Vol. VII BUBSCBIPTION PIC 50 CENT
''"" I '
Volume Big Factor
In Per B0x Costs
Of Ass.n Salaries
Figures On Salaries in 52'
-A sociasions ForAnalysis
Volume is suachla import nt cost
factor in the operation of an asso-,
ciation that -the Association .with
qo p than 400,000 boxes can employ
.a high-priced manager, as assistant
.manager, bookkeeper and hotise
-".foreman combined' t less cost per
"box than associations with less than:
1200,000 boxes pay for a manager
'i. alone. '
dhis 'important fact is. revealed
in the) preliriinary rep'ort-..of< the
SPresidents' association on a study of
the salaries paid by the associations.
The advarice report includes the
figures of 52'associations ranging in
volume from 15,000 boxes to 500,-
000 or more.
52 Associations Report .
j..j For the.purpose of more exact and
easier analysis, the 52 associations
were grouped in 10 volume divisions
n each of which there are not less
the divisions there.are from four to'
than two while in more .than half
13. This gives a very representative
picture and allows authorative con-
clusions to be drawn from the aver-
ages. The work has been done prin-
-Tile.. tabulation prepared y r.
Brown slho ;:a t. regular decrease in
'the cost per. bx as the volume in-
creases. It costs the. mallest asso-
Sfations five times iore for the ad-
minnistration, force than it does the
largest, even though the latter in-
cludes assistants not employed by
':the -smallest;, Total' average of the
siiallest group' is 10.97:cents a :box;
the average for the largest, onl.y2.17
cents a bo2t. 'The contrast is more
marked in .manager's :salaries,
though the smallest associations pay
t much less than half the average paid
,'y the largest. In spite of this dif-
-._;ferice in actual salary.paid, the
.smIalest associations are under a
cost six, times greater than the
Largest for the rimanager.,
.Other interesting comparisons'can
be found. .The report appears in
tabulated formbn -Pag 2.
.,.. ** r
B PB TEM B Y .
EXPORT TO ENGLAND
The new Britith-tariff on cit-
rus has beefi 'more than offset
by the.rise in the value of the
pound and the English market
continues vNry satisfactory as
compared with domestic prices
Said for citrus, E. :E. Patter-
son, grapefruit sales manager-
reports. The tariff added 25.to-
40i cents a box while -th
English pomnd hasincreased'
in exchange value 40 cents.;,
At the time of the new tariff,
enteredd al 8ecend Clas
at the Puat O sce at Ti
Under the At of MaR
I Mail Matter
HighW minds Cut Grapefruit Volume
But Citrus Escapes Frost Damage
Estimate Heavy Loss of0 Grapefruit From the Wind
;. SQtorPf0 March 4-5i; Three Frosts Latzr Fail To
:- Injure: Citrus Fruit Or Trees :n. Any 'Section
interesting as well as important cit-
was much better than the' do- the groves. The-citrus industry as
: mestic. Heavy suppliess shortly well.as the cooperative movement is
after, brought a slight decline., still youig. In fact this can be con-
S"ider'ed the testing' out period in
both with'a multitude of interesting
S'- individual'iddeas and plans which are
AdVse s ation to interestifig -'ahd, informative to
S others." It is hbpoed that through the
HavOe C rrtondents correspondents and othei grower-
menmbers these can'be passed about
Sfor consideration through the Chron-
Following the recommendation. of icle.- .'.
the Pfesidents association, several : Much Inlieesting, News
associations have'.appointed corres- : Much'has bee~i sad about cooper-
pondentf to the Qhronidle to keep, tiyVe. iarkethngg but more can I'b
the growers of .the Exchange more: said and in different words suing-fhe
fully informed about the activities grower' own ideas and beliefs which
of.the association and its growers. really'are the foundation of the or-
Theretare more than 10:0 associa-. ,gahization. There is also mu'eh about
tions in T.he Exchange A.nd. the wide the grove work which should be ,ex-
expanse:of the citrus: il1t makes it' changed, testing out and" experi-
physically impossible-to contact more ments in different practices of fer-
than a few associations each month, tilizatioi- and. cultivation, unusual
During the season, also, managers programs of grove work, exceptional
have a multitude of. duties in mind groves, production and trees o'rfruit.
which prevent their passing news fi, Nor is it necessary to be officially
to a.considerable:,e.xtent. appointed '."scribe" 'for :.a grower to
There' is always a large-volume. o'f get his views and experiences in.:
Seald-Sweet in the Greatest Metropolis
.... -Photograph, by Brown Bios.
"Scald-Sweet" at one of the leading "cross-.oads" of the world-the station of the Elevated
at Sixth Avenue and.;42nd Street, New Ybrk Ci'y. The street view at the left is 42nd,
looking toward aFifth -Avenue'. Hundreds of "Seald-Sweet" posters are located at the
,elevated and subway stations, and are seen by millions.
' ** '' .
-QCitrus .esepedd-uitdasmaged- s om -
the series'of frosts Mar. 9, 10 and
,13 but incurred "havy loss fiom the
high winds of-Mar. .4 and: 5.
Less of. several thousands of cars
of grapefruit, ..robAibly' exceeding,
1,000,b000boxes, .rdeited from the
wind st1orns, a loss that is not re-
gretted generally by the industry or.
the trade, relieving the .markets. it is'.
believed, .of the -surplus :volunle.
which has made the season, one of
the most unprofitable for grapefruit.
Orange loss was slight and 'wars con-
fined almost entirely to mid-season
fruit of which.only a little was left
in the state at the time.
It is believed that the volume of
grapefruit left after the wind stbrm
could, be handled very satisfactorily
for the balance of the year. -Under
reasonable 'hipjiig programs it was '.i
felt that the market should strength-.
en, particularly after Texas. con-.
eludes its season late this month and
leaves Florida with little competi-
Trees Too Dormant
The extreme durmanc cV itrus
.. 4 .k ."-- '. " "- ^H--^ i ,.. ( --.mj
rees in practically all of the citrus
belf due to the prolonged drought
is believed to have offset the very
low temperatures -which some sec-
tions and the low spots experienced'.
The. frost of Sunday, hthe,13th, was :1
the lowest, recording temperatures :
as low as 26 degrees in parts of-the; '
citrus belt, yet .s far as could bede-'
termined a few days after, no fruit
and little of the meager new growth
was 'touched.- It is .possible however,
that the'low teiOpeirature miay have .
its. infitence eon the coming .crop
though the genera opinioih .is. that,
bloom has been so delayed, there was .
little..bloom to havebeen affected.
The .cd .cld wve; throughout the..
country had'its affect on the market
which also was 'influenced by heavy .
shipments of citrus the preceding
week. The maket..declined slightly
(oni tinued on Page 2)
"FLORIDA'S ONLY CITRUS NEWSPAPER"
TAMPA, FLORIDA,.MAR. 15, 1932
" .' .. .. / :'' y'"' Y ONGE-i
... 1 4 E. JACKSON .T..-
i pENS ACO LA F A
T^NWPt,. I ir~~er!
-- 1 :
a -s.. .
SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE March 15, 1932
Revives Hopes of
Hope for the reimbursement of the
growers for the losses incurred in
the Medfly campaign is revived again
by the approval of the Senate of the
amended measure of Senator Tram-
mell authorizing an investigation and
report by a committee of five. It is
still dimmed somewhat by the oppo-
sition of Secretary of Agriculture
Arthur M. Hyde and the possible in-
fluence of the economy policy of
Congress though the bill calls for an
appropriation of $10,000 instead of
The opposition of Mr. Hyde was
not unforseen as the department in-
sisted from the first that Florida
must share the expense. First ap-
propr'ations for the campaign were
based upon this, though the State
treasury was almost empty at the
time. Also, Dr. Marlatt, then direct-
ing quarantine work, reported late
in the campaign to Mr. Hyde that
"no reimbursement has been asked
or is contemplated."
There is a sales resistance on the
Chicago market that is hard to over-
come. Our dealers service crews
have found that this resistance was
not as much from the consumer as
it was from the retailer and jobber.
There are about twenty-five re-
ceivers of Florida oranges on this
market; about five of these really
enter into the picture as the others
have only occasional cars. We found
that the jobbers would buy a certain
quantity of Florida oranges at a
price and then let the market ease
off, whereas on California fruit they
continued to buy at about the same
price level, with the result that price
declines on California's were less.
This condition was most apparent
when independent fruit was heaviest.
Later in the year when the Exchange
had the majority of fruit this con-
dit"on disappeared almost entirely.
Texas Citrus Under
New Quarantine Rule
Sterilization, the bane of Florida
citrus during the Medfly campaign,
is now required for Texas citrus
shipped into 15 of the Southern and
Pacific Coast states, with the pos-
sibility that the season will be ended
early by regulation. Discovery of a
new infestation of the Mexican fruit
fly last month brought the new regu-
In view of the unfortunate exper-
ience of Florida with sterilization it
"s doubtful that Texas shippers will
;terilize the fruit but will move it
into the western, central and eastern
areas where it is not required. The
present heavy movement in anticipa-
tion of early closing of the season
is expected to clean up the Texas
supply before the end of this month.
The new regulation applies with
special force to Texas itself. Cot-
ton is a host to the fly and most of
the state is in the cotton belt. The
other states to which the regulation
applies are Arkansas, Arizona, Cali-
fornia, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico,
North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon,
South Carolina, Tennessee and
In Chicago from 15 to 30 percent
of the Florida oranges are unloaded
and sold directly through the stores;
this, of course, is all independent
fruit. On California oranges only
about 5 to 15 percent is sold out-
side the auction and most of this
goes to chain stores. The result is
that when a jobber buys California
oranges at the auction there can be
no change in price until the next
auction sale, which is the next day.
This gives the buyer absolute pro-
tection on price for twenty-four
On Florida's the case is entirely
different. The independent re-
ceivers are selling through the stores.
If fruit does not move at one price
they cut under that day's auction
prices and move the fruit out.
There is one benefit to Exchange.
The jobbers realize and appreciate
W hat's W rons W ith Florida Citrus?
By ERROL M. ZORN, Manager Eastern Division
Editor's Note-This is third of a series
by Mr. Zorn, outlining how Florida's citrus
is handed in the markets and the market
We have seen how uncontrolled
distribution lowers prices unneces-
sarily in large terminal markets and
how lower prices in those cities have
a depressing effect on values in
smaller cities thus needlessly lower-
ing the price structure for the en-
tire country. As the old adage goes
"Trouble comes in bunches" and the
citrus business is no exception.
When a condition such as has been
described in previous articles pre-
vails and f.o.b. quotations are
erratic, small shippers, finding it dif-
ficult to make outright sales are
tempted to roll cars on consignment
to private sale markets. This is
usually the last straw; the market
gets entirely out of control, prices
break badly, there is a glut of fruit
in many markets and dealers lose
entire confidence in the deal. To
correct the situation shipments are
reduced very materially and when
the smoke clears away the only
Wind Cuts Grapefruit
(Continued from Page 1)
but is expected to recover and ad-
vance under favorable weather.
California oranges, according to
the market reports, are competing
much less favorably with Florida or-
anges as the season progresses. The
navel orange season is in its last
stage with the fruit declining in
quality. California reports it does
not expect to start moving Valencias
in volume for many weeks.
the fact that on Seald-Sweet and
Mor-juce every one has an even
break and the cost price will be the
same until the next auction sale.
Our averages day in and day out
show this preference for Seald-
Sweet and Mor-juce. Heavy and
consistent supplies of our fruit have
done much to eliminate this situa-
tion and is one reason for our brands'
popularity with the trade. Figures
show that grade for grade, size for
size, independent fruit does not
equal Exchange prices.
casualties are the poor growers
whose fruit has been needlessly sac-
The packer has made his money;
the railroads have collected for
freight and the commission man has
pocketed his share, but the grower
has red ink and a promise of how
much more some other speculator or
packer will do for him if the grower
will only allow him to handle his
fruit. It's an old story; repeated
time and again each season.
Smashing a Market
A few weeks ago when the Ex-
change and other large shippers
were asking and getting $1.50 to
$1.65 per box f.o:b. shipping point
for U. S. No. 1 grapefruit, one of
the smaller operators who shipped
more than he could sell, rolled cars,
unsold, to Montreal which had been
a fairly good market up to that time.
Montreal had bought its normal re-
quirements and the added receipts
of these consigned cars broke the
market so badly that within one
week the consigned fruit was netting
about 754 less than sales made on
an f.o.b. basis the previous week.
Naturally the local trade was upset
and afraid to buy. Several weeks
elapsed before conditions righted
themselves and selling resumed its
At about the same time a similar
situation developed in Buffalo, but
in that instance oranges were the
victims. Two different shippers con-
signed cars of oranges to Buffalo,
which is a large private sale market
for Florida fruit, and the commission
men handling the cars, in order to
dispose of them quickly, jobbed the
fruit at prices just about equal to
the then prevailing f.o.b. quotations.
The growers lost over $1.00 per box
on those transactions and the Buffalo
market was turned upside down.
Practically no f.o.b. sales were made
for a week.
Just why oranges should have beeii
consigned is difficult to understand,
because at that time the demand was
active, shipments were moderate and
all indications pointed toward a
fairly attractive market. But who
can tell what a mad dog will do or
just where a hurricane will strike
hardest? They are both uncon-
Analysis of Average Salaries Paid in Associations
Vo'ume Range of Houses Estimated Manager's Salary Assistant Manager Bookkeepers Sal. House Foreman Total Average
Group Pack in Boxes Reported Total Pack Average Per Box Average Per Box Average Per Box Average Per Box Per Box
1 15,- 50,000 9 306,000 $2,270 6.674 $ 577 1.700 $ 882 2.604 10.974
2 51,-75,000 4 285,000 2,512 3.524 1,420 2.004 1,680 2.400 7.924
3 76,-100,000 13 1,240,000 3,095 3.244 $1,872 .154 1,630 1.704 1,885 2.000 7.094
4 101,-125,000 3 340,000 8 3,566 3.124 1,000 .884 1,340 1.184 5.184
5 126,-150,000 6 755,000 4,033 3.204 2,100 .294 2,315 1.964 1,738 1.354 6.804
6 151,-200,000 5 960,000 4,330 2.254 2,772 1.444 2,080 1.084 4.774
7 201,-250,000 6 1,345,000 3,650 1.624 600 .040 2,836 1.254 2,570 1.144 4.054
8 251,-300,000 2 575,000 6,000 2.094 4,645 1.614 2,250 .804 4.504
9 301,-400,000 2 724 000 6,000 1.654 4,537 1.254 2.400 .664 3.564
10 401,-500.000 2 995.000 5,500 1.104 2640 .534 5,875 1.184 2,700 .544 2.174
Selling Florida Citrus in Chicago
By S. W. TEAGUE, Western Division Manager
March 15, 1932
1.500 1.250 5.32
March 15, 1932 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE
An exceptional example of simple,
inexpensive yet thorough irrigation,
well worth taking the time to in-
spect, will be found at the Theodore
Kamensky 40 acre grove near Dun-
edin. The grove today is in the pink
of condition, heavy with buds ready
to burst into bloom, though it has
just produced in excess of 500 boxes
an acre this season, following a crop
of nearly 700 boxes to the acre last
season. Mr. Kamensky credits irri-
gation for much of the fine condition
of his grove.
An important advantage right
from the start is that the 40 acres
is unusually well adapted for irriga-
tion. The whole surface is compar-
atively even with a moderate ridge
bisecting the tract north and south.
On this rise is laid the principal
main line of concrete pipe. From
the center of this line another runs
to-the-west, bisecting the west half
of the forty. These main lines, to-
taling about 900 feet, are of terra
cotta, costing about 17 cents a foot.
They were laid in a 24 inch ditch
well below any chance of damage
from the machinery used.
Clever Head Arrangement
Heads are placed at every third
row of the trees. They are very
simple and inexpensive, yet strongly
attached. The head consists of an
ordinary "T" and nipple, closed by
an ordinary cap. The "T" and nipple
are set in a square of concrete built
around both the main pipe and the
head up to the threads of the nipple.
The top of the head is about six
inches below the ground. It is
reached by simply pulling the soil
out away from it. One of the heads
with the special connection attached
is shown in the top left view.
The well is at the center of the
tract. A second-hand automobile
engine, costing about $50 after over-
hauling, furnishes the power for a
pump which cost $100. The engine
and pump are set solidly on concrete
-,bases. A similar concrete base sup-
ports a pulley with an efficient home-
made tension. The whole cost little.
Throws 500 Gallons Minute
The pump throws more than 500
gallons a minute but does not feed
the main lines directly. The irriga-
tion flow is by gravity through an
interesting device designed by Mr.
Kamensky, shown in the circular
Upon a square concrete base with
sliding valves in each side, are set
three, 30-inch tile, one upon the
other, with the joints cemented. The
water is pumped from the well into
this distributor box from which it
feeds by gravity into the main lines.
Mr. Kamensky uses both joint
pipe and furrows to carry the water
to the trees. With the furrow meth-
od, a couple of lengths of the joint
pipe with a combination canvas and
pipe connection are attached to the
head to reach the middle on each
Making Record Crops With Irrigation
Views from the Kamensky grove-top left, an irrigation line connected to one of the
buried heads. Top, right, a view of the grapefruit grove, an irrigation furrow has
been made down the middle which can just be distinguished. Lower, left, breaking
the end of a long irrigation line to irrigate five trees simultaneously; bottom, center,
the distributor box; bottom, right, a 600 foot stretch of irrigation line.
side. Two can handle the irrigation
of the whole 40 in eight days.
The joint pipe is made of 20 guage
metal in 10 foot lengths. Four lines,
each working three rows, are oper-
ated at the same time, one man
handling two lines. The line is laid
the full length at the start and the
irrigationn carried on back toward
the head, as illustrated in view at
the lower right of the top views.
Work Many Rows at a Time
As each line serves three rows, the
end joints must be continually
shifted from one row to another as
.he irrigation is carried back. When
the far end of the 600 foot row is
Started, the end five joints are laid
across two rows and the joints are
broken enough to allow a fair stream
of water to flow from each supply-
ng five trees as illustrated in view
No. 3. The water is allowed to flow
for considerably longer to thor-
oughly water this area, whereas
farther back only the few minutes
required to shift the second line is
all that is given.
It would seem that such a meth-
od would "run the legs off a man,"
but it is surprising how quickly and
smoothly the work is carried on. Mr.
Kamensky irrigated with the joint
pipe at the time the writer visited
the grove. Only one line was used
this time, undoubtedly a concession
from the usual to allow for the dis-
cussion of the system. Thirty joints,
approximately, were used for the
particular section then being wa-
tered, and this pipe was picked up
from the opposite side of the grove
hauled on a sled and relaid down the
new row in half an hour.
Irrigate Back Along Row
At the end of the line, when the
two rows of trees on each side of the
line had been watered, three to four
lengths /were disconnected and re-
connected at an angle which carried
the line to the middle beyond the
second row. When this check was
Cu'tivatlon is simple with the "Cletrax" and the special harrow Mr. Kamensky made.
Note how low the shield is in front; The harrow is 14 feet wide and each side consists
of three sets of discs working independently. The discs are controlled by a simple device.
Mr. Kamensky is shown in hot hviews.
watered a length was detached and
carried over beyond the second row
on the opposite side of the line. By
that time a second length was ready
to be detached and the water allowed
to soak an area 10 feet back. In
such manner each length was de-
tached and moved and when the cen-
tral line was reached the three or
four were reconnected to water sim-
ilarly on the opposite side. So the
irrigationn progressed back, a joint
or two being eliminated from the
line as the line shortened. A bag
was laid at the point of flow to pre-
vent the water from washing the soil.
While it is a very efficient and
simple way to irrigate, this method,
declared Mr. Kamensky, is so much
more complicated than the furrow
system, he much prefers the latter.
When another main line has been
added to cut down the long distances
now involved, he plans to use the
furrow method entirely. The fur-
rows are "U" shaped, about 16
inches wide and four inches deep.
Of the 40 acres, 25 is set to grape-
fruit. The other 15 acres is in Va-
lencias but 10 acres was set 20 by
15 feet, giving double the number
of trees to the acre than are planted
on the average. The reason for this,
according to Mr. Kamensky, is that
he originally planted the trees 20
by 30 feet and it looked so scanty
(it was his first grove) he planted
another row down the middle.
So far it has worked well, though
the trees already are so close that
no cover crop could be grown. He is
making plans now to grow the cover
crop elsewhere and haul it in.
In the matter of cultivation, Mr.
Kamensky cultivates the Valencias
after the fruit is off the trees, going
over each row both ways once. The
trees are so close, this gives a thor-
ough job, leaving only a small check
about each tree.
The grapefruit he works over
more starting after the fruit is off,
usually, and going over the ground
until the cover crop is well cut up.
His fertilizer program consists of
two main applications of mixed fer-
tilizer for the Valencias and three
applications for the grapefruit. This
is principally organic. He goes
through his grove carefully at vari-
ous times and if a tree seems back-
ward he feeds it one to three pounds
of nitrate of soda or sulphate of am-
Taking care of the grove is Mr.
Kamensky's main occupation. He
gives it practically all of his time
and does much of the actual work
himself, using extra labor only to
help out. His whole citrus exper-
ience, however, has been confined to
this grove, planted 15 years ago.
Probably the real secret of the heavy
yield is that he "stays by" his grove.
March 15, 1932
SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE March 15, 1932
Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Postoffice Box 2349
Net Grower Circulation
Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.
Vol. VII MAR. 15, 1932. No. 20
The Rate Reduction
The reductions in the rail and
water rates on citrus were made to
help the growers just as much as to
meet truck competition and the
growers should benefit, including
those growers who made deals with
buyers before the rate reduction was
made and whose fruit had not been
moved by that time, points out Earl
Haskins of Polk Sub-Exchange.
Mr. Haskins has been doing quite
some investigating to learn if any
buyer had passed back the rate re-
duction or a part of it. Some grow-
ers had gone to the buyers to see if
they would increase the previous
offers made, but, reports Mr. Has-
kins, "as far as I can find out not
a single grower was able to get a
raise of a cent."
The eight to more than 20 cents a
box by which rates were reduced
would be a valuable addition to the
returns to the grower. Inasmuch as
the grower takes more of a gamble
on his crop than any buyer the grow-
er is entitled to the benefit.
It is difficult even to imagine a
city of 50,000 population close to
Florida, serving an area containing
over 200,000 persons, not receiving
a single carlot of'Florida citrus in
a month. Columbia, S. C., did
not receive a single car of either or-
anges or grapefruit during Janu-
ary and February and only got seven
cars of early oranges and all that
through dealers who owned the
groves from which the fruit came.
Such has been the result of truck
competition-an extreme case, un-
doubtedly, yet one which shows the
demoralizing influence of the truck-
peddler. If an important trade cen-
ter such as Columbia can be com-
pletely forced out of the responsible
trade channels upon which Florida
citrus must depend, scores of other
cities certainly must have been
affected so seriously as to have cost
the citrus growers millions.
The situation in Columbia was dis-
closed by the representative of the
Exchange in that area who reported
a survey of the territory, including
all dealers, in a letter to George A.
Scott, orange sales manager. The
"A careful canvass of the situa-
tion shows that not a single jobber,
or a semi-jobber, in our territory has
handled a car of oranges this year, in
fact, the railroads records show that
only seven cars of oranges have
been shipped into Columbia on this
crop, and they came from groves
which are owned by some of our
local dealers. Since the first of the
year, however, there has not been a
single car to arrive on any of the
railroads. The difference in rate
has had absolutely no effect.
Trucks in Control
"The trucks have had absolutely
free reign and for a long time they
brought up an excellent grade of
fruit, all things being considered,
but now that they had it to them-
selves for the past 60-days, they
have been bringing up the worst
looking lot of citrus fruits we ever
saw, particularly as regards oranges.
The grapefruit are a good deal bet-
ter, although heavily russeted, never-
theless the quality seems to be
"The final result of the whole
thing is that the consumer has be-
come pretty thoroughly disgusted
with the appearance and grade of
the fruit they have been buying and
all interest is gone in this market
on Florida oranges and grapefruit.
The better class of stores do not at-
tempt to stock citrus any more on
account of the fact they cannot get
fancy fruit, and the jobbers feel
that they cannot move fancy fruit
if they had it on account of the dif-
ference in price.
Destroys Past Efforts
"We certainly hope the growers
in Florida can realize what they have
done to their good market built up
through these many years. As you
know, Florida citrus always had a
favorable reception in this market
with the consuming public and you
iave spent lots of money to build up
this demand, but all of your efforts
aave been completely over-shadowed
in the last two years.
"What is going to be the outcome?
It doesn't seem possible that the
Florida growers would wish to re-
duce citrus fruits to the class of
potatoes and cabbage which are
handled on a tonnage basis, and with
a complete disregard to quality,
brands or grading."
this replica of the
ument at the Cen-
SItral Florida Expo-
sition at Orlando,
ating the bi-cen-
tenial of the birth
Sof Washington. A
picture cannot do
.,, ,full justice to the
beauty and majes-
ty of the exhibit.
towered 36 feet,
-*m almost to the roof
of the main expo-
sition hall, in
which for years
change has had
the feature ex-
hibit. It contains
more than 40
boxes of fruit.
HELPS THE DEALER
From the standpoint of increased profits, the
dealer finds Brogdexed fruit very satisfactory.
The fact that they keep well enables him to
handle on a smaller margin of profit and still
make more. He does not find it necessary to fix
his selling price sufficiently high to provide a sort
of "Sinking Fund" to take care of the usual
An Indian River packer says he uses Brogdex
because it makes his fruit stand up in the hands
of the dealer. He considers the dealer the most
important factor in the present method of dis-
tribution. Get the dealer sold on your brands
and your troubles are over.
Brogdex brands are keeping brands. They
have snap and life and stay sound and fresh look-
ing long enough for the dealer to sell out of dis-
play stock with little if any replacements nec-
Give the market this kiAd of fruit and it will
not be long before you will be doing a bigger,
better and more profitable citrus business.
FLORIDA BROGDEX DISTRIBUTORS
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
March 15, 1932
March 15, 1932 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE
The combined production of or-
anges and grapefruit has increased
tenfold during the last 40 years and
has been increasing at an average
rate of about 6 percent per year dur-
ing the last 10 years. By the fall of
1931 the total number of trees in
orange and grapefruit groves was
twice as large as it was in 1920. Al-
though about 69 percent of the trees
reported by the 1930 census were
listed as of "bearing age," many are
still too small to produce fruit in pay-
ing quantities and only about one-
third are 15 years old or older-the
age at which they have reached or
are approaching full production.
Both in Texas and Florida plantings
in the winter of 1930-31 showed
some decrease from the heavy plant-
-ings.of 1928- Allowing for the con-
tinued plantings in Arizona, the total
area set was apparently about 20,-
000 acres in both 1930 and 1931.
Many of these recent plantings have
been made in relatively new areas
in which there is little information
on which to base estimates of prob-
able production from present groves
when their young trees shall have
reached 15 or 20 years of age, and
all calculations may be upset by
freezes or other adverse conditions,
but production from the groves al-
ready in bearing has increased to a
point where is exceeded 54,559,000
boxes of oranges and 18,690,000
boxes of grapefruit in even a mod-
erately favorable season like that
beginning in the fall of 1930. The
exceptionally low prices received by
growers that season and again in the
current season show the difficulties
to be faced in marketing the rapidly
In the country as a whole there
are about 537,000 acres of orange
groves, excluding groves now being
set. Slightly more than four-fifths
Sof the trees will be 5 years old or
older by April, 1932, or are nomin-
ally of bearing age, but only two-
fifths are as much as 15 years old.
The Florida statistics are con-
flicting, but judging from the records
of orange, tangerine and Satsuma
trees in groves and on urban prop-
erties, as collected in connection
with the fruit-fly eradication work,
supplemented by allowances for re-
cent plantings and for the areas
not surveyed, the present area in
orange trees in Florida is probably
somewhere around 265,000 acres.
Roughly, slightly more than one-
fifth of the Florida orange trees are
less than five years old, nearly three-
fifths are 5 to 15 years old and are,
therefore, of bearing age but not in
full bearing, and one-fifth are at
least 15 years old and have reached
or are approaching full production.
The proportion of young trees is
apparently sufficient to permit pro-
duction to continue to increase at
an average rate of about 4 percent
per year. Of the 23,000 acres of
oranges in Texas, only about half
are 5 years old and a negligible pro-
portion is in full bearing. The Cali-
fornia orange groves include about
230,000 acres, of which 26,000 acres,
or 11 percent, are classed as not yet
of bearing age. According to the
1930 census, nearly three-fourths of
the young trees in California were
Valencias, a variety shipped largely
luring the months when few or-
anges are being picked in Florida
and Texas. In California the pro-
duction of Washington Navel or-
anges, the variety that competes
with southeastern oranges, has prob-
ably about reached its peak. Arizona
'asa about 7,000 acres of oranges.
About 25 percent are of bearing age
and about 10 percent are approach-
ing the age of full production. Pro-
duction is also increasing in Louis-
:ana, Alabama and Mississippi.
Foreign Outlook for Oranges
During the last 18 years exports
of oranges have averaged about 8
percent of the United States com-
mercial orange crop. Most of these
exports have gone to Canada. With
the increase in the orange crop in
recent years there has been a de-
cided upward trend in exports. In
the 1930-31 season (November
1930 to Ostober 1931 inclusive) the
total orange exports were the sec-
ond largest on record, amounting to
4,936,000 boxes, of which Canada
took 3,137,000 boxes and the United
Kingdom 1,136,000. An interesting
development was the largest increase
during the season in imports by
continental European countries,
mainly Germany, the Netherlands,
Sweden and Norway. These imports
amounted to 462,000 boxes against
213,000 in 1928-29, which was the
largest previous year. Oranges are
exported to Canada the year around,
with December and March the
months of heaviest movement. Ex-
ports to European countries occur
mainly during the summer orange
season (May to October) and con-
sist mostly of California Valencias.
The large and growing competition
from countries in the Mediterranean
Basin makes winter exports in quan-
tity unprofitable. The present crop
that is being harvested in the im-
portant Mediterranean Basin coun-
tries, Spain and Palestine, is a large
one. The plentiful supplies and the
low purchasing power of consumers
has resulted in low prices.
In the 1931 summer orange season
(May to October) Europe, and par-
ticularly the United Kingdom, im-
ported large quantities of oranges,
most of which, excluding the late
spring shirments from Spain, were
supplied by Brazil, South Africa and
(Continued on Page 6)
Young Grove Makes Big Return
Two acres of Hamlin oranges, barely eight years old, have proved a very profitable
inves ment for J. E. Olivenbaum of Clermont. Last season, when early oranges paid
very well for many, Mr. Olivenbaum received more than $1,000 on the tree for the
f.-uit from the two acres. In addition he got $800 last summer for budwood purchased
by a nursery. This season, despite the much poorer market for the early fruit, he was
paid around $4'0 for his Hamlin oranges, and there is the prospect of additional revenue
from budwood again.
So, in their eight h season, the two acres has returned $2 200, repaying their cost
with a fair margin of profit besides. Above at the left is a view of the Hamlin trees. At
the right are Mr. and Mrs. Olivenbaum and their three sons in front of one of the 8 year
THE Nitrate Agencies Company believes
That never before has there been a greater
need for organic fertilizers for Summer Appli-
cation to all groves in Florida.
Genuine Peruvian Guano can fill this need
as can no other fertilizer material ... not only
can Genuine Peruvian Guano be bought as
such at a very reasonable cost, but it will be
included even more liberally in NACO
Brands than heretofore.
NITRATE AGENCIES COMPANY
1401-1407 LYNCH BUILDING
An Apology to Mr. R. S. Caudle of Lakeland
Second Prize Winner in the NACO Letter Contest
At Mr. Caudle's request, his letter was retyped before being used in the Nitrate
Agencies Company current advertising. The typist made Mr. Caudle state
"This crop of about 7.000 boxes brought me approximately $13.000.000 which
goes to show that the quality was of the very best." We regret that Mr.
Caudle did not receive this very large sum of money but the $13.000.00 he did
recevl is evidence of bh profit producing value of NACO Fertilizers.
Citrus Outlook For 1932
Issued By Bureau of Agri. Economics, U. S. D. A.
March 15, 1932
SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE March 15, 1932
(Continued from Page 5)
the United States. Shipments from
South Africa fell somewhat below
those of 1930 but those from the
United States, although not up to
the 1929 level, increased greatly
over 1930. Those from Brazil, how-
ever, assumed the record propor-
tions of 1,750,000 boxes and actually
exceeded for the first time shipments
from either South Africa or the
United States and thus identified
Brazil as the source of the principal
future competition during the Euro-
pean summer orange season.
The Canadian tariff of June 2,
1931, which placed a duty equivalent
H. HARRIS & CO.
Fruit Auction Terminal
Cotler B. Downer Fred'k L Sprintford
Harold F. Miles
J. Oliver Daly Clifford E. Myers
to 75 cents a box on American or-
anges but left on the free list or-
anges imported from South Africa,
Australia and Jamaica has stimu-
lated some trial exports from South
Africa and Australia to Canada. In
the three months July to September
British South Africa shipped about
12,700 boxes, Australia, 18,000; and
Jamaica 2,100 boxes. The latter
figure is about normal for Jamaica.
Exports to Canada from these coun-
tries have not assumed any com-
mercial importance but reports indi-
cate that shippers in both Australia
and South Africa intend to try to
develop the Canadian market further
in the 1932 summer orange season.
Grapefruit production has been
increasing at an average rate of
nearly 6 per cent per year during
the last 10 years, and the proportion
of young trees is now much larger
than it was 10 years ago. The avail-
able statistics are conflicting but,
excluding plantings since the sum-
mer of 1931, the area in grapefruit
trees in the continental United States
is perhaps 193,000 acres. Somewhere
around 43 percent of the trees will
be less than 5 years old in the sum-
COMPLETE WATER SYSTEMS FOR
Large Stocks Pumps, Pipe and Other Materials for
"Sixty-Six Years of Service"
The Cameron & Barkley Co.
Zellner Pocket Citrus Sizer
(PAT. SPEND )
Save guessing-know exactly how your citrus is sizing. This handy,
little packing house and grove "tool" contains the complete range of
sizes for both oranges and grapefruit, yet takes no more room in
your pocket than a pocket comb.
Simplest thing in the world to use. Can be used on fruit on the tree.
No complicated adjustment, merely open and place against the fruit
and the size automatically shows.
The sizer is made of stainless steel, ever-lasting and rust-proof. It is
strong and sturdy and will stand rough handling. Folded, it is only
1 4 inches wide and 5 inches long.
Every packing house manager, grove foreman and grower should
have one. Commissionmen, brokers, jobbers and fruit dealers are
Parcel Post Prepaid Anywhere in the United States
H. GRADY ZF7.1 .NER
P. O. Box 1551 LAKELAND, FLORIDA
Citrus Outlook For 1932
mer of 1932, and only about 17 per-
cent are as much as 15 years old.
Florida now has perhaps 93,000
acres in grapefruit trees, of which
perhaps a third are as much as 15
years old. The California bearing
acreage of 72,000 has only 30 per-
cent of this acreage that will be as
much as 5 years old in the spring of
1932. In Arizona also the bearing
acreage is increasing rapidly. That
state now has about 13,000 acres of
grapefruit, and only about 30 per-
cent of the trees are of bearing age.
Porto Rico reports 6,120 acres with
trees over 6 years old; 1,680 acres
with trees 2 to 5 years old; 310
acres with trees 1 to 2 years old; and
200 acres with trees 1 year old.
Foreign Outlook for Grapefruit
The upward trend in grapefruit
exports was continued in the 1930-
31 season (October to September).
Total exports amounted to around
7.3 percent of the crop or 1,363,000
boxes of which 855,000 went to the
United Kingdom, 426,000 to Canada
and 52,000 to Continental Europe.
Takings by most countries increased,
but the greatest increase occurred in
which country took 273,000 boxes
the case of the United Kingdom
more than in the previous record
year of 1928-29. The per capital
consumption of grapefruit in most
countries is still very low but the
trend is strongly upward. The United
States and Porto Rico supply most
of the grapefruit consumed in for-
eign countries, but the production
and exports of Palestine, the West
Ind'es, Brazil, Argentina, and South
Africa are increasing. In 1926 the
United Kingdom imported 93,000
boxes of grapefruit from countries
other than ihe United States or
Porto Rico. By 1928 these imports
amounted to 164,000 boxes, and in
1931 they exceeded 375,000 boxes.
In competing in European mar-
kets Porto Rico has a number of dis-
tinct advantages over most grape-
fruit producing countries. Shipping
rates are relatively favorable, pro-
duction costs are low and fruit of
the desired small sizes can be pro-
dued the year around. Commercial
grapefruit production in Porto Rico
during the five-year period 1926-27
to 1930-31 has averaged about 1,-
010,000 boxes yearly, of which 672,-
000 boxes have been exported.
Grapefruit from Palestine is of high
quality and gives promise of offer-
;ng some of the strongest competi-
tion for American fruit in export
markets. Exports increased from
2,000 boxes in 1927-28 to 57,000
boxes in 1930-31 and if the present
rate of export is maintained in the
present season, the total may reach
100,000 boxes. No large expansion
of grapefruit production is expected
in South Africa. Exports in the last
three seasons have averaged 100,-
000 boxes a year, most of which
went to the United Kingdom. Some
increase in production has occurred
Citrus Groves Less
If citrus groves were selling today
at the same depression level of the
leading investment stocks, the sales
price would be around $160 an acre.
How far this is below the actual
sales level of citrus groves is real-
ized by every grower, yet applying
the average decline which has taken
place among stocks since 1929, this
ridiculous comparative sales price
for citrus would prevail if citrus
had declined in proportion.
The comparative analysis was
made by Walter W. Rose of Or-
lando, chairman of the Florida Real
Estate Commission, who after study
announced that investors in the Wall
Street boom lost far more heavily
than those who bought real estate
"n Florida during the 1925 boom,
particularly those who bought cit-
rus groves. The common value of
groves was $1,000 an acre. Leading
stocks showed an average loss of
84 percent between 1929 "high" and
The comparison of citrus and
stocks shows several principal points.
Citrus grove values generally were
not inflated in Florida. Citrus re-
turns in spite of depressed times are
much higher than industrial and
commercial business returns. If
either of these two were not true,
citrus grove values today would be
down in. proportion to the level of
There is also another point prob-
ably of more importance than any of
the others. This is the tremendous
reserve vitality of the citrus busi-
ness. Industry and commerce shows
how little it can withstand successive
seasons of depression. All other
agriculture than citrus is at lowest
:evels. Citrus, itself, has been
affected, but so much less in com-
parison that it stands clear from
all the rest.
in the British West Indies, especially
Jamaica. Exports in 1930-31
amounted to 95,000 boxes or a little
less than last season. Exports from
the Isle of Pines in 1930-31 totalled
235,000 boxes an increase of 15,000
from the previous year, but still
34,000 boxes short of the pre-hurri-
cane exports in 1926-27. The grape-
fruit industry in Brazil and Argen-
tina is receiving a great deal of at-
tention and may be expected to be
of importance in a few years.
Grapefruit exports from the
United States in the first two months
of the present season (1931-32)
have been maintained at approxi-
mately the same level as last season
but the smaller grapefruit crop,
coupled with the unfavorable de-
mand conditions in Europe, suggest
that total exports are not likely to
be as large as were those of last year.
March 15, 1932
March 15, 1932 SEALD-SWEET CHRONICLE
Quality Fertilizer Does
Produce Quality Fruit
EXAMPLE NO. 1
A well known Florida grower (name on request) decided three
years ago to determine by actual test our assertions that Orange
Belt Brands of Fertilizer really made a difference in the pro-
duction of high quality fruit.
To make the test he has for the past three years fertilized a
portion of his grove with Orange Belt Brand Fertilizers and an-
other portion he fertilized with another brand.
In checking the fruit produced from these two different grove
plots he has found that for the three year period the section of
his grove fertilized with Orange Belt Brands produced 73%
U. S. No. 1, while the other portion only produced 31 % U. S.
This grower is fully convinced now. Orange Belt Brands have
PROVEN themselves again.
There IS A Difference In Fertilizer
Lyons Fertilizer Company
807 Citrus Exc. Bldg. O LA T 4th Ave. & 35th ST.
TAMPA, FLA. L TAMPA, FLA.
QUALITY FERTILIZER FOR QUALITY FRUIT
March 15, 1932
GROVE, FIELD AND CROP NOTES
The ideas of association presidents
on several important points con-
nected with the operations of the
associations and the Exchange are
being gathered by the Presidents
Association. A questionnaire has
been sent to the presidents listing
several pertinent questions.
The questionnaire is headed by a
request for the plans most successful
in developing member loyalty and to
obtain new members. Other ques-
tions are: whether packing house re-
tains should be discontinued; should
associations establish reserve funds
to make small loans to members;
should the Exchange have more
authority over the associations, par-
ticularly about moving the fruit; can
the Chronicle be made more helpful
to the growers and how; should more
fruit be sold f.o.b. or should all be
sold in that manner; should the Ex-
change establish its own maturity
test and enforce it in all its houses.
Some time ago the Presidents
Association appointed a committee
to compile data which would assist
in "building up stronger associations
and creating a closer and more effi-
cient connection with the Exchange.
J. E. Olivenbaum of Clermont,
just recently elected to the board of
Clermont association, represents
that large group of small growers
who hove made their own groves and
from the making gained their citrus
S experience. Mr. Olivenbaum has al-
together about 21 acres of which the
most is not in bearing and the oldest
is only eight years old.
This grove of his can be said to
be a family institution. The whole
family from Mrs. Olivebaum down
to the three sons helped even to the
clearing. Mrs. Olivebaum, herself,
-- drove many of the stakes and planted
quite a few of the trees.
While a farmer all of his life,
Mr. Olivenbaum was a totally green
hand at citrus culture and it was a
peculiar experience to him to set
about learning how to make a citrus
grove. He expresses it tersely in his
comment, "never knew there were
so many ways to do something which
you shouldn't do."
First he consulted the experts.
After he had heard so many don'tt"
on what he had been told by other
experts to "do," he decided to con-
sult growers of the sections. Again
the same problem. What one advo-
cated others condemned. So, he
gathered some books and figured out
his course for himself.
It's too early yet to determine how
well he has done but the illustration
on Page 5 gives a preliminary idea. aroused.
Auction Averages of Oranges and Grapefruit by Sizes and Grades
Following are the auction averages for the past few weeks reflecting
the general market level and range for Florida citrus. There are so many
factors which enter into the sale of every car, such as different condi-
tions in different markets, different conditions in different cars, day of
sale, etc., for which allowance should be made in comparing the sale of
any particular car with the averages.
* The Port
126's 150's 176's 200's
3.77 3.74 3.89 3.86
3.04 3.24 3.47 3.54
3.62 3.83 4.08 4.10
3.17 3.36 3.67 3.74
3.41 3.83 4.10 4.17
3.00 3.34 3.65 3.76
36's 46's 54's 64's 70's
2.47 2.63 2.33 2.24 2.18
2.0Q,2.22 .2,00 1.95 1.93
2.20 2.35 2.06 1.98 2.00
1.84 1.94 1.81 1.79 1.77
2.17 2.35 2.16 '2.08 2.05
1.92 2.04 1.88 1.82 1.83
of Fort Pierce has been "Scribe" R. J. Welsh of Auburn-
approved by the War Department as
the intermediary deep water port
between Jacksonville and Miami and
the recommendation given to Con-
gress for the government to take
the port over and spend $250,000
developing a 27 feet channel with
adequate appropriations for annual
The event, long and zealously
worked for by the East Coast, was
signally celebrated late last month
by the inauguration of service be-
tween the Port and Philadelphia by
a no less famous ship than the
"Eleanor Boling" which took Ad-
miral Byrd to the Antartic. The
ship is now the flag ship of the Fort
Pierce Steamship company and the
forerunner, it is confidently ex-
pected on the East Coast, of a fleet
carrying Florida 'products to the
Fort Pierce association and Indian
River Sub-Exchange have worked
wholeheartedly with other interest
to develop the Port. Fort Pierce has
plans for a large terminal plant, in-
cluding packinghouse, canning plant
and cold storage.
Fruit thieves have become an in-
creasing problem in Polk county,
bringing a number of Exchange
associations and other packers to-
gether to plan measures to cope with
the trouble. A meeting recently was
held at Haines City association at
which the sheriff and the chief of
police promised -agrove-patrol day
and night with authority to stop
trucks about which suspicion was
dale reports the completion of ar-
rangements for the purchase of fer-
tilizer by members at material sav-
ings. The arrangements were ,made
largely through the efforts of W. H.-
Shultz, Sr., vice-president.
The association "also has estab-
lished a grove patrol to protect the
groves of its members and posters
have been posted about the district
warning that the groves are patrolled
and offering a reward. for informa-
tion leading to conviction, Mr. Welsh
reports further. He points out that
the patrol will be a benefit to the
entire district as the patrolmen will
cover the whole in patrolling mem-
As a measure of economy, Flor-
ida shippers of citrus and vegetables
are seeking a modified refrigeration
service to consist of one-re-icing en
route, eliminating several re-icings,
for which it was expected a much re-
duced charge would be made by the
railroads. The plan, however, has
been blocked so far by the failure of
the railroads to offer a substantial re-
duction in the charges.
The railroads indicate that they
are willing to reduce the standard re-
frigeration charge only about eight
percent or about $5 a car on ship-
ments to New York and $11 a car on
shipments to Chicago. The shippers
have made it clear that they could
not consider so small a reduction.
The proposals were considered by
representatives of the shippers and
the railroads at a meeting of the
National Perishables Freight Com-
mittee of the American Fruit and
Vegetables Shippers association. The
subject will be continued for further
The strongest and most persuasive
advertisement is that of a friend to
a friend so Lake county inaugurated
a unique nation-wide campaign of
that nature which is sending thou-
sands of individually written letters
from Lake county residents to
friends throughout the country.
The idea originated with H. C.
- Brown, president of Clermont asso-
ciation, who with the assistance of
Lake Sub-Exchange gained the full
cooperation of the county. Locally
it took the form of a contest for the
best letter and for the most sent.
A special, double-sized post card was
prepared with a terse list of the
merits of grapefruit above an ade-
quate space for a personal message
of similar nature.
The three best letters will receive
prizes of $25, $15 and $10. The
50 next best will receive $1 each
while the individual or organization
mailing the largest number in con-
formity with the contest will win
$25. The contest ended Mar. 15.
In order to help growers fight the
drought, the Florida Public Service
company serving 70 communities,
wanted a special rate of 10 cents
per thousand gallons for water used
for irrigation purposes. The rate is
an emergency measure good for only
a limited time and under certain re-
strictions for use.
It applies only to bona fide groves
and not for yards with a few trees.
A separate meter with a minimum
two-inch connection must be in-
stalled and the water can be used
only between 10 p.m. and five a.m.
The time limit for the rate was not
set but the rate is subject to with-
darwal by the company at any time.
The City of Sebring also took an
emergency measure to help the.
growers. A pump was installed at
one of the lakes of the city and water
is furnished to the growers without
Clermont association takes special
pride in the repeated winnings of
Lake county and Lake county grow-
ers in citrus at the various fairs.
For the past four years, according
to G. H. Williams, manager, the asso-
ciation has furnished the grapefruit
for the Lake county exhibits at the
The county won firsts at the Flor-
ida Orange Festival and at the Cen-
tral Florida Exposition this season.
At the Tampa fair, H. C. Brown,
Dr. G. H. Simmerman and F. P. John-
son of the association won blue rib-
bons and Dr. Simmerman and Isaac
Blackburn received several firsts and
seconds at the Central Florida Expo-
March 15, 1932