, and S. Nova, Centro de Investigaciones Agricola del Surocate (CIAS),
San Juan de la Maguana, Dominican Republic; J. Beaver, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, U.S.A.;
A. Castro, E. Flores, and J. Carlos Rosas, Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP), Zamorano, Honduras;
L. Rizo and A. Viana-Ruano, PROFRIJOL, Guatemala City, Guatemala

Presented by Richard Bernsten

Dry beans are the second most important staple crop, following maize, in the region which includes the U.S.,
M6xico, Central America and the Caribbean. The Bean/Cowpea CRSP collaborates with scientists in
countries that account for 92 percent of the region's total bean production-the U.S. (45 percent), M6xico
(35 percent), Central America (10 percent), and the Caribbean (2 percent).

During the 1990s, production, harvested area and yields have varied greatly from year-to-year. In general,
total production has trended up in the U.S., trended down in M6xico, remained constant in Central America,
and trended down in the Caribbean. In contrast, harvested area has remained relatively constant in the U.S.
(750,000 has), has varied greatly from year-to-year in M6xico (1.296 to 2.146 m. has) but exhibits no trend,
has increased steadily in Central America since 1965, and has trended down in the Caribbean. During the
1990s, U.S. yields increased steadily since 1993, setting a record in 1999 (1.984 mt/ha). Despite the release
of many new varieties in M6xico, Central America, and the Caribbean, their greater yield potential is not
reflected in country-level yield data: Mexican yields have averaged 600-700 kg/ha; Honduran yields rose
rapidly from 1995 to 1998, but fell sharply 1999 (due to Hurricane Mitch); Dominican Republic (DR) yields
remained level during 1995-1998, but rose sharply in 1999; Costa Rican yields rose through 1995, but fell
sharply thereafter; Guatemalan yields trended down during most of the decade; and Nicaraguan yields
remained relatively level through 1996, but fell sharply before recovering in 1999.

Many factors help explain the region's high degree of variability in production, harvested area, and yields.
First, throughout the region, beans are grown primarily as a risk-prone rainfed crop (subject to abiotic
stress)-except in the DR, where about 50 percent of the bean area is irrigated. Second, during the 1990s, the
Central America and Caribbean bean crop was subjected to severe biotic stress (including BGMV). Third, seed
availability remains a major constraint in the region-thereby limiting the use of improved varieties to primarily
more commercial farming areas. Fourth, most national bean research programs have targeted specific agro
ecologies/production systems, which represent only part of each country's bean area. Thus, in the non-targeted
areas, improved bean varieties may not be superior to traditional bean varieties (TVs). Fifth, even if new CRSP
releases produce higher yields than TVs, their impact may not be fully reflected in aggregate-level data because
national yields are estimated as the weighted average of yields in both commercial and semi-commercial areas.
For these reasons, CRSP research will have only a limited impact on national-level statistics, unless greater
effort is made to expand the research agenda to target all major agro ecologies, relax the seed constraint, and
develop linkages with farmers' organizations and governmental and non-governmental agencies to insure more
widespread dissemination of newly released improved varieties.

Increasing regional bean production is especially challenging, given widely varying consumer preferences
(market class) and greatly differing agro ecologies/production systems (i.e., semiarid highlands vs. humid
tropical; rainfed vs. irrigated crops; flatland vs. hillside farms; semi-commercial vs. commercial farmers),
which limit the transfer of varieties within and between countries. Furthermore, farmers' production
decisions are greatly influenced by government policies, which vary among countries. For example,
agricultural policy in M6xico may be characterized as "moving rapidly towards market liberalization" (i.e,
replacing input subsidies, price supports with PROCAMPO, a non-commodity based income support
program). In Honduras, the government has treated the bean subsector with "benign neglect" (i.e.,
implementing structural adjustment without introducing an alternative program). In the DR, the government


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Latin America/Caribbean Region, Page 66






"strongly protects" bean farmers through seed subsidies, price support, and bean import restrictions. As
governments continue to liberalize their economies, as required by NAFTA and the WTO, farmers in the
region must significantly increase their productivity (reduce costs ofproduction), or lose their national market
share to imported beans.

Improved bean varieties (higher yield potential, greater drought/disease tolerance) and new management
practices have the potential to increase productivity by reducing production costs per kilogram-thereby
making locally-produced beans more competitive with imports. Available data indicates that CRSP varieties,
developed in collaboration with national programs, give higher yields than TVs and have been widely adopted
in the semiarid highlands of M6xico (i.e., Pinto Villa, 350,000 has, 30 percent of the semiarid area in 1998),
Honduras (i.e., Dorado, Catrachita, 33 percent of the main bean-producing area in 1994), and the DR (i.e.,
PC-50, JB-178; almost 100 percent of the San Juan Valley's irrigated area in 1997).

To assess the profitability of recently-released varieties, farm record keeping studies were carried out (1997-
1999) in the DR (2 winter seasons), Honduras ( primera, 2 years; postrera, 2 years), M6xico (1 winter
season), and Nicaragua (postrera, 2 years; Apante, 1 year). In each country, data were collected from 20-30
farmers, in selected years/seasons/locations. These data document considerable variability in farmers' yields,
input use, bean sales price, and gross margins (profits). Highest single-season yields were achieved in the
DR (1,128_kg/ha, SJV, winter 1997-98) and Honduras (1,177 kg/ha, primera 1998). Factors responsible for
very low yields varied by country/year (M6xico, drought, winter 1998; Honduras and Nicaragua, Hurricane
Mitch, postrera 1998). In most instances, improved bean varieties gave substantially higher yields (341 to
415 kg./ha) than TVs. Purchased input costs varied from $410/ha (DR, 1997-98) to $43/ha (Honduras,
primera 1999). Total labor costs varied from $69/ha (Nicaragua, postrera 1998) to $297/ha (DR, 1997-98).
Prices farmers received for their beans ranged from $1.42/kg (DR 1997-98) to $0.50/kg (Honduras, primera
1999). Gross margins per ha (yield times price, minus production costs) ranged from $623 (DR, 1997-98)
to $-45 (Honduras, 1998 postrera, due to Hurricane Mitch). In "normal" seasons (no severe drought or
hurricane), the cost per kg of beans produced was lower for improved varieties vs. TVs, and ranged from
$0.68/kg (DR, 1997-98) to $0.27/kg (Nicaragua, 1997 postrera).

Regional scientists have followed various strategies to address the seed constraint. In M6xico, since the mid-
1980s when the government downsized its seed parastatal (PRONASE), INIFAP has utilized on-farm
demonstration plots to promote and multiply its new releases. In addition, INIFAP has developed linkages
with farmer cooperatives, private seed firms, and government programs (kilo-for-kilo) to facilitate seed
multiplication/dissemination. In Honduras, Zamorano produces certified seed for sale to commercial farmers
(50 lb bags), makes available its improved varieties to NGOs for distribution to smallholders, and works with
NGOs interested in helping farmers develop revolving seed banks/artisan seed schemes. Following Hurricane
Mitch, Zamorano launched an "emergency" seed supply initiative, producing 200 mt. of seed, packaging it
in 10/ 25 lb. bags, and distributing it to over 40 NGOs, who supplied seed to 21,000 small farmers. In the
DR, CIAS supports the Ministry of Agriculture's (SEA) seed production/distribution program by providing
foundation seed to SEA. SEA contracts with about 50 pre-selected growers in the San Juan/Cibao Valleys
to multiply the seed, buys the harvest at a pre-negotiated price (about 35 percent above the grain price), and
processes it for sale to farmers. In recent years, CIAS has provided foundation seed to several SJV farmer
associations, which multiply it for their seed banks. Despite these innovative strategies, seed availability
remains a major constraint in the region--especially for non-commercial farms in the more inaccessible areas
of each country.

The CRSP has developed many new varieties which farmers have adopted-thereby increasing their yields
and incomes. CRSP scientists must continue to give priority to developing new varieties tolerant to the
region's abiotic/biotic stresses. While each national program must identify the specific constraints to and
opportunities for increasing technology adoption, two general strategies are proposed to increase the impact
of the CRSP's research programs. First, scientists should expand the "target area" of their research by
developing new initiatives to address constraints in major agro ecologies/production systems that have yet


Latin America/Caribbean Region, Page 67


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







to be addressed. Second, regional scientists should expand on-going efforts to relax the seed constraint,
giving priority to assessing the most appropriate roles for research institutions, farmer organizations
(cooperatives, farmer research committees), private sector participants (seed, input dealers), and NGOs.
These efforts should give priority to designing cost-effective and sustainable seed systems that meet the needs
of both small, semi-commercial farmers and more commercially-oriented producers.

Publications
Bernsten, R. H. and D. Mainville. 1999. Proyectos Artesanales de Producci6n de Semilla en Paises en
Dessarrollo: Lecciones Aprendidas e Implicaciones Para el Disefio de Esquemas Mis Eficaces. In Rosales,
J. C. y A. Castro (eds.) Experiencias en la Producci6n Artesanal de Semilla de Frijol en Centro America .
Taller de Producci6n y Distribuci6n de Semilla de Frijol en Centro America. Escuela Agricola Panamericana,
Zamorano, Honduras.

Ishikawa, Y. 1999. The Profitability Analysis ofBean Production in Nicaragua. M.Sc. Thesis, Department
of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Mainville, D. 2000. Relief and Development: Bean Seed Markets in Honduras After Hurricane Mitch .
M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Martel, P. V., R. H. Bersten and M. T. Weber. 2000. Food Markets, Policy, and Technology: The Case
of Honduran Dry Beans. MSUInternational Development WorkingPaperNo. 78, Department of Agricultural
Economics/Department of Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Mather, D. 2000. The EconomicImpact ofBean/Cowpea CRSP Research in the Dominican Republic M.Sc.
Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Latin America/Caribbean Region, Page 68







IMPACT OF THE LAC REGIONAL PROJECT ON U.S. BEAN RESEARCH AND PRODUCTION

J. Beaver, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, U.S.A.; D. Coyne, University ofNebraska, Lincoln,
Nebraska, U.S.A.; P. Graham, University ofMinnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A.; G. Hosfield and J. Kelly,
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, US.A.; D. Maxwell, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
Wisconsin, U.S.A.; and J. Steadman, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.A.

Presented by James Kelly

In their analysis of "Who Gains from Genetic Improvements in U.S. Crops?," Frisvold et al., AgBioForum
2(3&4) 1999 report results of a study using a world agricultural trade model to estimate the size and
distribution of economic gains from yield increases in major U.S. crops attributable to genetic improvements.
The net global economic benefits of a one-time, permanent increase in U.S. yields are about $8.1 billion
(discounted at 10 percent) and $15.4 billion (discounted at 5 percent). The U.S. captures 50-60 percent of
these net gains. Gains to consumers in developing and transitional economies range from 6.1 billion (10$
discount rate) to $11.6 billion (5 percent discount rate). What is interesting is that in addition to the target
market in the U.S., developing countries benefit from advances in genetic improvement within the U.S.
agricultural sector. Within the framework of the CRSP, impact follows as a consequence of achieving
research results, through project activities which relax the identified constraint (R. Bernsten, personal
communication). Given the mission of the CRSP, the constraints identified and researched are within the
LAC region. In contrast to targeted constraints with the U.S., the impacts on U.S. agriculture generated by
the CRSP are, therefore, an indirect spinoff of CRSP research activities overseas.

Relative to impact, commercial dry bean yields in Michigan reached an all time high of 21 cwt/acre in 1999.
This represents a 13.5 percent increase over the last record high yield recorded in 1991. As a result, Michigan
bean growers produced over 7.5 million cwt of dry beans equivalent in size to 1982 production. To produce
a similar volume in 1982, growers had to plant 550,000 acres compared to 350,000 acres in 1999. Improved
performance contributed to a savings in land planted to dry beans, land that could be devoted to other
commodities. In general, most estimates attribute 50 percent of the improved performance in crops to improved
varieties, the other 50 percent is attributed to improved management including better disease, insect, and weed
control. The farm-gate value of the 7.5 million cwt bean crop produced in 1999, is $150 million and if genetics
(new varieties, LAC germplasm) contributed 6.75 percent of that value, the impact of genetic improvement to
bean producers in Michigan would be around $10 million in 1999. The figure compares yield gain between the
two most recent "best" production years of 1991 and 1999 to help reduce the favorable "weather" factor in the
calculation. Similar yield gains have been reported in other states as a direct result of CRSP-sponsored research.

There has been the release of varieties and breeding lines in the U.S. that have LAC germplasm. U.S.-based
CRSP scientists have served as a conduit of information and germplasm to non-CRSP researchers in the U.S.
New sources of heat and drought tolerance, agronomic traits (architecture, maturity, yield), disease
resistance anthracnosee, rust, common blight, white mold, root rot and others), and general adaptation to
unique environments have all aided U.S. bean researchers, public and private.

* Release of nine varieties in six commercial classes in the U.S.

* Release of BGMV resistant white lines in Puerto Rico and snap bean germplasm in South Florida

* Heat tolerance of Indeterminate Jamaica Red used to improve kidney beans for CA

* Enhanced anthracnose resistance from Honduran and Mexican germplasm

* Drought tolerance in Michigan breeding lines from Mexican germplasm

* Enhanced common bacterial blight resistance in Nebraska

* PC-50 (Andean origin-Dominican Republic) is a new source of resistance to white mold


Latin America/Caribbean Region, Page 69


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







* Collaborative release of 36 (11 navy, 18 pinto, 7 Great Northern) multiple disease resistant breeding lines.
These lines have been used in crosses by public and private breeders as sources of disease resistance with
adaptation, yield potential and moderate seed quality.

* Enhanced rust resistance in pinto and great northern beans. Estimated value $5 million to inter mountain
region based on higher yields (7-10 percent gain), and reduced input of fungicides (R. Perrin, personal
communication)

The technology developed can contribute to all bean programs. Information on molecular mapping of genes
for disease resistance and agronomic results has led to increased knowledge of the organization of the bean
genome, and is leading to more efficient breeding for disease resistance.

* Identification and mapping of new genes (Kelly and Miklas, 1998)

* Use of linked molecular markers to pyramid resistance genes (Miklas et al., 2000)

* Transgenic beans developed in collaboration with Agracetus, Inc.

* Development of detection methods for geminiviruses which have been used extensively in Florida and
California for virus detection in beans, tomatoes, and melons

* Help private companies in identifying sources of resistance and screening techniques

The new technologies will facilitate monitoring potential new diseases or emergence of new races ofpathogens.

* Studies on the pathogenic variation for rust, anthracnose, and common blight

* Mobile Nursery: Ban disease resistance genotype nursery that can be easily transported to diseased bean
fields to assess pathogen variation within 10-14 days (bean rust)

* Minnesota scientists, working with Ecuador, have shown that root rot problems found in central
Minnesota can be alleviated at least in part by use of Kodiak, a Bacillus subtilis product. In 1999, this
product was used on 20,000 acres of red kidney bean production in Minnesota

Development of screening methods for white mold and root rot

LAC graduate students conduct research helpful and of benefit to the U.S.

There is increased awareness of potential markets for U.S. agriculture.

Finally, one of the intangible benefits attributed to the Bean/Cowpea CRSP is collaboration. Within a minor
commodity such as beans, collaboration is vital if future gains are to be made. The CRSP has helped foster
a strong collaborative effort within the U.S. bean community. That collaboration strengthened similar efforts
of the Bean Improvement Cooperative-BIC and the W-150 Regional Project. Bean scientists who may not
have actively cooperated previously found themselves "connected" through the Bean/Cowpea CRSP and their
research was strengthened as a result. Although the benefits of such collaboration are recognized, their
impact is difficult to measure.

Publications
Balardin, R. S., J. J. Smith and J. D. Kelly. 1999. Ribosomal DNA Polymorphism in Colletotrichum
lindemuthianum. Mycology Resources 103:841-848.

Miklas, P. N. and J. D. Kelly. 1998. Molecular Breeding 4:1-11.

Miklas, P. N., J. R. Smith, R. Riley, K. F. Grafton, S. P. Singh, G. Jung, D. P. Coyne. 2000. BIC 43:39-40.


Latin America/Caribbean Region, Page 70


Bean/Cowpea CRSP















INTERCRSP


REPORT







ADAPTIVE RESEARCH WITH INTERCRSP NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
TECHNOLOGIES FOR REGIONAL TRANSFER IN WEST AFRICA

J. Olufowote, World Vision International, Accra, Ghana

Presented by Johnson Olufowote

Soils in most of West Africa, because of the type of parent material, have undergone intensive leaching. They
also lack volcanic rejuvenation and have a high degree of weathering. Thus, most of these soils have
relatively low inherent fertility.

In traditional agriculture, when crop yields decline to unacceptable levels, the overcropped land was
abandoned and new areas opened leaving the old land under natural fallow to restore their fertility. However,
increasing population pressure has reduced the availability of land and resulted in reduced ratio of length of
fallow to cropping years to the point that shifting cultivation is losing its effectiveness. As a result, soil
fertility is decreasing in many areas.

In Africa, 65 percent of the agricultural land, 31 percent of the permanent pasture land, and 19 percent of the
forest and woodland is affected by human-induced soil degradation. It is estimated that about 332 million
hectares of African drylands are subject to soil degradation. Nutrient depletion is the most important element
in the soil degradation equation (Bationo and Lompo, 1996).

The Collaborative Research Support Projects (CRSPs) working in West Africa have as their main thrust,
technology development. For several years, these bilateral research teams have developed natural resource
management (NRM) technologies for specific environments in individual countries. Many of these
technologies can be adapted for wide use throughout West Africa. However, national and regional adaptation
and transfer of technologies are constrained by weak coordination, cooperation, communication and linkages
across the countries.

Through support from the Africa Bureau, an NRM InterCRSP initiative in West Africa has a specific charge
to transfer NRM technologies in West Africa. The major objectives of the project are:

1. To develop a model for CRSP/NGO (non-governmental organization) collaboration that will mobilize
the existing knowledge, technologies, and capacity of CRSPs for major regional impact.

2. To engage this resource to improve natural resource management, reduce natural resource degradation,
and improve farmer food security and incomes in West Africa through regional adaptation and transfer
of sustainable NRM technologies.

The primary outcomes of the project are expected to be:

1. A model regional mechanism for collaborative adaptive research and transfer of CRSP NRM technologies
in West Africa.

2. Strengthened and mutually-reinforcing West African institutions and professional resources for NRM
technology adaptation and transfer.

3. The successful functioning of the model mechanism, leading to more productive exchanges among
CRSPs, NARS, NGOs, and farmers in West Africa, improved regional technology adaptation and transfer,
and more sustainable yields with greater profitability for farmers.


InterCRSP, Page 71


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







The initial CRSPs are the Bean/Cowpea CRSP, which is the lead CRSP, and the Sorghum/Millet CRSP
(INTSORMIL). Both the United States and Host Country scientists of these CRSPs collaborate in the project.

World Vision maintains programs in eight countries in West Africa, with a comparative competency in West
African regional technology transfer. World Vision maintains a healthy collaborative relationship with the
NARs and NESs in the countries in which it works.

Collaborative adaptive research and technology transfer teams, composed of CRSPs, NARs, NESs, WVI,
other NGOs, and farmer collaborators were formed for each participating country. Each team, led by a team
coordinator, establishes and implements work plans, setting targets and developing the work plans for the
adaptation and transfer oftechnologies. The CRSP and NARs team members coordinate in adaptive research
activities, while WVI, NES, other NGOs, and farmer team members coordinate transfer activities. Their
feedback is important to the researchers. Farmer team members are known and innovative farmers selected
from farmer organizations.

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP and WVI facilitate the exchange of NRM technologies among team members and
among country teams. They complement internal and external linkages with additional regional collaborative
relationships, such as with the following networks in the region: the West and Central Africa Sorghum
Research Network (WCASRN), the West and Central Africa Millet Research Network (ROCAS), the West
and Central Africa Cowpea Research Network (RENACO) and PEDUNE.

Activities are currently in progress in Chad, Ghana, Mali and Niger. S6n6gal was included in 1999. Hence, the
participating countries cut across the Sudan-Sahelian zone of between 200 and 1200 mm of annual rainfall.

Current technologies are mainly in the area of genetic materials of cowpea, sorghum and millet. Also given
prominence is the dissemination of cowpea storage technologies.

Incorporation of cowpea into the cropping system is crucial for sustainable crop production in sub-Saharan
Africa. Cowpea improves the soil through the fixing of atmospheric nitrogen. Similarly, cowpeas, when
intercropped with cereals, help reduce the menace of Striga, a major problem confronting smallholder farmers
in the region. Two major cereals grown in the target areas of the project are sorghum and millet. It is hoped
that incorporating cowpea in the cropping system, either as a sole crop or intercropped with sorghum and
millet, will go a long way to reduce natural resource degradation.

A major deterrent to cowpea production is the problem of cowpea storage. Farmers grow limited acreage,
as storage of seed is often problematic. Hence, the project puts much emphasis on disseminating cowpea
storage technologies that have been developed and are appropriate for adoption. These technologies were
developed by the CRSP project in the Cameroon.

Highlights of Achievements:
1. Collaboration: The project has created a 5 country network of over 50 collaborators from more than 15
different organizations, encouraging both in-country and cross-country collaboration. Within each
country, scientists from different disciplines are working together to develop, test and disseminate
technologies best suited to local conditions. There have been improved working relationships between
WVI, NARs, NESs and farmers. Internationally, technologies are being shared throughout West Africa
by NARs, CRSPs, IARCs and the commodity networks.

2. Mutual Learning: Exchange of expertise has been encouraged and facilitated by the project. Because
farmers have been empowered by the project, scientists have learned a lot from the farmers. For an
example, during the storage technology workshop in Ghana, farmers demonstrated the age-old methods
of local seed preservation including the use of shea butter. Similarly, in Niger, scientists learned how
farmers used powder from the leaves of Anona senegalensis for seed preservation. Hence, scientists,


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


InterCRSP, Page 72







extension personnel and farmers are all both teaching and learning as they work together to improve and
extend NRM technologies throughout the region.

3. Dissemination of Technologies: Technicians and farmers were trained on cowpea storage technologies
(solar heater, triple bagging and improved ash storage) developed by CRSP scientists in the five
participating countries. Technicians and farmers trained have further trained more farmers. For example
in Chad by 1999, 1113 farmers have been trained.

Improved cultivars were introduced to farmers through both adaptive and on-farm trials.

CHAD
Cowpea
Top yielders: IT 994, C7-29, M-LAKH and C93W-24-130
Farmer's preference for IT994 and IT89KD-288

Sorghum
Identification of the sorghum variety, GRW as promising
Local variety out-performed newly developed varieties on farmer's fields
Participatory Sorghum Selection

Sorghum-Cowpea Intercropping
Sorghum and Cowpea in alternate hills of the same row or in alternate rows most effective in reducing
Striga, while maintaining good sorghum yields.

GHANA
Cowpea
Two CRSP cultivars (MELAKH, C93W-24-130) to go on-farm after being promising in adaptive trials.
The three Cameroonian/CRSP lines (C93W-2-38, C92S-12-58, C93W-24-130) significantly out-
yielded all entries in fodder production.

Sorghum
P 9407 utilized as a source for genetic resistance to Striga in national program
Integrated Striga management: workshop and demonstrations
use of resistant varieties
use of fertilizer/manure
crop rotation
intercropping
Cowpea intercropped with sorghum, irrespective of the pattern reduced Striga infestation
Soybean intercropped with sorghum more effective in reducing Striga infestation

MALI
Cowpea
Variety "Korobalen" (IT89KD-374) was early, high yielding and preferred by most farmers
Other farmer preferences were:
drought tolerance: IT89KD-245
-Striga tolerance: IT89KD-245
early maturity: IT89KD-374
palatability: IT 89KD-374
Haulm output: IT89KD-245
grain whiteness: IT89KD-245
High performance (over local varieties) of C93W-2-38, Mouride, Ml6akh and Mame Fama)


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


InterCRSP, Page 73







Sorghum
Seguetana cinzana seems preferred; most farmers complained of the weak stems (hence, lodging) of
"n'tenimissa"
N'tenimissa preferred by some farmers for the whiteness of its grains and the taste and consistency
of its porridge
With exception of one of the sites, the local varieties out-yielded the tested varieties (N'tenimissa,
96CZF498 and 96CZF499). Average yield data over locations showed the superiority of the local
varieties.

Millet
Though there was no significant difference in the average yield of the varieties (Guefore, Tontoro 21
and Indiana 05), some out yielded the controls in the three ADPs where the trials were conducted.

Cereal/cowpea intercropping
Intercropping of sorghum or millet with the improved cowpea cultivar IT89KD-245 in row
intercropping or in alternate rows gave the best results in combating Striga.

NIGER
Cowpea
Top performance of Mouride (ISRA/CRSP), IT89KD-349 and IT89KD-374 for grain yield and the
local variety (TN5-78) for fodder production.

Sorghum
Top performance of the hybrid, NAD-1

Millet
Top performance of HKP from INRAN

SENEGAL
Millet
Identification of GBS 8735 as an overall performer

Cowpea
Mouride and Ml6akh top yielders and preferred by farmers.

Direct (TOT) training on post harvest technologies reached a number of farmers and extension professionals

Ghana 150
Chad 50
Niger 25
Mali 66
S6n6gal 110

In addition, two WVI extensionists from other West Africa countries were trained in Maroua, Cameroon.
There was follow-up training of 1113 persons in Chad. It has been shown that NRM can be improved in West
Africa under the framework of current InterCRSP/WVI initiative that has involved the mobilization of
existing capacities within Bean/Cowpea CRSP and INTSORMIL. An excellent demonstration of
collaborative technology development and transfer is typified by the current West Africa NRM InterCRSP.

Looking to the future, there is a need to expand the number of NRM technologies included in the technology
packages, particularly soil and water conservation technologies.


InterCRSP. Page 74


Bean/Cowpea CRSP














MIDCOURSE 2000
MEETING PARTICIPANTS







MIDCOURSE 2000 MEETING PARTICIPANTS


Dr. Jorge Acosta Gallegos
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones
Forestales y Agropecuarias (INIFAP)
Apartado Postal 10, CP 56230
Chapingo Edo. Mexico, M6xico
Email: jamk@mmpsnet.com.mx


Dr. M. Wayne Adams
5607 Colby Road
Crystal, MI 48818


Dr. Richard F. Allison
Michigan State University
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology
166 Plant Biology Lab
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: allison@msu.edu

Dr. Eladio Arnaud Santana
Centro de Investigaciones Agricola del Surocate
(CIAS)
Apartado Postal No. 145
San Juan de la Maguana, Dominican Republic
Email: eladio.arnaud@codetel.net.do

Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell
Michigan State University
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 International Center
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: barnesmc@msu.edu

Dr. James Beaver
University of Puerto Rico
Department of Agronomy and Soils
P.O. Box 5000
Mayagiiez, PR 00681
Email: J_Beaver@rumac.upr.clu.edu

Dr. Steve Beebe
CIAT
Apartado Aereo 6713
Cali, Colombia
Email: s.beebe@cgnet.com


Ms. Sue Bengry
Michigan State University
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 International Center
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: bengry@msu.edu


Dr. Maurice Bennink
Michigan State University
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
106B GM Trout Food Science Building
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: mbennink@msu.edu

Dr. Richard Bernsten
Michigan State University
Department of Agricultural Economics
211E Agriculture Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: bersten@msu.edu

Dr. Ana Bonilla Leiva
Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnologia de
Alimentos (CITA)
University of Costa Rica
San Jos6, Costa Rica
Email: abonilla@cariari.ucr.ac.cr

Dr. Ndiaga Ciss6
Centre National de Recherch6s Agronomiques
(CNRA)
B.P. 53
Bambey, S6negal
Email: nahe@refer.sn

Dr. Dermot Coyne
University of Nebraska
Department of Horticulture
386 Plant Sciences, East Campus
Lincoln, NE 68583-0724
Email: dpcoyne@unlnotes.unl.edu

Dr. Jeff Ehlers
University of California-Riverside
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences
4113 Batchelor Hall
Riverside, CA 92521
Email: jeff.ehlers@ucr.edu


Meeting Participants, Page 75


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







Dr. Fred Erbisch
Michigan State University
Office of Intellectual Property-Retired
6036 Harkson Drive
East Lansing, MI 48823
Email: erbisch@msu.edu

Dr. Anne Ferguson
Michigan State University
Women and International Development Program
202 International Center
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: fergusl2@msu.edu


Dr. Eunice Foster
Michigan State University
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
160B Plant and Soil Sciences Building
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: fosteref@msu.edu

Dr. Russell D. Freed
Michigan State University
Institute of International Agriculture
324 Agriculture Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: freed@msu.edu

Dr. Robert Gilbertson
University of California-Davis
Department of Plant Pathology
552 Hutchinson Hall
Davis, CA 95616
Email: rlgilbertson@ucdavis.edu

Dr. Howard Gobstein
Governmental Affairs
499 S. Capitol Street, S.W., Suite 500A
Washington, DC 20003-4013
Email: gobstein@msu.edu


Dr. Graciela Godoy Lutz
Centro de Investigaciones Agricola del Surocate
Apartado Postal No. 145
San Juan de la Maguana
Dominican Republic


Dr. Ken Grafton
North Dakota State University
Department of Plant Sciences
Fargo, ND 58105
Email: grafton@plains.nodak.edu


Dr. Peter Graham
University of Minnesota
Department of Soil Science
256 Borlaug Hall
1991 Upper Buford Circle
St. Paul, MN 55108
Email: peter.graham@soils.umn.edu

Dr. James Ian Gray
Michigan State University
Agricultural Experiment Station
109 Agriculture Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: gray@msu.edu

Mr. Robert Green
Michigan Bean Commission
1031 South U.S. 27
St. Johns, MI 48879



Ms. Joyce Haleegoah
Ghana Grains Development Project
Crops Research Institute
P.O. Box 3785
Kumasi, Ghana
Email: criggdp@gh.com

Dr. A. E. Hall
University of California-Riverside
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences
4133 Batchelor Hall
Riverside, CA 92521
Email: anthony.hall@ucr.edu

Dr. Larry G. Hamm
Michigan State University
Department of Agricultural Economics
202 Agriculture Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: hamm@msu.edu


Meeting Participants, Page 76


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







Dr. Dale D. Harpstead
Michigan State University
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences-Retired
2646 Raphael Road
East Lansing, MI 48823

Dr. Richard Harwood
Michigan State University
Mott Professor, Sustainable Agriculture
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
A260 Plant and Soil Sciences Building
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: rharwood@msu.edu

Dr. P. Vincent Hegarty
Michigan State University
Institute for Food Laws and Regulations
165C Food Safety Building
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: vhegarty@msu.edu


Dr. Harvey Hortik
USAID/G/EGAD/AFS
Room 2.11-006 Ronald Reagan Building
Washington, DC 20523
Email: hhortik@usaid.gov


Dr. George Hosfield
Michigan State University
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
494-E Plant and Soil Sciences Building
East Lansing, MI 48824-1325
Email: hosfiel2@msu.edu

Dr. John Hudzik
Michigan State University
International Studies and Programs
207 International Center
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: hudzik@msu.edu

Ms. Katy Ibrahim
Purdue University
International Programs in Agriculture
1168 Ag Administration Building, 26
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1168
Email: kgi@agad.purdue.edu


Mrs. Germaine Ibro
DECOR/INRAN
B.P. 429
Niamey, Niger
Email: ibro.abdou@undp.org

Dr. Donald Isleib
Michigan State University
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences-Retired
5400 Park Lake Road
East Lansing, MI 48823



Dr. Catherine L. Ives
Michigan State University
Agricultural Biotechnology for Sustainable
Productivity (ABSP)
324 Agriculture Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: ivesc@msu.edu

Dr. Taylor J. Johnston
Michigan State University
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
384F Plant and Soil Sciences Building
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: johnsto4@msu.edu

Dr. Edward Kanemasu
University of Georgia
Office of International Agriculture
211 Conner Hall
Athens, GA 30602-7503
ekanema@arches.uga.edu

Dr. James Kelly
Michigan State University
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
370 Plant and Soil Sciences Building
East Lansing, MI 48824-1325
Email: kellyj@msu.edu

Dr. Alpha Omar Kergne
Institute d'Economie Rural
B.P. 258
Bamako, Mali


Meeting Participants, Page 77


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







Dr. Saket Kushwaha
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University
Agricultural Economics and Extension Programme
School of Agriculture
PMB 0248
Bauchi, Nigeria
Email: kushwaha@atbu.edu.ng

Mr. Augustine Langyintuo
c/o Dr. Jess Lowenberg-DeBoer
Purdue University
Department of Agricultural Economics
Krannert Building
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Email: langyint@purdue.edu

Dr. Charles Laughlin
USDA/CSREES
305-A Whitten Building
1400 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20250-2201
Email: claughlin@intranet.reeusda.gov

Dr. Jess Lowenberg-DeBoer
Purdue University
Department of Agricultural Economics
Krannert Building
West Lafayette, IN 47906
Email: lowenberg-deboer@agecon.purdue.edu

Dr. Robert Mabagala
Sokoine University of Agriculture
Department of Crop Science and Production
Box 3005 Subpost Office, Chuo Kikuu
Morogoro, Tanzania
Email: mabagala@hotmail.com

Dr. Carlos Magno Campos da Rocha
EMBRAPA Cerrados
P.O. Box 08.223, CEP 73301-970
Planaltina, DF, Brazil
Email: cmagno@cpac.embrapa.br



Dr. K. A. Marfo
Crops Research Institute (CRI)
P.O. Box 3785
Kumasi, Ghana


Dr. K. O. Marfo
Savanna Agricultural Research Institute
P.O. Box 483
Tamale, Ghana
Email: sari@africaonline.com.gh



Dr. Gustavo Martinez
University of Puerto Rico
Department of Agronomy and Soils
P.O. Box 9030
Mayagiiez, PR 00681-9030
Email: tavomarti@hotmail.com


Dr. Charles Masangano
University of Malawi
Bunda College of Agriculture
Box 219
Lilongwe, Malawi
Email: masangano@eo.wn.apc.org

Dr. Douglas Maxwell
University of Wisconsin
Department of Plant Pathology
785 Russell Labs, 1630 Linden Drive
Madison, WI 53706-1598
Email: DUM@plantpath.wisc.edu

Ms. Elaine McMindes
Purdue University
International Sponsored Programs
1140 Ag Administration Building, 108
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1140


Dr. Carol Miles
Extension Agricultural Systems
Washington State University Research
and Extension Unit
1919 NE 78h Street
Vancouver, WA 98665-9752
Email: milesc@wsu.edu

Dr. A. B. C. Mkandawire
c/o Dr. Robert Gilbertson
University of California-Davis
Department of Plant Pathology
552 Hutchinson Hall
Davis, CA 95616
Email: abmkandawire@ucdavis.edu


Meeting Participants, Page 78


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







Mr. Theobald Mosha
Sokoine University of Agriculture
Department of Food Science and Technology
Box 3005 Subpost Office, Chuo Kikuu
Morogoro, Tanzania
Email: tcemosha@yahoo.com

Dr. Larry Murdock
Purdue University
Department of Entomology
ARB 111, Entomology Hall
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1158
Email:Larry_Murdock@entm.purdue.edu

Dr. James Myers
Oregon State University
Department of Horticulture
4017 Agriculture and Life Sciences Bldg.
Corvallis, OR 97331
Email: myersja@ava.bcc.orst.edu

Dr. Medhat Nakhla
University of Wisconsin
Department of Plant Pathology
Russell Lab 874, 1630 Linden Drive
Madison, WI 53706
Email: mkn@plantpath.wisc.edu


Dr. Susan Nchimbi-Msolla
Sokoine University of Agriculture
Department of Crop Science and Production
Box 3005 Subpost Office, Chuo Kikuu
Morogoro, Tanzania


Dr. Mamadou Ndiaye
Centre National de Recherch6s Agronomiques
B. P. 53
Bambey, S6n6gal
Email: Mamadou Ndiaye

Dr. Georges Ntoukam
Institute de la Recherch6 Agronomique
pour le Developpement (IRAD)
B. P. 33
Maroua, Cameroon
Email: georges.ntoukam@camnet.cm


Dr. Johnson Olufowote
World Vision International (WVI)
Food Security Program-Africa Region
P.O. Box 1490 Kaneshie
Accra, Ghana
Email: Johnson_Olufowote@wvi.org

Dr. Boukar Ousmane
c/o Dr. Larry Murdock
Purdue University
Department of Entomology
ARB 111, Entomology Hall
West Lafayette, IN 47907

Dr. Mike Owusu-Akyaw
Crops Research Institute (CRI)
P.O. Box 3785
Kumasi, Ghana
Email: criggdp@ncs.com.gh


Ing. Eduardo Peralta
Institute Nacional de Investigaciones
Agropecudrias (INIAP)
Estacion Santa Catalina
Casilla Postal 340
Quito, Ecuador
Email: Peraltae@ecnet.ec

Dr. R. Dixon Phillips
University of Georgia
Department of Food Science and Technology
Melton Building
Griffin, GA 30223-1797
Email: rphilli@cfsqe.griffin.peachnet.edu

Dr. Emmanuel Prophete
P.O. Box 2363
Port Au Prince, Haiti
Email: prophete@rehred-haiti.net


Dr. Pilar Ramirez
University of Costa Rica
Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center
San Jos6, Costa Rica
Email: pramirez99@hotmail.com


Meeting Participants, Page 79


Bean/Cowpea CRSP







Dr. Tom Reardon
Michigan State University
Department of Agricultural Economics
211F Agriculture Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: reardon@msu.edu

Dr. H. Paul Roberts
Michigan State University
College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
121 Agriculture Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: robertsh@msu.edu


Dr. Juan Carlos Rosas
Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP)
P.O. Box 93
Tegucigalpa, Honduras
Email: CAP12145@zamorano.edu.hn


Ms. Diane Ruonavaara
Michigan State University
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 International Center
East Lansing, MI48824
Email: ruonavaa@msu.edu


Dr. Abudulai Baba Salifu
Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI)
P.O. Box 483
Tamale, Ghana
Email: absalifu@africaonline.com.gh


Dr. Sam Sefa-Dedeh
University of Ghana-Legon
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences
P.O. Box 134
Accra, Ghana
Email: crspugl@ghana.com

Ms. Susan Seitz Bickety
Michigan State University
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 International Center
East Lansing, MI48824
Email: seitzsus@msu.edu


Dr. Merle Shepard
Coastal Research and Education Center
2865 Savannah Highway
Charleston, SC 29414
Email: mshprd@clemson.edu


Dr. B. B. Singh
IITA Kano Station
c/o Maureen Larkin
L. W. Lambourn and Co., Carolyn House
26 Dingwall Road
Croydon CR9 3EE England
Email: IITA-KANO@cgiar.org

Dr. James Steadman
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Department of Plant Pathology
406 Plant Science Hall, East Campus
Lincoln, NE 68583-0722
Email: jsteadmanl@unl.edu

Dr. Richard Swanson
University of Minnesota
College of Agricultural, Food and
Environmental Sciences
190 Coffey Hall, 1420 Eckles Ave.
St. Paul, MN 55108
Email: rswanson@tc.umn.edu

Dr. William Taylor
Michigan State University
College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
102 Agriculture Hall
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: taylorw@msu.edu

Dr. Mark A. Uebersax
Michigan State University
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
204 GM Trout Building
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: uebersax@msu.edu

Dr. Brenda Vander Mey
Clemson University
Department of Sociology
130E Brackett Hall
Clemson, SC 29634
Email: vanmey@clemson.edu


Bean/Cowpea CRSP


Meeting Participants, Page 80







Mr. Abelardo Viana Ruano
PROFRIJOL
la. Avenida 8-00, Zona 9
Apartado Postal 231 "A"
Guatemala City, Guatemala
Email: a-viana@guate.net

Ms. Mary Ann Walker
Michigan State University
Office of International Development
7 International Center
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: mawalker@msu.edu

Dr. Donald Wallace
Cornell University
Department of Plant Breeding
402 Bradfield Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853-1902
Email: dhw3@corell.edu


Dr. Irvin Widders
Michigan State University
Bean/Cowpea CRSP
200 International Center
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: widders@msu.edu

Dr. Scott G. Witter
Michigan State University
Department of Resource Development
323 Natural Resources Building
East Lansing, MI 48824
Email: witter@msu.edu


Meeting Participants, Page 81


Bean/Cowpea CRSP

























































































Meeting Participants, Page 82


Bean/Cowpea CRSP














APPENDIX A









BEAN/COWPEA CRSP
NEW ORGANIZATION PLAN: Period 1997-2002


U. S. Institutional
Representatives


WEST AFRICA REGION
U.S. and Host Country Researchers/
Regional Research Advisors





U.S./HC REGIONAL TEAM
Regional Research Advisors
* Germplasm development
* Genetic transformation
* Heat and drought
* IPM-field
* IPM-storage
* Food quality/product development


EAST AFRICA REGION
U.S. and Host Country Researchers/
Regional Research Advisors


LATIN AMERICA/CARIBBEAN REGION
- U.S. and Host Country Researchers/
Regional Research Advisors


BOARD OF DIRECTORS


TECHNICAL COMMITTEE

West Africa Regional Team Chair/Co-Chair/Regional Facilitator
East Africa Regional Team Chair/Co-Chair/Regional Facilitator
LAC Regional Team Chair/Co-Chair/Regional Facilitator
X. _______________..


EXTERNAL EVALUATION PANEL)


MANAGEMENT OFFICE/
MANAGEMENT ENTITY


U.S./HC REGIONAL TEAM
Regional Research Advisors
* Germplasm development/biotechnology
* Seed/soil sciences
* Storage technologies
* Drought tolerance
* Host/pathogen co-evolution
* Disease resistance
* Culinary/nutritional quality


U.S./HC REGIONAL TEAM
Regional Research Advisors
* Germplasm development
* Soil science/BNF
* Heat and drought
* Bacterial diseases
* Geminivirus diseases/biotechnology
* Nutrition/product development
* Socioeconomics


!


... .... .... .
.. .. ... .... ..









BEAN/COWPEA CRSP
ANTICIPATED FIVE-YEAR IMPACTS


I PR N I I PROJECT ACHIEV E IIA


NRM/Production


Improved Storage


Improved Nutrition/
Processing/Product
Development


Socioeconomics/WID


Training/Institution
Building

Extension/Technology
Transfer


IARCs
NGOs
Private Commercial Sector
Other CRSPs
Other USAID Projects
Other Regional Programs


Greater crop resistance to stresses for small-scale farmers
Germplasm Diversity/New Improved Higher, more consistent yields
Varieties in Use
Increased consumption with better nutrition/bioavailability



Reinforced biodiversity

Improved crop management for soil and water use
New Technologies and Practices in Use
Increased nitrogen fixation

<,. ._ New crop management for field and storage pests/diseases


More efficient, productive farmers, especially women

Increased Nutrition and Income Increased opportunities for entrepreneurs, especially women
Desirable nutritious value-added products for urban markets


More trained nationals in strong professional teams

( Better diagnostic/biotechnology/breeding capacity
Stronger Research/Extension Capacity Greater responsiveness to the needs of women farmers

More effective seed production/distribution system/access

Increased knowledge of regional production/marketing system


Improved varieties and diagnostic tools (techniques)

Increased consumption from value-added products/marketing
Stronger U.S. Agriculture
SMore reliable supply for processing, marketing industry

Greater competitiveness in the international marketplace




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