1924 E. JACKSON ST.
Entered as Second Class Mail Matter
Vol. VII suBSCBIPTION PRICE 50 CETS PIB YZn TAMPA, FLORIDA, APRIL 1, 1932 at the P.st Oliee at Tampa, Florida NO. 21
Under the Act of March 8. 1879.
Statistical Study of Specialists
Shows Net Gain Over Six Years
Discloses Wide Variation in Costs of Handling Groves
of Non-Residents; Figures Average Annual Return
on These Groves of 6% on $1,000 an Acre Value
Citrus Advances In All Markets
With Prospects for Further Gains
Texas Season Officially Closed By Quarantine Leaves
Florida Grapefruit Without Competition; Orange
and Grapefruit Crops Are Smaller Than Expected
Repeatedly, the Florida Citrus
Exchange has asserted that the dis-
organized condition of the Florida
citrus industry has held the return
on grove investment to six percent
or less. The conclusion was based
upon an analysis of the annual re-
ports of the State Marketing Bureau
on the value of the citrus crop.
Additional corroboration of the
return comes from another source.
Studies by the College of Agricul-
ture and the Bureau of Agricultural
' Economics, U. S. D. A., on the costs
and receipts of a group of non-
resident owned groves shows an
S average net of $59 an acre or ap-
proximately six percent on $1,000
an acre value. A summary of the
group study is given by J. E. Tur-
Covers Six Year Period
The study covered the six year
period from 1924-25 to 1929-30.
Figures were obtained for 500
groves from which were selected 14
groves which were ten years of age
or older at the beginning of the
period and for which complete rec-
ords were obtained f-r he six years.
Costs included all materials used
such as fertilizer, insecticides and
fungicides, trees for replacement,
labor, supervision, power, use of
equipment and also taxes. Receipts
referred to the net after picking,
packing and selling charges.
Following is a summary of the
record for the 14 groves:
Costs Vary Widely
Costs varied widely from $53 an
acre in one grove to $265 in an-
other. Average cost for the three
high cost groves was $255 an acre;
for the three low cost groves, $69
an acre, and the eight medium cost.
groves, $123 an acre. There are
some indications, Mr. Turlington
stated, that too little was spent on
the low cost groves and too much
on the high cost ones.
Receipts, or the net after pick-
ing, packing and selling charges,
ranged from $53 an acre to $552.
The grove which had a cost of only
$53 an acre returned just that
amount a year for the six years.
The highest average return was made
by a grove whose average cost was
$234 or among the highest, but this
grove was 37 years old at the con-
clusion of the record period.
Big Crop in Isle of Pines
The Isle of Pines is moving the
greatest grapefruit crop of its his-
Post. Shipments ocJan. 31 totaled
290,833 boxes which is 22,283 boxes
more than any previous season's vol-
ume. The Isle still has some of the
crop to move which should bring the
total to 300,000 boxes. This vol-
ume, commented the Post, does not
include bulk shipments to Cuba
which were considerable.
6 year totals per grove
$ 9,230 $ 13,437
Average per acre per year
One of the First "Buds"
The above is not much to look at now, but
it is believed to be one of the oldest 'buds"
in the state. It is a bud from the famous
"Dade" tree near Thonotosassa, north of
Tampa, which sprang from seeds of a sweet
Cuban orange dropped by Major Dade on
the trail just a day before massacre of his
troops in 1835. The original, many of its
seedlings and buds, are in the Miley grove.
Efforts are to be made, it is understood, to
bring the ancient trees back into flourish-
Real Citrus Grove At
A real citrus grove of half an
acre, with full-grown citrus trees in
full foliage and fruiting, will be one
of the features of the Florida exhibit
at the Century of Progress Expo-
sition at Chicago next year. This is
in addition to the citrus diorama, or
three dimension picture, and the ex-
hibits of packed fruit.
J. A. Macintosh of the Florida de-
partment of agriculture is making
his selection of trees now and will
give them special root treatment
which will make possible the exhibit
of an actual grove at the exposition.
Similar plans have been made to
exhibit other sub-tropical fruit trees.
Arrangements have been made with
J. C. Ilsen of Miami to collect as
many as possible of the 73 varieties
indigenous to Florida.
Florida grapefruit now has a clear
field in the markets with every in-
dication for a continued advance.
The Texas season was officially
closed Friday, March 25, at mid-
night, on order of the federal quar-
antine force, leaving Porto Rico as
the sole competitor to Florida. Its
supplies are so light it is not con-
sidered a factor.
In his weekly summary, F. W.
Davis, general sales manager, re-
ported all markets had shown an ad-
vance last week on both oranges and
grapefruit. The general auction
average on oranges advanced 25
cents a box compared with the prev-
ious week, while grapefruit showed
a more marked increase raising the
auction average 40 cents a box.
The indications are for a firm
market on both oranges and grape-
fruit, Mr. Davis stated. He said that
the demand for desirable cars ex-
ceeded the supply all through, the
week of March 26. Recent estimates,
he said, indicate that the crop will
be much lighter than expected ,4
that the size situation will cut down
the volume considerably.
Valencias are running to smaller -
sizes this season than ordinarily, Mr.
Davis reported. He estimates that
in general the Valencias will be
about two sizes smaller than last sea-
son. Most crops, he said, are run-
ning heavy to 150s to 216s.
The average orange size this sea-
son to the date of the report is 226
to the box. For the week of March
26, the average in size was 213.
Grapefruit for the week averaged
72.6 to the box; for the season 68.9.
Under lighter supplies enroute,
the export market is expected to
show an advance, E. E. Patterson,
grapefruit sales manager, reported.
The market has been steady but con-
siderably less fruit is on the way
than the markets of the United King-
dom have been receivinglin the past
SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE April 1, 1932
Florida Citrus in the Chicago Market
By S. W. Teague, Western Division Manager
Last fall in
certain parts of
Florida the inde-
pendents h a d
that their repre-
sentative in the
had buyers in the
auctions a n d
stores on the
street, so that
t h e i r buyers S. w. Teague
would run prices, and also take out
of auction and sell through the store
when prices were unsatisfactory.
It is very seldom that any benefit
is derived from withdrawing a car
from the sale; in fact, the car sits in
a warm auction room and as a rule is
not as attractive the next sale. Un-
less the market advances consider-
ably, and fruit is scarce, the buyers
remember the car that has been
withdrawn the day before and dis-
"Buying In" a Car
Recently in the auction there was
an example of buying in part of the
car. A competitor had a first grade
from Orange county and we had a
Mor-juce from Orange county. This
receiver's buyer bought in 156 boxes
of undesirable sizes at 20 to 30<
more than they would have brought
had they been sold.
Now, before this fruit can be sold
in the store there will be a terminal
charge and cartage to pay. On the
desirable sizes Mor-juce beat the
independent's U. S. No. 1 from 5
to 60 per box. On the undesirable
size the receiver's buyer bought in
somebody is going to have to take
a loss of from 30 to 504 on 156
boxes. This will be $50.00 to $75.00
or the brokerage on two or three cars
of fruit. This is poor business; first
it makes a bad feeling with the other
buyers; secondly, it causes somebody
to take a loss; and, thirdly it does
not help the market.
"Running Up" Prices
As to running prices up on buyers.
This practice is accomplished by hav-
ing the receiver's buyer do it, or
having one or two buyers in the
room do it. After one or two cars
everybody in the room is on to this
trick and they sit back and wait
until the runner up gets all he wants
New Use for Sour Orange
The sour orange, source of much
of the root stock used in Florida, is
suitable for marmalade, reports
Rupert Smith of Arcadia, formerly
a director of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change. A high grade preserve has
been made by one canning company
from the sour orange, resulting in
the prospect, a steady supply of the
fruit will be desired.
and the balance of the car sells at
less than it would have sold if no one
had tried to boost it.
These two undesirable outside
practices make it easy for Ex-
change fruit to top the market regu-
larly as actual figures show year in
and year out. Were it possible for
every Florida grower to spend a
few days on this market they would
all be convinced that the Exchange
is their only salvation. They would
be convinced by attitude of the trade
in general. 95 percent of the trade
on this end realize that in this day of
consolidations and big business, the
only chance for the growers and
themselves is in big cooperatives.
What's Wrons With Florida Citrus?
By Errol M. Zorn, Eastern Division Mana3er
A few weeks
ago when the -
ket was at disas-
terously 1 o w
levels the receiv-
ers of Florida
fruit in New York
called a meeting,
the purpose of
which was to en-
deavor to bring
o f order o u t Errol M. Zorn
of the then existing chaos. The con-
census of opinion at the meeting
was that there was no hope for
grapefruit unless shipments were
Quality Chain Features "Seald-Sweet"
The largest over-the-counter sale
of orange juice in the New York
City area is credited to Loft, Inc.,
candy manufacturers and operators
of a chain of 150 stores in the Metro-
politan area. Significantly, the com-
pany is one of the strongest sup-
porters of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change and its "one-fourth more
The photographs above illustrate
the fine cooperation the company is
giving the Exchange. It features
"Seald-Sweet, Florida's Fines Tree-
Ripened Citrus" at all of its foun-
tains. The top picture shows a view
of the interior fountain display in
one of the downtown Loft stores at
Cortland and Church street, Hudson
Terminal building. The lower view
is the window display in one of the
Broadway Loft stores, Eighth and
Broadway. The displays were ar-
ranged by Ed. Fallon, dealer serv-
ice chief of the Eastern division.
Loft, Inc., Mr. Fallon informed,
advertises the sale of a car of Flor-
ida oranges daily. Their volume is
steadily growing, he stated. The
company has purchased many
straight cars f.o.b. from the Ex-
change and is a regular purchaser in
The company sells a good volume
of fruit, also, still featuring the
"one-fourth more juice" slogan and
the brand name "Seald-Sweet." It
has made up a special consumer box
containing six oranges which has
curtailed materially and at once.
Each receiver wired to his respective
shipper such a recommendation.
Shippers were told that if the grape-
fruit movement were slowed up con-
siderably, available supplies for the
ensuing week would be pro-rated and
spread over a week and a half, which
would strengthen the market and
permit jobbers to dispose of ac-
cumulated stocks that were hanging
like a wet blanket, over the market.
Hearty response came from Flor-
ida. Grapefruit shipments were to
be cut in half. A wonderful spirit
of cooperation suddenly manifested
itself and the grapefruit deal was
to be saved. Indeed, it could have
been saved if all that was then prom-
ised had been carried out. But
human greed got the better of good
intentions and the opportunity to
make grapefruit a profitable deal
jwas lost. True, probably seventy-
five percent of the shippers of the
state religiously followed the pro-
gram adopted, but, as has happened
so frequently in the past, those ship-
pers merely held the umbrella over
the other twenty-five percent who
not only increased shipments of their
regular tonnage, but bought addi-
tional fruit to rush to market.
Ruin Perfect Situation
Prices advanced 256 during the
first week of the program, due to
lighter supplies and the belief on the
part of the trade that for once Flor-
ida would act reasonably. Buyers
became more confident and for sev-
eral days there was a spirit of opti-
mism that augured well for grape-
fruit. Psychologically, the situa-
tion was perfect.
Then reports of daily rail ship-
ments were published, showing that
while the grapefruit movement had
been reduced, the reduction had not
been in line with the recommenda-
tions. Finally, steamers arrived
carrying quantities just about as
large as previous cargoes and the
trade threw up their hands in dis-
gust, convinced that Florida wouldn't
or couldn't manage its own affairs.
This incident was a tragic indict-
ment of the Florida citrus industry
and illustrates most clearly why sane
merchandising methods are difficult
to employ in marketing Florida's
crop. Shippers cannot carry out a
definite program; wholesalers are
forced to operate from hand to
mouth, day to day, and retailers are
always in a quandry. Just a wild
merry-go-round. And the grower
pays the bill.
Charles W. Skelley, assistant to
S. W. Teague, Western division man-
ager, Chicago, was married Mar. 12,
to Miss Louise Carpenter, Rockford,
Ill. Mr. Skelley is the son of G. W.
Skelley of Rockledge, vice-president
of Cocoa-Merritts Island association.
April 1, 1932
Api .13 EL-WE HOIL
ciation of DeSoto
rests its founda- -. A
tions upon pio-
neers who hewed
homes and groves B
out of the wilder- ,
ness; men of that ""
who came on far
ahead of the rail-
roads. A. T. Shelter
The association was organized in
1915, preceded by many of the other
associations, but the growers who
formed its charter membership dated
the beginning of their citrus ex-
perience far back of the "big freeze
of '94," into the early days of the
commercial era of the citrus in-
-dustry-the days of the ox cart,
trails and forts.
The association seems today to
have clung firmly to its original
pioneer cast. Nearly all of the mem-
bership comes from the original
families. A few are "newcomers,".
only able to count 10 years of resi-
dence in the community. More than
half of the members can check back
to 40 years or more.
There are around 100 growers in
the association. These are mainly
small growers.. The common holding
is 10 to 20 acres with a few 30's.
The largest grove holding of the
membership is 60 acres.
The association's territory covers
quite a range but is a hot bed of
competition. The territory runs into
Arcadia, a few miles northeast
where eight packing plants reach
out fo many miles around for fruit,
while at Nocatee are three plants,
including that of the association,
'and another a few miles south.
Nocatee association, itself, reaches
out over a radius of 17 miles for its
fr.it. A few years back, DeSoto
association at Arcadia merged with
it, adding materially to its volume.
Last season it handled 175,000 boxes
of fruit while this season in spite of
a light crop it will put through in
excess of 100,000 boxes.
Nocatee association has grown
considerably in its 17 years and has
possibilities of greater growth in
the future. DeSoto county has a
large citrus acreage in which Noca-
tee section is well represented. It
is estimated that within five miles
around Nocatee there are nearly
3,000 acres of groves, much of it
A. T. Shelfer, who looks back
more than 40 years to his arrival in
the community, has been manager
since the merger with DeSoto asso-
ciation. N. E. Norwood, another
old resident, is president. F. S. Mar-
quett, one of the newcomers with a
residence of a. little more than 10
years, is vice-president. The board
includes Leslie Avant, whose father
planted one of the early groves; R.
E. Garner of a pioneer family; D.
M. Shelfer, brother of A. T.; Adron
C. Walker and C. E. McConnell,
principal of Nocatee school.
The plant is thoroughly modern,
though the old building acquired
from a private operator 17 years ago,
still houses the machinery. Several
additions have been made to the
original small building and new
modern equipment installed with
each addition until the association
today provides a practically com-
plete service of its own even to
electric lights and power.
From the beginning with a one-
car-a-day plant, the association has
expanded until it can handle five cars
a day at normal operation. It has
modern type coloring rooms and a
modern precooling plant capable of
handling 10,000 boxes at a time.
Its power plant consists of a 120
horsepower Deisel engine operating
a generator which supplies the power
for the machinery and lights for the
plant. It still uses the overhead line
shaft to run the equipment, drawing
the power from a central motor.
It has the newest in soaking and
washing tanks, washer, duplex dryer
and polishers, including the Brogdex
equipment of wax logger and hot
Frost struck savagely at the Cali-
fornia citrus growers this past win-
ter, particularly those in the south-
ern section, damaging Valencias and
lemons considerably as well as
Navels, according to Floyd D.
Young, noted meteorologist, in a
special article in the California
Citrograph of March.
The damage to navels, estimated
at 15 percent, is generally well-
known to Florida growers, but Mr.
Young's estimate of an equal dam-
age to Valencias in Orange county,
Calif., and as high or higher in other
sections, comes as a surprise. So also
his estimate of 20 to 25 percent dam-
age to lemons, forecasting a short-
age during the summer is equally
Frost Unusual This Year
It is clear that California received
an: unusual visitation of frost. Mr.
Young also makes it clear that the
frosts this season there were much
different from those of other seasons,
and, as he stated it, "for infinite va-:
riety, nothing exceeds the weather."
His article is an interesting ana-,
lytical account of the California ex-
perience with frost the past winter.
"Minimum temperatures during,
the present season have not been so
low, generally speaking, but day
temperatures have been low and
humidity and temperature ceilings
have been high," Mr. Young ex-
plained were the chief character-
istics of the season. "As a result,"
he said, "there has been consider-
ably more damage this season than
Two points have been emphasized
p.:iiisher \ which it has purchased.
Automatic Heat Equipment
The coloring rooms are equipped
with the Skinner system, utilizing
stea r fri- heat and humidity. The
steam i.. supplied from an automatic
plant, housed in a small building to
tie rear of the packing house. An
oil burner cuts down when the steam
pressure in the boiler rises to 15
pounds and opens up when the pres-
sure .li'or: to 10 pounds. Steam also
heats the water in the soaking and
Considerable saving in fuel costs
is made by purchases under contract
in carlots. A 16,000 gallon tank
was obtained at low cost and is
filled twice a year. The fuel oil costs
delivered 4% cents a gallon. Two
tanks of oil are used a season, mak-
ing the total fuel cost for the Deisel
engine and the steam plant about
$800; remarkable low it is believed
for an entire house operation in-
cluding coloring, precooling, heat-
ing and lighting.
The association also has little ex-
pense for water. Its supply is re-
ceived from a flowing well close to
the building which has worked for
years without any trouble.
by the weather bureau out of its ob-
servations of affects of frost. One
is that the same temperature will
cause more damage on a damp night
than on a dry one. The second is
immature fruit will not stand as low
a temperature as mature fruit will.
Damage More General
"Frost damage," Mr. Young
stated, "has been more general this
winter than last and some districts
report the heaviest damage since
1913." It was more severe in the
southern part of the state, he said.
The frosts came early and struck
hard, he commented in his article.
Warning was given the growers the
night of Nov. 20. About 25 percent,
ignoring past experience, had not
put their heaters in the groves, and,
as the weather was cloudy and mild,
disregarded the warning. Many were
still placing and filling heaters when
the temperature dropped to the dan-
ger point, according to Mr. Young.
Ice on Fruit and Leaves
The night of the 21st and the night
following were exceptionally wet in
most districts and ice formed on the
fruit and leaves quite generally. This
with the tender condition of the trees
and the immaturity of the fruit, re-
sulted in heavy damage in some un-
heated' sections, Mr. Young said.
Temperatures as low as 22 to 25 de-
grees occurred in many sections.
The next severe general cold spell
came between Dec. 1 and 16, with
minimum temperatures of 24 to 27
degrees. Humidity was high in most
districts and ice again formed.
Another cold wave followed the
night of Jan. 13-14 when minimum
temperatures of 22 to 25 degrees
were recorded. In many instances
the lowest temperatures were re-
corded on the higher and normally
frost-free slopes and some recorded
the lowest temperatures in 15 years,
Mr. Young said.
The next night snow fell gen-
erally in the San Gabriel valley and
northword, damaging trees in a few
areas where it fell the heaviest. -
Temperature-iduring and immediate-
ly following was not damaging to the
fruit, but from the 16th to the 26th
frosts were more or less general,
said Mr. Young, with minimum tem-
peratures of 20 to 25 degrees re-
Twelve packing houses affiliated
with the Florida Citrus Exchange
still have a perfect record regarding
decay in shipments while the aver-
age for the whole organization is less
than half of one percent. Three per-
cent is tolerance.
Houses with the perfect record
are: Frostproof, Lake Placid and
Waverly of Chase Sub-Exchange, Ft.
Okahumpka, West Orange, Alturas,
Lauderdale, Plant City, Ft. Myers,
Lake Garfield, DeLeon Springs and
Nocatee, Association of Pioneers
California's Frost Experience Interesting
April 1. 1932
SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE April 1, 1932
Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Postoffice Box 2349
Net Grower Circulation
Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.
Vol. VII APRIL 1, 1932. No. 21
The citrus market is advancing.
Already it has shown a neat gain per
box, but there are quite a few grow-
ers to whom the improvement in the
market will make no difference what-
ever. They accepted offers earlier
for their late fruit from the specu-
Warning of the probable im-
provement was given by the Florida
Citrus Exchange several times for
the protection of the non-member
growers. Exchange growers have a
natural protection for the Exchange
does not take a profit for itself nor
speculate but pays over all except
the actual costs, fixed ahead of the
But the activity of the buyers of
itself should have been a warning to
the growers. As stated by Gen. Mgr.
C. C. Commander recently, "on a
rising market, cash buyers are al-
"The profits which the cash buyer
sees an opportunity of making on this
rising market rightfully belong to
the grower and he can make them
if he exercises ordinary business
judgment," continued Mr. Com-
"It was only a few weeks ago
that buyers were offering $1.25 on
the trees for Valencias. Today offers
are being made at $2.25 with some
sales of particularly desirable crops
at even higher prices. One of our
growers with a 10,000 box crop was
interested in selling at the prevailing
price of $1.25. We were able to
convince him of the inadvisability of
this action and, by holding even to
the present time, he has made him-
self $1 a box on the increasing prices,
or $10,000 net for his total crop.
"While this is an isolated example
of the rather general practice and
operations of these fruit buyers, in
spite of the publicity given to the
prospective rise in citrus markets, I
know of one buyer who purchased
nearly 100,000 boxes of Valencias at
an average price of slightly more
than $1 on the tree. If those growers
had familiarized themselves with
conditions and the value of their
fruit, they would have realized that
$100,000 increase in the value of
their fruit instead of turning their
justly earned profit over to that spec-
'It is the grower who has made
the crop and carried it against all
risks of freezes, storms and drouth.
And it is the grower who should
realize the profits available to him
on his fruit from the steadily rising
markets. He has carried his fruit
this far. All that is necessary is that
he hold it now for ts full value."
The failure of many associations
to brand their fruit is being com-
mented upon by a number of re-
tailers, wholesalers, advertising men
and dealer service men who cannot
understand why this fault exists, re-
ports S. W. Teague, Western division
"It puts Florida citrus at a marked
disadvantage in competition with
California oranges," Mr. Teague
said. "The housewife is accustomed
to seeing 'Sunkist'; 99 percent of it
is stamped. Some of our fruit is
stamped with the Exchange brands,
some is stamped with the associa-
tion brand and some with the narhe
of the section in which it was pro-
duced while a lot is not stamped at
"In Chicago I have in mind three
associations that play this market
consistently. They stamp every
fruit with the Exchange brands and
display the Exchange brand names
prominently upon the box labels. If
any associations of the Exchange
could afford to dispense with this
these three could as they are well
known here with an established rep-
utation for an extra good grade and
pack, usually getting a premium.
"If all the fruit was stamped it
would be a wonderful stride for-
ward. The dealers, wholesale and
retail, realize the value of the
stamped fruit and lack of stamping
is the most general complaint reg-
istered by the trade."
*The idea that citrus is a necessity
rather than a luxury fruit grows in
spite of the curb which economic
conditions puts upon expenditures
and the ready acceptance of new
ideas. It is only in recent years
that the pronounced health values
of citrus have been recognized by
physicians, dietiticians and health
specialists and advocated by them,
but more and more families are
learning and are buying in greater
number, many in quantity measure,
some a box at a time.
Requests for the "Seald-Sweet"
health book frequently disclose a
"quantity purchaser." One such
was received recently from Mrs. H.
C. Lander of Great Falls, Montana,
"We buy your grapefruit from
our local grocery in case and half-
case lots for home use. Of all the
fruit we have or can get, grapefruit
is at the top of the list with our
Larger production and low prices
have some good points along with
the unsatisfactory. They have per-
mitted wider distribution and have
attracted many new users. The grow-
ers will receive material benefits
from this later though the going is
hard at present.
Attractive Citrus Exhibit
Lake county, one of whose exhibits appears above, won many honors at the various
fairs in which it or its growers entered this season.
HELPS THE DEALER
From the standpoint of increased profits, the
dealer finds Brogdexed fruit very satisfactory.
The fact that they keep well enables him to
handle on a smaller margin of profit and still
make more. He does not find it necessary to fix
his selling price sufficiently high to provide a sort
of "Sinking Fund" to take care of the usual
An Indian River packer says he uses Brogdex
because it makes his fruit stand up in the hands
of the dealer. He considers the dealer the most
important factor in the present method of dis-
tribution. Get the dealer sold on your brands
and your troubles are over.
Brogdex brands are keeping brands. They
have snap and life and stay sound and fresh look-
ing long enough for the dealer to sell out of dis-
play stock with little if any replacements nec-
Give the market this kind of fruit and it will
not be long before you will be doing a bigger,
better and more profitable citrus business.
FLORIDA BROGDEX DISTRIBUTORS
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
April 1, 1932
April 1, 1932 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE
Organics vs. Chemicals for Citrus
By F. M.
Organics are a cheaper source of
ammonia in citrus groves than are
chemicals such as Nitrate of Soda,
Sulphate of Ammonia, or Urea. Such
at least is the conclusion of the
writer who started out six years ago
to prove exactly the opposite.
Seven years ago the writer planted
a grove at Waverly Heights. It was
divided into a North and South block
by an East to West road through
the middle of the grove. The North
block had 45 rows of 21 trees each,
the South block 45 rows of 20 trees
each. Two months after the grove
was planted a cover crop of crota-
laria was planted through the en-
tire grove and has been maintained
When the grove was one year old
the writer decided to find out the
answer to this question: "When a
good leguminous cover crop is main-
tained in a grove, will the cheaper
all-chemical fertilizers give equally
good results as those containing con-
siderable quantities of natural or-
ganics?" The South block was fer-
tilized with a regular brand of fer-
tilizer manufactured by a company
which has always championed the
use of large amounts of natural or-
ganics. The North block was given
an equal amount of a formula with
the same analysis made exclusively
from Nitrate of Soda, Sulphate of
Ammonia, Sulphate of Potash and
Superphosphate. Other treatment
such as cultivation, spraying, cover
crops, etc., have been maintained the
same throughout the entire grove.
High Organics vs. Double Strength
During the past two years the
North block has received a 6-16-16
"double strength" formula of chem-
icals while the South block has re-
ceived twice as many pounds of a
3-8-8 formula in which two-thirds
of more of the Ammonia is guar-
anteed, in the manufacturer's cata-
logue, to come from natural organic
such as bone meal and Peruvian
Guano and the other one-third is
derived about equally from Nitrate
of Soda and Sulphate of Ammonia.
Thus it will be seen that both
sides have received, from the start,
the same amount of plant food, given
at the same time and all other cul-
tural treatments have been the same.
After the experiment had been
running two years a group of grow-
ers viewed the two blocks without
knowing which side had received the
organic. They voted by ballot. Each
and every one judged correctly
which side had received the organic
and believed that side the best.
Comparing First Crops
The first commercial crop was pro-
duced in the year 1929-30. The crop
on the South block appeared to be
packing house to notify him so that
he could be present and see that the
two blocks were picked separately.
The message miscarried and no ac-
curate record was secured until the
crop of 1930-31.
The Marsh Seedless averaged one
box per tree on chemicals and 1.64
per tree on the organic mixture. If
Marsh Seedless brings $1.00 per box
on the tree, as we believe it will, this
means that the Marsh Seedless trees
on the organic side will yield $ .64
per tree more than on the chemical
side. The organic fertilizers cost
7% per tree more applied on the
grove than did the chemical double
strength mixture, so there was a net
profit in favor of the organic of
$ .56% per tree. On the basis of a
solid ten acre grove of 600 Marsh
Seedless trees, this would mean that
an increased return pf $339.00 net
could be realized by paying the high-
er price for the organic fertilizers.
The results are the same, though
not quite so striking, with the other
varieties. At even the poor prices
prevailing this year on common
grapefruit the increased yield se-
cured from organic much more than
paid for the increased cost of the
Comparison of Returns
If Early Grapefruit pays 400 per
box on the tree, Marsh Seedless
$1.00 and Valencias $2.00, the Va-
lencias and Grapefruit from the
North Block (chemical) will bring
$351.80 while those from the South
Block (organic) will bring $503.40,
or $151.60 in favor of organic. In
a year of good prices the increase
in favor of the organic would be
We realize that these figures are
given for one year only, but they are
so striking that they deserve more
than passing attention.
There was a good crop set on both
blocks for the 1931-32 crop. We
believe the organic side will have
the larger crop again.
In the matter of quality there
was apparently no difference in the
grapefruit. In the case of Valencias
there was distinctly a better fruit
produced on the South block (or-
Recently there has been much
recommending the use of straight
chemical fertilizers in groves where
supplemented by the growth of
heavy leguminous cover crops turned
under to supply organic. Growers
of many years experience have ex-
pressed their honest doubts as to the
wisdom of this practice. The fore-
going experiment indicates that even
where heavy leguminous cover crops
are grown from the very start of the
grove that the use of natural or-
ganics in the fertilizers pays hand-
INCE 1908, the exponent and the guardian of Flor-
ida's farming interest. The only general agricul-
tural journal in continuous service from that date.
Now better, bigger and broader than ever. Con-
structively covers the entire field of Florida farming,
fruit growing, truck production and live stock raising.
A friendly supporter of all wise and well-directed
endeavor for the benefit of Florida agriculture and
horticulture. Yet controlled by no organization and
not the "organ" of any group.
Operated by the principal owners, whose major
activity it constitutes. No connection with any other
business or publication. Independent, informed and
informative, truly "The Magazine of Florida."
Edited by men who have lived in the state for many
years, and who are thoroughly conversant with Florida
conditions. Has numerous exclusive features, and
keeps its readers abreast of everything pertaining to
agricultural development here.
You can know about all the important events which
are "of, for and by" Florida agriculture only when
you read this periodical. A trial will convince you, and
add your name permanently to the subscription list,
already far larger than that of any other farm paper
in the state.
Try the Florida Grower at Publisher's Expense
Published monthly, the Florida Grower is $1 a year
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Box 2350, Tampa, Florida Date
Send me the Florida Grower on trial at your expense.
After three months, render me bill, which I agree- to
return promptly, either with notice that I don't con-
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panied by remittance covering subscription at $1 for
one year or $2 for three years.
St. No. or R. F. D.
P. O. Box
the larger. The writer asked the somely.
April 1, 1932
GROVE, FIELD AND CROP NOTES
If plans have not already been
made for the production of a good
cover crop in the grove, attention
should be given to this important
matter at once. The cover crop that
will yield the greatest tonnage will CUL
probably prove the most profitable.
In some cases this will be a natural
cover crop of grasses and weeds. CON
Natal grass is a good cover crop for
light sandy soils. Crotalaria is the
leading cover crop for most of the
citrus soils in Florida. INS:
On some light citrus soils it does
not seem practicable to produce a
sufficient amount of organic matter FER
through the growing of cover crops
in the groves. Hauling in organic
matter from outside the grove and
mulching with it has proven practical
and feasible. This is the time of
year to give attention to producing The e
this extra organic matter on un- anges, p
used soils near the grove, wide by
The beneficial effect of cultivation through
seems to be limited to holding in mand, i
check the grasses and weeds which ence a
compete with the trees for soil mois- summers.
ture during the dry season. Under A rec
certain conditions, mowing should by Cha
replace cultivation. Where irriga- number
tion is practiced, it may be desir- n ber
able to allow the cover crop to grow, for Flr
even during the dry season. Reduced fornia
cultivation not only reduces grove the i
expenses, but also results in fruit of of h
better texture and quality. northeJ
The grove cover crop and culti-
vation should be considered in plan- "The
ning an efficient and economical fer- is that
tilizer program. In fertilizing groves anges f
this spring, a good many growers buyer st
have applied only ammonia, in the out of a
form of sulphate of ammonia, ni- he coulc
trate of soda, calurea, or some other Another
soluble material. The practice is in bought t
keeping with either the "materials" table, bl
program or the "modified" program the jui
of the grove fertilizing recommen- bought
Stations of the College of Agricul- kept the
ture. table fo]
If it is desired to follow the "ma-
terials" program through the year
and apply the materials separately,
the next step is to apply, in April or Folloe
May or early June, the phosphate for preferer
the year. If a grower is using mixed
fertilizers, he will want to make Week of
his summer application late this Feb. 27
month or in May or ealy June. Mar. 5
Production of more than 1,000 Mar. 12
boxes of grapefruit to the acre on Mar. 26
7% acres owned by Charles Wyack,
member of Sebring association, is
reported by the Highlands County Week of
News. The fruit so far put through Feb. 27
the packing house is grading about Mar. 5
76 percent "Seald-Sweet," accord-
ing to the association records. The Mar. 12
grove is under the supervision of Mar. 26
Grove Calendar for April
By E. F. DeBusk, Extension Citriculturist
Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville, Florida
If dry, conserve moisture by cultivating or mowing enough
to keep down weeds and grass. Irrigation may be used to
substitute for cultivation and mowing.
Where natural cover crop is not satisfactory, plant Crota-
laria if moisture conditions are favorable for germination
ECTS AND DISEASES
Spray or dust with sulphur if rust mites become numerous
on new or old fruit. Where it is desired to control melanose,
apply 3-3-50 bordeaux plus oil in late April or early May.
Where only nitrogen was applied this spring, and materials
fertilizer program is being followed, apply superphosphate
or other desirable source of phosphoric acid.
xtra juiciness of Florida or-
roclaimed for years far and
the Florida Citrus Exchange
every means at its com-
building a noticable prefer-
ong the trade and the con-
ent proof of this fact is given
se & Co., whose New York
few weeks ago interviewed a
of the buyers at the docks
why they were paying more
ida oranges than the Cali-
ruit. The following report
interviews was received from
ase, and was sent to all the
Buying for Juice
general consensus of opinion
people are now buying or-
or the juice. One Hebrew
ated he could get more juice
324 size Florida orange than
i out of the 150 size navel.
stated the housewives only
;he California navels for the
ut the children had to have
ce, and, therefore, they
Florida oranges, and only
California oranges on the
r appearance's saks."
Commenting upon the report, E.
B. Fallon, dealer service chief, East-
ern division, stated the interview
"bears out the fact that the 'one-
fourth more juice' story featured in:
the Exchange educational advertis-'
ing, has taken hold especially with
the Jewish trade and has been the
largest factor in the sale of Florida
oranges in general.
"Moreover," added Mr. Fallon,
"the slogan being tied up with the
Exchange brands, 'Seald-Sweet' and
'Mor-juce,' the packing house man-
ager who is not stamping his fruit is
not taking the advantage of the ad-
vertising and is not cashing in as he
should on this slogan."
Orange county's drive against
fruit thieves is netting results. In
one day, six men accused of stealing
fruit from groves were sentenced
to terms in the county jail.
A few days prior, Orange Sub-
Exchange paid over the first reward
of $100 under its offer of the reward
for information resulting in a con-
viction The reward was given E.
B. Conley of Conway who caught
a negro stealing fruit from a grove.
Representative Auction Averages by Sizes and Grades
ving are the representative auction averages for the. past few
showing the general rising tendency of the market and the
ices of the buyers in regard to sizes and grades.
36s 46s 54s 64s 70s 80s 96s 126s
No. Is 2.47 2.63 2.33 2.24 2.18 2.11 1.98 1.77
No. 2s 2.07 2.22 2.00 1.95 1.93 1.91 1.80 1.32
No. Is 2.20 2.35 2.06 1.98 2.00 1.95 1.85 1.51
No. 2s 1.84 1.94 1.81 1.79 1.77 1.77 1.70 1.48
No. Is 2.17 2.35 2.16 2.08 2.05 2.02 1.88 1.65
No. 2s 1.92 2.04 1.88 1.82 1.83 1.83 1.74 1.31
No. ls 2.47 2.83 2.75 2.65 2.65 2.55 2.23 1.97
No. 2s 2.19 2.57 2.48 2.43 2.45 2.37 2.10 1.84
126s 150s 176s 200s 216s 250s 288s 324s
No. Is 3.77 3.74 2.89- 3.86 3.74 3.49 3.24 2.91
No. 2s 3.04 3.24 3.47 3.54 3.45 3.22 2.94 2.61
No. Is 3.62 3.83 4.08 4.10 4.01 3.76 3.45 3.06,
No. 2s 3.17 2.36 3.67 3.74 -3.73- 3.48 3.20 2.79
No. Is 3.41 3.83 4.10 4.17 4.05 3.81 3.47 3.00
No. 2s 3.00 3.34 3.65 3.76 3.71 3.55 3.13 2.74
No. Is 3.47 3.71 4.02_. 422 :4.19 4.07 3.83 3.37
No. 2s 2.98 3.36a. 3.59 3.79 3.82 3.73 3.46 3.09
Friendly fungi appear to have
been active the past winter and to
have held the whitefly under control,
according to observations of Dr. J.
R. Watson of the Experiment Sta-
tion. The whitefly, he reports, are
no more abundant this spring than
Although the winter was dry, it
was probable, Dr. Watson said, that
the many foggy mornings provided
suitable conditions for the work of
the friendly fungi.
Also, Dr. Watson stated, if the
whiteflies are abundant in any grove,
it is too late to do anything about
the fall brood, since the fruit is
already set and growing. The first
chance the grower would have to
strike would be at the spring brood
by spraying in May, or scattering
the friendly fungi in late May or
Speaking at the annual Babson
Business Conference early this
month, Dr. P. Phillips, Orlando,
prominent private operator and one
of the largest of growers, declared
that Florida citrus groves would not-
be worth more than 25 cents on the
dollar if the Florida Citrus Ex-
change were not in existence.
Dr. Phillips asserted that 90 per-
cent of the citrus growers are bur-
dened with mortgages and condi-
tions seem to be growing worse. He
cited the situation with tangerines
in which Florida has a virtual mon-
opoly, yet this season this fruit re-
turned disastrous prices. Coopera-
tive control of the tangerines is the
only hope of the tangerine growers,
Dr. Phillips declared.
R. P. Burton, grower-member of
the Exchange, formerly its sales
manager and later a director, talked
on the Exchange, what it has done
for the industry, its weaknesses and
its possibilities. He particularly
criticized the light regard which
many members held toward their
agreements. He also talked about
the truck movement of citrus, con-
demning it and declaring it one of
the greatest menaces to the future
of the industry.
FOR EVERY PURPOSE
Large Stocks Pumps, Pipe and
Other Materials for immediate
The Cameron & Barkley Co.
April 1, 1932
Saving time and
money on the job
Alcoma Corporation, August
Hecksher's 2500 acre grove
development, spraying with
S-W Dry Lime Sulfur
"I have used Sherwin-Williams Dry
Lime Sulfur and Floridoil with
equally gratifying results,"
says Roy Craig, Manager
In large groves and small, citrus growers are
finding that it pays to use S-W Dry Lime Sulfur.
It is economical to use-no loss in mixing-no
heavy freight charges to pay on water-no empty
barrels to return-no deterioration.
Make 1932's pack pay you dividends in lowered
growing costs and fewer culls. Sherwin-Williams
Dry Lime Sulfur gives a larger percentage of
"brights" because it controls Rust Mite, Red
Spider, Scab and Scale Crawlers. Its convenient
powdered form makes it easier to spray without
sludge and clogged nozzles.
S-W Dry Lime Sulfur is made from a 33" Baume
test liquid lime sulfur, to which a stabilizer is
added to make it active for a longer time than
any other lime sulfur spray. It is patented, guar-
anteedhand branded under the Federal Insecti-
cide and Fungicide Act of 1910.
Sherwin-Williams Dry Lime Sulfur is patented
under U. S. Patent No. 1,264,908, January 29,
1918. Reissue Patent No. 14,890, June 22, 1920.
Sherwin-Williams maintains a complete staff of
meni experienced in the use and application of
insecticides and fungicides. These men are in
the Florida fields all the time and understand
Florida conditions. Let them make recommend-
ations as to your spraying requirements. There
is no obligation. Simply write our nearest office.
THE SHERWIN-WILLIAMS CO.
Ball and Caesar Streets
Phone M 6758
P. O. Box 1833
Listen in on Sherwin-Williams daytime pro-
gram "Keeping Up With Daughter" over NBC
network-every Wednesday at 11 a.m. E. S. T.
Use these tested SHERWIN-WILLIAMS in-
secticides and make 1932 a profit year!
Convenient-ready to use
Economical-packed in 10-lb. paper bags
20 bags in a 200-lb. metal drum
No extra freight to pay on water
DRY LIME SULFUR
(Dry Lime Sulfur Dust)
COPPER LIME DUST
ARSENATE OF CALCIUM
ARSENATE OF LEAD
SPRAY AND DUST MATERIALS
During the Spring Cycle the trees
make and mature their spring flush
of growth. They bloom, the fruit
is set and grows in size.
During the Summer Cycle the pres-
ent crop of fruit is developed to
maturity and much bearing wood
is produced for the coming year.
During the Fall Cycle the trees'
energies are devoted to restoring
vigor, developing resistance to cold,
and forming fruit buds for another
Send for our new summer booklet"Carry-
ing Citrus Fruits Through to Maturity,"
by Bayard F. Floyd. However, if you
have a fertilizer problem pertaining to
vegetable and truck crops we can be of
help to you. The value of Ideal Fertili-
zers as plant food and their adaptability.
to all Florida crops and conditions hbs
been thoroughly proved. Our field men
are always glad to consult with you re-
garding all crops or we will be pleased
to have you get in touch with us-direct.
Changing economic conditions do not' Alter
the ratio of plant-food required during these
cycles. They emphasize, really, the importance
of "Carrying Citrus Fruits Through to Maturity"
Y OUR citrus trees represent a perma- this year. At this season a liberal applica-
nent investment. Protect them if they tion of ideal Fertilizer will be an important
are to continue to be productive. If allow- factor in determining the texture of your
ed to depreciate it will take years to bring maturin fruit. and at the same time make
them back. Your trees must,go forward or beariing wood that will be the measure of
backward; they can never stand still. succeeding crops.
Keep your trees swinging forward through Whether you sell your crop direct or
the standard practice of systematic feed- through marketing agencies, the chief re-
ing. The system has been carefully worked quirement is always quality. Ideal Fertilizers
out from years of ob0ser'ation ad experi- are made with ths dea in view. As a
ence. It takes into account the spring, friend'to you and your trees we recom-
summer and fall cycles of development mend a liberal application of Ideal Fertil-
and is timed to supply the exacting.food 'izer this summer. Their constant, use for
requirements of the trees at each _season. more. than 39 years is proof that a system-
A healthy, vigorous tree is the principal fact-
or in making sound, juicy fruit of Fine flavor,
and only quality fruit will command prices
atic. well-balanced program of Ideal Fertil-
izer is your best assurance of a quality crop
this year and in the future.
Manufactured Exclusively by
WILSON & TOOMER FERTILIZER COMPANY
JACKSONVI LL'E v>FLORIDA
We 'own and operate Branch Offices and Warehouses at Miami, Orland~ inter Gard
Sanford, Winter Haven, Fort ers 'Bradenton, Sarasota, JAaMi"ale a D
Srehoues ughoit th. State.
I IMPORTANT GROWTH CYCLES