Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075292/00032
 Material Information
Title: Seald-sweet chronicle
Alternate Title: Seald sweet chronicle
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Exchange
Florida Citrus Exchange
Place of Publication: Tampa Fla
Publication Date: March 1, 1932
Frequency: semimonthly
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Newspapers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Hillsborough County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Hillsborough -- Tampa
Coordinates: 27.970898 x -82.46464 ( Place of Publication )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased on Apr. 15, 1932.
General Note: "Florida's only citrus newspaper."
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 4, no. 24 (May 15, 1929).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075292
Volume ID: VID00032
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AJH6537
oclc - 31158390
alephbibnum - 001763371
lccn - sn 97027656

Full Text





Entered as Second Class Mail Matter
Vol. VII sUBscRIPTION PBICE 50 CENTS PER YAB TAMPA, FLORIDA, MAR. 1, 1932 at the Pest Offie at Tampa. Florida No. 19
Under-the Act of March 8. 1879.

Adding many thousands of
dollars more to the saving
given the citrus growers in re-
duced rates, the steamship
lines serving the Florida citrus
industry have reduced rates to
New York, Baltimore and
Philadelphia 10 cents a box.
The volume of fruit moved by
water can only be guessed but
it amounts to a large total.
The Clyde Steamship Com-
pany reduce., its rate ..from
Jacksonville to New York from
46 cents a box to 36 cents and
the Merchants and Miners
serving Philadelphia and
Baltimore from Jacksonville
the same. The Mallory Line
rate from Tampa to New York
was reduced from 55 cents a
box to 45 cents and the half
box from 35 cents to 25 cents.

Supply Company Saves

Associations Big Sums

On Packing Supplies

Through its influence of massed
purchasing power, the Exchange
Supply Company of the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange has a marked influence
on the prices of packing supplies to
an extent that has saved about 25
percent on packing materials, ac-
cording to a statement on the opera-
tions of the company given by J.
D. Murdoch, manager, to the Presi-
dents' Association.
Eighty percent of the associations
purchase the major portion of their
--' supplies from-the' company MrrMur'-
doch reported. Five percent pur-
chase a small part and 15 percent
purchase nothing from it, he said.
He estimated that the company is
saving the associations 2 cents per
box on the volume of business it is
doipg now and that if associations
patronized the company 100 percent
an additional saving of 1 %^ cents a
box could be affected.
"Our ability to get the very low-
est prices depends entirely on the-
support that we receive from the
associations," Mr. Murdoch- stated.
-"If we were able to control. 100
percent of the Exchange business
and the manufacturers knew that
they had to deal with the Exchange
Supply Company if they wanted any
of the Exchange business, they would
be more keen in making their bids.
But as it is now, they know that if
(Continued on Page 5)

Joint Campaign

On Grapefruit

Now Underway

Newspaper Advertisements
Radio Announcements
,- Used tol ncreaseDemand

Simultaneously in five of the larg-
est citrus markets of the country,
commodity advertising of Florida
grapefruit was to appear in the press
and over the radio the last days of
February-the last forlorn hope to
raise the grapefruit market out of
the "red."
The Florida Citrus Exchange and
the Clearing House combined on an
advertising campaign, limited by
force of necessity and circumstances
to the five markets of New York,
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland
and Chicago. Each supplies $20,000
to the special effort, the Exchange
drawing its share from present funds
without a special assessment, while
the Clearing House, guaranteeing its
portion, collects it from a special
assessment of three cents a box
against its shipper members.
No restriction of shipment is con-
nected with the program at least for
two weeks due to the failure of the
restriction test the week of Feb. 8-
13. So little effective was this test
that shipments of the week Feb.
1.20, an unrestrrcteaadPrrod;'Were-
no more than during the week when
pledges were made to curtail the
In this connection, the Exchange
performed 100 percent shipping 160
cars with an allotment of 160. The
Clearing House members with the
same allotment shipped 220 cars
while the third group of shippers,
having not to exceed 25 percent of
the crop, shipped no less than 310
cars, 204 cars more than their quota.
Instead of a total movement of 426
to 450 cars desired, the shipments
,for the test week Feb. 8-13 reached
.680.0 .ars.. Incidentally, the Ex-
change estimates" indicate 'that it
.has 50 percent of the grapefruit
crop so it is readily apparent to what
extent the Exchange went to try
and protect the interests of all the-
(Continued on Page 2)

Exchange Board Elects

Steuart Comptroller

To Supervise Finances
The position of comptroller or
supervisor of everything connected
with handling of finances has been
created by the Board of the Florida
Citrus Exchange and Alex E. Steuart
of Tampa appointed to fill the posi-
tion, effective March 1.
The comptrolA will have specitul
charge, subject %the finance com-
mittee and the opard, of all the
matters connecteywith the funds of
the Exchange, including budgets, ex-
penditures, raising and collection of
money and innumerable other de-
tahis coniibted with thrjn-andlnig ot
the organization money. vON C
Mr. Steuart held a similar posi-,
tion with the City of Tampa for
several years recently, making an
enviable record during one of the
most trying financial periods. His
record was such that in the change
of administration in Tampa, the suc-
ceeding administration tried to pre-
vail upon him to continue in the
position. He resigned to become
treasurer of the Times Publishing
Company of Tampa.

The United Stattes Department
of Agriculture will not make fore-
casts of 'the probable course of
prices for farm products, it has been
announced in Washington. Inac-
curacies in past predictions and dif-
ferences of opinion among the de-
partment's specialists -on the 1932
outlook caused the decision.

Rate Reduction

To Save Growers

Million or More

TraFfic Man. Dow Figures
Savings to Exchange to
. Reach Half a Milbon -

Members of the Florida Citrus
Exchange, alone, will save approxi-
mately $500,000 in the new rate re-
duction to the East and New Eng-
land in effect for the balance of the
season, E. D. Dow, traffic manager
of the Exchange, estimates. This
will mean a saving of $1,000,000 for
the entire industry plus a consider-
able additional saving from reduc-
tion of the water rates.
Mr. Dow warns that the reduction
must be understood as an emergency
measure whose continuance beyond
this season will depend entirely upon
the extent to which the shippers
utilize the railroads. The reduction,
he pointed out, v.as made by,the
railroads in an effort to meet and
overcome water competition.
The reduced rates apply only to
citrus in standard boxes, bulk and i1
bags and not to fruit in baskets.
While the minimum carloading
has been raised from 360 boxes to
444 boxes to the car it is not neces-
sary to load the full minimum to
take'-advantage -of tlwercducid'&rate- -
iciording to Mr. Dow.
i.-"he. tariff provides" he ex-
plained, "for the assessing of freight
charges on the new rate and miini-
mum, provided, the charges figure
cheaper than on the basis of the ole
tate and minimum, consequently,
any number of boxes over 365 will
figure a less cost per box for freight
on the new rate than would have
been the case based upon the old
rate and minimum."
The extent of the reduction can
be understood by comparison with
1930-31 shipments. Had the new
rate been in effect that season, the
Exchange members would have
saved $1,682,838, according to Mr.
Dow's tabulations. On the shipments
to the New York area the saving.
would have been nearly $1,000,000
and to Boston more than $340,000.
(Continued on Page 5)



What's Wrons With Florida Citrus?
By ERROL M. ZORN, Manager, Eastern District

In my last article I cited an in-
stance where uncontrolled distribu-
tion resulted in excessive orange re-
ceipts in New York which broke the
market badly and immediately had
a depressing effect upon values in
Syracuse. This is a regular oc-
currance in the marketing of Florida
citrus fruit and has cost the state
millions of dollars.
The Trade as Shippers
During the past two years new,
small shippers have sprung up and
jobbers in terminal markets have
entered the packing and shipping
business thus further disrupting
orderly distribution and marketing.
These men are primarily interested

Presidents Believe

Strength of Exchange

Lies in Associations

After consultation and study for
nearly a year, the Presidents asso-
ciation at its latest dinner meeting
advanced its reasons for the failure
of the Florida Citrus Exchange to
gain 75 percent control of the cit-
rus crop and the confidence of .most
of the growers.
In the words of one of the presi-
dents, echoed unanimously by the
rest, "the quicker we build up our
associations and get the confidence
of the growers locally, the sooner
will the Exchange have control of
the crop and the confidence of the
It was the consensus of opinion
that it is the individual associations
that make the Exchange popular or
unpopular and that "errors in the
central organization have not caused
one-tenth of the damage to the Ex-
change that local faults have done."
Another thought that received un-
animous accord was "that if any-
thing is wrong at the top of the or-
ganization it is only because we as
individuals have not done our full
The Presidents association has
taken its possibilities in building up
cooperation and the Exchange from
bottom to top seriously. It is care-
fully studying the whole subject by
sections digging in for the facts and
drawing upon the whole group and
others for the best ideas and means
to advance the Exchange. Its re-
cent meetings, occurring once a
month have been well attended.
The last meeting, Feb. 16, was at
Lake Byrd Lodge, near Avon Park,
as guests of the Lake Byrd Packing
Company and the Avon-Florida Cit-
rus Corporation. The lodge was
through the courtesy of Charles E.
opened specially for the association,
alker, president of the two com-
panies and a member of the associa-
(Continued on Page 6)

in packing profits, have no sales or-
ganization and therefore ship prac-
tically everything to the city in
which they have their headquarters.
Whether the market is a quarter
higher or lower means little to them
because by limiting shipments and
raising the price level 25c, their in-
creased commission is less than $5.00
per car. On the other hand, by re-
ducing shipments they lose $70.00
to $80.00 per car packing profits. A
quarter advance in the market puts
$90.00 in the growers pocket but
the packer is not so interested in
that as he is in the $70.00 that
won't find it's way to his pocket, if
he curtails his operations.
This fact has been largely respon-
sible for the low grapefruit market
during the past two years. New York
has absorbed more than its rightful
share during that period and, per-
haps for the first time New York has
been the low grapefruit market of
the country. Low prices in New
York have a depressing effect on
values throughout a large part of
the country; in fact the New York
market has a direct bearing on the
prices paid for half the citrus fruit
shipped from Florida.
Lost More Than Million
To clearly visualize this picture
let us consider New York grapefruit
receipts for the current season up
to January 31st. The Florida move-
ment was 17.7 percent lighter than
for the corresponding period of the
1930-31 season, yet New York re-
(Continued on Page 4)

To Admit California

Citrus in Florida
Floridians are now to see "in
the flesh" what before most of the
state has known by name or picture
only-California oranges and lem-
ons; lemons throughout the year
and oranges between May 1 and
Oct. 1.
The existing state quarantine
against California citrus because of
brown rot has been modified to per-
mit carload shipments to the state
under strict regulation which in-
cludes special treatment for brown
rot. All shipments will be inspected
and packed under the direction of
the California Department of Agri-
culture and each box will be certi-
fied by the department.
A special bulletin of the State
Plant Board stated that a simple hot
water treatment of the fruit obviates
in great measure the development
of brown.rot in packed fruit and
that it is the opinion of the board
that this treatment with the im-
proved sanitary practices in har-
vesting and packing permits the safe
entry of the fruit in Florida.

Grapefruit canning in Flor-
ida has decreased heavily this
season compared with last,
only slightly more than 500,-
000 cases having been put up
as of Feb. 13 compared with
more than 2,000,000 cases at
the same date last season, M.
M. Slayton, manager of the
canning division, reported.
According to Mr. Slayton
there are only 24 plants in
operation this season, approxi-
mately half of the number run-
ning last year. In view of pres-
ent conditions, he believes, op-
erations generally will come to
a close in four to six weeks.

Joint Campaign For

Grapefruit Now On
(Continued from Page 1)
The Exchange, though it felt that
any advertising campaign would be
of little effect if not assisted by re-
stricted movement, yielded to the
appeals of the others and agreed to
join in the last hope to stimulate the
market. Shippers of the third group
meeting with representatives of the
Exchange and the Clearing House
Feb. 15 received the request to par-
ticipate in the advertising campaign
but made no definite commitments.
The advertising will consist of
one weekly advertisement of 1,000
lines or five columns by 13 inches
for four weeks suplemented by four
radio broadcasts a week of about
100 words each for the four weeks.
N. W. Ayer and Company, agency
of the Clearing House will prepare
part of the copy and Erwin, Wasey
Company of the Exchange the

Associations Have Fine

Record in Fruit Decay
Fourteen packing houses of the
Florida Citrus Exchange have a per-
fect record in connection with de-
cay, not even one-hundredth of one
percent being reported against them
on fruit for which remittance had
been received to Feb. 20. Sixty-six
pther houses had less than one per-
cent decay reported and only three
of the total of 100 plants in the
Exchange organization had decay
over tolerance which is three per-
The average percentage if re-
ported decay for the Exchange as
of Feb. 19 was less than one-half
of one percent.
The houses making the perfect
record are: Frostproof, Lakeland
and Waverly plants of Chase Sub-
Exchange; Ft. Lauderdale, Plant
City, Okahumpka, Manatee, West
Orange, Alturas, Bartow, Homeland,
Lake Garfield, DeLeon Springs and
the DeLand plant of the Winne-
missett Park Company.

Market Summary

Includes Estimate

Of Citrus Left

Davis Reports on Situation
and Outlook for Oranges
Grapefruit andTangerines

Reporting to the Board of Di-
rectors of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change at its meeting in Tampa,
Feb. 19, Fred W. Davis, general sales
manager, estimated the crop remain-
ing in the state at 21,800 cars of
which the Exchange had about
11,450 cars.
He divided the remaining volume
as follows: midseason oranges, 3,000
cars; valencias, 9,000 cars; tanger-
ines, 300 cars; early grapefruit,
5,000 cars; Marsh seedless, 4,500
Deducting shipments since, Cali-
fornia on the basis of its Jan. 1
estimate would have 16,866 cars of
navels and 37,800 cars of Valencias,
Mr. Davis said. In spite of the in-
creased sizing of the fruit, estimated
to have added 5,000 cars, the frost
damage suffered will decrease the
total movement 15 percent and pos-
sibly more, he said.
Favorable for Midseason Oranges
Mr. Davis reported that the situa-
tion at the present time is favorable
for the shipment of Florida's mid-
season oranges. They are being ship-
ped as rapidly as possible, he said,
and the markets have held up well
in view of the heavier supply. Cali-
fornia has been held back by the
heavy rains so its movement is com-
paratively light, while, he added,
California navels are running
medium to large sizes compared with
Florida oranges running medium to
Later, Mr. Davis said, with the
mid-season oranges out of the way,
Valencias, running medium to large
will be in a more favorable position
with California Valencias running
to the smaller sizes. He believed it
advisable, therefore, to hold back
the Valencias until the mid-season
fruit is well out of the way.
Tangerines Advance
Tangerines have advanced around
50 cents a strap with an active de-
mand and it is probable that under
light supply the balance of the sea-
son, the market will continue strong,
Mr. Davis stated.
Texas grapefruit shipments have
been very heavy, totaling around
300 cars a week and it is believed the
volume left is small and shipments
will be lighter. Texas has shipped
,3,892 cars. Its sizes run largely to
96s and smaller.
The market for Florida grapefruit
which dropped 25 cents a box prior
(Continued on Page 5)

March 1, 1932



One of the big Polk county fam-
ily of associations affiliated with the
Florida Citrus Exchange is Dundee
C. G. A., the biggest business in the
small town of that name on the
Atlantic Coast Line railroad about
midway in the Scenic Highlands.
Out of its rather crowded area,
surrounded on all sides but the east
by several other associations, Dun-
dee draws fruit from approximately
3,000 acres of groves, much of it
young. It lists 100 members, own-
ing 120 groves, several quite large
as the St. Helena 500 acres and the
250 acres of H. E. Carnell, director
of the Exchange.
Dundee association is in its
eleventh season so it has made a
rather material accomplishment,
meeting as it does all around with
friendly competition of sister asso-
ciations as well as private compe-
tition. A few miles south is Waverly
association, while a fewer miles
north is Lake Hamilton and not far
west are Florence and Winter Haven
The association has already out-
grown its first plant, building and
operating a new one last season.
The new plant is typical of the mod-
ern design primarily stressing utility,
economy and efficiency. The build-

ing is a simple design, sheathed with
plain metal but the huge dome run-
ning the full length adds an attrac-
tive touch while the landscaped, con-
crete-surfaced, receiving runway,
cut deep below the surface and curv-
ing from and back to the main high-
way along which it is laid, will at-
tract attention from everyone pass-
ing by. Plant capacity is six cars a
The plant contains four full sizers
and two halves and has 10 coloring
rooms which gives it adequate equip-
ment for a considerably increased
volume. It has no precooling rooms
but has been shipping its fruit under
full refrigeration. Kerosene gas is
used instead of ethelene and so far
has not affected the carrying qual-
ity of the fruit as many fear it does.
The decay report of the house shows
this to be very low, running less than
half of one percent while three per-
cent is tolerance.

s~s&.";.- ^

One piece of equipment rarely
seen these days is the dryer, de-
signed after the old Parker model
with its air blast reaching the fruit
through long, large metal pipes from
which are suspended cross-wise
many small tubes by which the air
blast is spread over the fruit. There
are two of these dryers with 90 feet
of conveyors over which the fruit
must pass through the air blast. It
is very effective, Manager J. W.
Smoot reports, drying the fruit com-

pletely even in foggy, damp weather.
The association has packed nearly
all of its fruit this season instead of
playing to trucks and bulking as
many in the state did. Less than 10
percent of its volume moved by
truck or bulk during the period
when the state average ran around
40 percent.
Most of its trucking came through
its participation in the Tampa farm-
ers' market where it had a stall with
an employee in charge and trucked
fruit over twice a day with con-
siderable success. Through this it
got as high as $1.75 a box for orr
anges and from 50 to 75 cents a box
for grapefruit, Manager Smoot in-
Its experience in Tampa is a good
example, however, of the affect of
the "arsenic" shipments. Every-
thing was going fine, Mr. Smoot said,
until the sprayed fruit was released
by the court decision, then shortly

after first shipments of this type
of fruit flooded the South, the ship-
pers started on state markets, among
them Tampa. There was no doubt
about where the fruit came from,
reminded Smoot, In a short time the
price at Tampa fell to 20 cents a box
and the association withdrew.
Though there has been constant
complaint about the markets and
the necessity to cut costs to meet
the situation, Smoot believes that
packing the fruit has paid the asso-
ciation well. Its net on the tree has
been good compared with the others,
even with grapefruit which paid a
very fair return up to the past few
Water shipment, he believes, has
been another advantage to the asso-
ciation. As it has its own fleet of
trucks, it has been able to haul at a
saving to its members in addition
to saving on the transportation
charge. It has been shipping small
lots regularly to New York, keeping
its brand before the trade. The sav-
'ng in freight in addition to this ad-
vantage alone totals around $2,000.
Smoot was engaged by the asso-
ciation from Winter Haven associa-
tion where he was house foreman
for several years. He superintends
the field work personally, dispensing
with a foreman for this purpose in
order to economize. His house fore-
man is C. J. Martin who has been

Above, Manager Smoot (right) and his
house foreman, C. J. Martin.

Dundee Association Continues Progress

Exchange Operating

Costs Average Low

So Far This Season
Proving the value and economy of
cooperative organization and vol-
ume, the cost of the operations of
the Florida Citrus Exchange, ex-
clusive of advertising, is only slight-
ly more than 8 cents a box this
season so far.
Frequently the criticism has been
made of "high salaries" at Tampa
but the report shows that the salary
expense of the Tampa office is only
two and six-tenths cents a box, in-
cluding the new field department
with the force of a manager and 11
inspectors added this season.
This salary expense contrasts with
the five to ten cents a box com-
mission paid by many competitors to
solicitors for signing fruit and it
contrasts sharply also with salary
and profit expense of competitors.
The average Florida citrus operator
handless little more than 100,000
boxes a season if that much and if
his total salary and profit combined
were only $5,000, wihch is ridicul-
ously low, this item would amount
to double the per box salary ex-
pense of the Tampa office.
The Northern sales force of the
Exchange, including 25 division and
district managers and their office
staffs, costs the Exchange growers
only a fraction more than two cents
a box, including all expenses. All of
these take the place of one or more
brokers as well as supervising other
brokers, saving the Exchange a con-
siderable amount for brokerage
which otherwise would have to be
The balance of the operating cost
per box is split up among a number
of items such as telegraph and tele-
phone expense, postage, rent, sup-
plies, general expense and others.

with the association for several years
and helped build the plant and is
able to relieve him of most of the
plant detail.
He checks his field crews every
day and is a stickler for careful
handling. One crew and foreman
were discharged on the spot for in-
excusable carelessness. While he
permits field boxes to be loaded
several high on the trucks he re-
quires that they shall not be filled
full but extra fruit carried on the
top tier and the other boxes filled
up after reaching the packing house.
All graders and packers are required
to wear gloves. These precautions
probably help account for the low
decay reported.
G. F. Kletzen is president of Dun-
dee association. J. L. Olson is vice-
president. With them on the board
of directors are Mr. Cornell, H. B.
Snively and W. F. Benton.


March 1, 1932


Seald Sweet


Published twice a month in
the interest of cooperative
marketing and for the infor-
mation of the citrus growers
of Florida.

606 Citrus Exchange Bldg.
Publication Office:
Tampa, Florida
Postoffice Box 2349

Net Grower Circulation
over 12,500

Space Rates: $60.00 per page;
$35.00 half-page; $20.00 one-
quarter page; $2.00 per inch
all space under one-quarter
page. Minimum space: 1 inch.

Vol. VII MAR. 1, 1932.

No. 19

Tangerines have advanced 50
cents a strap, reported the General
Sales Manager of the Exchange re-
cently. Previous to this he had re-
ported a very much wider use of
tangerines where the Exchange had
merchandised and that many mar-
kets which before have taken only
holiday supply or a few boxes at a
time now were consuming the fruit
in volume and ordering by the car-
As the tangerine movement
r-ached heavy proportions this sea-
son, the Exchange started its spe-
cial merchandising program. Fail-
ure of the other interests in the in-
dustry to agree on a joint campaign
did not halt the Exchange though it
knew that its effort would rebound
to the profit of the others as much
as to itself.
The plans for the joint campaign
proposed were not made blindly.
Weeks of thought and the accumula-
tion of data preceded it. To the
credit of the other shippers, they
gave the Exchange full information
about their past tangerine distribu-
the cars of other citrus. Probably
tion even to the few boxes placed in
more than 95 percent of the tanger-
ine movement was accounted for.
This data revealed a striking fail-
ure in distribution. Most of the
tangerines went into a few markets.
Most of the markets got none or
only a few boxes a season. All this
was presented in tabulated form by
cities with a plan based upon noth-
ing more than distribution to neg-
lected markets backed by a moder-
ate campaign.

Much credit was taken outside of
the Exchange for both the data and
the plan. Much talk was made. But
that was all.
So the Exchange went on alone.
In selected areas, it advertised and
merchandised. Interest in tanger-
ines arose. Distribution gains at
many points amounted to many
times the normal past consumption.
Probably many reasons will be ad-
vanced from outside of the Exchange
for this double gain, widened dis-
tribution and a price advance which
all shared. Undoubtedly no credit
will be given the Exchange except
that which it claims for itself. But,
what of that? Distribution has wid-
ened and consumption has increased.
Now the market has advanced. The
aims of the special work have been
attained so let credit fall where it

Eat Citrus
SSuppose one million of Florida's
one and one-half million population
would eat. one grapefruit and two
oranges a day; in one month Florida
would have consumed ninety million
grapefruit and oranges, with the re-
'sult that it would have added health,
vigor and vim to every human sys-
tem participating, and at the same
time brought progress and prosper-
ity to this essential industry of the
Florida sunshine vitamins and
health minerals are bottled up for
:internal consumption in Florida's
:citrus fruits, which are grown for
the healing of the nations. Eat your
way to health by eating Florida cit-
rus fruits.
"A drink of Florida fruit juice is
la drink of health"-is more than
a mere slogan. It is a known fact
!that people suffering from general
'debility, sluggish liver, auto-intoxi-
cation and kindred ailments have
'been aided through a systematic
'daily consumption of Florida citrus
'fruits. It has been proven that a
two weeks treatment of an exclusive
Florida citrus diet, together with
sun and water bathing, has rejuven-
iated the entire human system. At
iany rate, here is a daily health pre-
scription worth trying: one grape-
'fruit and two or more oranges a
There is nothing more refreshing
and strengthening to the tired body
than a drink of cool orange or grape-
fruit juice . try it. Isn't it bet-
ter to consume the healthful prod-
ucts of Florida than canned peaches,
prunes and other imported products
-especially when it means 'the re-
building of our bodies and the con-
serving of our health, and 'at' the
same time materially adding to
Florida's prosperity? .

February Elevated and Subway Posters


Imagine the above in all the'beauty of natural colors and of design such
that the glasses of juice appear'only awaiting your grasp-and you get the
impression the passengers on the Chicago and New York elevated railways
and the New York subways receive as they get on and off the hundreds of
trains daily. The above is the February subway and elevated poster presenta-
tion, reaching hundreds of thousands of consumers of the two largest
trading areas of the country.

What's Wrong \
(Continued from Page 2)
ceipts were only 6.6 percent lighter.
To make this even more understand-'
able, these percentages expressed in
carloads mean that from October
first until January 31st this season,
New York had to absorb 382 cars of
grapefruit above its rightful share.
That represents 24 cars each week
for 16 weeks. If previous statistics
and charts are worth anything they
would indicate that a reduction of 24
cars weekly in receipts produces a
rise of about 50 per box in prices.
That advance would occur in New
York, and because of its influence on
other markets a large part of the
advance would manifest itself in
other cities. This season there were.
nearly 9,000 straight cars.of.grape-
fruit shipped during the period in
question, to say nothing of the large
quantity moved in mixed ,cars, and,
assuming an average unnecessary.
loss of only 40 per box because of
unscientific distribution, Florida
growers have already lost more than

pith Florida Citrus?
a million and a quarter dollars.
Personally I believe much of this
loss could have been avoided ifi'the
number of shippers were reduced to
one-fifth of the present total.

Does not the test of restricting
shipments of grapefruit definitely
show to the growers where their hope
for the future lies? Does it not
show clearly whether the hope is in
themselves or the shippers?
The Florida Citrus Exchange,
purely a growers' organization, per-
formed 100 percent. Its allotment
was 160 cars, probably 40 to 50 cars
less than its rightful share. It ship-
:ped 160 cars.
As for the shippers represented
by the Clearing House and the third
group, the first shipped 220 instead
of 160 cars and the latter 310 in-
stead of 106 .cars., It would seem
that the answer is plain.


March 1, 1932


Supply Company Saves

Associations Big Sum

On Packing Supplies
(Continued from Page 1)
they fail to get our order, they can
go direct to the packing houses
which naturally tends to make them
hold their price a little higher than
they would if they had to come to
The sales of the supply company
for this season to date total $34,-
821. Last season's total was $649,-
049.40; 1929-30, $457,303.45 and
1928-29, $609, 648.88.
An interesting review of the his-
tory of the supply company was
given by Charles E. Walker, presi-
dent. It was organized in 1916 as a
purchasing organization for the asso-
ciationsT-butbc-eeam e-samnbitious-'a -
entered the manufacturing field, he
said. It went into the crate and
fertilizer business, issuing bonds to
the extent of $1,225,000 to finance
itself. When he was called in to
take charge in 1923, it was apparent
after analysis that the company was
going backward instead of forward
due to its manufacturing operations.
It was decided to make a year's
test to see if the manufacturing
phase of the business could be made
profitable, Mr. Walker related. At
the end of the year it was seen no
progress was made and it was de-
termined to liquidate this phase and
confine the company entirely to pur-
chasing supplies for the associations.
Feeling the credit of the Exchange
was involved, though the company
was a separate affiliation, it was de-
termined to liquidate without the
loss of a dollar to the bondholders if
humanly possible. The collapse of
the boom handicapped the effort but
progress made so that not a cent of
loss in bonds or interest was suf-
fered and bonds have been retired
to date except for $68,000 of which
half will be redeemed March 1.
The company is in a fine financial
condition now, informed Mr. Walker.
Its credit standing, one time nil,
now is high, its business is sought
and its only handicap is the failure
of associations to support it 100%.

Market Summary Gives

Estimate of Citrus Left
(Continued from Page 2)
to the partial restriction of ship-
ments obtained recovered slightly
and then recessed as heavier move-
ment followed. There are pros-
pects that Marsh seedless grapefruit
may do better when Texas is through
but, Mr. Davis warned, there can be
no hope for much improvement if
shipments continue heavier than the
markets can absorb.

In view of the unsettled condition
with reference to the fertilization
of groves, it occurs to me that grow-
ers would do well to keep a record of
their production costs on a box basis,
making a comparison between ap-
plication of a complete fertilizer of

Rate Reduction

To Save Growers

Million or More
(Continued from Page 1)
It is estimated that 55 percent of
the Florida citrus goes to the East-
ern and New England territories and
allowing for the area to which the
Yedaitin h-dd -ngot j-Ap~Iy-it is prob-
able that 50 percent of the move-
ment is affected.
It was estimated that of Feb. 10
about 21,000 cars of citrus remained
to be moved of which it is figured
that the Exchange has half.
Taking Lake Wales as the repre-
sentative point in Florida the re-
duction per box is 17 cents to New
York, 13 cents to Philadelphia,
10 cents to Baltimore, eight cents to
Washington and Virginia and 19
cents to Boston and territory.
Following are the reduced rates
per box in cents from various points
in Florida to Eastern points and
Boston. The first figure after the
town is the New York, Philadelphia,
Baltimore and Washington rate. The
second is to Boston territory:
Alturas, 79.2c, 87.3c; Alva, 84.6, 92.7;
Arcadia, 81.9, 89.1; Auburndale, 78.3, 86.4;
Avon Park, 81, 88.2; Bartow, 79.2. 87.3;
Bowling Green, 81, 89.1; Bradenton, 81,
89.1; Brooksville, 76.5, 84.6; Clearwater,
.80.1, 88.2; Clermont, 77.4, 84.6; (a) Cocoa,
80.1; Crescent City, 73.8, 81;
Dade City, 77.4; 84.6; Davenport, 80.1,
88.2; DeLand, 74.7, 82.8; Dunedin, 80.1,
88.2; Dundee, 80.1, 88.2; Eagle Lake, 78.3,
.86.4; Elfers, 81, 89.1; Florence Villa, 78.3,.
86.4; Ft. Meade, 80.1, 88.2; Ft. Myers,
82.8, 90.9; Ft. Ogden, 81.9, 89.1; (a) Ft.
Pierce, 81.9; Ft. Lauderdale, 86.4, 94.5;
Frostproof, 81, 88.2; Fullers, 77.4, 84.6;
(a) Geneva, 78.3; Groveland, 78.3, 84.6;
Haines City, 80.1, 88.2; Highland City,
79.2, 87.3; Homeland, 79.2, 87.3; Isleworth,
'77.4, 84.6; Kissimmee, 78.3, 86.4; Lake
*Alfred, 80.1, 88.2; Lake Garfield, 79.2, 87.3;
Lake Hamilton, 80.1, 88.2; Lakeland, 78.3,
.86.4; Lake Placid, 81.9, 89.1; Lake Wales,
79.2, 87.3; Largo, 81, 89.1; Leesburg, 74.7,
82.8; Limestone, 81.9, 89.1; Lucerne Park,
;78.3, 86.4; Lynchburg, 80.1, 88.2;
Manatee, 81, 89.1; (a) Mims, 77.4; Mt.
Dora, 76.5, 84.6; Nocatee, 81.9, 89.1; (a)
Oak Hill 77.4; Ocala, 73.8, 81; Okahumpka,
76.6, 84.6; Orlando, 77.4, 84.6; Palmetto,
81, 89.1; Palm Harbor, 80.1, 88.2; Pierson,
74.7, 82.8; Plant City, 78.3, 86.4; Plymouth
77.4, 84.6; Pomona, 73.8, 81; Redland, 89.1,
97.2; San Antonio, 77.4, 84.6; Sanford,
76.5, 84.6; Sarasota, 81.9, 89.1; Sebring,
81, 89.1;
Tampa, 79.2, 87.3; Tavares, 76.5, 84.6;
Tildenville, 77.4, 84.6; Umatilla, 76.5, 84.6;
(a) Vero Beach, 81.9, (a) Wabasso, 81.9:
Wauchula, 81, 89.1; Waverly, 79.2, 87.3;
West Palm Beach, 84.6, 92.7; Winter
Garden, 77.4, 84.6; Winter Haven, 78.3,
86.4; Winter Park, 77.4, 84.6.

the standard grade goods and the
use of any separate materials, in
order to actually determine the item
of what is best for the tree.
I know this suggestion is contro-
versial at the present time, but in
traveling over the state I cannot
keep from making comparisons be-
tween groves that have been fer-
tilized purely on an economy basis
with the groves whose owners has
continued to use the same respective
brands of standard goods that he has
used in the past, even though he
found it necessary to cut his ap-
plication as much as half. I believe
that a grower should put the in-
vestment he has in his grove on the
same basis of any other investment
that he might make, allowing that
he is in a position to reasonably
carry on. Working on this basis, I
think he should protect his invest-
ment by considering at all times
what is best for his trees.
I am a firm believer that one only

Compare Results of Fertilizer Practices
By C. W. LYONS, Lyons Fertilizer Co.

The service Brogdex renders our citrus crop is a
specialized one and has to do with its better carry-
ing and better keeping qualities.
Because this service has become of recognized
value it is being imitated in one way or another.
These substitute methods are declared by the spon-
sors as being "just as good." Imitations of a good
article seldom give the satisfaction realized from
the genuine so these make-shift methods are meet-
ing with indifferent success.
It is generally admitted that the value of borax
depends upon being followed by a good job of wax
application. If done otherwise ageing and wilt are
hastened and instead of improving delivery you
have actually made it more difficult to put the fruit
-into the market in a sound and attractive condi-
tion. The wax atomizer that melts the wax and
produces a wax fog through which the fruit passes
is a Brogdex development-it is the only effective
way available today. But there are some very poor
ways of applying wax and by their use it is im-
possible to give the dealer the same beneficial serv-
ice that has developed for Brogdex a decided mar-
ket preference-and the dealer, don't forget, is the
mainspring of the market organization.
Growers will find it will pay well to adopt the
Brogdex pack, insuring sound delivery and longer
keeping time. The market pays for that kind of
service because it protects the dealer's profits by
controlling his losses.

takes out of a proportion what he
puts into it plus what profit might
accumulate, and if the trees are fer-
tilized in a haphazard way one
should not expect the same quality
of fruit as where a complete mix-
ture has been used. This also applies
in so many instances to the grower
who decides that he will not culti-
vate his grove, which is a very un-
natural thing, for since the beginning
of time fertilizer in the form of
manure has been applied to lands to
(Continued on Page 7)



Fruit Auctioneers
Fruit Auction Terminal
Rutherford Avenue
Charleston District
Cutler B. Downer Fred'k L. Sprinuford
Harold F. Miles
J. Oliver Daly Clifford E. Myers


March 1, 1932


Following is a detailed outline of the
grove situation at the present time by the
Extension Service, J. Francis Cooper, Editor.
A citrus grove is a valuable piece
of property and one cannot afford
to neglect it. It requires constant
care and attention.
Most of the regular spring appli-
cations of fertilizer have already
been made. However, in case they
have not, it is time they are being
The situation with regard to in-
sects this spring is a little more
serious than usual, although it is
not especially alarming. The win-
ter has been warm, and insects have
not been brought under control by
the weather as well as usual.. How-
ever, with the coming of summer
rains, natural enemies will likely in-
crease and control most of them
The aphid apparently is giving
some trouble this spring along the
East Coast, from Cocoa south.
"Spot" dusting or spraying with
nicotine compounds is recommended
for the early infestations. Where
there is little or no young growth,
the aphids are not apt to be trouble-
some as yet.
Rust mites are giving trouble
earlier this year, on account of the
continued dry weather of the winter.
fully, and when rust mites begin to
Late fruit should be observed care-
attack it, sprays or dusts of sul-
phur should be applied. Lime-sul-
phur will control red spider, also.
The rust mites are not apt to attack
young fruit before April.
If favorable weather sets in dur-
ing March, scab is likely to develop
sulphur should head it off. Removal
rapidly. A spray with 1-40 lime-
of dead wood before the new crop
sets will help to prevent melanose
and stem-end rot in this year's crop.
Nearly all growers now realize the
desirability of having a summer
cover crap in their groves. Native
grasses, particularly natal grass, are
satisfactory for this purpose. How-
ever, many prefer the legumes, such
as Crotalaria. Crotalaria seed is
cheap' this year. The spectabilis
species is rapidly supplanting striata
as a grove cover crop, since it is not
as apt to harbor pumpkin bugs.
The practice of mulching citrus
trees is gaining favor. It is a good
plan to grow enough Crotalaria or
other cover crops on lands near to
citrus groves and haul onto the
groves for mulching. Particularly is
this true with groves where the trees
leave little space for cover crops to
grow between the rows of citrus
trees. With existing knowledge of
the practice, mulching is not recom-
mended for extra early oranges,
since it is difficult to control earliness
when the trees are mulched.

Strength of Exchange
(Continued from Page 2)
tion. An appetizing dinner was pre-
pared and served by the Ladies Civic
club of the Congregational church
of Avon Park. The welcome was
given by F. N. K. Bailey, president
of Sebring association and a prom-
nent official of Highlands county.
Discussion on the subject of Ex-
change control and confidence was
keen. The main points of agreement
were summarized in the remarks of
Mr. Walker, who is a member of the
Exchange Board.
The future of the Exchange is in
the hands of the presidents of the
associations; is dependent upon the
leadership they give and their activ-
ity on behalf of the growers, Mr.
Walker said. It is assumed, declared
Mr. Walker, that the presidents
have been selected as the best fitted
to lead the association and it is
therefore their obligation to give
their best effort.

Lies In Associations
The organization of the Exchange
is such that control is in the asso-
ciations if proper leadership is given,
Mr. Walker explained. It is on the
foundation of the association that
the Sub-Exchange and Exchange di-
rectors are elected and associations
have the power at any time to see
that they are represented as they
want. Even Exchange directors, the
most removed from the associations,
are subject to the direct representa-
tives of the associations, he pointed
out. Too much criticism is made
of the main office when the fault
lies elsewhere, Mr. Walker asserted.
Fred W. Davis, general sales man-
ager, explained the working of his
department and answered many
questions. Mr. Walker, president
of the Exchange Supply Company
and J. D. Murdoch, manager of pur-
chases and sales, outlined the opera-
tions and aims of the supply com-

Grove Suggestions For March
By Agricultural Extension Service, Gainesville, Florida
Fertilize young trees; also bearing trees that have not yet
received the regular spring application.
Watch for aphids, rust mites and red spiders. Use nicotine
dust or nicotine sulphate for the aphids, and sulphur dust
or lime-sulphur solution for the mites and spiders. Spray
with 1-40 lime-sulphur for scab control.
Remove all dead wood from trees before the new crop sets.
A good cover crop is essential for the best growth of trees
and production of fruit. Arrange for seed now, and plan
to grow enough to enable you to mulch under trees.

A close study of packing costs
and charges on grapefruit is being
made in all the associations of the
Exchange by Harold Crews, man-
ager of the field department, to
figure the lowest charges that can
be made with safety by the indi-
vidual associations. In general the
charges of the associations have
been cut materially and there is a
general willingness to hold them
down to the minimum. In the main,
the packing charges of the associa-
tions already are much below that
of competitors but the effort still is
going on to make them lower.

Indications are that Great Britain
may impose a 10 percent ad valorem
duty on citrus, or from 20 to '40
cents a box, but a strong fight against
any duty is being made by the
Moomaw, agent of the Florida Cit-
empire fruit trade, informs S. B.
rus Exchange. It is probable that
South Africa, Austrailia Palestine
and other mandate territories will
plead that they can supply Great

Advanced economies in packing
and heavy reductions in the charges
by the various associations of the
Exchange is having a telling effect
on competitors, Pres. Randall of
Haines City Association, declares.
One of the most important prac-
tices affected, according to his ob-
servation, is that of employing solic-
ittors of growers on the commission
basis usually five cents a box for the
fruit signed and sometimes as much
as 10 cents a box.
The big reductions in the packing
charges of associations in recent
years has compelled competitors to
reduce their charges enough to
threaten the allowance for solicitors
and it is probable that this factor
which works against organization of
the growers will be materially les-
sened, Mr. Randall explained. He
has been informed by some shippers,
he said, that they feel compelled to
reduce their soliciting force the
coming season.
Many of these solicitors are grow-
ers who utilize their acquaintance

Britain adequately and that their and standing in their community to
groves would be more profitable. influence neighbors and friends to

Shipments by Sub-Exchanges re-
ported from the shipping register of
the cashier's department shows sev-
eral interesting points in regard to
the ranking of the Sub-Exchanges
in the various classes of the fruit
Polk county, as would be expected,
leads in the shipment of grapefruit
with Pinellas, second, among the ter-
ritorial sub-exchanges. Orange leads
with oranges by a wide margin, show-
ing its heavy volume of early and
mid-season fruit. Polk is second and
Indian River third, territorially.
International Sub-Exchange ranks
second and third in actual shipments
of grapefruit and oranges, respec-
tively, but its houses are scattered
through various sections, hence the
other ranking territorially.
Polk also is first in the shipment
of tangerines with Orange second.
Lake is another heavy producer of
tangerines, ranking third, as con-
trasted to seventh and fifth in grape-
fruit and oranges, respectively.
Chase Sub-Exchange is fourth in
tangerines with St. Johns and Indian
River in order.
Polk again leads in bulk ship-
ments with Orange, second; Lake,
third, and Pinellas, fourth.
In total shipments of all fruit
Polk is first with 38.5 percent; Or-
ange, second, 16.3 percent; then
International, 7.8 percent; Indian
River, 6.5 percent; Lake and Pinel-
las, 6.4 percent each; Chase, 4.5
percent; DeSoto, 3.5 percent; St.
Johns, 3.2 percent; Manatee, 2.3
percent; Lee, 1.5 percent; Hillsboro,
1.4 percent; Dade and Marion, 0.6
percent each; Exchange Packing
Company, 0.5 percent.

Over the protests of the Florida
'Citrus Exchange, the Interstate
Commerce Commission has author-
ized a switching charge where a
shipper has arranged with an icing
plant for icing and then switches the
car to the packing house. The Ex-
change contends that there is no
greater service performed in such
has iced the car. It is possible that
switching than where the railroad
the Florida railroads may not assess
the extra charge. South Lake
Apopka association is particularly
interested in the case..

sign with a particular operator. Fre-
quently, it is not known to the soli-
citeated grower that his neighbor
is being employed on a renumerative
basis. As the influence of a neigh-
bor grower carries unusual weight
and the Exchange affiliations do not
employ such solicitors, the practice
has proved a difficult obstacle toward
adding to the grower membership of
the organization.


March 1, 1932


Compare Results of

Fertilizer Practices
(Continued from Page 5)
increase their productivity and to
help germinate active bacteria in
the soil; also, to counteract the loss
of certain elements that a crop might
take from the soil. The world over
has realized the value of these ma-
nures all these years. This, in addi-
tion to a program of tilling the soil,
has been recognized as the practical
way to produce crops.
I am very conscious of the fact
that the growers of Florida, of which
I am one, have felt the lack of de-
mand for their product, but I am not
a grower, who is willing to admit
that we have any overproduction of
citrus fruit until there is more co-
ordinative and cooperative effort in
our system of distribution. Many
groves in the state today are in a
very rundown condition from treat-
ment that they have received; in
addition to this is the havoc wrought
by the extreme dry season, which we
have experienced to date. In my
opinion the citrus industry in this
state is going to arrive at a point
before very long where the grower
will feel that he has an investment
in his grove certainly more remuner-
ative in comparison to other invest-
ments that he may have made, and
to the grower, who can and is will-
ing to keep his trees in the best
possible condition, there is bound
to be a turn in the citrus industry
in this state to put groves on the
same profitable basis they were at
one time. This, however, is not
going to be accomplished by the
wave of a hand or is the raising of
good quality fruit of fine texture
going to be effected by some of the
methods now employed in growing
our fruit, so I again repeat that the
grower, who can and will "stick to
his guns" and profit by past ex-
perience will find himself better off
relatively with his grove properties,
even though prices are not satisfac-
tory, than the man who has invested
a similar amount in stocks and bonds
the last few years.
In my opinion still considering the
fundamental basis of all wealth, I
think owning property and particu-
larly producing property has a very
definite significance in being termed
a "real estate."

Though the coloring practice of
the Florida citrus industry is far
ahead of other producing sections,
investigational work looking toward
improvement continues. Dr. J. R.
Winston, government specialist,
whose studies and experiments
brought the material improvement
in Florida's coloring practice, is con-
tinuing his studies, cooperating very
closely with Exchange houses, to
determine exactly what takes place
within the coloring rooms during
the coloring of fruit.

Unless rain comes soon, the al-
ready much reduced citrus crop will
suffer further heavy reduction and
there will be much less fruit shipped
than estimated even if market con-
ditions justify, according to Harold
Crews, manager of the field depart-

The drought is severe and extends
over the entire state, Mr. Crews in-
formed. Most of the trees, as a re-
sult are showing slight to very bad
wilt. It is expected that this will
have an influence on the coming
crop with indications that it will be
below normal volume.

Texas once again is disturbed by
an infestation of the Mexican fruit
fly after supposed freedom from the
pest for many months. An adult
fruit fly was discovered early in
February in a grove in Hidalgo
An infested area has been de-
clared for one-half .mile radius.




Asks R. S. Caudle, of Palca Fruit Grower,
Inc., Lakeland, second prize winner in the
NACO contest.

The one proof a grower asks
of any Fertilizer is whether it
will make money for him.
NACO users make money
from their groves --- consist-
ently, year after year. Why?
---Read Mr. Caudle's letter

1 4 0 1 14 0 7 L Y N C H B U I L D I N G




March 1. 1932


Consider This ONE Fact

Concerning the difference between
co-operative and independent mar-
keting ..

As a grower you naturally are interested entirely in the profit you
get out of the fruit you raise.
The Florida Citrus Exchange, owned and controlled by the grow-
ers, is operated on a non-profit basis. All of the profits accruing
from the sale of your fruit beyond the actual cost of operations,
comes back directly to you.
The independent shipper, simply because of the nature of his busi-
ness, is naturally interested only in the profit he can make for.
himself from the fruit of the growers aligned with him.
The independent shipper is in direct competition with you, as a..
grower, in the, race for the profit from your crop.
As a member of the Exchange you ark cooperating with growers
whose output represents 45 percent 6f the total citrus output
of the state, in getting the fullest possible measure of returns
for your crop.
Propaganda, illusion, hokum or anything else notwithstandingj-t
this one fact should be sufficient to enlist your membership in the
Exchange for your own protection.


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